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Sample records for normal bladder walls

  1. Histologic alterations of the normal bladder wall following to variably fractionated irradiation - an experimentation on animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueller, J.; Fritzsche, V.; Kob, D.; Arndt, J.; Kriester, A.; Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena

    1986-01-01

    The histopathologic alterations of the bladder wall were investigated in 180 rabbits irradiated with different fractionations and total focal doses. Animals sacrified one week after the end of irradiation showed alterations of the urothelium (desquamation, increased polymorphism of nuclei vacuolizations) as well as oedematous and hyperemic reactions in submucosa and muscularis. These alterations became stronger when the single and total focal dose and the ret values were increased. Animals sacrified three to six months after the end of irradiation showed dystrophic-sclerotic processes as well as vascular obliterations in the submucosa and muscularis. The alterations were only clearly visible in case of a total focal dose of at least 30 Gy. With regard to a minimization of histopathologic alterations of the bladder wall, a fractionation of 1.5 Gy per day has to be considered as favorable in radiotherapy of the carcinoma of the urinary bladder. (orig.) [de

  2. Robotic Extramucosal Excision of Bladder Wall Leiomyoma

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    Khalid E. Al-Othman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple case reports and reviews have been described in the literature for bladder wall leiomyoma resection via different approaches. The minimally invasive partial cystectomy remains the most widely accepted technique; however, case reports for enucleation of bladder wall leiomyoma have also been described. The purpose of this video is to demonstrate the robotic extramucosal excision of a bladder wall leiomyoma, without cystotomy, but with complete removal of the muscular layer. Materials and Methods: A 35-year old male present with lower urinary tract symptoms and imaging showed bladder wall mass with histopathology showed leiomyoma. The patient consented for mass excision with the possibility of a partial cystectomy. The patient was placed in the supine, 30-degree Trendelenburg position during the procedure. A total of 4 ports were inserted. A 3-arm da Vinci robotic surgical system was docked, and the arms were connected. Extramucosal excision was accomplished without cystotomy and muscle approximation was achieved by 2 0 Vicryle. Result: The operative time was 90 minutes, blood loss of approximately 50mL and the patient was discharged after 72 hours with no immediate complications and a 6 months follow-up showed no recurrence. Conclusion: Such a technique results in complete excision of the tumor, without cystotomy, and also maintains an intact mucosa. These steps, in addition to decreasing the risk of local recurrence, also shorten the period of postoperative catheterization and hospitalization.

  3. Fat deposition in the urinary bladder wall: Incidental finding on abdominal computed tomography: A case report

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    Park, Min Ho; Moon, Sung Kyoung; Ahn, Sung Eun; Park, Seong Jin; Lim, Joo Won; Lee, Dong Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    In a computed tomography (CT) scan, fat deposition in the urinary bladder wall is seen as a linear hypoattenuating band surrounded by soft tissue density. It is uncommon, but is often seen in normal cases. However, there is no report of fat deposition in the urinary bladder wall in Korea. The authors encountered a 62-year-old male patient who showed an incidental hypoattenuating band in the urinary bladder wall on abdominal CT. The patient showed no clinical signs related to fat deposition in the urinary bladder wall. When the patient's previous abdominal CT was retrospectively reviewed, the same CT finding was seen. This linear hypoattenuating band within the urinary bladder wall should be considered as a normal CT finding, although it is uncommon.

  4. Estimation of bladder wall location in ultrasound images.

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    Topper, A K; Jernigan, M E

    1991-05-01

    A method of automatically estimating the location of the bladder wall in ultrasound images is proposed. Obtaining this estimate is intended to be the first stage in the development of an automatic bladder volume calculation system. The first step in the bladder wall estimation scheme involves globally processing the images using standard image processing techniques to highlight the bladder wall. Separate processing sequences are required to highlight the anterior bladder wall and the posterior bladder wall. The sequence to highlight the anterior bladder wall involves Gaussian smoothing and second differencing followed by zero-crossing detection. Median filtering followed by thresholding and gradient detection is used to highlight as much of the rest of the bladder wall as was visible in the original images. Then a 'bladder wall follower'--a line follower with rules based on the characteristics of ultrasound imaging and the anatomy involved--is applied to the processed images to estimate the bladder wall location by following the portions of the bladder wall which are highlighted and filling in the missing segments. The results achieved using this scheme are presented.

  5. Computer-aided detection of bladder wall thickening in CT urography (CTU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kenny H.; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Caoili, Elaine M.; Cohan, Richard H.; Weizer, Alon Z.; Gordon, Marshall N.; Samala, Ravi K.

    2018-02-01

    We are developing a computer-aided detection system for bladder cancer in CT urography (CTU). Bladder wall thickening is a manifestation of bladder cancer and its detection is more challenging than the detection of bladder masses. We first segmented the inner and outer bladder walls using our method that combined deep-learning convolutional neural network with level sets. The non-contrast-enhanced region was separated from the contrast-enhanced region with a maximum-intensity-projection-based method. The non-contrast region was smoothed and gray level threshold was applied to the contrast and non-contrast regions separately to extract the bladder wall and potential lesions. The bladder wall was transformed into a straightened thickness profile, which was analyzed to identify regions of wall thickening candidates. Volume-based features of the wall thickening candidates were analyzed with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to differentiate bladder wall thickenings from false positives. A data set of 112 patients, 87 with wall thickening and 25 with normal bladders, was collected retrospectively with IRB approval, and split into independent training and test sets. Of the 57 training cases, 44 had bladder wall thickening and 13 were normal. Of the 55 test cases, 43 had wall thickening and 12 were normal. The LDA classifier was trained with the training set and evaluated with the test set. FROC analysis showed that the system achieved sensitivities of 93.2% and 88.4% for the training and test sets, respectively, at 0.5 FPs/case.

  6. Increased Bladder Wall Thickness in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Women With Overactive Bladder

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    Hakkı Uzun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Bladder wall thickness has been reported to be associated with overactive bladder (OAB in women. Diabetic women have an increased risk for OAB syndrome and may have an increased risk for bladder wall thickness. Methods: A total of 235 female patients aged 40 to 75 years were categorized into four groups. The first group consisted of women free of urgency or urge urinary incontinence. The second group included nondiabetic women with idiopathic OAB. The third group consisted of women with diabetes and clinical OAB, and women with diabetes but without OAB constituted the fourth group. Bladder wall thickness at the anterior wall was measured by ultrasound by the suprapubic approach with bladder filling over 250 mL. Results: The diabetic (third group and nondiabetic (second group women with OAB had significantly greater bladder wall thickness at the anterior bladder wall than did the controls. However, the difference was not significant between the diabetic (third group and the nondiabetic (second group women with OAB. Women with diabetes but without OAB (fourth group had greater bladder wall thickness than did the controls but this difference was not significant. Additionally, the difference in bladder wall thickness between diabetic women with (third group and without (fourth group OAB was not significant. Conclusions: This is the first study to show that bladder wall thickness is increased in diabetic women with and without OAB. Additionally, nondiabetic women with OAB had increased bladder wall thickness. Further studies may provide additional information for diabetic and nondiabetic women with OAB, in whom the etiopathogenesis of the disease may be similar.

  7. Dose Distribution in Bladder and Surrounding Normal Tissues in Relation to Bladder Volume in Conformal Radiotherapy for Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, Wojciech; Wesolowska, Iwona; Urbanczyk, Hubert; Hawrylewicz, Leszek; Schwierczok, Barbara; Miszczyk, Leszek

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate bladder movements and changes in dose distribution in the bladder and surrounding tissues associated with changes in bladder filling and to estimate the internal treatment margins. Methods and Materials: A total of 16 patients with bladder cancer underwent planning computed tomography scans with 80- and 150-mL bladder volumes. The bladder displacements associated with the change in volume were measured. Each patient had treatment plans constructed for a 'partially empty' (80 mL) and a 'partially full' (150 mL) bladder. An additional plan was constructed for tumor irradiation alone. A subsequent 9 patients underwent sequential weekly computed tomography scanning during radiotherapy to verify the bladder movements and estimate the internal margins. Results: Bladder movements were mainly observed cranially, and the estimated internal margins were nonuniform and largest (>2 cm) anteriorly and cranially. The dose distribution in the bladder worsened if the bladder increased in volume: 70% of patients (11 of 16) would have had bladder underdosed to 70%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed dose was 23%, 20%, and 15% for the rectum and 162, 144, 123 cm 3 for the intestines, respectively) than with a 'partially full' bladder (volume that received >70%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed dose was 28%, 24%, and 18% for the rectum and 180, 158, 136 cm 3 for the intestines, respectively). The change in bladder filling during RT was significant for the dose distribution in the intestines. Tumor irradiation alone was significantly better than whole bladder irradiation in terms of organ sparing. Conclusion: The displacements of the bladder due to volume changes were mainly related to the upper wall. The internal margins should be nonuniform, with the largest margins cranially and anteriorly. The changes in bladder filling during RT could influence the dose distribution in the bladder and intestines. The dose distribution in the rectum and bowel was slightly better with

  8. Spontaneous puerperal extraperitoneal bladder wall rupture in young woman with diagnostic dilemma.

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    Sabat, Debabrat Kumar; Panigrahi, Pradeep Kumar; Sahoo, Ranjan Kumar; Acharya, Mousumi; Sahu, Mahesh Ch

    2015-01-01

    A young female presented with an acute abdominal pain and oliguria for 1 week following normal vaginal delivery. No history of hematuria was present. Patient was having lochia rubra. Sealed uterine rupture was suspected clinically. Initial ultrasound of the patient showed distended urinary bladder containing Foley catheter ballon with clamping of Foley catheter and particulate ascites. Abdominal paracentesis revealed hemorrhagic fluid. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of abdomen revealed ascites, distended urinary bladder and no extraluminal contrast extravasation in delayed scan. As patient condition deteriorated, repeat ultrasound guided abdominal paracentesis was done which revealed transudative peritoneal collection with distended bladder. Cystoscopy revealed urinary bladder ruptures with exudate sealing the rupture site. Exploratory laparotomy was done and a diagnosis of extraperitoneal bladder rupture was confirmed. The rent was repaired in layers. She was put on continuous bladder drainage for 3 weeks followed by bladder training. It presented in a unique way as there was hemorrhagic peritoneal tap, no macroscopic hematuria and urinary bladder was distended in spite of urinary bladder wall rupture which delayed the diagnosis and treatment. Complete emptying of urinary bladder before second stage of labor and during postpartum period with perineal repair is mandatory to prevent urinary bladder rupture.

  9. Abdominal wall closure in bladder exstrophy complex repair by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objectives: The Exstrophy Complex (EC) is a serious malformation of midline abdominal wall. Wide pubis prevents approximating the lateralized rectus muscle and leads to dehiscence and fi stula formation. Our aim was to recommend an easier method for abdominal wall closure in the Bladder Exstrophy ...

  10. Bladder wall thickness mapping for magnetic resonance cystography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yang; Liang Zhengrong; Zhu Hongbin; Han Hao; Yan Zengmin; Duan Chaijie; Lu Hongbing; Gu Xianfeng

    2013-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown evidence that the bladder wall thickness is an effective biomarker for bladder abnormalities. Clinical optical cystoscopy, the current gold standard, cannot show the wall thickness. The use of ultrasound by experts may generate some local thickness information, but the information is limited in field-of-view and is user dependent. Recent advances in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technologies lead MR-based virtual cystoscopy or MR cystography toward a potential alternative to map the wall thickness for the entire bladder. From a high-resolution structural MR volumetric image of the abdomen, a reasonable segmentation of the inner and outer borders of the bladder wall can be achievable. Starting from here, this paper reviews the limitation of a previous distance field-based approach of measuring the thickness between the two borders and then provides a solution to overcome the limitation by an electric field-based strategy. In addition, this paper further investigates a surface-fitting strategy to minimize the discretization errors on the voxel-like borders and facilitate the thickness mapping on the three-dimensional patient-specific bladder model. The presented thickness calculation and mapping were tested on both phantom and human subject datasets. The results are preliminary but very promising with a noticeable improvement over the previous distance field-based approach. (paper)

  11. Practical methods of dose reduction to the bladder wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.M.; Warner, G.G.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation dose to the bladder wall following the administration of radionuclides to patients can be reduced by a factor between 25 percent and 75 percent when the effective half-life for the radioactivity entering the urine is two hours or less. A significant but smaller reduction in dose to the gonads may also be achieved in situations where the major fraction of the administered activity is rapidly excreted in the urine. This reduction in dose is achieved by ensuring that the patient has between 50 and 150 ml of urine in his bladder when the radioactivity is injected, and is encouraged to void between one and two hours after the activity has been administered. The interrelationship of voiding schedule, effective half-life, initial urine volume, and demand urination has been analyzed in these studies. In addition, the significance of the rate of urine production and volume of urine in the bladder on the radiation dose to the bladder is demonstrated

  12. Phosphatidylserine targeted single-walled carbon nanotubes for photothermal ablation of bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virani, Needa A.; Davis, Carole; McKernan, Patrick; Hauser, Paul; Hurst, Robert E.; Slaton, Joel; Silvy, Ricardo P.; Resasco, Daniel E.; Harrison, Roger G.

    2018-01-01

    Bladder cancer has a 60%-70% recurrence rate most likely due to any residual tumour left behind after a transurethral resection (TUR). Failure to completely resect the cancer can lead to recurrence and progression into higher grade tumours with metastatic potential. We present here a novel therapy to treat superficial tumours with the potential to decrease recurrence. The therapy is a heat-based approach in which bladder tumour specific single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are delivered intravesically at a very low dose (0.1 mg SWCNT per kg body weight) followed 24 h later by a short 30 s treatment with a 360° near-infrared light that heats only the bound nanotubes. The energy density of the treatment was 50 J cm-2, and the power density that this treatment corresponds to is 1.7 W cm-2, which is relatively low. Nanotubes are specifically targeted to the tumour via the interaction of annexin V (AV) and phosphatidylserine, which is normally internalised on healthy tissue but externalised on tumours and the tumour vasculature. SWCNTs are conjugated to AV, which binds specifically to bladder cancer cells as confirmed in vitro and in vivo. Due to this specific localisation, NIR light can be used to heat the tumour while conserving the healthy bladder wall. In a short-term efficacy study in mice with orthotopic MB49 murine bladder tumours treated with the SWCNT-AV conjugate and NIR light, no tumours were visible on the bladder wall 24 h after NIR light treatment, and there was no damage to the bladder. In a separate survival study in mice with the same type of orthotopic tumours, there was a 50% cure rate at 116 days when the study was ended. At 116 days, no treatment toxicity was observed, and no nanotubes were detected in the clearance organs or bladder.

  13. Bladder wall thickness and ultrasound estimated bladder weight in healthy adults with portative ultrasound device

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    Selcen Kanyilmaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate bladder wall thickness (BWT and ultrasound estimated bladder weight (UEBW values in healthy population with a portative ultrasound device and their relationship with demographic parameters. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in Neurorehabilitation Clinic of Ege University Hospital. Ninety-five subjects (48 women and 47 men aged between 18 and 56 were included in the study. BWT and UEBW were determined non-invasively with a portative ultrasound device; Bladder Scan BVM 6500 (Verathon Inc., WA, USA at a frequency of 3.7 MHz at functional bladder capacity. These values were compared by gender, and their relation was assessed with age, body mass index (BMI and parity. Results: Mean BWT was 2.0 ± 0.4 mm and UEBW was 44.6 ± 8.3 g at a mean volume of 338.0 ± 82.1 ml. Although higher results were obtained in men at higher bladder volumes, the results did not differ significantly by gender. Correlation analyses revealed statistically significant correlation between UEBW and age (r = 0.32. BWT was negatively correlated with volume (r = -0.50 and bladder surface area (r = -0.57. Also, statistically significant correlations were observed between UEBW and volume (r = 0.36, bladder surface area (r = 0.48 and BWT (r = 0.25. Conclusion: Determined values of BWT and UEBW in healthy population are estimated with portative ultrasound devices, which are future promising, for their convenient, easy, non-invasive, time-efficient hand-held use for screening.

  14. Is abdominal wall contraction important for normal voiding in the female rat?

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    Boone Timothy B

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Normal voiding behavior in urethane-anesthetized rats includes contraction of the abdominal wall striated muscle, similar to the visceromotor response (VMR to noxious bladder distension. Normal rat voiding requires pulsatile release of urine from a pressurized bladder. The abdominal wall contraction accompanying urine flow may provide a necessary pressure increment for normal efficient pulsatile voiding. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence and necessity of the voiding-associated abdominal wall activity in urethane-anesthetized female rats Methods A free-voiding model was designed to allow assessment of abdominal wall activity during voiding resulting from physiologic bladder filling, in the absence of bladder or urethral instrumentation. Physiologic diuresis was promoted by rapid intravascular hydration. Intercontraction interval (ICI, voided volumes and EMG activity of the rectus abdominis were quantified. The contribution of abdominal wall contraction to voiding was eliminated in a second group of rats by injecting botulinum-A (BTX, 5 U into each rectus abdominis to induce local paralysis. Uroflow parameters were compared between intact free-voiding and BTX-prepared animals. Results Abdominal wall response is present in free voiding. BTX preparation eliminated the voiding-associated EMG activity. Average per-void volume decreased from 1.8 ml to 1.1 ml (p Conclusion The voiding-associated abdominal wall response is a necessary component of normal voiding in urethane anesthetized female rats. As the proximal urethra may be the origin of the afferent signaling which results in the abdominal wall response, the importance of the bladder pressure increment due to this response may be in maintaining a normal duration intermittent pulsatile high frequency oscillatory (IPHFO/flow phase and thus efficient voiding. We propose the term Voiding-associated Abdominal Response (VAR for the physiologic voiding-associated EMG

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Differential Proteome Expression in Bladder Cancer vs. Normal Bladder Cells Using SILAC Method.

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    Ganglong Yang

    Full Text Available The best way to increase patient survival rate is to identify patients who are likely to progress to muscle-invasive or metastatic disease upfront and treat them more aggressively. The human cell lines HCV29 (normal bladder epithelia, KK47 (low grade nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, NMIBC, and YTS1 (metastatic bladder cancer have been widely used in studies of molecular mechanisms and cell signaling during bladder cancer (BC progression. However, little attention has been paid to global quantitative proteome analysis of these three cell lines. We labeled HCV29, KK47, and YTS1 cells by the SILAC method using three stable isotopes each of arginine and lysine. Labeled proteins were analyzed by 2D ultrahigh-resolution liquid chromatography LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Among 3721 unique identified and annotated proteins in KK47 and YTS1 cells, 36 were significantly upregulated and 74 were significantly downregulated with >95% confidence. Differential expression of these proteins was confirmed by western blotting, quantitative RT-PCR, and cell staining with specific antibodies. Gene ontology (GO term and pathway analysis indicated that the differentially regulated proteins were involved in DNA replication and molecular transport, cell growth and proliferation, cellular movement, immune cell trafficking, and cell death and survival. These proteins and the advanced proteome techniques described here will be useful for further elucidation of molecular mechanisms in BC and other types of cancer.

  16. Increased bladder wall thickness is associated with severe symptoms and reduced bladder capacity in patients with bladder pain syndrome

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    Shu-Yu Wu

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: There are obvious differences in bladder CT scans of patients with symptoms of bladder pain due to different etiology. Increased BWT was associated with increased pain scores and decreased bladder capacity in patients with KC and IC. BWT on a CT scan might be considered a marker for the severity of bladder inflammation.

  17. Absorbed dose to the urinary bladder wall for different radiopharmaceuticals using dynamic S-values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, M.; Minarik, D.; Mattsson, S.; Leide-Svegborn; Johansson, L.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Aim and background: the urinary bladder wall is a radiosensitive organ that can receive a high absorbed dose from radiopharmaceuticals used in diagnostic nuclear medicine. Current dynamic models estimate the photon and electron absorbed dose at the inner surface of the bladder wall. The aim of this work has been to create a more realistic estimation of the mean absorbed dose to the urinary bladder wall from different radiopharmaceuticals. This calculation also uses dynamic specific absorption fractions (SAF) that changes with bladder volume and are gender specific. Materials and Methods: the volume of the urinary bladder content was calculated using a spherical approximation with a urinary inflow of 1.0 ml/min and 0.5 ml/min during day and night time, respectively. The activity in the bladder content was described using a bi-exponential extraction from the body. The absorbed dose to the bladder wall was estimated using linear interpolation of SAF values from different bladder volumes, ranging from 10 ml to 800 ml. Administration of the activity was assumed to start at 09:00 with an initial voiding after 40 minutes and a voiding interval of 3.5 hours during the day. A six hour night gap, starting at midnight, with a voiding right before and after the night period, was used. Calculations were made, with the same assumptions, for an earlier dynamic bladder model and with a static SAF value from the ICRP/ICRU adult reference computational phantoms for a bladder containing 200 ml. Values for the absorbed dose per unit administered activity for 19 commonly used radiopharmaceuticals were calculated, e.g. 18 F-FDG, 99m Tc-pertechnetate, 99m Tc-MAG3 and 123 I-NaI. Results and conclusion: the results of the estimates of the absorbed doses to the inner bladder wall were a factor of ten higher than the estimates mean absorbed doses. The mean absorbed doses to the bladder wall were slightly higher for females than males, due to a smaller female

  18. A Convex Hull-Based New Metric for Quantification of Bladder Wall Irregularity in Pediatric Patients With Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract.

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    Stember, Joseph N; Newhouse, Jeffrey; Behr, Gerald; Alam, Shumyle

    2017-11-01

    Early identification and quantification of bladder damage in pediatric patients with congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) is crucial to guiding effective treatment and may affect the eventual clinical outcome, including progression of renal disease. We have developed a novel approach based on the convex hull to calculate bladder wall trabecularity in pediatric patients with CAKUT. The objective of this study was to test whether our approach can accurately predict bladder wall irregularity. Twenty pediatric patients, half with renal compromise and CAKUT and half with normal renal function, were evaluated. We applied the convex hull approach to calculate T, a metric proposed to reflect the degree of trabeculation/bladder wall irregularity, in this set of patients. The average T value was roughly 3 times higher for diseased than healthy patients (0.14 [95% confidence interval, 0.10-0.17] versus 0.05 [95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.07] for normal bladders). This disparity was statistically significant (P hull-based procedure can measure bladder wall irregularity. Because bladder damage is a reversible precursor to irreversible renal parenchymal damage, applying such a measure to at-risk pediatric patients can help guide prompt interventions to avert disease progression. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  19. High resolution photoacoustic imaging of microvasculature in normal and cancerous bladders

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    Xie, Zhixing; Roberts, William; Carson, Paul L.; Liu, Xiaojun; Tao, Chao; Wang, Xueding

    2013-03-01

    We explored the potential of an emerging laser-based technology, photoacoustic imaging (PAI), for bladder cancer diagnosis through high resolution imaging of microvasculature in the interior bladder tissues. Images of ex vivo canine bladders demonstrated the excellent ability of PAI to map three-dimensional microvasculature in optically scattering bladder tissues. By comparing the results from human bladder specimens affected by cancer to those from the normal control, the feasibility of PAI in differentiating malignant from benign bladder tissues was explored. The reported distinctive morphometric characteristics of tumor microvasculature can be seen in the images from cancer samples, suggesting that PAI may allow in vivo assessment of neoangiogenesis that is closely associated with bladder cancer generation and progression. By presenting subsurface morphological and physiological information in bladder tissues, PAI, when performed in a similar way to that in conventional endoscopy, provides an opportunity for improved diagnosis, staging and treatment guidance of bladder cancer.

  20. Manual versus automatic bladder wall thickness measurements: a method comparison study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oelke, M.; Mamoulakis, C.; Ubbink, D.T.; de la Rosette, J.J.; Wijkstra, H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To compare repeatability and agreement of conventional ultrasound bladder wall thickness (BWT) measurements with automatically obtained BWT measurements by the BVM 6500 device. Methods Adult patients with lower urinary tract symptoms, urinary incontinence, or postvoid residual urine were

  1. A study of image-guided radiotherapy of bladder cancer based on lipiodol injection in the bladder wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soendergaard, Jimmi; Muren, Ludvig Paul; Elstroem, Ulrik Vindelev; Grau, Cai; Hoeyer, Morten; Oerding Olsen, Kasper

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. We have tested a procedure of focal injection of the contrast medium Lipiodol as a fiducial marker for image-guided boost of the tumor in bladder cancer radiotherapy (RT). In this study, we have evaluated the feasibility and the safety of the method as well as the inter- and intra-fraction shift of the bladder tumor. Materials and methods. Five patients with muscle invasive urinary bladder cancer were included in the study. Lipiodol was injected during flexible cystoscopy into the submucosa of the bladder wall at the periphery of the tumor or the post resection tumor-bed. Cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans were acquired daily throughout the course of RT. Results. Lipiodol demarcation of the bladder tumor was feasible and safe with only a minimum of side effects related to the procedure. The Lipiodol spots were visible on CT and CBCT scans for the duration of the RT course. More than half of all the treatment fractions required a geometric shift of 5 mm or more to match on the Lipiodol spots. The mean intra-fraction shift (3D) of the tumor was 3 mm, largest in the anterior-posterior and cranial-caudal directions. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that Lipiodol can be injected into the bladder mucosa and subsequently visualized on CT and CBCT as a fiducial marker. The relatively large inter-fraction shifts in the positions of Lipiodol spots compared to the intra-fraction movement indicates that image-guided RT based on radio-opaque markers is important for RT of the bladder cancer tumor.

  2. The influence of botulinum toxin type A (BTX) on the immunohistochemical characteristics of noradrenergic and cholinergic nerve fibers supplying the porcine urinary bladder wall.

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    Lepiarczyk, E; Bossowska, A; Kaleczyc, J; Majewski, M

    2011-01-01

    Botulinum toxin (BTX) belongs to a family of neurotoxins which strongly influence the function of autonomic neurons supplying the urinary bladder. Accordingly, BTX has been used as an effective drug in experimental therapies of a range of neurogenic bladder disorders. However, there is no detailed information dealing with the influence of BTX on the morphological and chemical properties of nerve fibres supplying the urinary bladder wall. Therefore, the present study investigated, using double-labeling immunohistochemistry, the distribution, relative frequency and chemical coding of cholinergic and noradrenergic nerve fibers supplying the wall of the urinary bladder in normal female pigs (n = 6) and in the pigs (n = 6) after intravesical BTX injections. In the pigs injected with BTX, the number of adrenergic (DbetaH-positive) nerve fibers distributed in the bladder wall (urothelium, submucosa and muscle coat) was distinctly higher while the number of cholinergic (VAChT-positive) nerve terminals was lower than that found in the control animals. Moreover, the injections of BTX resulted in some changes dealing with the chemical coding of the adrenergic nerve fibers. In contrast to the normal pigs, in BTX injected animals the number of DbetaH/NPY- or DbetaH/CGRP-positive axons was higher in the muscle coat, and some fibres distributed in the urothelium and submucosa expressed immunoreactivity to CGRP. The results obtained suggest that the therapeutic effects of BTX on the urinary bladder might be dependent on changes in the distribution and chemical coding of nerve fibers supplying this organ.

  3. Bladder Wall Telangiectasia in a Patient with Ataxia-Telangiectasia and How to Manage?

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    Fatma Deniz Aygün

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T is a rare neurodegenerative, inherited disease causing severe morbidity. Oculocutaneous telangiectasias are almost constant findings among the affected cases as telangiectasia is considered the main clinical finding for diagnosis. Vascular abnormalities in organs have been reported infrequently but bladder wall telangiectasias are extremely rare. We aimed to report recurrent hemorrhage from bladder wall telangiectasia in a 9-year-old boy with A-T who had received intravenous cyclophosphamide for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Since A-T patients are known to be more susceptible to chemical agents, we suggested that possibly cyclophosphamide was the drug which induced bladder wall injury in this patient.

  4. High resolution MR imaging of bladder cancer: new criteria for determining depth of wall invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Chang Hae; Kressel, Herbert Y

    1993-01-01

    To establish new criteria to determine the depth of bladder cancer as well as to obtain the findings of each stage of bladder cancer we reviewed high resolution MR images of 18 bladder cancer patients including seven cases (26%) with superficial bladder wall invasion. All MR scans were done before biopsy or surgery. Multiple layers of the bladder wall (inner black, middle white, outer black) were demonstrated in 11 cases out of a total 18 cases. Thickening of the middle layer caused by tumor infiltration or edema of lamina propria was seen in 8 of 12 patients with stage T2 or greater, and was suggestive of superficial muscle invasion when multiple layers were demonstrated. Disruption of outer layer (as well as inner layer) and external protrusion of tumor itself were indicative of perivesical invasion. When multiple layers were not demonstrated, the depth of tumor invasion could not be judged. High resolution MR imaging can depict submucosal invasion, muscle invasion, and perivesical invasion secondary to bladder cancer

  5. Layer-dependent role of collagen recruitment during loading of the rat bladder wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fangzhou; Birder, Lori A; Kullmann, F Aura; Hornsby, Jack; Watton, Paul N; Watkins, Simon; Thompson, Mark; Robertson, Anne M

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we re-evaluated long-standing conjectures as to the source of the exceptionally large compliance of the bladder wall. Whereas these conjectures were based on indirect measures of loading mechanisms, in this work we take advantage of advances in bioimaging to directly assess collagen fibers and wall architecture during biaxial loading. A custom biaxial mechanical testing system compatible with multiphoton microscopy was used to directly measure the layer-dependent collagen fiber recruitment in bladder tissue from 9 male Fischer rats (4 adult and 5 aged). As for other soft tissues, the bladder loading curve was exponential in shape and could be divided into toe, transition and high stress regimes. The relationship between collagen recruitment and loading curves was evaluated in the context of the inner (lamina propria) and outer (detrusor smooth muscle) layers. The large extensibility of the bladder was found to be possible due to folds in the wall (rugae) that provide a mechanism for low resistance flattening without any discernible recruitment of collagen fibers throughout the toe regime. For more extensible bladders, as the loading extended into the transition regime, a gradual coordinated recruitment of collagen fibers between the lamina propria layer and detrusor smooth muscle layer was found. A second important finding was that wall extensibility could be lost by premature recruitment of collagen in the outer wall that cut short the toe region. This change was correlated with age. This work provides, for the first time, a mechanistic understanding of the role of collagen recruitment in determining bladder extensibility and capacitance.

  6. Bladder wall biomechanics: A comprehensive study on fresh porcine urinary bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sami Jokandan, Maryam; Ajalloueian, Fatemeh; Edinger, Magnus

    2018-01-01

    Regenerative medicine for reconstructive urogenital surgery has been widely studied during the last two decades. One of the key factors affecting the quality of bladder regeneration is the mechanical properties of the bladder scaffold. Insight into the biomechanics of this organ is expected to as...... applied here reveals distinct information, outcomes from the combination of the three can be considered as a helpful data-base to refer to for researchers aiming to regenerate the bladder......., the anisotropic behavior of bladder was evident at strain loads higher than 200%. According to DMA, storage modulus was found to be consistently higher than loss modulus in both directions, revealing the elasticity of the BW. The stress-strain curves of both uniaxial and BB tests showed similar trends. However......, the ultimate stress measured from BB was found to be around 5 times of the relevant stress from uniaxial loading. The ultimate strain in BB (389.9 ± 59.8) was interestingly an approximate average of longitudinal (358 ± 21) and circumferential (435 ± 69) rupture strains. Considering that each testing mode...

  7. Correlation between surrogates of bladder dosimetry and dose–volume histograms of the bladder wall defined on MRI in prostate cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carillo, Viviana; Cozzarini, Cesare; Chietera, Andreina; Perna, Lucia; Gianolini, Stefano; Maggio, Angelo; Botti, Andrea; Rancati, Tiziana; Valdagni, Riccardo; Fiorino, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    The correlation between bladder dose–wall-histogram (DWH) and dose–volume-histogram (DVH), dose–surface-histogram (DSH), and DVH-5/10 was investigated in a group of 28 patients; bladder walls were drawn on T2-MRI. DVH showed the poorest correlation with DWH; DSH or DVH-5/10 should be preferred in planning; absolute DVH may be used for radical patients, although less robust.

  8. On the mechanical role of de novo synthesized elastin in the urinary bladder wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wognum, Silvia; Schmidt, David E.; Sacks, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    The urinary bladder wall (UBW), which is composed of smooth muscle, collagen, and elastin, undergoes profound remodeling in response to changes in mechanical loading resulting from various pathologies. In our laboratory, we have observed the production of fibrillar elastin in the extracellular

  9. Effect of bladder wall thickness on miniature pneumatic artificial muscle performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillsbury, Thomas E; Kothera, Curt S; Wereley, Norman M

    2015-09-28

    Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are actuators known for their high power to weight ratio, natural compliance and light weight. Due to these advantages, PAMs have been used for orthotic devices and robotic limbs. Small scale PAMs have the same advantages, as well as requiring greatly reduced volumes with potential application to prostheses and small scale robotics. The bladder of a PAM affects common actuator performance metrics, specifically: blocked force, free contraction, hysteresis, and dead-band pressure. This paper investigates the effect that bladder thickness has on static actuation performance of small scale PAMs. Miniature PAMs were fabricated with a range of bladder thicknesses to quantify the change in common actuator performance metrics specifically: blocked force, free contraction, and dead-band pressure. These PAMs were then experimentally characterized in quasi-static conditions, where results showed that increasing bladder wall thickness decreases blocked force and free contraction, while dead-band pressure increases. A nonlinear model was then applied to determine the structure of the stress-strain relationship that enables accurate modeling and the minimum number of terms. Two nonlinear models are compared and the identified parameters are analyzed to study the effect of the bladder thickness on the model.

  10. Pattern of somatostatin receptors expression in normal and bladder cancer tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavitakis, Markos; Msaouel, Pavlos; Michalopoulos, Vassilis; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Known risks factors for bladder cancer progression and recurrence are limited regarding their prognostic ability. Therefore identification of molecular determinants of disease progression could provide with more specific prognostic information and could be translated into new approaches for biomarker development. In the present study we evaluated, the expression patterns of somatostatin receptors 1-5 (SSTRs) in normal and tumor bladder tissues. The expression of SSTR1-5 was characterized in 45 normal and bladder cancer tissue samples using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). SSTR1 was expressed in 24 samples, SSTR2 in 15, SSTR3 in 23, SSTR4 in 16 and SSTR5 in all but one sample. Bladder cancer tissue samples expressed lower levels of SSTR3. Co-expression of SSTRs was associated with superficial disease. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that there is expression of SSTR in normal and bladder cancer urothelium. Further studies are required to evaluate the prognostic and therapeutic significance of these findings. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  11. Tissue-mimicking bladder wall phantoms for evaluating acoustic radiation force-optical coherence elastography systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejofodomi, O'tega A; Zderic, Vesna; Zara, Jason M

    2010-04-01

    Acoustic radiation force-optical coherence elastography (ARF-OCE) systems are novel imaging systems that have the potential to simultaneously quantify and characterize the optical and mechanical properties of in vivo tissues. This article presents the construction of bladder wall phantoms for use in ARF-OCE systems. Mechanical, acoustic, and optical properties are reported and compared to published values for the urinary bladder. The phantom consisted of 0.2000 +/- 0.0089 and 6.0000 +/- 0.2830 microm polystyrene microspheres (Polysciences Inc., Warrington, PA, Catalog Nos. 07304 and 07312), 7.5 +/- 1.5 microm copolymer microspheres composed of acrylonitrile and vinylidene chloride, (Expancel, Duluth, GA, Catalog No. 461 DU 20), and bovine serum albumin within a gelatin matrix. Young's modulus was measured by successive compression of the phantom and obtaining the slope of the resulting force-displacement data. Acoustic measurements were performed using the transmission method. The phantoms were submerged in a water bath and placed between transmitting and receiving 13 mm diameter unfocused transducers operating at a frequency of 3.5 MHz. A MATLAB algorithm to extract the optical scattering coefficient from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the phantom was used. The phantoms possess a Young's modulus of 17.12 +/- 2.72 kPa, a mass density of 1.05 +/- 0.02 g/cm3, an acoustic attenuation coefficient of 0.66 +/- 0.08 dB/cm/MHz, a speed of sound of 1591 +/- 8.76 m/s, and an optical scattering coefficient of 1.80 +/- 0.23 mm(-1). Ultrasound and OCT images of the bladder wall phantom are presented. A material that mimics the mechanical, optical, and acoustic properties of healthy bladder wall has been developed. This tissue-mimicking bladder wall phantom was developed as a control tool to investigate the feasibility of using ARF-OCE to detect the mechanical and optical changes that may be indicative of the onset or development of cancer in the urinary bladder

  12. Bladder exstrophy: reconstructed female patients achieving normal pregnancy and delivering normal babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amílcar Martins Giron

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Bladder exstrophy (BE is an anterior midline defect that causes a series of genitourinary and muscular malformations, which demands surgical intervention for correction. Women with BE are fertile and able to have children without this disease. The purpose of this study is to assess the sexual function and quality of life of women treated for BE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients in our institution treated for BE from 1987 to 2007 were recruited to answer a questionnaire about their quality of life and pregnancies. RESULTS: Fourteen women were submitted to surgical treatment for BE and had 22 pregnancies during the studied period. From those, 17 pregnancies (77.2% resulted in healthy babies, while four patients (18.1% had a spontaneous abortion due to genital prolapse, and there was one case (4.7% of death due to a pneumopathy one week after delivery. There was also one case (5.8% of premature birth without greater repercussions. During pregnancy, three patients (21.4% had urinary tract infections and one patient (7.14% presented urinary retention. After delivery, three patients (21.4% presented temporary urinary incontinence; one patient (7.14% had a vesicocutaneous fistula and seven patients (50% had genital prolapsed. All patients confirmed to have achieved urinary continence, a regular sexual life and normal pregnancies. All patients got married and pregnant older than the general population. CONCLUSIONS: BE is a severe condition that demands medical and family assistance. Nevertheless, it is possible for the bearers of this condition to have a satisfactory and productive lifestyle.

  13. Immunostimulation in the urinary bladder by local application of Nocardia rubra cell wall skeleton preparation (Rubratin) for superficial bladder cancer immunotherapy--a phase I/II study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Reijke, T. M.; de Boer, E. C.; Schamhart, D. H.; Kurth, K. H.

    1997-01-01

    Twelve patients with superficial papillary transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (pTa, pT1) were treated with six consecutive weekly intravesical instillations of Rubratin (in a dose of 1.5, 3.0, or 4.5 mg), a cell wall skeleton preparation of Nocardia rubra (NCW). The main objective of this

  14. Bladder function after sacrospinous hysteropexy and vaginal wall repair in women with uterovaginal prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed Ahmed, Waleed A; Taha, Omima T; Hamdy, Mostafa A; Ibrahim, Zakia M; Elshahat, Amal M

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of repair of uterovaginal prolapse using sacrospinous hysteropexy and vaginal wall repair on the bladder function. The study was conducted at the urogynecology clinic of Suez Canal University Hospitals, Ismailia from January 2014 to March 2016. This study included women with a diagnosis of uterovaginal prolapse and wishing to preserve their uteri. Bladder function was evaluated through assessment of urological symptoms using a standardized questionnaire - the urogenital distress inventory (UDI-6) - in addition to urodynamic studies just before and six-months after the sacrospinous hysteropexy ± associated vaginal wall repair operation. Twenty-seven patients completed the study with a mean age of 36.5 ± 4 years. Only 3 women had sacrospinous hysteropexy with no additional procedures. Other procedures included anterior colporrhaphy (12), posterior colporrhaphy (9) and perineorrhaphy (15). Based on UDI-6, there was no significant difference between the pre- and post-operative symptoms of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) [8/27 (29.6%) vs. 9/27 (33.3%) respectively; p value = 0.7]. The pre- and post-operative symptoms of urge urinary incontinence were also insignificantly different [13/27 (48.1%) vs. 15/27 (55.5%); p value = 0.5]. The total score of UDI-6 increased from 24.5 ± (14.2) to 32.8 ± (29.4) which was not statistically significant (p value = 0.12). Urodynamically, voiding dysfunction was found less frequently after the operation, however the difference was statistically insignificant [9/27 (33.3%) vs. 8/27 (29.6%); p value = 0.7]. Sacrospinous hysteropexy and associated vaginal wall repair do not affect the bladder function either subjectively or objectively. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Bladder cancer mapping in Libya based on standardized morbidity ratio and log-normal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhdiri, Maryam Ahmed; Samat, Nor Azah; Mohamed, Zulkifley

    2017-05-01

    Disease mapping contains a set of statistical techniques that detail maps of rates based on estimated mortality, morbidity, and prevalence. A traditional approach to measure the relative risk of the disease is called Standardized Morbidity Ratio (SMR). It is the ratio of an observed and expected number of accounts in an area, which has the greatest uncertainty if the disease is rare or if geographical area is small. Therefore, Bayesian models or statistical smoothing based on Log-normal model are introduced which might solve SMR problem. This study estimates the relative risk for bladder cancer incidence in Libya from 2006 to 2007 based on the SMR and log-normal model, which were fitted to data using WinBUGS software. This study starts with a brief review of these models, starting with the SMR method and followed by the log-normal model, which is then applied to bladder cancer incidence in Libya. All results are compared using maps and tables. The study concludes that the log-normal model gives better relative risk estimates compared to the classical method. The log-normal model has can overcome the SMR problem when there is no observed bladder cancer in an area.

  16. [Feasibility of using connective tissue prosthesis for autoplastic repair of urinary bladder wall defects (an experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyumentseva, N V; Yushkov, B G; Medvedeva, S Y; Kovalenko, R Y; Uzbekov, O K; Zhuravlev, V N

    2016-12-01

    Experiments on laboratory rats have shown the feasibility of autoplastic repair of urinary bladder wall defects using a connective-tissue capsule formed as the result of an inflammatory response to the presence of a foreign body. The formation of connective tissue prosthesis is characterized by developing fibrous connective tissue, ordering of collagen fibers, reducing the number of cells per unit area with a predominance of more mature cells - fibroblasts. With increasing time of observation, connective tissue prostheses were found to acquire a morphological structure similar to that of the urinary bladder wall. By month 12, the mucosa, the longitudinal and circular muscle layers were formed. The proposed method of partial autoplastic repair of urinary bladder wall is promising, has good long-term results, but requires further experimental studies.

  17. Male gender and sonographic gall bladder wall thickness: important predictable factors for empyema and gangrene in acute cholecystitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.L.U.; Jawed, M.; Shaikh, U.; Abbassi, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To underline the status of male gender and gall bladder wall thickness as significant risk factors for acute cholecystitis complications. Methods: The retrospective study, with purposive sampling of the patients of acute cholecystits in age above 18 years, who were operated within 10 days of onset of symptoms, was conducted at the Department of Surgery, Dow University Hospital, Karachi, by reviewing the patients' medical record from March 2010 to August 2012. Correlation of incidence of acute cholecystitis complications (empyema and gangrene) to male gender and to the sonographic gall bladder wall thickness more than 4.5mm was analysed using SPSS 16. Result: Out of 62 patients, 8 (13%) patients had gangrene while 10 (16.12%) had empyema. Overall, there were 21 (33.87%) males in the study. Ten (47.6%) of the male patients developed empyema or gangrene of the gall bladder as a complication of acute cholecystitis. Of the 41 (66.12%) female patients, only 8 (19.5%) developed these complications. There were 22 (35.48%) cases of gall bladders with sonographic wall thickness more than 4.5mm who were operated for acute cholecystitis. Of them, 16 (72.7%) had empyema or gangrene. Conclusion: Male gender and sonographic gall bladder wall thickness more than 4.5mm were statistically significant risk factors for suspicion of complicated acute cholecystitis (empyema/gangrene) and by using these risk factors, we can prioritise patients for surgery in the emergency room. (author)

  18. Role of 17 beta-estradiol on type IV collagen fibers volumetric density in the basement membrane of bladder wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fraga, Rogerio; Dambros, Miriam; Miyaoka, Ricardo; Riccetto, Cássio Luís Zanettini; Palma, Paulo César Rodrigues

    2007-10-01

    The authors quantified the type IV collagen fibers volumetric density in the basement membrane of bladder wall of ovariectomized rats with and without estradiol replacement. This study was conducted on 40 Wistar rats (3 months old) randomly divided in 4 groups: group 1, remained intact (control); group 2, submitted to bilateral oophorectomy and daily replacement 4 weeks later of 17 beta-estradiol for 12 weeks; group 3, sham operated and daily replacement 4 weeks later of sesame oil for 12 weeks; and group 4, submitted to bilateral oophorectomy and killed after 12 weeks. It was used in immunohistochemistry evaluation using type IV collagen polyclonal antibody to stain the fibers on paraffin rat bladder sections. The M-42 stereological grid system was used to analyze the fibers. Ovariectomy had an increase effect on the volumetric density of the type IV collagen fibers in the basement membrane of rat bladder wall. Estradiol replacement in castrated animals demonstrated a significative difference in the stereological parameters when compared to the castrated group without hormonal replacement. Surgical castration performed on rats induced an increasing volumetric density of type IV collagen fibers in the basement membrane of rats bladder wall and the estradiol treatment had a significant effect in keeping a low volumetric density of type IV collagen fibers in the basement membrane of rats bladder wall.

  19. MR imaging of bladder endometriosis and its relationship with the anterior uterine wall: Experience in a tertiary referral centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busard, M.P.H.; Mijatovic, V.; Lüchinger, A.B.; Bleeker, M.C.G.; Pieters-van den Bos, I.C.; Schats, R.; Kuijk, C. van; Hompes, P.G.A.; Waesberghe, J.H.T.M. van

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Both the intraperitoneal seeding and the uterine-vesical extension theory have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of bladder endometriosis. The aim of this study was to describe MR imaging findings of bladder endometriosis and involvement of the anterior uterine wall in a tertiary referral centre for endometriosis in a effort to improve diagnosis and help clarify the pathogenesis. Methods: In a single-centre, retrospective study (2004–2009), 463 consecutive patients analysed for deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) were studied independently by two experienced readers for the presence of bladder endometriosis. MR studies revealing bladder endometriosis were then analysed in consensus for: location, size, signal intensity characteristics, uterine involvement, continuity with adenomyosis and presence of cysts. There was histopathologic correlation in 9 patients who had undergone partial bladder resection. Results: Bladder endometriosis was diagnosed in 32 patients on MR imaging (k = 0.85). Most lesions showed heterogeneous isointensity compared to that of muscle on T2-weighed imaging, containing foci of high signal intensity, suggesting cystic ectopic endometrial glands. On T1-weighted imaging lesions showed heterogeneous isointensity with foci or small cysts, demonstrating high signal intensity, indicating hemorrhage, was observed. Uterine involvement was found in 94% of the lesions, with either “continuous” or “hourglass” configurations. Presence of contiguous adenomyosis was found in only 4 lesions. Conclusions: With MR imaging, uterine involvement in bladder endometriosis is frequently found and in most cases located subserosally, suggesting extensive DIE, favouring the intraperitoneal seeding theory

  20. MR imaging of bladder endometriosis and its relationship with the anterior uterine wall: Experience in a tertiary referral centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busard, M.P.H., E-mail: m.busard@vumc.nl [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, De Boelelaan 1118, 1081 HZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mijatovic, V., E-mail: Mijatovic@vumc.nl [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Reproductive Medicine, De Boelelaan 1118, 1081 HZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lüchinger, A.B., E-mail: ab.luchinger@vumc.nl [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Reproductive Medicine, De Boelelaan 1118, 1081 HZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bleeker, M.C.G., E-mail: MCG.Bleeker@vumc.nl [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Pathology, De Boelelaan 1118, 1081 HZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pieters-van den Bos, I.C., E-mail: i.pieters@vumc.nl [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, De Boelelaan 1118, 1081 HZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schats, R., E-mail: r.schats@vumc.nl [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Reproductive Medicine, De Boelelaan 1118, 1081 HZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kuijk, C. van, E-mail: C.vanKuijk@vumc.nl [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, De Boelelaan 1118, 1081 HZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hompes, P.G.A., E-mail: p.hompes@vumc.nl [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Reproductive Medicine, De Boelelaan 1118, 1081 HZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Waesberghe, J.H.T.M. van, E-mail: JHTM.vanwaesberghe@vumc.nl [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, De Boelelaan 1118, 1081 HZ Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    Objective: Both the intraperitoneal seeding and the uterine-vesical extension theory have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of bladder endometriosis. The aim of this study was to describe MR imaging findings of bladder endometriosis and involvement of the anterior uterine wall in a tertiary referral centre for endometriosis in a effort to improve diagnosis and help clarify the pathogenesis. Methods: In a single-centre, retrospective study (2004–2009), 463 consecutive patients analysed for deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) were studied independently by two experienced readers for the presence of bladder endometriosis. MR studies revealing bladder endometriosis were then analysed in consensus for: location, size, signal intensity characteristics, uterine involvement, continuity with adenomyosis and presence of cysts. There was histopathologic correlation in 9 patients who had undergone partial bladder resection. Results: Bladder endometriosis was diagnosed in 32 patients on MR imaging (k = 0.85). Most lesions showed heterogeneous isointensity compared to that of muscle on T2-weighed imaging, containing foci of high signal intensity, suggesting cystic ectopic endometrial glands. On T1-weighted imaging lesions showed heterogeneous isointensity with foci or small cysts, demonstrating high signal intensity, indicating hemorrhage, was observed. Uterine involvement was found in 94% of the lesions, with either “continuous” or “hourglass” configurations. Presence of contiguous adenomyosis was found in only 4 lesions. Conclusions: With MR imaging, uterine involvement in bladder endometriosis is frequently found and in most cases located subserosally, suggesting extensive DIE, favouring the intraperitoneal seeding theory.

  1. Sensation of Cold during the Ice Water Test Corresponds to the Perception of Pain during Botulinum Toxin Bladder Wall Injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, André; Hüsch, Tanja; Doggweiler, Regula; Buse, Stephan; Haferkamp, Axel

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the association of bladder cold sensation (BCS) during the ice water test (IWT) and pain perception when botulinum toxin injections (BTI) are administered into the bladder wall. In 86 patients with idiopathic overactive bladder, the BCS during the IWT was investigated. Patients were divided into 2 groups: with and without BCS. During subsequent administration of BTI, the number of perceived and painful injections as well as the pain levels on a 0-100 pain scale were compared in both groups using Student t test. Thirty-five patients reported a BCS, while 51 did not. After 10 BTI, the mean number of perceived injections was 7.9 in patients with and 2.4 in patients without BCS (p sensation (p perceptions of cold and pain in the urinary bladder may use similar receptors and neuronal pathways. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Classification of Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectra from Normal and Malignant bladder tissues using Learning Vector Quantization Neural Network in Bladder Cancer Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal Raghunath; Mascarenhas, Kim Komal; Patil, Choudhary

    2008-01-01

    In the present work we discuss the potential of recently developed classification algorithm, Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ), for the analysis of Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) Spectra, recorded from normal and malignant bladder tissue samples. The algorithm is prototype based and inherently...

  3. The effect of chemotherapy with or without radiation on the accuracy of MR imaging for evaluating tumor infiltration into the bladder wall in cases of advanced bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Kazushige; Satou, Yuji; Nannri, Masaharu

    2004-01-01

    Staging of tumor infiltration into the bladder wall is one of the critical points in decision-making for optimal treatment of invasive bladder cancer. We studied the correlation of MR findings with pathological diagnosis in cases of invasive bladder cancer which had been treated with chemotherapy, with or without radiation. Twenty-one patients (14 men and 7 women) with invasive bladder tumors who underwent either partial cystectomy or radical cystectomy were entered into the study. Eight cases had received chemotherapy after staging biopsy (Group A), 6 cases had undergone chemo-radiation therapy following staging biopsy (Group B), and 7 cases had received no adjuvant therapy except for staging biopsy preoperatively (Group C). All cases had MR imaging study before surgical treatment. The pathological stage was assessed by examining the whole layer of the resected bladder wall. Pathological diagnosis was pT0 in 4 cases, pT1 in 2 cases, pT2b in 5 cases, pT3a in 2 cases and pT3b in 8 cases. Staging with MR imaging was consistent with pathological findings in 14 of the 21 cases (66.7%), while MR imaging produced over-staging in 6 cases and under-staging in 1 case. Of the 6 cases with over-staging, 2 cases had received chemo-radiation therapy, 2 cases had received chemotherapy, and 2 cases had received staging biopsy alone preoperatively. The one case with under-staging had received chemo-radiation therapy preoperatively. The accuracy in staging with MR imaging was 75.0% (6/8), 50.0% (3/6), and 71.4% (5/7) in Groups A, B, and C, respectively. Imaging study with MR is useful for the staging of invasive bladder cancer. However, care should be taken in the staging of invasive bladder tumors which have been treated with chemotherapy, with or without radiation therapy, because inflammatory infiltration and/or fibrous change caused by the chemo-radiation make accurate staging with MR imaging difficult. (author)

  4. Normal tissue sparing in a phase II trial on daily adaptive plan selection in radiotherapy for urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Anne; Muren, Ludvig P; Lindberg, Henriette; Jakobsen, Kirsten L; Petersen, Jørgen B B; Elstrøm, Ulrik V; Agerbæk, Mads; Høyer, Morten

    2014-08-01

    Background: Patients with urinary bladder cancer often display large changes in the shape and size of their bladder target during a course of radiotherapy (RT), making adaptive RT (ART) appealing for this tumour site. We are conducting a clinical phase II trial of daily plan selection-based ART for bladder cancer and here report dose-volume data from the first 20 patients treated in the trial. All patients received 60 Gy in 30 fractions to the bladder; in 13 of the patients the pelvic lymph nodes were simultaneously treated to 48 Gy. Daily patient set-up was by use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) guidance. The first 5 fractions were delivered with large, population-based (non-adaptive) margins. The bladder contours from the CBCTs acquired in the first 4 fractions were used to create a patient-specific library of three plans, corresponding to a small, medium and large size bladder. From fraction 6, daily online plan selection was performed, where the smallest plan covering the bladder was selected prior to each treatment delivery. A total of 600 treatment fractions in the 20 patients were evaluated. Small, medium and large size plans were used almost equally often, with an average of 10, 9 and 11 fractions, respectively. The median volume ratio of the course-averaged PTV (PTV-ART) relative to the non-adaptive PTV was 0.70 (range: 0.46-0.89). A linear regression analysis showed a 183 cm(3) (CI 143-223 cm(3)) reduction in PTV-ART compared to the non-adaptive PTV (R(2) = 0.94). Daily adaptive plan selection in RT of bladder cancer results in a considerable normal tissue sparing, of a magnitude that we expect will translate into a clinically significant reduction of the treatment-related morbidity.

  5. The normal tissue sparing obtained with simultaneous treatment of pelvic lymph nodes and bladder using intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soendergaard, Jimmi; Hoeyer, Morten; Wright, Pauliina; Grau, Cai; Muren, Ludvig Paul; Petersen, Joergen B.

    2009-01-01

    We have implemented an intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) protocol for simultaneous irradiation of bladder and lymph nodes. In this report, doses to normal tissue from IMRT and our previous conformal sequential boost technique are compared. Material and methods. Sixteen patients with urinary bladder cancer were treated using a six-field dynamic IMRT beam arrangement delivering 60 Gy to the bladder and 48 Gy to the pelvic lymph nodes. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters for relevant normal tissues (bowel, bowel cavity, rectum and femoral heads) for the IMRT plans were compared with corresponding DVHs from our previous conformal sequential boost technique. Calculations of the generalized Equivalent Uniform Dose (gEUD) were performed for the bowel, with a reference volume of 200 cm 3 and a volume effect parameter k = 4, as well as for the rectum, using k = 12. Acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) RTOG toxicity was recorded. Results. Statistical significant normal tissue sparing was obtained by IMRT. For the bowel, a significant reduction was obtained at all dose levels between 20 and 50 Gy (p 3 at 50 Gy, while the gEUD was reduced from 58 to 53 Gy (p 3 at 50 Gy. The rectum gEUD was reduced from 55 to 53 Gy (p < 0.05). For the femoral heads, IMRT reduced the maximum dose as well as the volumes above all dose levels. The rate of acute peak Grade 2 GI RTOG complications was 38% after IMRT. Conclusion. IMRT to the urinary bladder and elective lymph nodes result in considerable normal tissue sparing compared to conformal sequential boost technique. This has paved the way for further studies combining IMRT with image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) in bladder cancer

  6. It is time to abandon "expected bladder capacity." Systematic review and new models for children's normal maximum voided volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Roberto; Ubeda-Sansano, Maria Isabel; Díez-Domingo, Javier; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Gil-Salom, Manuel

    2014-09-01

    There is an agreement to use simple formulae (expected bladder capacity and other age based linear formulae) as bladder capacity benchmark. But real normal child's bladder capacity is unknown. To offer a systematic review of children's normal bladder capacity, to measure children's normal maximum voided volumes (MVVs), to construct models of MVVs and to compare them with the usual formulae. Computerized, manual and grey literature were reviewed until February 2013. Epidemiological, observational, transversal, multicenter study. A consecutive sample of healthy children aged 5-14 years, attending Primary Care centres with no urologic abnormality were selected. Participants filled-in a 3-day frequency-volume chart. Variables were MVVs: maximum of 24 hr, nocturnal, and daytime maximum voided volumes. diuresis and its daytime and nighttime fractions; body-measure data; and gender. The consecutive steps method was used in a multivariate regression model. Twelve articles accomplished systematic review's criteria. Five hundred and fourteen cases were analysed. Three models, one for each of the MVVs, were built. All of them were better adjusted to exponential equations. Diuresis (not age) was the most significant factor. There was poor agreement between MVVs and usual formulae. Nocturnal and daytime maximum voided volumes depend on several factors and are different. Nocturnal and daytime maximum voided volumes should be used with different meanings in clinical setting. Diuresis is the main factor for bladder capacity. This is the first model for benchmarking normal MVVs with diuresis as its main factor. Current formulae are not suitable for clinical use. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Immunostimulation in the urinary bladder by local application of Nocardia rubra cell-wall skeletons (Rubratin) and bacillus Calmette-Guérin as therapy for superficial bladder cancer: a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, E. C.; de Reijke, T. M.; Vos, P. C.; Kurth, K. H.; Schamhart, D. H.

    2000-01-01

    Twelve patients with superficial bladder cancer were treated with intravesical instillations of Rubratin (ASTA Pharma AG, Frankfurt, Germany), a cell-wall preparation of Nocardia rubra. The objective was to compare the immunostimulating effect of Rubratin with that of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG).

  8. [Structure and function of suburothelial myofibroblasts in the human urinary bladder under normal and pathological conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, J; Heinrich, M; Schlichting, N; Oberbach, A; Fitzl, G; Schwalenberg, T; Horn, L-C; Stolzenburg, J-U

    2007-09-01

    Myofibroblasts play a pivotal role in numerous pathological alterations. Clarification of the structure and function and of the cellular plasticity of this cell type in the bladder may lead to new insights into the pathogenesis of lower urinary tract disorders. Bladder biopsies from patients with bladder carcinoma and interstitial cystitis were used to analyse the morphology and receptor expression using confocal immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Cytokine effects and coupling behavior were tested in cultured myofibroblasts and detrusor smooth muscle cells. Myofibroblasts are in close contact with the suburothelial capillary network. They express Cx43 and form functional syncytia. The expression of muscarinic and purinergic receptors is highly variable. Dye coupling experiments showed differences to detrusor myocytes. Upregulation of smooth muscle cell alpha-actin and/or transdifferentiation into smooth muscle cells may contribute to the etiology of urge incontinence. A multi-step model is presented as a working hypothesis.

  9. The inflammatory and normal transcriptome of mouse bladder detrusor and mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyer David W

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An organ such as the bladder consists of complex, interacting set of tissues and cells. Inflammation has been implicated in every major disease of the bladder, including cancer, interstitial cystitis, and infection. However, scanty is the information about individual detrusor and urothelium transcriptomes in response to inflammation. Here, we used suppression subtractive hybridizations (SSH to determine bladder tissue- and disease-specific genes and transcriptional regulatory elements (TREs. Unique TREs and genes were assembled into putative networks. Results It was found that the control bladder mucosa presented regulatory elements driving genes such as myosin light chain phosphatase and calponin 1 that influence the smooth muscle phenotype. In the control detrusor network the Pax-3 TRE was significantly over-represented. During development, the Pax-3 transcription factor (TF maintains progenitor cells in an undifferentiated state whereas, during inflammation, Pax-3 was suppressed and genes involved in neuronal development (synapsin I were up-regulated. Therefore, during inflammation, an increased maturation of neural progenitor cells in the muscle may underlie detrusor instability. NF-κB was specifically over-represented in the inflamed mucosa regulatory network. When the inflamed detrusor was compared to control, two major pathways were found, one encoding synapsin I, a neuron-specific phosphoprotein, and the other an important apoptotic protein, siva. In response to LPS-induced inflammation, the liver X receptor was over-represented in both mucosa and detrusor regulatory networks confirming a role for this nuclear receptor in LPS-induced gene expression. Conclusion A new approach for understanding bladder muscle-urothelium interaction was developed by assembling SSH, real time PCR, and TRE analysis results into regulatory networks. Interestingly, some of the TREs and their downstream transcripts originally involved in

  10. Induced dusty flow due to normal oscillation of wavy wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kannan

    2001-01-01

    wall. Solutions are obtained in terms of a series expansion with respect to small amplitude by a regular perturbation method. Graphs of velocity components, both for outer flow and inner flow for various values of mass concentration of dust particles are drawn. The inner and outer solutions are matched by the matching process. An interested application of present result to mechanical engineering may be the possibility of the fluid and dust transportation without an external pressure.

  11. Quantum turbulence in superfluids with wall-clamped normal component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltsov, Vladimir; Hänninen, Risto; Krusius, Matti

    2014-03-25

    In Fermi superfluids, such as superfluid (3)He, the viscous normal component can be considered to be stationary with respect to the container. The normal component interacts with the superfluid component via mutual friction, which damps the motion of quantized vortex lines and eventually couples the superfluid component to the container. With decreasing temperature and mutual friction, the internal dynamics of the superfluid component becomes more important compared with the damping and coupling effects from the normal component. As a result profound changes in superfluid dynamics are observed: the temperature-dependent transition from laminar to turbulent vortex motion and the decoupling from the reference frame of the container at even lower temperatures.

  12. Study of positional dependence of dose to bladder, pelvic wall and rectal points in High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy in cervical cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talluri, Anil Kumar; Alluri, Krishnam Raju; Gudipudi, Deleep Kumar; Ahamed, Shabbir; Sresty, Madhusudhana M.; Reddy, Aparna Yarrama

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the variation in doses to, Bladder, pelvic wall and Rectal Points when a patient is simulated in Supine (S Position) and Lithotomy M shaped positions (LM Position), respectively as part of Intracavitary Brachytherapy in Cervical Cancer patients. Patients (n = 19) were simulated and orthogonal images were taken in S Position and LM Positions on a physical simulator. Digital orthogonal X-ray images were transferred to Brachyvision Treatment Planning System via Dicom to generate treatment plans. Radio opaque dye of 7 ml was injected into the Foley bulb for identification and digitization of International Commission on Radiological Units and Measurements (ICRU) Bladder point. Pelvic side wall points were marked in accordance with ICRU 38 recommendations. A Rectal tube containing dummy source marker wire was used to identify Rectal Point. Students' t-test was used to analyze the results. Doses in LM Position were lower and statistically significant when compared to S Position for ICRU Bladder Point, pelvic walls and Rectal Point. It was observed that movement of applicator could be the reason for the variations in doses between the two positions. Bladder, pelvic wall and rectal points systematically registered lower doses in LM Position as compared to S Position. (author)

  13. Overactive Bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... especially if your symptoms disrupt your work schedule, social interactions and everyday activities. Causes Normal bladder function The ... fills, nerve signals sent to your brain eventually trigger the need to urinate. When you urinate, nerve ...

  14. Radiation dose to bladder wall following the administration of sup(99m)Tc-microspheres and sup(99m)Tc-DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.

    1981-01-01

    Castronovo et al. (Health Phys. Vol. 39, p 112, 1980) reported a method of calculating the dose to the bladder wall following administration of sup(99m)Tc human albumin microspheres (sup(99m)Tc-HAM) for lung perfusion scanning. The present note comments that (1) the dosimetry is estimated for an unusual bladder voiding schedule and no indication is given of the variation of dose to be expected with different schedules, and (2) that the method assumes linear biological excretion of the radiopharmaceutical into the bladder in any particular filling period. It is shown that whilst this is a valid approximation in the case considered, it is not a generally applicable principle. Values of bladder wall dose commitments following intravenous administration of sup(99m)Tc-HAM or sup(99m)Tc DTPA are tabulated. Values for constant voiding cycles are presented for four different bladder voiding periods between 2 and 8 hr, and for three different methods of calculation:-a method described in this paper, the linear excretion method of Castronovo et al., and the method of Snyder et al. (ORNL-4584, pp. 206-208, 1970) which allows for urine flow rate. (U.K.)

  15. The use of a miniature direct-reading solid state radiation dosimeter to measure the radiation dose from technetium-99m to the bladder wall of the pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, J.R.N.; Frappier, G.; Thomson, I.; Shortt, K.

    1992-01-01

    Each year about one million Canadians receive Tc-99m-labeled radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic purposes. Many of these radioactive agents or their metabolites are excreted in the urine. Consequently, the bladder wall can receive a relatively high radiation dose and is often considered one of the organs at risk. The bladder contents could also contribute a significant dose to a developing fetus. The risk associated with the use of any radiopharmaceutical is determined by the sum of radiation doses to selected organs weighted with an appropriate factor for each organ's radiosensitivity. To ensure that a risk estimate is realistic, it is essential to compare the estimate of radiation dose generated by a mathematical model to results obtained by direct physical measurement. In this project, real-time measurements of dose and dose rate to the bladder wall from intravenous technetium-99m were obtained by direct physical measurement using a miniature solid state radiation dosimeter implanted onto the bladder wall of a laboratory pig. The measured value is compared to the calculated dose estimate. Two methods of data logging are described. tab., 2 refs., 4 figs

  16. Leiomyoma of urinary bladder with bladder stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farouk, K.; Gondal, M.; Khan, A.

    2008-01-01

    Leiomyoma of the urinary bladder is a rare benign mesenchymal tumour. We describe here a case of leiomyoma of the urinary bladder in a 65-year-old gentleman who presented with haematuria, passage of clots and combined obstructive and irritative urinary symptoms. The investigations revealed a vesical calculus and a mass on the left lateral wall of the urinary bladder. Cystolitholapaxy and transurethral resection of the tumour was performed. Histopathological report of the resected tumour revealed a leiomyoma of the urinary bladder. So far, a leiomyoma of the urinary bladder and a concomitant vesical calculus have not been described in literature. (author)

  17. The effect of indomethacin on the muscarinic induced contractions in the isolated normal guinea pig urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnama'i, Mohammad S; van Koeveringe, Gommert A; van Kerrebroeck, Philip E V; de Wachter, Stefan G G

    2013-02-07

    To investigate the effect of prostaglandin depletion by means of COX-inhibition on cholinergic enhanced spontaneous contractions. The urethra and bladder of 9 male guinea pigs (weight 270-300 g) were removed and placed in an organ bath with Krebs' solution. A catheter was passed through the urethra through which the intravesical pressure was measured. The muscarinic agonist arecaidine, the non-selective COX inhibitor indomethacin, and PGE2 were subsequently added to the organ bath. The initial average frequency and amplitude of spontaneous contractions in the first 2 minutes after arecaidine application were labelled F(ini) and P(ini), respectively. The steady state frequency (F(steady)) and amplitude (P(steady)) were defined as the average frequency and amplitude during the 5 minutes before the next wash out. Application of 1 μM PGE2 increased the amplitude of spontaneous contractions without affecting frequency. 10 μM of indomethacin reduced amplitude but not frequency.The addition of indomethacin did not alter F(ini) after the first application (p = 0.7665). However, after the second wash, F(ini) was decreased (p = 0.0005). F(steady), P(steady) and P(ini) were not significantly different in any of the conditions. These effects of indomethacin were reversible by PGE2 addition.. Blocking PG synthesis decreased the cholinergically stimulated autonomous contractions in the isolated bladder. This suggests that PG could modify normal cholinergically evoked response. A combination of drugs inhibiting muscarinic receptors and PG function or production can then become an interesting focus of research on a treatment for overactive bladder syndrome.

