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Sample records for normal appearing white

  1. White matter hyperintensities and normal-appearing white matter integrity in the aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; Clayden, Jonathan D; Royle, Natalie A; Murray, Catherine; Morris, Zoe; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Gow, Alan J; Starr, John M; Bastin, Mark E; Deary, Ian J; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2015-02-01

    White matter hyperintensities (WMH) of presumed vascular origin are a common finding in brain magnetic resonance imaging of older individuals and contribute to cognitive and functional decline. It is unknown how WMH form, although white matter degeneration is characterized pathologically by demyelination, axonal loss, and rarefaction, often attributed to ischemia. Changes within normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) in subjects with WMH have also been reported but have not yet been fully characterized. Here, we describe the in vivo imaging signatures of both NAWM and WMH in a large group of community-dwelling older people of similar age using biomarkers derived from magnetic resonance imaging that collectively reflect white matter integrity, myelination, and brain water content. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) were significantly lower, whereas mean diffusivity (MD) and longitudinal relaxation time (T1) were significantly higher, in WMH than NAWM (p curve, 0.982; 95% CI, 0.975-0.989). Furthermore, the level of deterioration of NAWM was strongly associated with the severity of WMH, with MD and T1 increasing and FA and MTR decreasing in NAWM with increasing WMH score, a relationship that was sustained regardless of distance from the WMH. These multimodal imaging data indicate that WMH have reduced structural integrity compared with surrounding NAWM, and MD provides the best discriminator between the 2 tissue classes even within the mild range of WMH severity, whereas FA, MTR, and T1 only start reflecting significant changes in tissue microstructure as WMH become more severe. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy features of normal-appearing white matter in patients with acute brucellosis

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    Kayabas, Uner [Department of Infectious Disease and Clinical Microbiology, Inonu University, Medical Faculty, TR-44280 Malatya (Turkey)], E-mail: ukayabas@inonu.edu.tr; Alkan, Alpay; Firat, Ahmet Kemal; Karakas, Hakki Muammer [Department of Radiology, Inonu University, Medical Faculty, TR-44280 Malatya (Turkey); Bayindir, Yasar; Yetkin, Funda [Department of Infectious Disease and Clinical Microbiology, Inonu University, Medical Faculty, TR-44280 Malatya (Turkey)

    2008-03-15

    We aimed to evaluate whether the subtle metabolic cerebral changes are present in normal-appearing white matter on conventional MRI, in patients with acute brucellosis, by using MR spectroscopy (MRS). Sixteen patients with acute brucellosis and 13 healthy control subjects were investigated with conventional MRI and single-voxel MRS. Voxels were placed in normal-appearing parietal white matter (NAPWM). N-Acetyl aspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) and choline (Cho)/Cr ratios were calculated. There was no significant difference between the study subjects and the control group in NAA/Cr ratios obtained from NAPWM. However, the Cho/Cr ratios were significantly higher in patients with acute brucellosis compared to controls (p = 0.01). MRS revealed metabolic changes in normal-appearing white matter of patients with brucellosis. Brucellosis may cause subtle cerebral alterations, which may only be discernible with MRS. Increased Cho/Cr ratio possibly represents an initial phase of inflammation and/or demyelination process of brucellosis.

  3. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy features of normal-appearing white matter in patients with acute brucellosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayabas, Uner; Alkan, Alpay; Firat, Ahmet Kemal; Karakas, Hakki Muammer; Bayindir, Yasar; Yetkin, Funda

    2008-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate whether the subtle metabolic cerebral changes are present in normal-appearing white matter on conventional MRI, in patients with acute brucellosis, by using MR spectroscopy (MRS). Sixteen patients with acute brucellosis and 13 healthy control subjects were investigated with conventional MRI and single-voxel MRS. Voxels were placed in normal-appearing parietal white matter (NAPWM). N-Acetyl aspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) and choline (Cho)/Cr ratios were calculated. There was no significant difference between the study subjects and the control group in NAA/Cr ratios obtained from NAPWM. However, the Cho/Cr ratios were significantly higher in patients with acute brucellosis compared to controls (p = 0.01). MRS revealed metabolic changes in normal-appearing white matter of patients with brucellosis. Brucellosis may cause subtle cerebral alterations, which may only be discernible with MRS. Increased Cho/Cr ratio possibly represents an initial phase of inflammation and/or demyelination process of brucellosis

  4. Abnormal blood-brain barrier permeability in normal appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis investigated by MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Stig Præstekær; Simonsen, Helle Juhl; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup Battistini

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability is disrupted in normal appearing white matter in MS patients, when compared to healthy controls and whether it is correlated with MS clinical characteristics.......To investigate whether blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability is disrupted in normal appearing white matter in MS patients, when compared to healthy controls and whether it is correlated with MS clinical characteristics....

  5. Glioblastoma (GBM) effects on quantitative MRI of contralateral normal appearing white matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabian, Hatef; Lam, Wilfred W; Myrehaug, Sten; Sahgal, Arjun; Stanisz, Greg J

    2018-03-28

    The objective was to investigate (with quantitative MRI) whether the normal appearing white matter (NAWM) of glioblastoma (GBM) patients on the contralateral side (cNAWM) was different from NAWM of healthy controls. Thirteen patients with newly diagnosed GBM and nine healthy age-matched controls were MRI-scanned with quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT), chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST), and transverse relaxation time (T 2 )-mapping. MRI scans were performed after surgery and before chemo-radiation treatment. Comprehensive qMT, CEST, T 2 data were acquired. A two-pool MT model was fit to qMT data in transient state, to calculate MT model parameters [Formula: see text]. CEST signal was isolated by removing the contributions from the MT and direct water saturation, and CEST signal was calculated for Amide (CEST Amide ), Amine (CEST Amine ) and nuclear overhauser effect, NOE (CEST NOE ). There was no difference between GBM patients and normal controls in the qMT properties of the macromolecular pool [Formula: see text]. However, their free water pool spectrum was different (1/R a T 2a , patient  = 28.1 ± 3.9, 1/R a T 2a , control  = 25.0 ± 1.1, p = 0.03). This difference could be attributed to the difference in their T 2 time ([Formula: see text] = 83 ± 4, [Formula: see text] = 88 ± 1, p = 0.004). CEST signals were statistically significantly different with the CEST Amide having the largest difference between the two cohorts (CEST Amide,patient  = 2.8 ± 0.4, CEST Amide,control  = 3.4 ± 0.5, p = 0.009). CEST in cNAWM of GBM patients was lower than healthy controls which could be caused by modified brain metabolism due to tumor cell infiltration. There was no difference in MT properties of the patients and controls, however, the differences in free water pool properties were mainly due to reduced T 2 in cNAWM of the patients (resulting from structural changes and increased cellularity).

  6. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of normal appearing white matter in early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: correlations between disability and spectroscopy

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    Foronda Jesus

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background What currently appears to be irreversible axonal loss in normal appearing white matter, measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy is of great interest in the study of Multiple Sclerosis. Our aim is to determine the axonal damage in normal appearing white matter measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and to correlate this with the functional disability measured by Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite scale, Neurological Rating Scale, Ambulation Index scale, and Expanded Disability Scale Score. Methods Thirty one patients (9 male and 22 female with relapsing remitting Multiple Sclerosis and a Kurtzke Expanded Disability Scale Score of 0–5.5 were recruited from four hospitals in Andalusia, Spain and included in the study. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy scans and neurological disability assessments were performed the same day. Results A statistically significant correlation was found (r = -0.38 p Conclusions There is correlation between disability (measured by Expanded Disability Scale Score and the NAA/Cr ratio in normal appearing white matter. The lack of correlation between the NAA/Cr ratio and the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite score indicates that the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite is not able to measure irreversible disability and would be more useful as a marker in stages where axonal damage is not a predominant factor.

  7. Radiation-Induced Changes in Normal-Appearing White Matter in Patients With Cerebral Tumors: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagesh, Vijaya; Tsien, Christina I.; Chenevert, Thomas L.; Ross, Brian D.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Junick, Larry; Cao Yue

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the radiation-induced changes in normal-appearing white matter before, during, and after radiotherapy (RT) in cerebral tumor patients. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five patients with low-grade glioma, high-grade glioma, or benign tumor treated with RT were studied using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. The biologically corrected doses ranged from 50 to 81 Gy. The temporal changes were assessed before, during, and to 45 weeks after the start of RT. The mean diffusivity of water ( ), fractional anisotropy of diffusion, diffusivity perpendicular (λ perpendicular ) and parallel (λ parallel ) to white matter fibers were calculated in normal-appearing genu and splenium of the corpus callosum. Results: In the genu and splenium, fractional anisotropy decreased and , λ parallel , λ -perpendicular increased linearly and significantly with time (p -perpendicular had increased ∼30% in the genu and splenium, and λ parallel had increased 5% in the genu and 9% in the splenium, suggesting that demyelination is predominant. The increases in λ perpendicular and λ parallel were dose dependent, starting at 3 weeks and continuing to 32 weeks from the start of RT. The dose-dependent increase in λ perpendicular and λ parallel was not sustained after 32 weeks, indicating the transition from focal to diffuse effects. Conclusion: The acute and subacute changes in normal-appearing white matter fibers indicate radiation-induced demyelination and mild structural degradation of axonal fibers. The structural changes after RT are progressive, with early dose-dependent demyelination and subsequent diffuse dose-independent demyelination and mild axonal degradation. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging is potentially a biomarker for the assessment of radiation-induced white matter injury

  8. The Assessment of Structural Changes in MS Plaques and Normal Appearing White Matter Using Quantitative Magnetization Transfer Imaging (MTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Fooladi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS, affecting mostly young people at a mean age of 30 years. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is one of the most specific and sensitive methods in diagnosing and detecting the evolution of multiple sclerosis disease. But it does not have the ability to differentiate between distinct histopathological heterogeneities that occur in MS lesions and brain tissue.Quantitative magnetization transfer imaging (qMTI is a relatively new MRI technique which can be used to examine the pathological processes of the brain parenchyma which occur in MS patients.This quantitative MRI technique can provide more complete information about the extent and nature of the brain tissue destruction in multiple sclerosis, which cannot be detected by conventional MRI. Material and Methods: In this study, twelve patients with relapsing-remitting MS and twelve healthy control subjects underwent conventional MR imaging including: T2-FSE, T1-SE and FLAIR sequences as well as quantitative magnetization transfer imaging. All the focal lesions were identified on T2-weighted images and were classified according to their signal hypointensity on T1-weighted scans. The white matter and MS lesions were segmented using a semi-automated system. MT ratio (MTR histogram analysis was performed for the brain white matter and the average MTR value was calculated for the classified MS lesions. Results: A significant reduction was found in MTR value of the normal appearing white matter (NAWM in patients with relapsing-remitting MS, suggesting that MS is a more diffuse disease, affecting the whole brain tissue. A wide range changes in MTR values can be observed in MS lesions. MTR reduction is correlated with the degree of lesion hypointensity on T1-weighted scans. The lower MTR values of lesions that appear progressively more hypointense on T1-weigted images reflect varying degrees of demyelination and

  9. Association between change in normal appearing white matter metabolites and intrathecal inflammation in natalizumab-treated multiple sclerosis.

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    Johan Mellergård

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS is associated not only with focal inflammatory lesions but also diffuse pathology in the central nervous system (CNS. Since there is no firm association between the amount of focal inflammatory lesions and disease severity, diffuse pathology in normal appearing white matter (NAWM may be crucial for disease progression. Immunomodulating treatments for MS reduce the number of focal lesions, but possible effects on diffuse white matter pathology are less studied. Furthermore, it is not known whether intrathecal levels of inflammatory or neurodegenerative markers are associated with development of pathology in NAWM. METHODS: Quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1H-MRS was used to investigate NAWM in 27 patients with relapsing MS before and after one year of treatment with natalizumab as well as NAWM in 20 healthy controls at baseline. Changes in (1H-MRS metabolite concentrations during treatment were also correlated with a panel of intrathecal markers of inflammation and neurodegeneration in 24 of these 27 patients. RESULTS: The group levels of (1H-MRS metabolite concentrations were unchanged pre- to posttreatment, but a pattern of high magnitude correlation coefficients (r = 0.43-0.67, p<0.0005-0.03 were found between changes in individual metabolite concentrations (total creatine and total choline and levels of pro-inflammatory markers (IL-1β and CXCL8. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a clinical improvement and a global decrease in levels of inflammatory markers in cerebrospinal fluid during treatment, high levels of pro-inflammatory CXCL8 and IL-1β were associated with an increase in (1H-MRS metabolites indicative of continued gliosis development and membrane turnover in NAWM.

  10. Optical appearance of white holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, K.; Roeder, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    The detailed optical properties of white holes are examined within the framework of geometrical optics. It is shown that the appearance of the objects most likely to be observed at late times is in fact determined by their early histories. These ccalculations indicate that one cannot invoke the simple concept of a stable white hole as a ''natural'' explanation of highly energetic astrophysical phenomena

  11. Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Normal-Appearing White Matter as Biomarker for Radiation-Induced Late Delayed Cognitive Decline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, Christopher H.; Nagesh, Vijaya; Sundgren, Pia C.; Buchtel, Henry; Chenevert, Thomas L.; Junck, Larry; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Tsien, Christina I.; Cao, Yue

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether early assessment of cerebral white matter degradation can predict late delayed cognitive decline after radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Ten patients undergoing conformal fractionated brain RT participated in a prospective diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging study. Magnetic resonance imaging studies were acquired before RT, at 3 and 6 weeks during RT, and 10, 30, and 78 weeks after starting RT. The diffusivity variables in the parahippocampal cingulum bundle and temporal lobe white matter were computed. A quality-of-life survey and neurocognitive function tests were administered before and after RT at the magnetic resonance imaging follow-up visits. Results: In both structures, longitudinal diffusivity (λ ‖ ) decreased and perpendicular diffusivity (λ ⊥ ) increased after RT, with early changes correlating to later changes (p ⊥ at 3 weeks, and patients with >50% of cingula volume receiving >12 Gy had a greater increase in λ ⊥ at 3 and 6 weeks (p ‖ (30 weeks, p ‖ changes predicted for post-RT changes in verbal recall scores (3 and 6 weeks, p < .05). The neurocognitive test scores correlated significantly with the quality-of-life survey results. Conclusions: The correlation between early diffusivity changes in the parahippocampal cingulum and the late decline in verbal recall suggests that diffusion tensor imaging might be useful as a biomarker for predicting late delayed cognitive decline.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging of normal-appearing white matter in children and young adults with tuberous sclerosis complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arulrajah, Sahayini; Ertan, Gulhan; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.; Jordan, Lori; Khaykin, Elizabeth; Izbudak, Izlem

    2009-01-01

    Patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) frequently present with neurocognitive deficits which may be related to impaired white matter maturation. The purposes of our study were (a) to evaluate the white matter maturation in children and young adults with TSC by comparing the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) with age-matched healthy controls and (b) to determine the association of NAWM-ADC values with the severity of neurological symptoms in TSC patients. Twenty-three TSC patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging/diffusion-weighted imaging between January 2000 and January 2009 were studied. ADC values of NAWM were measured in the frontal, parietal, occipital lobes, and in the pons. ADC data were compared with age-matched normative data derived from healthy controls. Patients were neurologically scored by a pediatric neurologist. Two-sample t tests and linear regression were conducted using STATA software. ADC values of NAWM were higher in TSC patients compared with healthy controls; the increase, however, only reached statistical significance in the frontal white matter and pons in the age group between 96 and 144 months and in the right parietal and occipital white matter in the age group above 144 months. There was no significant change in neurological severity score per unit increase in ADC measurement. ADC values of NAWM appear increased in TSC patients. The abnormal ADC values suggest that myelination may be delayed/impaired in TSC patients, which could explain global neurocognitive deficits. Larger prospective studies, including diffusion tensor imaging, are necessary to validate our results. (orig.)

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging of normal-appearing white matter in children and young adults with tuberous sclerosis complex

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    Arulrajah, Sahayini; Ertan, Gulhan; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Jordan, Lori [Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Division of Pediatric Neurology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Khaykin, Elizabeth [Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Department of Mental Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Izbudak, Izlem [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) frequently present with neurocognitive deficits which may be related to impaired white matter maturation. The purposes of our study were (a) to evaluate the white matter maturation in children and young adults with TSC by comparing the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) with age-matched healthy controls and (b) to determine the association of NAWM-ADC values with the severity of neurological symptoms in TSC patients. Twenty-three TSC patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging/diffusion-weighted imaging between January 2000 and January 2009 were studied. ADC values of NAWM were measured in the frontal, parietal, occipital lobes, and in the pons. ADC data were compared with age-matched normative data derived from healthy controls. Patients were neurologically scored by a pediatric neurologist. Two-sample t tests and linear regression were conducted using STATA software. ADC values of NAWM were higher in TSC patients compared with healthy controls; the increase, however, only reached statistical significance in the frontal white matter and pons in the age group between 96 and 144 months and in the right parietal and occipital white matter in the age group above 144 months. There was no significant change in neurological severity score per unit increase in ADC measurement. ADC values of NAWM appear increased in TSC patients. The abnormal ADC values suggest that myelination may be delayed/impaired in TSC patients, which could explain global neurocognitive deficits. Larger prospective studies, including diffusion tensor imaging, are necessary to validate our results. (orig.)

  14. Normal pediatric postmortem CT appearances

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    Klein, Willemijn M.; Bosboom, Dennis G.H.; Koopmanschap, Desiree H.J.L.M. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Nievelstein, Rutger A.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Nikkels, Peter G.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pathology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Rijn, Rick R. van [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-04-01

    Postmortem radiology is a rapidly developing specialty that is increasingly used as an adjunct to or substitute for conventional autopsy. The goal is to find patterns of disease and possibly the cause of death. Postmortem CT images bring to light processes of decomposition most radiologists are unfamiliar with. These postmortem changes, such as the formation of gas and edema, should not be mistaken for pathological processes that occur in living persons. In this review we discuss the normal postmortem thoraco-abdominal changes and how these appear on CT images, as well as how to differentiate these findings from those of pathological processes. (orig.)

  15. Analysis of normal-appearing white matter of multiple sclerosis by tensor-based two-compartment model of water diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Yasuhiko; Obata, Takayuki; Yoshida, Mariko; Hori, Masaaki; Kamagata, Koji; Suzuki, Michimasa; Fukunaga, Issei; Kamiya, Kouhei; Aoki, Shigeki; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Hattori, Nobutaka; Inoue, Tomio

    2015-01-01

    To compare the significance of the two-compartment model, considering diffusional anisotropy with conventional diffusion analyzing methods regarding the detection of occult changes in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) of multiple sclerosis (MS). Diffusion-weighted images (nine b-values with six directions) were acquired from 12 healthy female volunteers (22-52 years old, median 33 years) and 13 female MS patients (24-48 years old, median 37 years). Diffusion parameters based on the two-compartment model of water diffusion considering diffusional anisotropy was calculated by a proposed method. Other parameters including diffusion tensor imaging and conventional apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were also obtained. They were compared statistically between the control and MS groups. Diffusion of the slow diffusion compartment in the radial direction of neuron fibers was elevated in MS patients (0.121 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s) in comparison to control (0.100 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s), the difference being significant (P = 0.001). The difference between the groups was not significant in other comparisons, including conventional ADC and fractional anisotropy (FA) of diffusion tensor imaging. The proposed method was applicable to clinically acceptable small data. The parameters obtained by this method improved the detectability of occult changes in NAWM compared to the conventional methods. (orig.)

  16. Analysis of normal-appearing white matter of multiple sclerosis by tensor-based two-compartment model of water diffusion

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    Tachibana, Yasuhiko [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, Chiba (Japan); Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); Juntendo University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Obata, Takayuki [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, Chiba (Japan); Yoshida, Mariko; Hori, Masaaki; Kamagata, Koji; Suzuki, Michimasa; Fukunaga, Issei; Kamiya, Kouhei; Aoki, Shigeki [Juntendo University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Hattori, Nobutaka [Juntendo University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Tokyo (Japan); Inoue, Tomio [Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan)

    2015-06-01

    To compare the significance of the two-compartment model, considering diffusional anisotropy with conventional diffusion analyzing methods regarding the detection of occult changes in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) of multiple sclerosis (MS). Diffusion-weighted images (nine b-values with six directions) were acquired from 12 healthy female volunteers (22-52 years old, median 33 years) and 13 female MS patients (24-48 years old, median 37 years). Diffusion parameters based on the two-compartment model of water diffusion considering diffusional anisotropy was calculated by a proposed method. Other parameters including diffusion tensor imaging and conventional apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were also obtained. They were compared statistically between the control and MS groups. Diffusion of the slow diffusion compartment in the radial direction of neuron fibers was elevated in MS patients (0.121 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) in comparison to control (0.100 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s), the difference being significant (P = 0.001). The difference between the groups was not significant in other comparisons, including conventional ADC and fractional anisotropy (FA) of diffusion tensor imaging. The proposed method was applicable to clinically acceptable small data. The parameters obtained by this method improved the detectability of occult changes in NAWM compared to the conventional methods. (orig.)

  17. 1H-MR spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging of normal-appearing temporal white matter in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after irradiation: initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei Feng; Qiu, Shi Jun; Wang, Hong Zhuo; Lv, Xiao Fei

    2013-01-01

    To detect radiation-induced changes of temporal lobe normal-appearing white mater (NAWM) following radiation therapy (RT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Seventy-five H(1)-MR spectroscopy and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) examinations were performed in 55 patients before and after receiving fractionated radiation therapy (total dose; 66-75GY). We divided the dataset into six groups, a pre-RT control group and five other groups based on time after completion of RT. N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA)/choline (Cho), NAA/creatine (Cr), Cho/Cr, mean diffusibility (MD), functional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusibility (λ(⊥)), and axial diffusibility (λ(||)) were calculated. NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr decreased and λ(⊥) increased significantly within 1 year after RT compared with pre-RT. After 1 year, NAA/Cho, NAA/Cr, and λ(⊥) were not significantly different from pre-RT. In all post-RT groups, FA decreased significantly. λ(||) decreased within 9 months after RT compared with pre-RT, but was not significantly different from pre-RT more than 9 months after RT. DTI and H(1)-MR spectroscopy can be used to detect early radiation-induced changes of temporal lobe NAWM following radiation therapy for NPC. Metabolic alterations and water diffusion characteristics of temporal lobe NAWM in patients with NPC after RT were dynamic and transient. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. [Total brain T2-hyperintense lesion-volume and the axonal damage in the normal-appearing white matter of brainstem in early lapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis].

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    Pascual-Lozano, A M; Martínez-Bisbal, M C; Boscá-Blasco, I; Valero-Merino, C; Coret-Ferrer, F; Martí-Bonmatí, L; Martínez-Granados, B; Celda, B; Casanova-Estruch, B

    To evaluate the relationship between the total brain T2-hyperintense lesion volume (TBT2LV) and the axonal damage in the normal-appearing white matter of brainstem measured by 1H-MRS in a group of early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients. 40 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients and ten sex- and age-matched healthy subjects were prospectively studied for two years. T2-weighted MR and 1H-MRS imaging were acquired at time of recruitment and at year two. The TBT2LV was calculated with a semiautomatic program; N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr) and choline (Cho) resonances areas were integrated with jMRUI program and the ratios were calculated for four volume elements that represented the brainstem. At basal study we obtained an axonal loss (as a decrement of NAA/ Cho ratio) in the group of patients compared with controls (p = 0.017); this axonal loss increased at the second year of the follow-up for patients (NAA/Cho decrease, p = 0.004, and NAA/Cr decrease, p = 0.002) meanwhile control subjects had no significant metabolic changes. Higher lesion load was correlated with a poor clinical outcome, being the correlation between the basal TBT2LV and the Expanded Disability Status Scale at second year (r = 0.299; p = 0.05). Besides, axonal loss was not homogeneous for all multiple sclerosis patients, being stronger in the subgroup of patients with high basal TBT2LV (p = 0.043; ANOVA). Our data suggest that axonal damage is early in multiple sclerosis and higher in patients high basal TBT2LV, suggesting a possible relationship between these two phenomena.

  19. Oral administration of choline does not affect metabolic characteristics of gliomas and normal-appearing white matter, as detected with single-voxel 1H-MRS at 1.5 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernov, Mikhail F.; Iseki, Hiroshi; Takakura, Kintomo; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Maruyama, Takashi; Ono, Yuko; Usukura, Masao; Yoshida, Shigetoshi; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Kubo, Osami; Hori, Tomokatsu

    2009-01-01

    The present study was done for evaluation of the possible influence of the oral administration of choline on metabolic characteristics of gliomas detected with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS). Thirty patients (22 men and eight women; mean age 38±15 years) with suspicious intracranial gliomas underwent single-voxel long-echo (TR 2,000 ms, TE 136 ms, 128-256 acquisitions) 1 H-MRS of the tumor, peritumoral brain tissue, and distant normal-appearing white matter before and several hours (median, 3 h; range, 1.2-3.7 h) after ingestion of choline with prescribed dose of 50 mg/kg (median actual dose, 52 mg/kg; range, 48-78 mg/kg). Investigations were done using 1.5 T clinical magnetic resonance imager. The volume of the rectangular 1 H-MRS voxel was either 3.4 or 8 cm 3 . At the time of both spectroscopic examinations, similar voxels' positioning and size and technical parameters of 1 H-MRS were used. Surgery was done in 27 patients within 1 to 68 days thereafter. In all cases, more than 80% resection of the neoplasm was attained. There were 12 low-grade gliomas and 15 high-grade gliomas. MIB-1 index varied from 0% to 51.7% (median, 13.8%). Statistical analysis did not disclose significant differences of any investigated metabolic parameter of the tumor, peritumoral brain tissue and distant normal-appearing white matter between two spectroscopic examinations. Single-voxel 1 H-MRS at 1.5 T could not detect significant changes of the metabolic characteristics of gliomas, peritumoral brain tissue, and distant normal-appearing white matter after oral administration of choline. (orig.)

  20. Contrast between white and grey matter: MRI appearance with ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnaldi, S.; Ukmar, M.; Vasciaveo, A.; Longo, R.; Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S.

    1993-01-01

    MRI contrast between white and grey matter appears to be higher in young normal subjects than in older patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible relationships between these changes in contrast and ageing. It consisted of two parts. In the first part we retrospectively evaluated 140 MRI brain examinations of healthy subjects, 20 per decade (age range 20-90 years), in whom the contrast was subjectively scored. In the second part we prospectively measured the actual T1, spin density (SD) and T2 values of white and grey matter in another 22 healthy subjects (age range 20-80 years). In the first group of subjects a progressive decrease in white/grey matter contrast was observed with ageing. In the second group of subjects the T1, SD and T2 values of white matter were always shorter than those of grey matter. There is a close relation among T1, SD and T2 values of white and grey matter with ageing. We suggest that there is a progressive loss of white/grey matter contrast with ageing. Such a phenomenon is possibly due to an increased water content in the white matter and the progressive neuronal loss in the grey matter that occurs with age. (orig.)

  1. Endometrial ablation: normal appearance and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drylewicz, Monica R; Robinson, Kathryn; Siegel, Cary Lynn

    2018-03-14

    Global endometrial ablation is a commonly performed, minimally invasive technique aimed at improving/resolving abnormal uterine bleeding and menorrhagia in women. As non-resectoscopic techniques have come into existence, endometrial ablation performance continues to increase due to accessibility and decreased requirements for operating room time and advanced technical training. The increased utilization of this method translates into increased imaging of patients who have undergone the procedure. An understanding of the expected imaging appearances of endometrial ablation using different modalities is important for the abdominal radiologist. In addition, the frequent usage of the technique naturally comes with complications requiring appropriate imaging work-up. We review the expected appearance of the post-endometrial ablated uterus on multiple imaging modalities and demonstrate the more common and rare complications seen in the immediate post-procedural time period and remotely.

  2. The thoracic paraspinal shadow: normal appearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, H H; Kolbenstvedt, A

    1982-01-01

    The width of the right and left thoracic paraspinal shadows were measured at all levels in 200 presumably normal individuals. The paraspinal shadow could be identified in nearly all cases on the left side and in approximately one-third on the right. The range of variation was greater on the left side than one the right. The left paraspinal shadow was wider at the upper levels and in individuals above 40 years of age.

  3. Size, shape, and appearance of the normal female pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolpert, S.M.; Molitch, M.E.; Goldman, J.A.; Wood, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    One hundred seven women 18-65 years old were studied who were referred for suspected central nervous system disease not related to the pituitary gland or hypothalamus. High-resolution, direct, coronal, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) was used to examine the size; shape, and density of the normal pituitary gland. There were three major conclusions: (1) the height of the normal gland can be as much as 9 mm; (2) the superior margin of the gland may bulge in normal patients; and (3) both large size and convex contour appear to be associated with younger age. It was also found that serum prolactin levels do not appear to correlate with the CT appearances. Noise artifacts inherent in high-detail, thin-section, soft-tissue scanning may be a limiting factor in defining reproducible patterns in different parts of the normal pituitary gland

  4. Synthetic ossicular replacements: Normal and abnormal CT appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, J.D.; Zwillenberg, S.; Berger, A.S.; Granoff, D.W.; Popky, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Numerous synthetic ossicular replacements are currently in use. The TORP conducts sound from the newly formed tympanic membrane to the oval window; the PORP is used when the stapes superstructure is maintained, being interposed between the tympanic membrane and the stapes capitulum. In 12 patients the surgical results of ossicular replacement procedures were good, which gave the author the opportunity to study the normal CT appearance. In an additional 10 patients CT was performed before surgical revision. Using CT, they have been able to diagnose subluxation and fibrous tissue fixation. In two patients the CT appearance was unremarkable, but at surgery lateralization of the graft was found, with a nonfunctioning interface

  5. CT appearance of the normal appendix in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamburrini, Stefania; Brunetti, Arturo; Brown, Michele; Sirlin, Claude B.; Casola, Giovanna

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this study were to identify (1) the normal range of the appendix on computed tomography (CT), (2) the correlation of patient age and sex with the visibility and appearance of the appendix on CT, and (3) the normal variations in wall thickness, intraluminal content, and location of the appendix. Three hundred seventy-two outpatients underwent abdominopelvic CT. The scans were reviewed on the picture archiving and communication system and appendiceal outer-to-outer wall diameter, wall thickness, location, content and its correlation with appendix diameter were analyzed. The appendix was visualized in 305/372 patients. Its location relative to the cecum was highly variable. The diameter range was 3-10 mm; in 42% of cases the diameter was greater than 6 mm. When the intraluminal content (185/305) was visualized, the diameter was slightly superior to the mean (p=0.0156). In 329 CT scans in which oral contrast material was given, the appendix was filled by contrast material in 74/329 patients. The appendix wall thickness was measurable in 22/305 patients (average 0.15 cm). There is significant overlap between the normal and abnormal CT appearance of the appendix. Consequently the diagnosis of acute appendicitis should be based not only on the appearance of the appendix but also on the presence of secondary signs. (orig.)

  6. Normal perinatal and paediatric postmortem magnetic resonance imaging appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Owen J. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Barber, Joy L. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Taylor, Andrew M. [Cardiorespiratory Division, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, Centre for Cardiovascular Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Department of Histopathology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    As postmortem imaging becomes more widely used following perinatal and paediatric deaths, the correct interpretation of images becomes imperative, particularly given the increased use of postmortem magnetic resonance imaging. Many pathological processes may have similar appearances in life and following death. A thorough knowledge of normal postmortem changes is therefore required within postmortem magnetic resonance imaging to ensure that these are not mistakenly interpreted as significant pathology. Similarly, some changes that are interpreted as pathological if they occur during life may be artefacts on postmortem magnetic resonance imaging that are of limited significance. This review serves to illustrate briefly those postmortem magnetic resonance imaging changes as part of the normal changes after death in fetuses and children, and highlight imaging findings that may confuse or mislead an observer to identifying pathology where none is present. (orig.)

  7. Ultrasonography of the equine shoulder: technique and normal appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tnibar, M A; Auer, J A; Bakkali, S

    1999-01-01

    This study was intended to document normal ultrasonographic appearance of the equine shoulder and anatomic landmarks useful in clinical imaging. Both forelimbs of five equine cadavers and both forelimbs of six live adult horses were used. To facilitate understanding of the images, a zoning system assigned to the biceps brachii and to the infraspinatus tendon was developed. Ultrasonography was performed with a real-time B-mode semiportable sector scanner using 7.5- and 5-MHz transducers. On one cadaver limb, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed using a system at 1.5 Tesla, T1-weighted spin-echo sequence. Ultrasonography images were compared to frozen specimens and MRI images to correlate the ultrasonographic findings to the gross anatomy of the shoulder. Ultrasonography allowed easy evaluation of the biceps brachii and the infraspinatus tendon and their bursae, the supraspinatus muscle and tendons, the superficial muscles of the shoulder, and the underlying humerus and scapula. Only the lateral and, partially, the caudal aspects of the humeral head could be visualized with ultrasound. Ultrasonographic appearance, orientation, and anatomic relationships of these structures are described. Ultrasonographic findings correlated well with MRI images and with gross anatomy in the cadavers' limbs.

  8. Appearance of normal brain maturation on 1.5-T MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkovich, A.J.; Kjos, B.; Jackson, D.E. Jr.; Norman, D.

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the pattern of normal white-matter maturation as demonstrated by high-field-strength MR imaging, 82 normal infants were examined using a 1.5-T unit with spin-echo T1-weighted and T2-weighted pulse sequences. The infants ranged in age from 4 days to 2 years. The scans were assessed for qualitative changes of white matter relative to gray matter and correlated with the patient's age in 14 anatomic areas of the brain. The MR images showed that changes of brain maturation occur in an orderly manner, commencing in the brain stem and progressing to the cerebellum and the cerebrum. Changes from brain myelination were seen earlier on T1-weighted images than on T2-weighted images, possibly because of T1 shortening by the components of the developing myelin sheaths. The later changes on the T2-weighted images correlated best with the development of myelination, as demonstrated by histochemical methods. T1-weighted images were most useful to monitor normal brain development in the first 6 to 8 months of life; T2-weighted images were more useful after 6 months. The milestones in the MR appearance of normal maturation of the brain are presented. The milestones in the MR appearance of normal maturation of the brain are presented. Persistent areas of long T2 relaxation times are seen superior and dorsal to the ventricular trigone in all infants examined and should not be mistaken for ischemic change

  9. Mural Thrombus in the Normal-Appearing Descending Thoracic Aorta of a Chronic Smoker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Habib; Hsu, Judy; Winchell, Patricia Jo; Daoko, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Thrombus formation in an atherosclerotic or aneurysmal descending thoracic aorta is a well-described, frequently encountered vascular condition. In comparison, thrombus formation in a normal-appearing descending thoracic aorta is reported far less often. We describe the case of a 46-year-old woman who had splenic and renal infarctions secondary to embolic showers from a large, mobile thrombus in a morphologically normal proximal descending thoracic aorta. After the patient underwent anticoagulation, stent-grafting, and surgical bypass to correct an arterial blockage caused by the stent-graft, she resumed a relatively normal life. In contrast with other cases of a thrombotic but normal-appearing descending thoracic aorta, this patient had no known malignancy or systemic coagulative disorders; her sole risk factor was chronic smoking. We discuss our patient's case and review the relevant medical literature, focusing on the effect of smoking on coagulation physiology. PMID:24391341

  10. Signal Normalization Reduces Image Appearance Disparity Among Multiple Optical Coherence Tomography Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chieh-Li; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Wollstein, Gadi; Bilonick, Richard A; Kagemann, Larry; Schuman, Joel S

    2017-02-01

    To assess the effect of the previously reported optical coherence tomography (OCT) signal normalization method on reducing the discrepancies in image appearance among spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) devices. Healthy eyes and eyes with various retinal pathologies were scanned at the macular region using similar volumetric scan patterns with at least two out of three SD-OCT devices at the same visit (Cirrus HD-OCT, Zeiss, Dublin, CA; RTVue, Optovue, Fremont, CA; and Spectralis, Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). All the images were processed with the signal normalization. A set of images formed a questionnaire with 24 pairs of cross-sectional images from each eye with any combination of the three SD-OCT devices either both pre- or postsignal normalization. Observers were asked to evaluate the similarity of the two displayed images based on the image appearance. The effects on reducing the differences in image appearance before and after processing were analyzed. Twenty-nine researchers familiar with OCT images participated in the survey. Image similarity was significantly improved after signal normalization for all three combinations ( P ≤ 0.009) as Cirrus and RTVue combination became the most similar pair, followed by Cirrus and Spectralis, and RTVue and Spectralis. The signal normalization successfully minimized the disparities in the image appearance among multiple SD-OCT devices, allowing clinical interpretation and comparison of OCT images regardless of the device differences. The signal normalization would enable direct OCT images comparisons without concerning about device differences and broaden OCT usage by enabling long-term follow-ups and data sharing.

  11. Anticlockwise swirl of mesenteric vessels: A normal CT appearance, retrospective analysis of 200 pediatric patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sodhi, Kushaljit S., E-mail: sodhiks@gmail.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Bhatia, Anmol, E-mail: anmol_bhatia26@yahoo.co.in [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Saxena, Akshay K., E-mail: fatakshay@yahoo.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Rao, Katragadda L.N., E-mail: klnrao@hotmail.com [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Menon, Prema, E-mail: menonprema@hotmail.com [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160012 (India); Khandelwal, Niranjan, E-mail: khandelwaln@hotmail.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector-12, Chandigarh 160012 (India)

    2014-04-15

    Objective: The counterclockwise rotation of the SMV on SMA is a normal and non-specific finding, which results in an incomplete swirl formation on CT scans. However, it has a potential to be misinterpreted as ‘midgut volvulus’ resulting in serious clinical implications. The study was done to determine the frequency and degree of counterclockwise rotation of the SMV on SMA on CT in normal otherwise asymptomatic pediatric patients undergoing CT scan. Methods: In this IRB approved study, we retrospectively analyzed abdominal CT scan examinations of 200 consecutive pediatric patients (age range of 11 days to 18 years), which were performed for different clinical indications over a period of 10 months. They were evaluated for the absence or presence and degree of counterclockwise rotation of the mesenteric vessels. Results: Of the 200 patients, 128 (64%) patients showed no clockwise or anticlockwise rotation of mesenteric vessels. Counterclockwise rotation of SMV on SMA was seen in 72 (36%) patients. Further, the degree of rotation of vessels was also calculated, based on the criteria proposed by the authors. Conclusions: The counterclockwise rotation of SMV on SMA gives an appearance of mesenteric whirlpool in otherwise normal mesenteric vessels and can be misinterpreted as midgut volvulus. It is a normal CT appearance and is due to a variation in branching pattern of mesenteric vessels. Awareness of this normal branching pattern of mesenteric vessels is important to avoid an inadvertent laparotomy.

  12. Anticlockwise swirl of mesenteric vessels: A normal CT appearance, retrospective analysis of 200 pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodhi, Kushaljit S.; Bhatia, Anmol; Saxena, Akshay K.; Rao, Katragadda L.N.; Menon, Prema; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The counterclockwise rotation of the SMV on SMA is a normal and non-specific finding, which results in an incomplete swirl formation on CT scans. However, it has a potential to be misinterpreted as ‘midgut volvulus’ resulting in serious clinical implications. The study was done to determine the frequency and degree of counterclockwise rotation of the SMV on SMA on CT in normal otherwise asymptomatic pediatric patients undergoing CT scan. Methods: In this IRB approved study, we retrospectively analyzed abdominal CT scan examinations of 200 consecutive pediatric patients (age range of 11 days to 18 years), which were performed for different clinical indications over a period of 10 months. They were evaluated for the absence or presence and degree of counterclockwise rotation of the mesenteric vessels. Results: Of the 200 patients, 128 (64%) patients showed no clockwise or anticlockwise rotation of mesenteric vessels. Counterclockwise rotation of SMV on SMA was seen in 72 (36%) patients. Further, the degree of rotation of vessels was also calculated, based on the criteria proposed by the authors. Conclusions: The counterclockwise rotation of SMV on SMA gives an appearance of mesenteric whirlpool in otherwise normal mesenteric vessels and can be misinterpreted as midgut volvulus. It is a normal CT appearance and is due to a variation in branching pattern of mesenteric vessels. Awareness of this normal branching pattern of mesenteric vessels is important to avoid an inadvertent laparotomy

  13. Imaging of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction: normal postsurgical appearance and complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcala-Galiano, Andrea; Baeva, Maria; Jose Argueeso, Maria [Hospital ASEPEYO Coslada, Department of Radiology, Madrid (Spain); Ismael, Maryem [Hospital ASEPEYO Coslada, Department of Traumatology and Orthopaedic Surgery, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-12-15

    This article reviews the normal postsurgical anatomy and appearance of PCL reconstructions on MDCT and MRI with the different operative techniques considering the type of tibial fixation, use of a single or double bundle, type of tendon graft and the fixation material. Tunnel positioning, appearance of the ligament graft and findings at the donor site are considered. Imaging signs of PCL graft failure and its possible causes are discussed. Imaging manifestations of other potential complications of both the PCL graft and donor sites are described, such as laxity, impingement, arthrofibrosis, ganglion cyst formation or complications related to the fixation material. (orig.)

  14. Radiographic appearance of the normal temporomandibular joint in newborns and small children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larheim, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    The radiographic anatomy of the normal temporomandibular joint in newborns and children up to 4 years of age was investigated, partly on specimens, obtained at autopsy, with methods corresponding to clinical procedures, and partly on patients. A rather flat mandibular fossa and immature mandibular head were found at birth, whereas a well-developed articular tubercle and an adult-like radiographic appearance of the joint were found at about one year of age. No evident changes of the radiographic anatomy seemed to occur from one to 4 years of age. A striking similarity was observed between the dystrophic temporomandibular joint in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and micrognathia and the normal radiographic appearance in the first months of life, indicating an early involvement of this joint in patients developing micrognathia. (Auth.)

  15. Foetal radiography for suspected skeletal dysplasia: technique, normal appearances, diagnostic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calder, Alistair D. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom); Offiah, Amaka C. [Sheffield Children' s NHS Foundation Trust, Academic Unit of Child Health, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    Despite advances in antenatal imaging and genetic techniques, post-delivery post-mortem foetal radiography remains the key investigation in accurate diagnosis of skeletal dysplasia manifesting in the foetus. Foetal radiography is best performed using pathology-specimen radiography equipment and is often carried out in the pathology department without involvement of the radiology unit. However, paediatric radiologists may be asked to interpret post-mortem foetal radiographs when an abnormality is suspected. Many foetal radiographs are carried out before 20 weeks' gestation, and the interpreting radiologist needs to be familiar with the range of normal post-mortem foetal appearances at different gestational ages, as well as the appearances of some of the more commonly presenting skeletal dysplasias, and will benefit from a systematic approach when assessing more challenging cases. In this pictorial essay, we illustrate various normal post-mortem foetal radiographic appearances, give examples of commonly occurring skeletal dysplasias, and describe an approach to establishing more difficult diagnoses. (orig.)

  16. Normal appearance and size of the diaphragmatic crura in children: CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brengle, M.; Cohen, M.D.; Katz, B.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose. The objectives of the study were to document the normal CT appearance and size of the crura of the diaphragm in children. Materials and methods. The CT scans of 80 children (0-15 years) were reviewed. The children were divided into eight age groups. The maximal transverse diameters of the right and left crura were measured. They were normalized by comparison with the transverse and anterior-posterior diameters of the 12th thoracic vertebra (T12) and the transverse abdominal diameter at T12. The crura were also evaluated as to whether their contour was smooth or nodular. Results. The diaphragmatic crura of smaller children appear large, relative to body size and the diameters of the T12 vertebral body, compared with those in older children. Crural width does not increase significantly with age. Additionally, the crura were found to have a greater tendency to be nodular in appearance in children under the age of 5 years than in older children. Conclusion. Diaphragmatic crura are more nodular and larger relative to body size in younger children. (orig.). With 6 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Foetal radiography for suspected skeletal dysplasia: technique, normal appearances, diagnostic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calder, Alistair D.; Offiah, Amaka C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in antenatal imaging and genetic techniques, post-delivery post-mortem foetal radiography remains the key investigation in accurate diagnosis of skeletal dysplasia manifesting in the foetus. Foetal radiography is best performed using pathology-specimen radiography equipment and is often carried out in the pathology department without involvement of the radiology unit. However, paediatric radiologists may be asked to interpret post-mortem foetal radiographs when an abnormality is suspected. Many foetal radiographs are carried out before 20 weeks' gestation, and the interpreting radiologist needs to be familiar with the range of normal post-mortem foetal appearances at different gestational ages, as well as the appearances of some of the more commonly presenting skeletal dysplasias, and will benefit from a systematic approach when assessing more challenging cases. In this pictorial essay, we illustrate various normal post-mortem foetal radiographic appearances, give examples of commonly occurring skeletal dysplasias, and describe an approach to establishing more difficult diagnoses. (orig.)

  18. Pediatric and adult MRI atlas of bone marrow. Normal appearances, variants and diffuse disease states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Sundaram, Murali [Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, OH (United States); Cleveland Clinic Department of Radiology, OH (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This comprehensive atlas is unique in being devoted to the MRI appearances of bone marrow in the axial and appendicular skeleton of adults and children. Normal MRI findings, including common variants and degenerative changes, are first documented. MRI appearances in the entire spectrum of neoplastic and non-neoplastic infiltrative marrow disorders are then presented, with accompanying explanatory text. Among the conditions considered are multiple myeloma, the acute and chronic leukemias, diffuse metastases, diffuse lymphomas, the anemias, polycythemia vera, myelofibrosis, storage disorders, and infections. Characteristic changes to bone marrow following various forms of treatment are also displayed and discussed. The selected images reflect the use of a variety of sequences and techniques, such as fat suppression, and contrast-enhanced imaging.

  19. MR and CT imaging of pulmonary valved conduits in children and adolescents: normal appearance and complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenisch, Estelle V.; Alamo, Leonor T.; Gudinchet, Francois [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Lausanne (Switzerland); Sekarski, Nicole [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Lausanne (Switzerland); Hurni, Michel [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-12-15

    The Contegra registered is a conduit made from the bovine jugular vein and then interposed between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery. It is used for cardiac malformations in the reconstruction of right ventricular outflow tract. To describe both normal and pathological appearances of the Contegra registered in radiological imaging, to describe imaging of complications and to define the role of CT and MRI in postoperative follow-up. Forty-three examinations of 24 patients (17 boys and 7 girls; mean age: 10.8 years old) with Contegra registered conduits were reviewed. Anatomical description and measurements of the conduits were performed. Pathological items examined included stenosis, dilatation, plicature or twist, thrombus or vegetations, calcifications and valvular regurgitation. Findings were correlated to the echographic gradient through the conduit when available. CT and MR work-up showed Contegra registered stenosis (n = 12), dilatation (n = 9) and plicature or twist (n = 7). CT displayed thrombus or vegetations in the Contegra registered in three clinically infected patients. Calcifications of the conduit were present at CT in 12 patients and valvular regurgitation in three patients. The comparison between CT and/or MR results showed a good correlation between the echographic gradient and the presence of stenosis in the Contegra registered. CT and MR bring additional information about permeability and postoperative anatomy especially when echocardiography is inconclusive. Both techniques depict the normal appearance of the conduit, and allow comparison and precise evaluation of changes in the postoperative follow-up. (orig.)

  20. Transvaginal ultrasound appearances of the ovary in normal women and hirsute women with oligomenorrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, R

    1999-02-01

    The transvaginal ultrasound appearances of the ovary were determined in women with clinical and endocrine features of polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) and apparently normal women. At scan the number of small follicles were counted and ovarian volume was calculated. The maximum width of the ovarian cortex was also measured. Blood was sent for measurement of LH, FSH and testosterone. The women with oligomenorrhoea were scanned at random and the normal women were seen within the first 5 days of the start of menstruation. There were significant differences between median values for the 2 groups in terms of number of small follicles, ovarian volume and stromal width; the ovaries of the hirsute women had more follicles, were of larger volume, and had greater stromal width. The 2 ranges for number of follicles did overlap, however. Four hirsute oligomenorrhoeic women had a normal number of follicles; all 4 had the several clinical and endocrine features indicative of PCOD. These data suggest that the classical ultrasound features of PCOD are not consistently present and that the absence of increased follicularity at scan should not necessarily deter clinicians from making the functional diagnosis of PCOD.

  1. US of the Nongravid Cervix with Multimodality Imaging Correlation: Normal Appearance, Pathologic Conditions, and Diagnostic Pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildenberg, Joseph C; Yam, Benjamin L; Langer, Jill E; Jones, Lisa P

    2016-01-01

    The adult uterine cervix may exhibit a wide variety of pathologic conditions that include benign entities (eg, cervicitis, hyperplasia, nabothian cysts, cervical polyps, leiomyomas, endometriosis, and congenital abnormalities) as well as malignant lesions, particularly cervical carcinoma. In addition, lesions that arise in the uterine body may secondarily involve the cervix, such as endometrial carcinoma and prolapsed intracavitary masses. Many of these conditions can be identified and characterized at ultrasonography (US), which is considered the first-line imaging examination for the female pelvis. However, examination of the cervix is often cursory during pelvic US, such that cervical disease may be overlooked or misdiagnosed. Transabdominal US of the cervix may not afford sufficient spatial resolution to depict cervical disease in many patients; therefore, endovaginal US is considered the optimal technique. Use of supplemental imaging techniques, particularly the application of transducer pressure on the cervix, may be helpful. This review describes the normal appearance of the cervix at US, the appearance of cervical lesions and conditions that mimic abnormalities at US, and optimal US techniques for evaluation of the cervix. This information will help radiologists detect and diagnose cervical abnormalities more confidently at pelvic US. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2016.

  2. Observation of normal appearance and wall thickness of esophagus on CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Fan; Mao Jingfang; Ding Jinquan; Yang Huanjun

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to observe the appearance of normal esophagus, measure and record the thickness of esophageal wall in order to offer reference for estimating esophageal wall abnormalities and delineating gross tumor target of esophageal carcinomas on CT images. Materials and methods: From September 2006 to February 2007, 110 consecutive CT films from adult patients without esophageal diseases were collected and studied. On CT images the entire esophagus was divided into cervical, thoracic, retrocardiac and intraabdominal segments. The appearance of esophagus was described when the esophagus contracted or dilated. Thickness of esophageal wall and diameters of esophageal cavities were measured by hard-copy reading with a magnifying glass. Age, sex and the thickness of subcutaneous fat of each patient were recorded. Results: It was observed that the esophagus presented both contracted and dilated status on CT images. In each segment there were certain portions of esophagus in complete contraction or dilatation. 47 images (42.7%) showed contracted esophagus in each segment available for measurement. The largest wall thickness when esophagus was in contraction and dilatation was 4.70 (95%CI: 4.44-4.95) mm and 2.11 (95%CI: 2.00-2.23) mm, respectively. When contracting, the intraabdominal esophagus was thicker than the cervical, thoracic and retrocardiac parts, and the average thickness was 5.68 (95%CI: 5.28-6.09) mm, 4.67 (95%CI: 4.36-4.86) mm, 4.56 (95%CI: 4.31-4.87) mm, and 4.05 (95%CI: 3.71-4.21) mm, respectively. When the esophagus was dilating, the average esophageal wall thickness was between 1.87 and 2.70 mm. The thickest part was cervical esophagus. Thickness of esophageal wall was larger in males than that of females (5.26 mm vs. 4.34 mm p < 0.001). Age and the thickness of subcutaneous fat had no significant impact on the thickness of esophageal wall (p-value was 0.056 and 0.173, respectively). Conclusion: The Observation of normal appearance and

  3. Brain Tumor Therapy-Induced Changes in Normal-Appearing Brainstem Measured With Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Chiaho; Merchant, Thomas E.; Gajjar, Amar; Broniscer, Alberto; Zhang, Yong; Li Yimei; Glenn, George R.; Kun, Larry E.; Ogg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize therapy-induced changes in normal-appearing brainstems of childhood brain tumor patients by serial diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Methods and Materials: We analyzed 109 DTI studies from 20 brain tumor patients, aged 4 to 23 years, with normal-appearing brainstems included in the treatment fields. Those with medulloblastomas, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (n = 10) received postoperative craniospinal irradiation (23.4–39.6 Gy) and a cumulative dose of 55.8 Gy to the primary site, followed by four cycles of high-dose chemotherapy. Patients with high-grade gliomas (n = 10) received erlotinib during and after irradiation (54–59.4 Gy). Parametric maps of fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were computed and spatially registered to three-dimensional radiation dose data. Volumes of interest included corticospinal tracts, medial lemnisci, and the pons. Serving as an age-related benchmark for comparison, 37 DTI studies from 20 healthy volunteers, aged 6 to 25 years, were included in the analysis. Results: The median DTI follow-up time was 3.5 years (range, 1.6–5.0 years). The median mean dose to the pons was 56 Gy (range, 7–59 Gy). Three patterns were seen in longitudinal FA and apparent diffusion coefficient changes: (1) a stable or normal developing time trend, (2) initial deviation from normal with subsequent recovery, and (3) progressive deviation without evidence of complete recovery. The maximal decline in FA often occurred 1.5 to 3.5 years after the start of radiation therapy. A full recovery time trend could be observed within 4 years. Patients with incomplete recovery often had a larger decline in FA within the first year. Radiation dose alone did not predict long-term recovery patterns. Conclusions: Variations existed among individual patients after therapy in longitudinal evolution of brainstem white matter injury and recovery. Early response

  4. Differences of optic disc appearance between normal tension and high tension glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojčić Milan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The term glaucoma is used to cover a wide range of diseases, whose main feature is optic neuropathy. According to the level of intraocular pressure (IOP, the open angle glaucoma is arbitrarily divided into high tension glaucoma (HTG and normal tension glaucoma (NTG. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences of optic disc cup appearance between patients with NTG and HTG. Methods. Prospective study included 30 patients (60 eyes with NTG and 30 patients (60 eyes with HTG. IOP was measured by Goldmann applanation tonometry. Examination of optic disc head was performed by indirect ophthalmoscopy with Volk 90 D superfield lens through a dilated pupil to observe qualitative and quantitative parameters. Visual fields were examined in all patients with the Octopus program G1, full threshold strategy (Octopus 500 EZ, Interzeag, Switzerland. Results. Vertical form of optic disc cup was present in 11 eyes with NTG (18.3% and three eyes with HTG (5% (p<0.05. A disc with localized tissue loss (polar notching on the inferior pole was observed in eight eyes with NTG (13.3% and in one eye with HTG (1.7% (p<0.01. Uniformly enlarged, round cup was more frequent in patients with HTG than NTG: 93.3% and 68.3% respectively (p<0.05. Conclusion. The perceived differences indicate a complex multifactorial nature of glaucoma disease and a possible existence of two pathophysiological ways of optic disc changes within the same basic disease.

  5. Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability of Normal Appearing White Matter in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Krakauer, Martin; Skimminge, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Contrast-enhanced T1 weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used to characterize location and extent of BBB disruptions in focal MS lesions. We employed quantitative T1 measurements before...

  6. Characteristic sonographic appearance of normal appendix in children: inner hypoechoic band without folding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Noh Hyuck; Song, Soon Young; Lee, En Ja; Kim, Mi Sung; Park, Chan Sup; Oh, Hwa En [College of Medicine, Kwandong Univ., Koyang (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Geun Seok [College of Medicine, Dongkook Univ., Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-01

    To identify the characteristic ultrasonographic findings of the normal appendix in children in order to detect it more easily and so to exclude acute appendicitis from a diagnosis with more confidence. Among 64 patients presenting with right lower quadrant pain, 44 patients, excluding 15 patients diagnosed as acute appendicitis and 5 patients with non-visualization of the appendix due to severe ileus and obesity, were evaluated for the point of incidence, the thickness and the presence of folding of the inner hypoechoic band of the normal appendix. The age of the patients ranged from 3 to 15 years with a mean age of 6.5 years. Two patients were operated on and we correlated the preoperative ultrasonographic findings with the histologic findings. In all the cases of the 44 patients with normal appendix, the inner hypoechoic band was discovered, which was seen as a linear structure without folding along the whole length of appendix. This measured as 0.75 mm (0.3-1.5 mm) for the mean thickness. The inner hypoechoic band corresponded to the mucosal layer that had abundant lymphoid tissue on the histologic examination. For the pediatric normal appendix, the inner hypoechoic band without folding is present, and this corresponds to the mucosal layer with abundant lymphoid tissue.

  7. Characteristic sonographic appearance of normal appendix in children: inner hypoechoic band without folding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Noh Hyuck; Song, Soon Young; Lee, En Ja; Kim, Mi Sung; Park, Chan Sup; Oh, Hwa En; Yang, Geun Seok

    2004-01-01

    To identify the characteristic ultrasonographic findings of the normal appendix in children in order to detect it more easily and so to exclude acute appendicitis from a diagnosis with more confidence. Among 64 patients presenting with right lower quadrant pain, 44 patients, excluding 15 patients diagnosed as acute appendicitis and 5 patients with non-visualization of the appendix due to severe ileus and obesity, were evaluated for the point of incidence, the thickness and the presence of folding of the inner hypoechoic band of the normal appendix. The age of the patients ranged from 3 to 15 years with a mean age of 6.5 years. Two patients were operated on and we correlated the preoperative ultrasonographic findings with the histologic findings. In all the cases of the 44 patients with normal appendix, the inner hypoechoic band was discovered, which was seen as a linear structure without folding along the whole length of appendix. This measured as 0.75 mm (0.3-1.5 mm) for the mean thickness. The inner hypoechoic band corresponded to the mucosal layer that had abundant lymphoid tissue on the histologic examination. For the pediatric normal appendix, the inner hypoechoic band without folding is present, and this corresponds to the mucosal layer with abundant lymphoid tissue

  8. CT appearance of the duodenum and mesenteric vessels in children with normal and abnormal bowel rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, George A. [Harvard Medical School and Children' s Hospital Boston, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Demonstration of the third duodenal segment (D3) in retroperitoneal location has been recently proposed as a method for excluding malrotation. This study was performed to determine whether a retroperitoneal third duodenal segment can reliably exclude malrotation. CTs of 38 patients with proven malrotation and 100 patients without malrotation were evaluated for the location of the duodenum/proximal small bowel, and the relationship of the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) to superior mesenteric artery (SMA). The D3 segment was in normal retroperitoneal location in 100% of control patients, compared to 2.5% or (1 of 38) of patients with malrotation. Nine of 11 patients (91%) with malrotation imaged prior to surgery had the proximal bowel in an abnormal location, while all 100 control patients had it in a normal location. The SMV was in normal relationship to the SMA in 11/38 patients (29%) with malrotation, compared to 79% of normal controls. In 10 controls, a branch of the SMV was partially wrapped around the SMA, potentially mimicking partial mesenteric volvulus. A retroperitoneal location of the D3 segment makes the diagnosis of malrotation unlikely but not impossible. Additional imaging of the duodenojejunal junction or cecum may be necessary to reliably exclude intestinal malrotation. (orig.)

  9. CT appearance of the duodenum and mesenteric vessels in children with normal and abnormal bowel rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, George A.

    2011-01-01

    Demonstration of the third duodenal segment (D3) in retroperitoneal location has been recently proposed as a method for excluding malrotation. This study was performed to determine whether a retroperitoneal third duodenal segment can reliably exclude malrotation. CTs of 38 patients with proven malrotation and 100 patients without malrotation were evaluated for the location of the duodenum/proximal small bowel, and the relationship of the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) to superior mesenteric artery (SMA). The D3 segment was in normal retroperitoneal location in 100% of control patients, compared to 2.5% or (1 of 38) of patients with malrotation. Nine of 11 patients (91%) with malrotation imaged prior to surgery had the proximal bowel in an abnormal location, while all 100 control patients had it in a normal location. The SMV was in normal relationship to the SMA in 11/38 patients (29%) with malrotation, compared to 79% of normal controls. In 10 controls, a branch of the SMV was partially wrapped around the SMA, potentially mimicking partial mesenteric volvulus. A retroperitoneal location of the D3 segment makes the diagnosis of malrotation unlikely but not impossible. Additional imaging of the duodenojejunal junction or cecum may be necessary to reliably exclude intestinal malrotation. (orig.)

  10. MRI appearance of radiation-induced changes of normal cervical tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noemayr, A.; Lell, M.; Bautz, W.; Sweeney, R.; Lukas, P.

    2001-01-01

    Irradiation causes specific MRI changes in anatomic morphology and signal intensity. To avoid misinterpretation, it is important to consider the potential radiation changes of normal tissue in MRI. The aim of this study was to describe the detected radiation effects on normal cervical tissues in MRI. Pretreatment and posttreatment MRI of 52 patients with primary neck tumors were evaluated retrospectively. The MR imaging was performed before initiating radiotherapy and at the end of the treatment period. Patients underwent follow-up studies within 24 months after the end of irradiation. Edema was the main radiation-induced effect. It was detected in the epiglottis, larynx, pharynx wall, retro- and parapharyngeal space, salivary glands, muscles, and subcutaneous tissue. In some cases the bone marrow of the mandible showed edema, due to osteonecrosis. We additionally detected fluid accumulation in the mastoid cells. Radiation caused volume reduction of the parotid gland, thickening of the pharynx wall, and fatty degeneration of bone marrow. Magnetic resonance imaging is an excellent method of depicting radiation-induced changes of normal tissue. Especially T2-weighted sequences allow the detection of even slight edema. It is important to be aware of the most common radiation-induced changes in MRI and to take them into account when assessing an examination. (orig.)

  11. Normal MR appearances of the posterior pituitary in central diabetes insipidus associated with septo-optic dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abernethy, L.J.; Qunibi, M.A.; Smith, C.S.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the pituitary in children with central diabetes insipidus usually shows absence of the normal high signal within the posterior gland. The high signal of the normal posterior pituitary is thought to be due to the presence of intra- cellular storage granules of vasopressin. MR imaging has been advocated as a useful investigation to aid in the distinction between central diabetes insipidus and other causes of thirst and polydipsia. We report the case of an infant with central diabetes insipidus in association with septo-optic dysplasia in whom MR imaging showed normal appearances of the posterior pituitary. The mechanism of central diabetes insipidus in this case may be related to a failure of hypothalamic function affecting osmoreception, rather than to a deficiency of vasopressin. Normal MR appearances of the pituitary do not exclude central diabetes insipidus in infants with midline cerebral malformations. (orig.). With 1 fig

  12. Normal MR appearances of the posterior pituitary in central diabetes insipidus associated with septo-optic dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abernethy, L.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Royal Liverpool Children`s Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Qunibi, M.A. [Depts. of Radiology and Child Health, Royal Liverpool Children`s Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Smith, C.S. [Depts. of Radiology and Child Health, Royal Liverpool Children`s Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the pituitary in children with central diabetes insipidus usually shows absence of the normal high signal within the posterior gland. The high signal of the normal posterior pituitary is thought to be due to the presence of intra- cellular storage granules of vasopressin. MR imaging has been advocated as a useful investigation to aid in the distinction between central diabetes insipidus and other causes of thirst and polydipsia. We report the case of an infant with central diabetes insipidus in association with septo-optic dysplasia in whom MR imaging showed normal appearances of the posterior pituitary. The mechanism of central diabetes insipidus in this case may be related to a failure of hypothalamic function affecting osmoreception, rather than to a deficiency of vasopressin. Normal MR appearances of the pituitary do not exclude central diabetes insipidus in infants with midline cerebral malformations. (orig.). With 1 fig.

  13. Exercise left ventricular performance in patients with chest pain, ischemic-appearing exercise electrocardiograms, and angiographically normal coronary arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.J.; Sands, M.J.; Davies, R.A.; Wackers, F.J.; Alexander, J.; Lachman, A.S.; Williams, B.W.; Zaret, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    Left ventricular performance was evaluated using first-pass radionuclide angiocardiography in 31 patients with chest pain, an ischemic-appearing exercise electrocardiogram, and angiographically normal coronary arteries at rest and during maximal upright bicycle exercise. 201 Tl imaging was done in all patients after treadmill exercise and in selected patients after ergonovine provocation. Resting left ventricular performance was normal in all patients. An abnormal ejection fraction response to exercise was detected in 12 of 31 patients. Regional dysfunction was present during exercise in four patients, all of whom also had abnormal global responses. Three of these 12 patients and two additional patients had exercise-induced 201 Tl perfusion defects. In all nine patients who underwent ergonovine testing, there was no suggestion of coronary arterial spasm. Thus, left ventricular dysfunction during exercise, in the presence of normal resting performance, was found in a substantial number of patients with chest pain, an ischemic-appearing exercise electrocardiogram, and normal coronary arteries

  14. Normal appearance of the prostate and seminal tract: MR imaging using an endorectal surface coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myeong Jin; Lee, Jong Tae; Lee, Moo Sang; Choi, Pil Sik; Hong, Sung Joon; Lee, Yeon Hee; Choi, Hak Yong

    1994-01-01

    To assess the ability of MR imaging with an endorectal surface coil for the depiction of normal anatomical structure of prostate and its adjacent organs. MR imaging using an endorectal surface coil was performed in 23 male patients(age ; 20-75) to evaluate various prostatic and vasovesicular disorders, i. e, 14 cases of ejaculatory problems, 3 cases of hypogonadism, and 4 cases of prostatic cancers and 2 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia. MR images were obtained with axial, sagittal and coronal fast spin echo long TR/TE images and axial spin echo short TR/TE images. Field of views was 10-12 cm and scan thickness was 3-5 mm. Depiction of normal anatomcial structures was excellent in all cases. On T2WI, zonal anatomy of the prostate and prostatic urethra, urethral crest, and ejaculatory duct were cleary visualized. On T1WI, periprostatic fat plane is more cleary visualized. On transverse images, periprostatic structures were well visualized on T1WI,and on T2WI, anterior fibromuscular stroma, transition zone and peripheral zone could be readily differentiated. Coronal images were more helpful in visualization of both central and peripheral zones. Vas deferens, ejaculatory duct and vermontanum were also more easily defined on these images. Sagittal images was helpful in the depiction of anterior fibromuscular stroma, central zone and peripheral zone with prostatic urethra and ejaculatory duct in a single plane. High resolution MR imaging with an endorectal surface coil can readily visualize the normal anatomy of the prostate and its related structures and may be useful in the evaluation of various diseases of prostate and vasvesicular system

  15. Normal appearance of the prostate and seminal tract: MR imaging using an endorectal surface coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myeong Jin; Lee, Jong Tae; Lee, Moo Sang; Choi, Pil Sik; Hong, Sung Joon; Lee, Yeon Hee; Choi, Hak Yong [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-15

    To assess the ability of MR imaging with an endorectal surface coil for the depiction of normal anatomical structure of prostate and its adjacent organs. MR imaging using an endorectal surface coil was performed in 23 male patients(age ; 20-75) to evaluate various prostatic and vasovesicular disorders, i. e, 14 cases of ejaculatory problems, 3 cases of hypogonadism, and 4 cases of prostatic cancers and 2 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia. MR images were obtained with axial, sagittal and coronal fast spin echo long TR/TE images and axial spin echo short TR/TE images. Field of views was 10-12 cm and scan thickness was 3-5 mm. Depiction of normal anatomcial structures was excellent in all cases. On T2WI, zonal anatomy of the prostate and prostatic urethra, urethral crest, and ejaculatory duct were cleary visualized. On T1WI, periprostatic fat plane is more cleary visualized. On transverse images, periprostatic structures were well visualized on T1WI,and on T2WI, anterior fibromuscular stroma, transition zone and peripheral zone could be readily differentiated. Coronal images were more helpful in visualization of both central and peripheral zones. Vas deferens, ejaculatory duct and vermontanum were also more easily defined on these images. Sagittal images was helpful in the depiction of anterior fibromuscular stroma, central zone and peripheral zone with prostatic urethra and ejaculatory duct in a single plane. High resolution MR imaging with an endorectal surface coil can readily visualize the normal anatomy of the prostate and its related structures and may be useful in the evaluation of various diseases of prostate and vasvesicular system.

  16. Normal thymus in adults: appearance on CT and associations with age, sex, BMI and smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Tetsuro; Nishino, Mizuki; Hatabu, Hiroto; Gao, Wei; Dupuis, Josee; Hunninghake, Gary M.; Washko, George R.; Murakami, Takamichi; O'Connor, George T.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate CT appearance and size of the thymus in association with participant characteristics. 2540 supposedly healthy participants (mean age 58.9 years, 51 % female) were evaluated for the CT appearance of thymic glands with four-point scores (according to the ratio of fat and soft tissue), size and morphology. These were correlated with participants' age, sex, BMI and smoking history. Of 2540 participants, 1869 (74 %) showed complete fatty replacement of the thymus (Score 0), 463 (18 %) predominantly fatty attenuation (Score 1), 172 (7 %) half fatty and half soft-tissue attenuation (Score 2) and 36 (1 %) solid thymic gland with predominantly soft-tissue attenuation (Score 3). Female participants showed less fatty degeneration of the thymus with higher thymic scores within age 40-69 years (P < 0.001). Participants with lower thymic scores showed higher BMI (P < 0.001) and were more likely to be former smokers (P < 0.001) with higher pack-years (P = 0.04). Visual assessment with four-point thymic scores revealed a sex difference in the fatty degeneration of the thymus with age. Women show significantly higher thymic scores, suggesting less fat content of the thymus, during age 40-69 years. Cigarette smoking and high BMI are associated with advanced fatty replacement of the thymus. (orig.)

  17. Normal thymus in adults: appearance on CT and associations with age, sex, BMI and smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Tetsuro [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka-Sayama (Japan); Nishino, Mizuki; Hatabu, Hiroto [Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Gao, Wei [Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA (United States); Dupuis, Josee [Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA (United States); The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute' s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA (United States); Hunninghake, Gary M.; Washko, George R. [Harvard Medical School, The Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Murakami, Takamichi [Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka-Sayama (Japan); O' Connor, George T. [The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute' s Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA (United States); Boston University School of Medicine, Pulmonary Center and Department of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-01-15

    To investigate CT appearance and size of the thymus in association with participant characteristics. 2540 supposedly healthy participants (mean age 58.9 years, 51 % female) were evaluated for the CT appearance of thymic glands with four-point scores (according to the ratio of fat and soft tissue), size and morphology. These were correlated with participants' age, sex, BMI and smoking history. Of 2540 participants, 1869 (74 %) showed complete fatty replacement of the thymus (Score 0), 463 (18 %) predominantly fatty attenuation (Score 1), 172 (7 %) half fatty and half soft-tissue attenuation (Score 2) and 36 (1 %) solid thymic gland with predominantly soft-tissue attenuation (Score 3). Female participants showed less fatty degeneration of the thymus with higher thymic scores within age 40-69 years (P < 0.001). Participants with lower thymic scores showed higher BMI (P < 0.001) and were more likely to be former smokers (P < 0.001) with higher pack-years (P = 0.04). Visual assessment with four-point thymic scores revealed a sex difference in the fatty degeneration of the thymus with age. Women show significantly higher thymic scores, suggesting less fat content of the thymus, during age 40-69 years. Cigarette smoking and high BMI are associated with advanced fatty replacement of the thymus. (orig.)

  18. Flowing cerebrospinal fluid in normal and hydrocephalic states: Appearance on MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, W.G.; Kortman, K.E.; Burgoyne, B.; Eng, D.

    1986-01-01

    The signal intensity of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the cerebral aqueduct and lateral ventricles on magnetic resonance (MR) images was evaluated in 16 healthy individuals and in 32 patients with various forms of hydrocephalus (20 with chronic normal pressure hydrocephalus [NPH], seven with acute communicating hydrocephalus, and five with hydrocephalus ex vacuo [atrophy]). The low signal intensity frequently observed in the cerebral aqueduct is believed to reflect the pulsatile motion of CSF, which is related to the cardiac cycle. While this aqueductal flow void phenomenon can be observed in healthy individuals, it is most pronounced in patients with chronic, communicating NPH; is less evident in patients with acute, communicating hydrocephalus and is least evident in patients with atrophy. Ventricular compliance is known to be essentially normal in atrophy, mildly decreased in acute, communicating hydrocephalus; and severely decreased in NPH. The degree of aqueductal signal loss is believed to reflect the velocity of the pulsatile CSF motion, which in turn depends on the relative ventricular compliance and surface area

  19. Quantitative Anthropometric Measures of Facial Appearance of Healthy Hispanic/Latino White Children: Establishing Reference Data for Care of Cleft Lip With or Without Cleft Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juhun; Ku, Brian; Combs, Patrick D.; Da Silveira, Adriana. C.; Markey, Mia K.

    2017-06-01

    Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL ± P) is one of the most common congenital facial deformities worldwide. To minimize negative social consequences of CL ± P, reconstructive surgery is conducted to modify the face to a more normal appearance. Each race/ethnic group requires its own facial norm data, yet there are no existing facial norm data for Hispanic/Latino White children. The objective of this paper is to identify measures of facial appearance relevant for planning reconstructive surgery for CL ± P of Hispanic/Latino White children. Quantitative analysis was conducted on 3D facial images of 82 (41 girls, 41 boys) healthy Hispanic/Latino White children whose ages ranged from 7 to 12 years. Twenty-eight facial anthropometric features related to CL ± P (mainly in the nasal and mouth area) were measured from 3D facial images. In addition, facial aesthetic ratings were obtained from 16 non-clinical observers for the same 3D facial images using a 7-point Likert scale. Pearson correlation analysis was conducted to find features that were correlated with the panel ratings of observers. Boys with a longer face and nose, or thicker upper and lower lips are considered more attractive than others while girls with a less curved middle face contour are considered more attractive than others. Associated facial landmarks for these features are primary focus areas for reconstructive surgery for CL ± P. This study identified anthropometric measures of facial features of Hispanic/Latino White children that are pertinent to CL ± P and which correlate with the panel attractiveness ratings.