  18. The effect of indomethacin on the muscarinic induced contractions in the isolated normal guinea pig urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahnama’i Mohammad S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the effect of prostaglandin depletion by means of COX-inhibition on cholinergic enhanced spontaneous contractions. Methods The urethra and bladder of 9 male guinea pigs (weight 270–300 g were removed and placed in an organ bath with Krebs’ solution. A catheter was passed through the urethra through which the intravesical pressure was measured. The muscarinic agonist arecaidine, the non-selective COX inhibitor indomethacin, and PGE2 were subsequently added to the organ bath. The initial average frequency and amplitude of spontaneous contractions in the first 2 minutes after arecaidine application were labelled Fini and Pini, respectively. The steady state frequency (Fsteady and amplitude (Psteady were defined as the average frequency and amplitude during the 5 minutes before the next wash out. Results Application of 1 μM PGE2 increased the amplitude of spontaneous contractions without affecting frequency. 10 μM of indomethacin reduced amplitude but not frequency. The addition of indomethacin did not alter Fini after the first application (p = 0.7665. However, after the second wash, Fini was decreased (p = 0.0005. Fsteady, Psteady and Pini were not significantly different in any of the conditions. These effects of indomethacin were reversible by PGE2 addition.. Conclusions Blocking PG synthesis decreased the cholinergically stimulated autonomous contractions in the isolated bladder. This suggests that PG could modify normal cholinergically evoked response. A combination of drugs inhibiting muscarinic receptors and PG function or production can then become an interesting focus of research on a treatment for overactive bladder syndrome.

  19. Comparison of Nocturia Response to Desmopressin Treatment between Patients with Normal and High Nocturnal Bladder Capacity Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Hajdinjak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare efficacy of desmopressin for treatment of nocturia between patients with normal and high nocturnal bladder capacity index (NBCi. Methods. Retrospective analysis of adult patients treated with desmopressin for nocturia. Patients were analyzed according to high or normal NBCi value before treatment. Results. 55 patients were identified, aged 49–84, 47 males, 8 females, who started desmopressin 0.2 mg nocte between 2009 and 2011. Two groups (N: normal and H: high NBCi were similar regarding number, gender, age, 24 h urine volume, and nocturnal urine volume. On treatment, nocturnal volume decreased by mean of 364 mL. Number of nightly voids decreased in N group from 3.11 to 1.50, in H from 3.96 to 1.44. Nocturnal polyuria and nocturia indices also decreased significantly. NBCi remained the same in N group (0.56 on therapy and in H group decreased to mean 0.63. All on-treatment values were statistically similar in N and H groups. Pretreatment differences were abolished with treatment. NBCi was significantly correlated to nocturia reduction—larger reduction was observed in patients with higher NBCi. In 8/55 patients, hyponatremia was detected, but without clinical consequences. Conclusions. The results indicate that the effectiveness of desmopressin on nocturia is not dependent upon the patient's pretreatment NBCi.

  20. Normal wall thickness and tumorous changes in the gastrointestinal tract demonstrated by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwaan, M.; Gmelin, E.; Borgis, K.J.; Neubauer, B.

    1991-01-01

    55 patients with tumours of the gastroinstinal tract were ecamined by CT, using a paraffin emulsion as a negative oral contrast medium. These were compared with 119 normal patients. The appearance of normal and tumour bearing portions of the gut wall against the contrast medium was studied. Under hypotonic conditions the gut wall could regularly be distinguished from surrounding organs and gut content. Mural thickness of the oesophagus > 7 mm and of the stomach and colon > 8 mm must be regarded as abnormal. Benign diseases cannot be distinguished from malignant conditions on the basis of wall thickness. Artifacts, such as are caused by positive oral contrast, were of less significance when using paraffin emulsion. (orig.) [de

  1. Effects of Wall-Normal and Angular Momentum Injections in Airfoil Separation Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Phillip M.; Taira, Kunihiko

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this computational study is to quantify the influence of wall-normal and angular momentum injections in suppressing laminar flow separation over a canonical airfoil. Open-loop control of fully separated, incompressible flow over a NACA 0012 airfoil at $\\alpha = 9^\\circ$ and $Re = 23,000$ is examined with large-eddy simulations. This study independently introduces wall-normal momentum and angular momentum into the separated flow using swirling jets through model boundary conditions. The response of the flow field and the surface vorticity fluxes to various combinations of actuation inputs are examined in detail. It is observed that the addition of angular momentum input to wall-normal momentum injection enhances the suppression of flow separation. Lift enhancement and suppression of separation with the wall-normal and angular momentum inputs are characterized by modifying the standard definition of the coefficient of momentum. The effect of angular momentum is incorporated into the modified coefficient of momentum by introducing a characteristic swirling jet velocity based on the non-dimensional swirl number. With this single modified coefficient of momentum, we are able to categorize each controlled flow into separated, transitional, and attached flows.

  2. On the wall-normal velocity of the compressible boundary-layer equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, C. David

    1991-01-01

    Numerical methods for the compressible boundary-layer equations are facilitated by transformation from the physical (x,y) plane to a computational (xi,eta) plane in which the evolution of the flow is 'slow' in the time-like xi direction. The commonly used Levy-Lees transformation results in a computationally well-behaved problem for a wide class of non-similar boundary-layer flows, but it complicates interpretation of the solution in physical space. Specifically, the transformation is inherently nonlinear, and the physical wall-normal velocity is transformed out of the problem and is not readily recovered. In light of recent research which shows mean-flow non-parallelism to significantly influence the stability of high-speed compressible flows, the contribution of the wall-normal velocity in the analysis of stability should not be routinely neglected. Conventional methods extract the wall-normal velocity in physical space from the continuity equation, using finite-difference techniques and interpolation procedures. The present spectrally-accurate method extracts the wall-normal velocity directly from the transformation itself, without interpolation, leaving the continuity equation free as a check on the quality of the solution. The present method for recovering wall-normal velocity, when used in conjunction with a highly-accurate spectral collocation method for solving the compressible boundary-layer equations, results in a discrete solution which is extraordinarily smooth and accurate, and which satisfies the continuity equation nearly to machine precision. These qualities make the method well suited to the computation of the non-parallel mean flows needed by spatial direct numerical simulations (DNS) and parabolized stability equation (PSE) approaches to the analysis of stability.

  3. Lifetime analysis of the ITER first wall under steady-state and off-normal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitteau, R; Sugihara, M; Raffray, R; Carpentier-Chouchana, S; Merola, M; Pitts, R A; Labidi, H; Stangeby, P

    2011-01-01

    The lifetime of the beryllium armor of the ITER first wall is evaluated for normal and off-normal operation. For the individual events considered, the lifetime spans between 930 and 35×10 6 discharges. The discrepancy between low and high estimates is caused by uncertainties about the behavior of the melt layer during off-normal events, variable plasma operation parameters and variability of the sputtering yields. These large uncertainties in beryllium armor loss estimates are a good example of the experimental nature of the ITER project and will not be truly resolved until ITER begins burning plasma operation.

  4. Normal anatomy of the anal wall and perianal spaces: An EUS, MRI and cadaveric correlative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Soo Young; Ryu, Sie Tae; Park, Ki Soon; Lee, Yul; Bae, Sang Hoon; Kang, Heung Sik

    1994-01-01

    To understand the normal endosonographic anatomy of the perianal spaces, and to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy and limitation of endorectal sonography(EUS), correlative study with MRI, cadaveric sectional image and cadaveric MRI were performed. EUS images of the normal 6 perianal spaces (pelvirectal, ischiorectal, intersphincteric, subcutaneous, central, submucous space) which were bounded by internal and external anal sphincters, rectal wall and levator ani muscle were correlated with MRI in 10 normal persons, cadaveric sectional images and cadaveric MRI in 2 cadavers. Pelvirectal space located superior to levator ani muscle could be demonstrable only on anterior wall scan but could not be visualized on lateral or posterior wall scan on EUS. Five perianal spaces located inferior to levator ani muscle were well seen on anterior, lateral, and posterior wall EUS. MRI was superior to EUS in the evaluation of pelvirectal and ischiorectal spaces but equal or inferior to EUS in the evaluation of intersphincteric, subcutaneous, central and submucous spaces. EUS was valuable in the evaluation of perianal spaces inferior to levator ani muscle but was limited in the evaluation of perianal spaces superior to levator ani muscle

  5. Discrimination of bladder cancer cells from normal urothelial cells with high specificity and sensitivity: combined application of atomic force microscopy and modulated Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetta, Elisabetta; Riches, Andrew; Borger, Eva; Herrington, Simon; Dholakia, Kishan; Adya, Ashok K

    2014-05-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and modulated Raman spectroscopy (MRS) were used to discriminate between living normal human urothelial cells (SV-HUC-1) and bladder tumour cells (MGH-U1) with high specificity and sensitivity. MGH-U1 cells were 1.5-fold smaller, 1.7-fold thicker and 1.4-fold rougher than normal SV-HUC-1 cells. The adhesion energy was 2.6-fold higher in the MGH-U1 cells compared to normal SV-HUC-1 cells, which possibly indicates that bladder tumour cells are more deformable than normal cells. The elastic modulus of MGH-U1 cells was 12-fold lower than SV-HUC-1 cells, suggesting a higher elasticity of the bladder cancer cell membranes. The biochemical fingerprints of cancer cells displayed a higher DNA and lipid content, probably due to an increase in the nuclear to cytoplasm ratio. Normal cells were characterized by higher protein contents. AFM studies revealed a decrease in the lateral dimensions and an increase in thickness of cancer cells compared to normal cells; these studies authenticate the observations from MRS. Nanostructural, nanomechanical and biochemical profiles of bladder cells provide qualitative and quantitative markers to differentiate between normal and cancerous cells at the single cellular level. AFM and MRS allow discrimination between adhesion energy, elasticity and Raman spectra of SV-HUC-1 and MGH-U1 cells with high specificity (83, 98 and 95%) and sensitivity (97, 93 and 98%). Such single-cell-level studies could have a pivotal impact on the development of AFM-Raman combined methodologies for cancer profiling and screening with translational significance. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hanging-wall deformation above a normal fault: sequential limit analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaoping; Leroy, Yves M.; Maillot, Bertrand

    2015-04-01

    The deformation in the hanging wall above a segmented normal fault is analysed with the sequential limit analysis (SLA). The method combines some predictions on the dip and position of the active fault and axial surface, with geometrical evolution à la Suppe (Groshong, 1989). Two problems are considered. The first followed the prototype proposed by Patton (2005) with a pre-defined convex, segmented fault. The orientation of the upper segment of the normal fault is an unknown in the second problem. The loading in both problems consists of the retreat of the back wall and the sedimentation. This sedimentation starts from the lowest point of the topography and acts at the rate rs relative to the wall retreat rate. For the first problem, the normal fault either has a zero friction or a friction value set to 25o or 30o to fit the experimental results (Patton, 2005). In the zero friction case, a hanging wall anticline develops much like in the experiments. In the 25o friction case, slip on the upper segment is accompanied by rotation of the axial plane producing a broad shear zone rooted at the fault bend. The same observation is made in the 30o case, but without slip on the upper segment. Experimental outcomes show a behaviour in between these two latter cases. For the second problem, mechanics predicts a concave fault bend with an upper segment dip decreasing during extension. The axial surface rooting at the normal fault bend sees its dips increasing during extension resulting in a curved roll-over. Softening on the normal fault leads to a stepwise rotation responsible for strain partitioning into small blocks in the hanging wall. The rotation is due to the subsidence of the topography above the hanging wall. Sedimentation in the lowest region thus reduces the rotations. Note that these rotations predicted by mechanics are not accounted for in most geometrical approaches (Xiao and Suppe, 1992) and are observed in sand box experiments (Egholm et al., 2007, referring

  7. Observation of normal appearance and wall thickness of esophagus on CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Fan; Mao Jingfang; Ding Jinquan; Yang Huanjun

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to observe the appearance of normal esophagus, measure and record the thickness of esophageal wall in order to offer reference for estimating esophageal wall abnormalities and delineating gross tumor target of esophageal carcinomas on CT images. Materials and methods: From September 2006 to February 2007, 110 consecutive CT films from adult patients without esophageal diseases were collected and studied. On CT images the entire esophagus was divided into cervical, thoracic, retrocardiac and intraabdominal segments. The appearance of esophagus was described when the esophagus contracted or dilated. Thickness of esophageal wall and diameters of esophageal cavities were measured by hard-copy reading with a magnifying glass. Age, sex and the thickness of subcutaneous fat of each patient were recorded. Results: It was observed that the esophagus presented both contracted and dilated status on CT images. In each segment there were certain portions of esophagus in complete contraction or dilatation. 47 images (42.7%) showed contracted esophagus in each segment available for measurement. The largest wall thickness when esophagus was in contraction and dilatation was 4.70 (95%CI: 4.44-4.95) mm and 2.11 (95%CI: 2.00-2.23) mm, respectively. When contracting, the intraabdominal esophagus was thicker than the cervical, thoracic and retrocardiac parts, and the average thickness was 5.68 (95%CI: 5.28-6.09) mm, 4.67 (95%CI: 4.36-4.86) mm, 4.56 (95%CI: 4.31-4.87) mm, and 4.05 (95%CI: 3.71-4.21) mm, respectively. When the esophagus was dilating, the average esophageal wall thickness was between 1.87 and 2.70 mm. The thickest part was cervical esophagus. Thickness of esophageal wall was larger in males than that of females (5.26 mm vs. 4.34 mm p < 0.001). Age and the thickness of subcutaneous fat had no significant impact on the thickness of esophageal wall (p-value was 0.056 and 0.173, respectively). Conclusion: The Observation of normal appearance and

  8. Gall bladder function test with Ceruletid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, G.

    1981-01-01

    Compared with the stimulating food given orally in the gall bladder function test the administration of the decapeptide Ceruletid which is related with Cholecystokinin has the advantage of avoiding resorption disturbances in the upper gastrointestinal tract. To 100 patients with positive peroral cholecystography, Ceruletid was injected i.m. in a dose of 0.4 μg/kg body weight. The contrasting of the main bile duct was thus increased from 10% to 86%. The oral stimulating food brings an increase to appr. 20%. A special importance is assigned to the frequent diagnosis of adenomyomatoses which, with 6%, lies significantly above the 0.8% achieved by means of the oral stimulating food. More contractile segments of the gall bladder wall can cause pain symptoms which are typical for the biliary tract. Adenomyomatoses in the region of the infundibulum of the gall bladder cause colicky pains and are, as generally accepted, an absolute indication for a surgical intervention. The finding of small gall bladder conrements is often connected with a strong diminution of the gall bladder in order to prevent the small concrements from being overlapped by the non-contrasting bladder bile. Therefore, the application of Ceruletid should be considered also within the frame of the intravenous cholegraphy, thinking of the large number of normal gall bladder findings which were obtained with the oral stimulating food as the only diagnostical help. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Acute myocarditis with normal wall motion detected with 2D speckle tracking echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Sturmberger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 26-year-old male with acute tonsillitis who was referred for coronary angiography because of chest pain, elevated cardiac biomarkers, and biphasic T waves. The patient had no cardiovascular risk factors. Echocardiography showed no wall motion abnormalities and no pericardial effusion. 2D speckle tracking revealed distinct decreased regional peak longitudinal systolic strain in the lateral and posterior walls. Ischemic disease was extremely unlikely in view of his young age, negative family history regarding coronary artery disease, and lack of regional wall motion abnormalities on the conventional 2D echocardiogram. Coronary angiography was deferred as myocarditis was suspected. To confirm the diagnosis, cardiac magnetic resonance tomography (MRT was performed, showing subepicardial delayed hyperenhancement in the lateral and posterior walls correlating closely with the strain pattern obtained by 2D speckle tracking echocardiography. With a working diagnosis of acute myocarditis associated with acute tonsillitis, we prescribed antibiotics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The patient’s clinical signs resolved along with normalization of serum creatine kinase (CK levels, and the patient was discharged on the third day after admission. Learning points: • Acute myocarditis can mimic acute coronary syndromes. • Conventional 2D echocardiography lacks specific features for detection of subtle regional wall motion abnormalities. • 2D speckle tracking expands the scope of echocardiography in identifying myocardial dysfunction derived from edema in acute myocarditis.

  10. Normal mode approach to modelling of feedback stabilization of the resistive wall mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, M.S.; Chance, M.S.; Okabayashi, M.; Glasser, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    Feedback stabilization of the resistive wall mode (RWM) of a plasma in a general feedback configuration is formulated in terms of the normal modes of the plasma-resistive wall system. The growth/damping rates and the eigenfunctions of the normal modes are determined by an extended energy principle for the plasma during its open (feedback) loop operation. A set of equations are derived for the time evolution of these normal modes with currents in the feedback coils. The dynamics of the feedback system is completed by the prescription of the feedback logic. The feasibility of the feedback is evaluated by using the Nyquist diagram method or by solving the characteristic equations. The elements of the characteristic equations are formed from the growth and damping rates of the normal modes, the sensor matrix of the perturbation fluxes detected by the sensor loops, the excitation matrix of the energy input to the normal modes by the external feedback coils, and the feedback logic. (The RWM is also predicted to be excited by an external error field to a large amplitude when it is close to marginal stability.) This formulation has been implemented numerically and applied to the DIII-D tokamak. It is found that feedback with poloidal sensors is much more effective than feedback with radial sensors. Using radial sensors, increasing the number of feedback coils from a central band on the outboard side to include an upper and a lower band can substantially increase the effectiveness of the feedback system. The strength of the RWM that can be stabilized is increased from γτ w = 1 to 30 (γ is the growth rate of the RWM in the absence of feedback and τ w is the resistive wall time constant) Using poloidal sensors, just one central band of feedback coils is sufficient for the stabilization of the RWM with γτ w = 30. (author)

  11. Effects of cathodal trans-spinal direct current stimulation on lower urinary tract function in normal and spinal cord injury mice with overactive bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zaghloul

    2017-10-01

    Objective. Lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction is a monumental problem affecting quality of life following neurotrauma, such as spinal cord injury (SCI). Proper function of the bladder and its associated structures depends on coordinated activity of the neuronal circuitry in the spinal cord and brain. Disconnection between the spinal and brain centers controlling the LUT causes fundamental changes in the mechanisms involved in the micturition and storage reflexes. We investigated the effects of cathodal trans-spinal direct current stimulation (c-tsDCS) of the lumbosacral spine on bladder and external urinary sphincter (EUS) functions. Approach. We used cystometry and electromyography (EMG), in mice with and without SCI. Main results. c-tsDCS caused initiation of the micturition reflex in urethane-anesthetized normal mice with depressed micturition reflexes. This effect was associated with normalized EUS-EMG activity. Moreover, in urethane-anesthetized normal mice with expressed micturition reflexes, c-tsDCS increased the firing frequency, amplitude, and duration of EUS-EMG activity. These effects were associated with increased maximum intravesical pressure (P max) and intercontraction interval (ICI). In conscious normal animals, c-tsDCS caused significant increases in P max, ICI, threshold pressure (P thres), baseline pressure (P base), and number and amplitude of non-voiding contractions (NVCnumb and P im, respectively). In conscious mice with severe contusive SCI and overactive bladder, c-tsDCS increased P max, ICI, and P thres, but decreased P base, NVCnumb, and P im. c-tsDCS reduced the detrusor-overactivity/cystometry ratio, which is a measure of bladder overactivity associated with renal deterioration. Significance. These results indicate that c-tsDCS induces robust modulation of the lumbosacral spinal-cord circuitry that controls the LUT.

  12. Prenatal Detection of Bladder Wall Involvement in Invasive Placentation with Sequential Two-dimensional and Adjunctive Three-dimensional Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Min Chou

    2009-03-01

    Conclusion: 3D US may be a useful adjunctive tool in refining 2D ultrasonographic techniques to identify the extent and degree of placental invasion of the bladder. The advantages of 3D US are: (1 a multiplanar image display allows viewing of sections from sagittal, coronal and axial planes at the same time, thereby more accurately determining the location and extent of placental invasion; (2 the viewing planes of the spatial angioarchitecture network can be arbitrarily manipulated to better delineate the aberrant vessels protruding into the bladder; (3 3D reconstruction images can be clearly displayed by live 3D in a rotation mode for a better illustrative effect.

  13. Numerical modeling of normal turbulent plane jet impingement on solid wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, C.Y.; Maxwell, W.H.C.

    1984-10-01

    Attention is given to a numerical turbulence model for the impingement of a well developed normal plane jet on a solid wall, by means of which it is possible to express different jet impingement geometries in terms of different boundary conditions. Examples of these jets include those issuing from VTOL aircraft, chemical combustors, etc. The two-equation, turbulent kinetic energy-turbulent dissipation rate model is combined with the continuity equation and the transport equation of vorticity, using an iterative finite difference technique in the computations. Peak levels of turbulent kinetic energy occur not only in the impingement zone, but also in the intermingling zone between the edges of the free jet and the wall jet. 20 references.

  14. Hemodynamic analysis of bladder tumors using T1-dynamic contrast-enhanced fast spin-echo MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Yuki; Miyati, Tosiaki; Sato, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the hemodynamics of bladder tumors, we developed a method to calculate change in R 1 value (ΔR 1 ) from T 1 -dynamic contrast-enhanced fast spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging (T 1 DCE-FSE-MRI). Materials and methods: On a 1.5-T MR system, T 1 DCE-FSE-MRI was performed. This study was applied to 12 patients with urinary bladder tumor, i.e. urothelial carcinoma. We compared ΔR 1 –time and ΔSI–time between a peak in the ΔR 1 –time and ΔSI–time curve occurred during the first pass within 60 s. Next, we assessed the slope of increase for 180 s after CA injection (Slope 0–180 ). Results: The mean slope of the first pass was significantly higher for bladder tumors on both the ΔR 1 –time and the ΔSI–time curve compared with normal bladder walls. Moreover, a significant difference was apparent between bladder tumors and normal bladder walls on the mean Slope 0–180 in the ΔR 1 -time curve. However, no significant difference in the mean Slope 0–180 was observed on the ΔSI-time curve between bladder tumors and normal bladder walls. Conclusion: T 1 DCE-FSE-MRI offers three advantages: quantitative analysis; high-quality (i.e., artifact-free) images; and high temporal resolution even for SE images. Use of ΔR 1 analysis with T 1 DCE-FSE-MRI allows more detailed information on the hemodynamics of bladder tumors to be obtained and assists in differentiation between bladder tumors and the normal bladder wall.

  15. HPLC assisted Raman spectroscopic studies on bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, W. L.; Cheng, Y.; Yu, W.; Zhang, X. B.; Shen, A. G.; Hu, J. M.

    2015-04-01

    We applied confocal Raman spectroscopy to investigate 12 normal bladder tissues and 30 tumor tissues, and then depicted the spectral differences between the normal and the tumor tissues and the potential canceration mechanism with the aid of the high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) technique. Normal tissues were demonstrated to contain higher tryptophan, cholesterol and lipid content, while bladder tumor tissues were rich in nucleic acids, collagen and carotenoids. In particular, β-carotene, one of the major types of carotenoids, was found through HPLC analysis of the extract of bladder tissues. The statistical software SPSS was applied to classify the spectra of the two types of tissues according to their differences. The sensitivity and specificity of 96.7 and 66.7% were obtained, respectively. In addition, different layers of the bladder wall including mucosa (lumps), muscle and adipose bladder tissue were analyzed by Raman mapping technique in response to previous Raman studies of bladder tissues. All of these will play an important role as a directive tool for the future diagnosis of bladder cancer in vivo.

  16. Differentiation of human endometrial stem cells into urothelial cells on a three-dimensional nanofibrous silk-collagen scaffold: an autologous cell resource for reconstruction of the urinary bladder wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoae-Hassani, Alireza; Mortazavi-Tabatabaei, Seyed Abdolreza; Sharif, Shiva; Seifalian, Alexander Marcus; Azimi, Alireza; Samadikuchaksaraei, Ali; Verdi, Javad

    2015-11-01

    Reconstruction of the bladder wall via in vitro differentiated stem cells on an appropriate scaffold could be used in such conditions as cancer and neurogenic urinary bladder. This study aimed to examine the potential of human endometrial stem cells (EnSCs) to form urinary bladder epithelial cells (urothelium) on nanofibrous silk-collagen scaffolds, for construction of the urinary bladder wall. After passage 4, EnSCs were induced by keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) and seeded on electrospun collagen-V, silk and silk-collagen nanofibres. Later we tested urothelium-specific genes and proteins (uroplakin-Ia, uroplakin-Ib, uroplakin-II, uroplakin-III and cytokeratin 20) by immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and western blot analyses. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and histology were used to detect cell-matrix interactions. DMEM/F12 supplemented by KGF and EGF induced EnSCs to express urothelial cell-specific genes and proteins. Either collagen, silk or silk-collagen scaffolds promoted cell proliferation. The nanofibrous silk-collagen scaffolds provided a three-dimensional (3D) structure to maximize cell-matrix penetration and increase differentiation of the EnSCs. Human EnSCs seeded on 3D nanofibrous silk-collagen scaffolds and differentiated to urothelial cells provide a suitable source for potential use in bladder wall reconstruction in women. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Cytoskeletal proteins in the follicular wall of normal andcystic ovaries of sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano J.F. de Sant'Ana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The expression of cytoskeletal proteins was evaluated immunohistochemically in 36 normal ovaries sampled from 18 sows and 44 cystic ovaries sampled from of 22 sows, was evaluated. All sows had history of reproductive problems, such as infertility or subfertility. The immunohistochemically stained area (IHCSA was quantified through image analysis to evaluate the expression of these proteins in the follicular wall of secondary, tertiary, and cystic follicles. Cytokeratins (CK immunoreactivity was strong in the granulosa cell layer (GC and mild in the theca interna (TI and externa (TE of the normal follicles. There was severe reduction of the reaction to CK in the GC in the cystic follicles, mainly in the luteinized cysts. The immunoreactivity for vimentin was higher in the GC from normal and cystic follicles in contrast with the other follicular structures. In the luteinized cysts, the IHCSA for vimentin was significantly higher in TI and in both observed cysts, the labeling was more accentuated in TE. Immunohistochemical detection of desmin and α-SMA was restricted to the TE, without differences between the normal and cystic follicles. The results of the current study show that the development of ovarian cysts in sows is associated to changes in the expression of the cytoskeletal proteins CK and vimentin.

  18. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI) of the pleura and chest wall: Normal findings and pathological changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittner, R.C.; Schnoy, N.; Schoenfeld, N.; Grassot, A.; Loddenkemper, R.; Lode, H.; Kaiser, D.; Krumhaar, D.; Felix, R.

    1995-01-01

    To determine the value of high-resolution MRI in pleural and chest wall diseases, the normal and pathologic costal pleura and adjacent chest wall between paravertebral and the axillar region were examined with contrast enhanced high-resolution T 1 -weighted MRI images using a surface coil. Normal anatomy was evaluated in 5 healthy volunteers and a normal specimen of the thoracic wall, and correlation was made with corresponding HR-CT and histologic sections. CT-proved focal and diffuse changes of the pleura and the chest wall in 36 patients underwent HR-MRI, and visual comparison of MRI and CT was done retrospectively. Especially sagittal T 1 -weighted HR-MRI images allowed accurate delineation of the peripleural fat layer (PFL) and the innermost intercostal muscle (IIM), which served as landmarks of the intact inner chest wall. PFL and IIM were well delineated in 3/4 patients with tuberculous pleuritis, and in all 7 patients with non-specific pleuritis, as opposed to impairment of the PFL and/or the IIM, which was detected in 15/18 malignancies as a pattern of malignant chest wall involvement. In one case of tuberculous pleural empyema with edema of the inner chest wall HR-MRI produced false positive diagnosis of malignant disease. HR-MRI images improved non-invasive evaluation of pleural and chest wall diseases, and allowed for differentiation of bengin and malignant changes. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Experimental and Monte Carlo investigation of visible diffuse-reflectance imaging sensitivity to diffusing particle size changes in an optical model of a bladder wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyagina, N.; Loschenov, V.; Wolf, D.; Daul, C.; Blondel, W.; Savelieva, T.

    2011-11-01

    We have investigated the influence of scatterer size changes on the laser light diffusion, induced by collimated monochromatic laser irradiation, in tissue-like optical phantoms using diffuse-reflectance imaging. For that purpose, three-layer optical phantoms were prepared, in which nano- and microsphere size varied in order to simulate the scattering properties of healthy and cancerous urinary bladder walls. The informative areas of the surface diffuse-reflected light distributions were about 15×18 pixels for the smallest scattering particles of 0.05 μm, about 21×25 pixels for the medium-size particles of 0.53 μm, and about 25×30 pixels for the largest particles of 5.09 μm. The computation of the laser spot areas provided useful information for the analysis of the light distribution with high measurement accuracy of up to 92%. The minimal stability of 78% accuracy was observed for superficial scattering signals on the phantoms with the largest particles. The experimental results showed a good agreement with the results obtained by the Monte Carlo simulations. The presented method shows a good potential to be useful for a tissue-state diagnosis of the urinary bladder.

  20. Bladder Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Catheterization • Urinary Tract Infections: Indwelling (Foley) Catheter Bladder Management [ Download this pamphlet: "Bladder Management" - (PDF, 499KB) ] The ... and medication or surgery may be helpful. Bladder Management Foley or Suprapubic Catheter A tube is inserted ...

  1. Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organ in your lower abdomen that stores urine. Bladder cancer occurs in the lining of the bladder. It ... urinate Low back pain Risk factors for developing bladder cancer include smoking and exposure to certain chemicals in ...

  2. Quantification of the right ventricular wall using stress myocardial emission computed tomography with thallium-201 in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akanabe, Hiroshi; Oshima, Motoo; Sakuma, Sadayuki; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Kawai, Naoki; Sotobata, Iwao

    1985-01-01

    Although many studies of quantitative analysis of left ventricular myocardial wall (LVMW) have been reported using stress thallium-201 (Tl-201), few reports of right ventricular myocardial wall (RVMW) have been estimated. In this study we determined whether single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with Tl-201 could accurately define normal range of RVMW in normal subjects. Twelve persons who have no valvular disease, nor coronary artery disease were included in this study. Stress SPECT study was reconstructed to make a short axial images of ventricles. RVMW and LVMW were flagged by mamual. Each ventricle was divided into 36 parts at every 10 degree. Relative activity counts in each ventricle were calculated as a percent counts of maximum counts in left ventricle. The normal range of RVMW with stress SPECT was as follows: anterior wall (33.2 +- 11.4 %, mean +- 2 standard deviation, -62.7 +- 18.4 %), free wall (30.1 +- 12.4 % - 38.5 +- 8.8 %), inferior wall (40.4 +- 7.8 % - 60.0 +- 21.4 %), septal wall (65.2 +- 17.2 % - 71.1 +- 14.2 %). Above the results, SPECT with Tl-201 can accurately define the normal range of RVMW, and this method is usefull to quantify the degree of ischemia and hypertrophy in RVMW. (author)

  3. Novel Multisensor Probe for Monitoring Bladder Temperature During Locoregional Chemohyperthermia for Nonmuscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: Technical Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geijsen, Debby E.; Zum Vörde Sive Vörding, Paul J.; Schooneveldt, Gerben; Sijbrands, Jan; Hulshof, Maarten C.; de la Rosette, Jean; de Reijke, Theo M.; Crezee, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background and Purpose: The effectiveness of locoregional hyperthermia combined with intravesical instillation of mitomycin C to reduce the risk of recurrence and progression of intermediate- and high-risk nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer is currently investigated in clinical trials. Clinically effective locoregional hyperthermia delivery necessitates adequate thermal dosimetry; thus, optimal thermometry methods are needed to monitor accurately the temperature distribution throughout the bladder wall. The aim of the study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of a novel intravesical device (multi-sensor probe) developed to monitor the local bladder wall temperatures during loco-regional C-HT. Materials and Methods: A multisensor thermocouple probe was designed for deployment in the human bladder, using special sensors to cover the bladder wall in different directions. The deployment of the thermocouples against the bladder wall was evaluated with visual, endoscopic, and CT imaging in bladder phantoms, porcine models, and human bladders obtained from obduction for bladder volumes and different deployment sizes of the probe. Finally, porcine bladders were embedded in a phantom and subjected to locoregional heating to compare probe temperatures with additional thermometry inside and outside the bladder wall. Results: The 7.5 cm thermocouple probe yielded optimal bladder wall contact, adapting to different bladder volumes. Temperature monitoring was shown to be accurate and representative for the actual bladder wall temperature. Conclusions: Use of this novel multisensor probe could yield a more accurate monitoring of the bladder wall temperature during locoregional chemohyperthermia. PMID:24112045

  4. [A Case of Primary Schwannoma of the Urinary Bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Waku, Natsui; Kawai, Koji; Ikeda, Atsushi; Kimura, Tomokazu; Ishitsuka, Ryutaro; Kojima, Takahiro; Suetomi, Takahiro; Joraku, Akira; Miyazaki, Jun; Sakashita, Mai; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki

    2017-08-01

    A 68-year-old woman presented with a bladder tumor. She was asymptomatic, and the tumor was incidentally detected with radiological imaging performed during treatment of cervical cancer. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography revealed a solitary submucosal tumor located in the anterior wall of the urinary bladder, with homogeneous contrast enhancement. Cystoscopy showed a submucosal tumor covered by normal mucosa. A paraganglioma was considered in the differential diagnosis, but symptoms suggesting hypercatecholaminemia were not apparent. Moreover, she did not have a family history or symptoms associated with neurofibromatosis-1 (NF-1). She underwent partial cystectomy with a preliminary diagnosis of submucosal bladder tumor. Histopathological diagnosis confirmed a schwannoma arising from the bladder wall. She was followed up without intravesical recurrence or metastases for 6 months. In the literature, only 12 cases of bladder schwannoma have been reported. There was no reported family history or symptoms associated with NF-1 in any of the cases. Although the number of cases is limited, literature review showed a favorable prognosis for bladder schwannoma with local tumor resection in patients without NF-1.

  5. Segmentation of urinary bladder in CT Urography (CTU) using CLASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Chan, Heang-Ping; Law, Yuen; Cohan, Richard H.; Caoili, Elaine M.; Cho, Hyun-Chong; Zhou, Chuan; Wei, Jun

    2012-03-01

    We are developing a computerized system for bladder segmentation on CTU, as a critical component for computer aided diagnosis of bladder cancer. A challenge for bladder segmentation is the presence of regions without contrast (NC) and filled with IV contrast (C). We are developing a Conjoint Level set Analysis and Segmentation System (CLASS) specifically for this application. CLASS performs a series of image processing tasks: preprocessing, initial segmentation, and 3D and 2D level set segmentation and post-processing, designed according to the characteristics of the bladder in CTU. The NC and the C regions of the bladder were segmented separately in CLASS. The final contour is obtained in the post-processing stage by the union of the NC and C contours. Seventy bladders (31 containing lesions, 24 containing wall thickening, and 15 normal) were segmented. The performance of CLASS was assessed by rating the quality of the contours on a 5-point scale (1= "very poor", 3= "fair", 5 = "excellent"). For the 53 partially contrast-filled bladders, the average quality ratings for the 53 NC and 53 C regions were 4.0+/-0.7 and 4.0+/-1.0, respectively. 46 NC and 41 C regions were given quality ratings of 4 or above. Only 2 NC and 5 C regions had ratings under 3. The average quality ratings for the remaining 12 completely no contrast (NC) and 5 completely contrast-filled (C) bladder contours were 3.3+/-1.0 and 3.4+/-0.5, respectively. After combining the NC and C contours for each of the 70 bladders, 46 had quality ratings of 4 or above. Only 4 had ratings under 3. The average quality rating was 3.8+/-0.7. The results demonstrate the potential of CLASS for automated segmentation of the bladder.

  6. Bladder necrosis: 'A man without a bladder'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosschieter, Judith; Oudshoorn, Frederik H K; Meuleman, Eric J H; Nieuwenhuijzen, Jakko A

    2018-02-17

    Since the use of antibiotics, bladder necrosis has become a rare condition. We report a case of bladder necrosis in a 90-year-old man following urinary retention. After insertion of a transurethral catheter (TUC), 2 L of urine was evacuated. In the following days, the TUC became intermittently blocked. Adequate bladder drainage could not be obtained despite intensive rinsing and placement of a suprapubic catheter. On surgical exploration necrosis of almost the entire bladder wall, except for the trigone, was encountered. Surgical debridement of the non-viable bladder wall without opening the abdominal cavity was conducted, and a TUC was placed in the Retzius cavity to ensure evacuation of urine. Since the patient was haemodynamically unstable, construction of a urinary diversion was waived and urinary drainage of the Retzius cavity by the TUC was accepted, resulting in adequate urinary drainage without compromising renal function. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Impact of the radiotherapy technique on the correlation between dose–volume histograms of the bladder wall defined on MRI imaging and dose–volume/surface histograms in prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggio, Angelo; Carillo, Viviana; Perna, Lucia; Fiorino, Claudio; Cozzarini, Cesare; Rancati, Tiziana; Valdagni, Riccardo; Gabriele, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the ‘true’ absolute and relative dose–volume histograms (DVHs) of the bladder wall, dose–wall histogram (DWH) defined on MRI imaging and other surrogates of bladder dosimetry in prostate cancer patients, planned both with 3D-conformal and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques. For 17 prostate cancer patients, previously treated with radical intent, CT and MRI scans were acquired and matched. The contours of bladder walls were drawn by using MRI images. External bladder surfaces were then used to generate artificial bladder walls by performing automatic contractions of 5, 7 and 10 mm. For each patient a 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and an IMRT treatment plan was generated with a prescription dose of 77.4 Gy (1.8 Gy/fr) and DVH of the whole bladder of the artificial walls (DVH-5/10) and dose–surface histograms (DSHs) were calculated and compared against the DWH in absolute and relative value, for both treatment planning techniques. A specific software (VODCA v. 4.4.0, MSS Inc.) was used for calculating the dose–volume/surface histogram. Correlation was quantified for selected dose–volume/surface parameters by the Spearman correlation coefficient. The agreement between %DWH and DVH5, DVH7 and DVH10 was found to be very good (maximum average deviations below 2%, SD < 5%): DVH5 showed the best agreement. The correlation was slightly better for absolute (R = 0.80–0.94) compared to relative (R = 0.66–0.92) histograms. The DSH was also found to be highly correlated with the DWH, although slightly higher deviations were generally found. The DVH was not a good surrogate of the DWH (R < 0.7 for most of parameters). When comparing the two treatment techniques, more pronounced differences between relative histograms were seen for IMRT with respect to 3DCRT (p < 0.0001). (note)

  8. Heterogeneous distribution of a diffusional tracer in the aortic wall of normal and atherosclerotic rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsui, H.; Tomoike, H.; Nakamura, M.

    1990-01-01

    Tracer distribution as an index of nutritional support across the thoracic and abdominal aortas in rabbits in the presence or absence of atherosclerotic lesions was evaluated using [ 14 C]antipyrine, a metabolically inert, diffusible indicator. Intimal plaques were produced by endothelial balloon denudation of the thoracic aorta and a 1% cholesterol diet. After a steady intravenous infusion of 200 microCi of [ 14 C]antipyrine for 60 seconds, thoracic and abdominal aortas and the heart were excised, and autoradiograms of 20-microns-thick sections were quantified, using microcomputer-aided densitometry. Regional radioactivity and regional diffusional support, as an index of nutritional flow estimated from the timed collections of arterial blood, was 367 and 421 nCi.g-1 (82 and 106 ml.min-1.100 g-1) in thoracic aortic media of the normal and atherosclerotic rabbits, respectively. Radioactivity at the thickened intima was 179 nCi.g-1 (p less than 0.01 versus media). The gruel was noted at a deeper site within the thickened intima, and diffusional support here was 110 nCi.g-1 (p less than 0.01 versus an average radioactivity at the thickened intima). After ligating the intercostal arteries, regional tracer distribution in the media beneath the fibrofatty lesion, but not the plaque-free intima, was reduced to 46%. Thus, in the presence of advanced intimal thickening, the heterogeneous distribution of diffusional flow is prominent across the vessel wall, and abluminal routes are crucial to meet the increased demands of nutritional requirements

  9. Orthotopic neo- bladder in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettini, Manlio

    2010-12-01

    Radical cystectomy is the most effective treatment madality for high grade urinary bladder carcinoma and orthotopic reconstruction is the better urinary diversion modality also in women. From 2002 to 2007 we performed 14 radical cystectomies followed by orthotopic reconstruction in women aged between 47 and 68 years (mean age 56) affected by urinary bladder carcinoma. Our reconstructive technique requires the preparation of two strips of the recti muscles fascia, the sectioning of the bladder neck and, when the uterus is present, hysteroannessiectomy and cystectomy en block leaving intact the lateral and inferior vaginal walls. The pelvic floor is stabilized by a colposacropexis with a prosthesis and placing an omental flap over the prosthesis. The orthotopic reconstruction is achieved via a neobladder according to the Padovana technique. The ureters are anastomized to the neobladder and splinted with single J stents. The pathological examination demonstrated in all patients the presence of a high grade carcinoma (G3): more specifically 4 patients had a full thickness intramural infiltration (T2), 2 patients had involvment of the perivescical fat (T3) ad 8 patients were in T1 stage. Lymphnodes were negative for tumour (NO). In 8 patients blood transfusions were necessary to treat post surgical anemia. No significant intra-, peri- or post operative complications were noted. The mean follow-up was 45 months: a patient died for diffuse metastatic disease after 11 months. The remaining patients are still alive and report normal lifestyle: 10 with normal micturition and 4 with urinary retention treated with intermittent self-catetherization. Two patients report nocturnal incontinence treated with hourly micturition and one pad. The five patients who had normal preoperative sexual intercourse resumed a normal sexual activity. The possibility to orthotopically recontruct the female urinary bladder has been established long time after the introduction of orthotopic

  10. A control systems approach to quantify wall shear stress normalization by flow-mediated dilation in the brachial artery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank C G van Bussel

    Full Text Available Flow-mediated dilation is aimed at normalization of local wall shear stress under varying blood flow conditions. Blood flow velocity and vessel diameter are continuous and opposing influences that modulate wall shear stress. We derived an index FMDv to quantify wall shear stress normalization performance by flow-mediated dilation in the brachial artery. In 22 fasting presumed healthy men, we first assessed intra- and inter-session reproducibilities of two indices pFMDv and mFMDv, which consider the relative peak and relative mean hyperemic change in flow velocity, respectively. Second, utilizing oral glucose loading, we evaluated the tracking performance of both FMDv indices, in comparison with existing indices [i.e., the relative peak diameter increase (%FMD, the peak to baseline diameter ratio (Dpeak/Dbase, and the relative peak diameter increase normalized to the full area under the curve of blood flow velocity with hyperemia (FMD/shearAUC or with area integrated to peak hyperemia (FMD/shearAUC_peak]. Inter-session and intra-session reproducibilities for pFMDv, mFMDv and %FMD were comparable (intra-class correlation coefficients within 0.521-0.677 range. Both pFMDv and mFMDv showed more clearly a reduction after glucose loading (reduction of ~45%, p≤0.001 than the other indices (% given are relative reductions: %FMD (~11%, p≥0.074; Dpeak/Dbase (~11%, p≥0.074; FMD/shearAUC_peak (~20%, p≥0.016 and FMD/shearAUC (~38%, p≤0.038. Further analysis indicated that wall shear stress normalization under normal (fasting conditions is already far from ideal (FMDv << 1, which (therefore does not materially change with glucose loading. Our approach might be useful in intervention studies to detect intrinsic changes in shear stress normalization performance in conduit arteries.

  11. Interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer at high transonic speeds. II - Wall shear stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, M. S.; Adamson, T. C., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Asymptotic methods are used to calculate the shear stress at the wall for the interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate. A mixing length model is used for the eddy viscosity. The shock wave is taken to be strong enough that the sonic line is deep in the boundary layer and the upstream influence is thus very small. It is shown that unlike the result found for laminar flow an asymptotic criterion for separation is not found; however, conditions for incipient separation are computed numerically using the derived solution for the shear stress at the wall. Results are compared with available experimental measurements.

  12. Study of coherent structures of turbulence with large wall-normal gradients in thermophysical properties using direct numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinink, Shawn K.; Yaras, Metin I.

    2015-01-01

    Forced-convection heat transfer in a heated working fluid at a thermodynamic state near its pseudocritical point is poorly predicted by correlations calibrated with data at subcritical temperatures and pressures. This is suggested to be primarily due to the influence of large wall-normal thermophysical property gradients that develop in proximity of the pseudocritical point on the concentration of coherent turbulence structures near the wall. The physical mechanisms dominating this influence remain poorly understood. In the present study, direct numerical simulation is used to study the development of coherent vortical structures within a turbulent spot under the influence of large wall-normal property gradients. A turbulent spot rather than a fully turbulent boundary layer is used for the study, for the coherent structures of turbulence in a spot tend to be in a more organized state which may allow for more effective identification of cause-and-effect relationships. Large wall-normal gradients in thermophysical properties are created by heating the working fluid which is near the pseudocritical thermodynamic state. It is found that during improved heat transfer, wall-normal gradients in density accelerate the growth of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability mechanism in the shear layer enveloping low-speed streaks, causing it to roll up into hairpin vortices at a faster rate. It is suggested that this occurs by the baroclinic vorticity generation mechanism which accelerates the streamwise grouping of vorticity during shear layer roll-up. The increased roll-up frequency leads to reduced streamwise spacing between hairpin vortices in wave packets. The density gradients also promote the sinuous instability mode in low-speed streaks. The resulting oscillations in the streaks in the streamwise-spanwise plane lead to locally reduced spanwise spacing between hairpin vortices forming over adjacent low-speed streaks. The reduction in streamwise and spanwise spacing between

  13. Bladder extension variability during pelvic external beam radiotherapy with a full or empty bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkawa, Michael; Asadpour, Branka; Siluschek, Jaroslav; Gagel, Bernd; Piroth, Marc D.; Demirel, Cengiz; Eble, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Varying bladder fillings during radiotherapy lead to a changing dose-volume load to the bladder and adjacent structures. The aim of the study was to compare the extent of bladder wall movements during parallel series with full bladder (FB) and empty bladder (EB). Materials and methods: Three hundred and forty serial computed tomography (CT) scans were performed in 50 patients scheduled for primary and postoperative radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Each patient underwent two CT scans (with FB and EB) before and 2-3 times during radiotherapy. Displacements of the bladder wall were compared and correlated with changing bladder fillings. Results: The variability of FB was larger compared to EB volume (standard deviation of 124cc and 56cc; p < 0.01), but significant bladder wall displacement variabilities were only found at the anterior and superior borders. Within a bladder volume range between -100 and +200 ml relative to the FB planning scan, the mean bladder wall displacement remained <5 mm at the inferior, lateral, and posterior borders - as opposed to 15 and 21 mm at the anterior and superior borders. Conclusions: Treating the pelvis with EB compared to FB, bladder wall displacement can be only reduced at the superior and anterior borders. FB wall displacements are comparable with EB displacements at all other borders

  14. Pitfalls and Limitations of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis of Urinary Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ching Lin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adequately selecting a therapeutic approach for bladder cancer depends on accurate grading and staging. Substantial inaccuracy of clinical staging with bimanual examination, cystoscopy, and transurethral resection of bladder tumor has facilitated the increasing utility of magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate bladder cancer. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI is a noninvasive functional magnetic resonance imaging technique. The high tissue contrast between cancers and surrounding tissues on DWI is derived from the difference of water molecules motion. DWI is potentially a useful tool for the detection, characterization, and staging of bladder cancers; it can also monitor posttreatment response and provide information on predicting tumor biophysical behaviors. Despite advancements in DWI techniques and the use of quantitative analysis to evaluate the apparent diffusion coefficient values, there are some inherent limitations in DWI interpretation related to relatively poor spatial resolution, lack of cancer specificity, and lack of standardized image acquisition protocols and data analysis procedures that restrict the application of DWI and reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient values. In addition, inadequate bladder distension, artifacts, thinness of bladder wall, cancerous mimickers of normal bladder wall and benign lesions, and variations in the manifestation of bladder cancer may interfere with diagnosis and monitoring of treatment. Recognition of these pitfalls and limitations can minimize their impact on image interpretation, and carefully applying the analyzed results and combining with pathologic grading and staging to clinical practice can contribute to the selection of an adequate treatment method to improve patient care.

  15. Pitfalls and Limitations of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis of Urinary Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Ching; Chen, Jeon-Hor

    2015-01-01

    Adequately selecting a therapeutic approach for bladder cancer depends on accurate grading and staging. Substantial inaccuracy of clinical staging with bimanual examination, cystoscopy, and transurethral resection of bladder tumor has facilitated the increasing utility of magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate bladder cancer. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a noninvasive functional magnetic resonance imaging technique. The high tissue contrast between cancers and surrounding tissues on DWI is derived from the difference of water molecules motion. DWI is potentially a useful tool for the detection, characterization, and staging of bladder cancers; it can also monitor posttreatment response and provide information on predicting tumor biophysical behaviors. Despite advancements in DWI techniques and the use of quantitative analysis to evaluate the apparent diffusion coefficient values, there are some inherent limitations in DWI interpretation related to relatively poor spatial resolution, lack of cancer specificity, and lack of standardized image acquisition protocols and data analysis procedures that restrict the application of DWI and reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient values. In addition, inadequate bladder distension, artifacts, thinness of bladder wall, cancerous mimickers of normal bladder wall and benign lesions, and variations in the manifestation of bladder cancer may interfere with diagnosis and monitoring of treatment. Recognition of these pitfalls and limitations can minimize their impact on image interpretation, and carefully applying the analyzed results and combining with pathologic grading and staging to clinical practice can contribute to the selection of an adequate treatment method to improve patient care. PMID:26055180

  16. Building tools for image-guided adaptive radiotherapy of bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chai, X.

    2012-01-01

    From this thesis, we can conclude that the injection of lipiodol markers into the bladder wall is a feasible method to track bladder tumors for IGRT of partial bladder. We succeeded in developing a biomechanical bladder model and bladder segmentation methods for online CBCT, which are useful tools

  17. Experimental electrical stimulation of the bladder using a new device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, T.; Christiansen, P.; Nielsen, B.

    1986-01-01

    Repeated bladder contractions were evoked during a six month period in three unanaesthetized female minipigs by using unipolar carbon fiber electrodes embedded in the bladder wall adjacent to the ureterovesical junction. In contrast to bipolar and direct bladder muscle stimulation unipolar...... electrodes at each ureterovesical junction evoked bladder pressure increase similar to those produced in previous investigations in dogs. Sacral nerve stimulation of S2 evoked bladder contraction at a minimal current. Microscopic examination revealed no cellular reactions to the carbon fibers...

  18. Bladder cancer diagnosis during cystoscopy using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimbergen, M. C. M.; van Swol, C. F. P.; Draga, R. O. P.; van Diest, P.; Verdaasdonk, R. M.; Stone, N.; Bosch, J. H. L. R.

    2009-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy is an optical technique that can be used to obtain specific molecular information of biological tissues. It has been used successfully to differentiate normal and pre-malignant tissue in many organs. The goal of this study is to determine the possibility to distinguish normal tissue from bladder cancer using this system. The endoscopic Raman system consists of a 6 Fr endoscopic probe connected to a 785nm diode laser and a spectral recording system. A total of 107 tissue samples were obtained from 54 patients with known bladder cancer during transurethral tumor resection. Immediately after surgical removal the samples were placed under the Raman probe and spectra were collected and stored for further analysis. The collected spectra were analyzed using multivariate statistical methods. In total 2949 Raman spectra were recorded ex vivo from cold cup biopsy samples with 2 seconds integration time. A multivariate algorithm allowed differentiation of normal and malignant tissue with a sensitivity and specificity of 78,5% and 78,9% respectively. The results show the possibility of discerning normal from malignant bladder tissue by means of Raman spectroscopy using a small fiber based system. Despite the low number of samples the results indicate that it might be possible to use this technique to grade identified bladder wall lesions during endoscopy.

  19. Normal Reflection Characteristics of One-Dimensional Unsteady Flow Shock Waves on Rigid Walls from Pulse Discharge in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong shock waves can be generated by pulse discharge in water, and the characteristics due to the shock wave normal reflection from rigid walls have important significance to many fields, such as industrial production and defense construction. This paper investigates the effects of hydrostatic pressures and perturbation of wave source (i.e., charging voltage on normal reflection of one-dimensional unsteady flow shock waves. Basic properties of the incidence and reflection waves were analyzed theoretically and experimentally to identify the reflection mechanisms and hence the influencing factors and characteristics. The results indicated that increased perturbation (i.e., charging voltage leads to increased peak pressure and velocity of the reflected shock wave, whereas increased hydrostatic pressure obviously inhibited superposition of the reflection waves close to the rigid wall. The perturbation of wave source influence on the reflected wave was much lower than that on the incident wave, while the hydrostatic pressure obviously affected both incident and reflection waves. The reflection wave from the rigid wall in water exhibited the characteristics of a weak shock wave, and with increased hydrostatic pressure, these weak shock wave characteristics became more obvious.

  20. Neurogenic Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T. Dorsher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anomalies such as meningomyelocele and diseases/damage of the central, peripheral, or autonomic nervous systems may produce neurogenic bladder dysfunction, which untreated can result in progressive renal damage, adverse physical effects including decubiti and urinary tract infections, and psychological and social sequelae related to urinary incontinence. A comprehensive bladder-retraining program that incorporates appropriate education, training, medication, and surgical interventions can mitigate the adverse consequences of neurogenic bladder dysfunction and improve both quantity and quality of life. The goals of bladder retraining for neurogenic bladder dysfunction are prevention of urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, detrusor overdistension, and progressive upper urinary tract damage due to chronic, excessive detrusor pressures. Understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of micturition is essential to select appropriate pharmacologic and surgical interventions to achieve these goals. Future perspectives on potential pharmacological, surgical, and regenerative medicine options for treating neurogenic bladder dysfunction are also presented.

  1. Bladder Leiomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliskan, Selahattin; Sungur, Mustafa

    2017-03-01

    Leiomyoma of the bladder is a very rare disorder that accounts for 0.43% of all bladder neoplasms. Although the pathophysiology of the bladder leiomyoma is unknown, there are some theories in it. The patients can be asymptomatic; and clinical symptoms, when present, are associated with the tumor size and location. Imaging techniques such as ultrasonography, intravenous urography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging are helpful but definitive diagnosis is made by histopathological examination. Surgical resection of tumor with transurethral, open, laparoscopic and robotic approaches is the main treatment. We present a case of leiomyoma of the bladder in an adult male patient.

  2. Female urinary incontinence at orgasm: a possible marker of a more severe form of detrusor overactivity. Can ultrasound measurement of bladder wall thickness explain it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serati, Maurizio; Salvatore, Stefano; Cattoni, Elena; Siesto, Gabriele; Soligo, Marco; Braga, Andrea; Sorice, Paola; Cromi, Antonella; Ghezzi, Fabio; Cardozo, Linda; Bolis, Pierfrancesco

    2011-06-01

    Coital incontinence (CI) during orgasm is a form of urinary incontinence possibly because of detrusor overactivity (DO), as the underlying pathophysiological condition. Women with this symptom usually show a pharmacological lower cure rate than those with DO alone. The ultrasound measurement of the bladder wall thickness (BWT) allows an indirect evaluation of detrusor muscle thickness, giving a potential index of detrusor activity. We wanted to understand if CI at orgasm could be a marker of severity of DO by comparing BWT in women with both DO and CI at orgasm vs. women with DO alone. In addition we aimed to confirm if CI during orgasm is related to antimuscarinics treatment failure. This is a prospective cohort study performed in two tertiary urogynecological referral departments, recruiting consecutive patients seeking treatment for symptomatic DO. All patients were thoroughly assessed including physical examination, urodynamic evaluation, and BWT measurement according to the International Continence Society/International Urogynecological Association and ICI recommendations. Solifenacine 5 mg once daily was then prescribed and follow-up was scheduled to evaluate treatment. Multiple logistic regression (MLR) was performed to identify risk factors for treatment failure. Between September 2007 and March 2010, 31 (22.6%) and 106 (77.4%) women with DO with and without CI at orgasm were enrolled. Women complaining of CI at orgasm had significantly higher BWT than the control group (5.8 ± 0.6 mm vs. 5.2 ± 1.2 mm [P=0.007]). In patients with CI at orgasm, the nonresponder rate to antimuscarinics was significantly higher than controls (P=0.01). After MLR, CI at orgasm was the only independent predictor decreasing antimuscarinics efficacy (odds ratio [OR] 3.16 [95% CI 1.22-8.18], P=0.02). Women with DO and CI at orgasm showed a significantly higher BWT values and worse cure rates than women with DO alone. CI at orgasm could be a marker of a more severe form of DO.

  3. Spanwise vorticity and wall normal velocity structure in the inertial region of turbulent boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas Bautista, Juan Carlos; Morrill-Winter, Caleb; White, Christopher; Chini, Gregory; Klewicki, Joseph

    2017-11-01

    The Reynolds shear stress gradient is a leading order mechanism on the inertial domain of turbulent wall-flows. This quantity can be described relative to the sum of two velocity-vorticity correlations, vωz and wωy . Recent studies suggest that the first of these correlates with the step-like structure of the instantaneous streamwise velocity profile on the inertial layer. This structure is comprised of large zones of uniform momentum segregated by slender regions of concentrated vorticity. In this talk we study the contributions of the v and ωz motions to the vorticity transport (vωz) mechanism through the use of experimental data at large friction Reynolds numbers, δ+. The primary contributions to v and ωz were estimated by identifying the peak wavelengths of their streamwise spectra. The magnitudes of these peaks are of the same order, and are shown to exhibit a weak δ+ dependence. The peak wavelengths of v, however, exhibit a strong wall-distance (y) dependence, while the peak wavelengths of ωz show only a weak y dependence, and remain almost O (√{δ+}) in size throughout the inertial domain. This research was partially supported by the National Science Foundation and partially supported by the Australian Research Council.

  4. Evaluation of the Strength Variation of Normal and Lightweight Self-Compacting Concrete in Full Scale Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinali, M.; Ranjbar, M. M.; Rezvani, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    -destructive testing. Self-compacting concrete (SCC) and lightweight self-compacting concrete (LWSCC) with different admixtures were tested and compared with normal concrete (NC). The results were also compared with results for standard cubic samples. The results demonstrate the effect of concrete type on the in situ......The strength of cast concrete along the height and length of large structural members might vary due to inadequate compaction, segregation, bleeding, head pressure, and material type. The distribution of strength within a series of full scale reinforced concrete walls was examined using non...

  5. Hysteretic evaluation of seismic performance of normal and fiber reinforced concrete shear walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choun, Young Sun; Hahm, Dae Gi

    2012-01-01

    The use of fibers in concrete or cement composites can enhance the performance of structural elements. Fibers have been used for a cement mixture to increase the toughness and tensile strength, and to improve the cracking and deformation characteristics. The addition of fibers into concrete can improve the ductility and increase the seismic resistance of concrete structures. The application of fibers to earthquake-resistant concrete structures has a major research topic. A recent study shows that an excellent seismic performance can be obtained in shear critical members constructed with high performance fiber reinforced cement composites. To increase the seismic performance of safety related concrete structures in nuclear power plants, fibers can be used. This study investigated the effect of fibers on the hysteretic behavior of a reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall by cyclic tests

  6. Hysteretic evaluation of seismic performance of normal and fiber reinforced concrete shear walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choun, Young Sun; Hahm, Dae Gi [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The use of fibers in concrete or cement composites can enhance the performance of structural elements. Fibers have been used for a cement mixture to increase the toughness and tensile strength, and to improve the cracking and deformation characteristics. The addition of fibers into concrete can improve the ductility and increase the seismic resistance of concrete structures. The application of fibers to earthquake-resistant concrete structures has a major research topic. A recent study shows that an excellent seismic performance can be obtained in shear critical members constructed with high performance fiber reinforced cement composites. To increase the seismic performance of safety related concrete structures in nuclear power plants, fibers can be used. This study investigated the effect of fibers on the hysteretic behavior of a reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall by cyclic tests.

  7. Lung and chest wall impedances in the dog in normal range of breathing: effects of pulmonary edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnas, G M; Stamenović, D; Lutchen, K R

    1992-09-01

    We evaluated the effect of pulmonary edema on the frequency (f) and tidal volume (VT) dependences of respiratory system mechanical properties in the normal ranges of breathing. We measured resistance and elastance of the lungs (RL and EL) and chest wall of four anesthetized-paralyzed dogs during sinusoidal volume oscillations at the trachea (50-300 ml, 0.2-2 Hz), delivered at a constant mean airway pressure. Measurements were made before and after severe pulmonary edema was produced by injection of 0.06 ml/kg oleic acid into the right atrium. Chest wall properties were not changed by the injection. Before oleic acid, EL increased slightly with increasing f in each dog but was independent of VT. RL decreased slightly and was independent of VT from 0.2 to 0.4 Hz, but above 0.4 Hz it tended to increase with increasing flow, presumably due to the airway contribution. After oleic acid injection, EL and RL increased greatly. Large negative dependences of EL on VT and of RL on f were also evident, so that EL and RL after oleic acid changed two- and fivefold, respectively, within the ranges of f and VT studied. We conclude that severe pulmonary edema changes lung properties so as to make behavior VT dependent (i.e., nonlinear) and very frequency dependent in the normal range of breathing.

  8. Leiomyoma of the bladder and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabbaj, N.; Dafiri, R.; Imani, F.; Benslimane, L.; Benchekroun, A.

    1998-01-01

    Unlike epithelial tumors, connective tissue tumors are uncommon, representing only 3 % of all bladder tumors. Leiomyoma of the bladder is the most frequent non-epithelial benign tumor of the bladder. Magnetic resonance imaging (MIR) is highly useful for diagnostic purposes and to determine the degree of extension. Only few reports of sonographic findings have been reported for leiomyoma of the bladder. The tumor usually develops within the bladder. Extra-vesicular formations have also been reported as well as a few intramural localizations. The characteristic feature is the absence of mucosal involvement. We analyzed the MRI findings in a case of leiomyoma of the bladder with intra and extra-vesicular development inflammatory reaction of the bladder wall and uterine adherences in a woman with a past history of chronic cystitis. The role of diagnostic MRI is discussed. (author)

  9. Primary Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma of the Bladder: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Ansari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Most bladder tumors are epithelial in origin. Nonepithelial cancers are rarely located in the bladder. Sarcomas are the most common malignancies among nonepithelial cancers. Primary bladder lymphoma is rare and mostly low grade. Here, we have reported a case of diffuse large cell lymphoma of the bladder. The patient, a 64-year-old man, had urinary frequency for 18 months. Abdominal sonography indicated a thick bladder wall and transurethral biopsy showed diffuse large cell lymphoma. Immunohistochemistry (IHC results showed that the tumor was positive for CD20, CD45, and Pax-5 and negative for BCL-2, cytokeratin, and S100. He had a normal bone marrow biopsy, abdominal, pelvic and chest CT scans. He had no B symptoms. The patient received 6 cycles of R-CHOP followed by radiotherapy (36 Gy to the pelvis. Six months after treatment, the patient is well and has returned to work. We have searched PubMed for primary diffuse large cell lymphoma. Primary diffuse large cell lymphoma of the bladder is best treated according to treatment for diffuse large cell lymphoma of other sites, which includes chemotherapy and radiotherapy. As seen in our review, primary diffuse large cell lymphoma of the bladder has a similar clinical course to diffuse large cell lymphoma of other sites.

  10. Effect of off-normal events on the reactor first wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igitkhanov, Yu; Bazylev, B

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the energy deposition and erosion of the W/EUROFER blanket module for the first wall (FW) of DEMO due to the runaway electrons (RE) and vertical displacements events (VDEs). The DEMO data for transients were extrapolated from ITER data by using the scaling arguments. The simulations were performed at an RE deposition energy in the range 30-100 MJ m - 2 over 0.05-0.3 s. In the case of a 'hot' VDE, all stored plasma energy is deposited on the FW area for ∼1 s. For a VDE following the thermal quench phase the remaining magnetic energy is deposited on the FW for ∼0.3 s. It is shown that the minimum W thickness needed for preventing failure of the W/EUROFER bond (assumed to be the EUROFER creep point) is large enough, causing armour melting. Both RE and VDE in DEMO will pose a major life-time issue depending on their frequency.

  11. Effect of off-normal events on the reactor first wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igitkhanov, Yu; Bazylev, B.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we analyse the energy deposition and erosion of the W/EUROFER blanket module for the first wall (FW) of DEMO due to the runaway electrons (RE) and vertical displacements events (VDEs). The DEMO data for transients were extrapolated from ITER data by using the scaling arguments. The simulations were performed at an RE deposition energy in the range 30-100 MJ m-2 over 0.05-0.3 s. In the case of a 'hot' VDE, all stored plasma energy is deposited on the FW area for ~1 s. For a VDE following the thermal quench phase the remaining magnetic energy is deposited on the FW for ~0.3 s. It is shown that the minimum W thickness needed for preventing failure of the W/EUROFER bond (assumed to be the EUROFER creep point) is large enough, causing armour melting. Both RE and VDE in DEMO will pose a major life-time issue depending on their frequency.

  12. A prospective study to assess the bladder distension effects on dosimetry in intracavitary brachytherapy of cervical cancer via computed tomography-assisted techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.-M.; Huang, H.-Y.; Huang, E.-Y.; Wang, C.-J.; Ko, S.-F.; Lin Hao; Song, J.-C.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: Intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) is as important as external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for the radical radiotherapy of uterine cervical cancer. The degree of urinary bladder distension during ICBT may affect the dose distribution in the bladder and rectum, to which an overdose may increase the chance of developing treatment-related complications. The purpose of this prospective study was to assess and quantify the impact of bladder distension on dosimetry in ICBT in patients with cervical cancer. Patients and methods: We recruited 20 patients with cervical cancer during a 12-month period. Inclusion criteria included pathological diagnosis of cervical cancer with IA to IIIB stages, and intact uterus. Patients were evaluated for brachytherapy after EBRT, and eligible individuals (cervical os could be identified clearly) were invited enter to this protocol to receive ICBT. In the first brachytherapy, bladder preparation (evacuation and distension by a Foley catheter) and CT scan were performed soon after the insertion of CT-compatible applicators. Then the bladder wall doses [median dose, maximum dose and dose-volume histograms (DVH)] were calculated via the PLATO computer planning system (Nucletron PLATO-RTS version 2.0). The individual data regarding doses and DVH were collected and compared. Bladder distension may shift the applicator position, and posterior displacement of the applicator system may increase the dose to the rectal wall, so this effect was also evaluated. Results: All the continuous variables of these 20 patients followed a normal distribution. By paired t-test and multiple linear regression analysis, we found that bladder distension statistically significantly decreased the median bladder wall dose with an average reduction of 48% of the dose of an empty bladder (P<0.001), and the maximum dose did not change; on the other hand, the bladder distension did not have any adverse effects on the rectal wall doses. Conclusions

  13. Long-wave theory for a new convective instability with exponential growth normal to the wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, J J

    2005-05-15

    A linear stability theory is presented for the boundary-layer flow produced by an infinite disc rotating at constant angular velocity in otherwise undisturbed fluid. The theory is developed in the limit of long waves and when the effects of viscosity on the waves can be neglected. This is the parameter regime recently identified by the author in a numerical stability investigation where a curious new type of instability was found in which disturbances propagate and grow exponentially in the direction normal to the disc, (i.e. the growth takes place in a region of zero mean shear). The theory describes the mechanisms controlling the instability, the role and location of critical points, and presents a saddle-point analysis describing the large-time evolution of a wave packet in frames of reference moving normal to the disc. The theory also shows that the previously obtained numerical solutions for numerically large wavelengths do indeed lie in the asymptotic long-wave regime, and so the behaviour and mechanisms described here may apply to a number of cross-flow instability problems.