  20. Can ultrasound of plantar plate have normal appearance with a positive drawer test?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Eloy de Avila [Affiliated Professor, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (EPM-Unifesp), São Paulo (Brazil); Mann, Tania Szejnfeld [Medical Assistant of Medicine and Surgery of the Foot and Ankle Group, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Puchnick, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.ddi@epm.br [Professor and Coordinator of Educational and Research Support, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Tertulino, Franklin de Freitas [Postgraduate Physician, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Cannato, Camila Testoni [Resident Physician, Department of Surgery, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Nery, Caio [Associate Professor, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil); Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Corrêa [Associate Professor, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, EPM-Unifesp, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: •We evaluate the accuracy of ultrasound to identify and measure the plantar plate. •We correlate ultrasound findings with those of physical examination and MRI. •Ultrasound and MRI measures of plantar plate were positively correlated. •Ultrasound is efficient in identifying and measuring plantar plate. •Ultrasound may complement physical examination. •Young asymptomatic subjects can present a grade I positive drawer test. -- Abstract: Objectives: The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the reliability of ultrasound (US) examination in the identification and measurement of the metatarsophalangeal plantar plate (MTP-PP) in asymptomatic subjects and (2) to establish the correlation of US findings with those of physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), once it is an important tool in the evaluation of the instability syndrome of the second and third rays. Materials and Methods: US examinations of the second and third MTP-PPs were performed in eight asymptomatic volunteers, totaling 32 MTP joints, by three examiners with different levels of experience in musculoskeletal US. Plantar plate dimensions, integrity and echogenicity, the presence of ruptures, and confidence level in terms of structure identification were determined using conventional US. Vascular flow was assessed using power Doppler. US data were correlated with data from physical examination and MRI. Results: MTP-PPs were ultrasonographically identified in 100% of cases, always showing homogeneous hyperechoic features and no detectable vascular flow on power Doppler, with 100% certainty in identification for all examiners. There was excellent US inter-observer agreement for longitudinal measures of second and third toe MTP-PPs and for transverse measures of the second toe MTP-PP. The MTP drawer test was positive for grade 1 MTP instability in 34.4% of joints with normal US results. Transverse MTP-PP measures were significantly higher in individuals with positive

  1. Pediatric spinal bone marrow: assessment of normal age-related changes in the MRI appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebag, G.H.; Dubois, J.; Tabet, M.; Bonato, A.; Lallemand, D.

    1993-01-01

    A retrospective study of 100 children (0-15 years) without known bone marrow abnormality, was performed to elucidate the spectrum of the MRI appearance of spinal bone marrow with age on T1-weighted images at 0.5 T. Fatty marrow distribution and vertebral signal intensity (SI) relative to disk SI were noted in each subject, and allowed the identification of distinctive patterns. The spinal marrow patterns and their relative frequency for different age groupps were consistent with the known physiologic conversion from cellular to fatty marrow with age. Between the ages of 0 and 1 year, SI of corporeal ossification centers was similar or lower than SI of adjacent cartilage and disk in 87% of cases. Between the ages of 5 and 15 years, vertebral SI was higher than SI of adjacent disks in 90% of cases. A central or basivertebral zone of high SI consistent with focal fatty marrow was found in 16% and 31% of cases respectively. In conclusion, knowledge of these conversion patterns should serve as a practical aid in the interpretation of MRI examinations of the spine in children. (orig.)

  2. The influence of inhalation technique on Technegas particle deposition and image appearance in normal volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, J.J.; James, J.M.; Shields, R.A.; Testa, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of inhalation technique on Technegas image quality and on fractional particle deposition. This was investigated in six normal volunteers using three different types of breathing pattern. Fractional deposition was determined by analysis of dynamic gamma camera images acquired during Technegas administration. Static lung images were subsequently acquired and assessed independently by three experienced observers. High-quality images were obtained in all cases although slight differences were noted. The images produced using a slow deep inspiration with a breath hold (i.e. the standard method) were of more uniform texture and also had the least gradient in activity from apex to base. The converse was true for a rapid inhalation technique. The average fractional deposition per breath was 55%, but this varied between individuals and with breathing pattern, being most influenced by the total duration of a breath. We conclude that for patient studies the standard inhalation technique is best, although variation to suit individual patients would be acceptable. (orig./MG)

  3. Normal frontal lobe gray matter-white matter CT volume ratio in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.R.; Engelhart, J.; Hasso, A.N.; Hinshaw, D.B. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    We attempted to establish a computed tomographic value representing the normal volume ratio of gray matter to white matter (G/W) in children in order to have a baseline for studying various developmental disorders such as white matter hypoplasia. The records of 150 children 16 years of age or younger who had normal cranial computed tomography were reviewed. From these a group of 119 were excluded for various reasons. The remaining 3 were presumed to have normal brains. Using the region of interest function for tracing gray and white matter boundaries, superior and ventral to the foramen of Munro area, measurements were determined for consecutive adjacent frontal slices. Volumes were then calculated for both gray and white matter. A volume ratio of 2.010 (sigma=0.349), G/W, was then derived from each of 31 children. The clinical value of this ratio will be determined by future investigation. (orig.)

  4. Superior Cervical Sympathetic Ganglion: Normal Imaging Appearance on 3T-MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo Yeon; Lee, Jeong Hyun [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 05505 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Joon Seon; Song, Min Jeong [Department of Pathology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 05505 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Seung-Jun [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 05505 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ra Gyoung [Department of Radiology, Catholic Kwandong University International St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic Kwandong University College of Medicine, Incheon 22711 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Seung Won; Park, Ji Eun [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 05505 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Young Jin [Department of Radiology, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan 47392 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young Jun; Baek, Jung Hwan [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 05505 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    To identify superior cervical sympathetic ganglion (SCSG) and describe their characteristic MR appearance using 3T-MRI. In this prospective study, we recruited 53 consecutive patients without history of head and neck irradiation. Using anatomic location based on literature review, both sides of the neck were evaluated to identify SCSGs in consensus. SCSGs were divided into definite (medial to internal carotid artery [ICA] and lateral to longus capitis muscle [LCM]) and probable SCSGs based on relative location to ICA and LCM. Two readers evaluated signal characteristics including intraganglionic hypointensity of all SCSGs and relative location of probable SCSGs. Interrater and intrarater agreements were quantified using unweighted kappa. Ninety-one neck sites in 53 patients were evaluated after exclusion of 15 neck sites with pathology. Definite SCSGs were identified at 66 (73%) sites, and probable SCSGs were found in 25 (27%). Probable SCSGs were located anterior to LCM in 16 (18%), lateral to ICA in 6 (7%), and posterior to ICA in 3 (3%). Intraganglionic hypointensity was identified in 82 (90%) on contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted images. There was no statistical difference in the relative location between definite and probable SCSGs of the right and left sides with intragnalionic hypointensity on difference pulse sequences. Interrater and intrarater agreements on the location and intraganglionic hypointensity were excellent (κ-value, 0.749–1.000). 3T-MRI identified definite SCSGs at 73% of neck sites and varied location of the remaining SCSGs. Intraganglionic hypointensity was a characteristic feature of SCSGs.

  5. Superior cervical sympathetic ganglion: Normal imaging appearance on 3T-MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo Yeon; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Song, Joon Seon [Dept. of Radiology, and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2016-09-15

    To identify superior cervical sympathetic ganglion (SCSG) and describe their characteristic MR appearance using 3T-MRI. In this prospective study, we recruited 53 consecutive patients without history of head and neck irradiation. Using anatomic location based on literature review, both sides of the neck were evaluated to identify SCSGs in consensus. SCSGs were divided into definite (medial to internal carotid artery [ICA] and lateral to longus capitis muscle [LCM]) and probable SCSGs based on relative location to ICA and LCM. Two readers evaluated signal characteristics including intraganglionic hypointensity of all SCSGs and relative location of probable SCSGs. Interrater and intrarater agreements were quantified using unweighted kappa. Ninety-one neck sites in 53 patients were evaluated after exclusion of 15 neck sites with pathology. Definite SCSGs were identified at 66 (73%) sites, and probable SCSGs were found in 25 (27%). Probable SCSGs were located anterior to LCM in 16 (18%), lateral to ICA in 6 (7%), and posterior to ICA in 3 (3%). Intraganglionic hypointensity was identified in 82 (90%) on contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted images. There was no statistical difference in the relative location between definite and probable SCSGs of the right and left sides with intragnalionic hypointensity on difference pulse sequences. Interrater and intrarater agreements on the location and intraganglionic hypointensity were excellent (κ-value, 0.749–1.000). 3T-MRI identified definite SCSGs at 73% of neck sites and varied location of the remaining SCSGs. Intraganglionic hypointensity was a characteristic feature of SCSGs.

  6. Normalization of reverse redistribution of thallium-201 with procainamide pretreatment in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nii, T.; Nakashima, Y.; Nomoto, J.; Hiroki, T.; Ohshima, F.; Arakawa, K.

    1991-01-01

    Stress thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging was performed in a patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Reverse redistribution phenomenon was observed in the absence of coronary artery disease. This seems to be the first report of normalization of this phenomenon in association with reversion of accessory pathway to normal atrioventricular conduction after pretreatment with procainamide

  7. Normalization of reverse redistribution of thallium-201 with procainamide pretreatment in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nii, T.; Nakashima, Y.; Nomoto, J.; Hiroki, T.; Ohshima, F.; Arakawa, K. (Fukuoka Univ. School of Medicine (Japan))

    1991-03-01

    Stress thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging was performed in a patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Reverse redistribution phenomenon was observed in the absence of coronary artery disease. This seems to be the first report of normalization of this phenomenon in association with reversion of accessory pathway to normal atrioventricular conduction after pretreatment with procainamide.

  8. A study of chemical profiles and appearance of white crystals in Istrian dry-cured ham: effect of desalting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Medić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to find out the effect on physical-chemical profile of Istrian dry-cured ham with particular regard to the appearance of white crystals in the muscles, raw salted legs were desalted by soaking the legs in cold water for 24 hours. The 20 raw hams taken from 10 slaughtered hogs (Swedish Landrace breed and processed in the traditional Istrian manner were used. After salting and pressing, the raw hams were divided into two groups: 1 the 10 left legs of each hog were desalted (D; 2 the 10 right legs were not desalted (N. Following this, both groups of legs were subjected to continuous processing. Samples for chemical analysis and counting of white spots were taken from the 20 legs (10 N and 10 D from 10 hogs, each weighing 12 to 15 kg. Chemical analysis of muscle tissue showed a highly significant difference (P<0.0001 in the salt quantity in the N (6.85% and D (5.31% dry-cured hams, as expected. Desalting affected the level of calcium which was higher (P=0.0124 in the D hams (0.27 g than in the N hams (0.22 g. Desalting did not affect the free amino acid content, with the exception of methionine which was lower (P=0.0041 in D (0.14 g than in N hams (0.17 g. Desalting affected the level of two free fatty acids as follows: heptadecanoic acid was higher (P=0.0203 in N (0.18% than in D hams (0.24% and DPA was higher (P=0.0373 in N (0.49% than in D hams (0.39%. By counting the white precipitates, it was established that the regularity of appearance of the precipitate was noted on both the D and N hams, such that where there was no precipitate on the right N ham, nor was their any on the left D ham of the same hog. However, desalting only lead to a slight decrease in the appearance of precipitates (average of 0.7 points, but it is certain that desalting reduces the salt content in the legs, which affects some physical- chemical changes in the ham tissues during processing.

  9. Normal Axillary Lymph Node Variability Between White and Black Women on Breast MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Lars J; Viradia, Neal K; Johnson, Karen S

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to determine if there were differences in the imaging features of normal lymph nodes between white and black women using magnetic resonance imaging. Following institutional review board approval, we identified white and black women who underwent breast magnetic resonance imaging from November 1, 2008 to December 31, 2013 at our institution. To identify normal lymph nodes for measurement, patients with any benign or malignant causes for lymph node enlargement and patients with any subsequent breast cancer in the following 2 years were excluded. Black and white women were age matched at a 1:2 ratio. The largest lymph node in each axilla was measured for the long-axis length and maximal cortical thickness. Comparisons were made between white and black women using a conditional logistic regression to control for matching. There were 55 black women and 110 white women for analysis. The mean lymph node long-axis length was 14.7 ± 5.3 mm for black women and 14.4 ± 6.4 mm for white women (P = .678). The mean maximum cortical thickness was 3.3 ± 1.6 mm for black women and 2.6 ± 1.4 mm for Caucasian women (P < .001). A significantly higher percentage of black than white women had cortical thicknesses greater than threshold values of 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 mm (P < .01 for all). The normal lymph node cortical thickness in black women is significantly greater than in white women, which should be considered when deciding to recommend a lymph node biopsy. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Age-related changes of diffusional anisotropy in the cerebral white matter in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Asano, Tetsuichi; Ogawa, Kimikazu; Takasaki, Masaru; Shindo, Hiroaki; Kakizaki, Dai; Abe, Kimihiko

    1997-01-01

    To investigate age-related changes of diffusional anisotropy in the cerebral white matter, we performed diffusion-weighted MRI studies in 21 normal subjects aged 25 to 96 years. The anisotropic rations (ARs), defined as the apparent diffusion coefficients perpendicular to the nerve fibers to those parallel to the nerve fibers, were significantly higher in elderly than in young subjects in the anterior and posterior white matter surrounding the lateral ventricle. Moreover, significant correlation between age and AR was found in the anterior white matter. The ventricular index (VI) measured on MRI, as a quantitative indicator of brain atrophy, was significantly higher in elderly than younger subjects, and significantly correlated with AR in the anterior white matter. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the VI showed the highest correlation for AR. On the other hand, there was no significant correlations between ARs in the corpus callosum and age. These results suggest that morphological changes in the myelin and axon in the white matter occur in elderly normal subjects, probably due to neuronal loss with aging. (author)

  11. Preliminary study of normal changes in brain white matter during childhood with diffusion tensor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Jiangxi; Guo Xuemei; Xie Sheng; Wang Xiaoying; Jiang Xuexiang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the normal changes in brain white matter during childhood by analyzing the anisotropy of different regions and different age groups with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Methods: DTI was performed in 89 children (age range from 2 days to 18 years) without brain abnormalities, and the data measured in fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were analyzed statistically. Children less than 6 months were ranged to group 1, 6-12 months to group 2, 1-3 years to group 3, 3-5 years to group 4, 5-8 years to group 5, 8-12 years to group 6, 12-18 years to group 7. Results: (1) There were significant differences in anisotropy (FA values) among different regions of white matter in brain. In group 7, the FA value of corpus callosum was 0.826 ± 0.039, middle cerebellar peduncle 0.678 ± 0.043, frontal white matter 0.489 ± 0.033. (2) The anisotropy among different age group was statistically different, P<0.05. (3) The anisotropy of white matter increased with the increasing of age, and FA values showed positively exponentially correlations with age. Conclusion: DTI shows the structure of white matters in vivo, with which normal changes in brain during childhood can be evaluated. (authors)

  12. Normal magnetic resonance appearances of the temporomandibular joints in children and young adults aged 2-18 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angenete, Oskar W.; Augdal, Thomas A.; Jellestad, Stig; Rygg, Marite; Rosendahl, Karen

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge of normal appearances of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is paramount when assessing the joint for disease in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Reliable features defining normal TMJs in children are limited. To establish reliable normal standards for the TMJ at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We included children and young adults aged 2-18 years undergoing a head MRI for reasons not believed to affect the TMJs. We assessed TMJ anatomy and contrast enhancement using a high-resolution 3-D T1-weighted sequence. We noted joint fluid and bone marrow oedema based on a T2-weighted sequence. Three experienced radiologists read all examinations twice in consensus and defined intraobserver consensus agreement. We evaluated the TMJs in 101 children and young adults (45 female), mean age 10.7 years (range 2-18 years). The intraobserver consensus agreement for the assessment of anterior condylar inclination in the sagittal/oblique plane was moderate to good (Cohen κ=0.7 for the right side). Cohen κ for intraobserver consensus agreement for condylar shape in the coronal plane on a 0-2 scale was 0.4 for the right and 0.6 for the left. Intraobserver agreement for measurement of joint space height and assessment of bone marrow oedema was poor. There was a statistically significant increase in anterior inclination by age in the sagittal plane on a 0-2 scale (P<0.0001). Eighty percent of the condyles showed a rounded shape in the coronal plane while 20% showed mild flattening. Thirty-five of 36 right TMJs showed contrast enhancement (mild enhancement in 32 joints, moderate in 3 joints). Subjective assessment of the anterior condylar inclination in the sagittal/oblique plane and condylar flattening in the coronal plane can be considered precise features for describing TMJ anatomy in healthy children. There is an increasing anterior inclination by age. Mild contrast enhancement of the TMJs should be considered a normal finding. (orig.)

  13. Macro-environment of breast carcinoma: frequent genetic alterations in the normal appearing skins of patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moinfar, Farid; Beham, Alfred; Friedrich, Gerhard; Deutsch, Alexander; Hrzenjak, Andelko; Luschin, Gero; Tavassoli, Fattaneh A

    2008-05-01

    Genetic abnormalities in microenvironmental tissues with subsequent alterations of reciprocal interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal cells play a key role in the breast carcinogenesis. Although a few reports have demonstrated abnormal fibroblastic functions in normal-appearing fibroblasts taken from the skins of breast cancer patients, the genetic basis of this phenomenon and its implication for carcinogenesis are unexplored. We analyzed 12 mastectomy specimens showing invasive ductal carcinomas. In each case, morphologically normal epidermis and dermis, carcinoma, normal stroma close to carcinoma, and stroma at a distant from carcinoma were microdissected. Metastatic-free lymphatic tissues from lymph nodes served as a control. Using PCR, DNA extracts were examined with 11 microsatellite markers known for a high frequency of allelic imbalances in breast cancer. Losses of heterozygosity and/or microsatellite instability were detected in 83% of the skin samples occurring either concurrently with or independently from the cancerous tissues. In 80% of these cases at least one microsatellite marker displayed loss of heterozygosity or microsatellite instability in the skin, which was absent in carcinoma. A total of 41% of samples showed alterations of certain loci observed exclusively in the carcinoma but not in the skin compartments. Our study suggests that breast cancer is not just a localized genetic disorder, but rather part of a larger field of genetic alterations/instabilities affecting multiple cell populations in the organ with various cellular elements, ultimately contributing to the manifestation of the more 'localized' carcinoma. These data indicate that more global assessment of tumor micro- and macro-environment is crucial for our understanding of breast carcinogenesis.

  14. Radiographic protocol and normal anatomy of the hind feet in the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Robert J; Wood, Simon P; Hutchinson, John R; Weller, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Foot pathology is a common and important health concern in captive rhinoceroses worldwide, but osteopathologies are rarely diagnosed, partly because of a lack of radiographic protocols. Here, we aimed to develop the first radiographic protocol for rhinoceros feet and describe the radiographic anatomy of the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) hind foot (pes). Computed tomographic images were obtained of nine cadaver pedes from seven different white rhinoceroses and assessed for pathology. A single foot deemed free of pathology was radiographed using a range of different projections and exposures to determine the best protocol. 3D models were produced from the CT images and were displayed with the real radiographs to describe the normal radiographic anatomy of the white rhinoceros pes. An optimal radiographic projection was determined for each bone in the rhinoceros pes focusing on highlighting areas where pathology has been previously described. The projections deemed to be most useful were D60Pr-PlDiO (digit III), D45Pr45M-PlDiLO (digit II), and D40Pr35L-PlDiLO (digit IV). The primary beam was centered 5-7 cm proximal to the cuticle on the digit of interest. Articular surfaces, ridges, grooves, tubercles, processes and fossae were identified. The radiographic protocol we have developed along with the normal radiographic anatomy we have described will allow for more accessible and effective diagnosis of white rhinoceros foot osteopathologies. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  15. Controlling the magic and normal sizes of white CdSe quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Sheng; Chung, Shu-Ru

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we have demonstrated a facile chemical route to prepare CdSe QDs with white light emission, and the performance of white CdSe-based white light emitting diode (WLED) is also exploded. An organic oleic acid (OA) is used to form Cd-OA complex first and hexadecylamine (HDA) and 1-octadecene (ODE) is used as surfactants. Meanwhile, by varying the reaction time from 1 s to 60 min, CdSe QDs with white light can be obtained. The result shows that the luminescence spectra compose two obvious emission peaks and entire visible light from 400 to 700 nm, when the reaction time less than 10 min. The wide emission wavelength combine two particle sizes of CdSe, magic and normal, and the magic-CdSe has band-edge and surface-state emission, while normal size only possess band-edge emission. The TEM characterization shows that the two different sizes with diameter of 1.5 nm and 2.7 nm for magic and normal size CdSe QDs can be obtained when the reaction time is 4 min. We can find that the magic size of CdSe is produced when the reaction time is less than 3 min. In the time ranges from 3 to 10 min, two sizes of CdSe QDs are formed, and with QY from 20 to 60 %. Prolong the reaction time to 60 min, only normal size of CdSe QD can be observed due to the Ostwald repining, and its QYs is 8 %. Based on the results we can conclude that the two emission peaks are generated from the coexistence of magic size and normal size CdSe to form the white light QDs, and the QY and emission wavelength of CdSe QDs can be increased with prolonging reaction time. The sample reacts for 2 (QY 30 %), 4 (QY 32 %) and 60 min (QY 8 %) are choosing to mixes with transparent acrylic-based UV curable resin for WLED fabrication. The Commission International d'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity, color rendering index (CRI), and luminous efficacy for magic, mix, and normal size CdSe are (0.49, 0.44), 81, 1.5 lm/W, (0.35, 0.30), 86, 1.9 lm/W, and (0.39, 0.25), 40, 0.3 lm/W, respectively.

  16. Exposure to meat-derived carcinogens and bulky DNA adduct levels in normal-appearing colon mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Vikki; Brunetti, Vanessa; Peacock, Sarah; Massey, Thomas E; Godschalk, Roger W L; van Schooten, Frederik J; Ashbury, Janet E; Vanner, Stephen J; King, Will D

    2017-09-01

    Meat consumption is a risk factor for colorectal cancer. This research investigated the relationship between meat-derived carcinogen exposure and bulky DNA adduct levels, a biomarker of DNA damage, in colon mucosa. Least squares regression was used to examine the relationship between meat-derived carcinogen exposure (PhIP and meat mutagenicity) and bulky DNA adduct levels in normal-appearing colon tissue measured using 32 P-postlabelling among 202 patients undergoing a screening colonoscopy. Gene-diet interactions between carcinogen exposure and genetic factors relevant to biotransformation and DNA repair were also examined. Genotyping was conducting using the MassARRAY ® iPLEX ® Gold SNP Genotyping assay. PhIP and higher meat mutagenicity exposures were not associated with levels of bulky DNA adducts in colon mucosa. The XPC polymorphism (rs2228001) was found to associate with bulky DNA adduct levels, whereby genotypes conferring lower DNA repair activity were associated with higher DNA adduct levels than the normal activity genotype. Among individuals with genotypes associated with lower DNA repair (XPD, rs13181 and rs1799179) or detoxification activity (GSTP1, rs1695), higher PhIP or meat mutagenicity exposures were associated with higher DNA adduct levels. Significant interactions between the XPC polymorphism (rs2228000) and both dietary PhIP and meat mutagenicity on DNA adduct levels was observed, but associations were inconsistent with the a priori hypothesized direction of effect. Exposure to meat-derived carcinogens may be associated with increased DNA damage occurring directly in the colon among genetically susceptible individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Arcuate ligament of the wrist: normal MR appearance and its relationship to palmar midcarpal instability: a cadaveric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Weiling; Peduto, Anthony J.; Aguiar, Rodrigo O.C.; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    To describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and gross anatomic appearance of the scaphocapitate (SC) ligament and triquetrohamocapitate (THC) ligament, which are the radial and ulnar limbs of the composite arcuate ligament, a critical volar midcarpal stabilizing ligament. T1 spin-echo and 3D gradient-echo MR imaging in the standard, coronal oblique, and axial oblique planes were performed both before and following midcarpal arthrography in seven cadaveric wrists. The seven specimens were then sectioned in selected planes to optimally visualize the SC and THC ligaments. These specimens were analyzed and correlated with their corresponding MR images. The SC and THC ligaments can be visualized in MR images as structures of low signal intensity that form an inverted ''V'' joining the proximal and distal carpal rows. The entire ligamentous complex is best visualized with coronal and axial oblique MR imaging but can also be seen in standard imaging planes. SC and THC ligaments together form the arcuate ligament of the wrist. Their function is crucial to the normal functioning of the wrist. Palmar midcarpal instability (PMCI) is a resulting condition when abnormalities of these ligaments occur. Dedicated MR imaging in the coronal and axial imaging planes can be performed in patients suspected of having PCMI. (orig.)

  18. Arcuate ligament of the wrist: normal MR appearance and its relationship to palmar midcarpal instability: a cadaveric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Weiling [Veterans Administration Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Sharp-Grossmont Hospital, Department of Radiology, La Mesa, CA (United States); Peduto, Anthony J. [Veterans Administration Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Westmead Hospital and Western Clinical School of Sydney University, Department of Radiology, Sydney (Australia); Aguiar, Rodrigo O.C. [Veterans Administration Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janerio (Brazil); Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald L. [Veterans Administration Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2007-07-15

    To describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and gross anatomic appearance of the scaphocapitate (SC) ligament and triquetrohamocapitate (THC) ligament, which are the radial and ulnar limbs of the composite arcuate ligament, a critical volar midcarpal stabilizing ligament. T1 spin-echo and 3D gradient-echo MR imaging in the standard, coronal oblique, and axial oblique planes were performed both before and following midcarpal arthrography in seven cadaveric wrists. The seven specimens were then sectioned in selected planes to optimally visualize the SC and THC ligaments. These specimens were analyzed and correlated with their corresponding MR images. The SC and THC ligaments can be visualized in MR images as structures of low signal intensity that form an inverted ''V'' joining the proximal and distal carpal rows. The entire ligamentous complex is best visualized with coronal and axial oblique MR imaging but can also be seen in standard imaging planes. SC and THC ligaments together form the arcuate ligament of the wrist. Their function is crucial to the normal functioning of the wrist. Palmar midcarpal instability (PMCI) is a resulting condition when abnormalities of these ligaments occur. Dedicated MR imaging in the coronal and axial imaging planes can be performed in patients suspected of having PCMI. (orig.)

  19. Quantification of diffusion tensor imaging in normal white matter maturation of early childhood using an automated processing pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, K B; Ramli, N; Tan, L K; Roziah, M; Rahmat, K; Ariffin, H

    2012-07-01

    The degree and status of white matter myelination can be sensitively monitored using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). This study looks at the measurement of fractional anistropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) using an automated ROI with an existing DTI atlas. Anatomical MRI and structural DTI were performed cross-sectionally on 26 normal children (newborn to 48 months old), using 1.5-T MRI. The automated processing pipeline was implemented to convert diffusion-weighted images into the NIfTI format. DTI-TK software was used to register the processed images to the ICBM DTI-81 atlas, while AFNI software was used for automated atlas-based volumes of interest (VOIs) and statistical value extraction. DTI exhibited consistent grey-white matter contrast. Triphasic temporal variation of the FA and MD values was noted, with FA increasing and MD decreasing rapidly early in the first 12 months. The second phase lasted 12-24 months during which the rate of FA and MD changes was reduced. After 24 months, the FA and MD values plateaued. DTI is a superior technique to conventional MR imaging in depicting WM maturation. The use of the automated processing pipeline provides a reliable environment for quantitative analysis of high-throughput DTI data. Diffusion tensor imaging outperforms conventional MRI in depicting white matter maturation. • DTI will become an important clinical tool for diagnosing paediatric neurological diseases. • DTI appears especially helpful for developmental abnormalities, tumours and white matter disease. • An automated processing pipeline assists quantitative analysis of high throughput DTI data.

  20. Navigating Guilt, Shame, and Fear of Appearing Racist: A Conceptual Model of Antiracist White Feminist Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In this study, I employed narrative inquiry supported by intersectionality theory to explore the experiences of 6 antiracist, White, feminist undergraduate women. A conceptual model of antiracist identity development emerged from the data. Participants described vivid experiences with guilt, shame, and fear that kept them from engaging in allied…

  1. One-step Maskless Fabrication and Optical Characterization of Silicon Surfaces with Antireflective Properties and a White Color Appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Ling; Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Telecka, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    We report a simple one-step maskless fabrication of inverted pyramids on silicon wafers by reactive ion etching. The fabricated surface structures exhibit excellent anti-reflective properties: The total reflectance of the nano inverted pyramids fabricated by our method can be as low as 12% withou...... milky white color....

  2. Comparative study between Steiner's cephalometric-radiographic patterns and the ones of Brazilian's, white teenagers, who present normal occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingues, A.P. de.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to study comparatively the cephalometric-radiographic patterns of Steiner's analysis and the ones of Brazilians, white teenagers, who present normal occlusions. The sample was composed of fifty seven teleradiographies on lateral pattern from Brazilian teenagers. Those teenagers are white and their parents are Brazilian, descended from Mediterraneans. Also the examined teenagers had not undergone previous orthodontic treatment and as it was said above, present normal occlusion. (author) [pt

  3. Subcortical White Matter Changes with Normal Aging Detected by Multi-Shot High Resolution Diffusion Tensor Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Xie

    Full Text Available Subcortical white matter builds neural connections between cortical and subcortical regions and constitutes the basis of neural networks. It plays a very important role in normal brain function. Various studies have shown that white matter deteriorates with aging. However, due to the limited spatial resolution provided by traditional diffusion imaging techniques, microstructural information from subcortical white matter with normal aging has not been comprehensively assessed. This study aims to investigate the deterioration effect with aging in the subcortical white matter and provide a baseline standard for pathological disorder diagnosis. We apply our newly developed multi-shot high resolution diffusion tensor imaging, using self-feeding multiplexed sensitivity-encoding, to measure subcortical white matter changes in regions of interest of healthy persons with a wide age range. Results show significant fractional anisotropy decline and radial diffusivity increasing with age, especially in the anterior part of the brain. We also find that subcortical white matter has more prominent changes than white matter close to the central brain. The observed changes in the subcortical white matter may be indicative of a mild demyelination and a loss of myelinated axons, which may contribute to normal age-related functional decline.

  4. Differences in supratentorial white matter diffusion after radiotherapy - New biomarker of normal brain tissue damage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravn, Soeren; Jens Broendum Froekaer, Jens [Dept. of Radiology, Aalborg Univ. Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark)], e-mail: sorl@rn.dk; Holmberg, Mats [Dept. of Oncology, Aalborg Univ. Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark); Soerensen, Preben [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Aalborg Univ. Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark); Carl, Jesper [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Aalborg Univ. Hospital, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2013-10-15

    Introduction: Therapy-induced injury to normal brain tissue is a concern in the treatment of all types of brain tumours. The purpose of this study was to investigate if magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could serve as a potential biomarker for the assessment of radiation-induced long-term white matter injury. Material and methods: DTI- and T1-weighted images of the brain were obtained in 19 former radiotherapy patients [nine men and 10 women diagnosed with astrocytoma (4), pituitary adenoma (6), meningioma (8) and craniopharyngioma (1), average age 57.8 (range 35-71) years]. Average time from radiotherapy to DTI scan was 4.6 (range 2.0-7.1) years. NordicICE software (NIC) was used to calculate apparent diffusion coefficient maps (ADC-maps). The co-registration between T1 images and ADC-maps were done using the auto function in NIC. The co-registration between the T1 images and the patient dose plans were done using the auto function in the treatment planning system Eclipse from Varian. Regions of interest were drawn on the T1-weighted images in NIC based on iso curves from Eclipse. Data was analysed by t-test. Estimates are given with 95 % CI. Results: A mean ADC difference of 4.6(0.3;8.9) X 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.03 was found between paired white matter structures with a mean dose difference of 31.4 Gy. Comparing the ADC-values of the areas with highest dose from the paired data (dose > 33 Gy) with normal white matter (dose < 5 Gy) resulted in a mean dose difference of 44.1 Gy and a mean ADC difference of 7.87(3.15;12.60) X 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.003. Following results were obtained when looking at differences between white matter mean ADC in average dose levels from 5 to 55 Gy in steps of 10 Gy with normal white matter mean ADC: 5 Gy; 1.91(-1.76;5.58) X 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.29; 15 Gy; 5.81(1.53;10.11) X 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.01; 25 Gy; 5.80(2.43;9.18) X 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2}/s, p = 0.002; 35 Gy; 5.93(2.89;8.97) X 10

  5. Analysis of visual appearance of retinal nerve fibers in high resolution fundus images: a study on normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Radim; Tornow, Ralf P; Laemmer, Robert; Odstrcilik, Jan; Mayer, Markus A; Gazarek, Jiri; Jan, Jiri; Kubena, Tomas; Cernosek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    The retinal ganglion axons are an important part of the visual system, which can be directly observed by fundus camera. The layer they form together inside the retina is the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). This paper describes results of a texture RNFL analysis in color fundus photographs and compares these results with quantitative measurement of RNFL thickness obtained from optical coherence tomography on normal subjects. It is shown that local mean value, standard deviation, and Shannon entropy extracted from the green and blue channel of fundus images are correlated with corresponding RNFL thickness. The linear correlation coefficients achieved values 0.694, 0.547, and 0.512 for respective features measured on 439 retinal positions in the peripapillary area from 23 eyes of 15 different normal subjects.

  6. Analysis of Visual Appearance of Retinal Nerve Fibers in High Resolution Fundus Images: A Study on Normal Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radim Kolar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The retinal ganglion axons are an important part of the visual system, which can be directly observed by fundus camera. The layer they form together inside the retina is the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL. This paper describes results of a texture RNFL analysis in color fundus photographs and compares these results with quantitative measurement of RNFL thickness obtained from optical coherence tomography on normal subjects. It is shown that local mean value, standard deviation, and Shannon entropy extracted from the green and blue channel of fundus images are correlated with corresponding RNFL thickness. The linear correlation coefficients achieved values 0.694, 0.547, and 0.512 for respective features measured on 439 retinal positions in the peripapillary area from 23 eyes of 15 different normal subjects.

  7. Microstructural callosal abnormalities in normal-appearing brain of children with developmental delay detected with diffusion tensor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Xiao-Qi; Sun, Yimeng; Illies, Till; Zeumer, Hermann; Fiehler, Jens; Kruse, Bernd; Lanfermann, Heinrich

    2009-01-01

    Callosal fibres play an important role in psychomotor and cognitive functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible microstructural abnormalities of the corpus callosum in children with developmental delay, who have normal conventional brain MR imaging results. Seventeen pediatric patients (aged 1-9 years) with developmental delay were studied. Quantitative T2 and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were measured at the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum (CC). Fibre tracking, volumetric determination, as well as fibre density calculations of the CC were also carried out. The results were compared with those of the age-matched healthy subjects. A general elevation of T2 relaxation times (105 ms in patients vs. 95 ms in controls) and reduction of the FA values (0.66 in patients vs. 0.74 in controls) at the genu of the CC were found in patients. Reductions of the fibre numbers (5,464 in patients vs. 8,886 in controls) and volumes (3,415 ml in patients vs. 5,235 ml in controls) of the CC were found only in patients older than 5 years. The study indicates that despite their inconspicuous findings in conventional MRI microstructural brain abnormalities are evident in these pediatric patients suffering from developmental delay. (orig.)

  8. Incidental white matter lesions identified on magnetic resonance images of normal Japanese individuals; Correlation with age and hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Hirofumi; Kida, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Takayuki; Iwakoshi, Takanori; Niwa, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Tatsuya [Komaki City Hospital, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1994-05-01

    Incidental white matter high-intensity lesions are frequently seen on T[sub 2]-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images of the brain in older people. The incidence increases with advancing age or hypertension. Brain MR images of 59 normal individuals were examined to analyze this phenomenon. The total number of white matter high-intensity lesions correlated significantly with age (p=0.004) or systolic blood pressure (p=0.03). The 60- to 69-year-old group demonstrated a very close correlation of white matter lesions with systolic (p=0.02) and diastolic blood pressure (p=0.01), in contrast to the 50- to 59-year-old group. Hypertensive subjects in their 60s are thought to develop more white matter lesions than subjects in their 50s. (author).

  9. Recognition memory for colored and black-and-white scenes in normal and color deficient observers (dichromats).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brédart, Serge; Cornet, Alyssa; Rakic, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Color deficient (dichromat) and normal observers' recognition memory for colored and black-and-white natural scenes was evaluated through several parameters: the rate of recognition, discrimination (A'), response bias (B"D), response confidence, and the proportion of conscious recollections (Remember responses) among hits. At the encoding phase, 36 images of natural scenes were each presented for 1 sec. Half of the images were shown in color and half in black-and-white. At the recognition phase, these 36 pictures were intermixed with 36 new images. The participants' task was to indicate whether an image had been presented or not at the encoding phase, to rate their level of confidence in his her/his response, and in the case of a positive response, to classify the response as a Remember, a Know or a Guess response. Results indicated that accuracy, response discrimination, response bias and confidence ratings were higher for colored than for black-and-white images; this advantage for colored images was similar in both groups of participants. Rates of Remember responses were not higher for colored images than for black-and-white ones, whatever the group. However, interestingly, Remember responses were significantly more often based on color information for colored than for black-and-white images in normal observers only, not in dichromats.

  10. Radiosensitivity of fibroblasts obtained from a cafe-au-lait spot and normal-appearing skin of a patient with neurofibromatosis (NF-6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannan, M.A.; Smith, B.P.; Sigut, D.; Sackey, K.

    1990-01-01

    Fibroblast cells derived from a cafe-au-lait spot and normal-appearing skin of a neurofibromatosis (NF-6) patient were studied for radiosensitivity in comparison with two normal cell lines used as controls. No difference in radiosensitivity was observed between the patient's cell lines and the controls using acute gamma-irradiation. However, a markedly increased radiosensitivity of the fibroblasts obtained from the patient's skin of normal appearance was demonstrated after chronic gamma-irradiation. The cells from the cafe-au-lait spot showed intermediate sensitivity to chronic irradiation as compared with the control cell lines and the fibroblasts derived from the normal skin of the patient. These results showed the usefulness of chronic irradiation in detecting increased cellular radiosensitivity which may result from a unique DNA repair defect in an NF patient. We suggest that enhanced genetic changes in radiosensitive NF patients may lead to formation of cafe-au-lait lesions and certain tumors. Such a transformation may be associated with production of radiotolerant cells

  11. Comparison of hematologic and serologic profiles of broiler birds with normal and severe degrees of white striping in breast fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttappan, V A; Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Hargis, B M; Apple, J K; Coon, C; Owens, C M

    2013-02-01

    White striping is the white striation occasionally observed parallel to the direction of muscle fibers in broiler breast fillets and thighs at the processing plant. Broiler breast fillets can be categorized as normal (NORM), moderate (MOD), or severe (SEV) based on the degree of white striping. Histologically, SEV fillets are characterized by the highest degree of degeneration of muscle fibers along with fibrosis and lipidosis when compared with NORM. The present study was undertaken to compare the hematologic and serologic profiles of broilers with NORM and SEV degrees of white striping to get more information on the systemic changes associated with the condition. Day-old male broiler chicks of a commercial strain were grown on the same diet in 6 replicate pens (n = 32 birds/pen). Blood samples (5 mL) were collected from the wing vein of each bird on the day before processing for analyzing hematologic and serologic profiles. At 63 d, the birds were weighed and processed in a commercial inline processing system. Weight of the butterfly fillets, liver, and abdominal fat pad were recorded. Left-side fillets were scored to obtain the degree of white striping for each bird. Representative samples for NORM (n = 24) and SEV (n = 17) categories were selected to compare the hematologic and serologic profiles. The SEV birds had greater (P white striping. The elevated serum enzyme levels confirm the muscle damage associated with the degenerative myopathy in SEV birds.

  12. 7-Tesla Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging to Assess the Effects of Radiotherapy on Normal-Appearing Brain in Patients With Glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupo, Janine M.; Chuang, Cynthia F.; Chang, Susan M.; Barani, Igor J.; Jimenez, Bert; Hess, Christopher P.; Nelson, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the intermediate- and long-term imaging manifestations of radiotherapy on normal-appearing brain tissue in patients with treated gliomas using 7T susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). Methods and Materials: SWI was performed on 25 patients with stable gliomas on a 7 Tesla magnet. Microbleeds were identified as discrete foci of susceptibility that did not correspond to vessels. The number of microbleeds was counted within and outside of the T2-hyperintense lesion. For 3 patients, radiation dosimetry maps were reconstructed and fused with the 7T SWI data. Results: Multiple foci of susceptibility consistent with microhemorrhages were observed in patients 2 years after chemoradiation. These lesions were not present in patients who were not irradiated. The prevalence of microhemorrhages increased with the time since completion of radiotherapy, and these lesions often extended outside the boundaries of the initial high-dose volume and into the contralateral hemisphere. Conclusions: High-field SWI has potential for visualizing the appearance of microbleeds associated with long-term effects of radiotherapy on brain tissue. The ability to visualize these lesions in normal-appearing brain tissue may be important in further understanding the utility of this treatment in patients with longer survival.

  13. Feeling Normal? Long-Term Follow-up of Patients with a Cleft Lip-Palate after Rhinoplasty with the Derriford Appearance Scale (DAS-59).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Andreas E; Reichelt, Andreas C; Nolst-Trenité, Gilbert J; Menger, Dirk Jan

    2016-04-01

    -conceived appearance as measured by the DAS-59. Their assessment of self-appearance was comparable to that of a group of noncleft persons with concern about their appearance. Taken together, rhinoplasties, primary and revision, add to the psychosocial well-being and an improved self-perception enhancing quality of life and enabling a more normal life. Further research is needed to clarify how the low reduction found in the "negative self-concept" may be addressed successfully. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Normalization of white matter intensity on T1-weighted images of patients with acquired central nervous system demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Rezwan; Brown, Robert; Narayanan, Sridar; Banwell, Brenda; Nakamura, Kunio; Arnold, Douglas L

    2015-01-01

    Intensity variation between magnetic resonance images (MRI) hinders comparison of tissue intensity distributions in multicenter MRI studies of brain diseases. The available intensity normalization techniques generally work well in healthy subjects but not in the presence of pathologies that affect tissue intensity. One such disease is multiple sclerosis (MS), which is associated with lesions that prominently affect white matter (WM). To develop a T1-weighted (T1w) image intensity normalization method that is independent of WM intensity, and to quantitatively evaluate its performance. We calculated median intensity of grey matter and intraconal orbital fat on T1w images. Using these two reference tissue intensities we calculated a linear normalization function and applied this to the T1w images to produce normalized T1w (NT1) images. We assessed performance of our normalization method for interscanner, interprotocol, and longitudinal normalization variability, and calculated the utility of the normalization method for lesion analyses in clinical trials. Statistical modeling showed marked decreases in T1w intensity differences after normalization (P < .0001). We developed a WM-independent T1w MRI normalization method and tested its performance. This method is suitable for longitudinal multicenter clinical studies for the assessment of the recovery or progression of disease affecting WM. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  15. Radiation-induced changes in normal-appearing gray matter in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Xiao-Fei; Zheng, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Li-Zhi; Zhang, You-Ming; Chen, Ming-Yuan; Li, Li

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that temporal lobe radiation necrosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) after radiotherapy (RT) could involve gray matter (GM). The purpose of the study was to assess the radiation-induced GM volume differences between NPC patients who had and had not received RT and the effect of time after RT on GM volume differences in those patients who had received RT. We used magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to assess differences in GM volume between 30 NPC patients with normal-appearing whole-brain GM after RT and 15 control patients with newly diagnosed but not yet medically treated NPC. Correlation analyses were used to investigate the relationship between GM volume changes and time after RT. Patients who had received RT had GM volume decreases in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, right precentral gyrus, and right inferior parietal lobule (p 100 voxels). Moreover, the correlation analysis indicated that regional GM volume loss in the left superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, and right fusiform gyrus were negatively related to the mean dose to the ipsilateral temporal lobe, respectively. These results indicate that GM volume deficits in bilateral temporal lobes in patients who had received RT might be radiation-induced. Our findings might provide new insight into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced structural damage in normal-appearing brain tissue. Yet this is an exploratory study, whose findings should therefore be taken with caution. (orig.)

  16. Diffusion-tensor MR imaging of gray and white matter development during normal human brain maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Pratik; Miller, Jeffrey H; Shimony, Joshua S; Philip, Joseph V; Nehra, Deepika; Snyder, Abraham Z; Conturo, Thomas E; Neil, Jeffrey J; McKinstry, Robert C

    2002-10-01

    Conventional MR imaging findings of human brain development are thought to result from decreasing water content, increasing macromolecular concentration, and myelination. We use diffusion-tensor MR imaging to test theoretical models that incorporate hypotheses regarding how these maturational processes influence water diffusion in developing gray and white matter. Experimental data were derived from diffusion-tensor imaging of 167 participants, ages 31 gestational weeks to 11 postnatal years. An isotropic diffusion model was applied to the gray matter of the basal ganglia and thalamus. A model that assumes changes in the magnitude of diffusion while maintaining cylindrically symmetric anisotropy was applied to the white matter of the corpus callosum and internal capsule. Deviations of the diffusion tensor from the ideal model predictions, due to measurement noise, were estimated by using Monte Carlo simulations. Developing gray matter of the basal ganglia and developing white matter of the internal capsule and corpus callosum largely conformed to theory, with only small departures from model predictions in older children. However, data from the thalamus substantially diverged from predicted values, with progressively larger deviations from the model with increasing participant age. Changes in water diffusion during maturation of central gray and white matter structures can largely be explained by theoretical models incorporating simple assumptions regarding the influence of brain water content and myelination, although deviations from theory increase as the brain matures. Diffusion-tensor MR imaging is a powerful method for studying the process of brain development, with both scientific and clinical applications.

  17. White matter correlates of cognitive domains in normal aging with diffusion tensor imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrat eSasson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to perform complex as well as simple cognitive tasks engages a network of brain regions that is mediated by the white matter fiber bundles connecting them. Different cognitive tasks employ distinctive white matter fiber bundles. The temporal lobe and its projections subserve a variety of key functions known to deteriorate during aging. In a cohort of 52 healthy subjects (ages 25-82 years, we performed voxel-wise regression analysis correlating performance in higher-order cognitive domains (executive function, information processing speed, and memory with white matter integrity, as measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI fiber tracking in the temporal lobe projections (uncinate fasciculus (UF, fornix, cingulum, inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF, and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF. The fiber tracts were spatially registered and statistical parametric maps were produced to spatially localize the significant correlations. Results showed that performance in the executive function domain is correlated with DTI parameters in the left SLF and right UF; performance in the information processing speed domain is correlated with fractional anisotropy (FA in the left cingulum, left fornix, right and left ILF and SLF; and the memory domain shows significant correlations with DTI parameters in the right fornix, right cingulum, left ILF, left SLF and right UF. These findings suggest that DTI tractography enables anatomical definition of region of interest for correlation of behavioral parameters with diffusion indices, and functionality can be correlated with white matter integrity.

  18. Analysis of the brain proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy - differences between normal grey and white matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krukowski, P.; Podgorski, P.; Guzinski, M.; Szewczyk, P.; Sasiadek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HMRS) is a non-invasive diagnostic method that allows for an assessment of the metabolite concentration in tissues. The sources of the strongest resonance signals within the brain are N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), choline (Cho), myoinositol (mI) and water. The aim of our study was to analyse the ratios of metabolite signals within the brain in HMRS in the healthy population, to define the differences between the grey and white matter spectra. Material/Methods: We studied prospectively 90 subjects aged from 8 to 80 years (mean 43.3 years, SD=17.9), without neurological symptoms or abnormalities in magnetic resonance imaging. In all patients, brain HMRS with Signa HDx 1.5 T MR unit (GE Healthcare) was performed with PRESS sequence, using a single voxel method, at TE of 35 ms and TR of 1500 ms. Spectroscopic evaluation involved voxels placed in the white matter of parietal lobe (PWM) and the grey matter of posterior cingulate gyrus (PGM). On the basis of the intensity of NAA, Cr, Cho, mI and water signals, the proportions of these signals were calculated, as well as the ratio of the analyzed metabolite signal to the sum of signals of NAA, Cho, Cr and mI (%Met) in the PGM and PWM voxels. We compared the proportions in the same patients in PGM and PWM voxels. Results: There has been a statistically significant difference between the proportions of a majority of the metabolite ratios evaluated in PGM and PWM, indicating the higher concentration of NAA, Cr and mI in grey matter, and higher concentration of Cho in white matter. Conclusions: HMRS spectra of the brain grey and white matter differ significantly. The concentrations of NAA, Cr and mI are higher in grey matter, while of choline - in the white matter. (authors)

  19. Eyes with Suspicious Appearance of the Optic Disc and Normal Intraocular Pressure: Using Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics to Differentiate Those with and without Glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego T Dias

    Full Text Available Among all glaucoma suspects, eyes with optic nerve head features suspicious or suggestive of early glaucoma are probably those that offer the greatest challenge for clinicians. In contrast with the robust longitudinal data published on ocular hypertension, there is no specific management guideline for these patients. Therefore, evaluating eyes with suspicious optic disc appearance and normal intraocular pressure (IOP, we sought to investigate potential differences in clinical and epidemiological characteristics to differentiate those with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG from those with presumed large physiological optic disc cups (pLPC. In this observational case-control study, we consecutively enrolled individuals with pLPC and NTG. All eyes had vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR≥0.6 and untreated IOP<21 mmHg. Glaucomatous eyes had reproducible visual field defects. Eyes with pLPC required normal visual fields and ≥30 months of follow-up with no evidence of glaucomatous neuropathy. Clinical and epidemiological parameters were compared between groups. Eighty-four individuals with pLPC and 40 NTG patients were included. Regarding our main results, NTG patients were significantly older and with a higher prevalence of Japanese descendants (p<0.01. Not only did pLPC eyes have smaller mean VCDR, but also larger optic discs (p≤0.04. There were no significant differences for gender, central corneal thickness, and spherical equivalent (p≥0.38. Significant odds ratios (OR were found for race (OR = 2.42; for Japanese ancestry, age (OR = 1.05, VCDR (OR = 5.03, and disc size (OR = 0.04; p≤0.04. In conclusion, in patients with suspicious optic disc and normal IOP, those with older age, Japanese ancestry, smaller optic discs, and larger VCDR are more likely to have NTG, and therefore, deserve deeper investigation and closer monitoring.

  20. Normal gray and white matter volume after weight restoration in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, Luisa; Andrés, Susana; Calvo, Anna; Cullell, Clàudia; Moreno, Elena; Plana, M Teresa; Falcón, Carles; Bargalló, Núria; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether treated, weight-stabilized adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) present brain volume differences in comparison with healthy controls. Thirty-five adolescents with weight-recovered AN and 17 healthy controls were assessed by means of psychopathology scales and magnetic resonance imaging. Axial three-dimensional T1-weighted images were obtained in a 1.5 Tesla scanner and analyzed using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM). There were no significant differences between controls and weight-stabilized AN patients with regard to global volumes of either gray or white brain matter, or in the regional VBM study. Differences were not significant between patients with psychopharmacological treatment and without, between those with amenorrhea and without, as well as between patients with restrictive versus purgative AN. The present findings reveal no global or regional gray or white matter abnormalities in this sample of adolescents following weight restoration. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging may show abnormalities in the normal-appearing cervical spinal cord from patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Miraldi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aims to evaluate “in vivo” the integrity of the normal-appearing spinal cord (NASC in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS compared to controls, using diffusion tensor MR imaging. Methods We studied 32 patients with MS and 17 without any neurologic disorder. Fractional anisotropy (FA, axial diffusivity (AD, radial diffusivity (RD and mean diffusivity (MD were calculated within regions of interest at C2 and C7 levels in the four columns of the spinal cord. Results At C2, FA value was decreased in MS patients. Besides, RD value was higher in MS than in controls. At C7, MD values were increased in MS. Conclusion The NASC in the right column of the cervical spinal cord showed abnormal FA, RD and MD values, which is possibly related to demyelination, since the FA abnormality was related to the RD and not to the AD.

  2. Normal development of human brain white matter from infancy to early adulthood: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uda, Satoshi; Matsui, Mie; Tanaka, Chiaki; Uematsu, Akiko; Miura, Kayoko; Kawana, Izumi; Noguchi, Kyo

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which measures the magnitude of anisotropy of water diffusion in white matter, has recently been used to visualize and quantify parameters of neural tracts connecting brain regions. In order to investigate the developmental changes and sex and hemispheric differences of neural fibers in normal white matter, we used DTI to examine 52 healthy humans ranging in age from 2 months to 25 years. We extracted the following tracts of interest (TOIs) using the region of interest method: the corpus callosum (CC), cingulum hippocampus (CGH), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). We measured fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD). Approximate values and changes in growth rates of all DTI parameters at each age were calculated and analyzed using LOESS (locally weighted scatterplot smoothing). We found that for all TOIs, FA increased with age, whereas ADC, AD and RD values decreased with age. The turning point of growth rates was at approximately 6 years. FA in the CC was greater than that in the SLF, ILF and CGH. Moreover, FA, ADC and AD of the splenium of the CC (sCC) were greater than in the genu of the CC (gCC), whereas the RD of the sCC was lower than the RD of the gCC. The FA of right-hemisphere TOIs was significantly greater than that of left-hemisphere TOIs. In infants, growth rates of both FA and RD were larger than those of AD. Our data show that developmental patterns differ by TOIs and myelination along with the development of white matter, which can be mainly expressed as an increase in FA together with a decrease in RD. These findings clarify the long-term normal developmental characteristics of white matter microstructure from infancy to early adulthood. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Radiation-induced changes in normal-appearing gray matter in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Xiao-Fei; Zheng, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Li-Zhi; Zhang, You-Ming [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Department of Medical Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Guangzhou (China); Chen, Ming-Yuan [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Department of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, Guangzhou (China); Li, Li [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Department of Medical Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-05-15

    Evidence is accumulating that temporal lobe radiation necrosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) after radiotherapy (RT) could involve gray matter (GM). The purpose of the study was to assess the radiation-induced GM volume differences between NPC patients who had and had not received RT and the effect of time after RT on GM volume differences in those patients who had received RT. We used magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to assess differences in GM volume between 30 NPC patients with normal-appearing whole-brain GM after RT and 15 control patients with newly diagnosed but not yet medically treated NPC. Correlation analyses were used to investigate the relationship between GM volume changes and time after RT. Patients who had received RT had GM volume decreases in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, right precentral gyrus, and right inferior parietal lobule (p < 0.001, uncorrected, cluster size >100 voxels). Moreover, the correlation analysis indicated that regional GM volume loss in the left superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, and right fusiform gyrus were negatively related to the mean dose to the ipsilateral temporal lobe, respectively. These results indicate that GM volume deficits in bilateral temporal lobes in patients who had received RT might be radiation-induced. Our findings might provide new insight into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced structural damage in normal-appearing brain tissue. Yet this is an exploratory study, whose findings should therefore be taken with caution. (orig.)

  4. Normal variation of focal T2 Hyperintensities in anterior parietal periventricular white matter: Another 'Terminal Zones of Myelination'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Oag; Woo, Je Ho; Ki, Tae Sung; Lee, Jong Hwa; Chung, Jin Woo; Lee, Don Young

    1994-01-01

    It has been known that there are several areas of T2 hyperintensity in normal white matter of brain, such as terminal zones of myelination, ependymitis granularis, ones of posterior internal capsule, and perivascular space. The aim of our study is to demonstrate another region of T2 hyperintensities in normal pediatric age group. We have studied brain MR for 10 normal volunteers and 35 patients without having intracranial lesions in pediatric age group(3-19 years). In 5 among 45 cases, focal T2 hyperintensities were seen in the parietal periventricular white matter beneath the postcentral gyri. They were noted as poorly defined, 5-10 mm sized areas of increased signal intensities on T2-weighted axial images. They were also characterized by bilateral, posteromedially oriented, short band-like or oval areas. Interestingly, they were directly continuous with the T2 hyperintensity of posterior internal capsule. In spite of the relatively highly frequency in the pediatric population as in our study, this finding has not been reported in the asymptomatic adults. The results show that the bilateral anterior parietal hyperintense areas may be another terminal zones of delayed myelination affecting the parietopontine tract. They should be differentiated from pathologic T2 hyperintensities by their characteristic findings

  5. MR Imaging Evaluation of Intracerebral Hemorrhages and T2 Hyperintense White Matter Lesions Appearing after Radiation Therapy in Adult Patients with Primary Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Dong Hyun; Song, Sang Woo; Yun, Tae Jin; Kim, Tae Min; Lee, Se-Hoon; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Park, Sung-Hye; Park, Chul-Kee; Kim, Il Han; Choi, Seung Hong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the frequency and severity of intracerebral hemorrhages and T2 hyperintense white matter lesions (WMLs) following radiation therapy for brain tumors in adult patients. Of 648 adult brain tumor patients who received radiation therapy at our institute, magnetic resonance (MR) image data consisting of a gradient echo (GRE) and FLAIR T2-weighted image were available three and five years after radiation therapy in 81 patients. Intracerebral hemorrhage was defined as a hypointense dot lesion appearing on GRE images after radiation therapy. The number and size of the lesions were evaluated. The T2 hyperintense WMLs observed on the FLAIR sequences were graded according to the extent of the lesion. Intracerebral hemorrhage was detected in 21 (25.9%) and 35 (43.2) patients in the three- and five-year follow-up images, respectively. The number of intracerebral hemorrhages per patient tended to increase as the follow-up period increased, whereas the size of the intracerebral hemorrhages exhibited little variation over the course of follow-up. T2 hyperintense WMLs were observed in 27 (33.3%) and 32 (39.5) patients in the three and five year follow-up images, respectively. The age at the time of radiation therapy was significantly higher (p T2 hyperintense WMLs than in those without lesions. Intracerebral hemorrhages are not uncommon in adult brain tumor patients undergoing radiation therapy. The incidence and number of intracerebral hemorrhages increased over the course of follow-up. T2 hyperintense WMLs were observed in more than one-third of the study population.

  6. Prevention of the appearance of light-struck taste in white wine = Prevenzione della comparsa del gusto di luce nel vino bianco

    OpenAIRE

    Fracassetti, D.; Gabrielli, M.; Encinas, J.; Manara, M.; Pellegrino, L.; Tirelli, A.

    2016-01-01

    The light-struck taste is a defect of bottled white wine due to the light exposure and involving the riboflavin (RF), as a photosensitizer, and methionine. The reaction pathways lead to the formation of volatile sulfur compounds, methanethiol and dimethyldisulphide, conferring cabbage-like aromas. The development of this defect is limited at low RF concentrations. In this study, the yeast-mediated release of RF, RF degradation kinetics in model solution and white wine, and RF removal by using...

  7. Intra- and interhemispheric variations of diffusivity in subcortical white matter in normal human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshiura, Takashi; Noguchi, Tomoyuki; Hiwatashi, Akio; Togao, Osamu; Yamashita, Koji; Nagao, Eiki; Kamano, Hironori; Honda, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Our purpose was to reveal potential regional variations in water molecular diffusivity within each cerebral hemisphere and across the right and left hemispheres. Diffusion-weighted images of 44 healthy right-handed adult male subjects were obtained using a diffusion tensor imaging sequence. Mean diffusivity (MD) values in subcortical white matter (WM) within 39 regions in each hemisphere were measured using an automated method. Intrahemispheric comparisons of MDs in subcortical WM were performed among six brain regions (frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobes and pre- and postcentral gyri). Interhemispheric comparisons of MDs were performed between the right and left counterparts of the 39 regions. In both hemispheres, diffusivity in the precentral gyrus was lower than those in other regions, while diffusivity in the parietal lobe was higher than others. MD asymmetry in which the left was lower than the right was found in the parietal lobe, middle occipital gyrus, and medial and orbital aspects of the frontal lobe. The converse asymmetry was revealed in the frontal operculum, supplementary motor cortex, temporal lobe, limbic cortices, precuneus and cuneus. Our results revealed significant intra- and interhemispheric regional variations in MD in subcortical WM, which may be related to different densities of axons and myelin sheaths. (orig.)

  8. Intra- and interhemispheric variations of diffusivity in subcortical white matter in normal human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshiura, Takashi; Noguchi, Tomoyuki; Hiwatashi, Akio; Togao, Osamu; Yamashita, Koji; Nagao, Eiki; Kamano, Hironori; Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    Our purpose was to reveal potential regional variations in water molecular diffusivity within each cerebral hemisphere and across the right and left hemispheres. Diffusion-weighted images of 44 healthy right-handed adult male subjects were obtained using a diffusion tensor imaging sequence. Mean diffusivity (MD) values in subcortical white matter (WM) within 39 regions in each hemisphere were measured using an automated method. Intrahemispheric comparisons of MDs in subcortical WM were performed among six brain regions (frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobes and pre- and postcentral gyri). Interhemispheric comparisons of MDs were performed between the right and left counterparts of the 39 regions. In both hemispheres, diffusivity in the precentral gyrus was lower than those in other regions, while diffusivity in the parietal lobe was higher than others. MD asymmetry in which the left was lower than the right was found in the parietal lobe, middle occipital gyrus, and medial and orbital aspects of the frontal lobe. The converse asymmetry was revealed in the frontal operculum, supplementary motor cortex, temporal lobe, limbic cortices, precuneus and cuneus. Our results revealed significant intra- and interhemispheric regional variations in MD in subcortical WM, which may be related to different densities of axons and myelin sheaths. (orig.)

  9. Shades of white : diffusion properties of T1- and FLAIR-defined white matter signal abnormalities differ in stages from cognitively normal to dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riphagen, Joost M.; Gronenschild, Ed HBM; Salat, David H.; Freeze, Whitney M.; Ivanov, Dimo; Clerx, Lies; Verhey, Frans R. J.; Aalten, Pauline; Jacobs, Heidi I. L.

    The underlying pathology of white matter signal abnormalities (WMSAs) is heterogeneous and may vary dependent on the magnetic resonance imaging contrast used to define them. We investigated differences in white matter diffusivity as an indicator for white matter integrity underlying WMSA based on

  10. Prevention of the appearance of light-struck taste in white wine / Prevenzione della comparsa del gusto di luce nel vino bianco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fracassetti Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The light-struck taste is a defect of bottled white wine due to the light exposure and involving the riboflavin (RF, as a photosensitizer, and methionine. The reaction pathways lead to the formation of volatile sulfur compounds, methanethiol and dimethyldisulphide, conferring cabbage-like aromas. The development of this defect is limited at low RF concentrations. In this study, the yeast-mediated release of RF, RF degradation kinetics in model solution and white wine, and RF removal by using insoluble adjuvants were investigated. The results showed the RF release was a strain-dependent property and the fermentation rate did not affect the RF synthesis. The RF degradation followed a 1st order kinetic in both model solution and white wine in which the degradation rate was halved. Among the adjuvants tested, bentonite and active charcoal were the most effective in RF removal and higher concentrations were needed for effectively treating white wine. The selection of low RF-producing yeasts and the treatment with active charcoal could represent useful tools to avoid the white wine spoilage during the shelf-life.

  11. Quantification of diffusion tensor imaging in normal white matter maturation of early childhood using an automated processing pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loh, K.B.; Ramli, N.; Tan, L.K.; Roziah, M.; Rahmat, K.; Ariffin, H.

    2012-01-01

    The degree and status of white matter myelination can be sensitively monitored using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). This study looks at the measurement of fractional anistropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) using an automated ROI with an existing DTI atlas. Anatomical MRI and structural DTI were performed cross-sectionally on 26 normal children (newborn to 48 months old), using 1.5-T MRI. The automated processing pipeline was implemented to convert diffusion-weighted images into the NIfTI format. DTI-TK software was used to register the processed images to the ICBM DTI-81 atlas, while AFNI software was used for automated atlas-based volumes of interest (VOIs) and statistical value extraction. DTI exhibited consistent grey-white matter contrast. Triphasic temporal variation of the FA and MD values was noted, with FA increasing and MD decreasing rapidly early in the first 12 months. The second phase lasted 12-24 months during which the rate of FA and MD changes was reduced. After 24 months, the FA and MD values plateaued. DTI is a superior technique to conventional MR imaging in depicting WM maturation. The use of the automated processing pipeline provides a reliable environment for quantitative analysis of high-throughput DTI data. (orig.)

  12. Quantification of diffusion tensor imaging in normal white matter maturation of early childhood using an automated processing pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loh, K.B.; Ramli, N.; Tan, L.K.; Roziah, M. [University of Malaya, Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya Research Imaging Centre (UMRIC), Faculty of Medicine, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Rahmat, K. [University of Malaya, Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya Research Imaging Centre (UMRIC), Faculty of Medicine, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); University Malaya, Biomedical Imaging Department, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ariffin, H. [University of Malaya, Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2012-07-15

    The degree and status of white matter myelination can be sensitively monitored using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). This study looks at the measurement of fractional anistropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) using an automated ROI with an existing DTI atlas. Anatomical MRI and structural DTI were performed cross-sectionally on 26 normal children (newborn to 48 months old), using 1.5-T MRI. The automated processing pipeline was implemented to convert diffusion-weighted images into the NIfTI format. DTI-TK software was used to register the processed images to the ICBM DTI-81 atlas, while AFNI software was used for automated atlas-based volumes of interest (VOIs) and statistical value extraction. DTI exhibited consistent grey-white matter contrast. Triphasic temporal variation of the FA and MD values was noted, with FA increasing and MD decreasing rapidly early in the first 12 months. The second phase lasted 12-24 months during which the rate of FA and MD changes was reduced. After 24 months, the FA and MD values plateaued. DTI is a superior technique to conventional MR imaging in depicting WM maturation. The use of the automated processing pipeline provides a reliable environment for quantitative analysis of high-throughput DTI data. (orig.)

  13. Different effects of adding white noise on cognitive performance of sub-, normal and super-attentive school children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzannah K Helps

    Full Text Available Noise often has detrimental effects on performance. However, because of the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR, auditory white noise (WN can alter the "signal to noise" ratio and improve performance. The Moderate Brain Arousal (MBA model postulates different levels of internal "neural noise" in individuals with different attentional capacities. This in turn determines the particular WN level most beneficial in each individual case-with one level of WN facilitating poor attenders but hindering super-attentive children. The objective of the present study is to find out if added WN affects cognitive performance differently in children that differ in attention ability.Participants were teacher-rated super- (N = 25; normal- (N = 29 and sub-attentive (N = 36 children (aged 8 to 10 years. Two non-executive function (EF tasks (a verbal episodic recall task and a delayed verbal recognition task and two EF tasks (a visuo-spatial working memory test and a Go-NoGo task were performed under three WN levels. The non-WN condition was only used to control for potential differences in background noise in the group testing situations.There were different effects of WN on performance in the three groups-adding moderate WN worsened the performance of super-attentive children for both task types and improved EF performance in sub-attentive children. The normal-attentive children's performance was unaffected by WN exposure. The shift from moderate to high levels of WN had little further effect on performance in any group.The predicted differential effect of WN on performance was confirmed. However, the failure to find evidence for an inverted U function challenges current theories. Alternative explanations are discussed. We propose that WN therapy should be further investigated as a possible non-pharmacological treatment for inattention.

  14. Different effects of adding white noise on cognitive performance of sub-, normal and super-attentive school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helps, Suzannah K; Bamford, Susan; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Söderlund, Göran B W

    2014-01-01

    Noise often has detrimental effects on performance. However, because of the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR), auditory white noise (WN) can alter the "signal to noise" ratio and improve performance. The Moderate Brain Arousal (MBA) model postulates different levels of internal "neural noise" in individuals with different attentional capacities. This in turn determines the particular WN level most beneficial in each individual case-with one level of WN facilitating poor attenders but hindering super-attentive children. The objective of the present study is to find out if added WN affects cognitive performance differently in children that differ in attention ability. Participants were teacher-rated super- (N = 25); normal- (N = 29) and sub-attentive (N = 36) children (aged 8 to 10 years). Two non-executive function (EF) tasks (a verbal episodic recall task and a delayed verbal recognition task) and two EF tasks (a visuo-spatial working memory test and a Go-NoGo task) were performed under three WN levels. The non-WN condition was only used to control for potential differences in background noise in the group testing situations. There were different effects of WN on performance in the three groups-adding moderate WN worsened the performance of super-attentive children for both task types and improved EF performance in sub-attentive children. The normal-attentive children's performance was unaffected by WN exposure. The shift from moderate to high levels of WN had little further effect on performance in any group. The predicted differential effect of WN on performance was confirmed. However, the failure to find evidence for an inverted U function challenges current theories. Alternative explanations are discussed. We propose that WN therapy should be further investigated as a possible non-pharmacological treatment for inattention.

  15. Normal white matter microstructure in women long-term recovered from anorexia nervosa: A diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Lasse; Rø, Øyvind; Endestad, Tor

    2018-01-01

    Studies point to white matter (WM) microstructure alterations in both adolescent and adult patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). These include reduced fractional anisotropy in several WM fiber tracts, suggesting reduced WM integrity. The extent to which these alterations are reversible with recovery from AN is unclear. There is a paucity of research investigating the presence of WM microstructure alterations in recovered AN patients, and results are inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate the presence of WM microstructure alterations in women long-term recovered from AN. Twenty-one adult women who were recovered from AN for at least 1 year were compared to 21 adult comparison women. Participants were recruited via user-organizations for eating disorders, local advertisements, and online forums. Diffusion tensor imaging was used to compare WM microstructure between groups. Correlations between WM microstructure and clinical characteristics were also explored. There were no statistically significant between-group differences in WM microstructure. These null findings remained when employing liberal alpha level thresholds. Furthermore, there were no statistically significant correlations between WM microstructure and clinical characteristics. Our findings showed normal WM microstructure in long-term recovered patients, indicating the alterations observed during the acute phase are reversible. Given the paucity of research and inconsistent findings, future studies are warranted to determine the presence of WM microstructure alterations following recovery from AN. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The relationship between recognition memory for emotion-laden words and white matter microstructure in normal older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Carina; Karrasch, Mira; Ilvesmäki, Tero; Parkkola, Riitta; Rinne, Juha O; Laine, Matti

    2016-12-14

    Functional neuroimaging studies have shown age-related differences in brain activation and connectivity patterns for emotional memory. Previous studies with middle-aged and older adults have reported associations between episodic memory and white matter (WM) microstructure obtained from diffusion tensor imaging, but such studies on emotional memory remain few. To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore associations between WM microstructure as measured by fractional anisotropy (FA) and recognition memory for intentionally encoded positive, negative, and emotionally neutral words using tract-based spatial statistics applied to diffusion tensor imaging images in an elderly sample (44 cognitively intact adults aged 50-79 years). The use of tract-based spatial statistics enables the identification of WM tracts important to emotional memory without a priori assumptions required for region-of-interest approaches that have been used in previous work. The behavioral analyses showed a positivity bias, that is, a preference for positive words, in recognition memory. No statistically significant associations emerged between FA and memory for negative or neutral words. Controlling for age and memory performance for negative and neutral words, recognition memory for positive words was negatively associated with FA in several projection, association, and commissural tracts in the left hemisphere. This likely reflects the complex interplay between the mnemonic positivity bias, structural WM integrity, and functional brain compensatory mechanisms in older age. Also, the unexpected directionality of the results indicates that the WM microstructural correlates of emotional memory show unique characteristics in normal older individuals.

  17. Cataracts, radiculomegaly, septal heart defects and hearing loss in two unrelated adult females with normal intelligence and similar facial appearance : Confirmation of a syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalfs, CM; Oosterwijk, JC; VanSchooneveld, MJ; Begeman, CJ; Wabeke, KB; Hennekam, RCM

    Two unrelated, adult females with normal intelligence are described. They show a similar clinical picture with a long and narrow face, congenital cataract, microphthalmia, microcornea, a high nasal bridge, a short nose, a broad nasal tip, a long philtrum, bilateral hearing loss, persistent primary

  18. Application of 3.0T magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging in the evaluation on the development of normal brain white matter in infants and young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-li XU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To calculate the radios of peak area of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy metabolites in brain white matter of normal infants and young children, to observe the features of metabolite spectra, and to explore the relations between their ratio with age. Methods The peak areas of metabolites, including N-acetyl aspartate (NAA, choline (Cho, creatine (Cr, and their ratio of NAA/Cho, NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, in paraventricular white matter of 180 normal infants and young children with different ages as evaluated by multi-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results In paraventricular white matter, spectrum of NAA increased, and that of Cho decreased gradually, while both of them were stabilized at 2 years old. Cr was increased obviously within 3 months, and stabilized after 4 months. Significant differences were found in ratio of different metabolites in paraventricular white matter in different ages (P<0.05. The ratios of NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr in paraventricular white mater were positively correlated with age (r=0.741, r=0.625, while that of Cho/Cr was negatively correlated with age (r=–0.552, P<0.05. Conclusion The ratios of different metabolites are different in brain white matter in infants of different ages. Metabolites concentrations in brain white matter are correlated to some extent with age, which may provide a diagnostic criterion for evaluation of normal brain development and abnormal brain metabolism. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2013.12.05

  19. White matter measures are near normal in controlled HIV infection except in those with cognitive impairment and longer HIV duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysique, Lucette A; Soares, James R; Geng, Guangqiang; Scarpetta, Maia; Moffat, Kirsten; Green, Michael; Brew, Bruce J; Henry, Roland G; Rae, Caroline

    2017-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to quantify the degree of white matter (WM) abnormalities in chronic and virally suppressed HIV-infected (HIV+) persons while carefully taking into account demographic and disease factors. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was conducted in 40 HIV- and 82 HIV+ men with comparable demographics and life style factors. The HIV+ sample was clinically stable with successful viral control. Diffusion was measured across 32 non-colinear directions with a b-value of 1000 s/mm 2 ; fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) maps were quantified with Itrack IDL. Using the ENIGMA DTI protocol, FA and MD values were extracted for each participant and in 11 skeleton regions of interest (SROI) from standard labels in the JHU ICBM-81 atlas covering major striato-frontal and parietal tracks. We found no major differences in FA and MD values across the 11 SROI between study groups. Within the HIV+ sample, we found that a higher CNS penetrating antiretroviral treatment, higher current CD4+ T cell count, and immune recovery from the nadir CD4+ T cell count were associated with increased FA and decreased MD (p < 0.05-0.006), while HIV duration, symptomatic, and asymptomatic cognitive impairment were associated with decreased FA and increased MD (p < 0.01-0.004). Stability of HIV treatment and antiretroviral CNS penetration efficiency in addition to current and historical immune recovery were related to higher FA and lower MD (p = 0.04-p < 0.01). In conclusion, WM DTI measures are near normal except for patients with neurocognitive impairment and longer HIV disease duration.

  20. Pilot Comparison of Stromal Gene Expression among Normal Prostate Tissues and Primary Prostate Cancer Tissues in White and Black Men

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bova, G. S

    2006-01-01

    ..., and expression analysis of prostate-stroma specific cells in normal and cancerous prostates, and aims to develop preliminary data sufficient to identify potential differences in stromal RNA expression in normal and cancerous...

  1. Aesthetics of Deception on the Stage : The Conflict Between Reality and Appearance in John Webster’s the White Devil = Sahnede Aldatmanın Estetiği : John Webster'in the White Devil Oyununda Gerçek ile Görünüm Arasındaki Çatışma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen SAYIN TEKER

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available ohn Webster (1580-1634, a highly sophisticated yet equally pessimistic playwright of Jacobean England, depicts a world of corruption in which there is no place for the conventional notions of good and evil. In Webster's tragic world traditional concepts appear with their opposites, and therefore, they create a sort of conflict between reality and appearance. A character or an event seems good in appearance, however, it turns out to be evil in reality; or a character can have the capacity for both good and evil, treachery and loyalty, honesty and dishonesty at the same time in his plays. In other words, the dominant theme in his plays is the fallacy of appearance. In this article, this characteristic of Webster will be examined in his first tragedy, The White Devil with reference to the historical background of the period and to some significant scenes and characters in the play.