  14. Bladder pressure sensors in an animal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koldewijn, E. L.; van Kerrebroeck, P. E.; Schaafsma, E.; Wijkstra, H.; Debruyne, F. M.; Brindley, G. S.

    1994-01-01

    Urinary incontinence due to detrusor hyperreflexia might be inhibited on demand if changes in bladder pressure could be detected by sensors and transferred into pudendal nerve electrostimulation. The aim of this study is to investigate how the bladder wall reacts on different sensor implants.

  15. Neurogenic bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause skin to break down and lead to pressure sores Kidney damage if the bladder becomes too full, ... dysfunction; NBSD Patient Instructions Multiple sclerosis - discharge Preventing pressure ulcers Images Voiding cystourethrogram References Chapple CR, Osman NI. ...

  16. Bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dye workers, rubber workers, aluminum workers, leather workers, truck drivers, and pesticide applicators are at the highest ... examining the inside of the bladder with a camera), with biopsy Intravenous pyelogram - IVP Pelvic CT scan ...

  17. Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grants Bladder Cancer Think Tank Bladder Cancer Research Network Bladder Cancer Genomics Consortium Get Involved Ways to ... us? Who we are The Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network (BCAN) is a community of patients, caregivers, survivors, ...

  18. Bladder exstrophy: current management and postoperative imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierre, Ketsia; Borer, Joseph; Phelps, Andrew; Chow, Jeanne S.

    2014-01-01

    Bladder exstrophy is a rare malformation characterized by an infra-umbilical abdominal wall defect, incomplete closure of the bladder with mucosa continuous with the abdominal wall, epispadias, and alterations in the pelvic bones and muscles. It is part of the exstrophy-epispadias complex, with cloacal exstrophy on the severe and epispadias on the mild ends of the spectrum. Bladder exstrophy is the most common of these entities and is more common in boys. The goal of this paper is to describe common methods of repair and to provide an imaging review of the postoperative appearances. (orig.)

  19. Bladder exstrophy: current management and postoperative imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierre, Ketsia [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Borer, Joseph [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Urology, Boston, MA (United States); Phelps, Andrew [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Pediatric Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Chow, Jeanne S. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Urology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Bladder exstrophy is a rare malformation characterized by an infra-umbilical abdominal wall defect, incomplete closure of the bladder with mucosa continuous with the abdominal wall, epispadias, and alterations in the pelvic bones and muscles. It is part of the exstrophy-epispadias complex, with cloacal exstrophy on the severe and epispadias on the mild ends of the spectrum. Bladder exstrophy is the most common of these entities and is more common in boys. The goal of this paper is to describe common methods of repair and to provide an imaging review of the postoperative appearances. (orig.)

  20. Perioperative Challenges in Repeat Bladder Exstrophy Repair - Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otu Enenyi Etta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bladder exstrophy is a rare congenital malformation. It presents as leakage of urine in the anterior abdominal wall following defects in midline anterior abdominal wall skin and bladder. We report the use of combined general anaesthesia and caudal epidural analgesia in a 4yr old boy for repeat bladder exstrophy repair. Problems of prolonged surgery and the challenges of pain and sedation management in the post operative period are discussed.

  1. Finite element based bladder modeling for image-guided radiotherapy of bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chai, Xiangfei; van Herk, Marcel; van de Kamer, Jeroen B.; Hulshof, Maarten C. C. M.; Remeijer, Peter; Lotz, Heidi T.; Bel, Arjan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A biomechanical model was constructed to give insight into pelvic organ motion as a result of bladder filling changes. Methods: The authors used finite element (FE) modeling to simulate bladder wall deformation caused by urine inflow. For ten volunteers, a series of MRI scans of the pelvic

  2. Simultaneous uterine and urinary bladder rupture in an otherwise successful vaginal birth after cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Szu-Ying; Chang, Shuenn-Dhy; Liang, Ching-Chung

    2010-12-01

    Uterine rupture is the primary concern when a patient chooses a trial of labor after a cesarean section. Bladder rupture accompanied by uterine rupture should be taken into consideration if gross hematuria occurs. We report the case of a patient with uterine rupture during a trial of labor after cesarean delivery. She had a normal course of labor and no classic signs of uterine rupture. However, gross hematuria was noted after repair of the episiotomy. The patient began to complain of progressive abdominal pain, gross hematuria and oliguria. Cystoscopy revealed a direct communication between the bladder and the uterus. When opening the bladder peritoneum, rupture sites over the anterior uterus and posterior wall of the bladder were noted. Following primary repair of both wounds, a Foley catheter was left in place for 12 days. The patient had achieved a full recovery by the 2-year follow-up examination. Bladder injury and uterine rupture can occur at any time during labor. Gross hematuria immediately after delivery is the most common presentation. Cystoscopy is a good tool to identify the severity of bladder injury. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Simultaneous Uterine and Urinary Bladder Rupture in an Otherwise Successful Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Ying Ho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Uterine rupture is the primary concern when a patient chooses a trial of labor after a cesarean section. Bladder rupture accompanied by uterine rupture should be taken into consideration if gross hematuria occurs. We report the case of a patient with uterine rupture during a trial of labor after cesarean delivery. She had a normal course of labor and no classic signs of uterine rupture. However, gross hematuria was noted after repair of the episiotomy. The patient began to complain of progressive abdominal pain, gross hematuria and oliguria. Cystoscopy revealed a direct communication between the bladder and the uterus. When opening the bladder peritoneum, rupture sites over the anterior uterus and posterior wall of the bladder were noted. Following primary repair of both wounds, a Foley catheter was left in place for 12 days. The patient had achieved a full recovery by the 2-year follow-up examination. Bladder injury and uterine rupture can occur at any time during labor. Gross hematuria immediately after delivery is the most common presentation. Cystoscopy is a good tool to identify the severity of bladder injury.

  4. SOX4 expression in bladder carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, Mads; Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Wiuf, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    The human transcription factor SOX4 was 5-fold up-regulated in bladder tumors compared with normal tissue based on whole-genome expression profiling of 166 clinical bladder tumor samples and 27 normal urothelium samples. Using a SOX4-specific antibody, we found that the cancer cells expressed...... in the clinical bladder material and a small subset of the genes showed a high correlation to SOX4 expression. The present data suggest a role of SOX4 in the bladder cancer disease....... the SOX4 protein and, thus, did an evaluation of SOX4 protein expression in 2,360 bladder tumors using a tissue microarray with clinical annotation. We found a correlation (P bladder cell line HU609, SOX4...

  5. Bladder stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    The health care provider will perform a physical exam. This will also include a rectal exam. The exam may reveal an enlarged prostate or other problems. The following tests may be done: Bladder or pelvic x-ray Cystoscopy Urinalysis Urine culture (clean catch)

  6. Assessment of Bladder Motion for Clinical Radiotherapy Practice Using Cine-Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBain, Catherine A.; Khoo, Vincent S.; Buckley, David L.; Sykes, Jonathan S.; Green, Melanie M.; Cowan, Richard A.; Hutchinson, Charles E.; Moore, Christopher J.; Price, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Organ motion is recognized as the principal source of inaccuracy in bladder radiotherapy (RT), but there is currently little information on intrafraction bladder motion. Methods and Materials: We used cine-magnetic resonance imaging (cine-MRI) to study bladder motion relevant to intrafraction RT delivery. On two occasions, a 28 minute cine-MRI sequence was acquired from 10 bladder cancer patients and 5 control participants immediately after bladder emptying, after abstinence from drinking for the preceding hour. From the resulting cine sequences, bladder motion was subjectively assessed. To quantify bladder motion, the bladder was contoured in imaging volume sets at 0, 14, and 28 min to measure changes to bladder volumes, wall displacements, and center of gravity (COG) over time. Results: The dominant source of bladder motion during imaging was bladder filling (up to 101% volume increase); rectal and small bowel movements were transient, with minimal impact. Bladder volume changes were similar for all participants. However for bladder cancer patients, wall displacements were larger (up to 58 mm), less symmetrical, and more variable compared with nondiseased control bladders. Conclusions: Significant and individualized intrafraction bladder wall displacements may occur during bladder RT delivery. This important source of inaccuracy should be incorporated into treatment planning and verification.

  7. Basic bladder neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, J Quentin

    2010-11-01

    Maintenance of normal lower urinary tract function is a complex process that requires coordination between the central nervous system and the autonomic and somatic components of the peripheral nervous system. This article provides an overview of the basic principles that are recognized to regulate normal urine storage and micturition, including bladder biomechanics, relevant neuroanatomy, neural control of lower urinary tract function, and the pharmacologic processes that translate the neural signals into functional results. Finally, the emerging role of the urothelium as a sensory structure is discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Primary Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma of the Bladder: Case Report and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour Ansari; Hamid Nasrollahi; Majdaddin Rajaei; Maral Mokhtari; Seyed Hasan Hamedi; Mohammad Mohammadianpanah; Shapour Omidvari; Ahmad Mosalaei; Niloofar Ahmadloo

    2017-01-01

    Most bladder tumors are epithelial in origin. Nonepithelial cancers are rarely located in the bladder. Sarcomas are the most common malignancies among nonepithelial cancers. Primary bladder lymphoma is rare and mostly low grade. Here, we have reported a case of diffuse large cell lymphoma of the bladder. The patient, a 64-year-old man, had urinary frequency for 18 months. Abdominal sonography indicated a thick bladder wall and transurethral biopsy showed diffuse large cell lymp...

  9. Correlation between Urothelial Differentiation and Sensory Proteins P2X3, P2X5, TRPV1, and TRPV4 in Normal Urothelium and Papillary Carcinoma of Human Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Sterle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminal differentiation of urothelium is a prerequisite for blood-urine barrier formation and enables normal sensory function of the urinary bladder. In this study, urothelial differentiation of normal human urothelium and of low and high grade papillary urothelial carcinomas was correlated with the expression and localization of purinergic receptors (P2X3, and P2X5 and transient receptor potential vanilloid channels (TRPV1, and TRPV4. Western blotting and immunofluorescence of uroplakins together with scanning electron microscopy of urothelial apical surface demonstrated terminal differentiation of normal urothelium, partial differentiation of low grade carcinoma, and poor differentiation of high grade carcinoma. P2X3 was expressed in normal urothelium as well as in low grade carcinoma and in both cases immunolabeling was stronger in the superficial cells. P2X3 expression decreased in high grade carcinoma. P2X5 expression was detected in normal urothelium and in high grade carcinoma, while in low grade carcinoma its expression was diminished. The expression of TRPV1 decreased in low grade and even more in high grade carcinoma when compared with normal urothelium, while TRPV4 expression was unchanged in all samples. Our results suggest that sensory proteins P2X3 and TRPV1 are in correlation with urothelial differentiation, while P2X5 and TRPV4 have unique expression patterns.

  10. Interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer at high transonic speeds. Part 2: Wall shear stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, M. S.; Adamson, T. C., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the flow in the two inner layers, the Reynolds stress sublayer and the wall layer. Included is the calculation of the shear stress at the wall in the interaction region. The limit processes considered are those used for an inviscid flow.

  11. Megabladder in experimental Chagas disease: pathological features of the bladder wall Mega bexiga na Doença de Chagas experimental. Caracteristicas patológicas da parede vesical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Henrique Gazoni Scremin

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Mega-organs, primarily in the digestive tract, are well known to occur in chronic Chagas disease. Acute experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi results in parasitism of a wide range of cells, tissues, and organs, including the urinary bladder. Infection of BALB/c mice with 100,000 bloodstream forms of the Y strain of T. cruzi induced acute infection with intense parasitism of all layers of the urinary bladder. Parasites were found in the mucosa, lamina propria, muscular, adventitial connective, and fat tissue. Desquamate epithelial cells with amastigotes in the bladder lumen were also found. After 60 days of infection, mice inoculated with 50 bloodstream forms developed dilated, thin-walled bladders that had inflammatory infiltrates and foci of fibrosis replacing areas of damaged muscular layer. These lesions result from direct damage to the muscle fibers by the T. cruzi, leading to myosites, muscle damage, and scarring. Direct damage of paraganglia cells secondary to parasitism, leading to dilatation, damage of muscle fibers, and scarring with replacement of muscular tissue with connective tissue, should also be considered as a cause of functional disturbance of the urinary bladder.Os "mega-órgãos" na Doença de Chagas são bem conhecidos, especialmente os desenvolvidos no sistema digestivo. A infecção aguda apresenta parasitismo de diversas células, tecidos e órgãos, dentre eles a bexiga urinária. Camundongos Balb/c infectados com 100.000 formas sanguíneas de cepa Y de T. cruzi mostraram intenso parasitismo de todas camadas da bexiga urinária na fase aguda. Os parasitas foram encontrados na mucosa, submucosa, lâmina própria, muscular, adventícia e tecido adiposo, além das células descamadas para a luz do órgão. Para produzir a fase crônica, os animais foram inoculados com a mesma cepa, porém apenas inóculo com 50 formas sangüíneas. Após sessenta dias de infecção, detectamos dilatações da parede vesical, assim

  12. The role of imaging in pediatric bladder augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, Micheal; Chow, Jeanne S. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Phelps, Andrew [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Estrada, Carlos [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Urology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Bladder augmentation (also called augmentation cystoplasty) refers to a number of surgical methods that increase the capacity and compliance of the urinary bladder. Imaging has an important role in the postoperative evaluation of bladder augmentation. The most common augmentation procedures utilize enteric segments to augment the bladder. The various types of bladder augmentation have characteristic appearances on different imaging modalities. Spontaneous bladder perforation is a complication that is seen in both early and late post-operative periods and it is one of the most important complications for radiologists to be aware of as it is life-threatening. We review the indications for bladder augmentation in children, the surgical techniques employed, the normal postoperative appearances on imaging studies and the role of imaging complications of bladder augmentation including delayed spontaneous bladder rupture, which is life-threatening. (orig.)

  13. Comparison of ultrasound and computed tomography in staging of bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, Bunzo

    1982-01-01

    Preoperative staging of bladder cancer is very important for decision of treating methods and prognostication. The present author used ultrasound via the abdominal wall in the diagnosis of 83 patients with bladder cancer. I estimated the extent of bladder tumor infiltration by ultrasound via the abdominal wall according to Shiraishi's criteria. Ultrasound scans, pelvic angiograms and CT scans were reviewed to determine their accuracy in staging of bladder tumors. Ultrasound scans were excellent in staging of non-infiltrated bladder tumors, while pelvic angiograms and CT scans were excellent in staging of infiltrated bladder tumors. (author)

  14. Cone Beam CT Imaging Analysis of Interfractional Variations in Bladder Volume and Position During Radiotherapy for Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, Don; Parliament, Matthew; Rathee, Satyapal; Ghosh, Sunita; Ko, Lawrence; Murray, Brad

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify daily bladder size and position variations during bladder cancer radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Ten bladder cancer patients underwent daily cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging of the bladder during radiotherapy. Bladder and planning target volumes (bladder/PTV) from CBCT and planning CT scans were compared with respect to bladder center-of-mass shifts in the x (lateral), y (anterior-posterior), and z (superior-inferior) coordinates, bladder/PTV size, bladder/PTV margin positions, overlapping areas, and mutually exclusive regions. Results: A total of 262 CBCT images were obtained from 10 bladder cancer patients. Bladder center of mass shifted most in the y coordinate (mean, -0.32 cm). The anterior bladder wall shifted the most (mean, -0.58 cm). Mean ratios of CBCT-derived bladder and PTV volumes to planning CT-derived counterparts were 0.83 and 0.88. The mean CBCT-derived bladder volume (± standard deviation [SD]) outside the planning CT counterpart was 29.24 cm 3 (SD, 29.71 cm 3 ). The mean planning CT-derived bladder volume outside the CBCT counterpart was 47.74 cm 3 (SD, 21.64 cm 3 ). The mean CBCT PTV outside the planning CT-derived PTV was 47.35 cm 3 (SD, 36.51 cm 3 ). The mean planning CT-derived PTV outside the CBCT-derived PTV was 93.16 cm 3 (SD, 50.21). The mean CBCT-derived bladder volume outside the planning PTV was 2.41 cm 3 (SD, 3.97 cm 3 ). CBCT bladder/ PTV volumes significantly differed from planning CT counterparts (p = 0.047). Conclusions: Significant variations in bladder and PTV volume and position occurred in patients in this trial.

  15. Bladder injuries frequently missed in polytrauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanweer Karim

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Tanweer Karim, Margaret Topno, Vinod Sharma, Raymond Picardo, Ankur HastirSurgery, MGM Medical College, Kamothe, Navi Mumbai, IndiaAbstract: Bladder injuries are very common in patients who have had road traffic accidents. The method of diagnosis and management of such injuries is well established and accepted. However, trauma to the bladder can be associated with other life-threatening injuries which are frequently missed, and often diagnosed during laparotomy for other reasons. The aim of this study was to diagnose bladder injury in polytrauma patients as early as possible, taking into consideration the fact that these patients are hemodynamically unstable and require rapid evaluation and management. In order to achieve our objective, we used bedside sonography with retrograde instillation of normal saline to diagnose bladder injury in addition to use of the conventional retrograde cystogram.Keywords: bladder injury, bladder rupture, retrograde cystogram

  16. Interstitial cystitis: painful bladder syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R F Sholan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial cystitis, or painful bladder syndrome, is a chronic inflammatory disease of a bladder of unknown etiology. It negatively affects the quality of life, causes depressive disorders, anxiety, and sexual dysfunction. Despite numerous studies, the etiology of interstitial cystitis is still unclear and it’s considered as painful bladder syndrome with multifactorial origin. According to the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 470/100 000 people (60/100 000 men, 850/100 000 women are diagnosed with interstitial cystitis. Diagnosis of the disease is difficult and is substantially based on clinical symptoms. Pelvic pain, urinary urgency, frequency and nocturia are the basic complaints in this pathology. The diagnosis requires exclusion of diseases with similar manifestations. So interstitial cystitis is frequently misdiagnosed as urinary tract infection, overactive bladder, urethral obstruction or diverticulosis, chronic prostatitis, bladder cancer, vulvodynia, endometriosis, and chronic pelvic pain. Etiopathogenesis of the disease is uncertain, which makes etiologic treatment impossible. Currently scientific discussions on the causes of disease continue as well as different treatment regimens are offered, but are often ineffective, palliative and temporary. The treatment for intersticial cystitis should focus on restoring normal bladder function, prevention of relapse of symptoms and improvement of patients’ quality of life. The literature review presents current view on the terminology, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis.

  17. Bladder control training in girls with lower urinary tract dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Peco-Antić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of standard and biofeedback bladder control training (BCT on the resolution of dysfunctional elimination syndrome (primary outcome, and on the reduction of urinary tract infections (UTI and the use of medications such as antibacterial prophylaxis and/or anticholinergic/alpha-blockers (secondary outcome in girls older than aged least 5 years. Materials and Methods 72 girls, median age of 8 years (interquartile range, IQR 7-10 were subjected to standard BCT (cognitive, behavioural and constipation treatment and 12 one-hour sessions of animated biofeedback using interactive computer games within 8 weeks. Fifty patients were reevaluated after median 11 (IQR, 6-17 months. Effectiveness of BCT was determined by reduction of dysfunctional voiding score (DVS, daytime urinary incontinence (DUI, constipation, UTI, nocturnal enuresis (NE, post void residual (PVR, and improvements in bladder capacity and uroflow/EMG patterns. Results BCT resulted in significant normalization of DUI, NE, constipation, bladder capacity, uroflow/EMG, while decrease of PVR didn't reach statistical significance. In addition, the incidence of UTI, antibacterial prophylaxis and medical urotherapy significantly decreased. There were no significant differences in DVS, DUI, NE, bladder capacity and voiding pattern at the end of the BCT and at the time of reevaluation. The success on BCT was supported by parenteral perception of the treatment response in 63.9% and full response in additional 15.3% of the patients. Conclusion Combination of standard and biofeedback BCT improved dysfunctional elimination syndrome and decreased UTI with discontinuation of antibacterial prophylaxis and/or anticholinergic/alpha-blockers in the majority of the patients. Better training results are expected in patients with higher bladder wall thickness as well as in those with vesicoureteral reflux, while presence of nocturnal enuresis may be a negative predictor of the

  18. Bladder metastases of appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma: a case presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giusti Guido

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appendiceal adenocarcinoma is rare with a frequency of 0.08% of all surgically removed appendices. Few cases of appendiceal carcinoma infiltrating the bladder wall for spatial contiguity have been documented. Case Presentation A case is reported of a 45-years old woman with mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the appendix with bladder metastasis. Although ultrasonography and voided urinary cytology were negative, abdomen computed tomography (CT scan and cystoscopy and subsequent pathological examination revealed a mass exclusively located in the anterior wall of the bladder. Histopathology of the transurethral bladder resection revealed a bladder adenocarcinoma [6 cm (at the maximum diameter × 2,5 cm; approximate weight: 10 gr] with focal mucinous aspects penetrating the muscle and perivisceral fat. Laparotomy evidenced the presence of a solid mass of the appendix (2,5 cm × 3 cm × 2 cm extending to the loco-regional lymph nodes. Appendectomy and right hemicolectomy, linfoadenectomy and partial cystectomy were performed. The subsequent pathological examination revealed a mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the appendix with metastatic cells colonising the anterior bladder wall and several colic lymph nodes. Conclusions The rarity of the appendiceal carcinoma invading the urinary bladder and its usual involvement of nearest organs and the posterior bladder wall, led us to describe this case which demonstrates the ability of the appendiceal cancer to metastasize different regions of urinary bladder.

  19. Bladder metastases of appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma: a case presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taverna, Gianluigi; Graziotti, Pierpaolo; Corinti, Matteo; Colombo, Piergiuseppe; Grizzi, Fabio; Severo, Mauro; Piccinelli, Alessando; Giusti, Guido; Benetti, Alessio; Zucali, Paolo A

    2010-01-01

    Appendiceal adenocarcinoma is rare with a frequency of 0.08% of all surgically removed appendices. Few cases of appendiceal carcinoma infiltrating the bladder wall for spatial contiguity have been documented. A case is reported of a 45-years old woman with mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the appendix with bladder metastasis. Although ultrasonography and voided urinary cytology were negative, abdomen computed tomography (CT) scan and cystoscopy and subsequent pathological examination revealed a mass exclusively located in the anterior wall of the bladder. Histopathology of the transurethral bladder resection revealed a bladder adenocarcinoma [6 cm (at the maximum diameter) × 2,5 cm; approximate weight: 10 gr] with focal mucinous aspects penetrating the muscle and perivisceral fat. Laparotomy evidenced the presence of a solid mass of the appendix (2,5 cm × 3 cm × 2 cm) extending to the loco-regional lymph nodes. Appendectomy and right hemicolectomy, linfoadenectomy and partial cystectomy were performed. The subsequent pathological examination revealed a mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the appendix with metastatic cells colonising the anterior bladder wall and several colic lymph nodes. The rarity of the appendiceal carcinoma invading the urinary bladder and its usual involvement of nearest organs and the posterior bladder wall, led us to describe this case which demonstrates the ability of the appendiceal cancer to metastasize different regions of urinary bladder

  20. Correlation of gene expression with bladder capacity in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaco, Marc; Koslov, David S; Keys, Tristan; Evans, Robert J; Badlani, Gopal H; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Walker, Stephen J

    2014-10-01

    Interstitial cystitis and bladder pain syndrome are terms used to describe a heterogeneous chronic pelvic and bladder pain disorder. Despite its significant prevalence, our understanding of disease etiology is poor. We molecularly characterized interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and determined whether there are clinical factors that correlate with gene expression. Bladder biopsies from female subjects with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and female controls without signs of the disease were collected and divided into those with normal and low anesthetized bladder capacity, respectively. Samples then underwent RNA extraction and microarray assay. Data generated by these assays were analyzed using Omics Explorer (Qlucore, Lund, Sweden), GeneSifter® Analysis Edition 4.0 and Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis to determine similarity among samples within and between groups, and measure differentially expressed transcripts unique to each phenotype. A total of 16 subjects were included in study. Principal component analysis and unsupervised hierarchical clustering showed clear separation between gene expression in tissues from subjects with low compared to normal bladder capacity. Gene expression in tissue from patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome who had normal bladder capacity did not significantly differ from that in controls without interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. Pairwise analysis revealed that pathways related to inflammatory and immune response were most involved. Microarray analysis provides insight into the potential pathological condition underlying interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. This pilot study shows that patients with this disorder who have low compared to normal bladder capacity have significantly different molecular characteristics, which may reflect a difference in disease pathophysiology. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc

  1. Complex bladder-exstrophy-epispadias management: Causes of failure of initial bladder closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouame Dibi Bertin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of the initial closure of the complex bladder-exstrophy remains a challenge in pediatric surgery. This study describes a personal experience of the causes of failure of the initial closure and operative morbidity during the surgical treatment of bladder-exstrophy complex. From April 2000 to March 2014, four patients aged 16 days to 7 years and 5 months underwent complex exstrophy-epispadias repair with pelvic osteotomies. There were three males and one female. Three of them had posterior pelvic osteotomy, one had anterior innominate osteotomy. Bladder Closure: Bladder closure was performed in three layers. Our first patient had initial bladder closure with polyglactin 4/0 (Vicryl ® 4/0, concerning the last three patients, initial bladder closure was performed with polydioxanone 4/0 (PDS ® 4/0. The bladder was repaired leaving the urethral stent and ureteral stents for full urinary drainage for three patients. In one case, only urethral stent was left, ureteral drainage was not possible, because stents sizes were more important than the ureteral diameter. Out of a total of four patients, initial bladder closure was completely achieved for three patients. At the immediate postoperative follow-up, two patients presented a complete disunion of the abdominal wall and bladder despite an appropriate postoperative care. The absorbable braided silk (polyglactin used for the bladder closure was considered as the main factor in the failure of the bladder closure. The second cause of failure of the initial bladder closure was the incomplete urine drainage, ureteral catheterisation was not possible because the catheters sizes were too large compared with the diameters of the ureters. The failure of the initial bladder-exstrophy closure may be reduced by a closure with an absorbable monofilament silk and efficient urine drainage via ureteral catheterisation.

  2. Leiomyoma of the bladder and MRI; IRM et leiomyome vesical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabbaj, N.; Dafiri, R.; Imani, F.; Benslimane, L.; Benchekroun, A. [Hopital Avicenne, Rabat (Morocco)

    1998-08-01

    Unlike epithelial tumors, connective tissue tumors are uncommon, representing only 3 % of all bladder tumors. Leiomyoma of the bladder is the most frequent non-epithelial benign tumor of the bladder. Magnetic resonance imaging (MIR) is highly useful for diagnostic purposes and to determine the degree of extension. Only few reports of sonographic findings have been reported for leiomyoma of the bladder. The tumor usually develops within the bladder. Extra-vesicular formations have also been reported as well as a few intramural localizations. The characteristic feature is the absence of mucosal involvement. We analyzed the MRI findings in a case of leiomyoma of the bladder with intra and extra-vesicular development inflammatory reaction of the bladder wall and uterine adherences in a woman with a past history of chronic cystitis. The role of diagnostic MRI is discussed. (author)

  3. Near infrared imaging to identify sentinel lymph nodes in invasive urinary bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Deborah W.; Adams, Larry G.; Niles, Jacqueline D.; Lucroy, Michael D.; Ramos-Vara, Jose; Bonney, Patty L.; deGortari, Amalia E.; Frangioni, John V.

    2006-02-01

    Approximately 12,000 people are diagnosed with invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (InvTCC) each year in the United States. Surgical removal of the bladder (cystectomy) and regional lymph node dissection are considered frontline therapy. Cystectomy causes extensive acute morbidity, and 50% of patients with InvTCC have occult metastases at the time of diagnosis. Better staging procedures for InvTCC are greatly needed. This study was performed to evaluate an intra-operative near infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRF) system (Frangioni laboratory) for identifying sentinel lymph nodes draining InvTCC. NIRF imaging was used to map lymph node drainage from specific quadrants of the urinary bladder in normal dogs and pigs, and to map lymph node drainage from naturally-occurring InvTCC in pet dogs where the disease closely mimics the human condition. Briefly, during surgery NIR fluorophores (human serum albumen-fluorophore complex, or quantum dots) were injected directly into the bladder wall, and fluorescence observed in lymphatics and regional nodes. Conditions studied to optimize the procedure including: type of fluorophore, depth of injection, volume of fluorophore injected, and degree of bladder distention at the time of injection. Optimal imaging occurred with very superficial injection of the fluorophore in the serosal surface of the moderately distended bladder. Considerable variability was noted from dog to dog in the pattern of lymph node drainage. NIR fluorescence was noted in lymph nodes with metastases in dogs with InvTCC. In conclusion, intra-operative NIRF imaging is a promising approach to improve sentinel lymph node mapping in invasive urinary bladder cancer.

  4. Return to normal of sup(99m)Tc-plasmin test after deep venous thrombosis and its relationship to vessel wall fibrinolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edenbrandt, C.M.; Hedner, U.; Tengborn, L.; Nilsson, J.; Ohlin, P.

    1986-08-01

    Fourteen patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and a positive sup(99m)Tc-plasmin test were followed up to determine how soon a negative test was obtained. Localization and extension of the thrombi were determined by phlebography. Plasminogen activator activity in vein walls and local fibrinolytic activity after venous occlusion were measured in order to find out what the prerequisites for impaired thrombolysis are. The time required to obtain a negative sup(99m)Tc-plasmin test showed considerable variation, ranging from less than 1 week to more than 6 months. The sup(99m)Tc-plasmin test had returned to normal in 64% of the patients after 6 months. No relationship was found between vessel wall fibrinolysis and time to normalization. Instead, we found an association between the time to normalization of the sup(99m)Tc-plasmin test and the size of the thrombus, according to phlebography, as well as between the time to normalization of the sup(99m)Tc-plasmin test and the extension of leg points with a positive sup(99m)Tc-plasmin test at admission. The finding of abnormal sup(99m)Tc-plasmin test results more than 6 months after acute DVT is of practical importance and warrants caution when evaluating patients with symptoms and signs suggestive of acute recurrent DVT.

  5. Thermal dosimetry for bladder hyperthermia treatment. An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schooneveldt, Gerben; Bakker, Akke; Balidemaj, Edmond; Chopra, Rajiv; Crezee, Johannes; Geijsen, Elisabeth D.; Hartmann, Josefin; Hulshof, Maarten C. C. M.; Kok, H. Petra; Paulides, Margarethus M.; Sousa-Escandon, Alejandro; Stauffer, Paul R.; Maccarini, Paolo F.

    2016-01-01

    The urinary bladder is a fluid-filled organ. This makes, on the one hand, the internal surface of the bladder wall relatively easy to heat and ensures in most cases a relatively homogeneous temperature distribution; on the other hand the variable volume, organ motion, and moving fluid cause

  6. BEHAVIOR OF LIPIODOL MARKERS DURING IMAGE GUIDED RADIOTHERAPY OF BLADDER CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chai, Xiangfei; van Herk, Marcel; van de Kamer, Jeroen B.; Remeijer, Peter; Bex, Axel; Betgen, Anja; de Reijke, Theo M.; Hulshof, Maarten C. C. M.; Pos, Floris J.; Bel, Arjan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the stability of a novel type of markers used in partial bladder tumor irradiation and tumor deformation as indicated by the markers. Materials and Methods: In 15 patients with solitary bladder cancer, lipiodol was injected in the bladder wall during flexible cystoscopy to

  7. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB

  8. Assessment of cardiac performance with quantitative radionuclide angiocardiography: sequential left ventricular ejection fraction, normalized left ventricular ejection rate, and regional wall motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.C.; Berger, H.J.; Costin, J.C.; Freedman, G.S.; Wolberg, J.; Cohen, L.S.; Gotischalk, A.; Zaret, B.L.

    1977-01-01

    Sequential quantitative first pass radionuclide angiocardiograms (RA) were used to measure left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left ventricular ejection rate (LVER), and to assess regional wall motion (RWM) in the anterior (ANT) and left anterior oblique (LAO) positions. Studies were obtained with a computerized multicrystal scintillation camera suitable for acquiring high count-rate data. Background was determined in a new fashion by selecting frames temporally from the left ventricular region of interest time-activity curve. A ''representative'' cardiac cycle was formed by summing together counts over three to six cardiac cycles. From this background corrected, high count-rate ''representative''cardiac cycle, LVEF, LVER, and RWM were determined. In 22 patients with normal sinus rhythm in the absence of significant valvular regurgitation, RA LVEF correlated well with that measured by contrast angiography (r = 0.95). LVER correlated well with LVEF measured at contrast angiography (r = 0.90) and allowed complete separation of those with normal (LVER = 3.4 +- 0.17 sec -1 ) and abnormal (LVER = 1.22 +- 0.11 sec -1 ) (P < 0.001) left ventricular performance. This separation was independent of background. Isoproterenol infusion in five normal subjects caused LVER to increase by 81 +- 17% while LVEF increased by 10 +- 2.0%. RWM was correctly defined in 21/22 patients and 89% of left ventricular segments with abnormal wall motion

  9. The hysterographic (empty bladder) view of the uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, R.; Gombergh, R.

    1986-01-01

    Technical improvements in transducer design permit a direct coronal view of the uterus (''hysterographic view'') to be obtained with the bladder empty as a valuable complement to the usual US study of the pelvis with the bladder distended. Good visualization of the uterine cavity and wall is possible in 95% of cases. More than 50 cases of endometrial and myometrial pathology (polyps, cancers, submucous fibroids) with abnormalities inapparent on standard US scans have hysterographic and/or pathologic proof confirming the empty-bladder US-based diagnosis. If tubal visualization is not necessary, empty-bladder US may often avoid hysterography. It is also the best way to demonstrate IUD position

  10. Bladder sensation measures and overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, David E; Neil, Nancy J; Govier, Fred E; Kobashi, Kathleen C

    2009-09-01

    We performed a prospective multicomponent study to determine whether subjective and objective bladder sensation instruments may provide data on sensory dysfunction in patients with overactive bladder. We evaluated 70 prospectively enrolled patients with urodynamics and questionnaires on validated urgency (Urgency Perception Score), general overactive bladder (Urogenital Distress Inventory) and quality of life (Incontinence Impact Questionnaire). We first sought a correlation between sensory specific (Urgency Perception Score) and quality of life questionnaire scores. We then assessed a correlation between sensory questionnaire scores and urodynamic variables, exploring the hypothesis that certain urodynamic parameters may be bladder sensation measures. We evaluated 2 urodynamic derivatives (first sensation ratio and bladder urgency velocity) to increase sensory finding discrimination. We noted a moderate correlation between the Urgency Perception Score (0.56) and the Urogenital Distress Inventory (0.74) vs the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (each p Perception Score and bladder capacity (-0.25, p sensation ratio and bladder urgency velocity statistically significantly correlated with the Urgency Perception Score despite the lesser or absent correlation associated with the individual components of these derivatives. Bladder sensation questionnaires may be valuable to identify patients with sensory dysfunction and provide additional data not obtained in generalized symptom questionnaires. Urodynamic variables correlated with bladder sensation questionnaire scores and may be an objective method to assess sensory dysfunction.

  11. Endoscopic lysis of bladder scar associated with Hunner's lesions: A new technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Bahlani

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Patients with IC/BPS may be severely debilitated by a clinically significant decrease in their bladder capacity, especially in the face of HL. The use of the holmium laser to incise regions of scar and bladder wall tethering may produce a clinically significant and durable increase in bladder capacity. The use of this technique as a means of treating bladder scarring poses an excellent adjunct to existing treatment strategies.

  12. Primary Bladder Neurofibroma: A Rare Case with Clinical Implications and Diagnostic Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umakanthan, Srikanth; Naik, Ramadas; Bukelo, Maryann Margaret; Rai, Sharada; Prabhu, Laxman

    2015-09-01

    Neurofibroma of the genito-urinary tract is rare. Urinary bladder is the commonest organ involved in cases of urinary tract involvement. Patients present early in life and there is male preponderance. We discuss here a case of primary neurofibroma of the urinary bladder in a 52-year-male presenting with haematuria, irritative bladder symptoms and pelvic mass. Cystoscopy showed a swelling in the left lateral wall. A transurethral biopsy revealed neurofibroma of the urinary bladder. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed the diagnosis.

  13. Single Large Bladder Stone in a Young Male Adult with Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Halalsheh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bladder stones are caused when minerals are built up in the bladder, especially if the bladder is incompletely emptied. These stones will pass while they are small. Otherwise, they get stuck to the bladder wall or ureter. If this happens, they gradually gather more mineral crystals, becoming larger over time. Primary hyperparathyroidism is usually caused by a tumor within the parathyroid gland, and elevated calcium levels can cause digestive symptoms, psychiatric abnormalities, bone disease and multiple kidney stones.

  14. CT diagnosis of intraperitoneal bladder rupture with blunt abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Fanbin

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate CT examination in the diagnosis of intraperitoneal bladder rupture (IPBR) caused by blunt abdominal trauma. Methods: All CT and clinical data of 9 patients with IPBR were reviewed retrospectively. Results: IPBR was detected on CT scans in all 9 patients. CT findings of IPBR included low -attenuation free intraperitoneal fluid collections in the lateral paravesical fossae, the pericolic space, the culde-sac of the pelvis, Morison's pouch, the peri-hepatic space, the perisplenic space and interspace of bowel loops in 9 cases with a lower CT density compared with pure blood. The disruption of the bladder wall was located by CT scan in 5 cases: high-attenuation bladder wall with focal defect in 3 cases and a tear drop-like deformity of the bladder in 2 cases. Other CT findings supporting the diagnosis of IPBR included an underfilled bladder in 8 cases, bladder contusion in 4 cases, and blood clots within the bladder in 6 cases. Conclusion: The presence of intraperitoneal fluid with a CT density less than that of pure blood strongly suggests extravasated urine in the trauma. Intraperitoneal and extraperitoneal rupture can be distinguished based on location of extravasated urine seen on CT scans. The precise localization of the ruptured bladder wall may be demonstrated by CT scan, which is valuable for surgical treatment

  15. MRI of perforated gall bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, B.; Jain, M.; Khandelwal, N.; Singh, P.; Suri, S.

    2002-01-01

    Gall bladder perforation is a dreaded complication of acute cholecystitis that, if not diagnosed early in the course, might have a poor prognosis. Both CT and ultrasonography have been used until now extensively for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, but diagnosis of perforation is always difficult. Magnetic resonance, by its superior soft tissue resolution and multiplanar capability, is a better modality and should fare better than ultrasonography and CT, as demonstrated in our case. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates the wall of the gall bladder and defects to a much better advantage and more convincingly. In addition, MR colangiopancreatography images demonstrate the biliary tree better than other modalities. We suggest that in the case of acute cholecystitis, if perforation is suspected and CT and ultrasonography are not conclusive, MR should be the modality of choice. It can be used as a first line of investigation; however, it might not be cost-effective. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  16. Sensory dysfunction of bladder mucosa and bladder oversensitivity in a rat model of metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chia Lee

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the role of sensory dysfunction of bladder mucosa in bladder oversensitivity of rats with metabolic syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female Wistar rats were fed a fructose-rich diet (60% or a normal diet for 3 months. Based on cystometry, the fructose-fed rats (FFRs were divided into a group with normal detrusor function or detrusor overactivity (DO. Acidic adenosine triphosphate (ATP solution (5mM, pH 3.3 was used to elicit reflex micturition. Cystometric parameters were evaluated before and after drug administration. Functional proteins of the bladder mucosa were assessed by western blotting. RESULTS: Compared to the controls, intravesical acidic ATP solution instillation induced a significant increase in provoked phasic contractions in both FFR groups and a significant decrease in the mean functional bladder capacity of group DO. Pretreatment with capsaicin for C-fiber desentization, intravesical liposome for mucosal protection, or intravenous pyridoxal 5-phosphate 6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid for antagonized purinergic receptors can interfere with the urodynamic effects of intravesical ATP in FFRs and controls. Over-expression of TRPV1, P2X(3, and iNOS proteins, and down-regulation of eNOS proteins were observed in the bladder mucosa of both fructose-fed groups. CONCLUSIONS: Alterations of sensory receptors and enzymes in the bladder mucosa, including over-expression of TRPV1, P2X(3, and iNOS proteins, can precipitate the emergence of bladder phasic contractions and oversensitivity through the activation of C-afferents during acidic ATP solution stimulation in FFRs. The down-regulation of eNOS protein in the bladder mucosa of FFRs may lead to a failure to suppress bladder oversensitivity and phasic contractions. Sensory dysfunction of bladder mucosa and DO causing by metabolic syndrome are easier to elicit bladder oversensitivity to certain urothelium stimuli.

  17. The paediatric neuropathic bladder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pathophysiological terms, a neurogenic bladder is caused by a spinal reflex arc that occurs when ... and potential progressive renal damage because of high bladder ... creatinine level, can also be used to assess kidney function. Urodynamic ...

  18. NMR imaging of bladder tumors in males. Preliminary clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigal, R.; Rein, A.J.J.T.; Atlan, H.; Lanir, A.; Kedar, S.; Segal, S.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of the normal and pathologic bladder was performed in 10 male subjects: 5 normal volunteers, 4 with bladder primary carcinoma, 1 with bladder metastasis. All scanning was done using a superconductive magnet operating at 0.5 T. Spin echo was used as pulse sequence. The diagnosis was confirmed in all cases by NMR imaging. The ability of the technique to provide images in axial, sagital and coronal planes allowed a precise assessment of the morphology and the size of the tumors. The lack of hazards and the quality of images may promote NMR imaging to a prominent role in the diagnosis of human bladder cancer [fr

  19. Manufacturing of small-scale mock-ups and of a semi-prototype of the ITER Normal Heat Flux First Wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banetta, S.; Zacchia, F.; Lorenzetto, P.; Bobin-Vastra, I.; Boireau, B.; Cottin, A.; Mitteau, R.; Eaton, R.; Raffray, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the manufacturing development and fabrication of reduced scale ITER First Wall (FW) mock-ups of the Normal Heat Flux (NHF) design, including a “semi-prototype” with a dimension of 305 mm × 660 mm, corresponding to about 1/6 of a full-scale panel. The activity was carried out in the framework of the pre-qualification of the European Domestic Agency (EU-DA or F4E) for the supply of the European share of the ITER First Wall. The hardware consists of three Upgraded (2 MW/m 2 ) Normal Heat Flux (U-NHF) small-scale mock-ups, bearing 3 beryllium tiles each, and of one Semi-Prototype, representing six full-scale fingers and bearing a total of 84 beryllium tiles. The manufacturing process makes extensive use of Hot Isostatic Pressing, which was developed over more than a decade during ITER Engineering Design Activity phase. The main manufacturing steps for the semi-prototype are described, with special reference to the lessons learned and the implications impacting the future fabrication of the full-scale prototype and the series which consists of 218 panels plus spares. In addition, a “tile-size” mock-up was manufactured in order to assess the performance of larger tiles. The use of larger tiles would be highly beneficial since it would allow a significant reduction of the panel assembly time

  20. Fatigue as Presenting Symptom and a High Burden of Premature Ventricular Contractions Are Independently Associated With Increased Ventricular Wall Stress in Patients With Normal Left Ventricular Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huls van Taxis, Carine F B; Piers, Sebastiaan R D; de Riva Silva, Marta; Dekkers, Olaf M; Pijnappels, Daniël A; Schalij, Martin J; Wijnmaalen, Adrianus P; Zeppenfeld, Katja

    2015-12-01

    High idiopathic premature ventricular contractions (PVC) burden has been associated with PVC-induced cardiomyopathy. Patients may be symptomatic before left ventricular (LV) dysfunction develops. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and circumferential end-systolic wall stress (cESS) on echocardiography are markers for increased ventricular wall stress. This study aimed to evaluate the relation between presenting symptoms, PVC burden, and increased ventricular wall stress in patients with frequent PVCs and preserved LV function. Eighty-three patients (41 men; 49±15 years) with idiopathic PVCs and normal LV function referred for PVC ablation were included. Type of symptoms (palpitations, fatigue, and [near-]syncope), PVC burden on 24-hour Holter, NT-proBNP levels, and cESS on echocardiography were assessed before and 3 months after ablation. Sustained successful ablation was defined as ≥80% PVC burden reduction during follow-up. Patients were symptomatic for 24 months (Q1-Q3, 16-60); 73% reported palpitations, 47% fatigue, and 30% (near-)syncope. Baseline PVC burden was 23±13%, median NT-proBNP 92 pg/mL (Q1-Q3 50-156), and cESS 143±35 kdyne/cm(2). Fatigue was associated with higher baseline NT-proBNP and cESS (PFatigue was independently associated with a significantly larger reduction in NT-proBNP. In patients with nonsuccessful ablation, NT-proBNP and cESS remained unchanged. In patients with frequent PVCs and preserved LV function, fatigue was associated with higher baseline NT-proBNP and cESS, and with a significantly larger reduction in NT-proBNP after sustained successful ablation. These findings support a link between fatigue and PVC-induced increased ventricular wall stress, despite preserved LV function. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. MR imaging of urinary bladder cancer for T-staging: a review and a pictorial essay of diffusion-weighted imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Mitsuru; Sasaki, Shigeru; Naiki, Taku; Kawai, Noriyasu; Kohri, Kenjiro; Hara, Masaki; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2013-12-01

    Treatment decisions for bladder cancer patients are mainly based on the depth of bladder wall invasion by the tumor. In this article, we review the conventional MRI and exhibit a recently emerged diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of urinary bladder cancer for T-staging. We discuss limitations of conventional MRI, scanning protocols of DWI, normal pelvic findings on DWI, determination of T-stage using DWI, and pitfalls of DWI. DWI provides high contrast between bladder cancer and background tissue because the cancer shows markedly high SI. DWI has high sensitivity for detecting the stalk seen in stage Ta or T1. An inflammatory change or fibrosis surrounding the tumor mimics the invasion of bladder cancer on T2-weighted imaging or enhanced MRI and could lead to over-staging, but DWI could differentiate them clearly because these benign changes do not show high SI on DWI. DWI is also useful for detecting ureteral, urethral, and prostatic extension by means of the urethra. DWI provides more accurate information on the extent of bladder cancer and contributes to determination of the treatment strategy. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Dosimetric uncertainties related to the elasticity of bladder and rectal walls: Adenocarcinoma of the prostate; Incertitudes dosimetriques relatives a l'elasticite de la paroi rectale et vesicale: adenocarcinome de la prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyant, C. [University of Corsica, Campus Grimaldi, 20250 Corte (France); CNRS UMR SPE 6134, University of Corsica, Campus Grimaldi, 20250 Corte (France); Radiotherapy Unit, Hospital of Castelluccio, BP 85, 20177 Ajaccio (France); Biffi, K.; Leschi, D.; Briancon, J.; Lantieri, C. [Radiotherapy Unit, Hospital of Castelluccio, BP 85, 20177 Ajaccio (France)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose. - Radiotherapy is an important treatment for prostate cancer. During treatment sessions, bladder and rectal repletion is difficult to quantify and cannot be measured with a single and initial CT scan acquisition. Some methods, such as image-guided radiation therapy and dose-guided radiation therapy, aim to compensate this missing information through periodic CT acquisitions. The aim is to adapt patient's position, beam configuration or prescribed dose for a dosimetric compliance. Methods. - We evaluated organ motion (and repletion) for 54 patients after having computed the original ballistic on a new CT scan acquisition. A new delineation was done on the prostate, bladder and rectum to determine the new displacements and define organ doses mistakes (equivalent uniform dose, average dose and dose-volume histograms). Results. - The new CT acquisitions confirmed that bladder and rectal volumes were not constant during sessions. Some cases showed that previously validated treatment plan became unsuitable. A proposed solution is to correct dosimetries when bladder volume modifications are significant. The result is an improvement for the stability of bladder doses, D50 error is reduced by 25.3%, mean dose error by 5.1% and equivalent uniform dose error by 2.6%. For the rectum this method decreases errors by only 1%. This process can reduce the risk of mismatch between the initial scan and following treatment sessions. Conclusion. - For the proposed method, the cone-beam CT is necessary to properly position the isocenter and to quantify bladder and rectal volume variation and deposited doses. The dosimetries are performed in the event that bladder (or rectum) volume modification limits are exceeded. To identify these limits, we have calculated that a tolerance of 10% for the equivalent uniform dose (compared to the initial value of the first dosimetry), this represents 11% of obsolete dosimetries for the bladder, and 4% for the rectum. (authors)

  3. Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy for murine bladder tumors: initiation of the response by fibronectin-mediated attachment of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, T L; Palmer, J O; McGarr, J A; Brown, E J

    1987-04-01

    Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is considered to be one of the most effective treatments for superficial bladder cancer. Although the mechanisms by which BCG inhibits tumor growth are not known, previous studies have shown that systemic immunization to BCG and the local expression of the immune response in the bladder are associated with a favorable response to BCG therapy. We have investigated the conditions required for the initiation of an immunological response after the intravesical instillation of BCG. Initial histological studies showed that BCG attached to the bladder wall only in areas where the urothelium was damaged by electrocautery and suggested that attachment was associated with the fibrin clot. Quantitative studies verified the histological observations. Minimal BCG attachment (mean less than 10(2) colony forming units) was observed in normal bladders in contrast with a mean of 1.42 X 10(4) colony forming units/bladder in bladders damaged by electrocautery (10 separate experiments). BCG attachment to the bladder wall was durable since organisms were observed in bladders 48 h after instillation. To investigate the proteins to which BCG attached, we tested the binding of BCG to extracellular matrix and inflammatory proteins which comprise a significant portion of the fibrin clot. BCG bound in vitro to coverslips coated in vivo with extracellular matrix proteins but did not bind to control albumin-coated coverslips. BCG also bound to coverslips coated with purified plasma fibronectin but not to coverslips coated with other purified extracellular matrix proteins including laminin, fibrinogen, and type IV collagen. BCG attachment to coverslips coated with either extracellular matrix proteins or purified fibronectin was inhibited by antibodies specific for fibronectin. Moreover, BCG attachment to cauterized bladders in vivo was inhibited by antifibronectin antibodies. These results demonstrate that fibronectin mediates the attachment of BCG

  4. Application of three-dimensional volumetric ultrasonography in patients with bladder cancer and its mimickers: A pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Sujin; Hong, Seong Sook; Hwang, Ji Young; Kim, Hyun Joo [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Various diseases of the urinary bladder can be demonstrated as being polypoid, a nodular bladder mass or as focal bladder wall thickening. This includes malignant or benign neoplasms, urinary stones, or other inflammatory bladder conditions. In daily practice many of these bladder diseases are easily confused with bladder cancer. On the other hand, ultrasonography (US) is safe and can be easily applied as a screening modality or an initial evaluating tool for urinary bladder disease. Furthermore, additional three-dimensional (3D) volumetric techniques can support more delicate delineation of these lesions. This study presents a 3D volumetric US for bladder lesions, and demonstrates various pathological conditions of the urinary bladder ranging from bladder cancer to other benign lesions.

  5. Experimental model of bladder instability in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasteghin K.T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Propose a new experimental model of bladder instability in rabbits after partial bladder obstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty North Folk male rabbits, weighting 1,700 to 2,820 g (mean: 2,162 g were studied. The animals were distributed in 2 experimental groups, formed by 15 rabbits each: Group 1 - clinical control. In this group there was no surgical intervention; Group 2 - bladder outlet obstruction. In this group, after anesthetizing the animal, urethral cannulation with Foley catheter 10F was performed and then an adjustable plastic bracelet was passed around the bladder neck. It was then adjusted in order to not constrict the urethra. The following parameters were studied in M1 - pre-operative period; M2 - 4 weeks post-operatively moments: 1- urine culture; 2- cystometric study; 3- serum creatinine and BUN. RESULTS: Bladder weight was 2.5 times larger in the group with obstruction than in the control group. Cystometric evaluation showed a significant increase in maximal vesical volume in the final moment at Group G2. However, there was no statistically significant difference among the groups studied. There was no statistically significant difference between maximal detrusor pressure and vesical compliance in the different moments or in the studied groups. There was an absence of uninhibited detrusor contractions in all the animals in group 1, and involuntary contractions were detected in 93% of group 2 animals. There was no significant variation in BUN and serum creatinine either among the groups or in the same group. CONCLUSIONS: We observed in the group with obstruction a bladder weight 2.5 higher than normal bladders. We detected involuntary contractions in 93% of the animals in group 2, establishing this experimental model as appropriate to secondary bladder instability and partial bladder outlet obstruction.

  6. Optimization of a divided wall column for the separation of C4-C6 normal paraffin mixture using Box-Behnken design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangal Vikas K.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, simulation of a divided wall column (DWC was carried out to study the product quality and energy efficiency as a function of reflux rate, liquid spilt and vapour split for the separation of C4-C6 normal paraffin ternary mixture. Rigorous simulation of the DWC was carried out using Multifrac model of ASPEN Plus software. Box-Behnken design (BBD was used for the optimization of parameters and to evaluate the effects and interaction of the process parameters such as reflux rate (r, liquid split (l and vapour split (v. It was found that the number of simulation runs reduced significantly for the optimization of DWC by BBD. Optimization by BBD under response surface methodology (RSM vividly underscores interactions between variables and their effects. The predictions agree well with the results of the rigorous simulation.

  7. Multiple imaging procedures including MRI for the bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikata, Noriharu; Suzuki, Makoto; Takeuchi, Takumi; Kunisawa, Yositaka; Fukutani, Keiko; Kawabe, Kazuki

    1986-01-01

    Endoscopic photography, double contrast cystography, transurethral echography, X-ray CT scan, and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) were utilized for the staging diagnosis of the four patients with carcinoma of the bladder. In the first case, a 70-year-old man, since all of the five imaging procedures suggested a superficial and pedunculated tumor, his bladder cancer was considered T1. The classification of stage T3 carcinoma was made for the second 86-year-old male. Because all of his imaging examinations showed a tumor infiltrating deep muscle and penetrating the bladder wall. The third case was a 36-year-old male. His clinical stage was diagnosed as T2 or T3a by cystophotography, double contrast cystogram, ultrasonography, and X-ray CT scan. However, MRI showed only thickened bladder wall and the infiltrating tumor could not be distinguished from the hypertrophic wall. The last patient, a 85-year-old female, had a smaller Ta cancer. Her double contrast cystography revealed the small tumor at the lateral bladder wall. But, the tumor could not be detected by transaxial, sagittal and coronal scans. Multiple imaging procedures combining MRI and staging diagnosis of the bladder carcinoma were discussed. (author)

  8. Visualisation of bladder cancer using 11C-choline PET: first clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, Igle J.; Pruim, Jan; Elsinga, Philip H.; Jongen, Maud M.G.J.; Vaalburg, Willem; Mensink, Han J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), the most widely used radiopharmaceutical in positron emission tomography (PET) for oncological purposes, is unsuitable for imaging of bladder cancer owing to high excretion into the urine. More specific PET radiopharmaceuticals which are not excreted into urine would be welcome. Carbon-11 labelled choline (CHOL) is a new radiopharmaceutical potentially useful for tumour imaging and is not excreted into the urine. We prospectively studied the visualisation of bladder cancer using CHOL PET. Eighteen patients with bladder cancer and five healthy volunteers were included. Bladder cancer was first diagnosed by transurethral resection or by biopsy of the tumour. Next, PET images were performed before surgical treatment by cystectomy. The histopathological findings after cystectomy were used as the gold standard. PET images were performed on either an ECAT 951/31 or an ECAT Exact HR+ system. Attenuation-corrected PET images were obtained after injection of 400 MBq CHOL. PET images were analysed by two independent physicians using visual analysis and calculation of the standardised uptake value (SUV). In the normal bladder wall, the uptake of CHOL was low, and the bladder margin was only outlined by minimal urinary radioactivity, if present. In ten patients the tumour was detected correctly by CHOL PET, with an SUV of 4.7±3.6 (mean±SD). One false positive CHOL PET scan was seen in a patient with an indwelling catheter for 2 weeks prior to the PET scan. In two patients, lymph node metastases were detected by CHOL PET. A micrometastasis <5 mm was not visualised with CHOL PET. In seven patients, no residual tumour was found after surgery. In six of seven patients CHOL PET imaging was negative. In situ carcinoma, dysplasia and a non-invasive urothelial tumour (pTa) remained undetected in three of these six patients. Minimal to no urinary tract radioactivity was seen in 22/23 subjects. Non-specific uptake of CHOL was observed in the small

  9. Transrectal bladder prolapse secondary to pelvic fracture in two dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivellenti, L Z; Silveira, M P; Silva, A N; Borin-Crivellenti, S; Raposo, T M M; Honsho, D K

    2014-08-01

    This report describes the exteriorisation of the urinary bladder in two dogs as a result of a laceration of the rectum from a traumatic pelvic fracture. Clinical examination and contrast radiography of the bladder were used as diagnostic tools. Both patients were treated with exploratory laparotomy, where traction of the bladder was utilised to pull the bladder through the traumatic rectal laceration allowing the organ to return to its normal anatomical position. This procedure was followed by surgical reconstruction of the rectum, resulting in effective resolution of each case. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  10. The concept of peripheral modulation of bladder sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, Jane E; Gillespie, James I

    2013-01-01

    It is recognized that, as the bladder fills, there is a corresponding increase in sensation. This awareness of the volume in the bladder is then used in a complex decision making process to determine if there is a need to void. It is also part of everyday experience that, when the bladder is full and sensations strong, these sensations can be suppressed and the desire to void postponed. The obvious explanation for such altered perceptions is that they occur centrally. However, this may not be the only mechanism. There are data to suggest that descending neural influences and local factors might regulate the sensitivity of the systems within the bladder wall generating afferent activity. Specifically, evidence is accumulating to suggest that the motor-sensory system within the bladder wall is influenced in this way. The motor-sensory system, first described over 100 years ago, appears to be a key component in the afferent outflow, the afferent "noise," generated within the bladder wall. However, the presence and possible importance of this complex system in the generation of bladder sensation has been overlooked in recent years. As the bladder fills the motor activity increases, driven by cholinergic inputs and modulated, possibly, by sympathetic inputs. In this way information on bladder volume can be transmitted to the CNS. It can be argued that the ability to alter the sensitivity of the mechanisms generating the motor component of this motor-sensory system represents a possible indirect way to influence afferent activity and so the perception of bladder volume centrally. Furthermore, it is emerging that the apparent modulation of sensation by drugs to alleviate the symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB), the anti-cholinergics and the new generation of drugs the β 3 sympathomimetics, may be the result of their ability to modulate the motor component of the motor sensory system. The possibility of controlling sensation, physiologically and pharmacologically, by

  11. Three-dimensional stereology as a tool for evaluating bladder outlet obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Der Wijk, Jasper; Van Der Wijk, Jan; Horn, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Objective. In a pilot study we evaluated whether implementation of a novel 3D stereologic technique can prove that bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) is associated with morphologic changes in the bladder wall. Material and methods. Ten males (mean age 69.7 years; range 58-84 years) with lower urinary...... tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of BOO and five controls (mean age 48.6 years; range 43-53 years) without LUTS were studied. All participants underwent a full examination, including determination of the International Prostate Symptom Score, laboratory analysis and a urodynamic evaluation. A cold....... Conclusions. This pilot study shows that, even with the implementation of subtle morphometric techniques, there seems to be no relationship between the severity of BOO and bladder wall morphology. It is possible that interstitial collagen in the bladder wall increases with age. It seems that bladder wall...

  12. Morphological alterations of the gall-bladder following extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, K.A.; Zoeller, A.; Swobodnik, W.; Janowitz, P.

    1990-01-01

    The present study reports on 51 patients with symptomatic cholecystolithiasis, who accordingly underwent extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL). In all cases, computed tomography (CT) was performed prior to and after the therapeutic procedure to delineate changes in gall-bladder morphology. Slight edematous thickening of the gall-bladder wall was found in 15 patients. One patient presented a rupture of the gall-bladder with formation of a bilioma in the adjacent liver tissue. In case of calcific concrements, CT revealed a characteristic pattern of fragment distribution following shock-wave treatment, and fragments of various sizes exhibited distinct adhesion to the gall-bladder wall. (orig.) [de

  13. Bladder pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanno, Philip; Nordling, Jørgen; Fall, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome is a deceptively intricate symptom complex that is diagnosed on the basis of chronic pelvic pain, pressure, or discomfort perceived to be related to the urinary bladder, accompanied by at least one other urinary symptom. It is a diagnosis of exclusion in a patient who has ex...... can be challenging, and misdiagnosis as a psychological problem, overactive bladder, or chronic urinary infection has plagued patients with the problem....

  14. Extra-uterine pregnancy with the bladder COmmunIcatIng

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    found in the bladder. The left adnexum was normal. A right salpingectomy was performed and the haematoma lining stripped from the bladder to expose the fistula. This was closed with three invaginating 2/0 extrachromic catgut sutures. A de Pezzer cathe- ter was inserted through ~he bladder fundus, a drain was inserted.

  15. Pheochromocytoma of the urinary bladder - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pheochromocytoma of the urinary bladder is a rare tumor and presents less than 0.06% of all urinary bladder tumors. Case report. We presented a 49-year-old female patient with a history of daily paroxysmal hypertension accompanied with flushing of the face and upper chest, palpitations and excessive sweating prior to micturition. Ultrasonography reported a 3 cm bladder wall tumor. The 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG scan showed a pathological isotope accumulation in the projection of the bladder. The patient underwent a partial cystectomy. One year following the operation the patient was normotensive and without recurrence. Conclusion. The most efficient treatment option for bladder pheochromocytoma is surgical resection. The most important fact in the diagnostics is suspicion on this rare condition.

  16. Endorectal magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate and bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimura, Yoshiki; Hayashi, Norio; Yamashita, Atsushi; Kinbara, Hiroyuki; Arima, Kiminobu; Tochigi, Hiromi; Kawamura, Juichi

    1994-01-01

    Endorectal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using an endorectal surface coil has been evaluated basically and clinically. This new modality obtained increased resolution magnetic resonance images of the pathologic conditions of the prostate and bladder. Compared with images obtained with a body coil, the surface coil images clearly demonstrate prostatic intraglandular zonal anatomy. The clear images of prostatic capsule and neurovascular bundle seen on the surface coil may contribute to the local staging of prostate cancer. The staging diagnosis of bladder tumor located in the bladder neck will be the best candidate for endorectal MRI. Enhancement with gadolinium may improve the ability to differentiate superficial from deep bladder-wall tumors. We concluded that endorectal MRI is safely performed and is extremely useful for the local staging of prostate cancer and bladder neck tumor. Further studies will be required to evaluate the clinical significance of this new modality. (author)

  17. The normal mouse urinary bladder reservoir function evaluated by repeated cystometries. Early and late changes after irradiation alone and irradiation combined with cis-diamine-dichloroplatinium (II) and cyclophosphamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundbeck, F.

    1994-01-01

    The main aim of the present thesis was 1) to develop and investigate the feasibility of an in vivo assay in mice using repeated cystometries in a long term study, 2) to demonstrate changes in the bladder reservoir function after radiation alone or combined with cyclophosphamide (CTX) or cis-diamine-dichloroplatinium (II) (cis-DDP), and 3) to investigate the radiation sensitivity of the bladder for changes in dose per fraction, and also to investigate whether there is an association between early and late radiation-induced change in bladder reservoir function. From the results presented the following can be concluded: Bladder fillings in anesthetized mice can be performed repeatedly in long term studies. The procedure is easy to perform and well tolerated by the animals. The level of radiation dose determines the degree of early response and the time of onset of the late response. Combinations with CTX or cis-DDP increase the early radiation response, and the late response is expressed at an earlier time compared with radiation alone. The mouse urinary bladder appears to be one of the least sensitive late responding tissues to changes in dose per fraction. 93 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  18. Taurine modulates neutrophil function but potentiates uropathogenic E. coli infection in the murine bladder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Condron, Claire

    2010-08-01

    Eradication of a urinary tract infection (UTI) appears to be related to a number of innate host defence mechanisms and their interactions with invading bacteria. Recurrent UTIs (rUTIs) pose a difficult problem in that these bacteria use both host and bacterial factors to evade elimination. Neutrophil bactericidal function is depressed, both systemically and in urine, in patients with a history of recurrent UTI. Taurine is a semi-essential amino acid and is successful in preserving neutrophil bactericidal function in urine. Taurine may preserve neutrophil function at the urothelium and thus aid UTI resolution. Adult female (6 weeks old) C57Bl\\/6 mice were randomised into three groups: a saline gavage only control group, a saline gavage + E. coli group, and a taurine gavage + E. coli group [21 g\\/70 kg taurine in 0.9% normal saline (N\\/S) for 5 days]. Whilst taurine gavage pre-treatment resulted in increased serum neutrophils respiratory burst activity, at the urothelial-endothelial interface it caused higher colony forming units in the urine and a higher incidence of E. coli invasion in the bladder wall with no evidence of increased bladder wall neutrophils infiltration on MPO assay of histological assessment. Histologically there was also evidence of reduced bladder inflammation and urothelial cell apoptosis. In conclusion, taurine effectively increases neutrophils activity but given its anti-inflammatory properties, at the expense of decreased urothelial-endothelial activation thus preventing clearance of active E. coli infection in the bladder. Despite the negative results, this study demonstrates the importance of modulating interactions at the urothelial interface.

  19. Dichorionic Diamniotic Twin Pregnancy Discordant for Bladder Exstrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Tu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 38 year-old woman presented with a dichorionic diamniotic twin pregnancy at gestational age of 32 weeks concerning for an abdominal wall mass in one of the twins. Initial ultrasound evaluation was suspicious for an omphalocele, but the affected twin was found to have bladder exstrophy at birth. This illustrates the difficulties of accurate prenatal diagnosis of bladder exstrophy in a twin pregnancy at a late gestation.

  20. An Unusual Case Of Urinary Bladder Arteriovenous Malformation

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gnanappiragasam, D

    2016-07-01

    A 45-year-old male presented with haematuria and urinary frequency. Computed Tomography (CT) urogram revealed gross thickening of the left bladder wall. Histology showed large vessels cuffed by eosinophonilic material suggestive of urinary bladder arteriovenous malformation (AVM). No further intervention was carried out as symptoms resolve after the resection. Follow up rigid cystoscopy and CT at 3 months showed resolution of all visible pathology and no evidence of recurrence.

  1. Overview of bladder heating technology: matching capabilities with clinical requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Paul R.; van Rhoon, Gerard C.