  2. Cerebral white matter hypoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, R.B.; Shields, W.D.; Sankar, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the MR imaging findings in children with cerebral white matter hypoplasia (CWMH). The MR studies of four children, aged 3-7 y (mean age, 2.3 y) with a diagnosis of CWMH were reviewed. In all cases multiplanar T1-weighted and T2-weighted spin-echo images were obtained. All children had similar histories of severe developmental delay and nonprogressive neurologic deficits despite normal gestational and birth histories. In two cases there was a history of maternal cocaine abuse. Autopsy correlation was available in one child. The MR images of all four children demonstrated diffuse lack of white matter and enlarged ventricles but normal-appearing gray matter. The corpus callosum, although completely formed, was severely thinned. There was no evidence of gliosis or porencephaly, and the distribution of myelin deposition was normal for age in all cases. Autopsy finding in one child correlated exactly with the MR finding

  3. Cephalometric-radiographic study, in lateral norm, considering the established standards of white Brazilian teenagers who presented normal occlusions and mal-occlusions of Class I and Class II, 1st Division and the ones from Ricketts' analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bismarck, V.E.

    1986-01-01

    In the present work, our purpose was make a cephalometric-radiographic study, comparing white Brazilian teenagers who presented normal occlusion and the ones who presented malocclusions of Class I and Class II, according to RICKETT'S analysis (1960). (author) [pt

  4. Automated Spatial Brain Normalization and Hindbrain White Matter Reference Tissue Give Improved [(18)F]-Florbetaben PET Quantitation in Alzheimer's Model Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overhoff, Felix; Brendel, Matthias; Jaworska, Anna; Korzhova, Viktoria; Delker, Andreas; Probst, Federico; Focke, Carola; Gildehaus, Franz-Josef; Carlsen, Janette; Baumann, Karlheinz; Haass, Christian; Bartenstein, Peter; Herms, Jochen; Rominger, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical PET studies of β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation are of growing importance, but comparisons between research sites require standardized and optimized methods for quantitation. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate systematically the (1) impact of an automated algorithm for spatial brain normalization, and (2) intensity scaling methods of different reference regions for Aβ-PET in a large dataset of transgenic mice. PS2APP mice in a 6 week longitudinal setting (N = 37) and another set of PS2APP mice at a histologically assessed narrow range of Aβ burden (N = 40) were investigated by [(18)F]-florbetaben PET. Manual spatial normalization by three readers at different training levels was performed prior to application of an automated brain spatial normalization and inter-reader agreement was assessed by Fleiss Kappa (κ). For this method the impact of templates at different pathology stages was investigated. Four different reference regions on brain uptake normalization were used to calculate frontal cortical standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRCTX∕REF), relative to raw SUVCTX. Results were compared on the basis of longitudinal stability (Cohen's d), and in reference to gold standard histopathological quantitation (Pearson's R). Application of an automated brain spatial normalization resulted in nearly perfect agreement (all κ≥0.99) between different readers, with constant or improved correlation with histology. Templates based on inappropriate pathology stage resulted in up to 2.9% systematic bias for SUVRCTX∕REF. All SUVRCTX∕REF methods performed better than SUVCTX both with regard to longitudinal stability (d≥1.21 vs. d = 0.23) and histological gold standard agreement (R≥0.66 vs. R≥0.31). Voxel-wise analysis suggested a physiologically implausible longitudinal decrease by global mean scaling. The hindbrain white matter reference (R mean = 0.75) was slightly superior to the brainstem (R mean = 0.74) and the cerebellum (R mean = 0.73). Automated

  5. Effects of Ginger Supplementation on Cell Cycle Biomarkers in the Normal-Appearing Colonic Mucosa of Patients at Increased Risk for Colorectal Cancer: Results from a Pilot, Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citronberg, Jessica; Bostick, Roberd; Ahearn, Thomas; Turgeon, D. Kim; Ruffin, Mack T.; Djuric, Zora; Sen, Ananda; Brenner, Dean E.; Zick, Suzanna M.

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the effects of ginger on apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation in the normal-appearing colonic mucosa, we randomized 20 people at increased risk for colorectal cancer to 2.0 g of ginger or placebo daily for 28 days in a pilot trial. Overall expression and distributions of Bax, Bcl-2, p21, hTERT and MIB-1 (Ki-67) in colorectal crypts in rectal mucosa biopsies were measured using automated immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis. Relative to placebo, Bax expression in the ginger group decreased 15.6% (p = 0.78) in the whole crypts, 6.6% (p = 0.95) in the upper 40% (differentiation zone) of crypts, and 21.7% (p = 0.67) in the lower 60% (proliferative zone) of crypts; however, there was a 19% increase (p = 0.14) in Bax expression in the upper 40% relative to the whole crypt. While p21 and Bcl-2 expression remained relatively unchanged, hTERT expression in the whole crypts decreased by 41.2% (p = 0.05); the estimated treatment effect on hTERT expression was larger in the upper 40% of crypts (−47.9%; p = 0.04). In the ginger group, MIB-1 expression decreased in the whole crypts, upper 40% of crypts, and lower 60% of crypts by 16.9% (p = 0.39), 46.8% (p = 0.39), and 15.3% (p = 0.41), respectively. These pilot study results suggest that ginger may reduce proliferation in the normal-appearing colorectal epithelium and increase apoptosis and differentiation relative to proliferation—especially in the differentiation zone of the crypts, and support a larger study to further investigate these results. PMID:23303903

  6. Characteristics of Febrile Patients with Normal White Blood Cell Counts and High C-Reactive Protein Levels in an Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Ting Liu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Fever is one of the more common chief complaints of patients who visit emergency departments (ED. Many febrile patients have markedly elevated C-reactive protein (CRP levels and normal white blood cell (WBC counts. Most of these patients have bacterial infection and no previous underlying disease of impaired WBC functioning. We reviewed patients who visited our ED between November 2003 and July 2004. The WBC count and CRP level of patients over 18 years of age who visited the ED because of or with fever were recorded. Patients who had normal WBC count (4,000–10,000/mL and high CRP level (> 100 mg/L were included. The data, including gender, age and length of hospital stay, were reviewed. Underlying diseases, diagnosis of the febrile disease and final condition were recorded according to the chart. Within the study period, 54,078 patients visited our ED. Of 5,628 febrile adults, 214 (3.8% had elevated CRP level and normal WBC count. The major cause of febrility was infection (82.24%. Most of these patients were admitted (92.99%. There were 32 patients with malignant neoplasm, nine with liver cirrhosis, 66 with diabetes mellitus and 11 with uremia. There were no significant differences in age and gender between patients with and those without neoplasm. However, a higher inhospital mortality rate and other causes of febrility were noted in patients with neoplasm. It was not rare in febrile patients who visited the ED to have a high CRP level but normal WBC count. These patients did not necessarily have an underlying malignant neoplasm or hematologic illness. Factors other than malignant neoplasm or hematologic illness may be associated with the WBC response, and CRP may be a better indicator of infection under such conditions.

  7. Changes in the functional characteristics of tumor and normal cells after treatment with extracts of white dead-nettle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veleva, Ralitsa; Petkova, Bela; Moskova-Doumanova, Veselina; Doumanov, Jordan; Dimitrova, Milena; Koleva, Petya; Mladenova, Kirilka; Petrova, Svetla; Yordanova, Zhenya; Kapchina-Toteva, Veneta; Topouzova-Hristova, Tanya

    2015-01-02

    Lamium album L. is a perennial herb widely used in folk medicine. It possesses a wide spectrum of therapeutic activities (anti-inflammatory, astringent, antiseptic, antibiotic, antispasmodic, antioxidant and anti-proliferative). Preservation of medicinal plant could be done by in vitro propagation to avoid depletion from their natural habitat. It is important to know whether extracts from L. album plants grown in vitro possess similar properties as extracts from plants grown in vivo . For these reasons, it is important to examine changes in the composition of secondary metabolites during in vitro cultivation of the plant and how they affect the biological activity. We used A549 human cancer cell line and normal kidney epithelial cells MDCKII (Madin-Darby canine kidney cells II) as controls in assessing the anti-cancer effect of plant extracts. To elucidate changes in some key functional characteristics, adhesion test, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2-5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide), transepithelial resistance (TER), immunofluorescence staining and trypan blue exclusion test were performed. Methanol and chloroform extracts of in vivo and in vitro propagated plants affected differently cancerous and non-cancerous cells. The most pronounced differences were observed in the morphological analysis and in the cell adhesive properties. We also detected suppressed epithelial transmembrane electrical resistance of MDCK II cells, by treatment with plant extracts, compared to non-treated MDCK II cells. A549 cells did not polarize under the same conditions. Altered organization of actin filaments in both cell types were noticed suggesting that extracts from L. album L. change TER and actin filaments, and somehow may block cell mechanisms, leading to the polarization of MDCK II cells.

  8. White Matter Hyperintensity Volume and Cerebral Perfusion in Older Individuals with Hypertension Using Arterial Spin-Labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, J. W.; Mutsaerts, H. J. M. M.; Nederveen, A. J.; Vrenken, H.; Steenwijk, M. D.; Caan, M. W. A.; Majoie, C. B. L. M.; van Gool, W. A.; Richard, E.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin in elderly patients with hypertension may be part of a general cerebral perfusion deficit, involving not only the white matter hyperintensities but also the surrounding normal-appearing white matter and gray matter. We

  9. Effects of dietary chlorogenic acid on growth performance, antioxidant capacity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under normal condition and combined stress of low-salinity and nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Li, Zheng; Li, Jian; Duan, Ya-Fei; Niu, Jin; Wang, Jun; Huang, Zhong; Lin, Hei-Zhao

    2015-04-01

    An eight-week feeding trial followed by an acute combined stress test of low-salinity and nitrite were performed to evaluate effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on growth performance and antioxidant capacity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp were randomly allocated in 12 tanks (30 shrimp per tank) and triplicate tanks were fed with a control diet or diets containing different levels of CGA (100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) feed) as treatment groups. Growth performance including weight gain (WG), biomass gain (BG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and feed intake were determined after feeding for 56 days. Antioxidant capacity were evaluated by determining the activity of total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) as well as the gene expression of GSH-Px and CAT in the hepatopancreas of shrimp at the end of feeding trial and again at the end of the combined stress test. The results indicated that supplemention of CGA had no significant effects on the growth performance and the activities of TAS, SOD, GSH-Px and CAT in hepatopancreas of shrimp cultured under normal conditions for 56 days. However, compared with the control group, CGA (200, 400 mg kg(-1) feed) significantly improved the resistance of L. vannamei against the combined stress of low-salinity and nitrite, as indicated by the significant (P shrimp treated with CGA in the combined tress test. Our findings suggested that CGA possessed dual-modulatory effects on antioxidant capacity of L. vannamei and could be a potential feed additive that can enhance shrimp resistance against environmental stresses. The recommended application dosage is 200 mg kg(-1) and further studies are needed to clarify the action model of CGA efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. MRI of the normal brain from early childhood to middle age. Pt. 1. Appearances on T2- and proton density-weighted images and occurrence of incidental high-signal foci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autti, T.; Raininko, R.; Vanhanen, S.L.; Kallio, M.; Santavuori, P.

    1994-01-01

    The magnetic resonance images of 67 healthy subjects aged 4-50 years were studied for differences in general signal intensity between the different brain structures, the frequency of focal intensity changes in the brain, and variations in size of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces. In adults over 25 years of age the thalamus gave lower signal than the putamen or caudate nucleus. Definite periventricular high signal was found in the white matter of one third of subjects of all ages. Small (< 5 mm in diameter) high signal foci were found in the cerebral white matter on T2-weighted images in 27 % of subjects (20 % of healthy children and adolescents and 34 % of adults). They gave high signal on both short and long echoes in 11 % of children and adolescents and in 22 % of adults; 51 % of all foci gave high signal with both echoes. This does not support the hypothesis that they are caused mainly by enlarged Virchow-Robin spaces. Of the high signal foci on T2-weighted images, 86 % were in watershead areas. Two foci were found in one subject in the periventricular watershed area (beside the tips of the frontal horns) and they were never seen in the other deep white matter regions. In healthy, relatively young subjects with no known risk factors, high signal foci other than Virchow-Robin spaces, were common; neither their prevalence nor their number correlated with age in this series. A few slightly large sulci were found in some adults. (orig.)

  11. Classification of intestinal lymphangiectasia with protein-losing enteropathy: white villi type and non-white villi type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmiya, Naoki; Nakamura, Masanao; Yamamura, Takeshi; Yamada, Koji; Nagura, Asuka; Yoshimura, Toru; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Hirata, Ichiro; Goto, Hidemi

    2014-01-01

    We classified intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL) into two categories, the white and non-white villi types, and evaluated their clinical characteristics and therapeutic responses. Of the 988 patients who underwent double-balloon enteroscopy, 14 consecutive patients (7 men and 7 women, median age at onset 34 years) were enrolled with immunohistochemically confirmed IL with protein-losing enteropathy. Enteroscopically the white villi type (n = 8) showed white plaques and white-tipped villi were scattered in the small bowel, while non-white villi type (n = 6) showed that apparently normal but under more detailed observation, low and round villi with a normal color were diffused. The serum albumin levels and fecal α1-antitrypsin clearance before treatment were significantly worse in the non-white villi type (p = 0.017 and 0.039, respectively), whereas the serum immunoglobulin A and M levels were significantly lower in the white villi type (p = 0.010 and 0.046, respectively). At gastroscopy, a non-cirrhotic snakeskin appearance was significantly observed in the non-white villi type (p = 0.015). The corticosteroid response was better in the non-white villi type (p = 0.015). Two distinct subgroups were found in IL. This classification was useful in pathophysiological clustering and in predicting the therapeutic response. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Reduced white matter MRI transverse relaxation rate in cognitively normal H63D-HFE human carriers and H67D-HFE mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadowcroft, Mark D; Wang, Jianli; Purnell, Carson J; Peters, Douglas G; Eslinger, Paul J; Neely, Elizabeth B; Gill, David J; Vasavada, Megha; Ali-Rahmani, Fatima; Yang, Qing X; Connor, James R

    2016-12-01

    Mutations within the HFE protein gene sequence have been associated with increased risk of developing a number of neurodegenerative disorders. To this effect, an animal model has been created which incorporates the mouse homologue to the human H63D-HFE mutation: the H67D-HFE knock-in mouse. These mice exhibit alterations in iron management proteins, have increased neuronal oxidative stress, and a disruption in cholesterol regulation. However, it remains undetermined how these differences translate to human H63D carriers in regards to white matter (WM) integrity. To this endeavor, MRI transverse relaxation rate (R 2 ) parametrics were employed to test the hypothesis that WM alterations are present in H63D human carriers and are recapitulated in the H67D mice. H63D carriers exhibit widespread reductions in brain R 2 compared to non-carriers within white matter association fibers in the brain. Similar R 2 decreases within white matter tracts were observed in the H67D mouse brain. Additionally, an exacerbation of age-related R 2 decrease is found in the H67D animal model in white matter regions of interest. The decrease in R 2 within white matter tracts of both species is speculated to be multifaceted. The R 2 changes are hypothesized to be due to alterations in axonal biochemical tissue composition. The R 2 changes observed in both the human-H63D and mouse-H67D data suggest that modified white matter myelination is occurring in subjects with HFE mutations, potentially increasing vulnerability to neurodegenerative disorders.

  13. CT appearance of splenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelson, D.S.; Cohen, B.A.; Armas, R.R.

    1982-12-01

    Splenosis is an unusual complication of splenic trauma. The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of splenosis is described. One should consider this diagnosis when faced with a history of splenic trauma and multiple round or oval masses at CT.

  14. CT appearance of splenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelson, D.S.; Cohen, B.A.; Armas, R.R.

    1982-01-01

    Splenosis is an unusual complication of splenic trauma. The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of splenosis is described. One should consider this diagnosis when faced with a history of splenic trauma and multiple round or oval masses at CT

  15. On Multiple Appearances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork Petersen, Franziska

    2012-01-01

    reduction and epoché to focus on how dancing bodies appear in a stage context. To test these tools’ ability to explore dancing bodies from a third-person perspective, I analyse the Danish choreographer Kitt Johnson’s solo performance Drift (2011) - focussing on her shifting physical appearance. While...... phenomenology helps me to describe the multiple and radically different guises that Johnson assumes in her piece, my analysis, ultimately, does not aim to distil a truer, more real being from her appearances as is often the case in phenomenological philosophy. I complement my analytical approach...... with the Deleuzian notion of becoming animal and suggest that Johnson stages what could, in Judith Butler’s terms, be called a critical contingency of bodily appearance....

  16. White Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  17. Wedgelet Enhanced Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Larsen, Rasmus; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille

    2004-01-01

    Statistical region-based segmentation methods such as the Active Appearance Model (AAM) are used for establishing dense correspondences in images based on learning the variation in shape and pixel intensities in a training set. For low resolution 2D images correspondences can be recovered reliably....... The wedgelet regression trees employed are based on triangular domains and estimated using cross validation. The wedgelet regression trees are functional descriptions of the intensity information and serve to 1) reduce noise and 2) produce a compact textural description. The wedgelet enhanced appearance model...

  18. Tuberculous peritonitis: CT appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, R.D.; Hunter, T.B.

    1985-01-01

    Rare, sporadic cases of tuberculous peritonitis do occur in the United States and other advanced countries. Because there are few descriptions of the CT appearance of the peritoneal forms of tuberculous (TB), this report illustrates a case of tuberculous peritonitis with prominent CT findings and discusses the differentiation of this entity from other, more common diseases

  19. Diseases of white matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    The diagnosis of white matter abnormalities was revolutionized by the advent of computed tomography (CT), which provided a noninvasive method of detection and assessment of progression of a variety of white matter processes. However, the inadequacies of CT were recognized early, including its relative insensitivity to small foci of abnormal myelin in the brain when correlated with autopsy findings and its inability to image directly white matter diseases of the spinal cord. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), on the other hand, sensitive to the slight difference in tissue composition of normal gray and white matter and to subtle increase in water content associated with myelin disorders, is uniquely suited for the examination of white matter pathology. Its clinical applications include the evaluation of the normal process of myelination in childhood and the various white matter diseases, including disorders of demyelination and dysmyelination

  20. CT appearance of pulmonary ligament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Jung Gi; Han, Man Chung; Chin, Soo Yil [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-03-15

    Pulmonary ligament consists of 2 serosal of pleura that connect the lower to the mediastinum. Author analyse and present CT appearance of pulmonary ligament of the 40 normal and abnormal patients on the basis of anatomic knowledge from the cross section of cadaver. Left pulmonary ligament is more frequency visualized than the right. The most important CT landmark in localizing pulmonary ligament is the esophagus where the ligament attaches on its lateral wall. Pitfalls in CT identification of pulmonary ligament are right phrenic nerve and right pericardiacophrenic vessels which emerge from lateral wall of the IVC and wall of the emphysematous bulla in the region of the pulmonary ligament.

  1. CT appearance of pulmonary ligament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jung Gi; Han, Man Chung; Chin, Soo Yil

    1984-01-01

    Pulmonary ligament consists of 2 serosal of pleura that connect the lower to the mediastinum. Author analyse and present CT appearance of pulmonary ligament of the 40 normal and abnormal patients on the basis of anatomic knowledge from the cross section of cadaver. Left pulmonary ligament is more frequency visualized than the right. The most important CT landmark in localizing pulmonary ligament is the esophagus where the ligament attaches on its lateral wall. Pitfalls in CT identification of pulmonary ligament are right phrenic nerve and right pericardiacophrenic vessels which emerge from lateral wall of the IVC and wall of the emphysematous bulla in the region of the pulmonary ligament

  2. Cigarette smoking is associated with reduced microstructural integrity of cerebral white matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gons, Rob A R; van Norden, Anouk G W; de Laat, Karlijn F; van Oudheusden, Lucas J B; van Uden, Inge W M; Zwiers, Marcel P; Norris, David G; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

    2011-07-01

    Cigarette smoking doubles the risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Various pathophysiological pathways have been proposed to cause such a cognitive decline, but the exact mechanisms remain unclear. Smoking may affect the microstructural integrity of cerebral white matter. Diffusion tensor imaging is known to be sensitive for microstructural changes in cerebral white matter. We therefore cross-sectionally studied the relation between smoking behaviour (never, former, current) and diffusion tensor imaging parameters in both normal-appearing white matter and white matter lesions as well as the relation between smoking behaviour and cognitive performance. A structured questionnaire was used to ascertain the amount and duration of smoking in 503 subjects with small-vessel disease, aged between 50 and 85 years. Cognitive function was assessed with a neuropsychological test battery. All subjects underwent 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Using diffusion tensor imaging, fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity were calculated in both normal-appearing white matter and white matter lesions. A history of smoking was associated with significant higher values of mean diffusivity in normal-appearing white matter and white matter lesions (P-trend for smoking status = 0.02) and with poorer cognitive functioning compared with those who never smoked. Associations with smoking and loss of structural integrity appeared to be strongest in normal-appearing white matter. Furthermore, the duration of smoking cessation was positively related to lower values of mean diffusivity and higher values of fractional anisotropy in normal-appearing white matter [β = -0.004 (95% confidence interval -0.007 to 0.000; P = 0.03) and β = 0.019 (95% confidence interval 0.001-0.038; P = 0.04)]. Fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity values in normal-appearing white matter of subjects who had quit smoking for >20 years were comparable with subjects who had never smoked. These data suggest

  3. Texture Enhanced Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Darkner, Sune

    2007-01-01

    Statistical region-based registration methods such as the Active Appearance Model (AAM) are used for establishing dense correspondences in images. At low resolution, images correspondences can be recovered reliably in real-time. However, as resolution increases this becomes infeasible due...... representation are superior to wavelet representations at high dimensionality-reduction rates. At low reduction rates an edge enhanced wavelet representation provides better segmentation accuracy than the full standard AAM model....

  4. Musculoskeletal infections: ultrasound appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, C.L.F. [Department of Radiology, North District Hospital, NTEC, Fanling, NT, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: c8681@yahoo.com; Griffith, J.F. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, NTEC, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-02-01

    Musculoskeletal infections are commonly encountered in clinical practice. This review will discuss the ultrasound appearances of a variety of musculoskeletal infections such as cellulitis, infective tenosynovitis, pyomyositis, soft-tissue abscesses, septic arthritis, acute and chronic osteomyelitis, and post-operative infection. The peculiar sonographic features of less common musculoskeletal infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, and rice body formation in atypical mycobacterial tenosynovitis, and bursitis will also be presented.

  5. Musculoskeletal infections: ultrasound appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, C.L.F.; Griffith, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Musculoskeletal infections are commonly encountered in clinical practice. This review will discuss the ultrasound appearances of a variety of musculoskeletal infections such as cellulitis, infective tenosynovitis, pyomyositis, soft-tissue abscesses, septic arthritis, acute and chronic osteomyelitis, and post-operative infection. The peculiar sonographic features of less common musculoskeletal infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, and rice body formation in atypical mycobacterial tenosynovitis, and bursitis will also be presented

  6. Realistic Material Appearance Modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal; Filip, Jiří; Hatka, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2010, č. 81 (2010), s. 13-14 ISSN 0926-4981 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0593 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : bidirectional texture function * texture modelling Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http:// library .utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/RO/haindl-realistic material appearance modelling.pdf

  7. Identification of regions of normal grey matter and white matter from pathologic glioblastoma and necrosis in frozen sections using Raman imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Rachel; Auner, Gregory; Yurgelevic, Sally; Broadbent, Brandy; Raghunathan, Aditya; Poisson, Laila M; Mikkelsen, Tom; Rosenblum, Mark L; Kalkanis, Steven N

    2015-11-01

    In neurosurgical applications, a tool capable of distinguishing grey matter, white matter, and areas of tumor and/or necrosis in near-real time could greatly aid in tumor resection decision making. Raman spectroscopy is a non-destructive spectroscopic technique which provides molecular information about the tissue under examination based on the vibrational properties of the constituent molecules. With careful measurement and data processing, a spatial step and repeat acquisition of Raman spectra can be used to create Raman images. Forty frozen brain tissue sections were imaged in their entirety using a 300-µm-square measurement grid, and two or more regions of interest within each tissue were also imaged using a 25 µm-square step size. Molecular correlates for histologic features of interest were identified within the Raman spectra, and novel imaging algorithms were developed to compare molecular features across multiple tissues. In previous work, the relative concentration of individual biomolecules was imaged. Here, the relative concentrations of 1004, 1300:1344, and 1660 cm(-1), which correspond primarily to protein and lipid content, were simultaneously imaged across all tissues. This provided simple interpretation of boundaries between grey matter, white matter, and diseased tissue, and corresponded with findings from adjacent hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. This novel, yet simple, multi-channel imaging technique allows clinically-relevant resolution with straightforward molecular interpretation of Raman images not possible by imaging any single peak. This method can be applied to either surgical or laboratory tools for rapid, non-destructive imaging of grey and white matter.

  8. Color appearance in stereoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadia, Davide; Rizzi, Alessandro; Bonanomi, Cristian; Marini, Daniele; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between color and lightness appearance and the perception of depth has been studied since a while in the field of perceptual psychology and psycho-physiology. It has been found that depth perception affects the final object color and lightness appearance. In the stereoscopy research field, many studies have been proposed on human physiological effects, considering e.g. geometry, motion sickness, etc., but few has been done considering lightness and color information. Goal of this paper is to realize some preliminar experiments in Virtual Reality in order to determine the effects of depth perception on object color and lightness appearance. We have created a virtual test scene with a simple 3D simultaneous contrast configuration. We have created three different versions of this scene, each with different choices of relative positions and apparent size of the objects. We have collected the perceptual responses of several users after the observation of the test scene in the Virtual Theater of the University of Milan, a VR immersive installation characterized by a semi-cylindrical screen that covers 120° of horizontal field of view from an observation distance of 3.5 m. We present a description of the experiments setup and procedure, and we discuss the obtained results.

  9. Uterine Leiomyoma: Hysterosalpingographic Appearances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Ahmadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterine leiomyoma is the most common benign tumor of genital tract. The etiology of myomasis unknown. Leiomyoma shows a broad spectrum of radiographic appearances depending on thenumber, size, and location of the tumor. The diagnostic method for uterine leiomyomas is basedprimarily on the clinical situation. Despite of the varied diagnostic options such as; transvaginalsonography, sonohysterography, hysteroscopy, laparoscopy and MRI; hysterosalpingography isstill one of the valuable imaging methods for identification of uterine leiomyoma.The various features of the proved leiomyoma are illustrated in this pictorial review. The incidence,risk factors and clinical features will also be discussed briefly.

  10. Wavelet Enhanced Appearance Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Forchhammer, Søren; Cootes, Timothy F.

    2004-01-01

    Generative segmentation methods such as the Active Appearance Models (AAM) establish dense correspondences by modelling variation of shape and pixel intensities. Alas, for 3D and high-resolution 2D images typical in medical imaging, this approach is rendered infeasible due to excessive storage......-7 wavelets on face images have shown that segmentation accuracy degrades gracefully with increasing compression ratio. Further, a proposed weighting scheme emphasizing edges was shown to be significantly more accurate at compression ratio 1:1, than a conventional AAM. At higher compression ratios the scheme...

  11. Low normal thyroid function attenuates serum alanine aminotransferase elevations in the context of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in white people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, Robin P. F.; van den Berg, Eline H.; van der Klauw, Melanie; Blokzijl, Hans

    Objectives: Thyroid hormones play a key role in hepatic lipid metabolism. Although hypothyroidismis associated with increased prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the relationship of NAFLD with low normal thyroid function is unclear. We tested the association of serum alanine

  12. Appearance is a function of the face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Gregory L; Rankin, Marlene K

    2010-03-01

    Increasingly, third-party insurers deny coverage to patients with posttraumatic and congenital facial deformities because these are not seen as "functional." Recent facial transplants have demonstrated that severely deformed patients are willing to undergo potentially life-threatening surgery in search of a normal physiognomy. Scant quantitative research exists that objectively documents appearance as a primary "function" of the face. This study was designed to establish a population-based definition of the functions of the human face, rank importance of the face among various anatomical areas, and determine the risk value the average person places on a normal appearance. Voluntary adult subjects (n = 210) in three states aged 18 to 75 years were recruited using a quota sampling technique. Subjects completed study questionnaires of demography and bias using the Gamble Chance of Death Questionnaire and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The face ranked as the most important anatomical area for functional reconstruction. Appearance was the fifth most important function of the face, after breathing, sight, speech, and eating. Normal facial appearance was rated as very important for one to be a functioning member of American society (p = 0.01) by 49 percent. One in seven subjects (13 percent) would accept a 30 to 45 percent risk of death to obtain a "normal" face. Normal appearance is a primary function of the face, based on a large, culturally diverse population sample across the lifespan. Normal appearance ranks above smell and expression as a function. Restoration of facial appearance is ranked the most important anatomical area for repair. Normal facial appearance is very important for one to be a functional member of American society.

  13. Thallium-201 for myocardial imaging: appearance of the normal heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.J.; Bailey, I.; Strauss, H.W.; Rouleau, J.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Pitt, B.

    1976-01-01

    Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion images were obtained from 13 healthy adults after tracer administration both at rest and at maximal stress. On the rest-injected scan, tracer was seen in left ventricular myocardium, liver, and spleen. In two subjects with resting tachycardia, the right ventricular myocardium was slightly visualized after tracer injection at rest. When tracer was administered at stress, the left ventricular activity was more nearly homogeneous and the left ventricle was better defined on the scan. The left-ventricle-to-lung-background activity ratio increased from 2.4 at rest to 3.4 at stress. The right ventricular myocardium was seen on the stress-injected scan. Phantom studies, performed to define the optimum position for visualization of lesions, showed that small lesions were best defined when seen either en face or in tangent. Scans should be performed at stress whenever possible and multiple views are essential

  14. Saliency Changes Appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerzel, Dirk; Schönhammer, Josef; Burra, Nicolas; Born, Sabine; Souto, David

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that the deployment of attention is linked to saliency. In contrast, very little is known about how salient objects are perceived. To probe the perception of salient elements, observers compared two horizontally aligned stimuli in an array of eight elements. One of them was salient because of its orientation or direction of motion. We observed that the perceived luminance contrast or color saturation of the salient element increased: the salient stimulus looked even more salient. We explored the possibility that changes in appearance were caused by attention. We chose an event-related potential indexing attentional selection, the N2pc, to answer this question. The absence of an N2pc to the salient object provides preliminary evidence against involuntary attentional capture by the salient element. We suggest that signals from a master saliency map flow back into individual feature maps. These signals boost the perceived feature contrast of salient objects, even on perceptual dimensions different from the one that initially defined saliency. PMID:22162760

  15. White matter hyperintensities and cognitive reserve during a working memory task: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in cognitively normal older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Cabello, Sara; Valls-Pedret, Cinta; Schurz, Matthias; Vidal-Piñeiro, Dídac; Sala-Llonch, Roser; Bargallo, Nuria; Ros, Emilio; Bartrés-Faz, David

    2016-12-01

    Cognitive reserve (CR) models posit that lifestyle factors such as education modulate the relationship between brain damage and cognition. However, the functional correlates of CR in healthy aging are still under investigation. White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are a common age-associated finding that impacts cognition. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to characterize the patterns of brain activation during a working memory task in older participants with high and low levels of education (as a proxy of CR) and high and low WMH volumes. Ninety older volunteers (aged 63-76 years) and 16 young adults (aged 21-27) completed the study. We found that older adults with higher education had better working memory performance than their less educated peers. Among the highly educated participants, those with WMH over-recruited areas engaged by young volunteers and showed activation in additional cortical and subcortical structures. However, those with low WMH differed little with respect to their younger counterparts. Our findings demonstrate that the functional mechanisms subtending the effects of education, as a proxy of CR, are modulated according to the WMH burden. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. MRI appearance of muscle denervation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, S. [University Hospital of Wales, Department of Radiology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Venkatanarasimha, N.; Walsh, M.A.; Hughes, P.M. [Derriford Hospital, Department of Radiology, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    Muscle denervation results from a variety of causes including trauma, neoplasia, neuropathies, infections, autoimmune processes and vasculitis. Traditionally, the diagnosis of muscle denervation was based on clinical examination and electromyography. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a distinct advantage over electromyography, not only in diagnosing muscle denervation, but also in determining its aetiology. MRI demonstrates characteristic signal intensity patterns depending on the stage of muscle denervation. The acute and subacutely denervated muscle shows a high signal intensity pattern on fluid sensitive sequences and normal signal intensity on T1-weighted MRI images. In chronic denervation, muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration demonstrate high signal changes on T1-weighted sequences in association with volume loss. The purpose of this review is to summarise the MRI appearance of denervated muscle, with special emphasis on the signal intensity patterns in acute and subacute muscle denervation. (orig.)

  17. H-1 MR spectroscopy of the brain in multiple sclerosis subtypes with analysis of the metabolite concentrations in gray and white matter : initial findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijens, PE; Mostert, JP; Oudkerk, M; De Keyser, J

    Many MR spectroscopy (MRS) studies of multiple sclerosis (MS) have focussed on metabolism in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and in white matter lesions (WML). In this study, eight patients suffering from primary or secondary progressive MS (PPMS/SPMS) and seven patients with

  18. White Ring; White ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, H.; Yuzawa, H. [Nikken Sekkei Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-01-05

    White Ring is a citizen`s gymnasium used for figure skating and short track speed skating games of 18th Winter Olympic Games in 1998. White Ring is composed of a main-arena and a sub-arena. For the main-arena with an area 41mtimes66m, an ice link can be made by disengaging the potable floor and by flowing brine in the bridged polystyrene pipes embedded in the concrete floor. Due to the fortunate groundwater in this site, well water is used for the outside air treatment energy in 63% during heating and in 35% during cooling. Ammonia is used as a cooling medium for refrigerating facility. For the heating of audience area in the large space, heat load from the outside is reduced by enhancing the heat insulation performance of the roof of arena. The audience seats are locally heated using heaters. For the White Ring, high quality environment is realized for games through various functions of the large-scale roof of the large space. Success of the big event was expected. 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. A reliable spatially normalized template of the human spinal cord--Applications to automated white matter/gray matter segmentation and tensor-based morphometry (TBM) mapping of gray matter alterations occurring with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taso, Manuel; Le Troter, Arnaud; Sdika, Michaël; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean; Guye, Maxime; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Callot, Virginie

    2015-08-15

    Recently, a T2*-weighted template and probabilistic atlas of the white and gray matter (WM, GM) of the spinal cord (SC) have been reported. Such template can be used as tissue-priors for automated WM/GM segmentation but can also provide a common reference and normalized space for group studies. Here, a new template has been created (AMU40), and accuracy of automatic template-based WM/GM segmentation was quantified. The feasibility of tensor-based morphometry (TBM) for studying voxel-wise morphological differences of SC between young and elderly healthy volunteers was also investigated. Sixty-five healthy subjects were divided into young (n=40, age50years old, mean age 57±5years old) groups and scanned at 3T using an axial high-resolution T2*-weighted sequence. Inhomogeneity correction and affine intensity normalization of the SC and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) signal intensities across slices were performed prior to both construction of the AMU40 template and WM/GM template-based segmentation. The segmentation was achieved using non-linear spatial normalization of T2*-w MR images to the AMU40 template. Validation of WM/GM segmentations was performed with a leave-one-out procedure by calculating DICE similarity coefficients between manual and automated WM/GM masks. SC morphological differences between young and elderly healthy volunteers were assessed using the same non-linear spatial normalization of the subjects' MRI to a common template, derivation of the Jacobian determinant maps from the warping fields, and a TBM analysis. Results demonstrated robust WM/GM automated segmentation, with mean DICE values greater than 0.8. Concerning the TBM analysis, an anterior GM atrophy was highlighted in elderly volunteers, demonstrating thereby, for the first time, the feasibility of studying local structural alterations in the SC using tensor-based morphometry. This holds great promise for studies of morphological impairment occurring in several central nervous system

  20. Dermoscopic appearance of an amelanotic mucosal melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Andreas; Beck-Zoul, Ulrike; Held, Laura; Haase, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypomelanotic or amelanotic melanomas are challenging to identify, especially at mucosal sites. The dermoscopic clues to the diagnosis of mucosal melanomas have been reported to be structureless zones with the presence of blue, gray, or white colors. Case A female in her seventies noted a new lesion on the inside of her right labia that first appeared two months prior. Her past medical history was significant for rheumatoid arthritis requiring ongoing treatment with methotrexate for 20 years and adalimumab for 10 years. After no response to two weeks of local treatment for suspected herpes simplex infection, her gynecologist performed a skin biopsy. Based on the histopathological diagnosis of an amelanotic melanoma (Breslow thickness of 1.3 mm) the patient was referred to dermatology for further assessment. Polarized dermoscopy revealed a distinct asymmetric, sharply demarcated homogenous white papule (4 × 5 mm) as well as polymorphous vessels. Conclusion Dermoscopy may aid in the diagnosis of amelanotic mucosal melanomas. Our case revealed a structureless white area and polymorphous vessels. Additional clues to the diagnosis were the advanced age of the patient and the clinical presentation of a new lesion. PMID:27867742

  1. Ovarian metastases: Computed tomographic appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megibow, A.J.; Hulnick, D.H.; Bosniak, M.A.; Balthazar, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    Computed tomographic scans of 34 patients with ovarian metastases were reviewed to assess the radiographic appearances and to correlate these with the primary neoplasms. Primary neoplasms were located in the colon (20 patients), breast (six), stomach (five), small bowel (one), bladder (one), and Wilms tumor of the kidney (one). The radiographic appearance of the metastatic lesions could be described as predominantly cystic (14 lesions), mixed (12 lesions), or solid (seven lesions). The cystic and mixed lesions tended to be larger in overall diameter than the solid. The metastases from gastric carcinoma appeared solid in four of five cases. The metastases from the other neoplasms had variable appearances simulating primary ovarian carcinoma

  2. Fast Newton active appearance models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kossaifi, Jean; Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Pantic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Active Appearance Models (AAMs) are statistical models of shape and appearance widely used in computer vision to detect landmarks on objects like faces. Fitting an AAM to a new image can be formulated as a non-linear least-squares problem which is typically solved using iterative methods. Owing to

  3. Evolution, Appearance, and Occupational Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony C. Little

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual characteristics, including facial appearance, are thought to play an important role in a variety of judgments and decisions that have real occupational outcomes in many settings. Indeed, there is growing evidence suggesting that appearance influences hiring decisions and even election results. For example, attractive individuals are more likely to be hired, taller men earn more, and the facial appearance of candidates has been linked to real election outcomes. In this article, we review evidence linking physical appearance to occupational success and evaluate the hypothesis that appearance based biases are consistent with predictions based on evolutionary theories of coalition formation and leadership choice. We discuss why appearance based effects are so pervasive, addressing ideas about a “kernel of truth” in attributions and about coalitional psychology. We additionally highlight that appearance may be differently related to success at work according to the types of job or task involved. For example, leaders may be chosen because the characteristics they possess are seen as best suited to lead in particular situations. During a time of war, a dominant-appearing leader may inspire confidence and intimidate enemies while during peace-time, when negotiation and diplomacy are needed, interpersonal skills may outweigh the value of a dominant leader. In line with these ideas, masculine-faced leaders are favored in war-time scenarios while feminine-faced leaders are favored in peace-time scenarios. We suggest that such environment or task specific competencies may be prevalent during selection processes, whereby individuals whose appearance best matches perceived task competences are most likely selected, and propose the general term “task-congruent selection” to describe these effects. Overall, our review highlights how potentially adaptive biases could influence choices in the work place. With respect to certain biases

  4. National Needs for Appearance Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Maria E.

    2003-04-01

    Appearance greatly influences a customer's judgement of the quality and acceptability of manufactured products, as yearly there is approximately $700 billion worth of shipped goods for which overall appearance is critical to their sale. For example, appearance is reported to be a major factor in about half of automobile purchases. The appearance of an object is the result of a complex interaction of the light field incident upon the object, the scattering and absorption properties of the object, and human perception. The measurable attributes of appearance are divided into color (hue, saturation, and lightness) and geometry (gloss, haze). The nature of the global economy has increased international competition and the need to improve the quality of many manufactured products. Since the manufacturing and marketing of these products is international in scope, the lack of national appearance standard artifacts and measurement protocols results in a direct loss to the supplier. One of the primary missions of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is to strengthen the U.S. economy by working with industry to develop and apply technology, measurements and standards. The NIST Physics Laboratory has established an appearance metrology laboratory. This new laboratory provides calibration services for 0^o/45^o color standards and 20^o°, 60^o°, and 85^o° specular gloss, and research in the colorimetric characterization of gonioapparent including a new Standard Reference Material for metallic coatings (SRM 2017) and measurement protocols for pearlescent coatings. These services are NIST's first appearance metrology efforts in many years; a response to needs articulated by industry. These services are designed to meet demands for improved measurements and standards to enhance the acceptability of final products since appearance often plays a major role in their acceptability.

  5. Magnetization transfer ratio relates to cognitive impairment in normal elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan eSeiler

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetization transfer imaging (MTI can detect microstructural brain tissue changes and may be helpful in determining age-related cerebral damage. We investigated the association between the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR in gray and white matter and cognitive functioning in 355 participants of the Austrian Stroke Prevention Family Study (ASPS-Fam aged 38 to 86 years. MTR maps were generated for the neocortex, deep gray matter structures, white matter hyperintensities, and normal appearing white matter. Adjusted mixed models determined whole brain and lobar cortical MTR to be directly and significantly related to performance on tests of memory, executive function and motor skills. There existed an almost linear dose-effect relationship. MTR of deep gray matter structures and normal appearing white matter correlated to executive functioning. All associations were independent of demographics, vascular risk factors, focal brain lesions and cortex volume.Further research is needed to understand the basis of this association at the tissue level, and to determine the role of MTR in predicting cognitive decline and dementia.

  6. Color and appearance metrology facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIST Physical Measurement Laboratory has established the color and appearance metrology facility to support calibration services for 0°/45° colored samples, 20°,...

  7. Appearance questions can be misleading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel; Markman, Ellen M.

    2005-01-01

    Preschoolers' success on the appearance-reality task is a milestone in theory-of-mind development. On the standard task children see a deceptive object, such as a sponge that looks like a rock, and are asked, "What is this really?" and "What does this look like?" Children below 4 1/2 years of age...... fail saying that the object not only is a sponge but also looks like a sponge. We propose that young children's difficulty stems from ambiguity in the meaning of "looks like." This locution can refer to outward appearance ("Peter looks like Paul") but in fact often refers to likely reality ("That looks...... like Jim"). We propose that "looks like" is taken to refer to likely reality unless the reality is already part of the common ground of the conversation. Because this joint knowledge is unclear to young children on the appearance-reality task, they mistakenly think the appearance question is about...

  8. Relative signal intensity changes of frontal and occipital white matters on T 2 weighted axial MR image : correlation with age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, You Me; Kim, Seung Cheol

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess relative signal intensity changes in frontal and occipital white matter with age, as seen on T 2 weighted axial MR images. Thirty eight normal adults (20-29 years old) and 114 children (0-11 years old) were investigated. All had nonspecific neurologic symptoms and their MR images, obtained using a 1.5 T system (Signa, GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, U.S.A.), appeared to be normal. The signal intensities of frontal and occipital white matter were evaluated on T2 weighted axial images at the level of the foramen of Monro. When the signal intensity of white matter was higher than that of gray matter, grade 0 was assigned; when the opposite situation pertained, this was graded I - III. Grade I indicated that the signal intensity of occipital white matter was lower than that of frontal white matter; grade II, that the signal intensity of white matter of both lobes was similar. When the signal intensity of frontal white matter was lower than that of occipital age, and by one year after 2 years of age, and then determined grade according to age, age distribution according to grade, and the ages at which signal intensities were similar to those of adults. On T2-weighted MR images, the signal intensity of frontal white matter ultimately shows a lower signal intensity than that of occipital white matter. (author). 11 refs., 6 figs

  9. White House

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content Jump to navigation the WHITE HOUSE President Donald J. Trump Get in Touch Home Briefing Room From the ... For All Americans The Administration The Administration President Donald J. Trump Vice President Mike Pence First Lady Melania Trump ...

  10. Object Knowledge Modulates Colour Appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Witzel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the memory colour effect for colour diagnostic artificial objects. Since knowledge about these objects and their colours has been learned in everyday life, these stimuli allow the investigation of the influence of acquired object knowledge on colour appearance. These investigations are relevant for questions about how object and colour information in high-level vision interact as well as for research about the influence of learning and experience on perception in general. In order to identify suitable artificial objects, we developed a reaction time paradigm that measures (subjective colour diagnosticity. In the main experiment, participants adjusted sixteen such objects to their typical colour as well as to grey. If the achromatic object appears in its typical colour, then participants should adjust it to the opponent colour in order to subjectively perceive it as grey. We found that knowledge about the typical colour influences the colour appearance of artificial objects. This effect was particularly strong along the daylight axis.

  11. Object knowledge modulates colour appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Valkova, Hanna; Hansen, Thorsten; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the memory colour effect for colour diagnostic artificial objects. Since knowledge about these objects and their colours has been learned in everyday life, these stimuli allow the investigation of the influence of acquired object knowledge on colour appearance. These investigations are relevant for questions about how object and colour information in high-level vision interact as well as for research about the influence of learning and experience on perception in general. In order to identify suitable artificial objects, we developed a reaction time paradigm that measures (subjective) colour diagnosticity. In the main experiment, participants adjusted sixteen such objects to their typical colour as well as to grey. If the achromatic object appears in its typical colour, then participants should adjust it to the opponent colour in order to subjectively perceive it as grey. We found that knowledge about the typical colour influences the colour appearance of artificial objects. This effect was particularly strong along the daylight axis. PMID:23145224

  12. Adolescent perceptions of cigarette appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Allison; Moodie, Crawford; MacKintosh, Anne M; Hastings, Gerard

    2014-06-01

    To reduce the possibility of cigarette appearance misleading consumers about harm caused by the product, the European Commission's draft Tobacco Products Directive proposed banning cigarettes implied a more pleasant and palatable smoke for young smokers. A long brown cigarette was viewed as particularly unattractive and communicated a stronger and more harmful product. This exploratory study provides some support that standardising cigarette appearance could reduce the appeal of cigarettes in adolescents and reduce the opportunity for stick design to mislead young smokers in terms of harm. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  13. Appearance, discrimination, and reaction qualifications

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    When are selectors for advantaged social positions morally justified in giving weight to the appearance of the candidates? In order to address this issue adequately, we need to know when a person’s appearance can be a legitimate qualification for a position. Some of the hardest cases are jobs that involve interacting with clients or customers who prefer to deal with good-looking employees or who respond more favourably to them. But there is also a wide range of difficult cases in which an unc...

  14. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  15. CT appearance of juvenile angiofibroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Jun; Hara, Kazuo (Sumitomo Hospital, Osaka (Japan)); Fukuzumi, Akio; Uchida, Hideo

    1983-06-01

    Three verified cases of juvenile angiofibroma were presented. All of them were young and adolescent male CT proved to be an ideal tool in evaluating the extension of this tumor. The appearance on plain CT was multilobulated with displacement of the adjacent bony structures. On enhancement, there was intense staining of the tumor.

  16. Memory colours affect colour appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Olkkonen, Maria; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2016-01-01

    Memory colour effects show that colour perception is affected by memory and prior knowledge and hence by cognition. None of Firestone & Scholl's (F&S's) potential pitfalls apply to our work on memory colours. We present a Bayesian model of colour appearance to illustrate that an interaction between perception and memory is plausible from the perspective of vision science.

  17. Effects of dietary Lactobacillus plantarum in different treatments on growth performance and immune gene expression of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under normal condition and stress of acute low salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaoting; Duan, Yafei; Dong, Hongbiao; Zhang, Jiasong

    2017-03-01

    A 45-day feeding trial followed by an acute stress test of low salinity was done to evaluate effects of Lactobacillus plantarum on growth performance and anti-stress capability of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Shrimp were randomly allocated in 15 tanks (100 shrimp per tank) and divided into 5 treatments with 3 replicates. Triplicate tanks were fed with a control diet or diets containing different treatments of L. plantarum (fermentation supernatant (FS), live bacteria (LB), dead bacteria (DB) and cell-free extract (CE) of L. plantarum) as treatment groups. Growth performance including weight gain (WGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and specific growth rate (SGR) were determined after feeding 45 days. Anti-stress capacity was evaluated by determining the gene expression of ProPO, SOD and Lys in gut of shrimp at the end of feeding trial and again at 96 h post-stress test. Results indicated that supplementation of L. plantarum into diet had significantly improved growth performance of L. vannamei. On the other hand, L. plantarum supplementation had no significant effects on the gene expression of SOD and Lys in gut of shrimp cultured under normal condition for 45 days. Supplementation of L. plantarum had increased survivability of L. vannamei having higher survival rates compared to the control group. However, statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the control group and treatments. Compared with the control group, supplementation of L. plantarum significantly improved the resistance of L. vannamei against the stress of acute low salinity, as indicated by higher survival rate as well as higher transcript levels of ProPo, SOD and Lys gene. Our findings suggested that L. plantarum, especially cell-free extract of L. plantarum has improved the anti-stress capacity of L. vannamei and could serve as a potential feed additive that helps shrimp to overcome environmental stresses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. CT appearance of amiodarone-induced pneumonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, A.A.; Hayward, C.

    1989-01-01

    Basal peripheral pleuroparenchymal opacities are described on CT of early cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis, asbestosis and bleomycin pneumonitis. These diseases may be caused by free radical effects on phospholipid metabolism causing cell wall damage. Amiodarone hydrochloride alters phospholipid synthesis metabolically. Amiodarone pneumonitis might be expected to show similar CT appearances. Sixteen patients who have developed new respiratory symptoms while taking amiodarone have been scanned prone and supine and at inspiration and expiration by means of a scanner with 2-mm sections at 1-cm intervals. All have been previously healthy nonsmokers with no relevant occupational history. Previous chest radiographs have been normal. Results are presented

  19. Owl's eye appearance: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Mukul; Asha, P.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Hyper-functioning thyroid nodule may present various scintigraphic appearances on thyroid scans. Autonomously hyper functioning thyroid nodules often show degenerative changes. These changes may give rise to peripheral photopenic areas on a thyroid scan. In this report we present a case of hyper functioning nodule showing appearance of an owl's eye. Although rare, such pattern can be seen in a variety of benign and malignant thyroid conditions. A 42-year-old man presented with a solitary thyroid nodule in the right lobe and weight loss for four months. The thyroid hormone profile confirmed hyperthyroidism. Thyroid function testing revealed T4=136.8 nmol/l (Normal = 66.0-181.0 nmol/L) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) = 0.283 (Normal =0.27- 4.2 μIU/ml). Antithyroglobulin antibodies and antimicrosmal antibodies were negative. The patient was referred for thyroid scan and uptake. A Thyroid scan was obtained after the intravenous injection of 5 mCi (185MBq) of 99m Tc pertechnetate. Anterior view obtained using a parallel hole collimator. The scan showed peripheral photopenic area with a central focal area of increased uptake giving the appearance of 'Owl's eye'. 99m Tc-pertechnetate uptake was increased. A scintigraphic 'Owl's eye' sign has been described in thyroid cyst, benign autonomous nodule and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland. This Owl's eye pattern appears to be caused by a focus of functioning tissue overlapping a large cold area in a nodule that has cystic,degenerative and necrotic changes in the middle of a benign and malignant pathology. Hyper functioning nodules may scintigraphically show Owl's eye pattern due to intra nodular degeneration, with residual hyper functioning tissue within or overlapping the degenerative area

  20. Perceived functional impact of abnormal facial appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Marlene; Borah, Gregory L

    2003-06-01

    Functional facial deformities are usually described as those that impair respiration, eating, hearing, or speech. Yet facial scars and cutaneous deformities have a significant negative effect on social functionality that has been poorly documented in the scientific literature. Insurance companies are declining payments for reconstructive surgical procedures for facial deformities caused by congenital disabilities and after cancer or trauma operations that do not affect mechanical facial activity. The purpose of this study was to establish a large, sample-based evaluation of the perceived social functioning, interpersonal characteristics, and employability indices for a range of facial appearances (normal and abnormal). Adult volunteer evaluators (n = 210) provided their subjective perceptions based on facial physical appearance, and an analysis of the consequences of facial deformity on parameters of preferential treatment was performed. A two-group comparative research design rated the differences among 10 examples of digitally altered facial photographs of actual patients among various age and ethnic groups with "normal" and "abnormal" congenital deformities or posttrauma scars. Photographs of adult patients with observable congenital and posttraumatic deformities (abnormal) were digitally retouched to eliminate the stigmatic defects (normal). The normal and abnormal photographs of identical patients were evaluated by the large sample study group on nine parameters of social functioning, such as honesty, employability, attractiveness, and effectiveness, using a visual analogue rating scale. Patients with abnormal facial characteristics were rated as significantly less honest (p = 0.007), less employable (p = 0.001), less trustworthy (p = 0.01), less optimistic (p = 0.001), less effective (p = 0.02), less capable (p = 0.002), less intelligent (p = 0.03), less popular (p = 0.001), and less attractive (p = 0.001) than were the same patients with normal facial

  1. Imaging appearances of cholesterol pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Yanwei; Zhang Jingwen; Wu Jianlin; Zhou Yong; Li Mingwu; Lei Zhen; Shi Lifu

    2006-01-01

    Objection: To analyze the imaging appearances of cholesterol pneumonia. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the X-ray and CT findings of 3 patients with cholesterol pneumonia confirmed pathologically and reviewed correlative literature. Results: Lesions similar to mass were found in X-ray and CT imaging of three cases. Two of them appeared cavity with fluid-level and one showed multiple ring enhancement after CT contrast. The course of disease was very. long and it had no respond to antibiotic therapy. Amounts of foam cells rich in cholesterol crystal were detected in pathological examination. Conclusions: Cholesterol pneumonia is a rare chronic pulmonary idiopathic disease, and the radiological findings can do some help to its diagnosis. (authors)

  2. Benign chondroblastoma - malignant radiological appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, K.; Treugut, H.; Mueller, G.E.

    1980-04-01

    The very rare benign chondroblastoma occasionally invades soft tissues and may grow beyond the epiphysis into the metaphysis. In the present case such a tumour did not show the typical radiological appearances, but presented malignant features both on plain films and on the angiogram. The importance of biopsy of tumours which cannot be identified with certainty must be stressed before radical surgery is carried out.

  3. Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaabane, M.; Ladeb, M.F.; Bouhaouala, M.H.; Ben Hammouda, M.; Ataalah, R.; Gannouni, A.; Krifa, H.

    1989-01-01

    A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.)

  4. Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaabane, M.; Ladeb, M.F.; Bouhaouala, M.H.; Ben Hammouda, M.; Ataalah, R.; Gannouni, A.; Krifa, H.

    1989-07-01

    A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.).

  5. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare: radiologic appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kransdorf, M.J.; Murphey, M.D.; Temple, H.T.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. Granuloma annulare is an uncommon benign inflammatory dermatosis characterized by the formation of dermal papules with a tendency to form rings. There are several clinically distinct forms. The subcutaneous form is the most frequently encountered by radiologists, with the lesion presenting as a superficial mass. There are only a few scattered reports of the imaging appearance of this entity in the literature. We report the radiologic appearance of five cases of subcutaneous granuloma annulare. Design and patients. The radiologic images of five patients (three male, two female) with subcutaneous granuloma annulare were retrospectively studied. Mean patient age was 6.4 years (range, 2-13 years). The lesions occurred in the lower leg (two), foot, forearm, and hand. MR images were available for all lesions, gadolinium-enhanced imaging in three cases, radiographs in four, and bone scintigraphy in one. Results. Radiographs showed unmineralized nodular masses localized to the subcutaneous adipose tissue. The size range, in greatest dimension on imaging studies, was 1-4 cm. MR images show a mass with relatively decreased signal intensity on all pulse sequences, with variable but generally relatively well defined margins. There was extensive diffuse enhancement following gadolinium administration. Conclusion. The radiologic appearance of subcutaneous granuloma annulare is characteristic, typically demonstrating a nodular soft-tissue mass involving the subcutaneous adipose tissue. MR images show a mass with relatively decreased signal intensity on all pulse sequences and variable but generally well defined margins. There is extensive diffuse enhancement following gadolinium administration. Radiographs show a soft-tissue mass or soft-tissue swelling without evidence of bone involvement or mineralization. This radiologic appearance in a young individual is highly suggestive of subcutaneous granuloma annulare. (orig.)

  6. The imaging appearance of crayons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAllister, Aaron S.; Jones, Blaise V.; Lall, Neil U.; Tawfik, Kareem O.

    2017-01-01

    A crayon fragment was determined to be the source of a foreign body inflammatory process in the masticator space of a 15-month-old boy. The appearance of the crayon on CT and MR imaging was unexpected, leading to a further analysis of the imaging features of crayons. To investigate and characterize the imaging appearance of crayons at CT and MRI. The authors obtained CT and MR images of 22 crayons from three manufacturers and three non-pigmented crayons cast by the authors. CT attenuation of the crayons and diameter of the MRI susceptibility signal dropout were plotted versus brand and color. All crayons demonstrated a longitudinal central hypo-attenuating tract. Crayon attenuation varied by brand and color. All of the crayons demonstrated a signal void on T1 and T2 imaging and signal dropout on susceptibility-weighted imaging, the diameter of which varied by brand and color. Understanding the imaging appearance of crayons could help in the correct identification of a crayon as a foreign body on imaging studies, even when it is located in unusual places. (orig.)

  7. Color categories and color appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

  8. MR appearance of central neurocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, K.H.; Han, M.H.; Kim, D.G.; Chi, J.G.; Suh, D.C.; Kim, S.J.; Cha, S.H.; Han, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    To provide a detailed description of the MR appearances of central neurocytoma, MR images of 13 patients with central neurocytoma were retrospectively reviewed and compared with CT examinations. The histology was confirmed by ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies. In 12 patients the tumors were histologically benign and located in the anterior part of the lateral ventricle, 6 of which extended to the 3rd ventricle. There was one case of a histologically malignant variant involving the thalamus and lateral ventricle. The tumors were primarily solid, but contained cysts (85%, 11/13), calcifications (69%, 9/13), and signal void from tumor vessels (62%, 8/13), frequently producing heterogeneous signal intensity on both T1- and T2-weighted images. Most of the solid portion appeared isointense or slightly hyperintense relative to the cerebral cortex on all MR pulse sequences. Calcifications were iso- or hypointense on MR, making them difficult to characterize with MR alone. Intratumoral hemorrhage was seen in 2 patients on MR but not on CT. Contrast enhancement was variable in degree and pattern. Coronal and sagittal MR images were valuable in evaluating the tumor extent and origin site, and in planning the surgical approach. It is concluded that MR imaging appears to be more useful than CT in the overall evaluation of central neurocytoma, even though calcification is better characterized with CT. (orig.)

  9. The imaging appearance of crayons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAllister, Aaron S.; Jones, Blaise V. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lall, Neil U. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Ochsner Health System, Department of Radiology, New Orleans, LA (United States); Tawfik, Kareem O. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2017-05-15

    A crayon fragment was determined to be the source of a foreign body inflammatory process in the masticator space of a 15-month-old boy. The appearance of the crayon on CT and MR imaging was unexpected, leading to a further analysis of the imaging features of crayons. To investigate and characterize the imaging appearance of crayons at CT and MRI. The authors obtained CT and MR images of 22 crayons from three manufacturers and three non-pigmented crayons cast by the authors. CT attenuation of the crayons and diameter of the MRI susceptibility signal dropout were plotted versus brand and color. All crayons demonstrated a longitudinal central hypo-attenuating tract. Crayon attenuation varied by brand and color. All of the crayons demonstrated a signal void on T1 and T2 imaging and signal dropout on susceptibility-weighted imaging, the diameter of which varied by brand and color. Understanding the imaging appearance of crayons could help in the correct identification of a crayon as a foreign body on imaging studies, even when it is located in unusual places. (orig.)

  10. Scintigraphic appearances of Gaucher's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Junichi; Uchiyama, Guio; Hayakawa, Kazushige; Araki, Tsutomu; Hayashi, Sanshin; Yamada, Kayoko; Seto, Kazuhiko

    1985-01-01

    Gaucher's disease is an inborn error of metabolism in which glucocerebroside accumlates within reticuloendotherial cells of spleen, liver and bone marrow. The scintigraphic appearances are described in a 19-year-old man with Gaucher's disease. The colloid scan showed increased uptake in the lung and bone marrow of legs where the reticuloendotherial system was activated. The bone scan demonstrated increased activity in the metaphyseal and diaphyseal region infiltrated by Gaucher's cell. Ga-67 was thought to be accumlated in the progressive focus of the disease. (author)

  11. CT appearances of abdominal tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.-K., E-mail: leewk33@hotmail.com [Department of Medical Imaging, St Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria (Australia); Van Tonder, F.; Tartaglia, C.J.; Dagia, C. [Department of Medical Imaging, St Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria (Australia); Cazzato, R.L. [Department of Radiology, Universita Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Rome (Italy); Duddalwar, V.A. [Department of Radiology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Chang, S.D. [Department of Medical Imaging, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, British Columbia (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this article is to review and illustrate the spectrum of computed tomography (CT) appearances of abdominal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis can affect any organ or tissue in the abdomen, and can be mistaken for other inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. The most common sites of tuberculosis in the abdomen include lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, peritoneal cavity and gastrointestinal tract. The liver, spleen, biliary tract, pancreas and adrenals are rarely affected, but are more likely in HIV-seropositive patients and in miliary tuberculosis. This article should alert the radiologist to consider abdominal tuberculosis in the correct clinical setting to ensure timely diagnosis and enable appropriate treatment.

  12. CT appearances of abdominal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.-K.; Van Tonder, F.; Tartaglia, C.J.; Dagia, C.; Cazzato, R.L.; Duddalwar, V.A.; Chang, S.D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review and illustrate the spectrum of computed tomography (CT) appearances of abdominal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis can affect any organ or tissue in the abdomen, and can be mistaken for other inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. The most common sites of tuberculosis in the abdomen include lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, peritoneal cavity and gastrointestinal tract. The liver, spleen, biliary tract, pancreas and adrenals are rarely affected, but are more likely in HIV-seropositive patients and in miliary tuberculosis. This article should alert the radiologist to consider abdominal tuberculosis in the correct clinical setting to ensure timely diagnosis and enable appropriate treatment.

  13. White dwarf-red dwarf binaries in the Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselaar, E.J.M. van den

    2007-01-01

    This PhD thesis shows several studies on white dwarf - red dwarf binaries. White dwarfs are the end products of most stars and red dwarfs are normal hydrogen burning low-mass stars. White dwarf - red dwarf binaries are both blue (white dwarf) and red (red dwarf). Together with the fact that they are

  14. Optical appearance of distant galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchet, C.; Kline, M.I.

    1981-01-01

    We have used the recent evolutionary and K-corrections of Bruzual and Kron to predict the optical appearance of galaxies spanning a wide range of magnitudes and redshifts. It is found that nearly all galaxies with J< or approx. =25 are resolved in 1-arcsec seeing. At fixed apparent magnitude, galaxies with large redshifts are more diffuse in appearance than those at small z. This fact causes the most distant galaxies at any magnitude level to be missed, and, depending on the measurement algorithm employed, may cause the luminosities of detected galaxies to be seriously underestimated. Both of these effects deserve consideration when attempting to interpret number counts of faint galaxies. Observations made with the Space Telescope are expected to resolve nearly all galaxies at J< or approx. =27.5; however, several factors conspire to render Space Telescope observations less effective than certain ground-based CCD observations for the optical detection of distant galaxies. Finally, we note that most of our conclusions are unaffected by changes in the assumed cosmology

  15. White Paranoia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørholt, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by Alain Robbe-Grillet’s novel La Jalousie (1957), the essay contends that Michael Haneke’s Caché (2005) takes its viewers inside a postcolonial white paranoia which is, arguably, the root cause of the exclusion, segregation and racist discrimination that many immigrants from the former ...

  16. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  17. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  18. Implications of white striping and wooden breast abnormalities on quality traits of raw and marinated chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudalal, S; Lorenzi, M; Soglia, F; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2015-04-01

    One of the consequences of intense genetic selection for growth of poultry is the recent appearance of abnormalities in chicken breast muscles, such as white striping (characterised by superficial white striations) and wooden breast (characterised by pale and bulged areas with substantial hardness). The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality traits of chicken fillets affected by white striping and wooden breast abnormalities. In two replications, 192 fillets were divided into the following four classes: normal (n=48; absence of any visual defects), white striping (n=48, presence of white striations), wooden breast (n=48; diffusely presence of hardened areas) and white striping/wooden breast (n=48; fillets affected by both abnormalities). Morphology, raw meat texture and technological properties were assessed in both unprocessed (pH, colour, drip loss, cooking loss and cooked meat shear force) and marinated meat (marinade uptake, purge loss, cooking loss and cooked meat shear force). Fillets affected by white striping, wooden breast or both abnormalities exhibited higher breast weights compared with normal fillets (305.5, 298.7, 318.3 and 244.7 g, respectively; Pcooking losses than white-striped fillets for both unprocessed and marinated meats. On the other hand, white-striped fillets showed a moderate decline in marinade and cooking yield. Fillets affected by both abnormalities had the highest (Pcooked meat, drip loss, purge loss and cooked meat shear force were negligible or relatively low and of little practical importance. Thus, the presence of white striping and wooden breast abnormalities impair not only breast meat appearance but also the quality of both raw and marinated meats mainly by reducing water holding/binding abilities.

  19. Ultrasound appearance of knuckle pads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Ben, R. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham (United States). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Dehghanpisheh, K.; Chatham, W.W.; Alarcon, G.S. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham (United States). Dept. of Medicine; Lee, D.H.; Oakes, J. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham (United States). Dept. of Surgery

    2006-11-15

    We describe the ultrasound appearance of knuckle pads. Retrospective analysis of imaging in a series of five patients initially referred for evaluation of periarticular soft-tissue swelling of the hands involving the dorsum of the PIP and MP joints. Two patients had associated Dupuytren's contractures. Ultrasound and radiographs of the hands in all patients were reviewed and correlated with clinical history and physical exams. Radiographs in four patients demonstrated dorsal soft-tissue thickening. Ultrasound exams showed increased dorsal subcutaneous thickening, with either diffuse or focal hypoechoic areas corresponding to the areas of soft-tissue fullness identified on physical exam. No erosions or synovial proliferation were identified either by radiographs or ultrasound of the underlying joints. Knuckle pads can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from synovitis on physical examination. Musculoskeletal ultrasound can quickly identify these superficial lesions and exclude underlying synovial proliferation.

  20. The White Sea, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the

  1. Decoding white coat hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Dennis A; Park, Alex

    2017-01-01

    There is arguably no less understood or more intriguing problem in hypertension that the “white coat” condition, the standard concept of which is significantly blood pressure reading obtained by medical personnel of authoritative standing than that obtained by more junior and less authoritative personnel and by the patients themselves. Using hospital-initiated ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, the while effect manifests as initial and ending pressure elevations, and, in treated patients, a low daytime profile. The effect is essentially systolic. Pure diastolic white coat hypertension appears to be exceedingly rare. On the basis of the studies, we believe that the white coat phenomenon is a common, periodic, neuro-endocrine reflex conditioned by anticipation of having the blood pressure taken and the fear of what this measurement may indicate concerning future illness. It does not change with time, or with prolonged association with the physician, particularly with advancing years, it may be superimposed upon essential hypertension, and in patients receiving hypertensive medication, blunting of the nighttime dip, which occurs in about half the patients, may be a compensatory mechanisms, rather than an indication of cardiovascular risk. Rather than the blunted dip, the morning surge or the widened pulse pressure, cardiovascular risk appears to be related to elevation of the average night time pressure. PMID:28352632

  2. White coat hypertension in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurko, Alexander; Minarik, Milan; Jurko, Tomas; Tonhajzerova, Ingrid

    2016-01-15

    The article summarizes current information on blood pressure changes in children during clinic visit. White coat as a general dressing of physicians and health care personnel has been widely accepted at the end of the 19th century. Two problems can be associated with the use of white coat: white coat phenomenon and white coat hypertension. Children often attribute pain and other unpleasant experience to the white coat and refuse afterwards cooperation with examinations. Definition of white coat hypertension in the literature is not uniform. It has been defined as elevated blood pressure in the hospital or clinic with normal blood pressure at home measured during the day by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring system. White coat effect is defined as temporary increase in blood pressure before and during visit in the clinic, regardless what the average daily ambulatory blood pressure values are. Clinical importance of white coat hypertension is mainly because of higher risk for cardiovascular accidents that are dependent on end organ damage (heart, vessels, kidney). Current data do not allow any clear recommendations for the treatment. Pharmacological therapy is usually started in the presence of hypertrophic left ventricle, changes in intimal/medial wall thickness of carotic arteries, microalbuminuria and other cardiovascular risk factors. Nonpharmacological therapy is less controversial and certainly more appropriate. Patients have to change their life style, need to eliminate as much cardiovascular risk factors as possible and sustain a regular blood pressure monitoring.

  3. Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy Appear Not to Be Associated with Alzheimer's Disease Later in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolien N.H. Abheiden

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: After hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, more subjective cognitive complaints and white matter lesions are reported compared to women after normal pregnancies. Both have a causal relationship with Alzheimer's disease (AD. Aim: To investigate if women whose pregnancy was complicated by hypertensive disorders have an increased risk of AD. Methods: A case-control study in women with AD from the Alzheimer Center of the VU University Medical Center Amsterdam and women without AD. Paper and telephone surveys were performed. Results: The response rate was 85.2%. No relation between women with (n = 104 and without AD (n = 129 reporting pregnancies complicated by hypertensive disorders (p = 0.11 was found. Women with early-onset AD reported hypertensive disorders of pregnancy more often (p = 0.02 compared to women with late-onset AD. Conclusion: A reported history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy appears not to be associated with AD later in life.

  4. Facial appearance affects science communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghiu, Ana I; Callan, Mitchell J; Skylark, William J

    2017-06-06

    First impressions based on facial appearance predict many important social outcomes. We investigated whether such impressions also influence the communication of scientific findings to lay audiences, a process that shapes public beliefs, opinion, and policy. First, we investigated the traits that engender interest in a scientist's work, and those that create the impression of a "good scientist" who does high-quality research. Apparent competence and morality were positively related to both interest and quality judgments, whereas attractiveness boosted interest but decreased perceived quality. Next, we had members of the public choose real science news stories to read or watch and found that people were more likely to choose items that were paired with "interesting-looking" scientists, especially when selecting video-based communications. Finally, we had people read real science news items and found that the research was judged to be of higher quality when paired with researchers who look like "good scientists." Our findings offer insights into the social psychology of science, and indicate a source of bias in the dissemination of scientific findings to broader society.

  5. Heterogeneity in age-related white matter changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, R.; Schmidt, H.; Haybaeck, J.; Loitfelder, M.; Weis, S.; Cavalieri, M.; Seiler, S.; Enzinger, C.; Ropele, S.; Erkinjuntti, T.; Pantoni, L.; Scheltens, P.; Fazekas, F.; Jellinger, K.

    2011-01-01

    White matter changes occur endemically in routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of elderly persons. MRI appearance and histopathological correlates of white matter changes are heterogeneous. Smooth periventricular hyperintensities, including caps around the ventricular horns,

  6. Scintigraphic appearance of Alzheimer diesase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, B.L.; Johnson, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a devastating affliction of the elderly that has reached epidemic proportions. It produces regional abnormalities of brain blood flow and metabolism that may have diagnostic utility. In this paper the author determine the predictive value of Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT for detecting AD based on the prospective study of 132 consecutive patients coming to their nuclear medicine clinical unit for evaluation of memory loss or cognitive abnormalities. The final diagnosis was determined during clinical follow-up of 10.1 months ± 10.8. A final diagnosis was established in 113 patients, 52 of whom had AD. The probability of AD was 0.19 for normal perfusion 0.82 for bilateral posterotemporal and/or parietal defects, 0.77 for bilateral posterotemporal and/or parietal defects with additional defects, 0.57 for unilateral posterotemporal and/or parietal defects with or without additional defects, 0.25 for defects not involving the posterotemporal and/or parietal cortex, and 0.0 for small cortical defects. Of nine patients with bilateral posterotemporal and/or parietal defects with AD, six had Parkinson disease dementia

  7. Open-angle glaucoma in Filipino and white Americans: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáles, Christopher S; Lee, Roland Y; Agadzi, Anthony K; Hee, Michael R; Singh, Kuldev; Lin, Shan C

    2014-01-01

    To compare the frequency of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) subtypes between Filipino and white Americans in a general ophthalmology clinic population. In this retrospective cross-sectional epidemiologic study with prospective sampling, medical charts of 1113 patients aged 40 years or older (513 Filipinos, 600 whites) seen in 2008 were randomly sampled from 2 private comprehensive ophthalmology clinics. Glaucoma was diagnosed based on optic nerve appearance, visual field defects, and other ocular findings using the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology (ISGEO) scheme. The normal-tension subtype of OAG [normal-tension glaucoma (NTG)] was defined by intraocular pressure ≤21 mm Hg as determined by review of medical records. NTG comprised a greater proportion of all glaucomatous disease in Filipino subjects [Filipino (F) vs. white (W): 46.7% vs. 26.8%; P=0.02]. Filipinos were more commonly diagnosed with OAG and NTG than whites (F vs. W: OAG, 11.9% vs. 8.2%; NTG, 6.8% vs. 2.5%; P=0.04, 0.001, respectively). There was no significant difference in central corneal thickness between Filipino and white subjects with NTG (P=0.66). Both OAG and NTG may be more common in Filipino Americans than in white Americans with the propensity for NTG being particularly high in the former relative to the latter group.

  8. White noise on bialgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Schürmann, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Stochastic processes with independent increments on a group are generalized to the concept of "white noise" on a Hopf algebra or bialgebra. The main purpose of the book is the characterization of these processes as solutions of quantum stochastic differential equations in the sense of R.L. Hudsonand K.R. Parthasarathy. The notes are a contribution to quantum probability but they are also related to classical probability, quantum groups, and operator algebras. The Az ma martingales appear as examples of white noise on a Hopf algebra which is a deformation of the Heisenberg group. The book will be of interest to probabilists and quantum probabilists. Specialists in algebraic structures who are curious about the role of their concepts in probablility theory as well as quantum theory may find the book interesting. The reader should havesome knowledge of functional analysis, operator algebras, and probability theory.