    2016-01-01

    Moderate temperature hyperthermia (40–450°C for one hour) is emerging as an effective treatment to enhance best available chemotherapy strategies for bladder cancer. A rapidly increasing number of clinical trials have investigated the feasibility and efficacy of treating bladder cancer with combined intravesical chemotherapy and moderate temperature hyperthermia. To date, most studies have concerned treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) limited to the interior wall of the bladder. Following the promising results of initial clinical trials, investigators are now considering protocols for treatment of muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). This paper provides a brief overview of the devices and techniques used for heating bladder cancer. Systems are described for thermal conduction heating of bladder wall via circulation of hot fluid, intravesical microwave antenna heating, capacitively coupled RF current heating, and radiofrequency phased array deep regional heating of the pelvis. Relative heating characteristics of the available technologies are compared based on published feasibility studies, and the systems correlated with clinical requirements for effective treatment of MIBC and NMIBC. PMID:26939993

  2. Tumor motion and deformation during external radiotherapy of bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotz, Heidi T.; Pos, Floris J.; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Herk, Marcel van; Lebesque, Joos V.; Duppen, Joop C.; Remeijer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: First, to quantify bladder-tumor motion in 3 dimensions during a 4-week to 5-week course of external radiotherapy. Second, to relate the motion to the tumor location on the bladder wall. Third, to extensively evaluate gross tumor volume (GTV) shape and volume changes during the course of the treatment. Methods and Materials: Multiple repeat computed tomography (CT) images were obtained for 21 bladder cancer patients. These scans were matched to the rigid bony anatomy. For each patient, the main direction and magnitude of the tumor movement was determined by use of principle-component analysis. To study GTV shape changes, all GTVs were registered to the GTV in the planning CT scan, and the residual shape errors were determined by measurement of edge variations perpendicular to the median surface. Results: Gross tumor volume translations were largest in cranial-caudal and anterior-posterior direction (SD, 0.1 to ∼0.9 cm). The translations were strongly correlated with the tumor location on the bladder wall. The average value of the local standard deviations of the GTV shape ranged from 0.1 to approximately 0.35 cm. Conclusions: Despite large differences in bladder filling, variations in GTV shape were small compared with variations in GTV position. Geometric uncertainties in the GTV position depended strongly on the tumor location on the bladder wall

  3. Tumor motion and deformation during external radiotherapy of bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotz, Heidi T [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pos, Floris J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Herk, Marcel van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lebesque, Joos V [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Duppen, Joop C [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Remeijer, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: First, to quantify bladder-tumor motion in 3 dimensions during a 4-week to 5-week course of external radiotherapy. Second, to relate the motion to the tumor location on the bladder wall. Third, to extensively evaluate gross tumor volume (GTV) shape and volume changes during the course of the treatment. Methods and Materials: Multiple repeat computed tomography (CT) images were obtained for 21 bladder cancer patients. These scans were matched to the rigid bony anatomy. For each patient, the main direction and magnitude of the tumor movement was determined by use of principle-component analysis. To study GTV shape changes, all GTVs were registered to the GTV in the planning CT scan, and the residual shape errors were determined by measurement of edge variations perpendicular to the median surface. Results: Gross tumor volume translations were largest in cranial-caudal and anterior-posterior direction (SD, 0.1 to {approx}0.9 cm). The translations were strongly correlated with the tumor location on the bladder wall. The average value of the local standard deviations of the GTV shape ranged from 0.1 to approximately 0.35 cm. Conclusions: Despite large differences in bladder filling, variations in GTV shape were small compared with variations in GTV position. Geometric uncertainties in the GTV position depended strongly on the tumor location on the bladder wall.

  4. Developments in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, L.; Niijima, T.; Prout, G.; Schroder, F.H.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 20 selections. Some of the titles are: Guidelines for Radiation Therapy in Clinical Research on Bladder Cancer; Transitional Cell Carcinoma in Situ; Policy on Monitoring and Reporting Results; Standardization of Protocol Formnd The Role of Cytology in the Diagnosis, Detection and Follow-up of Bladder Cancer

  5. Bladder pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanno, Philip; Nordling, Jørgen; Fall, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome is a deceptively intricate symptom complex that is diagnosed on the basis of chronic pelvic pain, pressure, or discomfort perceived to be related to the urinary bladder, accompanied by at least one other urinary symptom. It is a diagnosis of exclusion in a patient who has...

  6. Ultrasound: Bladder (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If You Have Questions Print en español Ultrasonido: vejiga What It Is A bladder ultrasound is a safe and painless test that ... Exam: Voiding Cystourethrogram (VCUG) Ultrasound: Renal (Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder) Urinary ... only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All ...

  7. Bladder exstrophy: An overview of the surgical management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veereshwar Bhatnagar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The surgical management of urinary bladder exstrophy is challenging. This paper describes the personal experience in a tertiary care hospital over a period exceeding a quarter of a century. Methods: During the period 1984-2010, 248 patients of the epispadias-exstrophy complex have been treated. The cases of classical bladder exstrophy (n = 210 form the basis of this paper. The stages/procedures used in the surgical reconstruction of bladder exstrophy included bladder closure with anterior abdominal wall reconstruction, bladder neck repair, ureteric reimplantation, epispadias repair and augmentation colocystoplasty in various combinations. Some of these patients had their initial operations done prior to 1984 or in other hospitals. Evaluation methods included, amongst others, clinical evaluation and urodynamic assessment. Eight patients opted out of treatment; 15 patients underwent permanent urinary diversion by either ureterosigmoidostomy or colon conduit. The remaining 187 patients were treated with bladder reconstruction, and of these, 132 patients have had at least one attempt at bladder neck reconstruction with 56 of these patients having undergone an augmentation colocystoplasty. Results: A total of 105 patients had socially acceptable continence: 57 from the bladder neck reconstruction group and 48 from the bladder augmentation group. Further attempts at continence surgery have been offered to the inadequately continent patients. Conclusions: Surgical management of bladder exstrophy demands patience and perseverance. It is possible to provide all patients with socially acceptable continence with bladder neck division and catheterizable continent stoma as the last resort. Urodynamic assessment has emerged as an essential tool in the follow-up evaluation of these patients. Anticholinergic medication with imipramine or oxybutinin is a useful adjunct in the overall management.

  8. Primary posterior perineal herniation of urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurumboor Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary perineal hernia is a rare clinical condition wherein herniation of viscera occurs through pelvic diaphragm. They are usually mistaken for sciatic hernia, rectal prolapse or other diseases in the perineum. Correct identification of the type of hernia by imaging is crucial for planning treatment. We present a case of primary posterior herniation of urinary bladder and rectal wall through levator ani repaired laparoscopically using a mesh repair.

  9. Development and use of a new perfusion technique to study glucose metabolism of the aortic wall in normal and alloxan-diabetic rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.J.M.

    1985-01-01

    This study investigated (1) possible alterations in glucose uptake and utilization in the perfused, normal, and diabetic vascular wall of rabbits and (2) the effects thereon of insulin and exogenous glucose concentration. Part I involved development and characterization of an in vitro perfusion technique that closely reproduced predetermined in vivo conditions of aortic blood flow, arterial blood pressure, heart rate and pulse pressure. The responsiveness of the preparation to vasoactive agents was assessed with concentrations of norepinephrine (NE) from 10 -9 to 10 -4 M. In Part II, the effects of NE-induced tension development on glucose metabolism were determined by perfusion with oxygenated physiological salt solution (PSS) containing 7 mM glucose and tracer amounts of uniformly labeled 14 C-glucose. Aortas from 8 week-diabetic rabbits were perfused under similar conditions employing a NE infusion in the presence or absence of insulin (150 uU/ml) and variable levels of glucose. Effects of NE-induced tension development include an apparent increase (39%) in glucose uptake and a twofold increase in 14 CO 2 and lactate production. Aortas from diabetic rabbits perfused with PSS containing 7 mM glucose demonstrated marked decreases in glucose uptake (74%), 14 CO 2 (68%), lactate (30%), total tissue glycogen (75%) and labeled tissue phospholipids (70%). Insulin or elevation of exogenous glucose to 25 mM (diabetic levels) normalized glucose uptake, but had differential effects on the pattern of substrate utilization. The marked alterations of glucose metabolism in the diabetic state may contribute to the functional changes observed in diabetic blood vessels

  10. Bladder calculus presenting as excessive masturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Alwis, A C D; Senaratne, A M R D; De Silva, S M P D; Rodrigo, V S D

    2006-09-01

    Masturbation in childhood is a normal behaviour which most commonly begins at 2 months of age, and peaks at 4 years and in adolescence. However excessive masturbation causes anxiety in parents. We describe a boy with a bladder calculus presenting as excessive masturbation.

  11. Profiling and comparison of color body wall transcriptome of normal juvenile sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) and those produced by crossing albino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Deyou; Yang, Hongsheng; Sun, Lina

    2014-12-01

    Sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) is one of the most important aquaculture animals in China. Usually its normal body color is black that fits its living environment. The juvenile individuals obtained by crossing albino sea cucumber segregated in body color. To document the transcriptome difference between albino associating sea cucumber and the control, we sequenced their transcriptomes with RNA-seq. Approximately, 4.790 million (M) and 4.884 M reads, 200 nt in length, were generated from the body wall of albino associating sea cucumber and the control, respectively, from them, 9550 (46.81%) putative genes were identified. In total, 583 genes were found to express differentially between albino associating sea cucumber and the control. Of these differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 4.8% changed more than five-folds. The expression levels of eight DEGs were confirmed with real-time PCR. The changing trend of these DEGs detected with real-time PCR agreed well with that detected with RNA-seq, although the change degree of some DEGs was different. Four significantly enriched pathways were identified for DEGs, which included phagocytosis, Staphylococcus aureus infection, ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion. These pathways were helpful for understanding the physiological difference between albino associating sea cucumber and the control.

  12. CT urography: segmentation of urinary bladder using CLASS with local contour refinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Kenny; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Chan, Heang-Ping; Caoili, Elaine M; Cohan, Richard H; Zhou, Chuan

    2014-01-01

    We are developing a computerized system for bladder segmentation on CT urography (CTU), as a critical component for computer-aided detection of bladder cancer. The presence of regions filled with intravenous contrast and without contrast presents a challenge for bladder segmentation. Previously, we proposed a conjoint level set analysis and segmentation system (CLASS). In case the bladder is partially filled with contrast, CLASS segments the non-contrast (NC) region and the contrast-filled (C) region separately and automatically conjoins the NC and C region contours; however, inaccuracies in the NC and C region contours may cause the conjoint contour to exclude portions of the bladder. To alleviate this problem, we implemented a local contour refinement (LCR) method that exploits model-guided refinement (MGR) and energy-driven wavefront propagation (EDWP). MGR propagates the C region contours if the level set propagation in the C region stops prematurely due to substantial non-uniformity of the contrast. EDWP with regularized energies further propagates the conjoint contours to the correct bladder boundary. EDWP uses changes in energies, smoothness criteria of the contour, and previous slice contour to determine when to stop the propagation, following decision rules derived from training. A data set of 173 cases was collected for this study: 81 cases in the training set (42 lesions, 21 wall thickenings, 18 normal bladders) and 92 cases in the test set (43 lesions, 36 wall thickenings, 13 normal bladders). For all cases, 3D hand segmented contours were obtained as reference standard and used for the evaluation of the computerized segmentation accuracy. For CLASS with LCR, the average volume intersection ratio, average volume error, absolute average volume error, average minimum distance and Jaccard index were 84.2 ± 11.4%, 8.2 ± 17.4%, 13.0 ± 14.1%, 3.5 ± 1.9 mm, 78.8 ± 11.6%, respectively, for the training set and 78.0 ± 14.7%, 16.4 ± 16.9%, 18.2 ± 15

  13. Implantable bladder volume sensor based on resistor ladder network composed of conductive hydrogel composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi Kyung Kim; Hyojung Kim; Jung, Yeon Su; Adem, Kenana M A; Bawazir, Sarah S; Stefanini, Cesare; Lee, Hyunjoo J

    2017-07-01

    An accurate bladder volume monitoring system is a critical component in diagnosis and treatment of urological disorders. Here, we report an implantable bladder volume sensor with a multi-level resistor ladder which estimates the bladder volume through discrete resistance values. Discretization allows the sensor output to be resilient to the long-term drift, hysteresis, and degradation of the sensor materials. Our sensor is composed of biocompatible polypyrrole/agarose hydrogel composite. Because Young's modulus of this composite is comparable to that of the bladder wall, the effect of mechanical loading of the sensor on the bladder movement is minimized which allows more accurate volume monitoring. We also demonstrate the patterning and molding capability of this material by fabrication various structures. Lastly, we successfully demonstrate the functionality of the multi-level resistor ladder sensor as a bladder volume sensor by attaching the sensor on the pig's bladder and observing the impedance change of the sensor.

  14. Polylactic-co-glycolic acid mesh coated with fibrin or collagen and biological adhesive substance as a prefabricated, degradable, biocompatible, and functional scaffold for regeneration of the urinary bladder wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Salah Abood; Hwei, Ng Min; Bin Saim, Aminuddin; Ho, Christopher C K; Sagap, Ismail; Singh, Rajesh; Yusof, Mohd Reusmaazran; Md Zainuddin, Zulkifili; Idrus, Ruszymah Bt Hj

    2013-08-01

    The chief obstacle for reconstructing the bladder is the absence of a biomaterial, either permanent or biodegradable, that will function as a suitable scaffold for the natural process of regeneration. In this study, polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) plus collagen or fibrin was evaluated for its suitability as a scaffold for urinary bladder construct. Human adipose-derived stem cells (HADSCs) were cultured, followed by incubation in smooth muscle cells differentiation media. Differentiated HADSCs were then seeded onto PLGA mesh supported with collagen or fibrin. Evaluation of cell-seeded PLGA composite immersed in culture medium was performed under a light and scanning microscope. To determine if the composite is compatible with the urodynamic properties of urinary bladder, porosity and leaking test was performed. The PLGA samples were subjected to tensile testing was pulled until PLGA fibers break. The results showed that the PLGA composite is biocompatible to differentiated HADSCs. PLGA-collagen mesh appeared to be optimal as a cell carrier while the three-layered PLGA-fibrin composite is better in relation to its leaking/ porosity property. A biomechanical test was also performed for three-layered PLGA with biological adhesive and three-layered PLGA alone. The tensile stress at failure was 30.82 ± 3.80 (MPa) and 34.36 ± 2.57 (MPa), respectively. Maximum tensile strain at failure was 19.42 ± 2.24 (mm) and 23.06 ± 2.47 (mm), respectively. Young's modulus was 0.035 ± 0.0083 and 0.043 ± 0.012, respectively. The maximum load at break was 58.55 ± 7.90 (N) and 65.29 ± 4.89 (N), respectively. In conclusion, PLGA-Fibrin fulfils the criteria as a scaffold for urinary bladder reconstruction. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Characterization of a Murine Model of Bioequivalent Bladder Wound Healing and Repair Following Subtotal Cystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Zarifpour

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous work demonstrated restoration of a bioequivalent bladder within 8 weeks of removing the majority of the bladder (subtotal cystectomy or STC in rats. The goal of the present study was to extend our investigations of bladder repair to the murine model, to harness the power of mouse genetics to delineate the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the observed robust bladder regrowth. Female C57 black mice underwent STC, and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks post-STC, bladder repair and function were assessed via cystometry, ex vivo pharmacologic organ bath studies, and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Histology was also performed to measure bladder wall thickness. We observed a time-dependent increase in bladder capacity (BC following STC, such that 8 and 12 weeks post-STC, BC and micturition volumes were indistinguishable from those of age-matched non-STC controls and significantly higher than observed at 4 weeks. MRI studies confirmed that bladder volume was indistinguishable within 3 months (11 weeks post-STC. Additionally, bladders emptied completely at all time points studied (i.e., no increases in residual volume, consistent with functional bladder repair. At 8 and 12 weeks post-STC, there were no significant differences in bladder wall thickness or in the different components (urothelium, lamina propria, or smooth muscle layers of the bladder wall compared with age-matched control animals. The maximal contractile response to pharmacological activation and electrical field stimulation increased over time in isolated tissue strips from repaired bladders but remained lower at all time points compared with controls. We have established and validated a murine model for the study of de novo organ repair that will allow for further mechanistic studies of this phenomenon after, for example, genetic manipulation.

  16. Bladder Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most common type of bladder cancer is transitional cell carcinoma, also called urothelial carcinoma. Smoking is a major risk factor for bladder cancer. Bladder cancer is often diagnosed at an early stage. Start here to find information on bladder cancer treatment, screening, research, and statistics.

  17. Photodynamic management of bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, A.; Stepp, H.; Beyer, W.; Pongratz, T.; Sroka, R.; Bader, M.; Kriegmair, M.; Zaak, D.; Waidelich, R.; Karl, A.; Hofstetter, A.; Stief, C.; Baumgartner, R.

    2009-06-01

    Bladder cancer (BC) is among the most expensive oncological diseases. Any improvement in diagnosis or therapy carries a high potential for reducing costs. Fluorescence cystoscopy relies on a selective formation of Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) or more general photoactive porphyrins (PAP) in malignant urothelium upon instillation of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) or its hexyl-derivative h-ALA. Fluorescence cystoscopy equipment has been developed with the aim to compensate for the undesired distortion caused by the tissue optical properties by displaying the red fluorescence simultaneously with the backscattered blue light. Many clinical studies proved a high sensitivity in detecting flat carcinoma in situ and small papillary malignant tumours. As a result, recurrence rates were significantly decreased in most studies. The limitation lies in a low specificity, caused by false positive findings at inflamed bladder wall. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is currently being investigated as a promising tool to overcome this limitation. H-ALA-PDT (8 or 16 mM h-ALA in 50 ml instillation for 1-2 h, white light source, catheter applicator) has recently been investigated in a phase I study. 17 patients were applied 100 J/cm2 (3 patients received incrementing doses of 25 - 50 - 100 J/cm2) during approx. 1 hour irradiation time in 3 sessions, 6 weeks apart. PDT was performed without any technical complications. Complete photobleaching of the PpIX-fluorescence, as intended, could be achieved in 43 of 45 PDT-sessions receiving 100 J/cm2. The most prominent side effects were postoperative urgency and bladder pain, all symptoms being more severe after 16 mM h-ALA. Preliminary evaluation shows complete response assessed at 3 months after the third PDT-session (i.e. 6 months after first treatment) in 9 of 12 patients. 2 of these patients were free of recurrence until final follow-up at 84 weeks.

  18. H-RAS, K-RAS, and N-RAS gene activation in human bladder cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybojewska, B; Jagiello, A; Jalmuzna, P

    2000-08-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in most developed countries. In this work, 19 bladder cancer specimens, along with their infiltrations of the urinary bladder wall from the same patients, were examined for the presence of H-RAS, K-RAS, and N-RAS activation using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. The H-RAS activation was found in 15 (about 84%) of the 19 bladder cancers studied. The same results were obtained in the infiltrating urinary bladder wall samples. N-RAS gene mutations were observed in all cases (except 1) in which H-RAS gene mutations were detected. The results suggest a strong relationship between H-RAS and N-RAS gene activation in bladder cancer. Changes in the K-RAS gene in bladder cancers seem to be a rare event; this is in agreement with findings of other authors. We found activation of the gene in one specimen of bladder cancer and its infiltration of the urinary bladder wall in the same patient.

  19. Lymphoma of the Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lymphoma of the urinary bladder (LUB is rare. Aims. To review the literature on LUB. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results. LUB can be either primary or secondary. The tumour has female predominance; most cases occur in middle-age women. Secondary LUB occurs in 10% to 25% of leukemias/lymphomas and in advanced-stage systemic lymphoma. Less than 100 cases have been reported. MALT typically affects adults older than 60 years; 75% are female. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is also common and may arise from transformation of MALT. LUB presents with haematuria, dysuria, urinary frequency, nocturia, and abdominal or back pain. Macroscopic examination of LUBs show large discrete tumours centred in the dome or lateral walls of the bladder. Positive staining of LUB varies by the subtype of lymphoma; B-cell lymphomas are CD20 positive. MALT lymphoma is positively stained for CD20, CD19, and FMC7 and negatively stained for CD5, CD10, and CD11c. LUB stains negatively with Pan-keratin, vimentin, CK20, and CK7. MALT lymphoma exhibits t(11; 18(q21: 21. Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for the MALT type of LUB with no recurrence. Conclusions. LUB is diagnosed by its characteristic morphology and immunohistochemical characteristics. Radiotherapy is a useful treatment.

  20. SU-F-J-05: The Effect of Air Pockets in the Urinary Bladder During Bladder Hyperthermia Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schooneveldt, G.; Kok, H.P.; Bakker, A.; Geijsen, E.D.; Reijke, T.M. de; Crezee, J. [Academisch Medisch Centrum / Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Hyperthermia combined with Mitomycin C is used for the treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), using a phased array system of microwave antennas for bladder heating. Often some air is present in the bladder, which effectively blocks the microwave radiation, potentially preventing proper treatment of that part of the bladder. Air can be a relevant fraction of the bladder content and large air pockets are expected to have a noticeable influence on achieved temperatures. Methods: We analysed 14 NMIBC patients treated at our institute with our AMC-4 hyperthermia device with four 70MHz antennas around the pelvis. A CT scan was made after treatment and a physician delineated the bladder on the CT scan. On the same scan, the amount of air present in the bladder was delineated. Using our in-house developed hyperthermia treatment planning system, we simulated the treatment using the clinically applied device settings. We did this once with the air pocket delineated on the CT scan, and once with the same volume filled with bladder tissue. Results: The patients had on average 4.2ml (range 0.8–10.1ml) air in the bladder. The bladder volume was delineated by the physician, that is including air pocket and bladder wall, was on average 253ml (range 93–452ml). The average volume in which changes exceeded 0.25°C was 22ml (range 0–108 ml), with the bladder being up to 2°C cooler when an air pocket was present. Except for extreme cases, there was no evident relation between the quantity of air and the difference in temperature. Conclusion: The effect of an air pocket in the bladder during bladder hyperthermia treatment varies strongly between patients. Generally, this leads to lower temperatures in the bladder, potentially affecting treatment quality, and suggesting that care need be taken to minimise the size of air pockets during hyperthermia treatments. The KWF Dutch Cancer Society financially supported this work, grant UVA 2012-5539.

  1. Contractility of the guinea pig bladder measured in situ and in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Groen (Jan); R. van Mastrigt (Ron); J.L.H.R. Bosch (Ruud)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractTo study the relative importance of neurogenic factors in detrusor contractility and to relate a total bladder in vitro contractility model to a previously described bladder wall strip model, active intravesical pressure values were compared in situ and in vitro in eight male guinea

  2. Collagen content in the bladder of men with LUTS undergoing open prostatectomy: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averbeck, Marcio A; De Lima, Nelson G; Motta, Gabriela A; Beltrao, Lauro F; Abboud Filho, Nury J; Rigotti, Clarice P; Dos Santos, William N; Dos Santos, Steven K J; Da Silva, Luis F B; Rhoden, Ernani L

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the collagen content in the bladder wall of men undergoing open prostate surgery. From July 2014 to August 2016, men aged ≥ 50 years, presenting LUTS and undergoing open prostate surgery due to benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) or prostate cancer were prospectively enrolled. Preoperative assessment included validated questionnaires (IPSS and OAB-V8), lower urinary tract ultrasound, and urodynamics. Bladder biopsies were obtained during open prostatectomy for determination of collagen content (sirius red-picric acid stain; polarized light analysis). Collagen to smooth muscle ratio (C/M) in the detrusor was measured and its relationship with preoperative parameters was investigated. The level of significance was P non-diabetic patients (17.71 ± 6.82% vs 12.46 ± 5.2%, respectively; P = 0.024). Reduced bladder compliance was also marker for higher collagen content (P = 0.042). Bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) was not a predictor of increased collagen deposition in the bladder wall (P = 0.75). Patients with PVR ≥ 200 mL showed a higher collagen to smooth muscle ratio in the bladder wall (P = 0.036). DM2 and urodynamic parameters, such as increased PVR and reduced bladder compliance, were associated with higher collagen content in the bladder wall of men with LUTS. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Leech in urinary bladder causing hematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Shadrul; Das Choudhary, Mrigen Kumar; Islam, Kabirul

    2008-02-01

    To estimate efficacy of normal saline in the management of hematuria caused by accidental entry of a leech per urethra into the urinary bladder. An intervention study was carried out in the Department of Pediatric Surgery of Sylhet MAG Osmani Medical College between January 1998 and December 2003. A total of 43 boys (mean age 8 years, SD+/-2.6) were enrolled. In all cases, a leech had entered the urinary bladder through the urethra causing hematuria. All patients were equipped with a self-retaining Foley catheter. They were managed by infusing 50ml of normal saline into the urinary bladder through the catheter that was then clamped for 3h. After removing the catheter, in all cases the whole leech was spontaneously expelled intact, dead or alive, within 2-24h during the subsequent act of micturition. Hematuria gradually diminished to a clear flow within the next 6h in 27 cases, 12h in 14 cases and 24h in two cases. All patients were followed up for 2 weeks, and none developed recurrent hematuria. Catheterization and irrigation of the urinary bladder with normal saline is a relatively simple, safe and inexpensive method of removing the leech and controlling hematuria.

  4. Stages of Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... above the waist. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood . They take out waste ... to bladder cancer. Being exposed to paints, dyes, metals, or petroleum products in the workplace. Past treatment ...

  5. Bladder Diseases - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF Health Information Translations Spanish (español) Expand Section Bladder Diseases: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Enfermedades de la vejiga: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) National ...

  6. Bladder perforations in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-20

    Nov 20, 2014 ... Mean recovery time for patients was 15 days. ... fracture.[1,2] Isolated bladder perforations are rare, and they .... PA, perineal injury, pelvic fracture. Trauma .... Lower genitourinary injury and pelvic fractures in pediatric patients.

  7. Surgical Management of Anatomic Bladder Outlet Obstruction in Males with Neurogenic Bladder Dysfunction: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordhoff, Toscane C; Groen, Jan; Scheepe, Jeroen R; Blok, Bertil F M

    2018-03-15

    Surgical treatment of anatomic bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) may be indicated in males with neurogenic bladder dysfunction. A bothersome complication after surgery is urinary incontinence. To identify the optimal practice in the surgical treatment of anatomic BOO in males with neurogenic bladder dysfunction, due to multiple sclerosis, Parkinson disease, spinal cord injury (SCI), spina bifida, or cerebrovascular accident (CVA). A systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. Medline, Embase, Cochrane controlled trial databases, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched for publications until January 2017. A total of 930 abstracts were screened. Eight studies were included. The types of anatomic BOO discussed were benign prostate obstruction, urethral stricture, and bladder neck sclerosis. The identified surgical treatments were transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) in patients with Parkinson, CVA or SCI, endoscopic treatment of urethral stricture by laser ablation or urethrotomy (mainly in SCI patients), and bladder neck resection (BNR) in SCI patients. The outcome of TURP may be highly variable, and includes persistent or de novo urinary incontinence, regained normal micturition control, and urinary continence. Good results were seen in BNR and endoscopic urethrotomy studies. Laser ablation and cold knife urethrotomy resulted in restarting intermittent catheterization or adequate voiding. Overall, a high risk of bias was found. This systematic review provides an overview of the current literature on the outcome of several surgical approaches of different types of anatomic BOO in males with neurogenic bladder dysfunction. Identifying the optimal practice was impossible due to limited availability of high-quality studies. The outcome of several surgical approaches in males with neurogenic bladder dysfunction with benign prostate obstruction, urethral stricture

  8. Real-time bladder volume monitoring by the application of a new implantable bladder volume sensor for a small animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Sup Lee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Although real-time monitoring of bladder volume together with intravesical pressure can provide more information for understanding the functional changes of the urinary bladder, it still entails difficulties in the accurate prediction of real-time bladder volume in urodynamic studies with small animal models. We studied a new implantable bladder volume monitoring device with eight rats. During cystometry, microelectrodes prepared by the microelectromechanical systems process were placed symmetrically on both lateral walls of the bladder, and the expanded bladder volume was calculated. Immunohistological study was done after 1 week and after 4 weeks to evaluate the biocompatibility of the microelectrode. From the point that infused saline volume into the bladder was higher than 0.6 mL, estimated bladder volume was statistically correlated with the volume of saline injected (p<0.01. Additionally, the microelectromechanical system microelectrodes used in this study showed reliable biocompatibility. Therefore, the device can be used to evaluate changes in bladder volume in studies with small animals, and it may help to provide more information about functional changes in the bladder in laboratory studies. Furthermore, owing to its biocompatibility, the device could be chronically implanted in conscious ambulating animals, thus allowing a novel longitudinal study to be performed for a specific purpose.

  9. Bladder cancer and schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghloul, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Schistosoma-associated bladder cancer was believed, for several decades, to be a completely unique entity of disease, different from urothelial cancer. This was probably due to its distinct clinico pathologic and demographic features that varied from those of urothelial entity. The carcinogenesis is an extremely complex process resulting from the accumulation of many genetic and epigenetic changes leading to alterations in the cell proliferation regulation process. In bladder cancer, many of these carcinogenic cascades were not fully documented or somewhat conflicting. In spite of the efforts performed, much is still needed to explore the presence or absence of the carcinogenic difference with a different etiology. The control of schistosomiasis in certain countries and the subsequent decrease in the intensity of infestation showed changing of features approaching that of urothelial tumors. However the schistosoma-associated bladder cancer presented in more advanced stages than schistosoma-non associated urothelial cancer. More recently, data are gathered that, upon applying the same treatment protocol and management care, stage by stage comparison of the treatment end-results were found to be similar in bladder cancer patients with a different etiology. All treatment options; including radical cystectomy with or without adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemo- or radiotherapy or tri modality bladder preserving treatment seem to lead to similar end-results regardless of etiologic factor(s) implicated in bladder cancer development.

  10. Urothelial carcinoma arising within bladder diverticulum—Report of a case and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-En Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bladder diverticulum is an outpouching of bladder mucosa through the musculature of the bladder wall. The incidence of bladder diverticulum in Taiwan is about 1.7% in children and 23.4% in adults. Intradiverticular carcinoma of urinary bladder is uncommon. It ranges from 0.8% to 14.3%. Here we report a case of urothelial carcinoma within a bladder diverticulum. A 60-year-old male patient had history of BPH under medical treatment and right ureteral stone treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL. He presented with painless gross hematuria about 3 months after ESWL. Intravenous pyelography showed a filling defect within the bladder diverticulum. Histopathological diagnosis of low grade urothelial carcinoma arising from the bladder diverticulum was made following cystoscopic biopsy. Laparoscopic partial cystectomy was performed with subsequent intravesical chemotherapy. Tumor recurrence was found not from the previous diverticulum but from another area during regular cystoscopy at the 6-month postoperative follow up. He underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor. Pathology revealed a noninvasive, high grade urothelial carcinoma. There was no further bladder tumor recurrence during the 1-year follow-up period. Bladder-sparing surgery with close cystoscopy follow up for intradiverticular urothelial carcinoma can be applied as an alternative treatment modality.

  11. Development of an interstitial cystitis risk score for bladder permeability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Lamb

    Full Text Available Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC is a multifactorial syndrome of severe pelvic and genitalia pain and compromised urinary function; a subset of IC patients present with Hunner's lesions or ulcers on their bladder walls (UIC. UIC is diagnosed by cystoscopy, which may be quite painful. The objective of this study was to determine if a calculated Bladder Permeability Defect Risk Score (BP-RS based on non-invasive urinary cytokines could discriminate UIC patients from controls and IC patients without Hunner's ulcers.A national crowdsourcing effort targeted IC patients and age-matched controls to provide urine samples. Urinary cytokine levels for GRO, IL-6, and IL-8 were determined using a Luminex assay.We collected 448 urine samples from 46 states consisting of 153 IC patients (147 female, 6 male, of which 54 UIC patients (50 females, 4 male, 159 female controls, and 136 male controls. A defined BP-RS was calculated to classify UIC, or a bladder permeability defect etiology, with 89% validity.The BP-RS Score quantifies UIC risk, indicative of a bladder permeability defect etiology in a subset of IC patients. The Bladder Permeability Defect Risk Score is the first validated urine biomarker assay for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

  12. Role of the chronic bacterial infection in urinary bladder carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgy, N.A.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to determine whether or not bacterial infection of the urinary bladder had a role in urinary bladder carcinogenesis. To investigate this proposition, four separate studies were conducted. The first study developed an experimental animal model where bacterial infection of the urinary bladder could be introduced and maintained for a period in excess of one year. The method of infection, inoculation of bacteria (Escherichia coli type 04) subserosally into the vesical wall, successfully caused persistent infection in the majority of animals. In the second study the temporal effects of bacterial infection on the induction of urothelial ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and 3 H-thymidine uptake and DNA synthesis were examined. Bacterial infection of the urinary bladder induced urothelial ODC with a peak in enzyme activity 6 hr after infection. 3 H-Thymidine uptake and DNA synthesis peaked 48 hr after infection and coincided with the urothelial hyperplasia that occurred in response to the infection. In the third study the specific bladder carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) was given to rats concurrent with the urinary bacterial infection. In the fourth study rats were administered sodium nitrate and either dibutylamine or piperazine in the drinking water. The infected group developed bladder tumors while none were detected in the non-infected rats. From these studies it may be concluded that bacterial infection may have a significant role in the process of urinary bladder carcinogenesis

  13. Segmental irradiation of the bladder with neodymium YAG laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhee, M.S.; Mador, D.R.; Tulip, J.; Ritchie, B.; Moore, R.; Lakey, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    The Neodymium YAG laser energy source can be readily adapted for cystoscopic use by some simple modifications of existing urologic equipment. Both the fiberoptic resectoscope and a deflecting cystourethroscope have been adapted for this purpose. Fixation of the fiber tip 1 cm. from the target and use of a divergent beam of 36 degrees allows the delivery of standardized dosage to a relatively large bladder tissue volume. Animal experiments involving 35 mongrel dogs established that repetitive overlapping doses of 200 joules ech can successfully treat a large area of bladder resulting in a full thickness bladder wall injury. This technique has been used in 4 high risk patients with infiltrating bladder cancer without adverse sequelae. The ability to reliably produce a full thickness lesion may give this modality a therapeutic advantage over conventional cautery techniques especially for the treatment of residual infiltrative carcinoma

  14. X-ray volume imaging in bladder radiotherapy verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, Ann M.; Stratford, Julia; McCarthy, Claire; Davies, Julie; Sykes, Jonathan R.; Amer, Ali; Marchant, Tom; Cowan, Richard; Wylie, James; Logue, John; Livsey, Jacqueline; Khoo, Vincent S.; Moore, Chris; Price, Pat

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the clinical utility of X-ray volume imaging (XVI) for verification of bladder radiotherapy and to quantify geometric error in bladder radiotherapy delivery. Methods and Materials: Twenty subjects undergoing conformal bladder radiotherapy were recruited. X-ray volume images and electronic portal images (EPIs) were acquired for the first 5 fractions and then once weekly. X-ray volume images were co-registered with the planning computed tomography scan and clinical target volume coverage assessed in three dimensions (3D). Interfraction bladder volume change was described by quantifying changes in bladder volume with time. Bony setup errors were compared from both XVI and EPI. Results: The bladder boundary was clearly visible on coronal XVI views in nearly all images, allowing accurate 3D treatment verification. In 93.5% of imaged fractions, the clinical target volume was within the planning target volume. Most subjects displayed consistent bladder volumes, but 25% displayed changes that could be predicted from the first three XVIs. Bony setup errors were similar whether calculated from XVI or EPI. Conclusions: Coronal XVI can be used to verify 3D bladder radiotherapy delivery. Image-guided interventions to reduce geographic miss and normal tissue toxicity are feasible with this technology

  15. Comparative study of image registration techniques for bladder video-endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hamadou, Achraf; Soussen, Charles; Blondel, Walter; Daul, Christian; Wolf, Didier

    2009-07-01

    Bladder cancer is widely spread in the world. Many adequate diagnosis techniques exist. Video-endoscopy remains the standard clinical procedure for visual exploration of the bladder internal surface. However, video-endoscopy presents the limit that the imaged area for each image is about nearly 1 cm2. And, lesions are, typically, spread over several images. The aim of this contribution is to assess the performance of two mosaicing algorithms leading to the construction of panoramic maps (one unique image) of bladder walls. The quantitative comparison study is performed on a set of real endoscopic exam data and on simulated data relative to bladder phantom.

  16. Portable bladder ultrasound: an evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the clinical utility of portable bladder ultrasound. TARGET POPULATION AND CONDITION Data from the National Population Health Survey indicate prevalence rates of urinary incontinence are 2.5% in women and 1.4 % in men in the general population. Prevalence of urinary incontinence is higher in women than men and prevalence increases with age. Identified risk factors for urinary incontinence include female gender, increasing age, urinary tract infections (UTI), poor mobility, dementia, smoking, obesity, consuming alcohol and caffeine beverages, physical activity, pregnancy, childbirth, forceps and vacuum-assisted births, episiotomy, abdominal resection for colorectal cancer, and hormone replacement therapy. For the purposes of this review, incontinence populations will be stratified into the following; the elderly, urology patients, postoperative patients, rehabilitation settings, and neurogenic bladder populations. Urinary incontinence is defined as any involuntary leakage of urine. Incontinence can be classified into diagnostic clinical types that are useful in planning evaluation and treatment. The major types of incontinence are stress (physical exertion), urge (overactive bladder), mixed (combined urge and stress urinary incontinence), reflex (neurological impairment of the central nervous system), overflow (leakage due to full bladder), continuous (urinary tract abnormalities), congenital incontinence, and transient incontinence (temporary incontinence). Postvoid residual (PVR) urine volume, which is the amount of urine in the bladder immediately after urination, represents an important component in continence assessment and bladder management to provide quantitative feedback to the patient and continence care team regarding the effectiveness of the voiding technique. Although there is no standardized definition of normal PVR urine volume, measurements greater than 100 mL to 150 mL are considered an indication for urinary

  17. Photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer in ex vivo urine cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, C. Y.; Ng, B. K.; Razul, S. Gulam; Olivo, Malini C.; Lau, Weber K. O.; Tan, P. H.; Chin, William

    2006-02-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth common malignant disease worldwide, accounting for 4% of all cancer cases. In Singapore, it is the ninth most common form of cancer. The high mortality rate can be reduced by early treatment following precancerous screening. Currently, the gold standard for screening bladder tumors is histological examination of biopsy specimen, which is both invasive and time-consuming. In this study ex vivo urine fluorescence cytology is investigated to offer a timely and biopsy-free means for detecting bladder cancers. Sediments in patients' urine samples were extracted and incubated with a novel photosensitizer, hypericin. Laser confocal microscopy was used to capture the fluorescence images at an excitation wavelength of 488 nm. Images were subsequently processed to single out the exfoliated bladder cells from the other cells based on the cellular size. Intensity histogram of each targeted cell was plotted and feature vectors, derived from the histogram moments, were used to represent each sample. A difference in the distribution of the feature vectors of normal and low-grade cancerous bladder cells was observed. Diagnostic algorithm for discriminating between normal and low-grade cancerous cells is elucidated in this paper. This study suggests that the fluorescence intensity profiles of hypericin in bladder cells can potentially provide an automated quantitative means of early bladder cancer diagnosis.

  18. Spontaneous Bladder Perforation in an Infant Neurogenic Bladder: Laparoscopic Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cabezalí Barbancho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous bladder perforation is an uncommon event in childhood. It is usually associated with bladder augmentation. We are presenting a case of bladder rupture in an infant with neurogenic bladder without prior bladder surgery. Three days after lipomyelomeningocele excision the patient showed signs and symptoms of acute abdomen. The ultrasound exploration revealed significant amount of intraperitoneal free fluid and therefore a laparoscopic exploration was performed. A posterior bladder rupture was diagnosed and repaired laparoscopically. Currently, being 3 years old, she keeps successfully dry with clean intermittent catheterization. Neurogenic bladder voiding function can change at any time of its evolution and lead to complications. Early diagnosis of spontaneous bladder rupture is of paramount importance, so it is essential to think about it in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen.

  19. Bladder filling variations during concurrent chemotherapy and pelvic radiotherapy in rectal cancer patients: early experience of bladder volume assessment using ultrasound scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jee Suk; Yoon, Hong In; Cha, Hye Jung; Chang, Yoon Sun; Cho, Yeo Na; Keum, Ki Chang; Koom, Woong Sub

    2013-01-01

    To describe the early experience of analyzing variations and time trends in bladder volume of the rectal cancer patients who received bladder ultrasound scan. We identified 20 consecutive rectal cancer patients who received whole pelvic radiotherapy (RT) and bladder ultrasound scan between February and April 2012. Before simulation and during the entire course of treatment, patients were scanned with portable automated ultrasonic bladder scanner, 5 times consecutively, and the median value was reported. Then a radiation oncologist contoured the bladder inner wall shown on simulation computed tomography (CT) and calculated its volume. Before simulation, the median bladder volume measured using simulation CT and bladder ultrasound scan was 427 mL (range, 74 to 1,172 mL) and 417 mL (range, 147 to 1,245 mL), respectively. There was strong linear correlation (R = 0.93, p < 0.001) between the two results. During the course of treatment, there were wide variations in the bladder volume and every time, measurements were below the baseline with statistical significance (12/16). At 6 weeks after RT, the median volume was reduced by 59.3% to 175 mL. Compared to the baseline, bladder volume was reduced by 38% or 161 mL on average every week for 6 weeks. To our knowledge, this study is the first to prove that there are bladder volume variations and a reduction in bladder volume in rectal cancer patients. Moreover, our results will serve as the basis for implementation of bladder training to patients receiving RT with full bladder.

  20. Paraganglioma of the urinary bladder with pelvic metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun-Hung Geng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 52-year-old male, diagnosed with paraganglioma of the urinary bladder, underwent transurethral resection of the bladder tumor 10 years ago. He was lost to follow-up after the operation but was recently admitted to our hospital for the treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer. However, refractory hypertension with palpitation was noted and a computed tomography scan revealed a round, well-defined mass at the right pelvic region. Retroperitoneal tumor excision surgery was performed and a subsequent pathological analysis revealed paraganglioma. The diagnosis of paraganglioma of the urinary bladder with pelvic metastasis was confirmed and his blood pressure returned to normal level without medication after the operation.

  1. Virtual 3D bladder reconstruction for augmented medical records from white light cystoscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Kristen L.; Zlatev, Dimitar V.; Angst, Roland; Liao, Joseph C.; Ellerbee, Audrey K.

    2016-02-01

    Bladder cancer has a high recurrence rate that necessitates lifelong surveillance to detect mucosal lesions. Examination with white light cystoscopy (WLC), the standard of care, is inherently subjective and data storage limited to clinical notes, diagrams, and still images. A visual history of the bladder wall can enhance clinical and surgical management. To address this clinical need, we developed a tool to transform in vivo WLC videos into virtual 3-dimensional (3D) bladder models using advanced computer vision techniques. WLC videos from rigid cystoscopies (1280 x 720 pixels) were recorded at 30 Hz followed by immediate camera calibration to control for image distortions. Video data were fed into an automated structure-from-motion algorithm that generated a 3D point cloud followed by a 3D mesh to approximate the bladder surface. The highest quality cystoscopic images were projected onto the approximated bladder surface to generate a virtual 3D bladder reconstruction. In intraoperative WLC videos from 36 patients undergoing transurethral resection of suspected bladder tumors, optimal reconstruction was achieved from frames depicting well-focused vasculature, when the bladder was maintained at constant volume with minimal debris, and when regions of the bladder wall were imaged multiple times. A significant innovation of this work is the ability to perform the reconstruction using video from a clinical procedure collected with standard equipment, thereby facilitating rapid clinical translation, application to other forms of endoscopy and new opportunities for longitudinal studies of cancer recurrence.

  2. Spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder in a woman with radiation cystitis. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurizaki, Yoshiki; Ishizuka, Osamu [Kofu Municipal Hospital, Yamanashi (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    A 79-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with gross hematuria and abdominal pain. She had had a uterine cancer 11 years previously and received 56 Gy {sup 60}Co external irradiation combined with 129 Gy {sup 137}Cs internal irradiation. She had a sign of pan-peritonitis. An emergency operation revealed an intraperitoneal rupture of the dome of the urinary bladder 8 cm in length. Because a primary suturing of the bladder wall was unsuccessful, bilateral cutaneous ureterostomy was performed. Histologically, the ruptured bladder wall showed a mucosal erosion and fibrosis of the muscle layer. (author)

  3. Review of underactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Huei Chang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In clinical practice, many patients cannot empty their bladders within an acceptable duration. Common complaints include weak urinary stream and incomplete emptying, which may affect quality of life. Bladder emptying requires sufficient detrusor contractile power, velocity, and durability. The urodynamic term for inadequate detrusor contraction is detrusor underactivity (DU. Although this definition was provided by the ICS, it may not be clinically practical. Analogous to the relationship between overactive bladder (OAB and detrusor overactivity (DO, the symptom complex caused by DU is termed underactive bladder (UAB. Many conditions lead to UAB, such as advanced age, neurogenic bladder and BOO, but the definite pathophysiology directly leading to UAB is still being widely studied without a widely-accepted consensus. The preferred mainstream treatment for increased residual urine volume caused by UAB is intermittent catheterization, while pharmacotherapy is still disappointing after decades of development. There are no studies on surgical treatment for UAB with an acceptable level of evidence. We reviewed the recent literature on UAB and DU to provide a comprehensive discussion of the related presentation, etiology, diagnosis and management.

  4. Bladder Saving Hysterectomy for Placenta Praevia Percreta | Dahiya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Placenta accreta is an abnormally firm attachment of placental villi to the uterine wall, which may cause postpartum hemorrhage. Placenta Percreta with invasion of the urinary bladder is a rare condition, which carries a high morbidity and mortality risk for mother and fetus. Case Report: The present case is of ...

  5. Prostatic-type polyp in the bladder. A case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B J; Christensen, S W; Eldrup, J

    1989-01-01

    A case of prostatic-type polyp in the wall of the urinary bladder in a 73-year-old male is presented. The literature concerning ectopic prostatic tissue in the urinary tract is reviewed and it is concluded that the lesion is benign. However, recurrence has been reported in two cases. The etiology...

  6. RARE CASE OF DESMOID TUMOR OF URINARY BLADDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalapathy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Desmoid tumor is a benign soft tissue tumor which belongs to a family of myofibroblastic fibromatoses. Occasionally, desmoid tumors have an unusual site of occurrence . We describe a case of incisional hernia in postmenopausal women with an intra operative incidental finding of a desmoid tumor from anterior wall of urinary bladder for which a wide excision was performed

  7. Genetics Home Reference: bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Registry: Malignant tumor of urinary bladder Other Diagnosis and Management Resources (1 link) MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Bladder Cancer General Information from MedlinePlus (5 links) Diagnostic Tests ...

  8. Stage-associated overexpression of the ubiquitin-like protein, ISG15, in bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, JB; Jensen, Mads Aaboe; Borden, EC

    2006-01-01

    Bladder cancer is among the most prevalent malignancies, and is characterised by frequent tumour recurrences and localised inflammation, which may promote tissue invasion and metastasis. Microarray analysis was used to compare gene expression in normal bladder urothelium with that in tumours...... at different stages of progression. The innate immune response gene, interferon-stimulated gene 15 kDa (ISG15, GIP2), was highly expressed at all stages of bladder cancer as compared to normal urothelium. Western blotting revealed a tumour-associated expression of ISG15 protein. ISG15 exhibited a stage...... component of bladder cancer-associated gene expression....

  9. Mutational analysis of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor pathway demonstrates that GPI-anchored proteins are required for cell wall biogenesis and normal hyphal growth in Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Shaun M; Piwowar, Amy; Al Dabbous, Mash'el; Vierula, John; Free, Stephen J

    2006-03-01

    Using mutational and proteomic approaches, we have demonstrated the importance of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor pathway for cell wall synthesis and integrity and for the overall morphology of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. Mutants affected in the gpig-1, gpip-1, gpip-2, gpip-3, and gpit-1 genes, which encode components of the N. crassa GPI anchor biosynthetic pathway, have been characterized. GPI anchor mutants exhibit colonial morphologies, significantly reduced rates of growth, altered hyphal growth patterns, considerable cellular lysis, and an abnormal "cell-within-a-cell" phenotype. The mutants are deficient in the production of GPI-anchored proteins, verifying the requirement of each altered gene for the process of GPI-anchoring. The mutant cell walls are abnormally weak, contain reduced amounts of protein, and have an altered carbohydrate composition. The mutant cell walls lack a number of GPI-anchored proteins, putatively involved in cell wall biogenesis and remodeling. From these studies, we conclude that the GPI anchor pathway is critical for proper cell wall structure and function in N. crassa.

  10. Expression of Bmi-1 is a prognostic marker in bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Li-Hua

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular mechanisms of the development and progression of bladder cancer are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to analyze the expression of Bmi-1 protein and its clinical significance in human bladder cancer. Methods We examined the expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and Bmi-1 protein by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively in 14 paired bladder cancers and the adjacent normal tissues. The expression of Bmi-1 protein in 137 specimens of bladder cancer and 30 specimens of adjacent normal bladder tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were applied to test the relationship between expression of Bmi-1, and clinicopathologic features and prognosis. Results Expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and protein was higher in bladder cancers than in the adjacent normal tissues in 14 paired samples (P P P P P > 0.5. In superficial bladder cancers, the expression of Bmi-1 protein in recurrent cases was higher than in recurrence-free cases (62.5% versus 13.7%, P P P > 0.05. Five-year survival in the group with higher Bmi-1 expression was 50.8%, while it was 78.5% in the group with lower Bmi-1 expression (P P Conclusion Expression of Bmi-1 was greater in bladder cancers than in the adjacent normal tissues. The examination of Bmi-1 protein expression is potentially valuable in prognostic evaluation of bladder cancer.

  11. Labelling of anti-human bladder tumor chimeric antibody with 99Tcm and radioimmunoimaging of bladder carcinoma xenograft in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunli; Wang Rongfu; Fu Zhanli; Bai Yin; Ding Yi; Yu Lizhang

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the in vitro immunoreactivity and in vivo tissue distribution, tumor targeting property of anti-human bladder tumor human-murine chimeric antibody (ch-BDI) labeled with 99 Tc m and to investigate its possibility for being used in guiding diagnosis and guiding therapy of bladder cancer. Methods: The ch-BDI was labeled with 99 Tc m by improved Schwarz method and the labeled antibody was purified by Sephadex G-50. Labeling yield and radiochemical purity were measured by paper chromatography. The immunoreactive fraction and association constant (K a ) were measured by Lindmo method and Scatchard analysis, respectively. 11.1 MBq (30 μg) 99 Tc m -ch-BDI was intravenously injected into nude mice bearing human bladder cancer xenografts in the right thigh and radioimmunoimaging (RII) was performed 2, 6, 20 and 24 h postinjection. The images were processed by region of interest (ROI) method to acquire the counts of whole body and the tumor and the counts ratios of tumor to contralateral normal tissue or to tissues of other non-tumor bearing organs. The mice were killed after 24 h postinjection imaging and tissue distribution was measured. %ID/g and target to nontarget (T/NT) ratios were calculated. Results: The labeling yield and radiochemical purity of 99 Tc m -ch-BDI were (66.5±7.3)% and >90%, respectively. The immunoreactive fraction was 76% and K a was 3.56 x 10 9 L/mol. RII showed that the tumor was clearly visualized 6 h postinjection and becoming clearer along with time prolonging. The radioactivity of whole body decreased rapidly with time, whereas the radioactivity of the tumor decreased slowly. The T/NT ratios was increased with time. Biodistribution results showed that tumor uptake was 17.4%ID/g 24 h postinjection. T/NT ratios were very high except for the kidney. T/NT ratios for brain, muscle, intestinal wall, bone and heart wall were 136.0, 55.1, 39.3, 29.7 and 27.9, respectively. Conclusion: 99 Tc m -ch-BDI exhibits excellent

  12. Four cases of spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Toshiyasu; Miwa, Sotaro; Takashima, Hiroshi; Takemae, Katsuro

    2002-01-01

    Between November 1997 and March 2001, 4 female patients from 44 to 65 years of age with a spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder were analyzed. They complained of abdominal pain and had undergone an intra-pelvic gynecological operation (3 for uterine cancer, 1 for an ovarian cyst) several years before. The three with uterine cancer had also received radiation therapy. For their present condition, spontaneous urinary bladder rupture, their treatment was indwelling a urethral catheter. Two of them have had no recurrence of urinary bladder rupture after one month since having the urethral catheter indwelt. One, however, had to have the catheter re-indwelt due to unsuccessful suturing of the urinary bladder wall. The fourth patient had bilateral nephrostomy tubes due to severe radiation cystitis. Thus, one can infer that intra-pelvic gynecological operations and radiation therapy are major factors causing spontaneous urinary bladder rupture. While indwelling a urethral catheter may be effective for some patients with a spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder, it may be very difficult to treat more complicated cases. (author)

  13. A huge bladder calculus causing acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komeya, Mitsuru; Sahoda, Tamami; Sugiura, Shinpei; Sawada, Takuto; Kitami, Kazuo

    2013-02-01

    A 81-year-old male was referred to our emergency outpatient unit due to acute renal failure. The level of serum creatinine was 276 μmol/l. A CT scan showed bilateral hydronephroureter, large bladder stone (7 cm × 6 cm × 6 cm) and bladder wall thickness. He was diagnosed as post renal failure due to bilateral hydronephroureter. Large bladder stone is thought to be the cause of bilateral hydronephroureter and renal failure. To improve renal failure, we performed open cystolithotomy and urethral catheterization. Three days after the surgery, the level of serum creatinine decreased to 224 μmol/l. He was discharged from our hospital with uneventful course. Bladder calculus is thought to be a rare cause of renal failure. We summarize the characteristics of bladder calculus causing renal failure. We should keep that long-term pyuria and urinary symptom, and repeated urinary tract infection can cause huge bladder calculus and renal failure in mind.

  14. Intra- and Intersexual swim bladder dimorphisms in the plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus): Implications of swim bladder proximity to the inner ear for sound pressure detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Robert A; Whitchurch, Elizabeth A; Anderson, Ryan D; Forlano, Paul M; Fay, Richard R; Ketten, Darlene R; Cox, Timothy C; Sisneros, Joseph A

    2017-11-01

    The plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, is a nocturnal marine teleost that uses social acoustic signals for communication during the breeding season. Nesting type I males produce multiharmonic advertisement calls by contracting their swim bladder sonic muscles to attract females for courtship and spawning while subsequently attracting cuckholding type II males. Here, we report intra- and intersexual dimorphisms of the swim bladder in a vocal teleost fish and detail the swim bladder dimorphisms in the three sexual phenotypes (females, type I and II males) of plainfin midshipman fish. Micro-computerized tomography revealed that females and type II males have prominent, horn-like rostral swim bladder extensions that project toward the inner ear end organs (saccule, lagena, and utricle). The rostral swim bladder extensions were longer, and the distance between these swim bladder extensions and each inner-ear end organ type was significantly shorter in both females and type II males compared to that in type I males. Our results revealed that the normalized swim bladder length of females and type II males was longer than that in type I males while there was no difference in normalized swim bladder width among the three sexual phenotypes. We predict that these intrasexual and intersexual differences in swim bladder morphology among midshipman sexual phenotypes will afford greater sound pressure sensitivity and higher frequency detection in females and type II males and facilitate the detection and localization of conspecifics in shallow water environments, like those in which midshipman breed and nest. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Radiotherapy of bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yoshiyuki

    1978-01-01

    Methods of treating bladder cancer include surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, as well as various combinations of these. The author investigated clinically and histopathologically the therapeutic results of preoperative irradiation in cases of bladder cancer. 1. The survival rates (crude survival rates) in forty cases of bladder cancer were 90% after one year, 62.5% after three years and 46% after five years from the treatment. 2. As the result of irradiation, urogram improved in 25%, which was comparatively remarkable in high stage cases. There were no cases of deterioration of urogram findings caused by irradiation. Cystoscopy revealed disappearance or remarkable shrinkage of the tumors in 35% of the total cases and effects of the irradiation was observed not correlated to the stage and grade. 3. With respect to the histopathological changes, the changes became greater as the dosage increased and the higher the stage and grade were the more remarkable tendency was observed. 4. From our clinical observations such as urogram, cystoscopy and histopathologically, we estimated the optimum dosage of preoperative irradiation for bladder cancer is 3000 - 4000 rad. Thus, we concluded that the radiotherapy is effective in reducing both surgical invasion and postoperative recurrence. (author)

  16. Discoidin domain receptor 1 activity drives an aggressive phenotype in bladder cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Xin; Rui, Wenbin; He, Wei; Shao, Yuan; Sun, Fukang; Zhou, Wenlong; Wu, Yuxuan; Zhu, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) is a receptor tyrosine kinase which utilizes collagen as a ligand to regulate the interaction between cancer cells and tumor stroma. However, the clinical relevance of DDR1 expression in bladder cancer as well as its molecular regulation have not been previously investigated. Here, we assessed the role of DDR1 in bladder cancer. The DDR1 levels in bladder cancer specimens were examined by Western blot, compared to the paired adhesive normal controls. The eff...

  17. [Congenital bladder diverticula and vesicoureteral reflux].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garat, José María; Angerri, Oriol; Caffaratti, Jorge; Moscatiello, Pietro

    2008-03-01

    To analyze our series of primary congenital diverticula (PCD) and their association with vesicoureteral reflux. We have taken care of 23 children with PCD. Eleven of them had big diverticula (> 2 cm) and twelve small. In the first group, 4 children had vesicoureteral reflux and 5 in the second group. In group A, ureteral reimplantation was performed at the time of diverticulum excision. Nor diverticula neither refluxes were operated in group B. We analyze separately results in both groups. Group A: Patients were operated including diverticulum excision. There were not recurrences except in one case with Ehler-Danlos Syndrome. No reimplanted ureter showed postoperative reflux. Nevertheless, one case with multiple bladder diverticula without reflux presented reflux after the excision of several diverticula without reimplantation. Group B: Small diverticula did not undergo surgery Spontaneous outcome of reflux was similar to that of the general population without diverticula. Bladder diverticula are frequently associated with vesicoureteral reflux. The presence of reflux is not an absolute condition for surgical or endoscopic treatment. When diverticula are big in size (Group A) the indication for surgery comes from recurrent infection or voiding disorders, not from reflux. If they undergo surgery, ureteral reimplantation is performed in the case they had reflux or for technical reasons like bladder wall weakness. When diverticula are small (Group B) the presence of reflux does not condition treatment, being the rate of spontaneous resolution similar to the general population.

  18. Does phosphorylation of cofilin affect the progression of human bladder cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hong; Kim, Hong Sup; Kim, Bokyung; Jung, Seung-Hyo; Won, Kyung-Jong; Jiang, Xiaowen; Lee, Chang-Kwon; Lim, So Dug; Yang, Sang-Kuk; Song, Ki Hak

    2013-01-01

    We determined the differently expressed protein profiles and their functions in bladder cancer tissues with the aim of identifying possible target proteins and underlying molecular mechanisms for taking part in their progression. We examined the expression of proteins by proteomic analysis and western blot in normal urothelium, non-muscle-invasive bladder cancers (NMIBCs), and muscle-invasive bladder cancers (MIBCs). The function of cofilin was analyzed using T24 human bladder cancer cells. The expression levels of 12 proteins were altered between bladder cancers and normal bladder tissues. Of these proteins, 14-3-3σ was upregulated in both NMIBCs and MIBCs compared with controls. On the other hand, myosin regulatory light chain 2, galectin-1, lipid-binding AI, annexin V, transthyretin, CARD-inhibitor of NF-κB-activating ligand, and actin prepeptide were downregulated in cancer samples. Cofilin, an actin-depolymerizing factor, was prominent in both NMIBCs and MIBCs compared with normal bladder tissues. Furthermore, we confirmed that cofilin phosphorylation was more prominent in MIBCs than in NMIBCs using immunoblotting and immunohistochemcal analyses. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) increased the phosphorylation of cofilin and elevated the migration in T24 cells. Knockdown of cofilin expression with small interfering RNA attenuated the T24 cell migration in response to EGF. These results demonstrate that the increased expression and phosphorylation of cofilin might play a role in the occurrence and invasiveness of bladder cancer. We suspected that changes in cofilin expression may participate in the progression of the bladder cancer

  19. Urofacial syndrome: A subset of neurogenic bladder dysfunction syndromes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K N Stamatiou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The urofacial syndrome is probably a subset of neurogenic bladder dysfunction syndromes characterized by detrusor-sphincter discoordination along with a characteristic inversion of facial expression with laughing. This characteristic facial expression can facilitate early detection of this disorder, which leads to poor bladder emptying with high residual urine, hydro-nephrosis with vesico-ureteral reflux and potentially renal failure if left untreated. The etiology of the urofacial syndrome is unknown. In our case, a 12-year-old boy of Middle-Eastern origin presented to the Outpatient Department of our hospital with left pyelonephritis, hydronephrosis and bladder dilatation. Voiding cystourethrography performed 15 days later revealed left vesicoureteral reflux. Cystoscopy revealed bladder trabeculation however an anatomic urethral obstruction was not noticed. Both, neurological examination and radiography of the lumbosacral spine were normal. Urodynamic evaluation revealed the typical findings of detrusor-sphincter discoordination.

  20. Guidelines for radiation therapy in clinical research on bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipley, W.U.; VanderSchueren, E.; Kitagawa, T.; Gospodarowicz, M.K.; Frommhold, H.; Magno, L.; Mochizuki, S.; VanderBogaert, W.; VanderWerf-Messing, B.

    1986-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease and that there are important tumor characteristics that will predict significant differences in radiation responsiveness. These should in all instances be well documented prospectively in any treatment protocol. However, in this chapter the authors stress a number of factors related to the tumor at presentation as well as the administration of the radiation therapy that can importantly affect the efficacy of the radiation on the patient's tumor, as well as on his or her normal tissues. As Radiation Oncologists, they are most interested in the conducting and reporting of prospective clinical investigations in the use of radiation therapy in the treatment of patients with bladder carcinoma who will be treated with planned preservation of their bladder, but whose radiation therapy may be combined with additional planned bladder-sparing surgery, intraoperative radiation therapy, or chemotherapy

  1. Oncoprotein DEK as a tissue and urinary biomarker for bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Antara; Adelson, Martin E; Mogilevkin, Yakov; Mordechai, Eli; Sidi, Abraham A; Trama, Jason P

    2011-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a significant healthcare problem in the United States of America with a high recurrence rate. Early detection of bladder cancer is essential for removing the tumor with preservation of the bladder, avoiding metastasis and hence improving prognosis and long-term survival. The objective of this study was to analyze the presence of DEK protein in voided urine of bladder cancer patients as a urine-based bladder cancer diagnostic test. We examined the expression of DEK protein by western blot in 38 paired transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) bladder tumor tissues and adjacent normal tissue. The presence of DEK protein in voided urine was analyzed by western blot in 42 urine samples collected from patients with active TCC, other malignant urogenital disease and healthy individuals. The DEK protein is expressed in 33 of 38 bladder tumor tissues with no expression in adjacent normal tissue. Based on our sample size, DEK protein is expressed in 100% of tumors of low malignant potential, 92% of tumors of low grade and in 71% of tumors of high grade. Next, we analyzed 42 urine samples from patients with active TCC, other malignant urogenital disease, non-malignant urogenital disease and healthy individuals for DEK protein expression by western blot analysis. We are the first to show that the DEK protein is present in the urine of bladder cancer patients. Approximately 84% of TCC patient urine specimens were positive for urine DEK. Based on our pilot study of 38 bladder tumor tissue and 42 urine samples from patients with active TCC, other malignant urogenital disease, non-malignant urogenital disease and healthy individuals; DEK protein is expressed in bladder tumor tissue and voided urine of bladder cancer patients. The presence of DEK protein in voided urine is potentially a suitable biomarker for bladder cancer and that the screening for the presence of DEK protein in urine can be explored as a noninvasive diagnostic test for bladder cancer

  2. SU-E-J-83: CBCT Based Rectum and Bladder Dose Tracking in the Prostate Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z; Wang, J; Yang, Z; Hu, W [Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to monitor the volume changes of bladder and rectum and evaluate the dosimetric changes of bladder and rectum using daily cone-beam CT for prostate radiotherapy. Methods: The data of this study were obtained from 12 patients, totally 222 CBCTs. All the volume of the bladder and the rectum on the CBCT were normalized to the bladder and the rectum on their own original CT to monitory the volume changes. To evaluate dose delivered to the OARs, volumes that receive 70Gy (V70Gy), 60Gy, 50Gy, 40Gy and 30Gy are calculated for the bladder and the rectum, V20Gy and V10Gy for rectum additionally. And the deviation of the mean dose to the bladder and the rectum are also chosen as the evaluation parameter. Linear regression analysis was performed to identify the mean dose change of the volume change using SPSS 19. Results: The results show that the variances of the normalize volume of the bladder and the rectum are 0.15–0.58 and 0.13–0.50. The variances of V70Gy, V60Gy, V50Gy, V40Gy and V30Gy of bladder are bigger than rectum for 11 patients. The linear regression analysis indicated a negative correlation between the volume and the mean dose of the bladder (p < 0.05). A 10% increase in bladder volume will cause 5.1% (±4.3%) reduction in mean dose. Conclusion: The bladder volume change is more significant than that for rectum for the prostate cancer patient. The volume changes of rectum are not significant except air gap in the rectum. Bladder volume varies will cause significant dose change. The bladder volume monitoring before fractional treatment delivery would be crucial for accuracy dose delivery.

  3. An improved delivery system for bladder irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslemi, Mohammad K; Rajaei, Mojtaba

    2010-10-05

    Occasionally, urologists may see patients requiring temporary bladder irrigation at hospitals without stocks of specialist irrigation apparatus. One option is to transfer the patient to a urology ward, but often there are outstanding medical issues that require continued specialist input. Here, we describe an improved system for delivering temporary bladder irrigation by utilizing readily available components and the novel modification of a sphygmomanometer blub. This option is good for bladder irrigation in patients with moderate or severe gross hematuria due to various causes. In this prospective study from March 2007 to April 2009, we used our new system in eligible cases. In this system, an irrigant bag with 1 L of normal saline was suspended 80 cm above the indwelled 3-way Foley catheter, and its drainage tube was inserted into the irrigant port of the catheter. To increase the flow rate of the irrigant system, we inserted a traditional sphygmomanometer bulb at the top of the irrigant bag. This closed system was used for continuous bladder irrigation (CBI) in patients who underwent open prostatectomy, transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), or transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB). This high-pressure system is also used for irrigation during cystourethroscopy, internal urethrotomy, and transurethral lithotripsy. Our 831 eligible cases were divided into two groups: group 1 were endourologic cases and group 2 were open prostatectomy, TURP, and TURB cases. The maximum and average flow rates were evaluated. The efficacy of our new system was compared prospectively with the previous traditional system used in 545 cases. In group 1, we had clear vision at the time of endourologic procedures. The success rate of this system was 99.5%. In group 2, the incidence of clot retention decreased two fold in comparison to traditional gravity-dependent bladder flow system. These changes were statistically significant (P = 0.001). We did not observe any adverse

  4. Bladder involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Roger Wroclawski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study bladder involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus patients through clinical and laboratorial evaluation, ultrasonography, radiological and endoscopic examination. Methods: Thirty-nine patients, either outpatients or inpatients at the Department of Rheumatology of Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina from Universidade de São Paulo were evaluated as to clinical and laboratorial data. All patients were submitted to ultrasonographic evaluation of the upper urinary tract, radiological and endoscopic examinations of the middle and lower urinary tracts. Rresults: Mean age of patients varied between 13 and 62 years (median = 29 years. Thirty-six were females and three were males. The disease varied from 6 months to 22 years (median three years and one month. Clinical and laboratory activity of the disease was present in 30 patients. Twenty-two patients had the diagnosis of lupus established for three years or more. Twenty-five patients were asymptomatic and all had received corticosteroids for treatment at least once. Twenty-three received antimalarial drugs; ten received cytostatics, and seven patients received non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs. Upper urinary tract ultrasonography was normal in all cases but one with staghorn calculus associated with neurogenic bladder secondary to neurological involvement by the disease. Vesicoureteral reflux was observed in two cases. Other two patients had significant post-voiding residual urine, both with neurogenic bladder secondary to nervous system involvement by lupus. The average bladder maximum capacity in an awaken patient was 342 mL, and was decreased in 18.9% of cases. This subgroup of patients presented a greater frequency of urinary symptoms and greater use of cytostatic drugs (Z > Z5%. A pathognomonic cystoscopic pattern of bladder involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus could not be established. Cystoscopic aspects similar to those seen in the initial or minor

  5. Mechanoreceptor afferent activity compared with receptor field dimensions and pressure changes in feline urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, J W; Armour, J A

    1992-11-01

    The relationship between vesical mechanoreceptor field dimensions and afferent nerve activity recorded in pelvic plexus nerve filaments was examined in chloralose-anesthetized cats. Orthogonal receptor field dimensions were monitored with piezoelectric ultrasonic crystals. Reflexly generated bladder contractile activity made measurements difficult, therefore data were collected from cats subjected to actual sacral rhizotomy. Afferent activity was episodic and was initiated at different pressure and receptor field dimension thresholds. Maximum afferent activity did not correlate with maximum volume or pressure. Furthermore, activity was not linearly related to intravesical pressure, receptor field dimensions, or calculated wall tension. Pressure-length hysteresis of the receptor fields occurred. The responses of identified afferent units and their associated receptor field dimensions to brief contractions elicited by the ganglion stimulant 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium iodide (2.5-20 micrograms i.a.), studied under constant volume or constant pressure conditions, are compatible with bladder mechanoreceptors behaving as tension receptors. Because activity generated by bladder mechanoreceptors did not correlate in a simple fashion with intravesical pressure or receptor field dimensions, it is concluded that such receptors are influenced by the viscoelastic properties of the bladder wall. Furthermore, as a result of the heterogeneity of the bladder wall, receptor field tension appears to offer a more precise relationship with the activity of bladder wall mechanoreceptors than does intravesical pressure.

  6. Radiotherapy in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozan, R.

    1992-01-01

    In 1992, the problem of the vesical radiotherapy is not resolved. The author presents the situation and the different techniques of radiotherapy in bladder cancers: external radiotherapy, only and associated with surgery, interstitial curietherapy and non-classical techniques as per operative radiotherapy, neutron therapy and concurrent radiotherapy with chemotherapy. In order to compare their efficiency, the five-year survival are given in all cases.(10 tabs)

  7. Histological aspects of the bladder in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Roger Wroclawski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to study pathological data from bladders of systemic lupus erythematosus patients, correlate them to clinical events and the use of therapeutic drugs, and compare them to bladder histopathological findings in individuals not affected by systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods: thirty-nine out or inpatients of the Department of Rheumatology at Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus were clinically and cystoscopically evaluated. Bladder biopsy was also performed. As a normal parameter, bladders taken from 20 corpses collected at the Death Verification Department  of São Paulo city, without autolysis or evidence of urinary tract or autoimmune disease were also histologically studied. This group was considered as a Control Group. A correlation among clinical, cystoscopic and histopathological data was carried out. Rresults: the patients’ mean age was 29 years (range 13-62. Thirty-six were females and three were males. Twenty-five patients were asymptomatic during the study period. In the Control Group the age range was 20-65 years. Nineteen were females (95% and one was male (5%. Cystoscopic examination of the group with systemic lupus erythematosus showed interstitial pattern in 16 cases (41.0% and normal in 15 (38.5%. The bladder was normal in four patients (10.3%. Chronic unspecific cystitis was observed in 18 (46.2% patients. In the remaining, several alterations were found, including bladder vasculitis in seven patients (17.9%. The mean number of mast cells in the bladder area was 2.223/mm2. In the Control Group, unspecific cystitis was found in three cases (15.0%. No other abnormalities were found. The mean number of mast cells in this group was 0.777/mm2 (±2.7. Chronic unspecific cystitis, bladder vasculitis and the mean number of mast cells were compared with each other and no statistical differences were found (p > 0.05. There were

  8. Xanthogranulomatous Cystitis: A Challenging Imitator of Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Ekici

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthogranulomatous cystitis is a rare, benign, chronic inflammatory disease of the bladder, mimicking malignancy with unknown etiology. Herein, we report a 57-year-old man who presented with pollakiuria, nocturia, dysuria, left flank pain, and a palpable mass on the right lower abdomen. Computerized tomography demonstrated an obstructing 10-mm stone in the lower third of the left ureter and a 6-cm solid mass on the right at the anterolateral wall of the bladder. The mass presented local perivesical invasion at the anterolateral side. Cystouretroscopy revealed a mass protruding into the bladder cavity with edematous smooth surface. Frozen section analysis of the partial cystectomy specimen could not rule out malignancy. Therefore, radical cystoprostatectomy and ureterolithotomy were performed. Histologically, fibrosis, numerous plasma cells, eosinophils, and, immunohistochemically, CD68-positive epithelioid and foamy macrophages were detected. Localized prostatic adenocarcinoma was also found. The present case of xanthogranulomatous cystitis is the 23rd to be reported in the world literature.

  9. STREET KETAMINE-ASSOCIATED BLADDER DYSFUNCTION: AN EMERGING HEALTH PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEH GC

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ketamine is frequently abused nowadays as a recreational drug. Case reports are emerging since 2007 to describe a new clinical entity of severe bladder dysfunction associated with chronic abuse of street ketamine. Clinical presentation: Severe lower urinary tract symptoms of urinary frequency and urgency which are refractory to conventional treatment. Quality of life is adversely affected as a consequence. Chronic kidney disease will develop in advanced cases. Investigation findings: The urine is sterile on culture. Ultrasound will show reduced bladder capacity with thickened bladder wall. In advanced stage, hydronephrosis and renal impairment will develop. Treatment: Patients should be advised to stop street ketamine use immediately. Anticholinergic medication could be tried to alleviate the symptoms. Refractory cases with dilatation of the upper urinary tract might need urinary diversion. Conclusion: Awareness of this new condition is essential in diagnosis. Early intervention offers better treatment outcome.

  10. Effect of diabetes on the ion pumps of the bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Seham

    2013-01-01

    To establish whether the activities of Na+/K+-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and Ca2+-ATPases ion pumps in bladder smooth muscle are altered as a consequence of diabetes and, if so, how this might contribute to bladder cystopathy. Urinary bladder dysfunction is a common occurrence in patients with diabetes. Pressure generation requires calcium and cytosolic ATP. Activities of these pumps are responsible for calcium homeostasis. Rat urinary detrusor muscle strips were suspended in organ baths containing Krebs solution for isometric tension recording. Tissue responses to the Na+/K+-ATPase pump inhibitor, ouabain, the plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase inhibitor, vanadate, and the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase inhibitor, cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), were examined from normal and streptozocin-induced diabetic rats for 2, 4, and 12 weeks. Ouabain, vanadate, and CPA caused concentration-dependent contractions of bladder strips from diabetic and normal rats. The degree of contraction of diabetic bladder muscle was lower than that of controls. This reduction was a function of duration of diabetes. For ouabain, the reduction peaked at 2 weeks, with partial restoration to normal after diabetes induction. For vanadate and CPA, the reduction increased with the duration of diabetes. The ion pumps are important modulators of bladder smooth muscle tone, and in a rat model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes, the activity of these pumps is impaired. Although this is only a single model of diabetes, these findings suggest that a defect in these pumps may be an important component of the development of diabetic bladder cystopathy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cystoscopic enucleation of bladder leiomyoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan A Barayan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting a rare case of bladder leiomyoma. A 61-year-old female patient was found to have a bladder mass during a work up of lower urinary tract symptoms. After full investigation, she underwent transurethral excision of the mass. The histopathology revealed typical feature of bladder leiomyoma. No recurrence was seen after a follow-up period of 12 months.

  12. Contemporary Management of Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David; Fradet, Yves

    1991-01-01

    Bladder cancer is currently the fifth most common cancer in Western society, and its incidence appears to be increasing. Important advances have recently occurred in both diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to bladder neoplasms. Presentation is not unique, and physician awareness is important to identify patients who are at risk for bladder neoplasia and consequently require further investigation. A diagnostic approach and contemporary management are discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 4 PMID:21229043

  13. Biofabricated Structures Reconstruct Functional Urinary Bladders in Radiation-injured Rat Bladders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Tetsuya; Shimamura, Mitsuru; Ogawa, Teruyuki; Minagawa, Tomonori; Nagai, Takashi; Silwal Gautam, Sudha; Ishizuka, Osamu

    2018-05-08

    The ability to repair damaged urinary bladders through the application of bone marrow-derived cells is in the earliest stages of development. We investigated the application of bone marrow-derived cells to repair radiation-injured bladders. We used a three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting robot system to biofabricate bone marrow-derived cell structures. We then determined if the biofabricated structures could restore the tissues and functions of radiation-injured bladders. The bladders of female 10-week-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were irradiated with 2-Gy once a week for 5 weeks. Adherent and proliferating bone marrow-derived cells harvested from the femurs of male 17-week-old green fluorescence protein-transfected Tg-SD rats were cultured in collagen-coated flasks. Bone marrow-derived cell spheroids were formed in 96-well plates. Three layers of spheroids were assembled by the bioprinter onto a 9x9 microneedle array. The assembled spheroids were perfusion cultured for 7 days, and then the microneedle array was removed. Two weeks after the last radiation treatment, the biofabricated structures were transplanted into an incision on the anterior wall of the bladders (n=10). Control rats received the same surgery but without the biofabricated structures (sham-structure, n=12). At 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, the sham-structure control bladder tissues exhibited disorganized smooth muscle layers, decreased nerve cells, and significant fibrosis with increased presence of fibrosis-marker P4HB-positive cells and hypoxia-marker HIF1α-positive cells. The transplanted structures survived within the recipient tissues, and blood vessels extended within them from the recipient tissues. The bone marrow-derived cells in the structures differentiated into smooth muscle cells and formed smooth muscle clusters. The recipient tissues near the transplanted structures had distinct smooth muscle layers and reconstructed nerve cells, and only minimal fibrosis with decreased presence of P4

  14. Permeability and ultrastructure of human bladder epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, J; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Nielsen, S L

    1983-01-01

    Leakage of tight junctions as observed with electron microscopy and demonstration of solute transport across bladder epithelium was investigated in 13 patients with different bladder diseases: urinary retention and infection, bladder tumours and interstitial cystitis. The latter group showed...

  15. Thermal dosimetry for bladder hyperthermia treatment. An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooneveldt, Gerben; Bakker, Akke; Balidemaj, Edmond; Chopra, Rajiv; Crezee, Johannes; Geijsen, Elisabeth D; Hartmann, Josefin; Hulshof, Maarten C C M; Kok, H Petra; Paulides, Margarethus M; Sousa-Escandon, Alejandro; Stauffer, Paul R; Maccarini, Paolo F

    2016-06-01

    The urinary bladder is a fluid-filled organ. This makes, on the one hand, the internal surface of the bladder wall relatively easy to heat and ensures in most cases a relatively homogeneous temperature distribution; on the other hand the variable volume, organ motion, and moving fluid cause artefacts for most non-invasive thermometry methods, and require additional efforts in planning accurate thermal treatment of bladder cancer. We give an overview of the thermometry methods currently used and investigated for hyperthermia treatments of bladder cancer, and discuss their advantages and disadvantages within the context of the specific disease (muscle-invasive or non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer) and the heating technique used. The role of treatment simulation to determine the thermal dose delivered is also discussed. Generally speaking, invasive measurement methods are more accurate than non-invasive methods, but provide more limited spatial information; therefore, a combination of both is desirable, preferably supplemented by simulations. Current efforts at research and clinical centres continue to improve non-invasive thermometry methods and the reliability of treatment planning and control software. Due to the challenges in measuring temperature across the non-stationary bladder wall and surrounding tissues, more research is needed to increase our knowledge about the penetration depth and typical heating pattern of the various hyperthermia devices, in order to further improve treatments. The ability to better determine the delivered thermal dose will enable clinicians to investigate the optimal treatment parameters, and consequentially, to give better controlled, thus even more reliable and effective, thermal treatments.

  16. OVERACTIVE BLADDER SYNDROME IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.L. Vishnevskiy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Overactive bladder is a specific syndrome characterized by bladder dysfunction that is clinically manifested by imperative urination (pollakiuria, urgency, urgent incontinence and nocturia. This state is very widely spread among children: every fifth child aged 4 to 7 shows typical bladder dysfunction. Quite often if urinary distresses are not studied well enough such children are falsely diagnosed with monosymptom enuresis, which, according to our information, actually happens in only 3,9% of cases. When examining children with urinary disorders it is reasonable to be geared to the protocol of European urologist association. According to this protocol, treatment should be started with antimuscarinimedications. The only antimuscarinic medication for treating children with hyperactive bladder that is legal in Russia is oxybutinin (Driptane, that is presently considered to be the «golden standard» of pharmaceutical treatment of overactive bladder for patients of any age. This statement is based on the modern idea of overactive bladder pathogenesis, that presupposes detrusorhypersensibility to acetylcholine. However, in some cases it might be reasonable to use some other medications, physiotherapy, sometimes as part of complex therapy. If individual dosage is observed, which will enable preventing or significantly lowering possible side effects, oxybutinin will be still considered «the golden standard» for treating overactive bladder for years to come in cases when detrusor hypersensibility to acetylcholine is the key component of bladder dysfunction pathogenesis.Key words: overactive bladder, oxybutinin, urination disorder, children.

  17. Molecular biology of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Doyle, William; Kwiatkowski, David J

    2015-04-01

    Classic as well as more recent large-scale genomic analyses have uncovered multiple genes and pathways important for bladder cancer development. Genes involved in cell-cycle control, chromatin regulation, and receptor tyrosine and PI3 kinase-mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathways are commonly mutated in muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Expression-based analyses have identified distinct types of bladder cancer that are similar to subsets of breast cancer, and have prognostic and therapeutic significance. These observations are leading to novel therapeutic approaches in bladder cancer, providing optimism for therapeutic progress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A 3D Printed Implantable Device for Voiding the Bladder Using Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) Actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Faezeh Arab; Peh, Wendy Yen Xian; Gammad, Gil Gerald Lasam; Mogan, Roshini Priya; Ng, Tze Kiat; Kuo, Tricia Li Chuen; Ng, Lay Guat; Luu, Percy; Yen, Shih-Cheng; Lee, Chengkuo

    2017-11-01

    Underactive bladder or detrusor underactivity (DU) is defined as a reduction of contraction strength or duration of the bladder wall. Despite the serious healthcare implications of DU, there are limited solutions for affected individuals. A flexible 3D printed implantable device driven by shape memory alloys (SMA) actuators is presented here for the first time to physically contract the bladder to restore voluntary control of the bladder for individuals suffering from DU. This approach is used initially in benchtop experiments with a rubber balloon acting as a model for the rat bladder to verify its potential for voiding, and that the operating temperatures are safe for the eventual implantation of the device in a rat. The device is then implanted and tested on an anesthetized rat, and a voiding volume of more than 8% is successfully achieved for the SMA-based device without any surgical intervention or drug injection to relax the external sphincter.

  19. MRI staging of urinary bladder cancer: results using a ferrous contrastographic solution (JKA1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovagnoli, A.; Ercolani, P.; De Nigris, E.; Villanova, A.

    1990-01-01

    The authors report the results of the staging of urinary bladder cancers by means of MRI using a new ferrous contrastographic solution called JKA1. Eighteen patients with proved bladder neoplasms were examined by means of MRI: the bladder was filled with physiological solution first, and then with JKA1. Six patients were studied also after filling their bladders with Gd DTPA solution (1:50). The results show that the use of JKA1, a T2-positive contrast medium, improved MR capabilities in the evaluation of small lesions (<1cm in diameter) with minimal invasion of bladder wall; MR staging accuracy was 66.6% with the physiological solution and 77.8% with JKA1. The authors confirm the need for a wider MR study, in particular of T2 lesions (a critical subject for staging and surgical management) to assess MR diagnostic capabilities

  20. Intraperitoneally placed Foley catheter via verumontanum initially presenting as a bladder rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raheem, Omer A; Jeong, Young Beom

    2011-09-01

    Since urethral Foley catheterization is usually easy and safe, serious complications related to this procedure have been rarely reported. Herein, we describe a case of intraperitoneally placed urethral catheter via verumontanum presenting as intraperitoneal bladder perforation in a chronically debilitated elderly patient. A 82-yr-old male patient was admitted with symptoms of hematuria, lower abdominal pain after traumatic Foley catheterization. The retrograde cystography showed findings of intraperitoneal bladder perforation, but emergency laparotomy with intraoperative urethrocystoscopy revealed a tunnel-like false passage extending from the verumontanum into the rectovesical pouch between the posterior wall of the bladder and the anterior wall of the rectum with no bladder injury. The patient was treated with simple closure of the perforated rectovesical pouch and a placement of suprapubic cystostomy tube.

  1. Porcine bladder acellular matrix (ACM): protein expression, mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhat, Walid A [Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, University of Toronto and Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8 (Canada); Chen Jun; Haig, Jennifer; Antoon, Roula; Litman, Jessica; Yeger, Herman [Department of Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8 (Canada); Sherman, Christopher [Department of Anatomic Pathology, Sunnybrook and Women' s College Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); Derwin, Kathleen [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute and Orthopaedic Research Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States)], E-mail: walid.farhat@sickkids.ca

    2008-06-01

    Experimentally, porcine bladder acellular matrix (ACM) that mimics extracellular matrix has excellent potential as a bladder substitute. Herein we investigated the spatial localization and expression of different key cellular and extracellular proteins in the ACM; furthermore, we evaluated the inherent mechanical properties of the resultant ACM prior to implantation. Using a proprietary decellularization method, the DNA contents in both ACM and normal bladder were measured; in addition we used immunohistochemistry and western blots to quantify and localize the different cellular and extracellular components, and finally the mechanical testing was performed using a uniaxial mechanical testing machine. The mean DNA content in the ACM was significantly lower in the ACM compared to the bladder. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical and western blot analyses showed that collagen I and IV were preserved in the ACM, but possibly denatured collagen III in the ACM. Furthermore, elastin, laminin and fibronectin were mildly reduced in the ACM. Although the ACM did not exhibit nucleated cells, residual cellular components (actin, myosin, vimentin and others) were still present. There was, on the other hand, no significant difference in the mean stiffness between the ACM and the bladder. Although our decellularization method is effective in removing nuclear material from the bladder while maintaining its inherent mechanical properties, further work is mandatory to determine whether these residual DNA and cellular remnants would lead to any immune reaction, or if the mechanical properties of the ACM are preserved upon implantation and cellularization.

  2. Porcine bladder acellular matrix (ACM): protein expression, mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhat, Walid A; Chen Jun; Haig, Jennifer; Antoon, Roula; Litman, Jessica; Yeger, Herman; Sherman, Christopher; Derwin, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Experimentally, porcine bladder acellular matrix (ACM) that mimics extracellular matrix has excellent potential as a bladder substitute. Herein we investigated the spatial localization and expression of different key cellular and extracellular proteins in the ACM; furthermore, we evaluated the inherent mechanical properties of the resultant ACM prior to implantation. Using a proprietary decellularization method, the DNA contents in both ACM and normal bladder were measured; in addition we used immunohistochemistry and western blots to quantify and localize the different cellular and extracellular components, and finally the mechanical testing was performed using a uniaxial mechanical testing machine. The mean DNA content in the ACM was significantly lower in the ACM compared to the bladder. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical and western blot analyses showed that collagen I and IV were preserved in the ACM, but possibly denatured collagen III in the ACM. Furthermore, elastin, laminin and fibronectin were mildly reduced in the ACM. Although the ACM did not exhibit nucleated cells, residual cellular components (actin, myosin, vimentin and others) were still present. There was, on the other hand, no significant difference in the mean stiffness between the ACM and the bladder. Although our decellularization method is effective in removing nuclear material from the bladder while maintaining its inherent mechanical properties, further work is mandatory to determine whether these residual DNA and cellular remnants would lead to any immune reaction, or if the mechanical properties of the ACM are preserved upon implantation and cellularization

  3. Porcine bladder acellular matrix (ACM): protein expression, mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Walid A; Chen, Jun; Haig, Jennifer; Antoon, Roula; Litman, Jessica; Sherman, Christopher; Derwin, Kathleen; Yeger, Herman

    2008-06-01

    Experimentally, porcine bladder acellular matrix (ACM) that mimics extracellular matrix has excellent potential as a bladder substitute. Herein we investigated the spatial localization and expression of different key cellular and extracellular proteins in the ACM; furthermore, we evaluated the inherent mechanical properties of the resultant ACM prior to implantation. Using a proprietary decellularization method, the DNA contents in both ACM and normal bladder were measured; in addition we used immunohistochemistry and western blots to quantify and localize the different cellular and extracellular components, and finally the mechanical testing was performed using a uniaxial mechanical testing machine. The mean DNA content in the ACM was significantly lower in the ACM compared to the bladder. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical and western blot analyses showed that collagen I and IV were preserved in the ACM, but possibly denatured collagen III in the ACM. Furthermore, elastin, laminin and fibronectin were mildly reduced in the ACM. Although the ACM did not exhibit nucleated cells, residual cellular components (actin, myosin, vimentin and others) were still present. There was, on the other hand, no significant difference in the mean stiffness between the ACM and the bladder. Although our decellularization method is effective in removing nuclear material from the bladder while maintaining its inherent mechanical properties, further work is mandatory to determine whether these residual DNA and cellular remnants would lead to any immune reaction, or if the mechanical properties of the ACM are preserved upon implantation and cellularization.

  4. Stage of urinary bladder cancer at first presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlBazzaz Pishtewan H

    2009-01-01

    The stage of urinary bladder cancer is an important factor in determining prognosis of the disease. This prospective study was performed to determine the stage of bladder cancer at first presentation at the Rizgary Hospital in the Erbil governorate in Iraqi Kurdistan. We evaluated 72 patients with bladder cancer. The grades and stages of bladder cancer of these patients were determined through physical examination and investigations. We found that 47.2% of patients had superficial cancer, 19.4% had tumor with invasion into the lamina propria and 30.6% of patients had tumor with invasion to muscle wall. Regional or distant metastases were found in 2.8% of patients. Well differentiated tumor was seen in 44.4% of the patients, moderately differentiated tumor was found in 38.9% and poorly differentiated tumor was found in 16.7% of the patients. Our study suggests that bladder cancer is diagnosed at a relatively early stage in the Erbil governorate. However, the situation can be further improved by adopting proper screening programs and performing appropriate investigations. (author)

  5. Stage of urinary bladder cancer at first presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Bazzaz Pishtewan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The stage of urinary bladder cancer is an important factor in determining prognosis of the disease. This prospective study was performed to determine the stage of bladder cancer at first presentation at the Rizgary Hospital in the Erbil governorate in Iraqi Kurdistan. We evaluated 72 patients with bladder cancer. The grades and stages of bladder cancer of these patients were determined through physical examination and investigations. We found that 47.2% of patients had superficial cancer, 19.4% had tumor with invasion into the lamina propria and 30.6% of patients had tumor with invasion to muscle wall. Regional or distant metastases were found in 2.8% of patients. Well differentiated tumor was seen in 44.4% of the patients, moderately differentiated tumor was found in 38.9% and poorly differentiated tumor was found in 16.7% of the patients. Our study suggests that bladder cancer is diagnosed at a relatively early stage in the Erbil governorate. However, the situation can be further improved by adopting proper screening programs and performing appropriate investigations.

  6. Traumatic injury of the bladder and urethra

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disruption Images Bladder catheterization, female Bladder catheterization, male Female urinary tract Male urinary tract References Morey AF, Zhao LC. Genital and lower urinary tract trauma. In: Wein AJ, ...

  7. Urothelial carcinoma of urinary bladder with exclusive heterologous component of epithelioid rhabdomyosarcoma at metastatic site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Poojan; Pasricha, Sunil; Gupta, Gurudutt; Sharma, Anila; Mehta, Anurag

    2018-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma of urinary bladder with divergent differentiation into rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is an extremely uncommon aggressive phenomenon. We present a case of a 74-year-old male with bladder carcinoma which metastasized to the abdominal wall as epithelioid RMS. To the best knowledge of our literature searches, an oligometastasis of exclusive heterologous component has not been described before. The clinical, radiological, and immunohistochemistry profile of the patient supported the monoclonal nature of the tumor.

  8. Bladder dysfunction in Wolfram syndrome is highly prevalent and progresses to megacystis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wragg, Ruth; Dias, Renuka P; Barrett, Timothy; McCarthy, Liam

    2018-02-01

    Wolfram syndrome is a rare genetic defect in WFS1 or WSF2(CISD2). It includes diabetes mellitus and insipidis, sensorineural deafness, optic atrophy, but not bladder dysfunction. However, this has appeared a common finding in our national referral clinic, and we sought to quantify this problem. Data were collected from a multidisciplinary team managing all Wolfram patients in the UK. The following was analyzed: age, date of non-invasive urodynamics (NIU), symptoms, bladder capacity, voided volume, post-void residual and uroflow pattern. Bladder capacity was given as percentage predicted bladder capacity (PBC). Bladders were divided into normal, overactive (OAB), and underactive (UAB). Symptoms, bladder behavior, and genotyping were correlated. Data were expressed as median (interquartile range). Forty patients with Wolfram syndrome were identified, and 38 underwent NIU. This showed normal bladder function (n=4), OAB (n=9), UAB (n=25). Symptoms were present in only 11 children. The different patterns of bladder behavior (OAB vs. normal vs. UAB) were significantly associated with different %PBC (36 (29-59)% vs. 105 (93-233)% vs. 100 (77.5-337)%; pWolfram syndrome (~90%), but most children cope (symptoms ~30%). With time there is a significant progression to megacystis, which may represent an underlying neuropathic myogenic failure and is likely to require intervention in the future. Level II (National cohort study of prognosis). Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bladder urine oxygen tension for assessing renal medullary oxygenation in rabbits: experimental and modeling studies

    OpenAIRE

    Sgouralis, Ioannis; Kett, Michelle M.; Ow, Connie P. C.; Abdelkader, Amany; Layton, Anita T.; Gardiner, Bruce S.; Smith, David W.; Lankadeva, Yugeesh R.; Evans, Roger G.

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen tension (Po2) of urine in the bladder could be used to monitor risk of acute kidney injury if it varies with medullary Po2. Therefore, we examined this relationship and characterized oxygen diffusion across walls of the ureter and bladder in anesthetized rabbits. A computational model was then developed to predict medullary Po2 from bladder urine Po2. Both intravenous infusion of [Phe2,Ile3,Orn8]-vasopressin and infusion of NG-nitro-l-arginine reduced urinary Po2 and medullary Po2 (8–1...

  10. Metastasis of Gastric Signet-Ring Cell Carcinoma to the Urinary Bladder: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerem Okutur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although signet-ring cell (SRC adenocarcinoma is commonly seen in the stomach, it is a very rarely seen histologic entity in the bladder. It is difficult to distinguish primary SRC adenocarcinoma of the bladder from bladder metastasis of SRC carcinoma of the stomach only based on histological findings. In such cases, clinical findings and immunohistochemical studies may be helpful. We present here a 48-year-old male patient presenting with hematuria and abdominal pain. Computerised tomography of the patient revealed a gastric mass, peritoneal involvement, and thickening of the bladder wall, and histopathological analysis revealed SRC adenocarcinoma in both of the endoscopic biopsies taken from the stomach and bladder. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the diagnosis of SRC adenocarcinoma of the bladder secondary to gastric cancer.

  11. De novo reconstitution of a functional mammalian urinary bladder by tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberpenning, F; Meng, J; Yoo, J J; Atala, A

    1999-02-01

    Human organ replacement is limited by a donor shortage, problems with tissue compatibility, and rejection. Creation of an organ with autologous tissue would be advantageous. In this study, transplantable urinary bladder neo-organs were reproducibly created in vitro from urothelial and smooth muscle cells grown in culture from canine native bladder biopsies and seeded onto preformed bladder-shaped polymers. The native bladders were subsequently excised from canine donors and replaced with the tissue-engineered neo-organs. In functional evaluations for up to 11 months, the bladder neo-organs demonstrated a normal capacity to retain urine, normal elastic properties, and histologic architecture. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that successful reconstitution of an autonomous hollow organ is possible using tissue-engineering methods.

  12. Bladder overdistension with polyuria in a hypertensive rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez Flores, Monica; Mossa, Abubakr H; Cammisotto, Philippe; Campeau, Lysanne

    2018-03-31

    Polyuria can lead to progressive chronic bladder overdistension. The impact of polyuria on the bladder has been extensively studied in settings of either diabetes or sucrose diuresis in animals. The goal of this study was to investigate the outcomes of polyuria in a hypertension setting. Male Dahl/SS rats, a hypertension model, received a high-salt or normal diet for 6 weeks. Twenty-four-hour water intake, micturition patterns, and blood pressures were recorded biweekly. Conscious cystometry was carried out at the end of this period. Bladders were collected to measure contractile force and for histological analysis. Paired t-tests were used to compare changes between Week 0 and Week 6 within each group. Unpaired t-tests were used for comparisons between groups for all parameters at Week 6. Six weeks of high-salt diet significantly increased water intake and total urine. Blood pressures and volume of urine per micturition was higher in rats on high-salt diet. Bladder overdistension in the high-salt diet group was confirmed by cystometry, shown by a significantly higher bladder capacity, and compliance. No difference in detrusor contractility was observed between both groups. Collagen content was significantly higher in the lamina propria of the high-salt group compared to the normal group, while the opposite was observed in the muscularis. Polyuria, in a hypertension context, leads to changes in bladder morphology and function. These findings help clarify the deleterious clinical impact of polyuria on voiding function, highlighting the variable consequences of bladder overdistension according to the underlying pathology. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Bladder Mucosal Graft Vaginoplasty: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramonte, Cinzia; Vestri, Elettra; Tripi, Flavia; Giannone, Antonino Giulio; Cimador, Marcello; Cataliotti, Ferdinando

    2018-06-18

    Female vaginoplasty reconstruction, by choice, is usually performed with adjacent tissue. However in some clinical conditions such as high urogenital confluence sinus, cloacal malformation with extreme vaginal hypoplasia, local tissue may not be available. When vaginal replacement is performed in pediatric patients intestinal segments is preferred to non-operative procedures that require continuative dilations. However mucus production, malignant transformation risk and diversion colitis are important side effects. We present a nouvel technique for vaginoplasty in a female child presenting with an isolated urogenital sinus malformation without virilization. The patient at 20 months underwent vaginoplasty using tubularized bladder mucosal graft. Surgical procedure was devoid of complications. Pubertal development occurred at age of 15. She underwent regular follow up until 18 years of age. At this age we performed clinical evaluation: absence of vaginal introitus stenosis and good cosmetic results were observed. Then she underwent vaginoscopy with multiple biopsies. Pathology examination of the bladder mucosal graft evidenced a normal structure of the mucosa, with a stratified squamous epithelium. Different techniques are taken into account for vaginal reconstruction according to the severity and to the type of malformation. We describe the use of bladder mucosal graft with favorable results after long term follow-up. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Molecular Diagnosis in Bladder Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C.M. Zuiverloon (Tahlita)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractEpidemiologyBladder cancer (BC) is the most prevalent type of urothelial cancer and is associated with thehighest costs of all cancer types due to intensive patient surveillance. Because bladder tumorsfrequently recur, patients need to be monitored extensively [1-4]. Incidence increases

  15. Postmortem MRI of bladder agenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Brendan R. [St George' s Hospital, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom); Weber, Martin A. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Bockenhauer, Detlef [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Nephrology, London (United Kingdom); Hiorns, Melanie P.; McHugh, Kieran [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    We report a 35-week preterm neonate with bladder agenesis and bilateral dysplastic kidneys. A suprapubic catheter was inadvertently inserted into one of the larger inferior cysts of the left dysplastic kidney. A postmortem MRI scan was performed with the findings being confirmed on autopsy. We are unaware of another postmortem MRI study demonstrating bladder agenesis. (orig.)

  16. Postmortem MRI of bladder agenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, Brendan R.; Weber, Martin A.; Bockenhauer, Detlef; Hiorns, Melanie P.; McHugh, Kieran

    2011-01-01

    We report a 35-week preterm neonate with bladder agenesis and bilateral dysplastic kidneys. A suprapubic catheter was inadvertently inserted into one of the larger inferior cysts of the left dysplastic kidney. A postmortem MRI scan was performed with the findings being confirmed on autopsy. We are unaware of another postmortem MRI study demonstrating bladder agenesis. (orig.)

  17. Vulvar Metastasis from Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Aoun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulvar metastasis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is a very rare entity; few cases are reported in the English literature. In this paper, we describe the clinical and pathological characteristics, evolution, and treatment of a patient with vulvar metastasis of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder followed by a brief review of the reported cases in the literature.

  18. Neuromodulation in bladder dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S T; Neal, D E

    1998-10-01

    Neuromodulation is one option for the management of a wide variety of lower urinary tract disorders, including non-neuropathic and neuropathic bladder dysfunctions. The mechanisms of action of the reported techniques remain unclear; urodynamic changes are minimal, but symptomatic improvements are common. Although the treatment is relatively free from side-effects compared with more aggressive surgical options, the placebo effect is likely to be significant. Its exact cost effectiveness is unclear, but the technology is a welcome addition to the range of treatment options for lower urinary tract dysfunctions, such as urgency and urge incontinence.

  19. Expression of Bmi-1 is a prognostic marker in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Zi-Ke; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Yang, Jian-An; Ye, Yun-lin; Zhang, Xing; Xu, Li-Hua; Zhou, Fang-Jian; Han, Hui; Liu, Zuo-Wei; Song, Li-Bing

    2009-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of the development and progression of bladder cancer are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to analyze the expression of Bmi-1 protein and its clinical significance in human bladder cancer. We examined the expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and Bmi-1 protein by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively in 14 paired bladder cancers and the adjacent normal tissues. The expression of Bmi-1 protein in 137 specimens of bladder cancer and 30 specimens of adjacent normal bladder tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were applied to test the relationship between expression of Bmi-1, and clinicopathologic features and prognosis. Expression of Bmi-1 mRNA and protein was higher in bladder cancers than in the adjacent normal tissues in 14 paired samples (P < 0.01). By immunohistochemical examination, five of 30 adjacent normal bladder specimens (16.7%) versus 75 of 137 bladder cancers (54.3%) showed Bmi-1 protein expression (P < 0.05). Bmi-1 protein expression was intense in 20.6%, 54.3%, and 78.8% of tumors of histopathological stages G1, G2, and G3, respectively (P < 0.05). Expression of Bmi-1 protein was greater in invasive bladder cancers than in superficial bladder cancers (81.5% versus 32.5%, P < 0.05). In invasive bladder cancers, the expression of Bmi-1 protein in progression-free cancers was similar to that of cancers that have progressed (80.0% versus 82.4%, P > 0.5). In superficial bladder cancers, the expression of Bmi-1 protein in recurrent cases was higher than in recurrence-free cases (62.5% versus 13.7%, P < 0.05). Bmi-1 expression was positively correlated with tumor classification and TNM stage (P < 0.05), but not with tumor number (P > 0.05). Five-year survival in the group with higher Bmi-1 expression was 50.8%, while it was 78.5% in the group with lower Bmi-1 expression (P < 0.05). Patients with higher Bmi-1 expression had shorter survival time, whereas patients with lower Bmi-1 expression had longer

  20. An investigation of pulsed phase thermography for detection of disbonds in HIP-bonded beryllium tiles in ITER normal heat flux first wall (NHF FW) components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bushell, J., E-mail: joe.bushell@amec.com [AMEC Foster Wheeler, Booths Hall, Chelford Road, Knutsford, Cheshire WA16 8QZ, England (United Kingdom); Sherlock, P. [AMEC Foster Wheeler, Booths Hall, Chelford Road, Knutsford, Cheshire WA16 8QZ, England (United Kingdom); Mummery, P. [School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, England (United Kingdom); Bellin, B.; Zacchia, F. [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Pulsed phase thermography was trialled on Be-tiled plasma facing components. • Two components, one with known disbonds, one intact, were inspected and compared. • Finite element analysis was used to verify experimental observations. • PPT successfully detected disbonds in the failed component. • Good agreement found with ultrasonic test, though defect geometry was uncertain. - Abstract: Pulsed phase thermography (PPT) is a non destructive examination (NDE) technique, traditionally used in the Aerospace Industry for inspection of composite structures, which combines characteristics and benefits of flash thermography and lock-in thermography into a single, rapid inspection technique. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of PPT as a means of inspection for the bond between the beryllium (Be) tiles and the copper alloy (CuCrZr) heatsink of the ITER NHF FW components. This is a critical area dictating the functional integrity of these components, as single tile detachment in service could result in cascade failure. PPT has advantages over existing thermography techniques using heated water which stress the component, and the non-invasive, non-contact nature presents advantages over existing ultrasonic methods. The rapid and non-contact nature of PPT also gives potential for in-service inspections as well as a quality measure for as-manufactured components. The technique has been appraised via experimental trials using ITER first wall mockups with pre-existing disbonds confirmed via ultrasonic tests, partnered with finite element simulations to verify experimental observations. This paper will present the results of the investigation.

  1. An investigation of pulsed phase thermography for detection of disbonds in HIP-bonded beryllium tiles in ITER normal heat flux first wall (NHF FW) components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushell, J.; Sherlock, P.; Mummery, P.; Bellin, B.; Zacchia, F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pulsed phase thermography was trialled on Be-tiled plasma facing components. • Two components, one with known disbonds, one intact, were inspected and compared. • Finite element analysis was used to verify experimental observations. • PPT successfully detected disbonds in the failed component. • Good agreement found with ultrasonic test, though defect geometry was uncertain. - Abstract: Pulsed phase thermography (PPT) is a non destructive examination (NDE) technique, traditionally used in the Aerospace Industry for inspection of composite structures, which combines characteristics and benefits of flash thermography and lock-in thermography into a single, rapid inspection technique. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of PPT as a means of inspection for the bond between the beryllium (Be) tiles and the copper alloy (CuCrZr) heatsink of the ITER NHF FW components. This is a critical area dictating the functional integrity of these components, as single tile detachment in service could result in cascade failure. PPT has advantages over existing thermography techniques using heated water which stress the component, and the non-invasive, non-contact nature presents advantages over existing ultrasonic methods. The rapid and non-contact nature of PPT also gives potential for in-service inspections as well as a quality measure for as-manufactured components. The technique has been appraised via experimental trials using ITER first wall mockups with pre-existing disbonds confirmed via ultrasonic tests, partnered with finite element simulations to verify experimental observations. This paper will present the results of the investigation.

  2. Bladder stones after bladder augmentation are not what they seem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Konrad M; Misseri, Rosalia; Whittam, Benjamin; Lingeman, James E; Amstutz, Sable; Ring, Joshua D; Kaefer, Martin; Rink, Richard C; Cain, Mark P

    2016-04-01

    Bladder and renal calculi after bladder augmentation are thought to be primarily infectious, yet few studies have reported stone composition. The primary aim was to assess bladder stone composition after augmentation, and renal stone composition in those with subsequent nephrolithiasis. The exploratory secondary aim was to screen for possible risk factors for developing infectious stones. Patients treated for bladder stones after bladder augmentation at the present institution between 1981 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Data were collected on demographics, surgeries and stone composition. Patients without stone analysis were excluded. Stones containing struvite, carbonate apatite or ammonium acid ureate were classified as infectious. The following variables were analyzed for a possible association with infectious bladder stone composition: gender, history of cloacal exstrophy, ambulatory status, nephrolithiasis, recurrent urea-splitting urinary tract infections, first vs recurrent stones, timing of presentation with a calculus, history of bladder neck procedures, catheterizable channel and vesicoureteral reflux. Fisher's exact test was used for analysis. Of the 107 patients with bladder stones after bladder augmentation, 85 met inclusion criteria. Median age at augmentation was 8.0 years (follow-up 10.8 years). Forty-four patients (51.8%) recurred (14 multiple recurrences, 143 bladder stones). Renal calculi developed in 19 (22.4%) patients with a bladder stone, and 10 (52.6%) recurred (30 renal stones). Overall, 30.8% of bladder stones were non-infectious (Table). Among patients recurring after an infectious bladder stone, 30.4% recurred with a non-infectious one. Among patients recurring after a non-infectious stone, 84.6% recurred with a non-infectious one (P = 0.005). Compared with bladder stones, renal stones were more likely to be non-infectious (60.0%, P = 0.003). Of patients with recurrent renal calculi after an infectious stone, 40.0% recurred with

  3. Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the urinary bladder in a patient with bladder cancer previously treated with intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numakura, Satoe; Morikawa, Teppei; Ushiku, Tetsuo; Toyoshima, Toyoaki; Fukayama, Masashi

    2014-02-01

    We report an extremely rare case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) of the urinary bladder. A 68-year-old man presented with gross hematuria. Cystoscopy showed multiple papillary tumors in the urinary bladder, and transurethral resection was performed. Pathological diagnosis was high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma with lamina propria invasion. The patient received six treatments with intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy. Seven months after surgery, follow-up cystoscopy showed three elevated lesions in the urinary bladder, two of which were identified histologically as recurrent urothelial carcinoma. Microscopic examination of the lesion at the anterior wall revealed diffuse infiltration of medium to large histiocytoid cells in the lamina propria, many of which had distorted nuclei and nuclear grooves. Dense eosinophilic infiltration was also observed. Immunohistochemically, the histiocytoid cells were diffusely positive for S-100 and CD1a, but negative for cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and melanosome-associated antigen recognized by HMB-45. Based on the histological and immunohistochemical features, we diagnosed the lesion as LCH of the urinary bladder. There was no evidence of recurrence of either bladder cancer or LCH after an 18-month follow-up. To avoid misdiagnosis, urologists and pathologists should be aware that LCH may develop in the urinary bladder after intravesical BCG therapy for bladder cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. PKC α regulates netrin-1/UNC5B-mediated survival pathway in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jiao; Kong, Chui-ze; Gong, Da-xin; Zhang, Zhe; Zhu, Yu-yan

    2014-01-01

    Netrin-1 and its receptor UNC5B play important roles in angiogenesis, embryonic development, cancer and inflammation. However, their expression patttern and biological roles in bladder cancer have not been well characterized. The present study aims to investigating the clinical significance of PKC α, netrin-1 and UNC5B in bladder cancer as well as their association with malignant biological behavior of cancer cells. Netrin-1 and UNC5B expression was examined in 120 bladder cancer specimens using immunohistochemistry and in 40 fresh cancer tissues by western blot. Immunofluorescence was performed in cancer cell lines. PKC α agonist PMA and PKC siRNA was employed in bladder cancer cells. CCK-8, wound healing assays and flow cytometry analysis were used to examine cell proliferation, migration and cell cycle, respectively. Netrin-1 expression was positively correlated with histological grade, T stage, metastasis and poor prognosis in bladder cancer tissues. Immunofluorescence showed elevated netrin-1 and decreased UNC5B expression in bladder cancer cells compared with normal bladder cell line. Furthermore, cell proliferation, migration and cell cycle progression were promoted with PMA treatment while inhibited by calphostin C. In addition, PMA treatment could induce while calphostin C reduce netrin-1 expression in bladder cancer cells. The present study identified netrin-1/UNC5B, which could be regulated by PKC signaling, was important mediators of bladder cancer progression

  5. Closure and augmentation of bladder exstrophy using rectus abdominis musculo-peritoneal flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Agarwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the rectus abdominis myo-peritoneal flap (RAMP technique for the closure and augmentation of small, non-elastic, non-compliant bladder exstrophies. Materials and Methods: The RAMP technique was used in three boys with bladder exstrophy who presented late with small, non-elastic, non-compliant bladder. The clinical outcome, imaging, cystoscopy, biochemical and microbiological studies were assessed during a follow-up of 36 months. Results: Bladder closure and augmentation was achieved in all patients without any complications. There were no urinary tract infections, metabolic problems or electrolyte disturbances and the kidney function remained normal in all patients. Radiography confirmed intact function and anatomy of the urinary tract and cystoscopy showed complete coverage of the inner peritoneal layer of RAMP with uroepithelium. No stone formation or mucous production was detected. Conclusions: The RAMP technique is a good alternative for closing bladder exstrophies and achieves an increase in bladder capacity and compliance. The technique is indicated in the closure of large bladder defects, bladder exstrophies with small, inelastic, non-compliant bladder remnants and failed primary closures.

  6. Sixteen-slice multidetector computed tomographic virtual cystoscopy in the evaluation of a patient with suspected bladder tumor and history of bladder carcinoma operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Muzaffer; Ozkurt, Huseyin; Tanriverdi, Orhan; Cay, Esra; Aydin, Mustafa; Miroglu, Cengiz

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of virtual cystoscopy performed with multidetector computed tomography (CT) in patients with suspected bladder tumors and histories of bladder carcinoma operation. Thirty-six patients (29 men and 7 women) with a mean age of 66 years (range, 24-88 years) with suspected bladder tumors and histories of bladder carcinoma operation were included in this prospective study. Virtual cystoscopy was performed by 16-slice multidetector CT scanner. The bladder was filled with diluted contrast material solution through a Foley catheter. Then, all patients underwent conventional cystoscopy examination. Two reviewers found 18 lesions detected by virtual cystoscopy by consensus, whereas 19 lesions were depicted by conventional cystoscopy. At virtual and conventional cystoscopies, the conditions of 3 patients, 2 with chronic inflammations and 1 with foreign body reaction, were wrongly diagnosed as tumors. At conventional cystoscopy, one patient's result was wrongly interpreted as normal. In pathologic evaluation, all tumors were diagnosed as transitional cell carcinoma. Bladder tumor can be noninvasively diagnosed using virtual cystoscopy. Use of virtual cystoscopy should be considered inpatients who present with hematuria or have histories of bladder carcinoma operation and are for follow-up because of its lesser complication risk and its being a less invasive, easily applied procedure without need of anesthesia. In the future, owing to the development of the CT technology and image processing technique, virtual cystoscopy may have a part in the detection of bladder cancer.

  7. Dioxin inhibition of swim bladder development in zebrafish: is it secondary to heart failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Monica S; Peterson, Richard E; Heideman, Warren

    2015-05-01

    The swim bladder is a gas-filled organ that is used for regulating buoyancy and is essential for survival in most teleost species. In zebrafish, swim bladder development begins during embryogenesis and inflation occurs within 5 days post fertilization (dpf). Embryos exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) before 96 h post fertilization (hpf) developed swim bladders normally until the growth/elongation phase, at which point growth was arrested. It is known that TCDD exposure causes heart malformations that lead to heart failure in zebrafish larvae, and that blood circulation is a key factor in normal development of the swim bladder. The adverse effects of TCDD exposure on the heart occur during the same period of time that swim bladder development and growth occurs. Based on this coincident timing, and the dependence of swim bladder development on proper circulatory development, we hypothesized that the adverse effects of TCDD on swim bladder development were secondary to heart failure. We compared swim bladder development in TCDD-exposed embryos to: (1) silent heart morphants, which lack cardiac contractility, and (2) transiently transgenic cmlc2:caAHR-2AtRFP embryos, which mimic TCDD-induced heart failure via heart-specific, constitutive activation of AHR signaling. Both of these treatment groups, which were not exposed to TCDD, developed hypoplastic swim bladders of comparable size and morphology to those found in TCDD-exposed embryos. Furthermore, in all treatment groups swim bladder development was arrested during the growth/elongation phase. Together, these findings support a potential role for heart failure in the inhibition of swim bladder development caused by TCDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 18F-FDG PET-CT uptake is a feature of both normal diameter and aneurysmal aortic wall and is not related to aneurysm size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barwick, Tara D. [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Charing Cross Hospital, Department of Radiology/Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Hammersmith Hospital, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Lyons, O.T.A.; Waltham, M. [King' s College London, BHF Centre of Research Excellence and NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at King' s Health Partners, Academic Department of Surgery, London (United Kingdom); Mikhaeel, N.G. [Guy' s and St Thomas' Foundation NHS Trust, Department of Oncology, London (United Kingdom); O' Doherty, M.J. [King' s Health Partners, Clinical PET Centre, St Thomas' Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Aortic metabolic activity is suggested to correlate with presence and progression of aneurysmal disease, but has been inadequately studied. This study investigates the 2-[{sup 18}F] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) uptake in a population of infra-renal abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), compared to a matched non-aneurysmal control group. The Positron Emission Tomography - Computed Tomography (PET/CT) database was searched for infra-renal AAA. Exclusion criteria were prior repair, vasculitis, and saccular/mycotic thoracic or thoraco-abdominal aneurysms. Matching of 159 non-aneurysmal (<3 cm diameter) controls from the same population was assessed. Infra-renal aortic wall FDG uptake was assessed using visual analysis; maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) and target to background mediastinal blood pool ratio (TBR) were documented. Predictors of FDG uptake (age, sex, aortic diameter, hypertension, statin use, and diabetes) were assessed using univariate analysis. Follow-up questionnaires were sent to referring clinicians. Aneurysms (n = 151) and controls (n = 159) were matched (p > 0.05) for age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, smoking status, statin use, and indication for PET/CT. Median aneurysm diameter was 5.0 cm (range 3.2-10.4). On visual analysis there was no significant difference in the overall numbers with increased visual uptake 24 % (36/151) in the aneurysm group vs. 19 % (30/159) in the controls, p = ns. SUV{sub max} was slightly lower in the aneurysm group vs. controls (mean (2 SD) 1.75(0.79) vs. 1.84(0.58), p = 0.02). However there was no difference in TBR between the AAA group and controls (mean (2 SD) 1.03 (0.46) vs. 1.05(0.31), p = 0.36). During a median 18 (interquartile range 8-35) months' follow-up 20 were repaired and four were confirmed ruptured. The level of metabolic activity as assessed by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in infra-renal AAA does not correlate with aortic size and does not differ between aneurysms and matched controls

  9. Calcifications of the bladder in schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wechmar, M. von; Vogel, H.

    1989-01-01

    In schistosomiasis calcification of the urinary bladder are characteristic signs that allow a corresponding diagnosis in endemic regions. Problems concerning differential diagnosis occur only in very rare cases. The calcifications of the bladder can be easily detected by native diagnostics. A late complication in an affected bladder is often a bladder carcinoma. (orig.) [de

  10. Dual isotope scintiscan. New method for evaluating bladder function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipshultz, L.I.; Corriere, J.N. Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Technetium-99m radioactive colloid particles were suspended in an iodine-131 Hippuran radioactive fluid medium and placed into the bladders of six patients. Two normal patients and one with only one urinary tract infection voided the fluid and particles synchronously, while three with recurrent urinary tract infections eliminated the particles at a much slower rate than the fluid. A change in either the physical contour or secretory activity of the bladder urothelium is postulated as the cause of particle retention in these patients with chronic infections

  11. Cathepsin-D And Tnf-α in Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Salman

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In a study of 34 normal healthy controls, 35 patients with urinary tract bilharziasis and 93 bladder cancer patients (62 of them are operable cases and 31 are non-operable ones, serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and cytosolic Cathepsin-D were estimated. Though both potential markers were elevated in bladder cancer patients, neither Cathepsin-D nor TNF-α showed associations of prognostic value since there were no positive correlations with tumor stages, grades or association of tumors with bilharzia ova or lymph node involvement.

  12. DNA methylation patterns in bladder cancer and washing cell sediments: a perspective for tumor recurrence detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg José

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epigenetic alterations are a hallmark of human cancer. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether aberrant DNA methylation of cancer-associated genes is related to urinary bladder cancer recurrence. Methods A set of 4 genes, including CDH1 (E-cadherin, SFN (stratifin, RARB (retinoic acid receptor, beta and RASSF1A (Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6 domain family 1, had their methylation patterns evaluated by MSP (Methylation-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction analysis in 49 fresh urinary bladder carcinoma tissues (including 14 cases paired with adjacent normal bladder epithelium, 3 squamous cell carcinomas and 2 adenocarcinomas and 24 cell sediment samples from bladder washings of patients classified as cancer-free by cytological analysis (control group. A third set of samples included 39 archived tumor fragments and 23 matched washouts from 20 urinary bladder cancer patients in post-surgical monitoring. After genomic DNA isolation and sodium bisulfite modification, methylation patterns were determined and correlated with standard clinic-histopathological parameters. Results CDH1 and SFN genes were methylated at high frequencies in bladder cancer as well as in paired normal adjacent tissue and exfoliated cells from cancer-free patients. Although no statistically significant differences were found between RARB and RASSF1A methylation and the clinical and histopathological parameters in bladder cancer, a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 71% were observed for RARB methylation (Fisher's Exact test (p RASSF1A gene, respectively, in relation to the control group. Conclusion Indistinct DNA hypermethylation of CDH1 and SFN genes between tumoral and normal urinary bladder samples suggests that these epigenetic features are not suitable biomarkers for urinary bladder cancer. However, RARB and RASSF1A gene methylation appears to be an initial event in urinary bladder carcinogenesis and should be considered as defining a panel of

  13. An Orthotopic Model of Murine Bladder Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Dobek, Georgina L.; Godbey, W. T.

    2011-01-01

    In this straightforward procedure, bladder tumors are established in female C57 mice through the use of catheterization, local cauterization, and subsequent cell adhesion. After their bladders are transurethrally catheterized and drained, animals are again catheterized to permit insertion of a platinum wire into bladders without damaging the urethra or bladder. The catheters are made of Teflon to serve as an insulator for the wire, which will conduct electrical current into the bladder to c...

  14. [Bladder pain syndrome--an urological-gynecological problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabkowski, Tomasz; Bortnowski, Leszek; Zieliński, Henryk

    2011-03-01

    Bladder Pain Syndrome remains a great challenge for urologists, both in diagnostics and treatment. Etiopathogenesis of the disease is unknown. It is reported that the reason for Bladder Pain Syndrome is the urothelium dysfunction resulting in the destruction of the protective glycosaminoglycan layer/barrier protecting the urothelium from bacteria adhesion and penetration of toxic substances/by bacteria. It is considered to be a syndrome of dysuria and diuresis. Urine analysis usually is normal. It is diagnosed after exclusion of other causes leading to painful symptoms. It is estimated that 90% of the cases of the disease concern women. Treatment with glycocorticosteroids, antihistaminic drugs and antiallergic drugs was not successful. The attempts to find the right method of treatment led to the introduction of hyaluronic acid, which alleviated Bladder Pain Syndrome and its symptoms. Hyaluronic acid reacting with glycosaminoglycans on the bladder decreases penetrability of irritant substances. The patients were treated with 4-8 weekly instillations--40 mg of hyaluronic acid in 50 ml NaCl solution for 1-2 months. After the last instillation, therapy is repeated for the next 6-8 months with one instillation monthly. This method is for patients a chance for getting rid of painful symptoms from the bladder

  15. Clinical impact of bladder biopsies with TUR-BT according to cytology results in patients with bladder cancer: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumoto Kazuhiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There seems to be no consensus concerning taking bladder biopsies during transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT. We investigate the clinical significance of bladder biopsy with TUR-BT and the relationship between urinary cytology and the biopsy results. Methods We reviewed a total of 424 patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer treated with TUR-BT between 1998 and 2005. Of the total, 293 patients also underwent a bladder biopsy. Biopsies from suspicious-appearing urothelium (N = 59 and those from normal-appearing urothelium (N = 234 were evaluated separately. Results Bladder cancer was observed in 23 cases (39.0% who underwent a biopsy of suspicious-appearing urothelium. Among these 23 cases, 9 cases with visible tumor resection had carcinoma in situ (CIS only in the biopsies from suspicious-appearing urothelium. Urinary cytology was negative in 3 of the 9 cases. Bladder cancer was observed in 26 cases (11.1% who underwent a biopsy of normal-appearing urothelium. Of them, 5 cases with visible tumors had CIS only in the multiple biopsies from normal-appearing urothelium. Urinary cytology was positive in all of the 5 cases. No upstaging or upgrading cases were found in these patients by the addition of these two types of biopsy. Furthermore, therapy was not altered in these patients. With or without bladder biopsy was not a significant factor for tumor recurrence in either the univariate or multivariate analysis. Conclusions Based on the results, it is concluded the multiple biopsies from normal-appearing urothelium are not necessary in patients with negative cytology results because of the low detection rate and lack of influence on therapeutic decisions. Meanwhile, biopsy of suspicious-appearing urothelium is needed in patients with negative cytology results in order to detect CIS due to staging properties. This result supports a recent EAU guideline.

  16. Treatment Option Overview (Bladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... above the waist. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood . They take out waste ... to bladder cancer. Being exposed to paints, dyes, metals, or petroleum products in the workplace. Past treatment ...

  17. Drugs Approved for Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bladder cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  18. Do neural tube defects lead to structural alterations in the human bladder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Helena M F; Lobo, Márcio Luiz de P; Costa, Waldemar S; Sampaio, Francisco J B; Cardoso, Luis Eduardo M; Favorito, Luciano Alves

    2011-05-01

    Anencephaly is the most severe neural tube defect in human fetuses. The objective of this paper is to analyze the structure of the bladder in anencephalic human fetuses. We studied 40 bladders of normal human fetuses (20 male and 20 female, aged 14 to 23 WPC) and 12 bladders of anencephalic fetuses (5 male and 7 female, aged 18 to 22 WPC). The bladders were removed and processed by routine histological techniques. Stereological analysis of collagen, elastic system fibers and smooth muscle was performed in sections. Data were expressed as volumetric density (Vv-%). The images were captured with Olympus BX51 microscopy and Olympus DP70 camera. The stereological analysis was done using the software Image Pro and Image J. For biochemical analysis, samples were fixed in acetone, and collagen concentrations were expressed as micrograms of hydroxyproline per mg of dry tissue. Means were statistically compared using the unpaired t-test (p<0.05). We observed a significant increase (p<0.0001) in the Vv of collagen in the bladders of anencephalic fetuses (69.71%) when compared to normal fetuses (52.74%), and a significant decrease (p<0.0001) in the Vv of smooth muscle cells in the bladders of anencephalic fetuses (23.96%) when compared to normal fetuses (38.35%). The biochemical analyses showed a higher concentration of total collagen in the bladders of anencephalic fetuses (37354 µg/mg) when compared to normal fetuses (48117 µg/mg, p<0.02). The structural alterations of the bladder found in this study may suggest the existence of functional alterations in the bladder of anencephalic human fetuses.

  19. Pregnancy in a woman with untreated bladder exstrophy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhui Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the management of urinary tract obstruction and infection in a pregnant woman with unrepaired bladder exstrophy. Case Report: A 27-year-old pregnant woman with unrepaired bladder exstrophy was referred to our hospital with a complaint of bilateral flank pain in the second trimester. After two-dimensional abdominal ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and a urine analysis, she was diagnosed with an upper urinary tract infection due to ureteral obstruction secondary to unrepaired congenital bladder exstrophy and an intrauterine pregnancy. J-tube insertion was performed after locating the ureteral orifices and antibiotics were administered. Symptoms rapidly resolved. She delivered a normal male infant by caesarean section at 34 weeks of gestation. Conclusion: Standard urological management of the ureteral obstruction in pregnancy was successful in this extreme case of unrepaired bladder exstrophy associated with an intrauterine pregnancy. The perinatal outcome was good. Keywords: Bladder exstrophy, Infection, Pregnancy, Urinary tract

  20. Microsatellite instability in bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Zulueta, M; Ruppert, J M; Tokino, K

    1993-01-01

    Somatic instability at microsatellite repeats was detected in 6 of 200 transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder. Instabilities were apparent as changes in (GT)n repeat lengths on human chromosome 9 for four tumors and as alterations in a (CAG)n repeat in the androgen receptor gene on the X...... or larger (> 2 base pairs) alterations in repeat length. All six tumors were low stage (Ta-T1), suggesting that these alterations can occur early in bladder tumorigenesis....

  1. Neurogenic bladder in Hunter's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, K; Moda, Y; Sone, A; Tanaka, H; Hino, Y

    1994-01-01

    We encountered a rare patient with Hunter's syndrome who exhibited urinary retention as a result of a neurogenic bladder, uninhibited detrusor contractions, and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia. Neurological findings were consistent with cervical myelopathy and cervical MR imaging showed very narrow segments at the cord level C2-4. We speculate that this Hunter's syndrome patient has cervical myelopathy and that this neurological dysfunction causes the neurogenic bladder. PMID:8014981

  2. Current management of overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Rufus; Renganathan, Arasee; Cardozo, Linda

    2008-10-01

    The concept of overactive bladder has helped us address the problem of urgency and urge incontinence from a symptomatic perspective. In this review, we provide a critical summary of clinically relevant recent publications, focusing in particular on advances in our understanding of assessment methods and therapeutic interventions for overactive bladder in women. According to current definitions, the prevalence of overactive bladder in western nations is now estimated as 13.0%. Although the prevalence increases with age, the symptoms of overactive bladder may follow a relapsing and remitting course. There has been a proliferation of validated symptom and quality of life measures and increasing sophistication in the analysis of bladder diaries. The role of urodynamics in the evaluation of urgency remains uncertain, with many trials showing limited benefit as a preoperative investigation. Fluid restriction and bladder retraining remain important first-line interventions. Many new anticholinergic medications have been licensed, with limited benefits compared with existing preparations. Intravesical botulinum toxin has become a popular alternative for patients who fail oral therapies. Although there have been few important therapeutic innovations, recent publications have led to greater sophistication in assessment methods and a clearer understanding of the role of existing interventions.

  3. Bladder Dysfunction and Vesicoureteral Reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Sillén

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this overview the influence of functional bladder disturbances and of its treatment on the resolution of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR in children is discussed. Historically both bladder dysfunction entities, the overactive bladder (OAB and the dysfunctional voiding (DV, have been described in conjunction with VUR. Treatment of the dysfunction was also considered to influence spontaneous resolution in a positive way. During the last decades, however, papers have been published which could not support these results. Regarding the OAB, a prospective study with treatment of the bladder overactivity with anticholinergics, did not influence spontaneous resolution rate in children with a dysfunction including also the voiding phase, DV and DES (dysfunctional elimination syndrome, most studies indicate a negative influence on the resolution rate of VUR in children, both before and after the age for bladder control, both with and without treatment. However, a couple of uncontrolled studies indicate that there is a high short-term resolution rate after treatment with flow biofeedback. It should be emphasized that the voiding phase dysfunctions (DV and DES are more severe than the genuine filling phase dysfunction (OAB, with an increased frequency of UTI and renal damage in the former groups. To be able to answer the question if treatment of bladder dysfunction influence the resolution rate of VUR in children, randomized controlled studies must be performed.

  4. In vivo fluorescence imaging of an orthotopic rat bladder tumor model indicates differential uptake of intravesically instilled near-infrared labeled 2-deoxyglucose analog by neoplastic urinary bladder tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Daqing; Davis, Carole A.; Hurst, Robert E.; Slaton, Joel W.

    2017-02-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most expensive cancers to manage due to frequent recurrences requiring life-long surveillance and treatment. A near-infrared labeled 2-deoxy-d-glucose probe IRDye800CW-DG targeting glucose metabolism pathway has shown to enhance the sensitivity of diagnosing several types of cancers as tested on tumor models not including bladder tumor. This pilot study has explored differential uptake of intravesically administered IRDye800CW-DG in an orthotopic rat bladder tumor model. Twenty-five female Fischer rats were randomly grouped to four conditions: no-tumor-control (n=3), no-tumor-control intravesically instilled with IRDye800CWDG (n=6), rats bearing GFP-labeled AY-27 rat bladder urothelial cell carcinoma cells and washed with saline (n=5), and rats bearing AY-27 tumors and intravesically instilled with IRDye800CW-DG (n=11). Near-infrared fluorescence was measured from the opened bladder wall of anesthetized rat at an excitation wavelength of 750nm and an emission wavelength of 776nm, by using an in-house fluorescence imaging system. There is no statistically significant difference of the peak fluorescence intensity among the no-tumor-control bladders (n=3), the no-tumorcontrol bladders instilled with IRDye800CW-DG (n=6), and the GFP-labeled AY-27 treated bladders washed by saline (n=5). When compared to that of the no-tumor-control bladders instilled with IRDye800CW-DG (n=6), the fluorescence intensity of GFP-labeled AY-27 treated bladders instilled with IRDye800CW-DG and with histology confirmed neoplastic bladder tissue (n=11) was remarkably more intense (3.34 fold of over the former) and was also statistically significant (pbladder tissues suggests the potential for cystoscopy-adaptation to enhance diagnosis and guiding surgical management of flat urinary bladder cancer.

  5. Intraperitoneal Urinary Bladder Perforation with Pneumoperitoneum in Association with Indwelling Foley Catheter Diagnosed in Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Chenyang; Maria, Pedro P; Dym, R Joshua

    2017-11-01

    Indwelling Foley catheter is a rare cause of urinary bladder perforation, a serious injury with high mortality that demands accurate and prompt diagnosis. While the gold standard for diagnosis of bladder injury is computed tomography (CT) cystography, few bladder ruptures associated with Foley catheter have been reported to be diagnosed in the emergency department (ED). An 83-year-old man with indwelling Foley catheter presented to the ED for hematuria and altered mental status. He was diagnosed to have intraperitoneal rupture of the urinary bladder in the ED using abdominal and pelvic CT without contrast, which demonstrated bladder wall discontinuity, intraperitoneal free fluid, and pneumoperitoneum. The patient was treated successfully with medical management and bladder drainage. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: To our knowledge, this is the first report of intraperitoneal urinary bladder perforation associated with Foley catheter diagnosed in the ED by CT without contrast. Pneumoperitoneum found in this case was a clue to the diagnosis and is a benign finding that does not necessitate urgent surgical intervention. The early and accurate diagnosis in this case allowed for effective management with good clinical outcome. The use of indwelling Foley catheter has a high prevalence, especially in long-term care facility residents, who are frequent visitors in the ED. Therefore, emergency physicians and radiologists should be familiar with the presentation and imaging findings of this potential injury associated with Foley catheters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Case report of metastatic invasive breast lobular carcinoma to the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ibraheemi, Ahmed A

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women except skin cancer. The common metastatic sites include lymph node, lung, liver and bone. However, metastasis to the bladder is extremely rare. To our knowledge, this is the first case of breast cancer metastasis to urinary bladder in Jordan which is reported. Nine years after the initial diagnosis of lobular breast carcinoma, the patient suffered from left side leg edema; Ultrasonography and Computed tomography scanning showed thickening of posterior bladder wall and bilateral hydronephrosis. The biopsy of the bladder confirmed metastatic lesion from the breast. In contrast to the primary tumor, bladder metastasis showed negative expression of estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors. However, Her2neu test was negative in both. The reported case confirms that bladder metastasis from breast cancer tend to occur late after the diagnosis of the primary tumor. Furthermore, bladder metastasis can be asymptomatic and heterogeneous in ER and PR expression in comparison with the primary tumor. This report supports the need for careful follow-up and early intervention whenever such clinical situation is suspected. This report supports further evaluation of receptor status at time of metastasis.