  9. Modelling the appearance of heritage metallic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. MacDonald

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Polished metallic surfaces exhibit a high degree of specularity, which makes them difficult to reproduce accurately. We have applied two different techniques for modelling a heritage object known as the Islamic handbag. Photogrammetric multi-view stereo enabled a dense point cloud to be extracted from a set of photographs with calibration targets, and a geometrically accurate 3D model produced. A new method based on photometric stereo from a set of images taken in an illumination dome enabled surface normals to be generated for each face of the object and its appearance to be rendered, to a high degree of visual realism, when illuminated by one or more light sources from any angles. The specularity of the reflection from the metal surface was modelled by a modified Lorentzian function.

  10. Cerebral CT appearances of toxic encephalopathy of tetramine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Wenlong; Wu Aiqin; Xu Chongyong; Ying Binyu; Hong Ruizhen

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the cerebral CT appearances of toxic encephalopathy of tetramine and improve the recognition on this disease. Methods: Four cases of toxic encephalopathy of tetramine were collected and their cerebral CT appearances were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Cerebral CT appearances in acute phase (within 8 days): (1) cerebral edema in different degree. CT abnormalities consisted of cortical hypodensities and complete loss of gray-white matter differentiation. The CT value were in 11-13 HU, and to be watery density in serious case, (2) subarachnoid hemorrhage. It demonstrated the signs of poisoning hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in chronic phase. Conclusion: The cerebral CT appearances of toxic encephalopathy of tetramine had some character in acute phase and it can predict the serious degree of intoxication, but there was no characteristic findings in chronic phase

  11. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for

  12. Normalized modes at selected points without normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausel, Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    As every textbook on linear algebra demonstrates, the eigenvectors for the general eigenvalue problem | K - λM | = 0 involving two real, symmetric, positive definite matrices K , M satisfy some well-defined orthogonality conditions. Equally well-known is the fact that those eigenvectors can be normalized so that their modal mass μ =ϕT Mϕ is unity: it suffices to divide each unscaled mode by the square root of the modal mass. Thus, the normalization is the result of an explicit calculation applied to the modes after they were obtained by some means. However, we show herein that the normalized modes are not merely convenient forms of scaling, but that they are actually intrinsic properties of the pair of matrices K , M, that is, the matrices already "know" about normalization even before the modes have been obtained. This means that we can obtain individual components of the normalized modes directly from the eigenvalue problem, and without needing to obtain either all of the modes or for that matter, any one complete mode. These results are achieved by means of the residue theorem of operational calculus, a finding that is rather remarkable inasmuch as the residues themselves do not make use of any orthogonality conditions or normalization in the first place. It appears that this obscure property connecting the general eigenvalue problem of modal analysis with the residue theorem of operational calculus may have been overlooked up until now, but which has in turn interesting theoretical implications.Á

  13. MRI appearances of borderline ovarian tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, C.L. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, West Smithfield, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: clare.bent@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk; Sahdev, A.; Rockall, A.G. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, West Smithfield, London (United Kingdom); Singh, N. [Department of Pathology, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, West Smithfield, London (United Kingdom); Sohaib, S.A. [Department of Radiology, Royal Marsden Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Reznek, R.H. [Cancer Imaging, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, West Smithfield, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    This review was performed to describe the range of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of borderline ovarian tumours. The MRI findings in 26 patients with 31 borderline ovarian tumours (mean age: 40.1 years, range: 14-85 years) were retrospectively reviewed. For each tumour, site, size, MRI characteristics, and enhancement following gadolinium administration were recorded. There were 20 serous and 11 mucinous borderline ovarian subtypes. Nine of 26 patients demonstrated bilateral disease on MRI; synchronous contralateral ovarian disease included three benign, five serous borderline, and one serous invasive tumour. A history of a metachronous mucinous borderline tumour was identified in one patient. MRI appearances were classified into four morphological categories: group 1 (6/31, 19%), unilocular cysts; group 2 (6/31, 19%), minimally septate cysts with papillary projections; group 3 (14/31, 45%), markedly septate lesions with plaque-like excrescences; and group 4 (5/31, 16%), predominantly solid with exophytic papillary projections, all of serous subtype. There was a significant difference in mean volume between serous (841.5 cm{sup 3}) and mucinous (6358.2 cm{sup 3}) subtypes (p = 0.009). All tumours demonstrated at least one MRI feature suggestive of malignancy. The present review demonstrates the variable MRI appearances of borderline ovarian tumours along with imaging features suggestive of tumour subtype. In patients in whom the clinical features are suggestive of a borderline ovarian tumour (young age and normal or minimally elevated CA125), the ability to predict a borderline disease using morphological features observed on MRI would be extremely helpful in surgical planning, with the potential to offer fertility or ovary-preserving surgery. Future studies are required to further this aim.

  14. In vivo characterization of cortical and white matter neuroaxonal pathology in early multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberg, Tobias; Fan, Qiuyun; Treaba, Constantina Andrada; Ouellette, Russell; Herranz, Elena; Mangeat, Gabriel; Louapre, Céline; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Klawiter, Eric C; Sloane, Jacob A; Mainero, Caterina

    2017-11-01

    Neuroaxonal pathology is a main determinant of disease progression in multiple sclerosis; however, its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, including its link to inflammatory demyelination and temporal occurrence in the disease course are still unknown. We used ultra-high field (7 T), ultra-high gradient strength diffusion and T1/T2-weighted myelin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging to characterize microstructural changes in myelin and neuroaxonal integrity in the cortex and white matter in early stage multiple sclerosis, their distribution in lesional and normal-appearing tissue, and their correlations with neurological disability. Twenty-six early stage multiple sclerosis subjects (disease duration ≤5 years) and 24 age-matched healthy controls underwent 7 T T2*-weighted imaging for cortical lesion segmentation and 3 T T1/T2-weighted myelin-sensitive imaging and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging for assessing microstructural myelin, axonal and dendrite integrity in lesional and normal-appearing tissue of the cortex and the white matter. Conventional mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy metrics were also assessed for comparison. Cortical lesions were identified in 92% of early multiple sclerosis subjects and they were characterized by lower intracellular volume fraction (P = 0.015 by paired t-test), lower myelin-sensitive contrast (P = 0.030 by related-samples Wilcoxon signed-rank test) and higher mean diffusivity (P = 0.022 by related-samples Wilcoxon signed-rank test) relative to the contralateral normal-appearing cortex. Similar findings were observed in white matter lesions relative to normal-appearing white matter (all P test) and lower fractional anisotropy (P Wilcoxon signed-rank test) suggestive of less coherent underlying fibre orientation. Additionally, the normal-appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis subjects had diffusely lower intracellular volume fractions than the white matter in controls (P = 0.029 by unpaired

  15. Biomarkers in white-coat hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Catherine Ann

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in the 1960s provided new insights into the nature of high blood pressure disorders. Blood pressure is now categorised into four quadrants:normotension, masked hypertension, hypertension and white-coat hypertension. In white-coat hypertension blood pressure is elevated when taken at the doctor’s office but normal if taken outside the doctor’s office. Several controversies are associated with white-coat hypertension, which are discuss...

  16. A possible magnetic DA white dwarf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickramasinghe, D.T.; Bessell, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    The spectrum of a peculiar southern white dwarf suspect BPM 25114 is described. A possible magnetic interpretation suggests a DA white dwarf with a field of about 10 7 gauss. The star appears to be both a spectrum variable and perhaps light variable

  17. Black and white human skin differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I

    1979-01-01

    This review of black and white human skin differences emphasizes the alleged importance of factors other than the obvious, i.e., skin color. Physicochemical differences and differences in susceptibility to irritants and allergens suggest a more resistant black than white skin. Differences appear...

  18. Effect of white striping on chemical composition and nutritional value of chicken breast meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Petracci

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available White striping defect (appearance of white striations parallel to muscle fiber on surface of breast is considered an emerging issue in chicken breast meat which is related to increasing growth rate of modern hybrid birds. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of white striping on chemical composition and nutritional value of chicken breast meat. During three replications, a total of 108 Pectoralis major muscles representing three degrees of white striping (absence=normal; presence classified in 2 levels as moderate or severe were selected to determine proximate composition (moisture, protein, lipid and collagen as well as sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein profile by sodium dodecyl sulphatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. The results showed that both severe and moderate white-striped fillets had higher fat content (2.53 vs 1.46 vs 0.78%; P<0.001, lower protein level (20.9 vs 22.2 vs 22.9%; P<0.001, decreased quality of protein as proven by higher collagen content (1.30 vs 1.37 vs 1.43%; P<0.001, and different pattern on myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic fractions when compared to normal fillets. Moreover, severe white-striped fillets exhibited higher energy content (450.7 vs 421.1 kJ/100g; P<0.01 with respect to normal meat. In conclusion, there was a large worsening of nutritional value of chicken breast meat following occurrence of white striping and this might impair consumer attitude towards poultry meat.

  19. Drawing the line: how African, Caribbean and White British women live out psychologically abusive experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Carol; Kelly, Moira; Feder, Gene

    2013-09-01

    This study explores how African, Caribbean and White British women worked to hide psychological partner abuse as they experienced it, "do gender," and appear competent in social roles. They prioritized negotiated competencies as "good partners," actively setting socially and culturally embedded boundaries to their abuser's behaviors: an inner boundary encompassing normal behaviors and an outer one of "acceptable" behaviors projected as normal through remedial work. Behaviors breaching the outer boundary (e.g., if the women narrowed the bounds of the "acceptable") compromised the women's competence. This sometimes led them to actively use support services. Appropriate advice and support may change the boundaries.

  20. Whiting in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Satellites provide a view from space of changes on the Earth's surface. This series of images from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) aboard the Orbview-2 satellite shows the dramatic change in the color of Lake Michigan during the summer. The bright color that appears in late summer is probably caused by calcium carbonate-chalk-in the water. Lake Michigan always has a lot of calcium carbonate in it because the floor of the lake is limestone. During most of the year the calcium carbonate remains dissolved in the cold water, but at the end of summer the lake warms up, lowering the solubility of calcium carbonate. As a result, the calcium carbonate precipitates out of the water, forming clouds of very small solid particles that appear as bright swirls from above. The phenomenon is appropriately called a whiting event. A similar event occured in 1999, but appears to have started later and subsided earlier. It is also possible that a bloom of the algae Microcystis is responsible for the color change, but unlikely because of Lake Michigan's depth and size. Microcystis blooms have occured in other lakes in the region, however. On the shore of the lake it is possible to see the cities of Chicago, Illinois, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Both appear as clusters of gray-brown pixels. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  1. Electron Neutrino Appearance in the MINOS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orchanian, Mhair-armen Hagop [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes a search for ve appearance in the two-detector long-baseline MINOS neutrino experiment at Fermilab, based on a data set representing an exposure of 8.2×1020 protons on the NuMI target. The analysis detailed herein represents an increase in sensitivity to the θ13 mixing angle of approximately 25% over previous analyses, due to improvements in the event discriminant and fitting technique. Based on our observation, we constrain the value of θ13 further, finding 2 sin2θ 23 sin2θ 13< 0.12(0.20) at the 90% confidence level for δCP = 0 and the normal (inverted) neutrino mass hierarchy. The best-fit value is 2 sin2θ 23 sin2θ 13 = 0.041+0.047 -0.031(0.079+0.071 -0.053) under the same assumptions. We exclude the θ 13 = 0 hypothesis at the 89% confidence level.

  2. The CT appearance of ''reversible'' cerebral pseudoatrophy in anorexia nervosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron, Z.; Kozlowska, R.; Grzegorzewski, M.; Nawrot, M.; Bulawska, I.

    1995-01-01

    The CT appearance of ''reversible'' cerebral pseudoatrophy resulting from anorexia nervosa was demonstrated. The CT studies were performed in 3 young women with typical clinical course of anorexia nervosa. In all of them computed tomography revealed dilatation of the subarachnoid fluid space. After 5 months of therapy the follow-up scans have reverted to normal in all cases. (author)

  3. Infrared photometry of cool white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickramasinghe, D.T.; Allen, D.A.; Bessell, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The results are presented of a search for the effects of pressure induced H 2 dipole opacity on the infrared JHK magnitudes of cool white dwarfs. LHS 1126 is found to be a very cool (Tsub(e) approximately 4250 K) DC white dwarf with a H rich atmospheric composition dominated by H 2 dipole opacity in the infrared. JHK photometry also favours a H rich atmospheric composition for the DK white dwarfs LP 658-2 and W 489. The surprisingly high proportion of hydrogen rich white dwarfs in the sample appears to suggest that the mechanism which inhibits the accretion of hydrogen in the hotter helium stars becomes less effective at low (Tsub(e) approximately 3 + ion in cool hydrogen rich white dwarf atmospheres is pointed out and it is suggested that the opacity due to this ion may be responsible for the blanketing observed in the U and B magnitudes of some cool white dwarfs. (author)

  4. Malware Normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Christodorescu, Mihai; Kinder, Johannes; Jha, Somesh; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Veith, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Malware is code designed for a malicious purpose, such as obtaining root privilege on a host. A malware detector identifies malware and thus prevents it from adversely affecting a host. In order to evade detection by malware detectors, malware writers use various obfuscation techniques to transform their malware. There is strong evidence that commercial malware detectors are susceptible to these evasion tactics. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a malware normalizer ...

  5. Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Foamy Histiocyte-Like Appearance: A Deceptively Clear Cell Carcinoma Appearing Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuji Noro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC shows many pathological features, and it varies architecturally and cytologically. There have been many reports and discussions of the morphological features of HCC. A 63-year-old man was found to have a solitary tumor in liver segment 7 that was diagnosed as HCC. A partial resection of liver segment 7 was performed. Microscopically, the tumor lesion showed a moderately differentiated HCC. There was also a lesion with foamy histiocyte-like cells corresponding to the white lesion in the face of the cut tumor. Immunohistochemical staining showed that they were negative for CD68, S-100, vimentin, and HMB-45. The cytoplasm itself was negative on periodic acid Schiff (PAS and Sudan staining. Without immunohistological analysis, it is difficult to distinguish this HCC variant from clear cell carcinoma or metastases of renal cell carcinoma. It is important to recognize this type as a specific cytological variant of HCC that requires confirmation by immunohistochemistry. This report describes the case of a patient with a morphologically distinctive pattern of HCC with prominent cell cytoplasm that had a foamy histiocyte-like appearance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this HCC variant.

  6. The moderated relationship of appearance valence on appearance self consciousness: development and testing of new measures of appearance schema components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P Moss

    Full Text Available This paper describes the creation and psychometric properties of two independent measures of aspects of appearance schematicity--appearance salience and valence, assessed by the CARSAL and CARVAL, and their relation to appearance self-consciousness. Five hundred and ninety two participants provided data in a web based task. The results demonstrate the sound psychometric properties of both scales. This was demonstrated by good item total characteristics, good internal reliability of each scale, and the independence of the two scales shown through principal components analysis. Furthermore, the scales show independent and moderated relationships with valid measures of appearance related psychosocial distress. Negatively valenced appearance information was associated with increased appearance self-consciousness. More crucially, the impact of negative valence on appearance self-consciousness was exacerbated by the moderating effect increased salience of appearance.

  7. A Single Bout of Fasting (24 h) Reduces Basal Cytokine Expression and Minimally Impacts the Sterile Inflammatory Response in the White Adipose Tissue of Normal Weight F344 Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaker, Kristin J; Paton, Madeline M; Cox, Stewart S; Fleshner, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Sterile inflammation occurs when inflammatory proteins are increased in blood and tissues by nonpathogenic states and is a double-edged sword depending on its cause (stress, injury, or disease), duration (transient versus chronic), and inflammatory milieu. Short-term fasting can exert a host of health benefits through unknown mechanisms. The following experiment tested if a 24 h fast would modulate basal and stress-evoked sterile inflammation in plasma and adipose. Adult male F344 rats were either randomized to ad libitum access to food or fasted for 24 h prior to 0 (control), 10, or 100, 1.5 mA-5 s intermittent, inescapable tail shocks (IS). Glucose, nonesterified free fatty acids (NEFAs), insulin, leptin, and corticosterone were measured in plasma and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α , interleukin- (IL-) 1 β , IL-6, and IL-10 in plasma, and subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, and visceral compartments of white adipose tissue (WAT). In control rats, a 24 h fast reduced all measured basal cytokines in plasma and visceral WAT, IL-1 β and IL-6 in subcutaneous WAT, and IL-6 in intraperitoneal WAT. In stressed rats (IS), fasting reduced visceral WAT TNF- α , subcutaneous WAT IL-1 β , and plasma insulin and leptin. Short-term fasting may thus prove to be a useful dietary strategy for reducing peripheral inflammatory states associated with visceral obesity and chronic stress.

  8. A Single Bout of Fasting (24 h Reduces Basal Cytokine Expression and Minimally Impacts the Sterile Inflammatory Response in the White Adipose Tissue of Normal Weight F344 Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin J. Speaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sterile inflammation occurs when inflammatory proteins are increased in blood and tissues by nonpathogenic states and is a double-edged sword depending on its cause (stress, injury, or disease, duration (transient versus chronic, and inflammatory milieu. Short-term fasting can exert a host of health benefits through unknown mechanisms. The following experiment tested if a 24 h fast would modulate basal and stress-evoked sterile inflammation in plasma and adipose. Adult male F344 rats were either randomized to ad libitum access to food or fasted for 24 h prior to 0 (control, 10, or 100, 1.5 mA-5 s intermittent, inescapable tail shocks (IS. Glucose, nonesterified free fatty acids (NEFAs, insulin, leptin, and corticosterone were measured in plasma and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α, interleukin- (IL- 1β, IL-6, and IL-10 in plasma, and subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, and visceral compartments of white adipose tissue (WAT. In control rats, a 24 h fast reduced all measured basal cytokines in plasma and visceral WAT, IL-1β and IL-6 in subcutaneous WAT, and IL-6 in intraperitoneal WAT. In stressed rats (IS, fasting reduced visceral WAT TNF-α, subcutaneous WAT IL-1β, and plasma insulin and leptin. Short-term fasting may thus prove to be a useful dietary strategy for reducing peripheral inflammatory states associated with visceral obesity and chronic stress.

  9. Narrative Constructions of Whiteness among White Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foste, Zak

    2017-01-01

    This critical narrative inquiry was guided by two overarching research questions. First, this study examined how white undergraduates interpreted and gave meaning to their white racial identities. This line of inquiry sought to understand how participants made sense of their white racial selves, the self in relation to people of color, and the…

  10. Soap bubble appearance in brain magnetic resonance imaging: cryptococcal meningoencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Adriano da Cunha e Silva Vieira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Although cryptococcal infections begin in the lungs, meningoencephalitis is the most frequently encountered manifestation of cryptococcosis among individuals with advanced immunosuppression. As the infection progresses along the Virchow-Robin spaces, these structures may become dilated with mucoid material produced by the capsule of the organism. We report a case of a 24-year-old man with cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in which magnetic resonance imaging showed clusters of gelatinous pseudocysts in the periventricular white matter, basal ganglia, mammillary bodies, midbrain peduncles and nucleus dentatus with a soap bubble appearance.

  11. Histology of white pine blister rust in needles of resistant and susceptible eastern white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel A. Jurgens; Robert A. Blanchette; Paul J. Zambino; Andrew David

    2003-01-01

    White pine blister rust, Cronartium ribicola, has plagued the forests of North America for almost a century. Over past decades, eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) that appear to tolerate the disease have been selected and incorporated into breeding programs. Seeds from P. strobus with putative resistance were...

  12. Making nuclear 'normal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haehlen, Peter; Elmiger, Bruno

    2000-01-01

    The mechanics of the Swiss NPPs' 'come and see' programme 1995-1999 were illustrated in our contributions to all PIME workshops since 1996. Now, after four annual 'waves', all the country has been covered by the NPPs' invitation to dialogue. This makes PIME 2000 the right time to shed some light on one particular objective of this initiative: making nuclear 'normal'. The principal aim of the 'come and see' programme, namely to give the Swiss NPPs 'a voice of their own' by the end of the nuclear moratorium 1990-2000, has clearly been attained and was commented on during earlier PIMEs. It is, however, equally important that Swiss nuclear energy not only made progress in terms of public 'presence', but also in terms of being perceived as a normal part of industry, as a normal branch of the economy. The message that Swiss nuclear energy is nothing but a normal business involving normal people, was stressed by several components of the multi-prong campaign: - The speakers in the TV ads were real - 'normal' - visitors' guides and not actors; - The testimonials in the print ads were all real NPP visitors - 'normal' people - and not models; - The mailings inviting a very large number of associations to 'come and see' activated a typical channel of 'normal' Swiss social life; - Spending money on ads (a new activity for Swiss NPPs) appears to have resulted in being perceived by the media as a normal branch of the economy. Today we feel that the 'normality' message has well been received by the media. In the controversy dealing with antinuclear arguments brought forward by environmental organisations journalists nowadays as a rule give nuclear energy a voice - a normal right to be heard. As in a 'normal' controversy, the media again actively ask themselves questions about specific antinuclear claims, much more than before 1990 when the moratorium started. The result is that in many cases such arguments are discarded by journalists, because they are, e.g., found to be

  13. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1989-01-01

    The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Atypical imaging appearances of intracranial meningiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, S. [Radiology Department, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Adams, W.M. [Radiology Department, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Parrish, R.W. [Radiology Department, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Mukonoweshuro, W. [Radiology Department, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: William.mukonoweshuro@phnt.swest.nhs.uk

    2007-01-15

    Meningiomas are the commonest primary, non-glial intracranial tumours. The diagnosis is often correctly predicted from characteristic imaging appearances. This paper presents some examples of atypical imaging appearances that may cause diagnostic confusion.

  15. Tay-Sachs disease with conspicuous cranial computerized tomographic appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kishichiro; Mukawa, Akio; Muto, Kazuhiko; Nishikawa, Jiro; Takahashi, Shigeko.

    1985-01-01

    An autopsy case of a 3-year-old female infant with Tay-Sachs disease was presented. A cherry red spot in the fundus and a deficiency of N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase A in the white blood cells were revealed soon after admission at the age of one year. Her parents and sister were found to be healthy carriers. The patient showed a typical clinical course with marked cranial swelling. In addition to the marked ballooning of neurons on light microscope, membranous cytoplasmic body (MCB) on electron microscope and abnormal accumulation of GM 2 ganglioside in the cerebral cortex by thin layer chromatography were confirmed in the autopsy specimens. In the late stage of her clinical course, the cranial computerized tomography (CT) demonstrated symmetric and deep-wavy hyperdense cerebral cortical zones, diffuse hypodensity and diminished volume of cerebral white matter, mild to moderate ventricular dilatation, and a small cerebellum and brainstem. These conspicuous appearances of the cranial CT seem to be characteristic of Tay-Sachs disease in the late stage, and they are derived from abnormal accumulation of GM 2 ganglioside in the cerebral cortex, and diffuse intense demyelination (dysmyelinating demyelination) of the cerebral white matter. (author)

  16. Top emitting white OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitag, Patricia; Luessem, Bjoern; Leo, Karl [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, George-Baehr-Strasse 1, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Top emitting organic light emitting diodes (TOLEDs) provide a number of interesting opportunities for new applications, such as the opportunity to fabricate ITO-free devices by using opaque substrates. This makes it possible to manufacture low cost OLEDs for signage and lighting applications. A general top emitting device consists of highly reflecting metal contacts as anode and semitransparent cathode, the latter one for better outcouling reasons. In between several organic materials are deposited as charge transporting, blocking, and emission layers. Here, we show a top emitting white organic light emitting diode with silver electrodes arranged in a p-i-n structure with p- and n-doped charge transport layers. The centrical emission layer consists of two phosphorescent (red and green) and one fluorescent (blue) emitter systems separated by an ambipolar interlayer to avoid mutual exciton quenching. By adding an additional dielectric capping layer on top of the device stack, we achieve a reduction of the strong microcavity effects which appear due to the high reflection of both metal electrodes. Therefore, the outcoupled light shows broad and nearly angle-independent emission spectra, which is essential for white light emitting diodes.

  17. MRI of normal fetal brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, Daniela; Kasprian, Gregor; Krampl, Elisabeth; Ulm, Barbara; Witzani, Linde; Prayer, Lucas; Brugger, Peter C.

    2006-01-01

    Normal fetal brain maturation can be studied by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from the 18th gestational week (GW) to term, and relies primarily on T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted (DW) sequences. These maturational changes must be interpreted with a knowledge of the histological background and the temporal course of the respective developmental steps. In addition, MR presentation of developing and transient structures must be considered. Signal changes associated with maturational processes can mainly be ascribed to the following changes in tissue composition and organization, which occur at the histological level: (1) a decrease in water content and increasing cell-density can be recognized as a shortening of T1- and T2-relaxation times, leading to increased T1-weighted and decreased T2-weighted intensity, respectively; (2) the arrangement of microanatomical structures to create a symmetrical or asymmetrical environment, leading to structural differences that may be demonstrated by DW-anisotropy; (3) changes in non-structural qualities, such as the onset of a membrane potential in premyelinating axons. The latter process also influences the appearance of a structure on DW sequences. Thus, we will review the in vivo MR appearance of different maturational states of the fetal brain and relate these maturational states to anatomical, histological, and in vitro MRI data. Then, the development of the cerebral cortex, white matter, temporal lobe, and cerebellum will be reviewed, and the MR appearance of transient structures of the fetal brain will be shown. Emphasis will be placed on the appearance of the different structures with the various sequences. In addition, the possible utility of dynamic fetal sequences in assessing spontaneous fetal movements is discussed

  18. MRI of normal fetal brain development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: Daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at; Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Krampl, Elisabeth [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Ulm, Barbara [Department of Prenatal Diagnosis, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Prayer, Lucas [Diagnosezentrum Urania, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Normal fetal brain maturation can be studied by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from the 18th gestational week (GW) to term, and relies primarily on T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted (DW) sequences. These maturational changes must be interpreted with a knowledge of the histological background and the temporal course of the respective developmental steps. In addition, MR presentation of developing and transient structures must be considered. Signal changes associated with maturational processes can mainly be ascribed to the following changes in tissue composition and organization, which occur at the histological level: (1) a decrease in water content and increasing cell-density can be recognized as a shortening of T1- and T2-relaxation times, leading to increased T1-weighted and decreased T2-weighted intensity, respectively; (2) the arrangement of microanatomical structures to create a symmetrical or asymmetrical environment, leading to structural differences that may be demonstrated by DW-anisotropy; (3) changes in non-structural qualities, such as the onset of a membrane potential in premyelinating axons. The latter process also influences the appearance of a structure on DW sequences. Thus, we will review the in vivo MR appearance of different maturational states of the fetal brain and relate these maturational states to anatomical, histological, and in vitro MRI data. Then, the development of the cerebral cortex, white matter, temporal lobe, and cerebellum will be reviewed, and the MR appearance of transient structures of the fetal brain will be shown. Emphasis will be placed on the appearance of the different structures with the various sequences. In addition, the possible utility of dynamic fetal sequences in assessing spontaneous fetal movements is discussed.

  19. The CT appearance of intraoral chewing gum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towbin, Alexander J.

    2008-01-01

    When imaged, intraoral chewing gum has the potential to be misdiagnosed. Chewing gum has a characteristic appearance on CT: it is ovoid in shape, hyperdense, and has small internal locules of air. Reports have described the appearance of gum on radiographs and abdominal CT images; however, no reports could be found detailing its appearance within the mouth. This report describes the appearance of intraoral chewing gum as well as the properties of the gum that lead to this appearance. Because of the potential for misdiagnosis, screening for intraoral foreign bodies should be considered prior to imaging. (orig.)

  20. The CT appearance of intraoral chewing gum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towbin, Alexander J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2008-12-15

    When imaged, intraoral chewing gum has the potential to be misdiagnosed. Chewing gum has a characteristic appearance on CT: it is ovoid in shape, hyperdense, and has small internal locules of air. Reports have described the appearance of gum on radiographs and abdominal CT images; however, no reports could be found detailing its appearance within the mouth. This report describes the appearance of intraoral chewing gum as well as the properties of the gum that lead to this appearance. Because of the potential for misdiagnosis, screening for intraoral foreign bodies should be considered prior to imaging. (orig.)

  1. Perilesional and contralateral white matter evolution and integrity in patients with periventricular nodular heterotopia and epilepsy: a longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W; Yan, B; An, D; Niu, R; Tang, Y; Tong, X; Gong, Q; Zhou, D

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the evolution of perinodular and contralateral white matter abnormalities in patients with periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) and epilepsy. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) (64 directions) and 3 T structural magnetic resonance imaging were performed in 29 PNH patients (mean age 27.3 years), and 16 patients underwent a second scan (average time between the two scans 1.1 years). Fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity were measured within the perilesional and contralateral white matter. Longitudinal analysis showed that white matter located 10 mm from the focal nodule displayed characteristics intermediate to tissue 5 mm away, and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) also established evolution profiles of perinodular white matter in different cortical lobes. Compared to 29 age- and sex-matched healthy controls, significant decreased fractional anisotropy and elevated mean diffusivity values were observed in regions 5 and 10 mm from nodules (P < 0.01), whilst DTI metrics of the remaining NAWM did not differ significantly from controls. Additionally, normal DTI metrics were shown in the contralateral region in patients with unilateral PNH. Periventricular nodular heterotopia is associated with microstructural abnormalities within the perilesional white matter and the extent decreases with increasing distance from the nodule. In the homologous contralateral region, white matter diffusion metrics were unchanged in unilateral PNH. These findings have clinical implications with respect to the medical and surgical interventions of PNH-related epilepsy. © 2017 EAN.

  2. Erick A. White | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 2011 B.S., Chemical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder Research Assistant, Colorado School of Mines, Department of Chemical Engineering, 2006-2011 Field Team Erick A. White Photo of Erick A. White Erick White Chemical Reaction Engineer Erick.White@nrel.gov

  3. Reconstructing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Fristed, Peter Billeskov

    2012-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is an area of priority for the Danish Government. As the field expands, this calls for increased knowledge about mental health nursing practice, as this is part of the forensic psychiatry treatment offered. However, only sparse research exists in this area. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the characteristics of forensic mental health nursing staff interaction with forensic mental health inpatients and to explore how staff give meaning to these interactions. The project included 32 forensic mental health staff members, with over 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal....... The intention is to establish a trusting relationship to form behaviour and perceptual-corrective care, which is characterized by staff's endeavours to change, halt, or support the patient's behaviour or perception in relation to staff's perception of normality. The intention is to support and teach the patient...

  4. Pursuing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Handberg, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    implying an influence on whether to participate in cancer survivorship care programs. Because of "pursuing normality," 8 of 9 participants opted out of cancer survivorship care programming due to prospects of "being cured" and perceptions of cancer survivorship care as "a continuation of the disease......BACKGROUND: The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... was to understand the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors to aid the future planning of cancer survivorship care and overcome barriers to participation. METHODS: Data were generated in a hematological ward during 4 months of ethnographic fieldwork, including participant observation and 46...

  5. A possible dominant white gene in Jersey cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sponenberg D Phillip

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A white heifer ("Snow" was born in 1991 from coloured registered Jersey parents. She produced six calves sired by coloured Jersey bulls: three white bull calves, two white heifer calves, and one coloured bull calf. One of the white bull calves was mated with 40 Hereford × Friesian yearling heifers (white face, predominantly black body with some white patches. The 38 resulting calves included 16 white and 22 coloured calves. Twelve of the 16 white calves were heifers and four were bulls. Red or black spotting was recorded on some white calves. The results are consistent with an autosomal dominant mutant causing the white phenotype. The mutation appears to have arisen spontaneously in Snow, then passing to her white progeny and white grand-progeny. The white individuals varied from entirely white in a few cases, to most having some residual small areas of red or black pigmentation in patterns not typical of other reported white spotting patterns of cattle.

  6. CT and MRI appearances of methotrexate leucoencephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilks, M.J.; Tie, M.L.K.; Pozza, C.H.

    2002-01-01

    Methotrexate is a well recognised cause of diffuse symmetrical leucoencephalopathy. The widespread use of the drug in chemotherapeutic regimes necessitates awareness of this complication. A case report and a brief literature review is presented. A 20-year-old single woman presented to the Emergency Department with a 6-week history of general malaise, lower back pain and a petechial rash. From investigations including blood picture and bone marrow trephine, the diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) was made. Three cycles of induction chemotherapy were administered consisting of intravenous cytarabine and hydrocortisone and intrathecal methotrexate. Shortly after the third cycle of induction chemotherapy (6 weeks following diagnosis, 2 days following the last dose of intrathecal methotrexate) she presented with an acute neurological episode consisting of muteness and somnolence. Physical examination showed generalised flaccidity to all muscle groups and generalised loss of reflexes. There were no consistent cranial neuropathies and the patient was not neutropenic. Computed tomography of the brain showed extensive symmetric white matter hypodensity extending throughout the corona radiata and deep white matter tracts especially the external capsules. There was no abnormal enhancement with non-ionic contrast administration or evidence of grey matter involvement. Magnetic resonance imaging was subsequently performed, the fluid attenuated inversion recovery images (FLAIR) and T2-weighted image (T2WI) demonstrated marked white matter hyperintensity; the involvement was more extensive than demonstrated on the CT with additional involvement of the subcortical and cerebellar white matter, the basal ganglia and cortex of the mesial temporal and inferior frontal lobes. Gadolinium was not administered. A follow up study after 4 weeks of steroid and folinic acid therapy showed complete resolution of the white matter hyperintensity on the T2WI and FLAIR sequences

  7. Radiographic appearances following adequate transfusion in. beta. -thalassaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scutellari, P.N.; Orzincolo, C.; Bagni, B.; Franceschini, F.

    1989-01-01

    The main lesions of the skull and hand, observed in a group of hypertransfused ..beta..-thalassaemic patients, are compared with a control group of low-transfused patients. Bony abnormalities reflect the relationship between proliferating bone marrow and bone cortex, and hypertransfusion therapy will prevent development of lesions only if established early in life. If this is done, the diploe in the skull may become normal, overgrowth of facial bones is moderate, pneumatisation of the paranasal sinuses is not completely prevented, and the 'hair-brush' pattern may disappear completely. A normal appearance of the hand in adequately treated patients differentiates between prepubertal patients and adults.

  8. Quantitative Appearance Inspection for Film Coated Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Kazunari; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    The decision criteria for the physical appearance of pharmaceutical products are subjective and qualitative means of evaluation that are based entirely on human interpretation. In this study, we have developed a comprehensive method for the quantitative analysis of the physical appearance of film coated tablets. Three different kinds of film coated tablets with considerable differences in their physical appearances were manufactured as models, and their surface roughness, contact angle, color measurements and physicochemical properties were investigated as potential characteristics for the quantitative analysis of their physical appearance. All of these characteristics were useful for the quantitative evaluation of the physical appearances of the tablets, and could potentially be used to establish decision criteria to assess the quality of tablets. In particular, the analysis of the surface roughness and film coating properties of the tablets by terahertz spectroscopy allowed for an effective evaluation of the tablets' properties. These results indicated the possibility of inspecting the appearance of tablets during the film coating process.

  9. Chemical and optical aspects of appearance changes in oil paintings from the 19th and early 20th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shimazu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    One of the causes leading to appearance changes of oil paintings is saponification of basic pigments due to a decrease of reflected light. This thesis contributes to a deeper understanding of appearance changes due to saponification of white pigments. Furthermore, effects on painting appearance,

  10. Designing visual appearance using a structured surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Villads Egede; Thamdrup, Lasse Højlund; Smitrup, Christian

    2015-01-01

    followed by numerical and experimental verification. The approach comprises verifying all design and fabrication steps required to produce a desired appearance. We expect that the procedure in the future will yield structurally colored surfaces with appealing prescribed visual appearances.......We present an approach for designing nanostructured surfaces with prescribed visual appearances, starting at design analysis and ending with a fabricated sample. The method is applied to a silicon wafer structured using deep ultraviolet lithography and dry etching and includes preliminary design...

  11. Computed tomography appearances in the linear sebaceous naevus syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, S.; Robinson, R.O.; Aicardi, J.; Hoare, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    The appearance of C.T. of the head in 11 cases of the linear sebaceous naevus syndrome are presented. From these it is argued that the pathology represents a disorder of neuronal migration and organisation rather than differentiation. Since three of the cases had evidence of CNS tumour in addition to two in the literature, it would appear that a further aspect of this disorder is a failure of growth constraint. This is paralleled by a similar tendency in the skin lesion which should be considered premalignant. Normal intelligence is rare in this condition and co-exists only with a normal C.T. scan. The early onset of fits is not necessarily associated with subsequent mental handicap. (orig.)

  12. Diffusion tensor MR imaging of white matter integrity in HIV-positive patients with planning deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Diogo Goulart; Doring, Thomas M.; Wilner, Nina Ventura; Cabral, Rafael Ferracini; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Zimmermann, Nicolle; Fonseca, Rochele Paz; Leite, Sarah C.B.; Bahia, Paulo R.V.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether normal controls and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients with and without planning deficits differ on white matter integrity. A total of 34 HIV-positive patients with planning deficits were compared with 13 HIV-positive patients without planning deficits and 19 gender-, age-, and education-matched control subjects. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed along 30 noncolinear directions in a 1.5-T scanner. For tract-based spatial statistics analysis, a white matter skeleton was created, and a permutation-based inference with 5000 permutations with a threshold of p < 0.05 was used to identify abnormalities in fractional anisotropy (FA). The median, radial, and axial diffusivities were also projected onto the mean FA skeleton. Compared with controls, HIV-positive patients with planning deficits had decreased FA in bilateral anterior thalamic radiations, bilateral inferior fronto-occiptal fasciculi, genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, bilateral superior longitudinal fascicule, and bilateral uncinate fasciculi. Compared to HIV-positive patients without planning deficits, patients with planning deficits had decreased FA in bilateral anterior thalamic radiations, bilateral inferior fronto-occiptal fasciculi, genu of the corpus callosum, bilateral superior longitudinal fascicule, and right uncinate fascicule. DTI can detect extensive white matter abnormalities in the normal-appearing white matter of HIV-positive patients with planning deficits compared with controls and HIV-positive patients without planning deficits. (orig.)