  7. Feasibility and effectiveness of image-guided percutaneous biopsy of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butros, Selim Reha; McCarthy, Colin James; Karaosmanoğlu, Ali Devrim; Shenoy-Bhangle, Anuradha S; Arellano, Ronald S

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the indications, technique, results, and complications of image-guided percutaneous biopsy of the urinary bladder. This retrospective study included 15 patients (10 male, 5 female) who underwent image-guided percutaneous biopsy of the urinary bladder between January 1999 and December 2013. The medical records, imaging studies, procedural details, and long-term follow-up of each patient were reviewed in detail to assess the feasibility of percutaneous bladder biopsy. Ten patients had focal bladder masses and 5 patients had asymmetric or diffuse bladder wall thickening. Eleven patients had either negative or unsatisfactory cystoscopies prior to the biopsy. Percutaneous biopsies were performed under computed tomography guidance in 12 patients and ultrasound in 3 patients. All procedures were technically successful and there were no procedural complications. Malignancy was confirmed in 8 patients, among whom 6 had transitional cell carcinoma, 1 cervical cancer, and 1 prostate cancer metastasis. Seven patients had a benign diagnosis, including 3 that were later confirmed by pathology following surgery and 2 patients with a false-negative result. The overall sensitivity was 80% and accuracy was 87%. Image-guided percutaneous biopsy of the urinary bladder is a safe and technically feasible procedure with a high sensitivity and accuracy rate. Although image-guided bladder biopsy is an uncommon procedure, it should be considered in selected cases when more traditional methods of tissue sampling are either not possible or fail to identify abnormalities detected by cross-sectional imaging.

  8. Gene expression in the urinary bladder: a common carcinoma in situ gene expression signature exists disregarding histopathological classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Kruhøffer, Mogens; Andersen, Thomas Thykjær

    2004-01-01

    not only in CIS biopsies but also in sTCC, mTCC, and, remarkably, in histologically normal urothelium from bladders with CIS. Identification of this expression signature could provide guidance for the selection of therapy and follow-up regimen in patients with early stage bladder cancer....

  9. Allopurinol Protects against Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Injury in Rat Urinary Bladders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hyun Shin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury results in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and markedly elevates the risk of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS. Allopurinol is an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase (XO and thus can serve as an antioxidant that reduces oxidative stress. Here, a rat model was used to assess the ability of allopurinol treatment to ameliorate the deleterious effects of urinary bladder I/R injury. I/R injury reduced the in vitro contractile responses of longitudinal bladder strips, elevated XO activity in the plasma and bladder tissue, increased the bladder levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, reduced the bladder levels of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK, and decreased and increased the bladder levels of Bcl-2 and Bax, respectively. I/R injury also elevated lipid peroxidation in the bladder. Allopurinol treatment in the I/R injury was generated significantly ameliorating all I/R-induced changes. Moreover, an in situ fluorohistological approach also showed that allopurinol reduces the generation of intracellular superoxides enlarged by I/R injury. Together, the beneficial effects of allopurinol reducing ROS production may be mediated by normalizing the activity of the ERK, JNK, and Bax/Bcl-2 pathways and by controlling TNF-α expression.

  10. Associations between volume changes and spatial dose metrics for the urinary bladder during local versus pelvic irradiation for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casares-Magaz, Oscar; Moiseenko, Vitali; Hopper, Austin; Pettersson, Niclas Johan; Thor, Maria; Knopp, Rick; Deasy, Joseph O; Muren, Ludvig Paul; Einck, John

    2017-06-01

    Inter-fractional variation in urinary bladder volumes during the course of radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer causes deviations between planned and delivered doses. This study compared planned versus daily cone-beam CT (CBCT)-based spatial bladder dose distributions, for prostate cancer patients receiving local prostate treatment (local treatment) versus prostate including pelvic lymph node irradiation (pelvic treatment). Twenty-seven patients (N = 15 local treatment; N = 12 pelvic treatment) were treated using daily image-guided RT (1.8 Gy@43-45 fx), adhering to a full bladder/empty rectum protocol. For each patient, 9-10 CBCTs were registered to the planning CT, using the clinically applied translations. The urinary bladder was manually segmented on each CBCT, 3 mm inner shells were generated, and semi and quadrant sectors were created using axial/coronal cuts. Planned and delivered DVH metrics were compared across patients and between the two groups of treatment (t-test, p bladder volume variations and the dose-volume histograms (DVH) of the bladder and its sectors were evaluated (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, r s ). Bladder volumes varied considerably during RT (coefficient of variation: 16-58%). The population-averaged planned and delivered DVH metrics were not significantly different at any dose level. Larger treatment bladder volumes resulted in increased absolute volume of the posterior/inferior bladder sector receiving intermediate-high doses, in both groups. The superior bladder sector received less dose with larger bladder volumes for local treatments (r s  ± SD: -0.47 ± 0.32), but larger doses for pelvic treatments (r s  ± SD: 0.74 ± 0.24). Substantial bladder volume changes during the treatment course occurred even though patients were treated under a full bladder/daily image-guided protocol. Larger bladder volumes resulted in less bladder wall spared at the posterior-inferior sector, regardless the

  11. Bladder preservation using chemoradiation therapy for locally invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Toyofumi; Yoshioka, Toshiaki; Sato, Mototaka; Mori, Naoki; Sekii, Ken-Ichiro; Itatani, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the long-term results and molecular markers of outcome with selective organ preservation in invasive bladder cancer using chemoradiation therapy. We examined locally invasive bladder cancer in 32 patients (30 men, 2 women; mean age at treatment 68.1 years) who underwent bladder-sparing protocols in the Department of Urology at Sumitomo Hospital between 2000 and 2005. The clinical stage was T2, T3, and T4 in 13, 16, and 3 patients, respectively. Our protocol includes aggressive transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) and 46 Gy radiotherapy (2 Gy/fraction, 5 fractions/week) to the pelvis with concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy (20 mg/body/day, 5 days/week, the first and fourth week, intravenously). The initial evaluation included magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), urine cytology, and cystoscopy with a biopsy. During follow-up, if the patients developed superficial recurrence, they was treated with TURBT and intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), while patients with invasive recurrence were advised to undergo a salvage cystectomy. We examined the association between the expression of the Bcl-2 family in pretreatment TUR specimens and patient outcome. The mean follow-up was 54.6 months. The first assessment after the induction chemoradiotherapy showed that bladder preservation was achieved in 27 patients (84.4%). The actuarial local control rate with an intact bladder was 56.3% (18 patients) at 3 years. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 90.6, 84.0, and 66.9%, respectively. The 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 75.0, 67.2, and 33.3% in T2, T3, and T4, respectively. Bcl-x positivity was significantly associated with a poor cancer-specific survival rate (log-rank test, p=0.038). Chemoradiation therapy for invasive bladder cancer can achieve survival rates similar to those in patients treated with radical cystectomy, with successful bladder preservation. Our results suggest that the expression of Bcl-x is a

  12. Bladder urine oxygen tension for assessing renal medullary oxygenation in rabbits: experimental and modeling studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgouralis, Ioannis; Kett, Michelle M.; Ow, Connie P. C.; Abdelkader, Amany; Layton, Anita T.; Gardiner, Bruce S.; Smith, David W.; Lankadeva, Yugeesh R.

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen tension (Po2) of urine in the bladder could be used to monitor risk of acute kidney injury if it varies with medullary Po2. Therefore, we examined this relationship and characterized oxygen diffusion across walls of the ureter and bladder in anesthetized rabbits. A computational model was then developed to predict medullary Po2 from bladder urine Po2. Both intravenous infusion of [Phe2,Ile3,Orn8]-vasopressin and infusion of NG-nitro-l-arginine reduced urinary Po2 and medullary Po2 (8–17%), yet had opposite effects on renal blood flow and urine flow. Changes in bladder urine Po2 during these stimuli correlated strongly with changes in medullary Po2 (within-rabbit r2 = 0.87–0.90). Differences in the Po2 of saline infused into the ureter close to the kidney could be detected in the bladder, although this was diminished at lesser ureteric flow. Diffusion of oxygen across the wall of the bladder was very slow, so it was not considered in the computational model. The model predicts Po2 in the pelvic ureter (presumed to reflect medullary Po2) from known values of bladder urine Po2, urine flow, and arterial Po2. Simulations suggest that, across a physiological range of urine flow in anesthetized rabbits (0.1–0.5 ml/min for a single kidney), a change in bladder urine Po2 explains 10–50% of the change in pelvic urine/medullary Po2. Thus, it is possible to infer changes in medullary Po2 from changes in urinary Po2, so urinary Po2 may have utility as a real-time biomarker of risk of acute kidney injury. PMID:27385734

  13. Imaging of urinary bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjidekov, G.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Primary bladder neoplasms account for 2%-6% of all tumors, with urinary bladder cancer ranked as the fourth most common cancer in males. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common subtype of urothelial tumour accounting for approximately 90% of all urothelial cancers. It is typically observed in men aged 50-70 years with history of smoking or occupational exposure to carcinogens. Most urothelial neoplasms are low-grade papillary tumors, with high incidence of recurrence, requires rigorous follow-up but have a relatively good prognosis. Other bladder neoplasm include squamous cell carcinoma accounts for 2%-15% mainly according to geographic location; adenocarcinoma - less than 2% /both occurring in the context of chronic bladder infection and irritation/; mesenchymal tumors in 5%, with the most common examples being rhabdomyosarcoma in children and leiomyosarcoma in adults. More rare mesenchymal tumors include paraganglioma, lymphoma, leiomyoma and solitary fibrous tumor which have no specific typical imaging findings to be differentiated. Multidetector computed tomography urography is an efficient tool for diagnosis and follow-up in patients with transitional cell carcinoma and it can be considered the primary radiologic method for detection, staging and assessment of the entire urothelium regarding the multicentric nature of TCC. MRI is rapidly expanding modality of choice especially in locally staging the tumor and in controversies. Accurate TNM staging is primordial in choosing treatment and prognosis for patients with bladder carcinoma. Correct interpretation and classification of the tumour is helpful for the urologists to determine further management in these cases. The learning objectives of the presentation are: to illustrate the spectrum of CT and MRI findings and to assess their clinical value in patients with transitional cell carcinoma and some other bladder neoplasm; to discuss the TNM staging based on the imaging findings; to be

  14. Fluorescent imaging of high-grade bladder cancer using a specific antagonist for chemokine receptor CXCR4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Koji; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Oishi, Shinya; Tanahara, Noriko; Kotani, Hirokazu; Mikami, Yoshiki; Toda, Yoshinobu; Evans, Barry J; Peiper, Stephen C; Saito, Ryoichi; Watanabe, Jun; Fujii, Nobutaka; Ogawa, Osamu

    2010-09-01

    We previously reported that the expression of CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) was upregulated in invasive bladder cancers and that the small peptide T140 was a highly sensitive antagonist for CXCR4. In this study, we identified that CXCR4 expression was induced in high-grade superficial bladder tumors, including carcinoma in situ and invasive bladder tumors. To visualize the bladder cancer cells using urinary sediments from the patients and chemically induced mouse bladder cancer model, a novel fluorescent CXCR4 antagonist TY14003 was developed, that is a T140 derivative. TY14003 could label bladder cancer cell lines expressing CXCR4, whereas negative-control fluorescent peptides did not label them. When labeling urinary sediments from patients with invasive bladder cancer, positive-stained cells were identified in all patients with bladder cancer and positive urine cytology but not in controls. Although white blood cells in urine were also labeled with TY14003, they could be easily discriminated from urothelial cells by their shape and size. Finally, intravesical instillation of TY14003 into mouse bladder, using N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN)-induced bladder cancer model, demonstrated that fluorescent signals were detected in the focal areas of bladder of all mice examined at 12 weeks of BBN drinking by confocal microscopy and fluorescent endoscopy. On the contrary, all the normal bladders were found to be negative for TY14003 staining. In conclusion, these results indicate that TY14003 is a promising diagnostic tool to visualize small or flat high-grade superficial bladder cancer.

  15. Gynaecomastia: an unusual presenting symptom of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mashrafi; Kanji, Aleem; Begum, Tahmina

    2015-06-25

    A 74-year-old man presented to the outpatient clinic with painful gynaecomastia. A detailed physical examination to sort out possible causes of the gynaecomastia, including intracranial tumour, liver cirrhosis, hyperthyroidism, and adrenal and testicular tumour, was negative. No offending agent was found in his medication list. A CT scan of the head and ultrasound of the scrotum did not show any mass lesion. His serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and oestradiol levels were elevated. A CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis revealed bladder wall thickening with soft tissue mass. A cystoscopic biopsy confirmed transitional cell carcinoma with muscle invasion. The patient was started on chemotherapy but responded poorly. This case report describes the β-hCG and oestradiol-secreting transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder presenting as gynaecomastia in an older man. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  16. [Glandular squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovylina, M V; Pushkar', D Iu; Zaĭrat'iants, O V; Rasner, P I

    2006-01-01

    The paper gives a clinical observation of a 52 year-old male with a rare histological urinary bladder tumor primary grandular-squamous-cell carcinoma (pT3N IM0). The tumor is represented by two components large acinic-cell adenocarcinoma and squamous-cell carcinoma with keratinization, which smoothly pass one into another; the tumor has grown through all layers of the urinary bladder wall but it has failed to grow into the peritoneum. A microscopic study has indicated that the urachus is intact. Metastases were found in 3 of 8 lymph nodes: one showed high-grade adenocarcinoma and two others displayed average-grade squamous-cell carcinoma.

  17. Accuracy of ultrasound-measured bladder wall thickness for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M.M. Ali

    history taking, general physical and genital examination, urine analysis, urine culture, blood chemistry, ... supine position, using an ultrasound device (BK Medical, Herlev, .... The standardisation of terminology of lower urinary tract function:.

  18. Abdominal wall closure in bladder exstrophy complex repair by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shobha

    1Department of Surgery, Semnan University of Medical Science, Iran, 2Department of Forensic Sciences, Iranian. Legal Medicine Research Center, Shiraz, Iran. Correspondence to: Dr. S.M.V Hosseini & M. Zarenezhad, Department of Surgery, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Shiraz. University of Medical Sciences, Namazi ...

  19. Cytokine expression in patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis ESSIC type 3C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logadottir, Yr; Delbro, Dick; Fall, Magnus; Gjertsson, Inger; Jirholt, Pernilla; Lindholm, Catharina; Peeker, Ralph

    2014-11-01

    Bladder wall nitric oxide production in patients with bladder pain syndrome type 3C is increased compared to undetectable nitric oxide in patients with nonHunner bladder pain syndrome and healthy controls. However, the underlying mechanism/s of the increased nitric oxide production is largely unknown. We compared mRNA expression of a select group of cytokines in patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis type 3C and in pain-free controls. Cold cup biopsies from 7 patients with bladder pain syndrome type 3C and 6 healthy subjects were analyzed. mRNA expression of IL-4, 6, 10 and 17A, iNOS, TNF-α, TGF-β and IFN-γ was estimated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. IL-17 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. Mast cells were labeled with tryptase to evaluate cell appearance and count. IL-6, 10 and 17A, and iNOS mRNA levels as well as the number of mast cells infiltrating the bladder mucosa were significantly increased in patients with bladder pain syndrome type 3C compared to healthy controls. TNF-α, TGF-β and IFN-γ mRNA levels were similar in patients and controls. IL-17A expression at the protein level was up-regulated and localized to inflammatory cells and urothelium in patients with bladder pain syndrome type 3C. Patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis had increased mRNA levels of IL-17A, 10 and 6, and iNOS. IL-17A might be important in the inflammatory process. To our knowledge the increase in IL-17A is a novel finding that may have new treatment implications. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Medical management of overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvpreet S Ubee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Overactive bladder (OAB, as defined by the International Continence Society, is characterized by a symptom complex including urinary urgency with or without urge incontinence, usually associated with frequency and nocturia. OAB syndrome has an incidence reported from six European countries ranging between 12-17%, while in the United States; a study conducted by the National Overactive Bladder Evaluation program found the incidence at 17%. In Asia, the prevalence of OAB is reported at 53.1%. In about 75%, OAB symptoms are due to idiopathic detrusor activity; neurological disease, bladder outflow obstruction (BOO intrinsic bladder pathology and other chronic pelvic floor disorders are implicated in the others. OAB can be diagnosed easily and managed effectively with both non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapies. The first-line treatments are lifestyle interventions, bladder training, pelvic floor muscle exercises and anticholinergic drugs. Antimuscarinics are the drug class of choice for OAB symptoms; with proven efficacy, and adverse event profiles that differ somewhat.

  1. Empty-bladder (hysterographic) view on US for evaluation of intrauterine devices. Work in progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, R; Gombergh, R

    1987-06-01

    Ultrasound scanning of the pelvis with an empty bladder permits a true frontal view of the uterus to be easily obtained. This view is comparable to the en face view seen at hysterography performed with contrast material. Good definition both of the endometrium and the uterine wall makes this the optimal method for the evaluation of an intrauterine contraceptive device.

  2. Automatic bladder segmentation on CBCT for multiple plan ART of bladder cancer using a patient-specific bladder model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chai, Xiangfei; van Herk, Marcel; Betgen, Anja; Hulshof, Maarten; Bel, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    In multiple plan adaptive radiotherapy (ART) strategies of bladder cancer, a library of plans corresponding to different bladder volumes is created based on images acquired in early treatment sessions. Subsequently, the plan for the smallest PTV safely covering the bladder on cone-beam CT (CBCT) is

  3. Fundamentals of bladder tissue engineering | Mahfouz | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fundamentals of bladder tissue engineering. ... could affect the bladder and lead to eventual loss of its integrity, with the need for replacement or repair. ... Tissue engineering relies upon three essential pillars; the scaffold, the cells seeded on ...

  4. Aging changes in the kidneys and bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect kidney function. COMMON PROBLEMS Aging increases the risk of kidney and bladder problems such as: Bladder control issues, such as leakage or urinary incontinence (not being able to hold your urine), or ...

  5. An orthotopic model of murine bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobek, Georgina L; Godbey, W T

    2011-02-06

    In this straightforward procedure, bladder tumors are established in female C57 mice through the use of catheterization, local cauterization, and subsequent cell adhesion. After their bladders are transurethrally catheterized and drained, animals are again catheterized to permit insertion of a platinum wire into bladders without damaging the urethra or bladder. The catheters are made of Teflon to serve as an insulator for the wire, which will conduct electrical current into the bladder to create a burn injury. An electrocautery unit is used to deliver 2.5W to the exposed end of the wire, burning away extracellular layers and providing attachment sites for carcinoma cells that are delivered in suspension to the bladder through a subsequent catheterization. Cells remain in the bladder for 90 minutes, after which the catheters are removed and the bladders allowed to drain naturally. The development of tumor is monitored via ultrasound. Specific attention is paid to the catheterization technique in the accompanying video.

  6. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR AND SURVIVIN EXPRESSION IN BLADDER CANCER TISSUE AND URINE CYTOLOGY OF PATIENTS WITH TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE URINARY BLADDER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehinde, E O; Al-Maghrebi, M; Anim, J T; Kapila, K; George, S S; Al-Juwaiser, A; Memon, A

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and survivin immunostaining of tumour cells in urinary cytology and tissue of patients with bladder cancer has a prognostic significance. Prospective study Department of Surgery (Division of Urology), Mubarak Al-Kabeer Teaching Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait Urine cytology smears obtainedpriorto cystoscopy in patients with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder were immunostained for EGFR and survivin. Bladder cancer tissue resected at surgery was also immunostained for EGFR and survivin expression. Tissue expression of EGFR and survivin in TCC of the bladder was compared to their expression in urine cytology and relationship to tumour grade and stage. 178 patients were studied (43 newly diagnosed bladder cancer, 58 with recurrent TCC and 77 in disease remission). Twenty five patients with normal urothelium served as controls. The mean sensitivity of urine cytology, tissue survivin immunohistochemistry (IHC) and tissue EGFR IHC was 30.5%, 62% and 59% respectively. The corresponding mean specificity was 95%, 79% and 38% respectively. For grades 1, 2 and 3 bladder tumors, tissue expression positivity for EGFR was 47.8%, 92.9%, 100% and for tissue survivin it was 27.8%, 18.2% and 33.3% respectively. For grades 1, 2 and 3 bladder tumors, urine expression positivity for EGFR was 35.7%, 40% and 67.7% and for urine survivin it was 8.3%, 42.9% and 33.3% respectively. Positive EGFR immunostaining of urine cytology specimen or tumour tissue increases with histological grade of TCC of the bladder. Survivin expression is less consistent in both urine cytology specimen and tissue samples. EGFR immunostaining may provide a useful tool in the grading of bladder TCC and aid in the selection of patients that may benefit from administration of EGFR inhibitors.

  7. Impact of convenience void in a bladder diary with urinary perception grade to assess overactive bladder symptoms: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, Hisashi; Kawauchi, Akihiro; Nakao, Masahiro; Ukimura, Osamu; Kitakoji, Hiroshi; Miki, Tsuneharu

    2010-09-01

    Bladder diaries including bladder perception grade were analyzed to assess convenience void (CV) in community-dwelling women 40 years of age or older. A total of 310 women completed a 3-day bladder diary with a grade for bladder perception. The grade was defined on scores 0-5 as follows: 0 = No bladder sensation, 1 = Sensation of bladder filling without desire to void, 2 = Desire to void, 3 = Strong desire to void, 4 = Urgency without urge urinary incontinence (UUI), and 5 = Urge incontinence episode. CV was defined as void without desire to void: when the grade was 0, CV in a narrow sense, and when 0 or 1, CV in a broad sense. The incidence of CV in the broad sense significantly decreased with age. Of the 310 women, 48 (15.5%) had overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms on the medical interview, including 37 (11.9%) without UUI (OAB-Dry) and 11 (3.5%) with UUI (OAB-Wet). Of the remaining 262 women, 111 (35.8%), who had urgency but a urinary frequency of 7 or less, and another 141 (48.7%) were classified into the Normal with Urgency and Normal without Urgency groups, respectively. The incidence of CV in a broad sense in the Normal without Urgency group was significantly greater than that in the Normal with Urgency and OAB-Wet groups. The mean voided volumes of CV in the broad sense in the OAB-Wet group were significantly smaller than those in the other three groups. The evaluation of CV may be a new tool in assessing storage condition and voiding dysfunction. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Suppression of progranulin expression inhibits bladder cancer growth and sensitizes cancer cells to cisplatin

    OpenAIRE

    Buraschi, Simone; Xu, Shi-Qiong; Stefanello, Manuela; Moskalev, Igor; Morcavallo, Alaide; Genua, Marco; Tanimoto, Ryuta; Birbe, Ruth; Peiper, Stephen C.; Gomella, Leonard G.; Belfiore, Antonino; Black, Peter C.; Iozzo, Renato V.; Morrione, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated a critical role for progranulin in bladder cancer. Progranulin contributes, as an autocrine growth factor, to the transformed phenotype by modulating Akt-and MAPK-driven motility, invasion and anchorage-independent growth. Progranulin also induces F-actin remodeling by interacting with the F-actin binding protein drebrin. In addition, progranulin is overexpressed in invasive bladder cancer compared to normal tissue controls, suggesting that progranulin might play...

  9. Novel robust biomarkers for human bladder cancer based on activation of intracellular signaling pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Lezhnina, Ksenia; Kovalchuk, Olga; Zhavoronkov, Alexander A.; Korzinkin, Mikhail B.; Zabolotneva, Anastasia A.; Shegay, Peter V.; Sokov, Dmitry G.; Gaifullin, Nurshat M.; Rusakov, Igor G.; Aliper, Alexander M.; Roumiantsev, Sergey A.; Alekseev, Boris Y.; Borisov, Nikolay M.; Buzdin, Anton A.

    2014-01-01

    We recently proposed a new bioinformatic algorithm called OncoFinder for quantifying the activation of intracellular signaling pathways. It was proved advantageous for minimizing errors of high-throughput gene expression analyses and showed strong potential for identifying new biomarkers. Here, for the first time, we applied OncoFinder for normal and cancerous tissues of the human bladder to identify biomarkers of bladder cancer. Using Illumina HT12v4 microarrays, we profiled gene expression ...

  10. Implication of androgen receptor in urinary bladder cancer: a critical mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Arshad H; Alzohairy, Mohammad; Babiker, Ali Yousif Y; Khan, Amjad A; Aly, Salah M; Rizvi, Moshahid A

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is probably the most dreaded disease of mankind and the bladder cancer is the fifth most common type of cancer worldwide. It is a major cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. From amongst the bladder cancer, the Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC) is the most prevalent cancer of the bladder and accounts for 90% of all bladder cancer cases. Despite such a high prevalence, the molecular mechanism involved in the induction of bladder carcinoma and its progression are poorly understood. Tumorigenesis and tumor progression of bladder carcinomas are thought to result from the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations. The Androgen Receptor (AR) gene is located on the q arm of X chromosome (q11-12) and considered as a ligand-inducible transcription factor that regulates target gene expression. The Androgen plays a vital role in the development and maintenance of the normal urinary bladder. The AR is also involved in the development and progression of urinary bladder carcinoma, which is the most common type of carcinoma. Mutation in AR alters the ligand binding ability that may cause the progression and development of bladder cancer. Tumorigenesis and tumor progression are thought to result from changes in the function of hormonal receptor gene. The accumulation of the changes in AR expressions, determines the tumor's phenotype and ultimately the patient's clinical outcome. The early detection of which may help in management and prediction, how will it behave and respond to the therapeutic regimen. The present review aimed to study the mechanism and alteration of AR gene that play a vital role in the tumorIgenesis of bladder carcinoma.

  11. [Occupational hazards and bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamova, R S

    1991-01-01

    Occupational exposure to health hazards was studied in 258 industrial workers who had developed cancer of the bladder against 454 matched controls. All the test subjects and controls were residents of the Tambov Province centers of chemical industry. Statistical significance (relative risk-4.7) was established for exposure to aromatic amines. For those contacting with aniline dyes the relative risk (RR) made up 2.4. The risk to develop bladder cancer in powder shops (RR-3.2) was attributed to the hazards of dyes and diphenylamine. In leather-shoe and textile industry the exposure to dyes was not safe (RR-6.1), neither was it to chemicals, oil products, pesticides, overheating (RR-3.2, 1.6, 3.2 and 2.9, respectively). It is stated that in line with a significant risk to develop bladder cancer at exposure to aromatic amines there exist a number of occupational factors contributing to this risk.

  12. Tumour cell expansion in bladder epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.J. Rebel (Annemarie)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractBladder cancer is common in western society. The major problem of patients with superficial bladder cancer is the high recurrence rate and multifocality of these tumours. In 70 % of the patients superficial bladder cancer recurs after local resection of the tumour within 15 years. The

  13. Bladder Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder can be low-grade or high-grade. Bladder cancer is also divided into muscle-invasive and nonmuscle-invasive disease. Find evidence-based information on bladder cancer including treatment, screening, research, and statistics.

  14. Bladder Dysfunction and Urinary Incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    F. faizi

    2009-01-01

      "nIn the name of God. Dear colleagues, ladies and gentlemen, it is a great honor to be here. Bladder dysfunction is serious enough to seek serious help. If you may know I am working in a private clinic which it is impossible to follow the patients so this lecture is based on unusual and rare cases who came to me. Bladder dysfunction (BD) is common among 30% of young and old people who are suffering from it, however it is more common in old ages. According to a research, women ...

  15. Ambiguous walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mody, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in the built environment has encouraged myriad applications, often embedded in surfaces as an integrated part of the architecture. Thus the wall as responsive luminous skin is becoming, if not common, at least familiar. Taking into account how wall...

  16. Infiltrating T Cells Promote Bladder Cancer Progression via Increasing IL1→Androgen Receptor→HIF1α→VEGFa Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Le; Qiu, Jianxin; Jiang, Ming; Song, Wenbin; Yeh, Shuyuan; Yu, Hong; Zang, Lijuan; Xia, Shujie; Chang, Chawnshang

    2016-08-01

    The tumor microenvironment impacts tumor progression and individual cells, including CD4(+) T cells, which have been detected in bladder cancer tissues. The detailed mechanism of how these T cells were recruited to the bladder cancer tumor and their impact on bladder cancer progression, however, remains unclear. Using a human clinical bladder cancer sample survey and in vitro coculture system, we found that bladder cancer has a greater capacity to recruit T cells than surrounding normal bladder tissues. The consequences of higher levels of recruited T cells in bladder cancer included increased bladder cancer metastasis. Mechanism dissection revealed that infiltrating T cells might function through secreting the cytokine IL1, which increases the recruitment of T cells to bladder cancer and enhances the bladder cancer androgen receptor (AR) signaling that results in increased bladder cancer cell invasion via upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1α)/VEGFa expression. Interruption of the IL1→AR→HIF1α→VEGFa signals with inhibitors of HIF1α or VEGFa partially reversed the enhanced bladder cancer cell invasion. Finally, in vivo mouse models of xenografted bladder cancer T24 cells with CD4(+) T cells confirmed in vitro coculture studies and concluded that infiltrating CD4(+) T cells can promote bladder cancer metastasis via modulation of the IL1→AR→HIF1α→VEGFa signaling. Future clinical trials using small molecules to target this newly identified signaling pathway may facilitate the development of new therapeutic approaches to better suppress bladder cancer metastasis. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(8); 1943-51. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Ambiguous walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mody, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in the built environment has encouraged myriad applications, often embedded in surfaces as an integrated part of the architecture. Thus the wall as responsive luminous skin is becoming, if not common, at least familiar. Taking into account how walls...... have encouraged architectural thinking of enclosure, materiality, construction and inhabitation in architectural history, the paper’s aim is to define new directions for the integration of LEDs in walls, challenging the thinking of inhabitation and program. This paper introduces the notion...... of “ambiguous walls” as a more “critical” approach to design [1]. The concept of ambiguous walls refers to the diffuse status a lumious and possibly responsive wall will have. Instead of confining it can open up. Instead of having a static appearance, it becomes a context over time. Instead of being hard...

  18. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation is associated with bladder cancer cell growth and survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh Fu-Chuan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Constitutive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3 signaling pathway plays an important role in several human cancers. Activation of Stat3 is dependent on the phosphorylation at the tyrosine residue 705 by upstream kinases and subsequent nuclear translocation after dimerization. It remains unclear whether oncogenic Stat3 signaling pathway is involved in the oncogenesis of bladder cancer. Results We found that elevated Stat3 phosphorylation in 19 of 100 (19% bladder cancer tissues as well as bladder cancer cell lines, WH, UMUC-3 and 253J. To explore whether Stat3 activation is associated with cell growth and survival of bladder cancer, we targeted the Stat3 signaling pathway in bladder cancer cells using an adenovirus-mediated dominant-negative Stat3 (Y705F and a small molecule compound, STA-21. Both prohibited cell growth and induction of apoptosis in these bladder cancer cell lines but not in normal bladder smooth muscle cell (BdSMC. The survival inhibition might be mediated through apoptotic caspase 3, 8 and 9 pathways. Moreover, down-regulation of anti-apoptotic genes (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and survivin and a cell cycle regulating gene (cyclin D1 was associated with the cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. Conclusion These results indicated that activation of Stat3 is crucial for bladder cancer cell growth and survival. Therefore, interference of Stat3 signaling pathway emerges as a potential therapeutic approach for bladder cancer.

  19. Vaginal prolapse with urinary bladder incarceration and consecutive irreducible rectal prolapse in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Ciprian-Andrei; Peștean, Cosmin Petru; Bel, Lucia Victoria; Taulescu, Marian; Cătoi, Cornel; Bogdan, Sidonia; Milgram, Joshua; Schwarz, Guenter; Oana, Liviu Ioan

    2016-09-22

    True vaginal prolapse is a rare condition in dogs and it is occasionally observed in animals with constipation, dystocia, or forced separation during breeding. If a true prolapse occurs, the bladder, the uterine body and/or distal part of the colon, may be present in the prolapse. A 2-year-old intact non pregnant Central Asian Shepherd dog in moderate condition, was presented for a true vaginal and rectal prolapse. The prolapses were confirmed by physical examination and ultrasonography. Herniation of the urinary bladder was identified within the vaginal prolapse. The necrotic vaginal wall was resected, the urinary bladder was reduced surgically and fixed to the right abdominal wall to prevent recurrence. Rectal resection and anastomosis was necessary to correct the rectal prolapse. Recurrence of the prolapses was not observed and the dog recovered completely after the surgical treatment. In our opinion, extreme tenesmus arising from constipation may have predisposed to the vaginal prolapse with bladder incarceration and secondarily to rectal prolapse. In the young female dog, true vaginal prolapse with secondary involvement of the urinary bladder and irreducible rectal prolapse is an exceptionally rare condition.

  20. [Physics of materials and female stress urinary continence: New concepts: I) Elasticity under bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerquin, B

    2015-09-01

    Improving the understanding of the adaptation to stress of urinary continence. A transversal analysis between physics of materials and the female anatomy. Laws of physics of the materials and of their viscoelastic behavior are applied to the anatomy of the anterior vaginal wall. The anterior vaginal wall may be divided into two segments of different viscoelastic behavior, the vertical segment below the urethra and the horizontal segment below the bladder. If the urethra gets crushed on the first segment according to the hammock theory, the crushing of the bladder on the second segment is, on the other hand, damped by its important elasticity. The importance of this elasticity evokes an unknown function: damping under the bladder that moderates and delays the increase of intravesical pressure. This damping function below the bladder is increased in the cystocele, which is therefore a continence factor; on the other hand, it is impaired in obesity, which is therefore a factor of SUI. It is necessary to include in the theory of stress continence, the notion of a damping function below the bladder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. An Implantable Neuroprosthetic Device to Normalize Bladder Function after SCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    also been verified by recent clinical studies to block the vagus nerve for diabetes treat- ment (14,15). The reversibility from pudendal nerve block...Booth AM, Yoshimura N. Neurophysiology of micturition and its modi - fication in animal models of human disease. In:Maggi CA,ed. The autonomic nervous

  2. Urinary bladder injury during cesarean delivery: Maternal outcome from a contemporary large case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Lina; Aharony, Shachar; Shmueli, Anat; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Chen, Rony; Gabbay-Benziv, Rinat

    2017-06-01

    Urinary bladder injury is a rare complication during cesarean delivery. Little is known on maternal outcome following this injury. To evaluate short and long-term maternal outcome following bladder injury during cesarean delivery. A retrospective case series of all pregnancies complicated by full-thickness bladder injury during cesarean delivery in a single university affiliated tertiary medical center (August 2007-June 2016). Data on demographics, labor and surgery parameters, postpartum sequelae, and cystography were collected and reviewed by study personnel. Short-term maternal outcome included catheterization period, cystography results (if performed), any febrile illness and/or need for second operation prior to maternal discharge. Long term maternal outcome was obtained by searching our urology departmental and ambulatory database for follow up for all women. Univariate analysis was used to compare maternal outcome following first or repeat cesarean delivery. Of 17,326 cesarean deliveries performed during study period, 81 (0.47%) were complicated by bladder injury. Of them, 8 cases (9.9%) occurred during primary cesarean delivery (overall risk in primary cesarean 0.07%). Of the other 73 cases that followed repeated cesarean, adhesions were documented in 55 (75.3%) of them. Six cases (8.2%) had placenta accreta. Bladder injury occurred at peritoneal entry in 55 (67.9%) cases, and involved the bladder dome in 49 (60.5%) of them. Injury was diagnosed during cesarean delivery in all but 3 women, in whom abdominal pain and bloating prompted evaluation on first to third postoperative day. All 3 underwent re-laparotomy with bladder closure without further adverse sequelae. Cystography was performed in 35 patients on median postoperative day 8 (6-11 days). Eleven patients had abnormal findings as follows: 5 urinary leakage, 4 bladder wall irregularity and two urinary reflux. Two of the 11 patients (18%) required additional interventions: One patient required

  3. Transplante de bexiga: estudo piloto Bladder transplant: pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Teixeira Brandt

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Desenvolver um modelo biológico que seja viável para o estudo sistemático do transplante de bexiga. MÉTODOS: Cães mestiços vivos são usados como doadores e receptores do segmento supra-trigonal da bexiga. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes tansplantados só fizeram uso de imunossupressão por 15 dias, estão vivos e sadios com 18 meses de transplante. Desde o primeiro mês de transplante os cães apresentam controle funcional da micção, inclusive sem urina residual importante. CONCLUSÃO: Transplante de bexiga em cães é um modelo viável, fisiológico e simples.PURPOSE: Our aim was to study the feasible of bladder transplants. METHODS: Alive mongrel dogs are being used as trigone bladder segment donators and receptors RESULTS: The transplanted patients had 15 days of immunosuppression and so far an 18-months satisfactory post-operative outcome. Since a month after surgery, the dogs have been presenting full functional control of micturition and the evaluations have been showing normal bladder storage and contraction capacities. CONCLUSION: bladder transplants in dogs its a possible, physiological and simple model.

  4. [Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary bladder. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-Tovar, Anel Rogelio; Pineda-Rodríguez, Marco Elí; Puente-Gallegos, Francisco Edgardo; Zavala-Pompa, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is an infrequent lesion. We present the case of a 68-year-old male who arrived at the emergency room with a history of 24-h gross hematuria. Imaging studies show a urinary bladder tumor with a 218 cc volume that during a 20-day period increased to 426 cc. Histopathological images with hematoxylin-eosin show an infiltrating solid mass with uneven borders. It is composed of neoplastic cells with evident nuclei predominance and scant cytoplasm (small cells). Chromogranin immunohistochemical staining shows a diffusely positive cytoplasmic granular pattern on neoplastic cells. High molecular weight cytokeratin staining shows a negative pattern on neoplastic cells along with a positive pattern on reporsurrounding normal urothelium. Tumoral mass is positive for synaptophysin and CD-56 and negative for CK-7 and CK-20. Patient therapy was based on radiation plus chemotherapy. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder represents 0.35-0.70% of urinary bladder tumors. Histological and immunohistochemical identification are key elements in the diagnosis. Treatment approach is based on cisplatin-based chemotherapy plus radical cystectomy, except when metastatic disease is present.

  5. Herpes zoster induced neuropathic bladder--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsiu-Nan; Wu, Wen-Jeng; Huang, Shu-Pin; Su, Chin-Ming; Chen, Chung-Chin; Wang, Chii-Jye; Chou, Yii-Her; Huang, Chun-Hsiung

    2002-01-01

    Herpes zoster infection involving the sacral dermatomes has been associated with bladder dysfunction and, although rarely, with acute urinary retention. Less than 150 cases have been reported in the literature. After reviewing our institute's chart records covering a period of time dating from 1991 to 2001, we found that three of our patients had developed acute urinary retention following herpes zoster skin lesions of the S2-4 dermatomes. Herein we report our findings. These three patients had previously been found to have normal voiding status. However, at the time of complaint urodynamic studies revealed detrusor areflexia or detrusor hyporeflexia with decreased sensation of bladder filling. After micturation recovery, repeat urodynamic studies revealed detrusor pressure and bladder sensation recovery. After one to six weeks of treatment, all three patients could void spontaneously without catheterization. We found that, when treated with antiviral medication, supportive analgesics, and temporary urinary drainage, which included urethral catheterization and suprapubic cystostomy, acute urinary retention associated with herpes zoster has a generally favorable prognosis. In other words, we found that in spite of its rarity, herpes zoster induced neuropathic bladder dysfunction is reversible when treated appropriately.

  6. Long intergenic non-coding RNA TUG1 is overexpressed in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yonghua; Liu, Yuchen; Gui, Yaoting; Cai, Zhiming

    2013-04-01

    Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression via chromatin reprogramming. Taurine Up-regulated Gene 1 (TUG1) is a lincRNA that is associated with chromatin-modifying complexes and plays roles in gene regulation. In this study, we determined the expression patterns of TUG1 and the cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induced by silencing TUG1 in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. The expression levels of TUG1 were determined using Real-Time qPCR in a total of 44 patients with bladder urothelial carcinomas. Bladder urothelial carcinoma T24 and 5637 cells were transfected with TUG1 siRNA or negative control siRNA. Cell proliferation was evaluated using MTT assay. Apoptosis was determined using ELISA assay. TUG1 was up-regulated in bladder urothelial carcinoma compared to paired normal urothelium. High TUG1 expression levels were associated with high grade and stage carcinomas. Cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction were observed in TUG1 siRNA-transfected bladder urothelial carcinoma T24 and 5637 cells. Our data suggest that lincRNA TUG1 is emerging as a novel player in the disease state of bladder urothelial carcinoma. TUG1 may have potential roles as a biomarker and/or a therapeutic target in bladder urothelial carcinoma. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Bladder Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing bladder cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  8. Bladder-type hydropneumatic accumulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anigas, F.

    1985-01-01

    Hydropneumatic pressure accumulators allow liquids to be stored under pressure, their operating principle being based on the inherent compressibility of elements in a liquid and gaseous state. A wide range of fluids can be covered by means of the appropriate choice of the material for the body and bladder. Their main applications are: energy accumulation, safety reserve, suspension. (author)

  9. Bladder carcinoma. Apport MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, C.; Spittler, G.; Jacqmin, D.; Morel, M.

    1991-01-01

    Bladder carcinoma is the second most commun cause of urogenital tumor. It is suspected by abdominal ultrasound and prouved by cystoscopy with biopsy. At present, MR Imaging is the most accurate diagnostic modality for loco-regional staging. Urography is still useful to appreciate urinary tract [fr

  10. Pathobiology and Chemoprevention of Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takuji; Miyazawa, Katsuhito; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Kuno, Toshiya; Suzuki, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the pathogenesis of bladder cancer has improved considerably over the past decade. Translating these novel pathobiological discoveries into therapies, prevention, or strategies to manage patients who are suspected to have or who have been diagnosed with bladder cancer is the ultimate goal. In particular, the chemoprevention of bladder cancer development is important, since urothelial cancer frequently recurs, even if the primary cancer is completely removed. The numerous alterations of both oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that have been implicated in bladder carcinogenesis represent novel targets for therapy and prevention. In addition, knowledge about these genetic alterations will help provide a better understanding of the biological significance of preneoplastic lesions of bladder cancer. Animal models for investigating bladder cancer development and prevention can also be developed based on these alterations. This paper summarizes the results of recent preclinical and clinical chemoprevention studies and discusses screening for bladder cancer. PMID:21941546

  11. Cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis reduces ASIC channel but enhances TRPV1 receptor function in rat bladder sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Khoa; Bielefeldt, Klaus; Gebhart, G F

    2013-07-01

    Using patch-clamp techniques, we studied the plasticity of acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC) and transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1) channel function in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons retrogradely labeled from the bladder. Saline (control) or cyclophosphamide (CYP) was given intraperitoneally on days 1, 3, and 5. On day 6, lumbosacral (LS, L6-S2) or thoracolumbar (TL, T13-L2) DRG were removed and dissociated. Bladders and bladder DRG neurons from CYP-treated rats showed signs of inflammation (greater myeloperoxidase activity; lower intramuscular wall pH) and increased size (whole cell capacitance), respectively, compared with controls. Most bladder neurons (>90%) responded to protons and capsaicin. Protons produced multiphasic currents with distinct kinetics, whereas capsaicin always triggered a sustained response. The TRPV1 receptor antagonist A-425619 abolished capsaicin-triggered currents and raised the threshold of heat-activated currents. Prolonged exposure to an acidic environment (pH range: 7.2 to 6.6) inhibited proton-evoked currents, potentiated the capsaicin-evoked current, and reduced the threshold of heat-activated currents in LS and TL bladder neurons. CYP treatment reduced density but not kinetics of all current components triggered by pH 5. In contrast, CYP-treatment was associated with an increased current density in response to capsaicin in LS and TL bladder neurons. Correspondingly, heat triggered current at a significantly lower temperature in bladder neurons from CYP-treated rats compared with controls. These results reveal that cystitis differentially affects TRPV1- and ASIC-mediated currents in both bladder sensory pathways. Acidification of the bladder wall during inflammation may contribute to changes in nociceptive transmission mediated through the TRPV1 receptor, suggesting a role for TRPV1 in hypersensitivity associated with cystitis.

  12. Preliminary Porcine in vivo Evaluation of a Telerobotic System for Transurethral Bladder Tumor Resection & Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarli, Nima; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; De, Smita; Dietrich, Mary S; Herrell, S Duke; Simaan, Nabil

    2018-03-27

    Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumors (TURBT) can be a challenging procedure, primarily due to limitations in tool-tip dexterity, visualization and lack of tissue depth information. A transurethral robotic system was developed to revolutionize TURBT by addressing some of these limitations. The results of three pilot in-vivo porcine studies using the novel robotic system are presented and potential improvements are proposed based on experimental observations. A transvesical endoscope with a mounted optically-tracked camera was placed through the bladder of the swine under general anesthesia. Simulated bladder lesions were created by injecting HistoGel processing gel mixed with blue dye trans-abdominally into various locations in the bladder wall under endoscopic visualization. A seven-degree-of-freedom (DoF) robot was then used for transurethral resection/ablation of these simulated tumors. An independent two-DoF distal laser arm (DLA) was deployed through the robot for laser ablation and was assisted by a manually controlled gripper for en-bloc resection attempts. Lesions were successfully created and ablated using our novel endoscopic robot in the swine bladder. Full accessibility of the bladder, including the bladder neck and dome, was demonstrated without requiring bladder deflation or pubic compression. Simulated lesions were successfully ablated using the Holmium laser. En-bloc resection was demonstrated using the DLA and a manual grasper. Feasibility of robot-assisted en-bloc resection was demonstrated. Main challenges were lack of depth perception and visual occlusion induced by the transvesical endoscope presented challenges. Recommendations are given to enhance robot-assisted TURBT. Lessons learned through these pilot swine studies verify the feasibility of robot-assisted TURBT while informing designers about critical aspects needed for future successful clinical deployment.

  13. Immunoglobulin G4-associated inflammatory pseudotumor of urinary bladder: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sanghui; Ro, Jae Y; Lee, Dong Hyeon; Choi, Sun Young; Koo, Heasoo

    2013-12-01

    A previously healthy 72-year old woman was admitted with a chief complaint of gross hematuria and fecaluria for 4 months. On initial computed tomographic examination, a lobulated shaped intravesical protruding mass with adhesion to the sigmoid colon was identified. Under a clinical diagnosis of bladder cancer with vesicosigmoid fistula vs sigmoid colon cancer with vesicosigmoid fistula, a frozen section evaluation of the bladder mass was performed to determine the origin of the tumor. Because the frozen section diagnosis of the bladder mass was an inflammatory origin, a partial cystectomy with segmental resection of the adherent sigmoid colon was elected. The microscopic examination of the partial resection of the urinary bladder revealed suburothelial inflammatory mass lesion, involving the entire wall of bladder with extension to the sigmoid colon, which was composed of spindle cells without significant atypia admixed with many lymphocytes, plasma cells, and some scattered eosinophils. Chronic inflammation around nerve bundles, sclerotic fibrosis, and prominent lymphoid follicles with plasma cells were the main features of the mass. No urothelial dysplasia or malignancy was seen. An average of 57 plasma cells per 1 high-power field was immunoreactive for immunoglobulin (Ig) G4 with IgG4/IgG ratio of more than 40%, a diagnostic feature of IgG4-associated inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT), arising in the bladder with the secondary involvement of the sigmoid colon. Recent studies reported many IPTs associated with IgG4 in other locations; however, to the best of our knowledge, IgG4-associated IPT in the urinary bladder has not been reported. We describe herein the first case of IgG4-associated IPT, lymphoplasmacytic type in the urinary bladder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Wall Turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanratty, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)

  15. Tobacco experimental model to induce urinary bladder neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alexandre Colli Neto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to develop an experimental model of exposure to tobacco burning (cigarette products to assess the effects of its chronic use in relation to cancers of the bladder. METHODS: the animals were chronically exposed to the burning tobacco products in a semi-open chamber to simulate smoking. Thirty young Wistar rats were divided into two groups: one with 20 animals simulating smoking for six months, and ten not exposed control animals for the same period. After exposure by inhalation of cigarette smoke, animals were euthanized and subjected to histopathological study of the bladder wall. RESULTS: no tumor was found but mild and non significant alterations. The studies of hemo-oximetry (carboxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin and the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2 confirm that the animals were exposed to high concentrations of tobacco smoke and its derivatives. CONCLUSION: no bladder mucosal neoplasia was found in the pathological study of animals. The developed experimental models were highly efficient, practical and easy to use and can be used in other similar studies to determine the harmful effects caused by smoking.

  16. A novel role for drebrin in regulating progranulin bioactivity in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shi-Qiong; Buraschi, Simone; Morcavallo, Alaide; Genua, Marco; Shirao, Tomoaki; Peiper, Stephen C; Gomella, Leonard G; Birbe, Ruth; Belfiore, Antonino; Iozzo, Renato V; Morrione, Andrea

    2015-05-10

    We recently established a critical role for the growth factor progranulin in bladder cancer insofar as progranulin promotes urothelial cancer cell motility and contributes, as an autocrine growth factor, to the transformed phenotype by modulating invasion and anchorage-independent growth. In addition, progranulin expression is upregulated in invasive bladder cancer tissues compared to normal controls. However, the molecular mechanisms of progranulin action in bladder cancer have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we searched for novel progranulin-interacting proteins using pull-down assays with recombinant progranulin and proteomics. We discovered that drebrin, an F-actin binding protein, bound progranulin in urothelial cancer cells. We characterized drebrin function in urothelial cancer cell lines and showed that drebrin is critical for progranulin-dependent activation of the Akt and MAPK pathways and modulates motility, invasion and anchorage-independent growth. In addition, drebrin regulates tumor formation in vivo and its expression is upregulated in bladder cancer tissues compared to normal tissue controls. Our data are translationally relevant as indicate that drebrin exerts an essential functional role in the regulation of progranulin action and may constitute a novel target for therapeutic intervention in bladder tumors. In addition, drebrin may serve as novel biomarker for bladder cancer.

  17. PLK-1 Silencing in Bladder Cancer by siRNA Delivered With Exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Kristin A; Franzen, Carrie A; Foreman, Kimberly E; Flanigan, Robert C; Kuo, Paul C; Gupta, Gopal N

    2016-05-01

    To use exosomes as a vector to deliver small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) to silence the polo-like kinase 1 (PLK-1) gene in bladder cancer cells. Exosomes were isolated from both human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cell and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) conditioned media. Fluorescently labeled exosomes were co-cultured with bladder cancer and normal epithelial cells and uptake was quantified by image cytometry. PLK-1 siRNA and negative control siRNA were loaded into HEK293 and MSC exosomes using electroporation. An invasive bladder cancer cell line (UMUC3) was co-cultured with the electroporated exosomes. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was performed. Protein analysis was performed by Western blot. Annexin V staining and MTT assays were used to investigate effects on apoptosis and viability. Bladder cancer cell lines internalize an increased percentage of HEK293 exosomes when compared to normal bladder epithelial cells. Treatment of UMUC3 cells with exosomes electroporated with PLK-1 siRNA achieved successful knockdown of PLK-1 mRNA and protein when compared to cells treated with negative control exosomes. HEK293 and MSC exosomes were effectively used as a delivery vector to transport PLK-1 siRNA to bladder cancer cells in vitro, resulting in selective gene silencing of PLK-1. The use of exosomes as a delivery vector for potential intravesical therapy is attractive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Spectroscopic analysis of bladder cancer tissues using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Muslet, Nafie A.; Ali, Essam E.

    2012-03-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers in Africa. It takes several days to reach a diagnosis using histological examinations of specimens obtained by endoscope, which increases the medical expense. Recently, spectroscopic analysis of bladder cancer tissues has received considerable attention as a diagnosis technique due to its sensitivity to biochemical variations in the samples. This study investigated the use of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to analyze a number of bladder cancer tissues. Twenty-two samples were collected from 11 patients diagnosed with bladder cancer from different hospitals without any pretreatment. From each patient two samples were collected, one normal and another cancerous. FTIR spectrometer was used to differentiate between normal and cancerous bladder tissues via changes in spectra of these samples. The investigations detected obvious changes in the bands of proteins (1650, 1550 cm-1), lipids (2925, 2850 cm-1), and nucleic acid (1080, 1236 cm-1). The results show that FTIR spectroscopy is promising as a rapid, accurate, nondestructive, and easy to use alternative method for identification and diagnosis of bladder cancer tissues.

  19. microRNA-495 promotes bladder cancer cell growth and invasion by targeting phosphatase and tensin homolog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Mingyue; Mu, Xingyu; Liu, Zhihong; Tao, Le; Wang, Jun; Ge, Jifu; Qiu, Jianxin

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has linked deregulation of microRNA-495 (miR-495) to tumorigenesis; however, its function in tumor progression is controversial. This work was undertaken to explore the expression and biological roles of miR-495 in bladder cancer. The expression of miR-495 was examined in 67 pairs of bladder cancer and adjacent normal bladder tissues. The roles of miR-495 in bladder cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo were determined. Direct target gene(s) mediating the activity of miR-495 in bladder cancer cells was identified. It was found that miR-495 was expressed at greater levels in bladder tissues and cell lines. High expression of miR-495 was significantly associated with larger tumor size, advanced TNM stage, and lymph node metastasis. Overexpression of miR-495 significantly promoted bladder cancer cell proliferation and invasion, whereas inhibition of miR-495 suppressed cell proliferation and invasion. PTEN, a well-defined tumor suppressor was identified to be a target gene of miR-495. A significant inverse correlation between miR-495 and PTEN expression was noted in bladder cancer tissues (r = −0.3094, P = 0.0125). Overexpression of miR-495 led to reduction of PTEN expression in bladder cancer cells. Rescue experiments showed that enforced expression of PTEN impaired miR-495-mediated bladder cancer proliferation and invasion. In vivo mouse studies demonstrated that overexpression of miR-495 accelerated the growth of subcutaneous bladder cancer xenografts, which was associated with downregulation of PTEN. Overall, these findings indicate that miR-495 upregulation contributes to bladder cancer cell growth, invasion, and tumorigenesis by targeting PTEN and offer a potential therapeutic target for bladder cancer. - Highlights: • miR-495 upregulation induces aggressive phenotype in bladder cancer. • miR-495 is inversely correlated with PTEN in bladder cancer. • miR-495 promotes bladder cancer cell

  20. Radionuclide targeting with particular emphasis on urinary bladder carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoestroem, A.

    2001-01-01

    The incidence of urinary bladder carcinoma is increasing and many patients die every year of this disease despite assumed radical therapy. Thus, there is a need for improved methods of diagnosis and therapy. Radionuclide targeting is based on achieving specific delivery of radioactive nuclides to tumour cells with minimal damage to surrounding normal tissues. Two possible target structures are the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor and the related receptor HER-2. Cellular binding and retention of 125 I-EGF-dextran conjugates was investigated in two bladder carcinoma cell lines. The conjugate bound specifically to the EGF receptor with delayed maximum binding, limited intracellular degradation and prolonged cellular retention compared to 125 I-EGF. EGF was labelled using different radionuclides and methods. All the labelled variants bound specifically to the tumour cells although the cellular binding patterns and retention varied considerably. 111 In-DTPA-EGF had highest cellular retention and in decreasing order 211 At-benzoyl-EGF and 125 I-labelled EGF. Bladder cancer spheroids bound both 125 I-EGF-dextran as well as 125 I-EGF. Conjugate binding increased during a 48 h incubation period and was most prominent in the outer cell layers. The length of the dextran chain appeared not to alter the binding pattern. The expression of EGF receptors and HER-2 in metastases and primary bladder carcinoma tumours was investigated. Both receptors were expressed in the majority of metastases and primary tumours. Targeting the EGF receptor and/or HER-2 in urinary bladder carcinoma is an exciting new concept

  1. Detrusor wall thickness compared to other non-invasivemethods in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The current study aims to compare the diagnostic accuracy of detrusor wall thickness to othernoninvasive, tools, using pressure flow studies as a reference, in the assessment of bladder outlet, obstructionamong men presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms. Patients and Methods: Men aged 50 or older ...

  2. Bladder symptoms assessed with overactive bladder questionnaire in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovelli, Elisa; Gilio, Francesca; Meco, Giuseppe; Fattapposta, Francesco; Vanacore, Nicola; Brusa, Livia; Giacomelli, Elena; Gabriele, Maria; Rubino, Alfonso; Locuratolo, Nicoletta; Iani, Cesare; Pichiorri, Floriana; Colosimo, Carlo; Carbone, Antonio; Palleschi, Giovanni; Inghilleri, Maurizio

    2010-07-15

    In Parkinson's disease (PD) the urinary dysfunction manifests primarily with symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB). The OAB questionnaire (OAB-q) is a measure designed to assess the impact of OAB symptoms on health-related quality of life. In this study, we quantified the urinary symptoms in a large cohort of PD patients by using the OAB-q short form. Possible correlations between the OAB-q and clinical features were tested. Three hundred and two PD patients were enrolled in the study. Correlations between the OAB-q and sex, age, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III (UPDRS-III), Hoehn-Yahr (H-Y) staging, disease duration, and treatment were analyzed. Data were compared with a large cohort of 303 age-matched healthy subjects. The OAB-q yielded significantly higher scores in PD patients than in healthy subjects. In the group of PD patients, all the variables tested were similar between men and women. Pearson's coefficient showed a significant correlation between mean age, disease duration, mean OAB-q scores, UPDRS-III scores, and H-Y staging. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that OAB-q values were significantly influenced by age and UPDRS-III. No statistical correlations were found between OAB-q scores and drug therapy or the equivalent levodopa dose, whilst the items relating to the nocturia symptoms were significantly associated with the equivalent levodopa dose. Our findings suggest that bladder dysfunction assessed by OAB-q mainly correlates with UPDRS-III scores for severity of motor impairment, possibly reflecting the known role of the decline in nigrostriatal dopaminergic function in bladder dysfunction associated with PD and patients' age. Our study also suggests that the OAB-q is a simple, easily administered test that can objectively evaluate bladder function in patients with PD.

  3. HAMLET treatment delays bladder cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Hou, Yuchuan; Svensson, Majlis; Holmqvist, Bo; Svanborg, Catharina

    2010-04-01

    HAMLET is a protein-lipid complex that kills different types of cancer cells. Recently we observed a rapid reduction in human bladder cancer size after intravesical HAMLET treatment. In this study we evaluated the therapeutic effect of HAMLET in the mouse MB49 bladder carcinoma model. Bladder tumors were established by intravesical injection of MB49 cells into poly L-lysine treated bladders of C57BL/6 mice. Treatment groups received repeat intravesical HAMLET instillations and controls received alpha-lactalbumin or phosphate buffer. Effects of HAMLET on tumor size and putative apoptotic effects were analyzed in bladder tissue sections. Whole body imaging was used to study HAMLET distribution in tumor bearing mice compared to healthy bladder tissue. HAMLET caused a dose dependent decrease in MB49 cell viability in vitro. Five intravesical HAMLET instillations significantly decreased tumor size and delayed development in vivo compared to controls. TUNEL staining revealed selective apoptotic effects in tumor areas but not in adjacent healthy bladder tissue. On in vivo imaging Alexa-HAMLET was retained for more than 24 hours in the bladder of tumor bearing mice but not in tumor-free bladders or in tumor bearing mice that received Alexa-alpha-lactalbumin. Results show that HAMLET is active as a tumoricidal agent and suggest that topical HAMLET administration may delay bladder cancer development. Copyright (c) 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The value of bladder mapping and prostatic urethra biopsies for detection of carcinoma in situ (CIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjónsson, Sigurdur; Bläckberg, Mats; Chebil, Gunilla; Jahnson, Staffan; Olsson, Hans; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Månsson, Wiking; Liedberg, Fredrik

    2012-07-01

    It is well known that CIS is a major risk factor for muscle-invasive bladder cancer and that this entity can be difficult to diagnose. Taking cold-cup mapping biopsies from different areas of the bladder (BMAP) is commonly used in patients at risk of harbouring CIS. The diagnostic accuracy of this approach has not been assessed until now. By using the CIS found in the cystoprostatectomy specimen as an indicator of the true occurrence of CIS and comparing that with the findings of BMAP, it is clear that the sensitivity of BMAP to detect CIS when present is low and that negative findings should be considered unreliable. To assess the value of bladder mapping and prostatic urethra biopsies for detection of urothelial carcinoma in situ (CIS). CIS of the urinary bladder is a flat high-grade lesion of the mucosa associated with a significant risk of progression to muscle-invasive disease. CIS is difficult to identify on cystoscopy, and definite diagnosis requires histopathology. Traditionally, if CIS is suspected, multiple cold-cup biopsies are taken from the bladder mucosa, and resection biopsies are obtained from the prostatic urethra in males. This approach is often called bladder mapping (BMAP). The accuracy of BMAP as a diagnostic tool is not known. Male patients with bladder cancer scheduled for cystectomy underwent cold-cup bladder biopsies (sidewalls, posterior wall, dome, trigone), and resection biopsies were taken from the prostatic urethra. After cystectomy, the surgical specimen was investigated in a standardised manner and subsequently compared with the BMAP biopsies for the presence of CIS. The histopathology reports of 162 patients were analysed. CIS was detected in 46% of the cystoprostatectomy specimens, and multiple (≥2) CIS lesions were found in 30%. BMAP (cold-cup bladder biopsies + resection biopsies from the prostatic urethra) provided sensitivity of 51% for any CIS, and 55% for multiple CIS lesions. The cold-cup biopsies for CIS in the bladder

  5. Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder successfully managed with cisplatin and gemcitabine: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Ammari Jalal Eddine

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a rare variant of mucus-producing adenocarcinoma constituting approximately 0.5% to 2.0% of all primary carcinomas of the bladder. This tumor initially presents as a high-grade, high-stage lesion and diffusely invades the bladder wall without forming intraluminal growth. The patients have no specific symptoms, which leads to delayed diagnosis and poor prognosis. Case presentation We report the case of a 51-year-old Moroccan Berber man consulting for gross hematuria. Ultrasonography and a computed tomography scan found a bladder tumor diffusely invading the bladder wall. A histopathological examination of the tumor chips from a transurethral resection of the bladder revealed signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma. The gastrointestinal tract exploration did not reveal any other tumor localization. A radical cystectomy and adjuvant cisplatin and gemcitabine chemotherapy were therefore performed resulting in 18 months of survival without metastasis and a good quality of life within that time. Conclusion The rarity and the successful management with carboplatin and gemcitabine as adjuvant chemotherapy of this entity, which is rarely reported in the literature, are two remarkable characteristics described in this case report.

  6. Androgen receptor signals regulate UDP-glucuronosyltransferases in the urinary bladder: a potential mechanism of androgen-induced bladder carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Koji; Zheng, Yichun; Hsu, Jong-Wei; Chang, Chawnshang; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), major phase II drug metabolism enzymes, play an important role in urinary bladder cancer initiation by detoxifying carcinogens. We aimed to determine if androgens regulate UGT expression via the androgen receptor (AR) pathway in the bladder. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses were used to assess UGT1A levels in the normal urothelium SVHUC cell line stably expressed with AR and in bladder tissues from AR knockout (ARKO) and castrated male mice. Immunohistochemistry was also performed in radical cystectomy specimens. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment in SVHUC-AR reduced mRNA expression of all the UGT1A subtypes (19-75% decrease), and hydroxyflutamide antagonized the DHT effects. In contrast, DHT showed only marginal effects on UGT1A expression in SVHUC-Vector. Of note were higher expression levels of UGT1As in SVHUC-Vector than in SVHUC-AR. In ARKO mice, all the Ugt1a subtypes were up-regulated, compared to wild-type littermates. In wild-type male mice, castration increased the expression of Ugt1a8, Ugt1a9, and Ugt1a10. Additionally, wild-type female mice had higher levels of Ugt1a than wild-type males. Immunohistochemical studies showed strong (3+) UGT1A staining in 11/24 (46%) cancer tissues, which was significantly lower than in corresponding benign tissues [17/18 (94%) cases (P = 0.0009)]. These results suggest that androgen-mediated AR signals promote bladder carcinogenesis by down-regulating the expression of UGTs in the bladder. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Bladder, Bowel, and Sexual Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease

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    Ryuji Sakakibara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder dysfunction (urinary urgency/frequency, bowel dysfunction (constipation, and sexual dysfunction (erectile dysfunction (also called “pelvic organ” dysfunctions are common nonmotor disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD. In contrast to motor disorders, pelvic organ autonomic dysfunctions are often nonresponsive to levodopa treatment. The brain pathology causing the bladder dysfunction (appearance of overactivity involves an altered dopamine-basal ganglia circuit, which normally suppresses the micturition reflex. By contrast, peripheral myenteric pathology causing slowed colonic transit (loss of rectal contractions and central pathology causing weak strain and paradoxical anal sphincter contraction on defecation (PSD, also called as anismus are responsible for the bowel dysfunction. In addition, hypothalamic dysfunction is mostly responsible for the sexual dysfunction (decrease in libido and erection in PD, via altered dopamine-oxytocin pathways, which normally promote libido and erection. The pathophysiology of the pelvic organ dysfunction in PD differs from that in multiple system atrophy; therefore, it might aid in differential diagnosis. Anticholinergic agents are used to treat bladder dysfunction in PD, although these drugs should be used with caution particularly in elderly patients who have cognitive decline. Dietary fibers, laxatives, and “prokinetic” drugs such as serotonergic agonists are used to treat bowel dysfunction in PD. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors are used to treat sexual dysfunction in PD. These treatments might be beneficial in maximizing the patients' quality of life.

  8. Bladder, bowel, and sexual dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Ryuji; Kishi, Masahiko; Ogawa, Emina; Tateno, Fuyuki; Uchiyama, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Yamanishi, Tomonori

    2011-01-01

    Bladder dysfunction (urinary urgency/frequency), bowel dysfunction (constipation), and sexual dysfunction (erectile dysfunction) (also called "pelvic organ" dysfunctions) are common nonmotor disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD). In contrast to motor disorders, pelvic organ autonomic dysfunctions are often nonresponsive to levodopa treatment. The brain pathology causing the bladder dysfunction (appearance of overactivity) involves an altered dopamine-basal ganglia circuit, which normally suppresses the micturition reflex. By contrast, peripheral myenteric pathology causing slowed colonic transit (loss of rectal contractions) and central pathology causing weak strain and paradoxical anal sphincter contraction on defecation (PSD, also called as anismus) are responsible for the bowel dysfunction. In addition, hypothalamic dysfunction is mostly responsible for the sexual dysfunction (decrease in libido and erection) in PD, via altered dopamine-oxytocin pathways, which normally promote libido and erection. The pathophysiology of the pelvic organ dysfunction in PD differs from that in multiple system atrophy; therefore, it might aid in differential diagnosis. Anticholinergic agents are used to treat bladder dysfunction in PD, although these drugs should be used with caution particularly in elderly patients who have cognitive decline. Dietary fibers, laxatives, and "prokinetic" drugs such as serotonergic agonists are used to treat bowel dysfunction in PD. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors are used to treat sexual dysfunction in PD. These treatments might be beneficial in maximizing the patients' quality of life.

  9. Comparison of Coregistration Accuracy of Pelvic Structures Between Sequential and Simultaneous Imaging During Hybrid PET/MRI in Patients with Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Balar, Arjun V; Huang, William C; Jackson, Kimberly; Friedman, Kent P

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare coregistration of the bladder wall, bladder masses, and pelvic lymph nodes between sequential and simultaneous PET and MRI acquisitions obtained during hybrid (18)F-FDG PET/MRI performed using a diuresis protocol in bladder cancer patients. Six bladder cancer patients underwent (18)F-FDG hybrid PET/MRI, including IV Lasix administration and oral hydration, before imaging to achieve bladder clearance. Axial T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) was obtained approximately 40 minutes before PET ("sequential") and concurrently with PET ("simultaneous"). Three-dimensional spatial coordinates of the bladder wall, bladder masses, and pelvic lymph nodes were recorded for PET and T2WI. Distances between these locations on PET and T2WI sequences were computed and used to compare in-plane (x-y plane) and through-plane (z-axis) misregistration relative to PET between T2WI acquisitions. The bladder increased in volume between T2WI acquisitions (sequential, 176 [139] mL; simultaneous, 255 [146] mL). Four patients exhibited a bladder mass, all with increased activity (SUV, 9.5-38.4). Seven pelvic lymph nodes in 4 patients showed increased activity (SUV, 2.2-9.9). The bladder wall exhibited substantially less misregistration relative to PET for simultaneous, compared with sequential, acquisitions in in-plane (2.8 [3.1] mm vs 7.4 [9.1] mm) and through-plane (1.7 [2.2] mm vs 5.7 [9.6] mm) dimensions. Bladder masses exhibited slightly decreased misregistration for simultaneous, compared with sequential, acquisitions in in-plane (2.2 [1.4] mm vs 2.6 [1.9] mm) and through-plane (0.0 [0.0] mm vs 0.3 [0.8] mm) dimensions. FDG-avid lymph nodes exhibited slightly decreased in-plane misregistration (1.1 [0.8] mm vs 2.5 [0.6] mm), although identical through-plane misregistration (4.0 [1.9] mm vs 4.0 [2.8] mm). Using hybrid PET/MRI, simultaneous imaging substantially improved bladder wall coregistration and slightly improved coregistration of bladder masses and

  10. Use of a latex biomembrane for bladder augmentation in a rabbit model: biocompatibility, clinical and histological outcomes

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    Andre L. A. Domingos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate histological features and biocompatibility of a latex biomembrane for bladder augmentation using a rabbit model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: After a partial cystectomy, a patch of a non-vulcanized latex biomembrane (2x4 cm was sewn to the bladder with 5/0 monofilament polydioxanone sulfate in a watertight manner. Groups of 5 animals were sacrificed at 15, 45 and 90 days after surgery and the bladder was removed. The 5-µm preparations obtained from grafted area and normal bladder were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Immunohistochemical staining was performed with a primary antibody against alpha-actin to assess muscle regeneration. RESULTS: No death, urinary leakage or graft extrusion occurred in any group. All bladders showed a spherical shape. Macroscopically, after 90 days, the latex biomembrane was not identifiable and the patch was indistinguishable from normal bladder. A bladder stone was found in one animal (6.6%. On the 90th day, histology revealed continuity of transitional epithelium of host bladder tissue on the patch area. At this time, the muscle layers were well organized in a similar fashion to native bladder muscle layers. The inflammatory process was higher on grafted areas when compared to controls: 15 days - p < 0.0001, 45 days - p < 0.001, and 90 days - p < 0.01. The anti alpha-actin immunoexpression peaked at 45 days, when the graft was observed covered by muscle cells. CONCLUSION: The latex biomembrane is biocompatible and can be used in models for bladder augmentation in rabbits. It promotes epithelium and muscle regeneration without urinary leakage.

  11. Urinary bladder cancer T-staging from T2-weighted MR images using an optimal biomarker approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuang; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Tong, Yubing; Chen, Jerry; Venigalla, Sriram; Odhner, Dewey; Guzzo, Thomas J.; Christodouleas, John; Torigian, Drew A.

    2018-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often used in clinical practice to stage patients with bladder cancer to help plan treatment. However, qualitative assessment of MR images is prone to inaccuracies, adversely affecting patient outcomes. In this paper, T2-weighted MR image-based quantitative features were extracted from the bladder wall in 65 patients with bladder cancer to classify them into two primary tumor (T) stage groups: group 1 - T stage T2, with primary tumor locally confined to the bladder, and group 2 - T stage T2, with primary tumor locally extending beyond the bladder. The bladder was divided into 8 sectors in the axial plane, where each sector has a corresponding reference standard T stage that is based on expert radiology qualitative MR image review and histopathologic results. The performance of the classification for correct assignment of T stage grouping was then evaluated at both the patient level and the sector level. Each bladder sector was divided into 3 shells (inner, middle, and outer), and 15,834 features including intensity features and texture features from local binary pattern and gray-level co-occurrence matrix were extracted from the 3 shells of each sector. An optimal feature set was selected from all features using an optimal biomarker approach. Nine optimal biomarker features were derived based on texture properties from the middle shell, with an area under the ROC curve of AUC value at the sector and patient level of 0.813 and 0.806, respectively.

  12. Epitheloid hemangioendothelioma of urinary bladder

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    Narmada P Gupta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Epitheloid hemangioendothelioma is an uncommon vascular neoplasm and has an unpredictable clinical behavior. It is characterized by round or spindle-shaped endothelial cells with cytoplasmic vacuolation. Most often, epitheloid hemangioendothelioma arise from the soft tissues of the upper and lower extremities and it has borderline malignant potential. We describe the first reported case of epitheloid hemangioendothelioma in the urinary bladder, which was treated by transurethral resection. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry.

  13. A porcine model of bladder outlet obstruction incorporating radio-telemetered cystometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Matthew B; Herndon, Claude D; Cain, Mark P; Rink, Richard C; Kaefer, Martin

    2007-07-01

    To present a novel porcine model of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) with a standardized bladder outlet resistance and real-time ambulatory radio-telemetered cystometry, as BOO is a common condition with many causes in both adults and children, with significant morbidity and occasional mortality, but attempts to model this condition in many animal models have the fundamental problem of standardising the degree of outlet resistance. BOO was created in nine castrated male pigs by dividing the mid-urethra; outflow was allowed through an implanted bladder drainage catheter containing a resistance valve, allowing urine to flow across the valve only when a set pressure differential was generated across the valve. An implantable radio-telemetered pressure sensor monitored the pressure within the bladder and abdominal cavity, and relayed this information to a remote computer. Four control pigs had an occluded bladder drainage catheter and pressure sensor placed, but were allowed to void normally through the native urethra. Intra-vesical pressure was monitored by telemetry, while the resistance valve was increased weekly, beginning with 2 cmH2O and ultimately reaching 10 cmH2O. The pigs were assessed using conventional cystometry under anaesthesia before death, and samples conserved in formalin for haematoxylin and eosin staining. The pigs had radio-telemetered cystometry for a median of 26 days. All telemetry implants functioned well for the duration of the experiment, but one pig developed a urethral fistula and was excluded from the study. With BOO the bladder mass index (bladder mass/body mass x 10 000) increased from 9.7 to 20 (P = 0.004), with a significant degree of hypertrophy of the detrusor smooth muscle bundles. Obstructed bladders were significantly less compliant than control bladders (8.3 vs 22.1 mL/cmH2O, P = 0.03). Telemetric cystometry showed that there was no statistically significance difference in mean bladder pressure between obstructed and control pigs

  14. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the primary tumor in muscle invasive carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    Patients with muscle invasive carcinoma of the urinary bladder were examined with contrast-enhanced CT of the primary tumor. A specially designed technique was developed to increase the diagnostic potential of CT. The most important points about the technique were controlled filling of the bladder, the use of thin slices, series of scans before and after intravenous injection of contrast medium, and long scanning times in the precontrast series. The absorbed dose to the patient resulting from the new technique was found to be within the range of the dose from urography or barium enema. This dose was considered to be acceptable given the diagnostic gain of the procedure. Features of irradiated bladder tumors were analysed to find which parameter correlated with persistent malignancy. High contrast enhancement of a tumor relative to the bladder wall was found to be the best indicator of a malignant tumour after irradiation. 127 refs

  15. Bladder rupture caused by postpartum urinary retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas-García, Omar Felipe; Rico, Hugo; Gorbea-Sanchez, Viridiana; Herrerias-Canedo, Tomas

    2008-08-01

    Postpartum bladder rupture is an uncommon surgical emergency and a diagnostic challenge. A primigravida delivered a healthy newborn without complications at 39.4 weeks of gestation. The patient was admitted 80 hours postpartum with abdominal pain, oliguria, hematuria, and pain that worsened during the previous 4 hours. An inserted Foley catheter drained only a small amount of urine, and serum creatinine was elevated (3.5 mg/dL). A laparotomy was performed and revealed a 10-cm hole in the urinary bladder. The bladder was repaired and the patient was discharged 15 days after surgery. The follow-up cystoscopy revealed adequate healing of the bladder. Urinary retention can lead to serious complications, including bladder rupture. Postpartum bladder rupture due to urinary retention should be ruled out if there is a history of abdominal pain, oliguria, and elevated of serum creatinine.

  16. Applications of Nanotechnology in Bladder Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Wei Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective therapies can prevent superficial bladder cancer from developing into muscle-invasive stage or more severe stages which require radical cystectomy and negatively affect life quality. In terms of therapeutic approaches against superficial bladder cancer, intravesical (regional therapy has several advantages over oral (systemic therapy. Though urologists can directly deliver drugs to bladder lesions by intravesical instillation after transurethral resection, the efficacy of conventional drug delivery is usually low due to the bladder permeability barrier and bladder periodical discharge. Nanoparticles have been well developed as pharmaceutical carriers. By their versatile properties, nanoparticles can greatly improve the interactions between urothelium and drugs and also enhance the penetration of drugs into urothelium with lesions, which dramatically improves therapeutic efficacy. In this review, we discuss the advances of nanotechnology in bladder cancer therapy by different types of nanoparticles with different encapsulating materials.

  17. Transurethral resection for botryoid bladder rhabdomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuyuki Nakata

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of multimodal therapy for localized bladder rhabdomyosarcoma is quite good in terms of morbidity, and conservative surgery is generally recommended. However, in cases originating in the bladder neck, tumorectomy or partial cystectomy has adverse effects on bladder function. A 2-year-old girl underwent transurethral resection of a bladder tumor (TUR-BT, chemotherapy consisting of vincristine, actinomycin-D, and cyclophosphamide, and radiotherapy. She was in remission for 3 years when frequent urination became evident. Her bladder capacity and compliance were low; however, her urinary symptom was controlled using anticholinergic medication. Accordingly, TUR-BT could be an optional approach for bladder rhabdomyosarcoma. Keywords: Rhabdomyosarcoma, Transurethral resection, Conservative surgery

  18. Duplex gall bladder: bystander or culprit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jogender; Yadav, Arushi

    2017-08-30

    Gall bladder (GB) duplication is a rare anatomical malformation, which can be detected by preoperative imaging study. We present a case of duplex gall bladder in a 14-year-old boy who presented with abdominal pain. On ultrasound, he had right nephrolithiasis and duplex gall bladder. Duplex gall bladder was confirmed on MR cholangiopancreatography. There was a dilemma for surgical management of duplex gall bladder; however, he became asymptomatic after conservative treatment. Prophylactic surgery is not recommended for asymptomatic incidentally detected duplex gall bladder. Radiologists and paediatric surgeons should be sensitised about the exact anatomy of this entity. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Isolated bladder rupture in an elderly patient after blunt trauma. Case report and review

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    Bardia Bidarmaghz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A 74-year-old man presented to the hospital after having a mechanical fall at home on his left side of the body. On arrival he was stable, and investigation revealed fractured left humerus, and he was admitted for observation and pain management. Two days later he started to have severe lower abdominal pain and acute kidney injury. Urinary catheter inserted and about 2 liters of bloody urine emptied, and Abdominopelvic CT scan requested which showed massive fluid in the retroperitoneal area, subsequent CT Cystogram confirmed perforation of the bladder on the left lateral wall. The patient was hemodynamically stable and kept in a high intensive care unit for close observation, and he improved dramatically, and follow-up scan showed healing of perforated bladder. Bladder rupture is not a standard presentation after blunt trauma but should be kept in mind when dealing with elderly patients with pre-existing urinary retention or other medical comorbidities.

  20. Calcium transport in turtle bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabatini, S.; Kurtzman, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    Unidirectional 45 Ca fluxes were measured in the turtle bladder under open-circuit and short-circuit conditions. In the open-circuited state net calcium flux (J net Ca ) was secretory (serosa to mucosa). Ouabain reversed J net Ca to an absorptive flux. Amiloride reduced both fluxes such that J net Ca was not significantly different from zero. Removal of mucosal sodium caused net calcium absorption; removal of serosal sodium caused calcium secretion. When bladders were short circuited, J net Ca decreased to approximately one-third of control value but remained secretory. When ouabain was added under short-circuit conditions, J net Ca was similar in magnitude and direction to ouabain under open-circuited conditions (i.e., absorptive). Tissue 45 Ca content was ≅30-fold lower when the isotope was placed in the mucosal bath, suggesting that the apical membrane is the resistance barrier to calcium transport. The results obtained in this study are best explained by postulating a Ca 2+ -ATPase on the serosa of the turtle bladder epithelium and a sodium-calcium antiporter on the mucosa. In this model, the energy for calcium movement would be supplied, in large part, by the Na + -K + -ATPase. By increasing cell sodium, ouabain would decrease the activity of the mucosal sodium-calcium exchanger (or reverse it), uncovering active calcium transport across the serosa

  1. Bladder tissue engineering through nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Daniel A; Sharma, Arun K; Erickson, Bradley A; Cheng, Earl Y

    2008-08-01

    The field of tissue engineering has developed in phases: initially researchers searched for "inert" biomaterials to act solely as replacement structures in the body. Then, they explored biodegradable scaffolds--both naturally derived and synthetic--for the temporary support of growing tissues. Now, a third phase of tissue engineering has developed, through the subcategory of "regenerative medicine." This renewed focus toward control over tissue morphology and cell phenotype requires proportional advances in scaffold design. Discoveries in nanotechnology have driven both our understanding of cell-substrate interactions, and our ability to influence them. By operating at the size regime of proteins themselves, nanotechnology gives us the opportunity to directly speak the language of cells, through reliable, repeatable creation of nanoscale features. Understanding the synthesis of nanoscale materials, via "top-down" and "bottom-up" strategies, allows researchers to assess the capabilities and limits inherent in both techniques. Urology research as a whole, and bladder regeneration in particular, are well-positioned to benefit from such advances, since our present technology has yet to reach the end goal of functional bladder restoration. In this article, we discuss the current applications of nanoscale materials to bladder tissue engineering, and encourage researchers to explore these interdisciplinary technologies now, or risk playing catch-up in the future.

  2. Interaction between a normal shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer at high transonic speeds. Part 1: Pressure distribution. Part 2: Wall shear stress. Part 3: Simplified formulas for the prediction of surface pressures and skin friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, T. C., Jr.; Liou, M. S.; Messiter, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    An asymptotic description is derived for the interaction between a shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer in transonic flow, for a particular limiting case. The dimensionless difference between the external flow velocity and critical sound speed is taken to be much smaller than one, but large in comparison with the dimensionless friction velocity. The basic results are derived for a flat plate, and corrections for longitudinal wall curvature and for flow in a circular pipe are also shown. Solutions are given for the wall pressure distribution and the shape of the shock wave. Solutions for the wall shear stress are obtained, and a criterion for incipient separation is derived. Simplified solutions for both the wall pressure and skin friction distributions in the interaction region are given. These results are presented in a form suitable for use in computer programs.

  3. Analysis of intravesical recurrence after bladder-preserving therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozawa, Mizuki; Miyanaga, Naoto; Hinotsu, Shiro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the pattern of recurrences after bladder-preserving therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The subjects were 77 patients with T2-3N0M0 bladder cancer whose bladder was preserved by intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiation. The patterns of the first recurrences were retrospectively analyzed. With a median follow-up of 38.5 months, 17 patients (22.1%) experienced intravesical recurrence without metastasis, 14 (82.4%) of which were cases of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence and 3 (17.6%) of which were muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrences. Muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurred at the same site as the initial tumor site in all three cases, whereas non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurred at different sites in 64% of the patients in that group. The peak hazard of the non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence was observed at around a year after treatment. Recurrent non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer was of a significantly lower histological grade with lower Ki-67-labeling indices than the initial muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Twelve (85.7%) of 14 patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence achieved disease-free status. The multivariate analysis revealed that multiplicity, grade and tumor size were significantly correlated with the recurrence (P=0.0001, 0.0442 and 0.0412, respectively). Most of the recurrences after bladder-preserving therapy were cases of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The recurrence pattern and characteristics of the tumors did not differ from those of primary non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Patients with high-risk factors would be candidates for prophylactic intravesical therapy for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence. (author)

  4. MicroRNA-490-5p inhibits proliferation of bladder cancer by targeting c-Fos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shiqi; Xu, Xianglai; Xu, Xin; Hu, Zhenghui; Wu, Jian; Zhu, Yi; Chen, Hong; Mao, Yeqing; Lin, Yiwei; Luo, Jindan; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We examined the level of miR-490-5p in bladder cancer tissues and three cancer cell lines. •We are the first to show the function of miR-490-5p in bladder cancer. •We demonstrate c-Fos may be a target of miR-490-5p. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-protein-coding sequences that play a crucial role in tumorigenesis by negatively regulating gene expression. Here, we found that miR-490-5p is down-regulated in human bladder cancer tissue and cell lines compared to normal adjacent tissue and a non-malignant cell line. To better characterize the function of miR-490-5p in bladder cancer, we over-expressed miR-490-5p in bladder cancer cell lines with chemically synthesized mimics. Enforced expression of miR-490-5p in bladder cancer cells significantly inhibited the cell proliferation via G1-phase arrest. Further studies found the decreased c-Fos expression at both mRNA and protein levels and Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that c-Fos is a direct target of miR-490-5p in bladder cancer. These findings indicate miR-490-5p to be a novel tumor suppressor of bladder cancer cell proliferation through targeting c-Fos

  5. Adaptive plan selection vs. re-optimisation in radiotherapy for bladder cancer: A dose accumulation comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestergaard, Anne; Muren, Ludvig Paul; Søndergaard, Jimmi; Elstrøm, Ulrik Vindelev; Høyer, Morten; Petersen, Jørgen B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with urinary bladder cancer are obvious candidates for adaptive radiotherapy (ART) due to large inter-fractional variation in bladder volumes. In this study we have compared the normal tissue sparing potential of two ART strategies: daily plan selection (PlanSelect) and daily plan re-optimisation (ReOpt). Materials and methods: Seven patients with bladder cancer were included in the study. For the PlanSelect strategy, a patient-specific library of three plans was generated, and the most suitable plan based on the pre-treatment cone beam CT (CBCT) was selected. For the daily ReOpt strategy, plans were re-optimised based on the CBCT from each daily fraction. Bladder contours were propagated to the CBCT scan using deformable image registration (DIR). Accumulated dose distributions for the ART strategies as well as the non-adaptive RT were calculated. Results: A considerable sparing of normal tissue was achieved with both ART approaches, with ReOpt being the superior technique. Compared to non-adaptive RT, the volume receiving more than 57 Gy (corresponding to 95% of the prescribed dose) was reduced to 66% (range 48–100%) for PlanSelect and to 41% (range 33–50%) for ReOpt. Conclusion: This study demonstrated a considerable normal tissue sparing potential of ART for bladder irradiation, with clearly superior results by daily adaptive re-optimisation

  6. Giant Leiomyosarcoma of the Urinary Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, José G A; Klojda, Carlos A B; Araújo, Claudio P De; Pires, Lucas A S; Babinski, Marcio A

    2016-05-01

    The bladder leiomyosarcoma is a rare and agressive mesenchymal tumour, and adult women of reproductive age have a higher incidence of developing the bladder leiomyosarcoma. The pathophysiology of the disease is not certain, and its main symptoms are hematuria, dysuria and abdominal pain. There are not a considerable amount of cases described in the literature. We report a case of a giant leiomyosarcoma of the urinary bladder in a 31-year-old woman.

  7. Bladder wash cytology, quantitative cytology, and the qualitative BTA test in patients with superficial bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, H. G.; van Balken, M. R.; Schamhart, D. H.; Peelen, P.; de Reijke, T.; Debruyne, F. M.; Schalken, J. A.; Witjes, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Two new methods for the detection of transitional tumor cells in bladder wash (karyometry: QUANTICYT) and voided urine material (BARD BTA test) were compared with bladder wash cytology for the prediction of histology and tumor recurrence. Bladder wash material and voided urine were sampled from 138

  8. Effects of acute urinary bladder overdistension on bladder response during sacral neurostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bross, S; Schumacher, S; Scheepe, J R; Zendler, S; Braun, P M; Alken, P; Jünemann, K

    1999-10-01

    Urinary retention and micturition disorders after overdistension are clinically well-known complications of subvesical obstruction. We attempted to evaluate whether bladder overdistension influences bladder response and whether overdistension supports detrusor decompensation. Following lumbal laminectomy in 9 male foxhounds, the sacral anterior roots S2 and S3 were placed into a modified Brindley electrode for reproducible and controlled detrusor activation. The bladder was filled in stages of 50 ml from 0 to 700 ml, corresponding to an overdistension. At each volume, the bladder response during sacral anterior root stimulation was registered. After overdistension, the bladder was refilled stepwise from 0 to 300 ml and stimulated. In all dogs, the bladder response was influenced by the intravesical volume. The maximum pressure (mean 69.1 cm H(2)O) was observed at mean volume of 100 ml. During overdistension, a significant reduction in bladder response of more than 80% was seen. After overdistension, a significant reduction in intravesical pressure of 19.0% was observed. In 2 cases, reduction in bladder response was more than 50% after a single overdistension. We conclude that motoric bladder function is influenced during and after overdistension. A single bladder overdistension can support acute and long-lasting detrusor decompensation. In order to protect motoric bladder function, bladder overdistension must be prevented.

  9. The relationship between the bladder volume and optimal treatment planning in definitive radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Naoki; Sekiguchi, Kenji; Akahane, Keiko; Shikama, Naoto; Takahashi, Osamu; Hama, Yukihiro; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: There is no current consensus regarding the optimal bladder volumes in definitive radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between the bladder volume and optimal treatment planning in radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. Material and methods: Two hundred and forty-three patients underwent definitive radiotherapy with helical tomotherapy for intermediate- and high-risk localized prostate cancer. The prescribed dose defined as 95 % of the planning target volume (PTV) receiving 100 % of the prescription dose was 76 Gy in 38 fractions. The clinical target volume (CTV) was defined as the prostate with a 5-mm margin and 2 cm of the proximal seminal vesicle. The PTV was defined as the CTV with a 5-mm margin. Treatment plans were optimized to satisfy the dose constraints defined by in-house protocols for PTV and organs at risk (rectum wall, bladder wall, sigmoid colon and small intestine). If all dose constraints were satisfied, the plan was defined as an optimal plan (OP). Results: An OP was achieved with 203 patients (84%). Mean bladder volume (± 1 SD) was 266 ml (± 130 ml) among those with an OP and 214 ml (±130 ml) among those without an OP (p = 0.02). Logistic regression analysis also showed that bladder volumes below 150 ml decreased the possibility of achieving an OP. However, the percentage of patients with an OP showed a plateau effect at bladder volumes above 150 ml. Conclusions. Bladder volume is a significant factor affecting OP rates. However, our results suggest that bladder volumes exceeding 150 ml may not help meet planning dose constraints

  10. DNA methylation patterns in bladder cancer and washing cell sediments: a perspective for tumor recurrence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negraes, Priscilla D; Favaro, Francine P; Camargo, João Lauro V; Oliveira, Maria Luiza CS; Goldberg, José; Rainho, Cláudia A; Salvadori, Daisy MF

    2008-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations are a hallmark of human cancer. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether aberrant DNA methylation of cancer-associated genes is related to urinary bladder cancer recurrence. A set of 4 genes, including CDH1 (E-cadherin), SFN (stratifin), RARB (retinoic acid receptor, beta) and RASSF1A (Ras association (RalGDS/AF-6) domain family 1), had their methylation patterns evaluated by MSP (Methylation-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis in 49 fresh urinary bladder carcinoma tissues (including 14 cases paired with adjacent normal bladder epithelium, 3 squamous cell carcinomas and 2 adenocarcinomas) and 24 cell sediment samples from bladder washings of patients classified as cancer-free by cytological analysis (control group). A third set of samples included 39 archived tumor fragments and 23 matched washouts from 20 urinary bladder cancer patients in post-surgical monitoring. After genomic DNA isolation and sodium bisulfite modification, methylation patterns were determined and correlated with standard clinic-histopathological parameters. CDH1 and SFN genes were methylated at high frequencies in bladder cancer as well as in paired normal adjacent tissue and exfoliated cells from cancer-free patients. Although no statistically significant differences were found between RARB and RASSF1A methylation and the clinical and histopathological parameters in bladder cancer, a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 71% were observed for RARB methylation (Fisher's Exact test (p < 0.0001; OR = 48.89) and, 58% and 17% (p < 0.05; OR = 0.29) for RASSF1A gene, respectively, in relation to the control group. Indistinct DNA hypermethylation of CDH1 and SFN genes between tumoral and normal urinary bladder samples suggests that these epigenetic features are not suitable biomarkers for urinary bladder cancer. However, RARB and RASSF1A gene methylation appears to be an initial event in urinary bladder carcinogenesis and should be considered as defining a

  11. Full-thickness endometriosis of the bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjer, Jens Jørgen; Kristensen, Jens; Hartwell, Dorthe

    2014-01-01

    referral centres in Denmark for surgical treatment of stage III and IV endometriosis. POPULATION: Thirty-one women with deep infiltrating bladder endometriosis. METHODS: All women presenting in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology with deep infiltrating bladder endometriosis between March 2002...... and March 2011. We included only patients with symptomatic full-thickness bladder detrusor endometriosis and mucosal involvement. All patients had had bladder symptoms for two to seven years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Symptoms after surgery and recurrence rate. RESULTS: The main preoperative symptom...

  12. Potential role of melastatin-related transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M gene expression in the pathogenesis of urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Gülay Güleç; Önalan, Ebru Etem; Kuloğlu, Tuncay; Aydoğ, Gülten; Keleş, İbrahim; Tonyali, Şenol; Ceylan, Cavit

    2016-12-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancies of the urinary tract. Ion channels and calcium homeostasis are involved in almost all basic cellular mechanisms. The transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M (TRPM) takes its name from the melastatin protein, which is classified as potential tumor suppressor. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no previous studies in the literature investigating the role of these ion channels in bladder cancer. The present study aimed to determine whether bladder cancer is associated with mRNA expression levels of TRPM ion channel genes, and whether there is the potential to conduct further studies to establish novel treatment modalities. The present study included a total of 47 subjects, of whom 40 were bladder cancer patients and 7 were controls. Following the histopathological evaluation for bladder carcinoma, the mRNA and protein expression of TRPM were examined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemistry in tumor and normal tissues, in order to determine whether there is a difference in the expression of these channels in tumor and normal tissues. Immunoreactivity for TRPM2, TRPM4, TRPM7 and TRPM8 was observed in epithelial bladder cells in the two groups. RT-qPCR revealed a significant increase in TRPM7 expression in bladder cancer tissue compared to the controls (healthy bladder tissue), whereas no differences in TRPM2 or TRPM4 expression levels were observed. There were significant reductions in the expression levels of TRPM5 and TRPM8 in bladder cancer tissues. In the present study, the effects of TRP ion channels on the formation of bladder cancer was investigated. This study is instructive for TRPM2, TRPM4, TRPM5, TRPM7 and TRPM8 and their therapeutic role in bladder cancer. The results support the fact that these gens can be novel targets and can also be tested for during the treatment of bladder cancer.

  13. Suppression of progranulin expression inhibits bladder cancer growth and sensitizes cancer cells to cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buraschi, Simone; Xu, Shi-Qiong; Stefanello, Manuela; Moskalev, Igor; Morcavallo, Alaide; Genua, Marco; Tanimoto, Ryuta; Birbe, Ruth; Peiper, Stephen C; Gomella, Leonard G; Belfiore, Antonino; Black, Peter C; Iozzo, Renato V; Morrione, Andrea

    2016-06-28

    We have recently demonstrated a critical role for progranulin in bladder cancer. Progranulin contributes, as an autocrine growth factor, to the transformed phenotype by modulating Akt-and MAPK-driven motility, invasion and anchorage-independent growth. Progranulin also induces F-actin remodeling by interacting with the F-actin binding protein drebrin. In addition, progranulin is overexpressed in invasive bladder cancer compared to normal tissue controls, suggesting that progranulin might play a key role in driving the transition to the invasive phenotype of urothelial cancer. However, it is not established whether targeting progranulin could have therapeutic effects on bladder cancer. In this study, we stably depleted urothelial cancer cells of endogenous progranulin by shRNA approaches and determined that progranulin depletion severely inhibited the ability of tumorigenic urothelial cancer cells to migrate, invade and grow in anchorage-independency. We further demonstrate that progranulin expression is critical for tumor growth in vivo, in both xenograft and orthotopic tumor models. Notably, progranulin levels correlated with response to cisplatin treatment and were upregulated in bladder tumors. Our data indicate that progranulin may constitute a novel target for therapeutic intervention in bladder tumors. In addition, progranulin may serve as a novel biomarker for bladder cancer.

  14. Urinary long noncoding RNAs in nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer: new architects in cancer prognostic biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Daniela; Ferro, Matteo; Terreri, Sara; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; D'Elia, Carolina; Musi, Gennaro; de Cobelli, Ottavio; Mirone, Vincenzo; Cimmino, Amelia

    2017-06-01

    Several reports over the last 10 years provided evidence that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are often altered in bladder cancers. lncRNAs are longer than 200 nucleotides and function as important regulators of gene expression, interacting with the major pathways of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. A large number of lncRNAs has oncogenic function and is more expressed in tumor compared with normal tissues. Their overexpression may be associated with tumor formation, progression, and metastasis in a variety of tumors including bladder cancer. Although lncRNAs have been shown to have critical regulatory roles in cancer biology, the biological functions and prognostic values in nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer remain largely unknown. Nevertheless, a growing body of evidence suggests that several lncRNAs expression profiles in bladder malignancies are associated with poor prognosis, and they can be detected in biological fluids, such as urines. Here, we review current progress in the biology and the implication of lncRNAs associated with bladder cancer, and we discuss their potential use as diagnosis and prognosis biomarkers in bladder malignancies with a focus on their role in high-risk nonmuscle-invasive tumors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Behavior of Lipiodol Markers During Image Guided Radiotherapy of Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Xiangfei; Herk, Marcel van; Kamer, Jeroen B. van de; Remeijer, Peter; Bex, Axel; Betgen, Anja; De Reijke, Theo M.; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Pos, Floris J.; Bel, Arjan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the stability of a novel type of markers used in partial bladder tumor irradiation and tumor deformation as indicated by the markers. Materials and Methods: In 15 patients with solitary bladder cancer, lipiodol was injected in the bladder wall during flexible cystoscopy to identify the tumor. A planning CT scan was made, followed by daily cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans during treatment. To study the accuracy of using these markers for image guidance, uncertainties U1 and U2 were calculated, which were defined as the difference between submask registration (covering single marker) and the average of all submask registrations and the difference between the submask registration and the general mask registration (including all markers), respectively. Finally, to study tumor deformation, the relative movement of each marker pair was correlated with the relative bladder volume (RBV). Results: The analyzed patients had 2.3 marker injections on average. The lipiodol spot size was 0.72 ± 1.1 cm 3 . The intensity of spots in both CT and CBCT was significantly higher than the surrounding bladder tissue. The uncertainties U1 and U2 were comparable, and the uncertainties in left-right direction (0.14-0.19 cm) were smaller than those in cranial-caudal and anterior-posterior directions (0.19-0.32 cm). The relative marker movement of within-zone marker pairs was much smaller (and has less dependence on the RBV) than across-zones marker pairs. Conclusions: Lipiodol markers are a feasible method to track bladder tumor by using online CBCT. Tumor deformation is observed, especially for tumors that cross the defined bladder zones.

  16. Behavior of Lipiodol Markers During Image Guided Radiotherapy of Bladder Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai Xiangfei, E-mail: x.chai@amc.uva.n [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Herk, Marcel van [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kamer, Jeroen B. van de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Remeijer, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bex, Axel [Department of Urology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Betgen, Anja [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); De Reijke, Theo M [Department of Urology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pos, Floris J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bel, Arjan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the stability of a novel type of markers used in partial bladder tumor irradiation and tumor deformation as indicated by the markers. Materials and Methods: In 15 patients with solitary bladder cancer, lipiodol was injected in the bladder wall during flexible cystoscopy to identify the tumor. A planning CT scan was made, followed by daily cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans during treatment. To study the accuracy of using these markers for image guidance, uncertainties U1 and U2 were calculated, which were defined as the difference between submask registration (covering single marker) and the average of all submask registrations and the difference between the submask registration and the general mask registration (including all markers), respectively. Finally, to study tumor deformation, the relative movement of each marker pair was correlated with the relative bladder volume (RBV). Results: The analyzed patients had 2.3 marker injections on average. The lipiodol spot size was 0.72 +- 1.1 cm{sup 3}. The intensity of spots in both CT and CBCT was significantly higher than the surrounding bladder tissue. The uncertainties U1 and U2 were comparable, and the uncertainties in left-right direction (0.14-0.19 cm) were smaller than those in cranial-caudal and anterior-posterior directions (0.19-0.32 cm). The relative marker movement of within-zone marker pairs was much smaller (and has less dependence on the RBV) than across-zones marker pairs. Conclusions: Lipiodol markers are a feasible method to track bladder tumor by using online CBCT. Tumor deformation is observed, especially for tumors that cross the defined bladder zones.

  17. [Major influential factors of the micturition alert device dedicated to neurogenic bladders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhuo; Hou, Chunlin; Zheng, Xianyou; Xu, Zhen; Wang, Wanhong; Lin, Haodong

    2008-08-01

    To study major influential factors of the micturition alert device dedicated to neurogenic bladders for the product design and clinical application of the device. One ferrite permanent magnet with thickness and diameter of 3 mm and 10 mm, respectively, and three NdFeB permanent magnets with the thickness of 3 mm and diameter of 10, 15 and 20 mm, respectively, were used. The effects of thickness of the abdominal wall as well as the position and type of permanent magnets on the micturition alert device dedicated to neurogenic bladders were measured in vitro simulated test, when the abdominal wall was set to 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 cm, respectively, and the position of permanent magnets was 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 cm, respectively. The effect of the geomagnetic field on the device was measured under the condition that the thickness of the simulated abdominal wall was set to 2, 3, 4 and 5 cm, respectively, and the position of permanent magnets was 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 cm, respectively. The value showed in the warning unit was positively correlated with the position of the ferrite permanent magnet only when the thickness of the simulated abdominal wall was 2 cm (r=0.632, P NdFeB permanent magnets was significant (r > 0.622, P NdFeB permanent magnets, but weakened with the increasing thickness of the simulated abdominal wall. The effect of the geomagnetic field was correlated with the exposition of the body, the position of the permanent magnet and the thickness of the abdominal wall. The major influential factors of the micturition alert device dedicated to neurogenic bladder include the magnetism and location of the permanent magnet, the thickness of the abdominal wall and the geomagnetic field. These factors are correlated with and affect each other. Reasonable allocation of these factors may optimize the device.

  18. Development of bladder control in mentally handicapped children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruschini Homero

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE:To analyze the role of mental handicap as a possible source of lack of development of bladder control and to find out the chance of continence to advise future patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The parents and relatives of 100 consecutive mentally handicapped patients were inquired by a personal interview. Questions included the age when they stopped using diapers, enuretic events, frequency, urgency and leakage episodes, urinary infections. Etiology of their mental problem was unknown in 34, perinatal anoxia in 17, Down syndrome in 15, phenylketonuria in 18 and others minors causes. The grade of mental deficiency were profound in 1, severe in 10, moderate in 39, mild in 33 and normal inferior value in 17. The age varied from 7 to 37 years old, with an average of 14 by the time of the interview, comprising 60 males and 40 females. RESULTS: All profound and severe patients presented leakage episodes regardless of the age. The mild and normal inferior value acquired progressive urinary control with aging, and 33% still remain with urinary symptoms above 16 years old. Urinary infection was similar in males and females, around 29%. The most committed group presented less urinary infections. The etiology of the mental handicap was not correlated to the incidence of urinary leakage. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of bladder control was correlated to the grade of mental handicap. In severe and profound groups, the expectancy of control is disappointing. In the less compromised groups, there is a delay in bladder training, with achievement of control in 2/3 after 16 years of age. Those in the normal inferior value have a chance of postponed urinary control, easily misdiagnosed by normal urological interviews.

  19. Experimental Treatment of Bladder Cancer with Bi-213-anti-EGFR MAb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidl, Christof; Pfost, Birgit; Müller, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Therapy of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (carcinoma in situ) comprises transurethral resection of the tumour and subsequent instillation of the chemotherapeutic drug mitomycin C in order to eradicate remaining tumour cells. Yet 15 – 40% of treated patients relapse within 5 years. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies to combat tumour recurrence are needed. Alpha-particle emitting radionuclides efficiently kill single tumour cells or small tumour cell clusters. Because the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed on bladder cancer cells, conjugates composed of the alpha-emitter Bi-213 and the anti-EGFR antibody matuzumab should provide a powerful drug to eliminate disseminated bladder cancer cells. Therefore, the aims of our study were (i) to analyse the cytotoxic effects of Bi-213-anti-EGFR radioimmunoconjugates at the cellular level, (ii) to evaluate therapeutic efficacy of intravesically applied Bi-213- anti-EGFR-Mab in a nude mouse model with intravesical human bladder cancer xenografts, (iii) to compare Bi- 213-anti-EGFR-Mab efficacy with chemotherapy using mitomycin C and (iv) to demonstrate that radioimmunotherapy is not toxic to cells of the bladder wall and of the kidneys

  20. [The role of telomerase activity in non-invasive diagnostics of bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glybochko, P V; Alyaev, J G; Potoldykova, N V; Polyakovsky, K A; Vinarov, A Z; Glukhov, A I; Gordeev, S A

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the potentials of determining the telomerase activity (TA) in the cellular material of the urine for noninvasive diagnosis of bladder cancer (BC). Evaluation of TA was performed in the urine of 48 patients with bladder cancer (study group) before and after transurethral resection of the bladder wall (n=38), an open resection of the bladder (n=4), and cystectomy (n=6). TA was also evaluated in 48 tumor tissue samples obtained from these patients during removal of the bladder tumor. Each sample of the tumor tissue was separated into two parts, one of which was subjected to histological examination, and the latter was used to determine the telomerase activity. In all cases, the diagnosis of bladder cancer was confirmed morphologically. Determination of TA in the samples was performed by the modified TRAP-method (telomerase repeat amplification protocol), RT-PCR, PCR, and electrophoresis. As a control, cell material of the urine and tissue in 12 patients with chronic cystitis was investigated. TA before surgery was found in 45 (93.75%) of 48 samples of cellular material of the urine from patients with suspected bladder cancer. BC was histologically verified in all patients in this group. In the postoperative period, TA was not observed in the 48 samples of cellular material of the urine from patients with BC. In the control group of patients with histologically verified cystitis, weak TA was determined only in one sample of cellular material of the urine. The analysis indicates statistically significant predominance of patients with bladder cancer in case of TA in the urine (P=0.001). TA was detected in all samples of tumor tissue. We also analyzed the dependence of TA levels in urine and tissue on the degree of BC differentiation. In patients with highly differentiated BC, mean AT in the cellular materials of the urine was 0,61% (n=15), in patients with moderately differentiated BC - 0.95% (n=23), in patients with low-grade bladder cancer - 1.33% (n=10

  1. The Ileal W-Shaped Neo bladder Following Radical Cystectomy for Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder: Experience and Results of 50 Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassiouny, M.; Helmy, A.; Amin, A.; Aboul Kassem, H.

    2003-01-01

    The optimal urinary bladder substitute for patients undergoing radical cystectomy is still controversial. The ideal reservoir should provide a large storage capacity at low pressure achieving effective continence with less frequency and minimal renal reflux. In this study we present our experience with W-shaped ileal neo bladder following radical cystectomy. Material and Methods: Between April 1995 and September 1999, a total of 50 male patients underwent lower urinary tract reconstruction following radical cysto prostatectomy by means of ileal W-shaped neo bladder. All patients had invasive bladder cancer proved by preoperative cystoscopy. Their mean age was 45.5 years. The median neo bladder pouch capacity was 420 ml; daytime continence rate was 89.4%, while nighttime continence was noticed in 53.3% of cases. The uretero intestinal anastomoses were performed employing Le Duc technique in all patients. Renal units remained normal in 25 out of 30 evaluated patients. Dilatation of the pelvicalyceal system and the ureter, either unilateral or bilateral occurred in 5/30 of patients (16.6%). These were due to stricture at the urethro or uretero-pouch anastomosis that needed transurethral urethrotomy or revision of the anastomosis; however, renal functions were maintained in all patients. There were three postoperative mortalities (6%) and the early postoperative complications included urinary leakage (6%), prolonged ileus (10%) and deep venous thrombosis (4%). Late complications related to the neo bladder were acceptable including metabolic acidosis (2%). The ileal W-shaped neo bladder is a good choice for male patients after radical cystectomy, provided that there is no evidence of prostatic or urethral tumor invasion

  2. Homing peptide guiding optical molecular imaging for the diagnosis of bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-feng; Pang, Jian-zhi; Liu, Jie-hao; Zhao, Yang; Jia, Xing-you; Li, Jun; Liu, Reng-xin; Wang, Wei; Fan, Zhen-wei; Zhang, Zi-qiang; Yan, San-hua; Luo, Jun-qian; Zhang, Xiao-lei

    2014-11-01

    Background: The limitations of primary transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBt) have led the residual tumors rates as high as 75%. The intraoperative fluorescence imaging offers a great potential for improving TURBt have been confirmed. So we aim to distinguish the residual tumors and normal mucosa using fluorescence molecular imaging formed by conjugated molecule of the CSNRDARRC bladder cancer homing peptide with fluorescent dye. The conjugated molecule was abbreviated FIuo-ACP. In our study, we will research the image features of FIuo-ACP probe targeted bladder cancer for fluorescence molecular imaging diagnosis for bladder cancer in vivo and ex vivo. Methods: After the FIuo-ACP probe was synthetized, the binding sites, factors affecting binding rates, the specificity and the targeting of Fluo-ACP labeled with bladder cancer cells were studied respectively by laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM), immunofluorescence and multispectral fluorescence ex vivo optical molecular imaging system. Results: The binding sites were located in nucleus and the binding rates were correlated linearly with the dose of probe and the grade of pathology. Moreover, the probe has a binding specificity with bladder cancer in vivo and ex vivo. Tumor cells being labeled by the Fluo-ACP, bright green spots were observed under LSCM. The tissue samples and tumor cells can be labeled and identified by fluorescence microscope. Optical molecular imaging of xenograft tumor tissues was exhibited as fluorescent spots under EMCCD. Conclusion: The CSNRDARRC peptides might be a useful bladder cancer targeting vector. The FIuo-ACP molecular probe was suitable for fluorescence molecular imaging diagnosis for bladder cancer in vivo and ex vivo.

  3. Anisotropy of domain wall resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viret; Samson; Warin; Marty; Ott; Sondergard; Klein; Fermon

    2000-10-30

    The resistive effect of domain walls in FePd films with perpendicular anisotropy was studied experimentally as a function of field and temperature. The films were grown directly on MgO substrates, which induces an unusual virgin magnetic configuration composed of 60 nm wide parallel stripe domains. This allowed us to carry out the first measurements of the anisotropy of domain wall resistivity in the two configurations of current perpendicular and parallel to the walls. At 18 K, we find 8.2% and 1.3% for the domain wall magnetoresistance normalized to the wall width (8 nm) in these two respective configurations. These values are consistent with the predictions of Levy and Zhang.

  4. Nitrative DNA damage and Oct3/4 expression in urinary bladder cancer with Schistosomahaematobium infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Ning; Thanan, Raynoo; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Hammam, Olfat; Wishahi, Mohamed; Leithy, Tarek El; Hiraku, Yusuke; Amro, EL-Karef; Oikawa, Shinji; Ohnishi, Shiho; Murata, Mariko; Kawanishi, Shosuke

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Oct3/4-positive cells increase in Schistosoma haematobium (SH)-associated bladder cancer. → iNOS-dependent DNA lesion, 8-nitroguanine, was formed in Oct3/4-positive cells. → 8-Nitroguanine formed in stem-like cells plays a role in SH-induced carcinogenesis. → Mutant stem cells may participate in inflammation-related carcinogenesis. -- Abstract: To investigate whether mutant stem cells participate in inflammation-related carcinogenesis, we performed immunohistochemical analysis to examine nitrative and oxidative DNA lesions (8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG) and a stem cell marker Oct3/4 in bladder tissues obtained from cystitis and bladder cancer patients infected with Schistosomahaematobium (S. haematobium). We also detected the expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which lead to 8-nitroguanine formation. The staining intensity of 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG was significantly higher in bladder cancer and cystitis tissues than in normal tissues. iNOS expression was colocalized with NF-κB in 8-nitroguanine-positive tumor cells from bladder cancer patients. Oct3/4 expression was significantly increased in cells from S. haematobium-associated bladder cancer tissues in comparison to normal bladder and cancer tissues without infection. Oct3/4 was also expressed in epithelial cells of cystitis patients. Moreover, 8-nitroguanine was formed in Oct3/4-positive stem cells in S. haematobium-associated cystitis and cancer tissues. In conclusion, inflammation by S.haematobium infection may increase the number of mutant stem cells, in which iNOS-dependent DNA damage occurs via NF-κB activation, leading to tumor development.

  5. Real time diagnosis of bladder cancer with probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jen-Jane; Wu, Katherine; Adams, Winifred; Hsiao, Shelly T.; Mach, Kathleen E.; Beck, Andrew H.; Jensen, Kristin C.; Liao, Joseph C.

    2011-02-01

    Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) is an emerging technology for in vivo optical imaging of the urinary tract. Particularly for bladder cancer, real time optical biopsy of suspected lesions will likely lead to improved management of bladder cancer. With pCLE, micron scale resolution is achieved with sterilizable imaging probes (1.4 or 2.6 mm diameter), which are compatible with standard cystoscopes and resectoscopes. Based on our initial experience to date (n = 66 patients), we have demonstrated the safety profile of intravesical fluorescein administration and established objective diagnostic criteria to differentiate between normal, benign, and neoplastic urothelium. Confocal images of normal bladder showed organized layers of umbrella cells, intermediate cells, and lamina propria. Low grade bladder cancer is characterized by densely packed monomorphic cells with central fibrovascular cores, whereas high grade cancer consists of highly disorganized microarchitecture and pleomorphic cells with indistinct cell borders. Currently, we are conducting a diagnostic accuracy study of pCLE for bladder cancer diagnosis. Patients scheduled to undergo transurethral resection of bladder tumor are recruited. Patients undergo first white light cystocopy (WLC), followed by pCLE, and finally histologic confirmation of the resected tissues. The diagnostic accuracy is determined both in real time by the operative surgeon and offline after additional image processing. Using histology as the standard, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of WLC and WLC + pCLE are calculated. With additional validation, pCLE may prove to be a valuable adjunct to WLC for real time diagnosis of bladder cancer.

  6. Computed tomographic studies on prostate and bladder diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Shuta

    1980-01-01

    The computed tomography (CT) has been performed in 6 cases of normal prostate, 4 cases of prostatitis, 6 cases of early stage of benign prostatic hyperplasia, 21 cases of late stage of benign prostatic hyperplasia, 27 cases of prostatic carcinoma, and the pneumo-CT scan with the gas-filled bladder has been performed in 10 cases of bladder carcinomas. The CT gave an excellent visualization of form of the prostate and pelvic anatomic relationships. A significant difference of EMI unit has been observed between benign prostatic hyperplasia (EMI unit: 14.6+-4.4) and prostatic carcinoma (EMI unit: 24.7+-4.4). The volume of prostate has been estimated from the following formula as an ellipsoid, π/6 A x B x C (A) maximum transverse diameter in the CT (B) anteroposterior diameter in the CT (C) length of the prostatic urethra in the urethrogram. A highly significant correlation has been recognized between the postoperative weight of the prostatic in eighteen cases and the prostatic weight estimated from this method. A new method of the pneumo-CT with the gas-filled bladder has been presented and evaluated. Direct visualization of the extent of tumor adjacent soft tissue structure is possible. It is considered that this method also has an advantage to be able to evaluate the effect of anti-cancer drug therapy. (author)

  7. The brain stem function in patients with brain bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Toshihiro

    1990-01-01

    A syndrome of detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia (DSD) is occasionally found in patients with brain bladder. To evaluate the brain stem function in cases of brain bladder, urodynamic study, dynamic CT scan of the brain stem (DCT) and auditory brainstem response (ABR) were performed. The region of interest of DCT aimed at the posterolateral portion of the pons. The results were analysed in contrast with the presense of DSD in urodynamic study. DCT studies were performed in 13 cases with various brain diseases and 5 control cases without neurological diseases. Abnormal patterns of the time-density curve consisted of low peak value, prolongation of filling time and low rapid washout ratio (low clearance ratio) of the contrast medium. Four of 6 cases with DSD showed at least one of the abnormal patterns of the time-density curve bilaterally. In 7 cases without DSD none showed bilateral abnormality of the curve and in 2 of 7 cases only unilateral abnormality was found. ABR was performed in 8 patients with brain diseases. The interpeak latency of the wave I-V (I-V IPL) was considered to be prolonged in 2 cases with DSD compared to that of 4 without DSD. In 2 cases with DSD who had normal DCT findings, measurement of the I-V IPL was impossible due to abnormal pattern of the ABR wave. Above mentioned results suggests the presence of functional disturbance at the posterolateral portion of the pons in cases of brain bladder with DSD. (author)

  8. mTORC2 activation is regulated by the urokinase receptor (uPAR) in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, Andrew M; Leivo, Mariah Z; Gilder, Andrew S; Hu, Jing-Jing; Gonias, Steven L; Hansel, Donna E

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) has been identified as a major regulator of bladder cancer cell migration and invasion. Upstream pathways that mediate mTORC2 activation remain poorly defined. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a GPI-anchored membrane protein and known activator of cell-signaling. We identified increased uPAR expression in 94% of invasive human bladder cancers and in 54-71% of non-invasive bladder cancers, depending on grade. Normal urothelium was uPAR-immunonegative. Analysis of publicly available datasets identified uPAR gene amplification or mRNA upregulation in a subset of bladder cancer patients with reduced overall survival. Using biochemical approaches, we showed that uPAR activates mTORC2 in bladder cancer cells. Highly invasive bladder cancer cell lines, including T24, J82 and UM-UC-3 cells, showed increased uPAR mRNA expression and protein levels compared with the less aggressive cell lines, UROtsa and RT4. uPAR gene-silencing significantly reduced phosphorylation of Serine-473 in Akt, an mTORC2 target. uPAR gene-silencing also reduced bladder cancer cell migration and Matrigel invasion. S473 phosphorylation was observed by immunohistochemistry in human bladder cancers only when the tumors expressed high levels of uPAR. S473 phosphorylation was not controlled by uPAR in bladder cancer cell lines that are PTEN-negative; however, this result probably did not reflect altered mTORC2 regulation. Instead, PTEN deficiency de-repressed alternative kinases that phosphorylate S473. Our results suggest that uPAR and mTORC2 are components of a single cell-signaling pathway. Targeting uPAR or mTORC2 may be beneficial in patients with bladder cancer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. A voxel-based finite element model for the prediction of bladder deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiangfei, Chai; Herk, Marcel van; Hulshof, Maarten C. C. M.; Bel, Arjan [Radiation Oncology Department, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Radiation Oncology Department, Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Radiation Oncology Department, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: A finite element (FE) bladder model was previously developed to predict bladder deformation caused by bladder filling change. However, two factors prevent a wide application of FE models: (1) the labor required to construct a FE model with high quality mesh and (2) long computation time needed to construct the FE model and solve the FE equations. In this work, we address these issues by constructing a low-resolution voxel-based FE bladder model directly from the binary segmentation images and compare the accuracy and computational efficiency of the voxel-based model used to simulate bladder deformation with those of a classical FE model with a tetrahedral mesh. Methods: For ten healthy volunteers, a series of MRI scans of the pelvic region was recorded at regular intervals of 10 min over 1 h. For this series of scans, the bladder volume gradually increased while rectal volume remained constant. All pelvic structures were defined from a reference image for each volunteer, including bladder wall, small bowel, prostate (male), uterus (female), rectum, pelvic bone, spine, and the rest of the body. Four separate FE models were constructed from these structures: one with a tetrahedral mesh (used in previous study), one with a uniform hexahedral mesh, one with a nonuniform hexahedral mesh, and one with a low-resolution nonuniform hexahedral mesh. Appropriate material properties were assigned to all structures and uniform pressure was applied to the inner bladder wall to simulate bladder deformation from urine inflow. Performance of the hexahedral meshes was evaluated against the performance of the standard tetrahedral mesh by comparing the accuracy of bladder shape prediction and computational efficiency. Results: FE model with a hexahedral mesh can be quickly and automatically constructed. No substantial differences were observed between the simulation results of the tetrahedral mesh and hexahedral meshes (<1% difference in mean dice similarity coefficient to

  10. A voxel-based finite element model for the prediction of bladder deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Xiangfei; Herk, Marcel van; Hulshof, Maarten C. C. M.; Bel, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A finite element (FE) bladder model was previously developed to predict bladder deformation caused by bladder filling change. However, two factors prevent a wide application of FE models: (1) the labor required to construct a FE model with high quality mesh and (2) long computation time needed to construct the FE model and solve the FE equations. In this work, we address these issues by constructing a low-resolution voxel-based FE bladder model directly from the binary segmentation images and compare the accuracy and computational efficiency of the voxel-based model used to simulate bladder deformation with those of a classical FE model with a tetrahedral mesh. Methods: For ten healthy volunteers, a series of MRI scans of the pelvic region was recorded at regular intervals of 10 min over 1 h. For this series of scans, the bladder volume gradually increased while rectal volume remained constant. All pelvic structures were defined from a reference image for each volunteer, including bladder wall, small bowel, prostate (male), uterus (female), rectum, pelvic bone, spine, and the rest of the body. Four separate FE models were constructed from these structures: one with a tetrahedral mesh (used in previous study), one with a uniform hexahedral mesh, one with a nonuniform hexahedral mesh, and one with a low-resolution nonuniform hexahedral mesh. Appropriate material properties were assigned to all structures and uniform pressure was applied to the inner bladder wall to simulate bladder deformation from urine inflow. Performance of the hexahedral meshes was evaluated against the performance of the standard tetrahedral mesh by comparing the accuracy of bladder shape prediction and computational efficiency. Results: FE model with a hexahedral mesh can be quickly and automatically constructed. No substantial differences were observed between the simulation results of the tetrahedral mesh and hexahedral meshes (<1% difference in mean dice similarity coefficient to

  11. NEOADJUVANT RADIOTHERAPY FOR BLADDER CARCINOMA IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective To evaluate the impact of preoperative accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy in the management of bladder carcinoma in Egyptian patients. Patients and Methods Between December 1996 and February 2000, 104 Egyptian patients with pathologically proven infiltrative bladder carcinoma were enrolled in ...

  12. Advances in immunotherapy for bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jiyu; Chen Lijun

    2009-01-01

    The conventional treatments for bladder cancer, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, are highly invasive and bring about lots of side effects. Immunotherapy has become a promising strategy for the treatment of malignant tumors. This review presents the research advances in immunotherapy of bladder cancer. (authors)

  13. Bladder exstrophy associated with complete urethral duplication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.E. Mensah

    ees.elsevier.com/afju · www.sciencedirect.com. Case report. Bladder exstrophy associated with complete urethral duplication: Bladder can be augmented with dorsal urethral mucosa. J.E. Mensaha,∗. , K.N. Ampadua, M.Y. Kyeia, B. Edusieb.

  14. Squamous cell carcinoma in bladder extrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral-Ribeiro, J; Silva, C; Sousa, L; Pérez García, D; Ribeiro dos Santos, A

    2005-01-01

    Bladder extrophy is a rare congenital malformation that nowadays is surgically corrected in neonatal period. We present a case report of a 71-year-old male with a verrucous squamous cell carcinoma arising in a classical uncorrected form of bladder extrophy.

  15. Neurogenic bladder in spinal cord injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Taweel W

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Waleed Al Taweel, Raouf SeyamDepartment of Urology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Neurogenic bladder dysfunction due to spinal cord injury poses a significant threat to the well-being of patients. Incontinence, renal impairment, urinary tract infection, stones, and poor quality of life are some complications of this condition. The majority of patients will require management to ensure low pressure reservoir function of the bladder, complete emptying, and dryness. Management typically begins with anticholinergic medications and clean intermittent catheterization. Patients who fail this treatment because of inefficacy or intolerability are candidates for a spectrum of more invasive procedures. Endoscopic managements to relieve the bladder outlet resistance include sphincterotomy, botulinum toxin injection, and stent insertion. In contrast, patients with incompetent sphincters are candidates for transobturator tape insertion, sling surgery, or artificial sphincter implantation. Coordinated bladder emptying is possible with neuromodulation in selected patients. Bladder augmentation, usually with an intestinal segment, and urinary diversion are the last resort. Tissue engineering is promising in experimental settings; however, its role in clinical bladder management is still evolving. In this review, we summarize the current literature pertaining to the pathology and management of neurogenic bladder dysfunction in patients with spinal cord injury.Keywords: neurogenic bladder, spinal cord injury, urodynamics, intestine, intermittent catheterization

  16. Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmström, Per-Uno; Agrawal, Sachin; Bläckberg, Mats

    2017-01-01

    The management of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has evolved from the first reports on bladder endoscopy and transurethral resection to the introduction of adjuvant intravesical treatment. However, disease recurrence and progression remain an ongoing risk, placing a heavy burden...

  17. Bladder dysfunction in advanced Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winge, Kristian; Nielsen, Kurt K

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients often have lower urinary tract symptoms. Seventy-four percent of patients with early-to-moderate disease report more than one bladder disturbance symptom. Severe bladder symptoms are reported in 27-39% of PD patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate...

  18. Transient neuropathic bladder following herpes simplex genitalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, R A; Williams, J J

    1979-08-01

    A case of transient bladder dysfunction and urinary retention concomitant with herpes genitalis is presented. The protean manifestations of the herpes simplex virus, the similar neurotropic behavior of simplex and zoster, and the neurologic sequelae of the cutaneous simplex eruption are discussed. The possibility of sacral radiculopathy after herpes genitalis must be considered when evaluating acute or episodic neurogenic bladders.

  19. Neuropathic bladder in the neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Michael C

    2014-09-01

    The management of infants born with myelomeningocele depends on understanding how their bladder stores and empties urine. Storage at low pressure with effective emptying periodically throughout the day is the goal. Intervention is designed to impact on one or both of these processes so that infants can remain infection-free and at the same time allow for appropriate renal growth over time. Urodynamic evaluation plays an important role, so that neonates can be stratified according to their risk. Most patients require intermittent catheterization and pharmacotherapy to achieve these goals at some point in their lives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Danish Bladder Cancer Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen E

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Erik Hansen,1–3 Heidi Larsson,4 Mette Nørgaard,4 Peter Thind,3,5 Jørgen Bjerggaard Jensen1–3 1Department of Urology, Hospital of West Jutland-Holstebro, Holstebro, 2Department of Urology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 3The Danish Bladder Cancer Database Group, 4Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 5Department of Urology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark Aim of database: The aim of the Danish Bladder Cancer Database (DaBlaCa-data is to monitor the treatment of all patients diagnosed with invasive bladder cancer (BC in Denmark. Study population: All patients diagnosed with BC in Denmark from 2012 onward were included in the study. Results presented in this paper are predominantly from the 2013 population. Main variables: In 2013, 970 patients were diagnosed with BC in Denmark and were included in a preliminary report from the database. A total of 458 (47% patients were diagnosed with non-muscle-invasive BC (non-MIBC and 512 (53% were diagnosed with muscle-invasive BC (MIBC. A total of 300 (31% patients underwent cystectomy. Among the 135 patients diagnosed with MIBC, who were 75 years of age or younger, 67 (50% received neoadjuvent chemotherapy prior to cystectomy. In 2013, a total of 147 patients were treated with curative-intended radiation therapy. Descriptive data: One-year mortality was 28% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15–21. One-year cancer-specific mortality was 25% (95% CI: 22–27%. One-year mortality after cystectomy was 14% (95% CI: 10–18. Ninety-day mortality after cystectomy was 3% (95% CI: 1–5 in 2013. One-year mortality following curative-intended radiation therapy was 32% (95% CI: 24–39 and 1-year cancer-specific mortality was 23% (95% CI: 16–31 in 2013. Conclusion: This preliminary DaBlaCa-data report showed that the treatment of MIBC in Denmark overall meet high international academic standards. The database is able to identify Danish BC patients and

  1. Control over structure-specific flexibility improves anatomical accuracy for point-based deformable registration in bladder cancer radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wognum, S; Bondar, L; Zolnay, A G; Chai, X; Hulshof, M C C M; Hoogeman, M S; Bel, A

    2013-02-01

    Future developments in image guided adaptive radiotherapy (IGART) for bladder cancer require accurate deformable image registration techniques for the precise assessment of tumor and bladder motion and deformation that occur as a result of large bladder volume changes during the course of radiotherapy treatment. The aim was to employ an extended version of a point-based deformable registration algorithm that allows control over tissue-specific flexibility in combination with the authors' unique patient dataset, in order to overcome two major challenges of bladder cancer registration, i.e., the difficulty in accounting for the difference in flexibility between the bladder wall and tumor and the lack of visible anatomical landmarks for validation. The registration algorithm used in the current study is an extension of the symmetric-thin plate splines-robust point matching (S-TPS-RPM) algorithm, a symmetric feature-based registration method. The S-TPS-RPM algorithm has been previously extended to allow control over the degree of flexibility of different structures via a weight parameter. The extended weighted S-TPS-RPM algorithm was tested and validated on CT data (planning- and four to five repeat-CTs) of five urinary bladder cancer patients who received lipiodol injections before radiotherapy. The performance of the weighted S-TPS-RPM method, applied to bladder and tumor structures simultaneously, was compared with a previous version of the S-TPS-RPM algorithm applied to bladder wall structure alone and with a simultaneous nonweighted S-TPS-RPM registration of the bladder and tumor structures. Performance was assessed in terms of anatomical and geometric accuracy. The anatomical accuracy was calculated as the residual distance error (RDE) of the lipiodol markers and the geometric accuracy was determined by the surface distance, surface coverage, and inverse consistency errors. Optimal parameter values for the flexibility and bladder weight parameters were determined

  2. Control over structure-specific flexibility improves anatomical accuracy for point-based deformable registration in bladder cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wognum, S.; Chai, X.; Hulshof, M. C. C. M.; Bel, A.; Bondar, L.; Zolnay, A. G.; Hoogeman, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Future developments in image guided adaptive radiotherapy (IGART) for bladder cancer require accurate deformable image registration techniques for the precise assessment of tumor and bladder motion and deformation that occur as a result of large bladder volume changes during the course of radiotherapy treatment. The aim was to employ an extended version of a point-based deformable registration algorithm that allows control over tissue-specific flexibility in combination with the authors’ unique patient dataset, in order to overcome two major challenges of bladder cancer registration, i.e., the difficulty in accounting for the difference in flexibility between the bladder wall and tumor and the lack of visible anatomical landmarks for validation. Methods: The registration algorithm used in the current study is an extension of the symmetric-thin plate splines-robust point matching (S-TPS-RPM) algorithm, a symmetric feature-based registration method. The S-TPS-RPM algorithm has been previously extended to allow control over the degree of flexibility of different structures via a weight parameter. The extended weighted S-TPS-RPM algorithm was tested and validated on CT data (planning- and four to five repeat-CTs) of five urinary bladder cancer patients who received lipiodol injections before radiotherapy. The performance of the weighted S-TPS-RPM method, applied to bladder and tumor structures simultaneously, was compared with a previous version of the S-TPS-RPM algorithm applied to bladder wall structure alone and with a simultaneous nonweighted S-TPS-RPM registration of the bladder and tumor structures. Performance was assessed in terms of anatomical and geometric accuracy. The anatomical accuracy was calculated as the residual distance error (RDE) of the lipiodol markers and the geometric accuracy was determined by the surface distance, surface coverage, and inverse consistency errors. Optimal parameter values for the flexibility and bladder weight

  3. Control over structure-specific flexibility improves anatomical accuracy for point-based deformable registration in bladder cancer radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wognum, S.; Chai, X.; Hulshof, M. C. C. M.; Bel, A. [Department of Radiotherapy, Academic Medical Center, Meiberdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bondar, L.; Zolnay, A. G.; Hoogeman, M. S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Erasmus Medical Center, Groene Hilledijk 301, 3075 EA Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: Future developments in image guided adaptive radiotherapy (IGART) for bladder cancer require accurate deformable image registration techniques for the precise assessment of tumor and bladder motion and deformation that occur as a result of large bladder volume changes during the course of radiotherapy treatment. The aim was to employ an extended version of a point-based deformable registration algorithm that allows control over tissue-specific flexibility in combination with the authors' unique patient dataset, in order to overcome two major challenges of bladder cancer registration, i.e., the difficulty in accounting for the difference in flexibility between the bladder wall and tumor and the lack of visible anatomical landmarks for validation. Methods: The registration algorithm used in the current study is an extension of the symmetric-thin plate splines-robust point matching (S-TPS-RPM) algorithm, a symmetric feature-based registration method. The S-TPS-RPM algorithm has been previously extended to allow control over the degree of flexibility of different structures via a weight parameter. The extended weighted S-TPS-RPM algorithm was tested and validated on CT data (planning- and four to five repeat-CTs) of five urinary bladder cancer patients who received lipiodol injections before radiotherapy. The performance of the weighted S-TPS-RPM method, applied to bladder and tumor structures simultaneously, was compared with a previous version of the S-TPS-RPM algorithm applied to bladder wall structure alone and with a simultaneous nonweighted S-TPS-RPM registration of the bladder and tumor structures. Performance was assessed in terms of anatomical and geometric accuracy. The anatomical accuracy was calculated as the residual distance error (RDE) of the lipiodol markers and the geometric accuracy was determined by the surface distance, surface coverage, and inverse consistency errors. Optimal parameter values for the flexibility and bladder weight

  4. Automatic bladder segmentation on CBCT for multiple plan ART of bladder cancer using a patient-specific bladder model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiangfei, Chai; Hulshof, Maarten; Bel, Arjan [Department of Radiotherapy, Academic medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van Herk, Marcel; Betgen, Anja [Department of Radiotherapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, 1066 CX, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-06-21

    In multiple plan adaptive radiotherapy (ART) strategies of bladder cancer, a library of plans corresponding to different bladder volumes is created based on images acquired in early treatment sessions. Subsequently, the plan for the smallest PTV safely covering the bladder on cone-beam CT (CBCT) is selected as the plan of the day. The aim of this study is to develop an automatic bladder segmentation approach suitable for CBCT scans and test its ability to select the appropriate plan from the library of plans for such an ART procedure. Twenty-three bladder cancer patients with a planning CT and on average 11.6 CBCT scans were included in our study. For each patient, all CBCT scans were matched to the planning CT on bony anatomy. Bladder contours were manually delineated for each planning CT (for model building) and CBCT (for model building and validation). The automatic segmentation method consisted of two steps. A patient-specific bladder deformation model was built from the training data set of each patient (the planning CT and the first five CBCT scans). Then, the model was applied to automatically segment bladders in the validation data of the same patient (the remaining CBCT scans). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the training data to model patient-specific bladder deformation patterns. The number of PCA modes for each patient was chosen such that the bladder shapes in the training set could be represented by such number of PCA modes with less than 0.1 cm mean residual error. The automatic segmentation started from the bladder shape of a reference CBCT, which was adjusted by changing the weight of each PCA mode. As a result, the segmentation contour was deformed consistently with the training set to fit the bladder in the validation image. A cost function was defined by the absolute difference between the directional gradient field of reference CBCT sampled on the corresponding bladder contour and the directional gradient field of validation

  5. Automatic bladder segmentation on CBCT for multiple plan ART of bladder cancer using a patient-specific bladder model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Xiangfei; Hulshof, Maarten; Bel, Arjan; Van Herk, Marcel; Betgen, Anja

    2012-01-01

    In multiple plan adaptive radiotherapy (ART) strategies of bladder cancer, a library of plans corresponding to different bladder volumes is created based on images acquired in early treatment sessions. Subsequently, the plan for the smallest PTV safely covering the bladder on cone-beam CT (CBCT) is selected as the plan of the day. The aim of this study is to develop an automatic bladder segmentation approach suitable for CBCT scans and test its ability to select the appropriate plan from the library of plans for such an ART procedure. Twenty-three bladder cancer patients with a planning CT and on average 11.6 CBCT scans were included in our study. For each patient, all CBCT scans were matched to the planning CT on bony anatomy. Bladder contours were manually delineated for each planning CT (for model building) and CBCT (for model building and validation). The automatic segmentation method consisted of two steps. A patient-specific bladder deformation model was built from the training data set of each patient (the planning CT and the first five CBCT scans). Then, the model was applied to automatically segment bladders in the validation data of the same patient (the remaining CBCT scans). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the training data to model patient-specific bladder deformation patterns. The number of PCA modes for each patient was chosen such that the bladder shapes in the training set could be represented by such number of PCA modes with less than 0.1 cm mean residual error. The automatic segmentation started from the bladder shape of a reference CBCT, which was adjusted by changing the weight of each PCA mode. As a result, the segmentation contour was deformed consistently with the training set to fit the bladder in the validation image. A cost function was defined by the absolute difference between the directional gradient field of reference CBCT sampled on the corresponding bladder contour and the directional gradient field of validation

  6. Ultrasonographic features of normal lower ureters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Soon; Bae, M. Y.; Park, K. J.; Jeon, H. S.; Lee, J. H.

    1990-01-01

    Although ultrasonographic evaluation of the normal ureters is difficult due to bowel gas, the lower segment of the normal ureters can be visualized using the urinary bladder as an acoustic window. Authors prospetively performed ultrasonography with the standard suprapubic technique and analyzed the ultrasonographic features of normal lower ureters in 79 cases(77%). Length of visualized segment of the distal ureter ranged frp, 1.5cm to 7.2 cm and the visualized segment did not exceed 3.9mm in maximum diameter. Knowledge of sonographic features of the normal lower ureters can be helpful in the evaluation of pathologic or suspected pathologic conditions of the lower ureters

  7. Clinical significance of the VEGF level in urinary bladder carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankhwar, Monica; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan; Abhishek, Amar; Rajender, Singh

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the correlation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and micro-vessel density (MVD) with urinary bladder tumor and its stage. The study was conducted between January 2010 and December 2012. The study included screening of 122 patients at elevated risk for bladder cancer, of which 35 patients were finally enrolled in the study. Diagnosis was made on the basis of urine cytology, radiological investigation (ultrasound KUB, and CT-scan) and histopathology. Thirty-five normal cancer-free individuals were enrolled as controls. Human VEGF levels were measured using an enzyme linked immunoassay and protein content (pg/mg protein) by Lowry method. SPSS for Windows version 10.0.7 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA) was used for statistical analysis of the data. Mean urine VEGF level in the cases was significantly higher in comparison to the control group. There was a direct correlation between VEGF level and tumor stage. Mean urine VEGF values were minimum in the control group (22.75 ± 15.41 pg/mg creatinine) and maximum in stage IV patients (180.15 ± 75.93 pg/mg creatinine). Tissue VEGF levels also showed a similar trend of increase with increase in stage. Urine VEGF level also showed a correlation with tissue VEGF level. Similarly, MVD showed a significant increase with increase in tumor stage. A correlation between bladder cancer and MVD and VEGF suggest that the latter can serve as markers for therapeutic guidance. This is the first study from India on clinical and pathological correlation among urine VEGF, tumor tissue VEGF levels, and Micro Vessel Density (MVD) in urinary bladder cancer patients.

  8. Partially wedged beams improve radiotherapy treatment of urinary bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muren, Ludvig Paul; Hafslund, Rune; Gustafsson, Anders; Smaaland, Rune; Dahl, Olav

    2001-01-01

    Background and purpose: Partially wedged beams (PWBs) having wedge in one part of the field only, can be shaped using dynamic jaw intensity modulation. The possible clinical benefit of PWBs was tested in treatment plans for muscle-infiltrating bladder cancer. Material and methods: Three-dimensional treatment plans for 25 bladder cancer patients were analyzed. The originally prescribed standard conformal four-field box technique, which includes the use of lateral ordinary wedge beams, was compared to a modified conformal treatment using customized lateral PWBs. In these modified treatment plans, only the anterior parts of the two lateral beams had a wedge. To analyze the potential clinical benefit of treatment with PWBs, treatment plans were scored and compared using both physical parameters and biological dose response models. One tumour control probability model and two normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models were applied. Different parameters for normal tissue radiation tolerance presented in the literature were used. Results: By PWBs the dose homogeneity throughout the target volume was improved for all patients, reducing the average relative standard deviation of the target dose distribution from 2.3 to 1.8%. A consistent reduction in the maximum doses to surrounding normal tissue volumes was also found. The most notable improvement was demonstrated in the rectum where the volume receiving more than the prescribed tumour dose was halved. Treatment with PWBs would permit a target dose escalation of 2-6 Gy in several of the patients analyzed, without increasing the overall risk for complications. The number of patients suitable for dose escalation ranged from 3 to 15, depending on whether support from all or only one of the five applied NTCP model/parameter combinations were required in each case to recommend dose escalation. Conclusion: PWBs represent a simple dose conformation tool that may allow radiation dose escalation in the treatment of muscle

  9. The Danish Bladder Cancer Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Erik; Larsson, Heidi Jeanet; Nørgaard, Mette

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the Danish Bladder Cancer Database (DaBlaCa-data) is to monitor the treatment of all patients diagnosed with invasive bladder cancer (BC) in Denmark. STUDY POPULATION: All patients diagnosed with BC in Denmark from 2012 onward were included in the study. Results......-intended radiation therapy. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: One-year mortality was 28% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15-21). One-year cancer-specific mortality was 25% (95% CI: 22-27%). One-year mortality after cystectomy was 14% (95% CI: 10-18). Ninety-day mortality after cystectomy was 3% (95% CI: 1-5) in 2013. One......-year mortality following curative-intended radiation therapy was 32% (95% CI: 24-39) and 1-year cancer-specific mortality was 23% (95% CI: 16-31) in 2013. CONCLUSION: This preliminary DaBlaCa-data report showed that the treatment of MIBC in Denmark overall meet high international academic standards. The database...

  10. PIXE analysis of cancer-afflicted human bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, G.J. Naga; Sarita, P.; Kumar, M. Ravi [Department of Physics, Institute of Technology, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam (India); Reddy, S. Bhuloka [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam (India)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) technique was used for analysis of trace elements in small quantities of biological samples. Both the biological samples of normal and cancer-afflicted human bladder tissues were studied. The present experiment was performed using a 3 MV pelletron accelerator at the Institute of Physics in Bhubaneswar, India. A proton beam of 3 MeV energy was used to excite the samples. NIST SRM 1577b Bovine Liver Tissue was used as external standards for the determination of trace element concentration in the biological tissue samples. The elements CI, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Se were identified and their concentrations were estimated. The concentrations of Ti and Zn are lower (p < 0.005) and that of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Cu are significantly higher (p < 0.001) in cancerous tissues than that in normal tissues. The deficiency or excess of different trace elements observed in the cancer tissues relative to the normal tissues of bladder are correlated to the pathology of cancer. (author)

  11. A Non-Invasive Bladder Sensory Test Supports a Role for Dysmenorrhea Increasing Bladder Noxious Mechanosensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    TU, Frank F.; EPSTEIN, Aliza E.; POZOLO, Kristen E.; SEXTON, Debra L.; MELNYK, Alexandra I.; HELLMAN, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Catheterization to measure bladder sensitivity is aversive and hinders human participation in visceral sensory research. Therefore, we sought to characterize the reliability of sonographically-estimated female bladder sensory thresholds. To demonstrate this technique’s usefulness, we examined the effects of self-reported dysmenorrhea on bladder pain thresholds. Methods Bladder sensory threshold volumes were determined during provoked natural diuresis in 49 healthy women (mean age 24 ± 8) using three-dimensional ultrasound. Cystometric thresholds (Vfs – first sensation, Vfu – first urge, Vmt – maximum tolerance) were quantified and related to bladder urgency and pain. We estimated reliability (one-week retest and interrater). Self-reported menstrual pain was examined in relationship to bladder pain, urgency and volume thresholds. Results Average bladder sensory thresholds (mLs) were Vfs (160±100), Vfu (310±130), and Vmt (500±180). Interrater reliability ranged from 0.97–0.99. One-week retest reliability was Vmt = 0.76 (95% CI 0.64–0.88), Vfs = 0.62 (95% CI 0.44–0.80), and Vfu = 0.63, (95% CI 0.47–0.80). Bladder filling rate correlated with all thresholds (r = 0.53–0.64, p dysmenorrhea pain had increased bladder pain and urgency at Vfs and increased pain at Vfu (p’s dysmenorrhea pain was unrelated to bladder capacity. Discussion Sonographic estimates of bladder sensory thresholds were reproducible and reliable. In these healthy volunteers, dysmenorrhea was associated with increased bladder pain and urgency during filling but unrelated to capacity. Plausibly, dysmenorrhea sufferers may exhibit enhanced visceral mechanosensitivity, increasing their risk to develop chronic bladder pain syndromes. PMID:23370073

  12. Mixed metazoan and bacterial infection of the gas bladder of the lined seahorse-a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Paul A; Petty, Barbara D

    2013-03-01

    Five wild-caught Lined Seahorses Hippocampus erectus from an aquarium system presented with altered buoyancy and distended upper trunks. Radiography of one specimen revealed a reduced air volume in the gas bladder. Pneumocystocentesis revealed a brown exudate of numerous leukocytes, parasite ova, and Gram- and acid-fast-positive bacilli under wet mounts and stains. Necropsies revealed enlarged, friable kidneys and distended gas bladders containing copious purulent exudate, necrotic tissue, and adult digeneans Dictysarca virens. Bacterial isolates from exudate cultures grown on Lowenstein-Jensen medium were identified as Gordonia sp. and Mycobacterium poriferae by high-performance liquid chromatography and 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. Histopathology demonstrated a histiocytic response in kidney and gas bladder exudate, inflammation of the gas bladder wall, and infection of the gas bladder lumen with parasite ova and acid-fast-positive and Gomori's methenamine silver-positive bacilli. Praziquantel is prescribed for digenean infections but dissolves incompletely in seawater and is toxic to this host. Eradication of intermediate host vectors is a management option. Treatment of Gordonia infection has not been addressed in nonhuman animals, and there is no known effective treatment for Mycobacterium spp. infection in fishes. This is the first case report of digenean infection of the gas bladder in a syngnathid, Gordonia sp. infection in a nonhuman animal, and M. poriferae infection in a fish.

  13. Technique of Antireflux Procedure without Creating Submucosal Tunnel for Surgical Correction of Vesicoureteric Reflux during Bladder Closure in Exstrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, Kanoujia; Gupta, Archika; Chaubey, Digamber; Pandey, Anand; Kureel, Shiv Narain; Verma, Ajay Kumar

    2018-01-01

    To report the clinical application of the new surgical technique of antireflux procedure without creating submucosal tunnel for surgical correction of vesicoureteric reflux during bladder closure in exstrophy. Based on the report of published experimental technique, the procedure was clinically executed in seven patients of classic exstrophy bladder with small bladder plate with polyps, where the creation of submucosal tunnel was not possible, in last 18 months. Ureters were mobilized. A rectangular patch of bladder mucosa at trigone was removed exposing the detrusor. Mobilized urteres were advanced, crossed and anchored to exposed detrusor parallel to each other. Reconstruction included bladder and epispadias repair with abdominal wall closure. The outcome was measured with the assessment of complications, abolition of reflux on cystogram and upper tract status. At 3-month follow-up cystogram, reflux was absent in all. Follow-up ultrasound revealed mild dilatation of pelvis and ureter in one. The technique of extra-mucosal ureteric reimplantation without the creation of submucosal tunnel is simple to execute without risk and complications and effectively provides an antireflux mechanism for the preservation of upper tract in bladder exstrophy. With the use of this technique, reflux can be prevented since the very beginning of exstrophy reconstruction.

  14. On the influence of the instillation time on the results of HAL (Hexvix) fluorescence detection of superficial bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jichlinski, Patrice; Aymon, Daniela; Wagnieres, Georges A.; Marti, Alexandre; Lange, Norbert; Guillou, Louis; Leisinger, Hans-Juerg; van den Bergh, Hubert

    2003-10-01

    Hexyl aminolevulinate (HAL) fluorescence cystoscopy is being investigated as a new diagnostic tool for the detection of flat urothelial malignancies in bladder cancers. However, the influence of the bladder instillation time on the performance of this detection modality has not been addressed up to now. We report our initial experience comparing different instillation schedules of HAL cystoscopy in the diagnosis of superficial bladder cancer. A total of 718 fluorescent positive (433) and fluorescence negative (285) biopsies have been taken in the bladder of 143 patients using the Storz D-light fluorescence imaging system (Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany) which allows both white and blue light (380-450 nm) bladder wall inspection. Following hospitalisation, 50 ml of HAL (8mM) phosphate buffer solution was instilled into the bladder of patients during one hour (1 hour protocol involving 57 patients), or during two hours followed by a two hours resting time after removal of the solution (2+2 hours protocol involving 86 patients). Both instillation subgroups were homogeneous in terms of proportion of high risk disease, previous BCG treatment and/or recurrent disease. This study indicates that the instillation duration does not influence the results of HAL (Hexvix) fluorescence cystoscopy in our conditions. Compared to the standard use of ALA, HAL (Hexvix) fluorescence cystoscopy allows a significant reduction of the instillation time (to less than one hour) without prejudicing the efficacy of the method, what represents a real advantage in daily clinical practice.

  15. Morphological examination of the effects of defibrotide on experimentally induced bladder injury and its relation to interstitial cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, H; Ercan, F; Cetinel, S; San, T

    2001-08-01

    This morphological study aims to investigate the effects of defibrotide, a deoxyribonucleic acid derivative drug with cytoprotective, immunosuppressive and vasorelaxant effects, on protamine sulfate induced bladder injury. Wistar albino female rats were catheterized and intravesically infused with phosphate buffered solution (control group) or, either protamine sulfate (bladder injury group) or protamine sulfate+defibrotide (bladder injury+defibrotide group) dissolved in phosphate buffered solution. The morphology of the urinary bladder was investigated using light and electron microscopy. The number of mast cells in the mucosa, mucosal alterations, intercellular junctions, surface topography and the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) layer as well as microvillus formation on the luminal surface were evaluated. In the bladder injury group, ulcerated areas, irregularity of the GAG layer, increased number of mast cells, vacuole formation, dilated perinuclear cistern, formation of pleomorphic and uniform microvilli and dilatations in the intercellular spaces in the urothelium were observed. In the bladder injury+defibrotide group a relatively normal urothelial topography, GAG layer and a few mast cells in the mucosa, some dilatations between the intercellular areas, less uniform microvilli, regular perinuclear cistern and tight junctions were observed. These results show that defibrotide can inhibit PS induced bladder damage.

  16. Clinical implications in the shift of syndecan-1 expression from the cell membrane to the cytoplasm in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Makito; Lawton, Adrienne; Dai, Yunfeng; Chang, Myron; Mengual, Lourdes; Alcaraz, Antonio; Goodison, Steve; Rosser, Charles J

    2014-01-01

    To determine the diagnostic and prognostic capability of urinary and tumoral syndecan-1 (SDC-1) levels in patients with cancer of the urinary bladder. SDC-1 levels were quantitated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 308 subjects (102 cancer subjects and 206 non-cancer subjects) to assess its diagnostic capabilities in voided urine. The performance of SDC-1 was evaluated using the area under the curve of a receiver operating characteristic curve. In addition, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining assessed SDC-1 protein expression in 193 bladder specimens (185 cancer subjects and 8 non-cancer subjects). Outcomes were correlated to SDC-1 levels. Mean urinary levels of SDC-1 did not differ between the cancer subjects and the non-cancer subjects, however, the mean urinary levels of SDC-1 were reduced in high-grade compared to low-grade disease (p < 0.0001), and in muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) compared to non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) (p = 0.005). Correspondingly, preliminary data note a shift from a membranous cellular localization of SDC-1 in normal tissue, low-grade tumors and NMIBC, to a distinctly cytoplasmic localization in high-grade tumors and MIBC was observed in tissue specimens. Alone urinary SDC-1 may not be a diagnostic biomarker for bladder cancer, but its urinary levels and cellular localization were associated with the differentiation status of patients with bladder tumors. Further studies are warranted to define the potential role for SDC-1 in bladder cancer progression

  17. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  18. Late Quaternary Normal Faulting and Hanging Wall Basin Evolution of the Southwestern Rift Margin from Gravity and Geology, B.C.S., MX and Exploring the Influence of Text-Figure Format on Introductory Geology Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Melanie M. D.

    2011-01-01

    An array of north-striking, left-stepping, active normal faults is situated along the southwestern margin of the Gulf of California. This normal fault system is the marginal fault system of the oblique-divergent plate boundary within the Gulf of California. To better understand the role of upper-crustal processes during development of an obliquely…

  19. A Boy with a Large Bladder Stone

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    Kuo-Shen Chow

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the frequent association of urinary tract infection with vesicoureteral reflux and urinary calculi, since vesicouretal reflux is induced by bladder stones, the coexistence of vesicoureteral reflux and bladder stones is rare. Because of its occurrence in children belonging to poor socioeconomic groups, it is believed to be a deficiency disorder. Most cases of bladder stones occur between the ages of 2 and 5 years. Common clinical presentations of bladder stones include urinary dribbling and enuresis, frequency of micturition, pain during micturition, pelvic pain and hematuria. We report the occurrence of a large bladder stone in a boy, who experienced intermittent lower abdominal pain and urinary incontinence, both during the day and at night. He had been diagnosed with enuresis and treated in pediatric clinics for 1 year. Delayed diagnosis resulted in bladder stone formation. The stone was larger than 2.5 cm and open vesicolithotomy was therefore selected as the best and safest treatment choice. His symptoms disappeared after surgery. Thorough metabolic and environmental evaluations of such cases are required on an individual basis. Bladder stones should be considered as a possible diagnosis in children presenting with urinary incontinence.

  20. Arsenic and urinary bladder cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luster, Michael I.; Simeonova, Petia P.

    2004-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that a close association exists between the elevated levels of arsenic in drinking water and the incidence of certain cancers, including transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder. We have employed in vitro and in vivo models to examine the effects of sodium arsenite on the urinary bladder epithelium. Mice exposed to 0.01% sodium arsenite in drinking water demonstrated hyperproliferation of the bladder uroepithelium within 4 weeks after initiating treatment. This occurred in the absence of amorphous precipitates and was accompanied by the accumulation of trivalent arsenite (iAs 3+ ), and to a lesser extent dimethylarsenic (DMA), arsenate (iAs 5+ ), and monomethylarsenic (MMA) in bladder tissue. In contrast to the bladder, urinary secretion was primarily in the form of DMA and MMA. Arsenic-induced cell proliferation in the bladder epithelium was correlated with activation of the MAP kinase pathway, leading to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase activity, AP-1 activation, and expression of AP-1-associated genes involved in cell proliferation. Activation of the MAP kinase pathway involved both epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor-dependent and -independent events, the latter involving Src activation. Studies summarized in this review suggest that arsenic accumulates in urinary bladder epithelium causing activation of specific signaling pathways that lead to chronic increased cell proliferation. This may play a non-epigenetic role in carcinogenesis by increasing the proliferation of initiated cells or increasing the mutational rate

  1. Urinary bladder cancer: role of MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sadhna; Rajesh, Arumugam; Prasad, Srinivasa R; Gaitonde, Krishnanath; Lall, Chandana G; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Aeron, Gunjan; Bracken, Robert B; Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan

    2012-01-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a variety of pathologic features, cytogenetic characteristics, and natural histories. It is the fourth most common cancer in males and the tenth most common cancer in females. Urinary bladder cancer has a high recurrence rate, necessitating long-term surveillance after initial therapy. Early detection is important, since up to 47% of bladder cancer-related deaths may have been avoided. Conventional computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are only moderately accurate in the diagnosis and local staging of bladder cancer, with cystoscopy and pathologic staging remaining the standards of reference. However, the role of newer MR imaging sequences (eg, diffusion-weighted imaging) in the diagnosis and local staging of bladder cancer is still evolving. Substantial advances in MR imaging technology have made multiparametric MR imaging a feasible and reasonably accurate technique for the local staging of bladder cancer to optimize treatment. In addition, whole-body CT is the primary imaging technique for the detection of metastases in bladder cancer patients, especially those with disease that invades muscle. © RSNA, 2012.

  2. Thrombomodulin expression regulates tumorigenesis in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chun-Te; Chang, Ying-Hsu; Lin, Paul- Yang; Chen, Wen-Cheng; Chen, Miao-Fen

    2014-01-01

    The identification of potential tumor markers will help improve therapeutic planning and patient management. Thrombomodulin (TM) is a sensitive urothelial marker. TM was reported to be one of the endogenous anti-metastatic factors and has diagnostic and prognostic values for the progression of carcinoma. In the present study, we examine the role of TM in bladder cancer. We studied the role of TM in tumor behavior and related signaling pathways in vitro using the human bladder cancer cell lines HT1376, HT1197, J82 and T24, and in vivo using animal models. We also selected clinical specimens from 100 patients with bladder cancer for immunohistochemical staining to evaluate the predictive capacity of TM in tumor invasiveness. The data revealed that positive immunoreactivity for TM was inversely correlated with clinical stage and DNA methyltransferase 1 immunoreactivity. Decreased TM expression could predict the aggressive tumor growth and advanced clinical stage in bladder cancer. When TM was inhibited, tumor growth rate and invasion ability were augmented in vitro and in vivo. The underlying changes included increased cell proliferation, enhanced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis. Moreover, inhibition of NF-κB activation significantly increased TM expression and attenuated tumor aggressiveness in bladder cancer. TM plays an important role in bladder cancer tumor aggressiveness in vitro and in vivo and is a clinically significant predictor that may represent a suitable therapeutic target for bladder cancer

  3. The recovery of bladder epithelial hyperplasia caused by a melamine diet-induced bladder calculus in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying; Jiang, Yi-Na; Xu, Chang-Fu; Du, Yun-Xia; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Yan, Yang; Gao, Xiao-Li

    2014-02-01

    Applying a model of bladder epithelial hyperplasia (BEH) caused by melamine-induced bladder calculus (BC), the recovery of BEH after melamine withdrawal was investigated. One experiment, comprising untreated, melamine and recovery groups, was conducted in Balb/c mice. Each group included 4 subgroups. Mice were fed normal-diet in untreated or a melamine-diet in other groups. The melamine-diet was then substituted with normal-diet in recovery group. Both of BC and BEH were observed after 14 and 56 days of melamine-diet. The BC is relatively uniform at the same melamine-diet durations. The BEH was diffuse with many mitotic figures, 4-7 rows of nuclei, and well-defined umbrella/intermediate cells. No marked differences in BEH degree were observed in the two different melamine-diet durations. On 4-42 days after melamine withdrawal, BC was not found, as the progressive regression with complete regression of BEH was observed, along with well-defined ageing/apoptotic cells in the superficial regions of BEH regression tissue. Conclusion, the melamine-induced BEH is relatively uniform, may be self-limiting in rows of nuclei, and can return to normal. Melamine withdrawal duration is critical for the BEH regression. Tissue of the BEH and its regression is ideal for exploring the renewal as well as growth biology of mammalian urothelium. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Method of surgical renewal of continuity of pelvic ring in children with extrophy of bladder

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    O. V. Shchekin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Section of back and interbone sacroiliac ligaments from both sides, at extrophy of bladder, instead of osteotomу of iliac bones allows easily to liquidate large diastasis between pubic bones, to carry out them osteosintez, to normalize the location of hip joints and enables to carry out plastic of bladder. Thus there is no bleeding, as ligament have not blood vessels, and there is no cutting or damage of ligatures in the place of osteosinthesis of pubic bones. 3 children aged from 3 weeks to 1 year are operated according to this method. Complications were not present.

  5. Bladder changes after several coverage modalities in the surgically induced model of myelomeningocele in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, L; Encinas, J L; García-Cabezas, M Á; Peiró, J L; López-Santamaría, M; Jaureguízar, E

    2014-01-01

    To assess the presence of early bladder abnormalities in a prenatally corrected and uncorrected animal model of Myelomeningocele (MMC). A MMC-like lesion was surgically created in 18 fetal lambs between the 60th and the 80th day of gestation. Eight of them did not undergo fetal repair (group A), three were repaired with an open two-layer closure (group B), three using BioGlue® (groupC) and four fetoscopically (group D). At term, bladders were examined macroscopically and histopathological changes were assessed using H-E and Masson Trichrome. Five animals in group A (5/8, 62%), two in group B (2/3, 66%), one in group C (1/3, 33%) and one in group D (1/4, 25%) survived. Macroscopically bladders in group A were severely dilated and showed thinner walls. Microscopically they showed a thin layer of colagenous tissue (Blue layer. BL) lying immediately subjacent to the urothelium. The muscular layers were thinner. Non compliant pattern with thick wall and low capacity was also found in the non corrected model. Group B and the control showed preservation of muscular layers and absence of BL. Groups C and D presented BL but also preservation of muscular layers. Bladder changes in a surgically-induced model of MMC can be described using histopathological data. Both extremes of bladder changes can be observed in the model. These changes were completely prevented with open fetal surgery and partially with other coverage modalities. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. [Bladder-conserving treatment for bladder cancer: potential of and developments in radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Maarten C C M; Pieters, Bradley R; Koning, Caro C E

    2013-01-01

    The standard treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer is surgical removal of the bladder and construction of a neobladder. Recently, important improvements have been made in the potential for bladder-conserving treatment using radiotherapy. External beam radiotherapy has undergone technological improvements, as a result of which it is possible to radiate the tumour more precisely while decreasing radiation to healthy tissue. Radiochemotherapy improves local recurrence-free and overall survival compared with radiotherapy alone. The results of this combined treatment are comparable with those of surgery. Additionally, Dutch radiotherapy departments have collected data in a national database of 1040 selected patients with confined bladder cancer. These patients were treated with external beam radiation, limited surgery and brachytherapy. The 5-year local recurrence-free survival was 75%. Bladder conserving treatment options for muscle-invasive bladder cancer should be discussed during the multidisciplinary meeting.

  7. Primary congenital bladder diverticula: Where does the ureter drain?

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    Antonio Macedo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary congenital bladder diverticulum (PCBD is related to a deficient detrusor layer allowing out-pouching of the bladder mucosa through the inadequate muscularis wall. We aimed to review our experience with symptomatic PCBD in order to correlate clinical findings with anatomical aspects and to present late outcome. Materials and Methods: We reviewed all patients operated in our institution since 2004. We evaluated the charts for complaints, radiological exams, method of treatment, complications and length of follow-up. Results: We treated 10 cases (11 renal units - [RU], predominantly males (9/10, mean age at surgery of 5.3 years. All patients had significant urological complaints presenting either with antenatal hydronephrosis (4 or febrile urinary tract infection (5 and urinary retention in one. The ureter was found implanted inside the diverticulum in 8/11 RU. An extravesical psoas-hitch ureteroneocystostomy and diverticulum resection was performed in 10/11 cases, whereas 1 case was treated intravesically based on surgeon′s preference without performing cystoscopy. Mean follow-up was 34.1 months (1-120 without complications. Conclusions: PCBD is an uncommon diagnosis and has a high probability of drainage inside the diverticulum (72.7%. We recommend the extravesical approach associated with diverticulectomy and ureteroneocystostomy as the preferred technique to treat this abnormality.

  8. Functional, histological structure and mastocytes alterations in rat urinary bladders following acute and [corrected] chronic cyclophosphamide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszczak, K; Gil, K; Wyczolkowski, M; Thor, P J

    2010-08-01

    Neurogenic inflammation is linked to urinary bladder overactivity development. Cyclophosphamide (CYP) damages all mucosal defence lines of urinary bladder and induces cystitis with overactivity. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of CYP on rat urinary bladder function, histological structure and mastocytes numbers following acute and chronic CYP treatment. Fourty two female rats were divided into four groups: I (control), II (acute cystitis), III (chronic cystitis), IV (sham group). Acute and chronic cystitis were induced by CYP in single dose and four doses (1(st), 3(rd), 5(th), 7(th) day), respectively. In group I-III the cystometric evaluation was performed. Sections of the bladder were stained with HE and toluidine blue for the detection of mastocytes. The severity of inflammation was examined according to mucosal abrasion, haemorrhage, leukocyte infiltration and oedema. Acute and chronic CYP treatment caused inflammatory macroscopic and microscopic changes (mucosal abrasion, haemorrhage, oedema) and increased infiltration of inflammatory cells in urinary bladder. Acute treatment induced the infiltration of mastocytes within bladder wall contrary to chronic one decrement. Acute treatment caused more severe mucosal abrasion, whereas chronic one revealed more developed haemorrhage changes. Additionally, cystometric evaluation revealed urinary bladder overactivity development in both types of cystitis. Basal pressure and detrusor overactivity index after acute treatment increased considerably in comparison with the increase obtained after chronic one. Our results proved that acute model of CYP-induced cystitis in rats is more credible for further evaluation of neurogenic inflammation response in pathogenesis of overactive bladder as compared to chronic one.

  9. Bladder cancer: utility of MRI in detection of occult muscle-invasive disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B.; Mussi, Thais C.; Melamed, Jonathan; Taneja, Samir S.; Huang, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The presence of muscularis propria invasion by bladder cancer is a key factor in prognosis and treatment decisions, although may be missed by biopsy due to sampling error. MRI has shown potential for detection of muscle invasion but has not specifically been evaluated for this purpose in the setting of bladder cancer patients without evidence of muscle invasion on initial biopsy. Purpose. To evaluate the role of MRI in detection of muscularis propria invasion by bladder cancer following a pathologic diagnosis of non-invasive tumor. Material and Methods. This retrospective study included 23 patients who underwent pelvic MRI following a pathologic diagnosis of bladder cancer without muscularis propria invasion and in whom additional histologic evaluation was performed following MRI. Two radiologists in consensus reviewed T2-weighted images to identify those cases suspicious for muscle invasion on MRI. The radiologists identified whether cases suspicious for invasion demonstrated disruption of the T2-hypointense muscularis layer of the bladder wall, peri-vesical fat stranding, and peri-vesical soft tissue nodularity. Findings were compared with pathologic results obtained after MRI. Results. Suspicion was raised for muscle invasion in eight of 23 cases, four of which exhibited invasion on follow-up pathology. No case without suspicion on MRI exhibited invasion on follow-up pathology. Therefore, sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 79%, respectively. Among individual findings, muscularis disruption on T2WI exhibited sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 79%, peri-vesical fat stranding exhibited sensitivity and specificity of 50% and 84%, and peri-vesical soft tissue nodularity exhibited sensitivity and specificity of 25% and 100%. Conclusion. MRI demonstrated high sensitivity for detection of muscle invasion in cases of bladder cancer without invasion on initial histologic assessment. Muscularis disruption on T2WI appeared to exhibit a better

  10. Receptors involved in the modulation of guinea pig urinary bladder motility by prostaglandin D2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Na N; Svennersten, Karl; de Verdier, Petra J; Wiklund, N Peter; Gustafsson, Lars E

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose We have described a urothelium-dependent release of PGD2-like activity which had inhibitory effects on the motility of guinea pig urinary bladder. Here, we have pharmacologically characterized the receptors involved and localized the sites of PGD2 formation and of its receptors. Experimental Approach In the presence of selective DP and TP receptor antagonists alone or combined, PGD2 was applied to urothelium-denuded diclofenac-treated urinary bladder strips mounted in organ baths. Antibodies against PGD2 synthase and DP1 receptors were used with Western blots and for histochemistry. Key Results PGD2 inhibited nerve stimulation -induced contractions in strips of guinea pig urinary bladder with estimated pIC50 of 7.55 ± 0.15 (n = 13), an effect blocked by the DP1 receptor antagonist BW-A868C. After blockade of DP1 receptors, PGD2 enhanced the contractions, an effect abolished by the TP receptor antagonist SQ-29548. Histochemistry revealed strong immunoreactivity for PGD synthase in the urothelium/suburothelium with strongest reaction in the suburothelium. Immunoreactive DP1 receptors were found in the smooth muscle of the bladder wall with a dominant localization to smooth muscle membranes. Conclusions and Implications In guinea pig urinary bladder, the main effect of PGD2 is an inhibitory action via DP1 receptors localized to the smooth muscle, but an excitatory effect via TP receptors can also be evoked. The urothelium with its suburothelium might signal to the smooth muscle which is rich in PGD2 receptors of the DP1 type. The results are important for our understanding of regulation of bladder motility. PMID:25917171

  11. Bladder cancer: utility of MRI in detection of occult muscle-invasive disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B. [Dept. of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York (United States)], E-mail: Andrew.rosenkrantz@nyumc.org; Mussi, Thais C. [Dept. of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York (United States); Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Melamed, Jonathan [Dept. of Pathology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York (United States); Taneja, Samir S.; Huang, William C. [Dept. of Urology, Div. of Urologic Oncology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Background. The presence of muscularis propria invasion by bladder cancer is a key factor in prognosis and treatment decisions, although may be missed by biopsy due to sampling error. MRI has shown potential for detection of muscle invasion but has not specifically been evaluated for this purpose in the setting of bladder cancer patients without evidence of muscle invasion on initial biopsy. Purpose. To evaluate the role of MRI in detection of muscularis propria invasion by bladder cancer following a pathologic diagnosis of non-invasive tumor. Material and Methods. This retrospective study included 23 patients who underwent pelvic MRI following a pathologic diagnosis of bladder cancer without muscularis propria invasion and in whom additional histologic evaluation was performed following MRI. Two radiologists in consensus reviewed T2-weighted images to identify those cases suspicious for muscle invasion on MRI. The radiologists identified whether cases suspicious for invasion demonstrated disruption of the T2-hypointense muscularis layer of the bladder wall, peri-vesical fat stranding, and peri-vesical soft tissue nodularity. Findings were compared with pathologic results obtained after MRI. Results. Suspicion was raised for muscle invasion in eight of 23 cases, four of which exhibited invasion on follow-up pathology. No case without suspicion on MRI exhibited invasion on follow-up pathology. Therefore, sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 79%, respectively. Among individual findings, muscularis disruption on T2WI exhibited sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 79%, peri-vesical fat stranding exhibited sensitivity and specificity of 50% and 84%, and peri-vesical soft tissue nodularity exhibited sensitivity and specificity of 25% and 100%. Conclusion. MRI demonstrated high sensitivity for detection of muscle invasion in cases of bladder cancer without invasion on initial histologic assessment. Muscularis disruption on T2WI appeared to exhibit a better

  12. Primary signet cell adenocarcinoma of bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Kinra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary signet cell cancer of the urinary bladder is a relatively rare entity. Since there is no mucinous epithelium in the bladder, It is proposed that the tumor arises from metaplastic urothelium. Two thirds of the tumours are mucin secreting, in most of which the site of the deposition is either extracellular or intracellular displacing the nucleus to a peripheral crescent, giving the cells a signet ring appearance. The tumours are most often infiltrative and diffusely involving the majority of the bladder akin to its name sake in stomach. It is essential to distinguish this carcinoma from gastrointestinal metastases as different therapeutic strategies are often necessary.

  13. Urinary Bladder Leiomyosarcoma: Primary Surgical Treatment

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    Hakim Slaoui

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cases of bladder leiomyosarcoma represent 0.1% of all nonurothelial tumors. We present a case report of a 73-year-old man who underwent a radical cystoprostatectomy for a high-grade bladder leiomyosarcoma with an ileal diversion. The patient recovered uneventfully and no surgical margins were verified in final pathology. Early follow-up at 3 months shows no signs of computed tomography recurrence and adequate adaptation to ileal diversion. Although bladder sarcomas were once thought to have a grim prognosis, recent studies suggest that adequate surgical treatment is able to achieve optimal cancer control outcomes.

  14. Modelling Creep (Relaxation of the Urinary Bladder

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    Zdravkovic Nebojsa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We first present the results of an experiment in which the passive properties of the urinary bladder were investigated using strips of rabbit bladder. Under the assumption that the urinary bladder had orthopaedic characteristics, the strips were taken in the longitudinal and in the circumferential directions. The material was subjected to uniaxial tension, and stress-stretch curves were generated for various rates of deformation. We found that the rates did not have a significantly effect on the passive response of the material. Additionally, the stress-stretch dependence during relaxation of the material when exposed to isometric conditions was determined experimentally.

  15. Researchers studying alternative to bladder removal for bladder cancer patients | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new phase I clinical trial conducted by researchers at the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) is evaluating the safety and tolerability, or the degree to which any side effects can be tolerated by patients, of a two-drug combination as a potential alternative to bladder removal for bladder cancer patients. The trial targets patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) whose cancers have stopped responding to traditional therapies. Read more...

  16. Urinary bladder incarceration and infarction by an intra-abdominal fat pad in a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Voe, Ryan S; Spaulding, Kathy A; Rotstein, Jack; Rotstein, David S

    2004-01-01

    A 2.5-year-old, female opossum had acute stranguria. Based on radiography and ultrasonographic examination a cystic structure was identified in the caudal abdomen associated with bilateral hydroureter and hydronephrosis. This structure contained a neutrophilic fluid, determined to be urine. There was a neutrophilic leukocytosis. Serum chemistry values were within normal limits. The opossum was euthanized. An intra-abdominal fat pad incarceration of the urinary bladder above the trigone was present, resulting in complete obstruction of the urinary bladder and partial obstruction of the ureters. Vessels to the bladder were involved in the incarceration which resulted in vascular compromise and infarction of the bladder. Mild to moderate hydroureter and hydronephrosis were present.

  17. The pattern of autonomic tone disorder and its correction in children with overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Morozov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic nervous system dysregulation is one of the leading components in the pathogenesis of neurogenic bladder dysfunction. These disorders lead to diverse changes in the functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems with disordered release of mediators (norepinephrine, acetylcholine, hormones of the adrenal cortex and other endocrine glands, a number of biologically active substances (polypeptides, prostaglandins, as well as to the impaired sensitivity of vascular a- and p-adrenoceptors. Children with dysuria concurrently develop visceral, CNS, and circulatory system dysfunctions and metabolic disturbances. The paper describes the clinical trial of children with overactive bladder, which demonstrates the autonomic tone in these patients (и=44. The findings point to the important involvement of the autonomic nervous system in the pathogenesis of the disease and provide a rationale for the incorporation of vegetotropic drugs normalizing the autonomic nervous system into the combination therapy of overactive bladder.

  18. Long noncoding RNA in prostate, bladder, and kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens-Uzunova, Elena S; Böttcher, René; Croce, Carlo M; Jenster, Guido; Visakorpi, Tapio; Calin, George A

    2014-06-01

    Genomic regions without protein-coding potential give rise to millions of protein-noncoding RNA transcripts (noncoding RNA) that participate in virtually all cellular processes. Research over the last 10 yr has accumulated evidence that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are often altered in human urologic cancers. To review current progress in the biology and implication of lncRNAs associated with prostate, bladder, and kidney cancer. The PubMed database was searched for articles in the English language with combinations of the Medical Subject Headings terms long non coding RNA, long noncoding RNA, long untranslated RNA, cancer, neoplasms, prostate, bladder, and kidney. We summarise existing knowledge on the systematics, biology, and function of lncRNAs, particularly these involved in prostate, kidney, and bladder cancer. We also discuss the possible utilisation of lncRNAs as novel biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets in urologic malignancies and portray the major challenges and future perspectives of ongoing lncRNA research. LncRNAs are important regulators of gene expression interacting with the major pathways of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Alterations in the function of lncRNAs promote tumour formation, progression, and metastasis of prostate, bladder, and kidney cancer. LncRNAs can be used as noninvasive tumour markers in urologic malignancies. Increased knowledge of the molecular mechanisms by which lncRNAs perform their function in the normal and malignant cell will lead to a better understanding of tumour biology and could provide novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of urologic cancers. In this paper we reviewed current knowledge of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) for the detection and treatment of urologic cancers. We conclude that lncRNAs can be used as novel biomarkers in prostate, kidney, or bladder cancer. LncRNAs hold promise as future therapeutic targets, but more research is needed to gain a better

  19. Ahr2-dependence of PCB126 effects on the swim bladder in relation to expression of CYP1 and cox-2 genes in developing zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jönsson, Maria E.; Kubota, Akira; Timme-Laragy, Alicia R.; Woodin, Bruce; Stegeman, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The teleost swim bladder is assumed a homolog of the tetrapod lung. Both swim bladder and lung are developmental targets of persistent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists; in zebrafish (Danio rerio) the swim bladder fails to inflate with exposure to 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). The mechanism for this effect is unknown, but studies have suggested roles of cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) in some Ahr-mediated developmental effects in zebrafish. We determined relationships between swim bladder inflation and CYP1 and Cox-2 mRNA expression in PCB126-exposed zebrafish embryos. We also examined effects on β-catenin dependent transcription, histological effects, and Ahr2 dependence of the effect of PCB126 on swim bladder using morpholinos targeting ahr2. One-day-old embryos were exposed to waterborne PCB126 or carrier (DMSO) for 24 h and then held in clean water until day 4, a normal time for swim bladder inflation. The effects of PCB126 were concentration-dependent with EC 50 values of 1.4 to 2.0 nM for induction of the CYP1s, 3.7 and 5.1 nM (or higher) for cox-2a and cox-2b induction, and 2.5 nM for inhibition of swim bladder inflation. Histological defects included a compaction of the developing bladder. Ahr2-morpholino treatment rescued the effect of PCB126 (5 nM) on swim bladder inflation and blocked induction of CYP1A, cox-2a, and cox-2b. With 2 nM PCB126 approximately 30% of eleutheroembryos failed to inflate the swim bladder, but there was no difference in CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA expression between those embryos and embryos showing inflated swim bladder. Our results indicate that PCB126 blocks swim bladder inflation via an Ahr2-mediated mechanism. This mechanism seems independent of CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA induction but may involve abnormal development of swim bladder cells. -- Highlights: ► PCB126 caused cellular changes in the developing swim bladder. ► Swim bladder inflation was not related to expression of CYP1 or cox-2.

  20. Ahr2-dependence of PCB126 effects on the swim bladder in relation to expression of CYP1 and cox-2 genes in developing zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jönsson, Maria E., E-mail: maria.jonsson@ebc.uu.se [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Evolutionary Biology, Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18A, 752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Kubota, Akira, E-mail: akubota@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Timme-Laragy, Alicia R., E-mail: atimmelaragy@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Division of Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, 01003 (United States); Woodin, Bruce, E-mail: bwoodin@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Stegeman, John J., E-mail: jstegeman@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The teleost swim bladder is assumed a homolog of the tetrapod lung. Both swim bladder and lung are developmental targets of persistent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists; in zebrafish (Danio rerio) the swim bladder fails to inflate with exposure to 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). The mechanism for this effect is unknown, but studies have suggested roles of cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) in some Ahr-mediated developmental effects in zebrafish. We determined relationships between swim bladder inflation and CYP1 and Cox-2 mRNA expression in PCB126-exposed zebrafish embryos. We also examined effects on β-catenin dependent transcription, histological effects, and Ahr2 dependence of the effect of PCB126 on swim bladder using morpholinos targeting ahr2. One-day-old embryos were exposed to waterborne PCB126 or carrier (DMSO) for 24 h and then held in clean water until day 4, a normal time for swim bladder inflation. The effects of PCB126 were concentration-dependent with EC{sub 50} values of 1.4 to 2.0 nM for induction of the CYP1s, 3.7 and 5.1 nM (or higher) for cox-2a and cox-2b induction, and 2.5 nM for inhibition of swim bladder inflation. Histological defects included a compaction of the developing bladder. Ahr2-morpholino treatment rescued the effect of PCB126 (5 nM) on swim bladder inflation and blocked induction of CYP1A, cox-2a, and cox-2b. With 2 nM PCB126 approximately 30% of eleutheroembryos failed to inflate the swim bladder, but there was no difference in CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA expression between those embryos and embryos showing inflated swim bladder. Our results indicate that PCB126 blocks swim bladder inflation via an Ahr2-mediated mechanism. This mechanism seems independent of CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA induction but may involve abnormal development of swim bladder cells. -- Highlights: ► PCB126 caused cellular changes in the developing swim bladder. ► Swim bladder inflation was not related to expression of CYP1 or cox

  1. Bladder filling variation during conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sithamparam, S; Ahmad, R; Sabarudin, A; Othman, Z; Ismail, M

    2017-01-01

    Conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer is associated with small bowel toxicity mainly diarrhea. Treating patients with a full bladder is one of the practical solutions to reduce small bowel toxicity. Previous studies on prostate and cervix cancer patients revealed that maintaining consistent bladder volume throughout radiotherapy treatment is challenging. The aim of this study was to measure bladder volume variation throughout radiotherapy treatment. This study also measured the association between bladder volume changes and diarrhea. Twenty two rectal cancer patients were recruited prospectively. Patients were planned for treatment with full bladder following departmental bladder filling protocol and the planning bladder volume was measured during CT-simulation. During radiotherapy, the bladder volume was measured weekly using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and compared to planning bladder volume. Incidence and severity of diarrhea were recorded during the weekly patient review. There was a negative time trend for bladder volume throughout five weeks treatment. The mean bladder volume decreased 18 % from 123 mL (SD 54 mL) during CT-simulation to 101 mL (SD 71 mL) on the 5th week of radiotherapy, but the decrease is not statistically significant. However, there was a large variation of bladder volume within each patient during treatment. This study showed an association between changes of bladder volume and diarrhea (P = 0.045). In conclusion bladder volume reduced throughout radiotherapy treatment for conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer and there was a large variation of bladder volume within patients. (paper)

  2. Bladder filling variation during conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithamparam, S.; Ahmad, R.; Sabarudin, A.; Othman, Z.; Ismail, M.

    2017-05-01

    Conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer is associated with small bowel toxicity mainly diarrhea. Treating patients with a full bladder is one of the practical solutions to reduce small bowel toxicity. Previous studies on prostate and cervix cancer patients revealed that maintaining consistent bladder volume throughout radiotherapy treatment is challenging. The aim of this study was to measure bladder volume variation throughout radiotherapy treatment. This study also measured the association between bladder volume changes and diarrhea. Twenty two rectal cancer patients were recruited prospectively. Patients were planned for treatment with full bladder following departmental bladder filling protocol and the planning bladder volume was measured during CT-simulation. During radiotherapy, the bladder volume was measured weekly using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and compared to planning bladder volume. Incidence and severity of diarrhea were recorded during the weekly patient review. There was a negative time trend for bladder volume throughout five weeks treatment. The mean bladder volume decreased 18 % from 123 mL (SD 54 mL) during CT-simulation to 101 mL (SD 71 mL) on the 5th week of radiotherapy, but the decrease is not statistically significant. However, there was a large variation of bladder volume within each patient during treatment. This study showed an association between changes of bladder volume and diarrhea (P = 0.045). In conclusion bladder volume reduced throughout radiotherapy treatment for conformal radiotherapy for rectal cancer and there was a large variation of bladder volume within patients.

  3. Influence of bladder and rectal volume on spatial variability of a bladder tumor during radical radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pos, Floris J.; Koedooder, Kees; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Gonzalez Gonzalez, Dionisio

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the spatial variability of a bladder tumor relative to the planning target volume boundaries during radical radiotherapy, and furthermore to develop strategies to reduce spatial variability. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients with solitary T2-T4N0M0 bladder cancer were treated with a technique delivering 40 Gy/2 Gy in 20 fractions to the whole bladder with a concomitant boost to the bladder tumor of 20 Gy in 1 Gy fractions in an overall time of 4 weeks. CT scans were made weekly, immediately after treatment, and matched with the planning CT scan. Spatial variability of the tumor, as well as bladder volume and rectal diameter, were scored for each patient each week. Results: In 65% of patients, a part of the tumor appeared outside the planning target volume boundaries at least one time during the course of radiotherapy. No consistent relation of this variability with time was found. Bladder volumes and rectal diameters showed marked variability during the course of treatment. A large initial bladder volume and rectal diameter predicted a large volume variation and a large tumor spatial variability. Conclusion: In this study, a margin of 1.5 to 2 cm seemed to be inadequate in 65% of the patients with respect to spatial variability. Bladder volume and rectal diameter were found to be predictive for spatial variability of a bladder tumor during concomitant boost radiotherapy

  4. Influence of bladder and rectal volume on spatial variability of a bladder tumor during radical radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pos, Floris J; Koedooder, Kees; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Gonzalez Gonzalez, Dionisio

    2003-03-01

    Purpose: To assess the spatial variability of a bladder tumor relative to the planning target volume boundaries during radical radiotherapy, and furthermore to develop strategies to reduce spatial variability. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients with solitary T2-T4N0M0 bladder cancer were treated with a technique delivering 40 Gy/2 Gy in 20 fractions to the whole bladder with a concomitant boost to the bladder tumor of 20 Gy in 1 Gy fractions in an overall time of 4 weeks. CT scans were made weekly, immediately after treatment, and matched with the planning CT scan. Spatial variability of the tumor, as well as bladder volume and rectal diameter, were scored for each patient each week. Results: In 65% of patients, a part of the tumor appeared outside the planning target volume boundaries at least one time during the course of radiotherapy. No consistent relation of this variability with time was found. Bladder volumes and rectal diameters showed marked variability during the course of treatment. A large initial bladder volume and rectal diameter predicted a large volume variation and a large tumor spatial variability. Conclusion: In this study, a margin of 1.5 to 2 cm seemed to be inadequate in 65% of the patients with respect to spatial variability. Bladder volume and rectal diameter were found to be predictive for spatial variability of a bladder tumor during concomitant boost radiotherapy.

  5. Bladder filling variation during radiation treatment of prostate cancer: Can the use of a bladder ultrasound scanner and biofeedback optimize bladder filling?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stam, Marcel R.; Lin, Emile N.J. Th. van; Vight, Lisette P. van der; Kaanders, Johannes; Visser, Andries G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the use of a bladder ultrasound scanner in achieving a better reproducible bladder filling during irradiation of pelvic tumors, specifically prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: First, the accuracy of the bladder ultrasound scanner relative to computed tomography was validated in a group of 26 patients. Next, daily bladder volume variation was evaluated in a group of 18 patients. Another 16 patients participated in a biofeedback protocol, aiming at a more constant bladder volume. The last objective was to study correlations between prostate motion and bladder filling, by using electronic portal imaging device data on implanted gold markers. Results: A strong correlation between bladder scanner volume and computed tomography volume (r = 0.95) was found. Daily bladder volume variation was very high (1 Sd = 47.2%). Bladder filling and daily variation did not significantly differ between the control and the feedback group (47.2% and 40.1%, respectively). Furthermore, no linear correlations between bladder volume variation and prostate motion were found. Conclusions: This study shows large variations in daily bladder volume. The use of a biofeedback protocol yields little reduction in bladder volume variation. Even so, the bladder scanner is an easy to use and accurate tool to register these variations

  6. An adaptive radiotherapy planning strategy for bladder cancer using deformation vector fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestergaard, Anne; Kallehauge, Jesper Folsted; Petersen, Jørgen Breede Baltzer; Høyer, Morten; Søndergaard, Jimmi; Muren, Ludvig Paul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Adaptive radiotherapy (ART) has considerable potential in treatment of bladder cancer due to large inter-fractional changes in shape and size of the target. The aim of this study was to compare our clinically applied method for plan library creation that involves manual bladder delineations (Clin-ART) with a method using the deformation vector fields (DVFs) resulting from intensity-based deformable image registrations (DVF-based ART). Materials and methods: The study included thirteen patients with urinary bladder cancer who had daily cone beam CTs (CBCTs) acquired for set-up. In both ART strategies investigated, three plan selection volumes were generated using the CBCTs from the first four fractions; in Clin-ART boolean combinations of delineated bladders were used, while the DVF-based strategy applied combinations of the mean and standard deviation of patient-specific DVFs. The volume ratios (VRs) of the course-averaged PTV for the two ART strategies relative the non-adaptive PTV were calculated. Results: Both Clin-ART and DVF-based ART considerably reduced the course-averaged PTV, compared to non-adaptive RT. The VR for DVF-based ART was lower than for Clin-ART (0.65 vs. 0.73; p < 0.01). Conclusions: DVF-based ART for bladder irradiation has a considerable normal tissue sparing potential surpassing our already highly conformal clinically applied ART strategy

  7. An adaptive radiotherapy planning strategy for bladder cancer using deformation vector fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Anne; Kallehauge, Jesper Folsted; Petersen, Jørgen Breede Baltzer; Høyer, Morten; Søndergaard, Jimmi; Muren, Ludvig Paul

    2014-09-01

    Adaptive radiotherapy (ART) has considerable potential in treatment of bladder cancer due to large inter-fractional changes in shape and size of the target. The aim of this study was to compare our clinically applied method for plan library creation that involves manual bladder delineations (Clin-ART) with a method using the deformation vector fields (DVFs) resulting from intensity-based deformable image registrations (DVF-based ART). The study included thirteen patients with urinary bladder cancer who had daily cone beam CTs (CBCTs) acquired for set-up. In both ART strategies investigated, three plan selection volumes were generated using the CBCTs from the first four fractions; in Clin-ART boolean combinations of delineated bladders were used, while the DVF-based strategy applied combinations of the mean and standard deviation of patient-specific DVFs. The volume ratios (VRs) of the course-averaged PTV for the two ART strategies relative the non-adaptive PTV were calculated. Both Clin-ART and DVF-based ART considerably reduced the course-averaged PTV, compared to non-adaptive RT. The VR for DVF-based ART was lower than for Clin-ART (0.65 vs. 0.73; p<0.01). DVF-based ART for bladder irradiation has a considerable normal tissue sparing potential surpassing our already highly conformal clinically applied ART strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Urethral orifice hyaluronic acid injections: a novel animal model of bladder outlet obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongquan; Xiong, Zhiyong; Gong, Wei; Zhou, Zhansong; Lu, Gensheng

    2015-02-21

    We produced a novel model of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) by periurethral injection of hyaluronic acid and compared the cystometric features, postoperative complications, and histopathological changes of that model with that of traditional open surgery. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups. Fifteen rats were subcutaneously injected with 0.2 ml hyaluronic acid at 5, 7, and 12 o'clock around the urethral orifice. Another fifteen rats underwent traditional open partial proximal urethral obstruction surgery, and 10 normal rats used as controls. After 4 weeks, filling cystometry, postoperative complications, and histopathological features were evaluated in each group. Three rats were also observed for 12 weeks after hyaluronic acid injection to evaluate the long-term effect. Hyaluronic acid periurethral injection caused increased maximum cystometric capacity, maximum bladder pressure, micturition interval, and post-void residual urine volume compared with control (p injection group had significantly shorter operative time, less incidence of incision infection and bladder stone formation compared with the surgery group (p injection and surgery bladders; these were not observed in the control group. Bladder weight and thickness of smooth muscle in the injection and surgery groups were significantly greater than those in the control group (p injection or control groups. Rats periurethrally injected hyaluronic acid were stable the compound was not fully absorbed in any rat after 12 weeks. Hyaluronic acid periurethral injection generates a simple, effective, and persistent animal model of BOO with lower complications, compared with traditional surgery.

  9. Management of bladder dysfunction in Wolfram syndrome with Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy: long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozafarpour, Sarah; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Mojtahed, Ali; Mojtahed, Mohammad; Mahboubi, Hossein; Shalileh, Keivan

    2015-07-01

    To present the long-term outcomes of appendicovesicostomy using the Mitrofanoff principle for end-stage Wolfram bladder dysfunction as an alternative to clean intermittent self-catheterization (CIC) per urethra mainly following blindness. Twelve Wolfram patients presenting with bilateral hydroureteronephrosis and advanced bladder dysfunction were included in this study. All patients were managed initially by CIC per urethra. All of these patients became blind during follow-up and were unable to perform urethral CIC independently. Out of these patients, six patients agreed to proceed to appendicovesicostomy. Appendicovesicostomy urinary diversion using the Mitrofanoff principle was performed in these six blind patients. The rest of the patients stopped CIC or performed CIC irregularly. Severe hydroureteronephrosis and large bladders were found in all patients prior to intervention. All patients were able to conduct CIC independently through the stoma and maintained overnight bladder free drainage. In all patients with urinary diversion and CIC, the hydroureteronephrosis was reduced and renal function returned to normal. However, the non-intervention group ended with different degrees of progressive renal failure with three mortalities during the follow-up. We suggest appendicovesicostomy as a safe and lifesaving procedure for long-term management of bladder dysfunction in Wolfram syndrome particularly after progression to blindness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. NBI - plasma vaporization hybrid approach in bladder cancer endoscopic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stănescu, F; Geavlete, B; Georgescu, D; Jecu, M; Moldoveanu, C; Adou, L; Bulai, C; Ene, C; Geavlete, P

    2014-06-15

    A prospective study was performed aiming to evaluate the surgical efficacy, perioperative safety profile, diagnostic accuracy and medium term results of a multi-modal approach consisting in narrow band imaging (NBI) cystoscopy and bipolar plasma vaporization (BPV) when compared to the standard protocol represented by white light cystoscopy (WLC) and transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT). A total of 260 patients with apparently at least one bladder tumor over 3 cm were included in the trial. In the first group, 130 patients underwent conventional and NBI cystoscopy followed by BPV, while in a similar number of cases of the second arm, classical WLC and TURBT were applied. In all non-muscle invasive bladder tumors' (NMIBT) pathologically confirmed cases, standard monopolar Re-TUR was performed at 4-6 weeks after the initial intervention, followed by one year' BCG immunotherapy. The follow-up protocol included abdominal ultrasound, urinary cytology and WLC, performed every 3 months for a period of 2 years. The obturator nerve stimulation, bladder wall perforation, mean hemoglobin level drop, postoperative bleeding, catheterization period and hospital stay were significantly reduced for the plasma vaporization technique by comparison to conventional resection. Concerning tumoral detection, the present data confirmed the NBI superiority when compared to standard WLC regardless of tumor stage (95.3% vs. 65.1% for CIS, 93.3% vs. 82.2% for pTa, 97.4% vs. 94% for pT1, 95% vs. 84.2% overall). During standard Re-TUR the overall (6.3% versus 17.4%) and primary site (3.6% versus 12.8%) residual tumors' rates were significantly lower for the NBI-BPV group. The 1 (7.2% versus 18.3%) and 2 (11.5% versus 25.8%) years' recurrence rates were substantially lower for the combined approach. NBI cystoscopy significantly improved diagnostic accuracy, while bipolar technology showed a higher surgical efficiency, lower morbidity and faster postoperative recovery. The combined

  11. Treatment Options by Stage (Bladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... above the waist. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood . They take out waste ... to bladder cancer. Being exposed to paints, dyes, metals, or petroleum products in the workplace. Past treatment ...

  12. Epidemiology of bladder cancer. A second look

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wynder, E.L.; Goldsmith, R.

    1977-09-01

    A case-control study among 574 male and 158 female bladder cancer patients and equal numbers of matched controls was conducted between 1969 and 1974 in 17 hospitals in six United States cities. We determined that cigarette smokers of both sexes were at higher relative risk than nonsmokers. Cigarette smoking was responsible for about one-half of male and one-third of female bladder cancer. There was an excess of bladder cancer patients with some previous occupational exposure, such as rubber, chemicals, and textiles. A weak association with coffee drinking, which appeared to be independent of smoking, was found for males. Users of artificial sweetners were not over-represented among the cases. The authors conclude that the epidemiologic pattern of bladder cancer cannot be fully accounted for by cigarette smoking and occupational exposure and suggest a series of metabolic studies to assess the role of additional factors, such as nutrition.

  13. 16. PRE-OPERATIVE BLADDER IRRIGATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    effectiveness of using preoperative bladder irrigation with 1% povidone iodine in reducing ... consenting patient who presented to the department of surgery for open ..... infections in a tertiary care center in south-western. Nigeria. International ...

  14. Conformal radiotherapy of urinary bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muren, Ludvig Paul; Smaaland, Rune; Dahl, Olav

    2004-01-01

    Recent advances in radiotherapy (RT) are founded on the enhanced tumour visualisation capabilities of new imaging modalities and the precise deposition of individualised radiation dose distributions made possible with the new systems for RT planning and delivery. These techniques have a large potential to also improve the results of RT of urinary bladder cancer. Major challenges to take full advantage of these advances in the management of bladder cancer are to control, and, as far as possible, reduce bladder motion, and to reliably account for the related intestine and rectum motion. If these obstacles are overcome, it should be possible in the near future to offer selected patients with muscle invading bladder cancer an organ-sparing, yet effective combined-modality treatment as an alternative to radical surgery

  15. Screening for Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is the focus of this summary. Enlarge Anatomy of the male urinary system (left panel) and female urinary system (right panel) showing the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Urine is made in ...

  16. Clinical observation of radiation urinary bladder disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yuke; Liu Libo; Zhang Haiying; Liang Shuo; Chen Dawei; Wu Zhenfeng; Dong Lihua; Lu Xuejun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Clinical characteristic, diagnosis and treatment of radiation urinary bladder disease induced by radiation therapy for cancers in the pelvis were inquired into for providing diagnostic basis. Methods: Statistical analysis for the clinical cases was carried out. Results: The incidence of radiation bladder diseases induced by radiation therapy of cervix cancer are about 0.8%-2.96%, with an average of 2.14%. Radiation bladder disease is divided into acute radiation cystitis, chronic radiation cystitis and radiation vesical fistula. Chronic radiation cystitis is seen most often in the clinic and its main clinical symptom is painless macroscopic hematuria, which is again subdivided into slight and severe degrees. Diagnosis should include history of exposure to radiation, which dose exceed the dose threshold, and typical clinical characteristics. Conclusion: The characteristics, types and diagnostic basis of radiation urinary bladder disease analyzed in this study can provide the reference for drawing up diagnostic standard

  17. Integrated irradiation and cystectomy for bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmore, W.F. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Planned pre-operative irradiation and cystectomy for selected patients with bladder cancer was initiated approximately 20 years ago by a number of centres on the basis of the disappointing end results of treatment of bladder cancer by either irradiation or surgery and the empirical hope that the combination might lead to better results. This is a brief review of the logical basis for integrated treatment and of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) experience with such therapy. (author)

  18. Androgen Receptor Signaling in Bladder Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Peng; Chen, Jinbo; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Emerging preclinical findings have indicated that steroid hormone receptor signaling plays an important role in bladder cancer outgrowth. In particular, androgen-mediated androgen receptor signals have been shown to correlate with the promotion of tumor development and progression, which may clearly explain some sex-specific differences in bladder cancer. This review summarizes and discusses the available data, suggesting the involvement of androgens and/or the androgen receptor pathways in u...

  19. Role of fibronectin in intravesical BCG therapy for superficial bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, T L; Kavoussi, L R; Catalona, W J

    1988-02-01

    Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has been demonstrated to be effective both for prophylaxis and treatment of superficial bladder cancer. In order to identify the progression of events that result in BCG-mediated antitumor activity, studies were performed to evaluate the mechanism of binding of BCG within the bladder. Histological and quantitative studies in a mouse model revealed that BCG attached to the bladder wall only in areas of urothelial damage. Preliminary in vitro data showed that BCG attached to surfaces coated with extracellular matrix proteins. Further studies were then performed using purified extracellular matrix proteins to identify the proteins responsible for attachment. BCG were observed to attach to surfaces coated only with purified fibronectin (FN) but not to other purified proteins including laminin, collagen or fibrinogen. The attachment of BCG to purified FN in vitro was dose dependent and was inhibited by anti-FN antibodies. Moreover, BCG attachment in vivo to bladders with damaged urothelial surfaces was inhibited more than 95% by anti-FN antibodies, but binding was not affected by anti-laminin antibodies or preimmune serum. A survey of commercially available BCG vaccines (Pasteur, Tice, Glaxo, Connaught) showed that only Glaxo BCG did not attach to FN-coated surfaces. Glaxo BCG also was shown to express inferior antitumor activity suggesting that the absence of FN binding by Glaxo may have been associated with the absence of antitumor activity of the vaccine.

  20. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for

  1. Complications of bladder distension during retrograde urethrography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsanti, J A; Crowell, W; Losonsky, J; Talkington, F D

    1981-05-01

    A severe, ulcerative cystitis that resulted in macroscopic hematuria occurred in 8 of 20 healthy dogs undergoing a series of diagnostic tests. Four of the remaining 12 dogs had mild bladder lesions consisting of submucosal edema and hemorrhage. Nine of the 20 dogs developed urinary tract infection after the procedures. These complications seemed associated with the radiographic technique of retrograde urethrography performed when the urinary bladder was distended. To test this hypothesis, retrograde urethrography was performed on 5 additional dogs. With the bladder undistended, no complications occurred. However, distention of these same dogs' bladders for 1 minute or less with sterile lactated Ringer's solution administered through a Foley catheter in the penile urethra resulted in a macroscopic hematuria in all 5 dogs which persisted for 24 hours. A microscopic hematuria continued for 5 days. One dog developed a bacterial urinary tract infection. A severe fibrinopurulent cystitis was present at necropsy of 2 dogs 2 days after distention. The morphologic changes in the bladder gradually diminished over 7 days, but mild submucosal edema and hemorrhage were still present when 2 dogs were necropsied, 7 days after distention. These studies indicated that retrograde urethrography in dogs may be complicated by hemorrhagic cystitis and urinary tract infection if performed with urinary bladder distention.

  2. Laparoscopic hernia repair and bladder injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalessandri, K M; Bhoyrul, S; Mulvihill, S J

    2001-01-01

    Bladder injury is a complication of laparoscopic surgery with a reported incidence in the general surgery literature of 0.5% and in the gynecology literature of 2%. We describe how to recognize and treat the injury and how to avoid the problem. We report two cases of bladder injury repaired with a General Surgical Interventions (GSI) trocar and a balloon device used for laparoscopic extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repair. One patient had a prior appendectomy; the other had a prior midline incision from a suprapubic prostatectomy. We repaired the bladder injury, and the patients made a good recovery. When using the obturator and balloon device, it is important to stay anterior to the preperitoneal space and bladder. Prior lower abdominal surgery can be considered a relative contraindication to extraperitoneal laparoscopic hernia repair. Signs of gas in the Foley bag or hematuria should alert the surgeon to a bladder injury. A one- or two-layer repair of the bladder injury can be performed either laparoscopically or openly and is recommended for a visible injury. Mesh repair of the hernia can be completed provided no evidence exists of urinary tract infection. A Foley catheter is placed until healing occurs.

  3. Virtual computed tomography cystoscopy in bladder pathologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, Halil; Ceylan, Kadir; Harman, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Yuksel; Temizoz, Osman; Can, Saban

    2006-01-01

    Objective: assessed the usefulness of virtual cystoscopy performed with multidetector computed tomography (CT) in patients with different urinary bladder pathologies compared to the conventional cystoscopy.Materials and methods: eighteen patients with different bladder pathologies, which consisted of 11 tumors, 3 diverticula, 2 trabecular changes and 2 stones, were assessed with conventional cystoscopy and virtual CT cystoscopy. The results of virtual CT cystoscopy were compared with the findings of conventional cystoscopy. We determined the detection rate and positive predictive value of CT imaging based virtual cystoscopy in the diagnosis of urinary bladder lesions. Results: CT scanning was well tolerated by all patients, and no complications occurred. Images in 16 (88%) of the 18 virtual cystoscopic examinations were either of excellent or good quality. All tumors except one, 2 trabecular changes and 2 stones were characterized with similar findings in the both of methods. The m