  13. Diffusion tensor MR imaging of white matter integrity in HIV-positive patients with planning deficit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Diogo Goulart; Doring, Thomas M.; Wilner, Nina Ventura; Cabral, Rafael Ferracini; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zimmermann, Nicolle; Fonseca, Rochele Paz [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Department of Psychology, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Leite, Sarah C.B.; Bahia, Paulo R.V. [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether normal controls and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients with and without planning deficits differ on white matter integrity. A total of 34 HIV-positive patients with planning deficits were compared with 13 HIV-positive patients without planning deficits and 19 gender-, age-, and education-matched control subjects. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed along 30 noncolinear directions in a 1.5-T scanner. For tract-based spatial statistics analysis, a white matter skeleton was created, and a permutation-based inference with 5000 permutations with a threshold of p < 0.05 was used to identify abnormalities in fractional anisotropy (FA). The median, radial, and axial diffusivities were also projected onto the mean FA skeleton. Compared with controls, HIV-positive patients with planning deficits had decreased FA in bilateral anterior thalamic radiations, bilateral inferior fronto-occiptal fasciculi, genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, bilateral superior longitudinal fascicule, and bilateral uncinate fasciculi. Compared to HIV-positive patients without planning deficits, patients with planning deficits had decreased FA in bilateral anterior thalamic radiations, bilateral inferior fronto-occiptal fasciculi, genu of the corpus callosum, bilateral superior longitudinal fascicule, and right uncinate fascicule. DTI can detect extensive white matter abnormalities in the normal-appearing white matter of HIV-positive patients with planning deficits compared with controls and HIV-positive patients without planning deficits. (orig.)

  14. Optimal linguistic expression in negotiations depends on visual appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Maki; Kwon, Jinhwan; Tamada, Hikaru; Hirahara, Yumi

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the influence of the visual appearance of a negotiator on persuasiveness within the context of negotiations. Psychological experiments were conducted to quantitatively analyze the relationship between visual appearance and the use of language. Male and female participants were shown three female and male photographs, respectively. They were asked to report how they felt about each photograph using a seven-point semantic differential (SD) scale for six affective factors (positive impression, extraversion, intelligence, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and agreeableness). Participants then answered how they felt about each negotiation scenario (they were presented with pictures and a situation combined with negotiation sentences) using a seven-point SD scale for seven affective factors (positive impression, extraversion, intelligence, conscientiousness, emotional stability, agreeableness, and degree of persuasion). Two experiments were conducted using different participant groups depending on the negotiation situations. Photographs with good or bad appearances were found to show high or low degrees of persuasion, respectively. A multiple regression equation was obtained, indicating the importance of the three language factors (euphemistic, honorific, and sympathy expressions) to impressions made during negotiation. The result shows that there are optimal negotiation sentences based on various negotiation factors, such as visual appearance and use of language. For example, persons with good appearance might worsen their impression during negotiations by using certain language, although their initial impression was positive, and persons with bad appearance could effectively improve their impressions in negotiations through their use of language, although the final impressions of their negotiation counterpart might still be more negative than those for persons with good appearance. In contrast, the impressions made by persons of normal appearance

  15. Plastid structure and carotenogenic gene expression in red- and white-fleshed loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, X.; Kong, W.; Peng, G.; Zhou, J.; Azam, M.; Xu, C.; Grierson, D.; Chen, K.

    2012-01-01

    Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) can be sorted into red- and white-fleshed cultivars. The flesh of Luoyangqing (LYQ, red-fleshed) appears red-orange because of a high content of carotenoids while the flesh of Baisha (BS, white-fleshed) appears ivory white due to a lack of carotenoid accumulation.

  16. Malignant Lesions as Mammographically Appearing Intramammary Ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Miraveta, P.; Pons, M. J.; Pina, L. J.; Zornoza, G.

    2004-01-01

    Intramammary ganglia are frequent mammographic findings of no pathological importance. We present two cases of malignant breast lesions whose mammographic appearance could resemble that of intramammary ganglia. Although the mammographic appearance of a lesion is similar to that of intramammary ganglia, it should be carefully studied, especially if it presents a poorly defined border or is palpable. (Author)

  17. 29 CFR 1921.10 - Appearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) RULES OF PRACTICE IN ENFORCEMENT PROCEEDINGS UNDER SECTION 41 OF THE LONGSHOREMEN'S AND HARBOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT Hearing and Related Matters § 1921.10 Appearances. (a) Representation. The parties may appear...

  18. 39 CFR 953.7 - Default; Appearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Default; Appearances. 953.7 Section 953.7 Postal... § 953.7 Default; Appearances. If a timely reply to the appeal is not filed, the presiding officer shall... Inspector or his or her designee is in default. Whenever the General Counsel or the Chief Postal Inspector...

  19. Multi-band Modelling of Appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Larsen, Rasmus

    2003-01-01

    the appearance of both derived feature bands and an intensity band. As a special case of feature-band augmented appearance modelling we propose a dedicated representation with applications to face segmentation. The representation addresses a major problem within face recognition by lowering the sensitivity...

  20. Multi-band Modelling of Appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Larsen, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    the appearance of both derived feature bands and an intensity band. As a special case of feature-band augmented appearance modelling we propose a dedicated representation with applications to face segmentation. The representation addresses a major problem within face recognition by lowering the sensitivity...

  1. Interactive Appearance Prediction for Cloudy Beverages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Kjeldsen, Thomas Kim

    2016-01-01

    Juice appearance is important to consumers, so digital juice with a slider that varies a production parameter or changes juice content is useful. It is however challenging to render juice with scattering particles quickly and accurately. As a case study, we create an appearance model that provide...

  2. DISCOVERY OF A BRIGHT, EXTREMELY LOW MASS WHITE DWARF IN A CLOSE DOUBLE DEGENERATE SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vennes, S.; Kawka, A.; Nemeth, P.; Thorstensen, J. R.; Skinner, J. N.; Pigulski, A.; Steslicki, M.; Kolaczkowski, Z.; Srodka, P.

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery of a bright (V ∼ 13.7), extremely low mass white dwarf in a close double degenerate system. We originally selected GALEX J171708.5+675712 for spectroscopic follow-up among a group of white dwarf candidates in an ultraviolet-optical reduced proper-motion diagram. The new white dwarf has a mass of 0.18 M sun and is the primary component of a close double degenerate system (P = 0.246137 days, K 1 = 288 km s -1 ) comprising a fainter white dwarf secondary with M 2 ∼ 0.9 M sun . Light curves phased with the orbital ephemeris show evidence of relativistic beaming and weaker ellipsoidal variations. The light curves also reveal secondary eclipses (depth ∼8 mmag) while the primary eclipses appear partially compensated by the secondary gravitational deflection and are below detection limits. Photospheric abundance measurements show a nearly solar composition of Si, Ca, and Fe (0.1-1 sun), while the normal kinematics suggest a relatively recent formation history. Close binary evolutionary scenarios suggest that extremely low mass white dwarfs form via a common-envelope phase and possible Roche lobe overflow.

  3. Lower digit symbol substitution score in the oldest old is related to magnetization transfer and diffusion tensor imaging of the white matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay eVenkatraman

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Slowing information processing is common among community-dwelling elderly and it predicts greater mortality and disability risk. Slowing information processing is related to brain macro-structural abnormalities. Specifically, greater global atrophy and greater small vessel disease of the white matter have been associated to slower processing speed. However, community-dwelling elderly with such macro-structural abnormalities can maintain processing speed. The roles of brain micro-structure for slow processing in very old adults living in the community is uncertain, as epidemiological studies relating these brain markers to cognition and in the context of other health characteristics are sparse. Hypothesis: Information processing is cross-sectionally associated with white matter micro-structure independent of overt macro-structural abnormalities and also independent of health related characteristics. Methods: Imaging indices of micro-structure (diffusion tensor imaging, DTI, and magnetization transfer imaging, MTI, macro-structure (white matter hyperintensities, gray matter volume, Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST and health characteristics were measured in 272 elderly (mean age 83 years old, 43% men, 40% Black living in the community. Results: The DTI- and MTI-indices of micro-structure from the normal appearing white matter and not from the normal appearing gray matter were associated with DSST score independent of white matter hyperintensities and gray matter volumes. Associations were also independent of age, race, gender, mini-mental score, systolic blood pressure, prevalent myocardial infarction. Interpretation: DTI and MTI indices of normal appearing white matter are indicators of information processing speed in this cohort of very old adults living in the community. Since processing slowing is a potent index of mortality and disability, these indices may serve as biomarkers in prevention or treatment trials of disability.

  4. Struma ovarii. MR and CT appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joja, Ikuo; Mitsumori, Akihito; Hiraki, Yoshio; Kudo, Takafumi; Nakagawa, Tomio; Asakawa, Toru; Ando, Masaaki; Akamatsu, Nobuo.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the appearance of struma ovarii on MR and CT images. All 13 patients showed both cystic and solid components with a multilobulated surface and thickened septa. Various signal intensities were seen on both T1WI and T2WI. The cystic component, which showed low signal intensity on T2WI, showed high density on CT images. The characteristic MR and CT appearance of struma ovarii appears to be that of multicystic tumor indicating the presence of viscid materials containing iodine. (author)

  5. The dentate nucleus in children: normal development and patterns of disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McErlean, Aoife; Abdalla, Khaled; Donoghue, Veronica; Ryan, Stephanie [Children' s University Hospital, Radiology Department, Dublin (Ireland)

    2010-03-15

    The dentate nuclei lie deep within the cerebellum and play a vital role in the pathways involved in fine motor control and coordination. They are susceptible to a variety of diseases. Some pathological processes preferentially affect the dentate nuclei, while concomitant basal ganglia or white matter involvement can be a striking finding in others. A familiarity with the normal appearance of the dentate nuclei at different ages in combination with the radiological distribution of pathology in the brain allows the paediatric radiologist to develop a logical approach to the interpretation of MR imaging of these deep cerebellar nuclei. In this article we review the normal appearance and MR features of the dentate nuclei, including changes that are seen with myelination. We describe the specific imaging characteristics of childhood diseases that involve the dentate nuclei, and develop a systematic approach to the differential diagnosis of dentate nucleus abnormalities on MR imaging. (orig.)

  6. The dentate nucleus in children: normal development and patterns of disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McErlean, Aoife; Abdalla, Khaled; Donoghue, Veronica; Ryan, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    The dentate nuclei lie deep within the cerebellum and play a vital role in the pathways involved in fine motor control and coordination. They are susceptible to a variety of diseases. Some pathological processes preferentially affect the dentate nuclei, while concomitant basal ganglia or white matter involvement can be a striking finding in others. A familiarity with the normal appearance of the dentate nuclei at different ages in combination with the radiological distribution of pathology in the brain allows the paediatric radiologist to develop a logical approach to the interpretation of MR imaging of these deep cerebellar nuclei. In this article we review the normal appearance and MR features of the dentate nuclei, including changes that are seen with myelination. We describe the specific imaging characteristics of childhood diseases that involve the dentate nuclei, and develop a systematic approach to the differential diagnosis of dentate nucleus abnormalities on MR imaging. (orig.)

  7. MR imaging of the various stages of normal myelination during the first year of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knaap, M.S. van der; Valk, J.

    1990-01-01

    The normal process of myelination of the brain mainly occurs during the first year of life. This process as known from histology can be visualized by MRI. Because of the very long T1 and T2 of immature brain tissue it is necessary to use adjusted pulse sequences with a long TR in order to obtain sufficient tissue contrast. With long TR SE images five stages can be recognized in the process of normal myelination and brain maturation. During the first month of life long TR short TE SE images show what are believed to be myelinated structures by correlation with published histological studies with a high signal intensity, unmyelinated white matter with a low signal intensity and gray matter with an intermediate signal intensity. The signal intensity of unmyelinated and myelinated white matter is reversed on long TR long TE SE images. In the course of a few weeks the signal intensity of unmyelinated white matter becomes high and the signal intensity of myelinated white matter becomes low also on long TR short TE SE images. These changes are believed to be caused by a loss of water and a change in chemical composition of brain tissue just prior to the onset of a wave of myelination. With progression of myelination the signal intensity of white matter changes from high to intermediate to low. These changes result in stages of isointensity, first in the central parts of the brain, later in the lobar parts. At the end of the first year the adult contrast pattern is reached in all parts of the brain. IR images are also able to depict the progress of myelination, but appear to be less sensitive to subtle changes in the degree of myelination. The precise normal values for the five stages depend on the magnetic field strength and the pulse sequences used. (orig.)

  8. Spatial patterns of whole brain grey and white matter injury in patients with occult spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xuetao; Nie, Binbin; Wang, Hong; Duan, Shaofeng; Zhang, Zan; Dai, Guanghui; Ma, Qiaozhi; Shan, Baoci; Ma, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (SDCP) is a common type of cerebral palsy (CP), which presents as a group of motor-impairment syndromes. Previous conventional MRI studies have reported abnormal structural changes in SDCP, such as periventricular leucomalacia. However, there are roughly 27.8% SDCP patients presenting normal appearance in conventional MRI, which were considered as occult SDCP. In this study, sixteen patients with occult SDCP and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were collected and the data were acquired on a 3T MR system. We applied voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis to investigate whole brain grey and white matter injury in occult SDCP. By using VBM method, the grey matter volume reduction was revealed in the bilateral basal ganglia regions, thalamus, insula, and left cerebral peduncle, whereas the white matter atrophy was found to be located in the posterior part of corpus callosum and right posterior corona radiata in the occult SDCP patients. By using TBSS, reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) values were detected in multiple white matter regions, including bilateral white matter tracts in prefrontal lobe, temporal lobe, internal and external capsule, corpus callosum, cingulum, thalamus, brainstem and cerebellum. Additionally, several regions of white matter tracts injury were found to be significantly correlated with motor dysfunction. These results collectively revealed the spatial patterns of whole brain grey and white matter injury in occult SDCP.

  9. Angiographic appearances of rare renal tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.; Taenzer, V.

    1980-01-01

    Oncocytomas, called oxyphil proximal tubular adenomas in the Anglo Saxon literature, and benign hypernephromas are non-malignant, usually symptomless, rare tumours belonging to the renal adenomas. Oncocytomas have angiographic appearances sufficiently uniform to permit a tentative diagnosis. Histologically benign hypernephromas do not possess characteristic angiographic appearances and, in the presence of tumour in the renal vein or necrotic avascular areas, must be regarded as potentially malignant. (orig.) [de

  10. MR appearance of normal and abnormal bile: Correlation with imaging and endoscopic finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Nam Kyung [Department of Radiology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suk, E-mail: kimsuk@medimail.co.kr [Department of Radiology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jun Woo; Lee, Suk Hong [Department of Radiology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Dae Hwan; Kim, Dong Uk; Kim, Gwang Ha [Department of Internal Medicine, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyung Il [Department of Surgery, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    Identification of abnormal bile related to various pathological processes in the pancreaticobiliary tract can be important in the diagnosis of disease and the determination of appropriate treatment. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can allow comprehensive evaluation of abnormal bile because MR usually provides better tissue characterization than other imaging modalities. A high-intensity signal from bile is frequently encountered on T1-weighted images and can be seen in concentrated bile, sludge, stones, or hemobilia. Contrast-enhanced MR features, such as inhomogeneous hepatic enhancement in the arterial phase and papillitis or mild-to-moderate bile duct wall thickening with enhancement, along with clinical characteristics, may suggest clinically significant bile, such as sludge or purulent bile, rather than merely concentrated bile. A history of trauma and appropriate imaging findings in the hepatobiliary tract can support a diagnosis of hemobilia. MR imaging may assist in diagnosing intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the bile duct via detection of an intraductal mass or several indirect signs, suggesting a large amount of mucin. Additionally, Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR may delineate mucin as a filling defect surrounding hyperintense bile. A floating filling defect on all MR sequences is helpful in discriminating pneumobilia from other intraluminal filling defects. Familiarity with the various different MR features of abnormal bile signals can therefore facilitate accurate diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Lumbar facet joint fat pads: Their normal anatomy and their appearance when enlarged

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.R.; McCormick, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    The polar recesses, superior and inferior to lumbar facet joints, are filled by fat pads from which fat-filled synovial folds project between the articular surfaces for a distance of two to four millimetres. The intracapsular superior recess lies between the ligamentum flavum and the lamina above. The extracapsular inferior recess lies on the back of the lamina below and communicates with the joint through a hole in the inferior capsule. The intracapsular folds move freely in and out of the joint during movements. These features are demonstrated in anatomic studies using transverse sections and radiologic studies using computed tomography. In about 4% of lumbar spines examined, the intraarticular fat pads are enlarged and extend from the joint recess(es) into the middle third of one or more facet joints. The fat pads can be identified in CT scans by their radiolucency and distinguished from vacuum phenomenon by measuring their attenuation values. The cause of the intra-articular enlargement of the fat pads is unknown, but it is suggested that their extension into the middle third of the joint may be secondary to degenerative change in the motion segment with capsular laxity in the affected joint. (orig.)

  12. MR appearance of normal and abnormal bile: Correlation with imaging and endoscopic finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Nam Kyung; Kim, Suk; Lee, Jun Woo; Lee, Suk Hong; Kang, Dae Hwan; Kim, Dong Uk; Kim, Gwang Ha; Seo, Hyung Il

    2010-01-01

    Identification of abnormal bile related to various pathological processes in the pancreaticobiliary tract can be important in the diagnosis of disease and the determination of appropriate treatment. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can allow comprehensive evaluation of abnormal bile because MR usually provides better tissue characterization than other imaging modalities. A high-intensity signal from bile is frequently encountered on T1-weighted images and can be seen in concentrated bile, sludge, stones, or hemobilia. Contrast-enhanced MR features, such as inhomogeneous hepatic enhancement in the arterial phase and papillitis or mild-to-moderate bile duct wall thickening with enhancement, along with clinical characteristics, may suggest clinically significant bile, such as sludge or purulent bile, rather than merely concentrated bile. A history of trauma and appropriate imaging findings in the hepatobiliary tract can support a diagnosis of hemobilia. MR imaging may assist in diagnosing intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the bile duct via detection of an intraductal mass or several indirect signs, suggesting a large amount of mucin. Additionally, Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR may delineate mucin as a filling defect surrounding hyperintense bile. A floating filling defect on all MR sequences is helpful in discriminating pneumobilia from other intraluminal filling defects. Familiarity with the various different MR features of abnormal bile signals can therefore facilitate accurate diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Non-Traumatic Ureteral Rupture Despite Initial Normal Appearance Assessed by Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Kan Chen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Rupture of the urinary collecting system with urinary extravasations is a condition that leads to presentation of abdominal pain. The most common cause is usually associated with urolithiasis related obstructive nephropathy. A man aged 69 years suddenly suffered from intense pain over the left hemi-abdomen and flank area. The initial imaging studies of plain film, abdominal sonography, and enhanced and non-enhanced computed tomography scan were unremarkable. Post-contrast plain film showed left-sided urinary extravasations. Surgical intervention ensued and the patient recovered without later urinary complaints. We found that a delayed plain film after intravenous contrast media for computed tomography is helpful to evaluate the urinary tract in its entirety. It is also practical and useful for the detection of leakage from the urinary tract.

  14. MRI patterns of Nissen fundoplication: normal appearance and mechanisms of failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulinna-Cosentini, Christiane; Ba-Ssalamah, Ahmed [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Schima, Wolfgang [Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Schwestern Wien und Sankt Josef Krankenhaus, Department of Radiology, Krankenhaus Goettlicher Heiland, Vienna (Austria); Cosentini, Enrico P. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Surgery, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    The purpose of the study was to assess the role of MR fluoroscopy in the evaluation of post-surgical conditions of Nissen fundoplication due to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD). A total of 29 patients (21 patients with recurrent/persistent symptoms and eight asymptomatic patients as the control group) underwent MRI of the oesophagus and gastro-oesophageal junction (GEJ) at 1.5 T. Bolus transit of a buttermilk-spiked gadolinium mixture was evaluated with T2-weighted half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) and dynamic gradient echo sequences (B-FFE) in three planes. The results of MRI were compared with intraoperative findings, or, if the patients were treated conservatively, with endoscopy, manometry, pH-metry and barium swallow. MRI was able to determine the position of fundoplication wrap in 27/29 cases (93 % overall accuracy) and to correctly identify 4/6 malpositions (67 %), as well as all four wrap disruptions. All five stenoses in the GEJ were identified and could be confirmed intraoperatively or during dilatation. MRI correctly visualized three cases with motility disorders, which were manometrically confirmed as secondary achalasia. Three patients showed signs of recurrent reflux without anatomical failure. MRI is a promising diagnostic method to evaluate morphologic integrity of Nissen fundoplication and functional disorders after surgery. (orig.)

  15. Deceptive appearance of normal variant of scaphoid bone in a teenage patient: a diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad N. Bhatti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Scaphoid fractures are a common injury in late teens and mid twenties with a peak period in skeletally immature children at about 15 years of age, although considered to be rare in first decade of life, its exact incidence in early teen age remains to be a subject of debate. We report an unusual case of anatomical variation of scaphoid bone at the level of waist which could potentially cause diagnostic confusion. A 14-years-old boy presented in the fracture clinic 2 weeks after injury to his Right wrist which was managed in a scaphoid cast. X-ray examinations, both at the time of injury and later on in the fracture clinic revealed features suspicious of a fracture at the level of waist of the scaphoid bone, however the clinical examination did not correlate with imaging, in view of that radiological imaging of the unaffected side was performed for comparison, which revealed it to be an anatomical variant of scaphoid at this age. To our knowledge there are very few cases of such variation reported in literature in this age group of patients. This case highlights the importance of anatomical variants in scaphoid bone in this age group, which might pose a diagnostic challenge and the need for appropriate management plan and reassurance to avoid unnecessary anxiety.

  16. Mammographic appearances of male breast disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, A H; Evans, G F; Levy, K R; Amirkhan, R H; Schumpert, T D

    1999-01-01

    Various male breast diseases have characteristic mammographic appearances that can be correlated with their pathologic diagnoses. Male breast cancer is usually subareolar and eccentric to the nipple. Margins of the lesions are more frequently well defined, and calcifications are rarer and coarser than those occurring in female breast cancer. Gynecomastia usually appears as a fan-shaped density emanating from the nipple, gradually blending into surrounding fat. It may have prominent extensions into surrounding fat and, in some cases, an appearance similar to that of a heterogeneously dense female breast. Although there are characteristic mammographic features that allow breast cancer in men to be recognized, there is substantial overlap between these features and the mammographic appearance of benign nodular lesions. The mammographic appearance of gynecomastia is not similar to that of male breast cancer, but in rare cases, it can mask malignancy. Gynecomastia can be mimicked by chronic inflammation. All mammographically lucent lesions of the male breast appear to be benign, similar to such lesions in the female breast.

  17. Diffusion tensor imaging of brain tumours at 3 T: A potential tool for assessing White matter tract invasion?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, S.J.; Burnet, N.G.; Donovan, T.; Green, H.A.L.; Pena, A.; Antoun, N.M.; Pickard, J.D.; Carpenter, T.A.; Gillard, J.H. E-mail: jhg21@cam.ac.uk

    2003-06-01

    AIM: To determine whether diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of brain tumours can demonstrate abnormalities distal to hyperintensities on T2-weighted images, and possibly relate these to tumour grade. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients with histologically confirmed supratentorial tumours, both gliomas (high and low grade) and metastases, were imaged at 3 T using T2-weighted and DTI sequences. Regions of interest (ROI) were drawn within the tumour, in white matter at various distances from the tumour and in areas of abnormality on DTI that appeared normal on T2-weighted images. The relative anisotropy index (RAI)--a measure of white matter organization, was calculated for these ROI. RESULTS: The abnormality on DTI was larger than that seen on T2-weighted images in 10/13 patients (77%) with high-grade gliomas. New abnormalities were seen in the contralateral white matter in 4/13 (30%) of these cases. In these high-grade tumours the RAI in areas of white matter disruption with normal appearance on T2-weighted images was reduced (0.19{+-}0.04). Even excluding patients with previous radiotherapy this difference remains significant. In all non high-grade tumours (WHO grade II gliomas and metastases) the tumour extent on DTI was identical to the abnormalities shown on T2-weighted imaging and RAI measurements were not reduced (0.3{+-}0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Subtle white matter disruption can be identified using DTI in patients with high-grade gliomas. Such disruption is not identified in association with metastases or low-grade gliomas despite these tumours producing significant mass effect and oedema. We suggest the changes in DTI may be due to tumour infiltration and that the DTI may provide a useful method of detecting occult white matter invasion by gliomas.

  18. Diffusion tensor imaging of brain tumours at 3 T: A potential tool for assessing White matter tract invasion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, S.J.; Burnet, N.G.; Donovan, T.; Green, H.A.L.; Pena, A.; Antoun, N.M.; Pickard, J.D.; Carpenter, T.A.; Gillard, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of brain tumours can demonstrate abnormalities distal to hyperintensities on T2-weighted images, and possibly relate these to tumour grade. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients with histologically confirmed supratentorial tumours, both gliomas (high and low grade) and metastases, were imaged at 3 T using T2-weighted and DTI sequences. Regions of interest (ROI) were drawn within the tumour, in white matter at various distances from the tumour and in areas of abnormality on DTI that appeared normal on T2-weighted images. The relative anisotropy index (RAI)--a measure of white matter organization, was calculated for these ROI. RESULTS: The abnormality on DTI was larger than that seen on T2-weighted images in 10/13 patients (77%) with high-grade gliomas. New abnormalities were seen in the contralateral white matter in 4/13 (30%) of these cases. In these high-grade tumours the RAI in areas of white matter disruption with normal appearance on T2-weighted images was reduced (0.19±0.04). Even excluding patients with previous radiotherapy this difference remains significant. In all non high-grade tumours (WHO grade II gliomas and metastases) the tumour extent on DTI was identical to the abnormalities shown on T2-weighted imaging and RAI measurements were not reduced (0.3±0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Subtle white matter disruption can be identified using DTI in patients with high-grade gliomas. Such disruption is not identified in association with metastases or low-grade gliomas despite these tumours producing significant mass effect and oedema. We suggest the changes in DTI may be due to tumour infiltration and that the DTI may provide a useful method of detecting occult white matter invasion by gliomas

  19. Appearance of differentiated cells derived from polar body nuclei in the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki eSakai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn Bombyx mori, polar body nuclei are observed until 9h after egg lying, however, the fate of polar body nuclei remains unclear. To examine the fate of polar body nuclei, we employed a mutation of serosal cell pigmentation, pink-eyed white egg (pe. The heterozygous pe/+pe females produced black serosal cells in white eggs, while pe/pe females did not produce black serosal cells in white eggs. These results suggest that the appearance of black serosal cells in white eggs depends on the genotype (pe/ +pe of the mother. Because the polar body nuclei had +pe genes in the white eggs laid by a pe/ +pe female, polar body nuclei participate in development and differentiate into functional cell (serosal cells. Analyses of serosal cells pigmentation indicated that approximately 30% of the eggs contained polar-body-nucleus-derived cells. These results demonstrate that polar-body-nucleus-derived cells appeared at a high frequency under natural conditions. Approximately 80% of polar-body-nucleus-derived cells appeared near the anterior pole and the dorsal side, which is opposite to where embryogenesis occurs. The number of cells derived from the polar body nuclei was very low. Approximately 26 % of these eggs contained only one black serosal cell. PCR-based analysis revealed that the polar-body-nucleus-derived cells disappeared in late embryonic stages (stage 25. Overall, polar-body-nuclei-derived cells were unlikely to contribute to embryos.

  20. Alcohol brand appearances in US popular music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A; Nuzzo, Erin; Rice, Kristen R; Sargent, James D

    2012-03-01

    The average US adolescent is exposed to 34 references to alcohol in popular music daily. Although brand recognition is an independent, potent risk factor for alcohol outcomes among adolescents, alcohol brand appearances in popular music have not been assessed systematically. We aimed to determine the prevalence of and contextual elements associated with alcohol brand appearances in US popular music. Qualitative content analysis. We used Billboard Magazine to identify songs to which US adolescents were most exposed in 2005-07. For each of the 793 songs, two trained coders analyzed independently the lyrics of each song for references to alcohol and alcohol brand appearances. Subsequent in-depth assessments utilized Atlas.ti to determine contextual factors associated with each of the alcohol brand appearances. Our final code book contained 27 relevant codes representing six categories: alcohol types, consequences, emotional states, activities, status and objects. Average inter-rater reliability was high (κ = 0.80), and all differences were easily adjudicated. Of the 793 songs in our sample, 169 (21.3%) referred explicitly to alcohol, and of those, 41 (24.3%) contained an alcohol brand appearance. Consequences associated with alcohol were more often positive than negative (41.5% versus 17.1%, P brand appearances were associated commonly with wealth (63.4%), sex (58.5%), luxury objects (51.2%), partying (48.8%), other drugs (43.9%) and vehicles (39.0%). One in five songs sampled from US popular music had explicit references to alcohol, and one-quarter of these mentioned a specific alcohol brand. These alcohol brand appearances are associated commonly with a luxury life-style characterized by wealth, sex, partying and other drugs. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. CSF Flow in the Brain in the Context of Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, W G

    2015-05-01

    CSF normally flows back and forth through the aqueduct during the cardiac cycle. During systole, the brain and intracranial vasculature expand and compress the lateral and third ventricles, forcing CSF craniocaudad. During diastole, they contract and flow through the aqueduct reverses. Hyperdynamic CSF flow through the aqueduct is seen when there is ventricular enlargement without cerebral atrophy. Therefore, patients presenting with clinical normal pressure hydrocephalus who have hyperdynamic CSF flow have been found to respond better to ventriculoperitoneal shunting than those with normal or decreased CSF flow. Patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus have also been found to have larger intracranial volumes than sex-matched controls, suggesting that they may have had benign external hydrocephalus as infants. While their arachnoidal granulations clearly have decreased CSF resorptive capacity, it now appears that this is fixed and that the arachnoidal granulations are not merely immature. Such patients appear to develop a parallel pathway for CSF to exit the ventricles through the extracellular space of the brain and the venous side of the glymphatic system. This pathway remains functional until late adulthood when the patient develops deep white matter ischemia, which is characterized histologically by myelin pallor (ie, loss of lipid). The attraction between the bare myelin protein and the CSF increases resistance to the extracellular outflow of CSF, causing it to back up, resulting in hydrocephalus. Thus idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus appears to be a "2 hit" disease: benign external hydrocephalus in infancy followed by deep white matter ischemia in late adulthood. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  2. A study of the normal interpedicular distance of the spine in Korean teenagers (Estimation of normal range by roentgenographic measurement)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Uk

    1979-01-01

    The radiological measurement of the interpedicular disease using a routine antero-posterior view of the spine gives important clinical criteria in evaluation of the intraspinal tumor and stenosis of the spinal canal, and aids for diagnosis of the lesions. In 1934 Elsberg and Dyke reported values of interpedicular distance as determined on roentgenograms for spine of white adult, and in 1968 Song prepared normal values of interpedicular distance for Korean adult. The present investigation was undertaken to provide normal interpedicular distance of Korean teenagers. The author observed the antero-posterior films of the spine of 200 normal teenagers which were composed of 100 male and 100 female. The normal values of the interpedicular distance of Korean teenagers were obtained, as well as 90% tolerance range for clinical use. In this statistical analysis, there were noted significant differences between male and female, and each age groups. It was observed that average male measurement were consistently larger than female by about 1 mm and the growth of the spinal canal appeared to be continued.

  3. White Dwarf Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Kepler, S. O.; Romero, Alejandra Daniela; Pelisoli, Ingrid; Ourique, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    White dwarf stars are the final stage of most stars, born single or in multiple systems. We discuss the identification, magnetic fields, and mass distribution for white dwarfs detected from spectra obtained by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey up to Data Release 13 in 2016, which lead to the increase in the number of spectroscopically identified white dwarf stars from 5000 to 39000. This number includes only white dwarf stars with log g >= 6.5 stars, i.e., excluding the Extremely Low Mass white dw...

  4. Brain white matter 1 H MRS in Leber optic neuropathy mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostojic, Jelena; Jancic, Jasna; Kozic, Dusko

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted in order to test the hypothesis that proton MR spectroscopic (1H MRS) profile of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) mutation carriers group (including both symptomatic and asymptomatic) differs from group of healthy individuals and to determine metabolite...... or ratio that contributes most to differentiation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed single voxel 1H MRS in normal appearing white matter of eighteen LHON mtDNA mutation carriers bearing one of three LHON mtDNA point mutations and in fifty control subjects. RESULTS: ANOVA showed significant difference...

  5. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease ... of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell count varies from one medical ...

  6. Magnetization transfer on T2-weighted image : magnetization Transfer ratios in normal brain and cerebral lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Myung Kwan; Roh, Hong Gee; Suh, Chang Hae; Cho, Young Kook; Kim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Sung Tae; Choi, Sung Kyu [Inha Univ. College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    To evaluate the magnetization transfer ratio(MTR) of various normal structures and pathologic lesions, as seen on magnetization transfer T2-weighted images (MT+T2WI). Materials and Methods : In ten normal volunteers, T2-weighted images without MT (MT-T2WI) and with MT(MT+T2WI) were obtained. Off-set pulses used in MT+T2WI were 400, 600, 1000, 1500, and 2000Hz. In 60 clinical cases infarction(n=10), brain tumors(n=5), traumatic hematomas(n=5), other hematomas(n=3) vascular malformation(n=2) white matter disease(n=2) normal(n=31) and others(n=2), both MT-T2WI and MT+T2WI images were obtained using an off-set pulse of 600 Hz. In all volunteers and patients, MTR in various normal brain parenchyma and abnormal areas was measured. Results : The MTRs of white and gray matter were 48% and 45% respectively at 400 Hz, 26% and 22% at 600Hz, 12% and 11% of 1000Hz, 10% and 9% 1500HZ, and 9% and 8% at 2000Hz of RF. The MTR of CSF was 43% at 400 Hz of off-resonance RF, while the contrast resolution of T2WI was poor. An off-resonance of 600Hz appeared to be the optimal frequency. In diseased areas,MTRs varied but were usually similar to or lower than those of brain parenchyma. Conclusion : The optimal off-resonance RF on MT+T2WI appears to be 600 Hz for relatively high MTR of brain parenchyma and low MTR of CSF,in which MTRs of white and gray matter were 26% and 22%, respectively, of 600Hz off-set pulse. The MTRs of cerebral lesions varied and further studies of various cerebral lesions are needed.

  7. Reflectance, illumination, and appearance in color constancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, John J; Parraman, Carinna; Rizzi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    We studied color constancy using a pair of identical 3-D Color Mondrian displays. We viewed one 3-D Mondrian in nearly uniform illumination, and the other in directional, nonuniform illumination. We used the three dimensional structures to modulate the light falling on the painted surfaces. The 3-D structures in the displays were a matching set of wooden blocks. Across Mondrian displays, each corresponding facet had the same paint on its surface. We used only 6 chromatic, and 5 achromatic paints applied to 104 block facets. The 3-D blocks add shadows and multiple reflections not found in flat Mondrians. Both 3-D Mondrians were viewed simultaneously, side-by-side. We used two techniques to measure correlation of appearance with surface reflectance. First, observers made magnitude estimates of changes in the appearances of identical reflectances. Second, an author painted a watercolor of the 3-D Mondrians. The watercolor's reflectances quantified the changes in appearances. While constancy generalizations about illumination and reflectance hold for flat Mondrians, they do not for 3-D Mondrians. A constant paint does not exhibit perfect color constancy, but rather shows significant shifts in lightness, hue and chroma in response to the structure in the nonuniform illumination. Color appearance depends on the spatial information in both the illumination and the reflectances of objects. The spatial information of the quanta catch from the array of retinal receptors generates sensations that have variable correlation with surface reflectance. Models of appearance in humans need to calculate the departures from perfect constancy measured here. This article provides a dataset of measurements of color appearances for computational models of sensation.

  8. Reflectance, illumination, and appearance in color constancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. McCann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied color constancy using a pair of identical 3-D Color Mondrian displays. We viewed one 3-D Mondrian in nearly uniform illumination, and the other in directional, nonuniform illumination. We used the three dimensional structures to modulate the light falling on the painted surfaces. The 3-D structures in the displays were a matching set of wooden blocks. Across Mondrian displays, each corresponding facet had the same paint on its surface. We used only 6 chromatic, and 5 achromatic paints applied to 104 block facets. The 3-D blocks add shadows and multiple reflections not found in flat Mondrians. Both 3-D Mondrians were viewed simultaneously, side-by-side. We used two techniques to measure correlation of appearance with surface reflectance. First, observers made magnitude estimates of changes in the appearances of identical reflectances. Second, an author painted a watercolor of the 3-D Mondrians. The watercolor’s reflectances quantified the changes in appearances. While constancy generalizations about illumination and reflectance hold for flat Mondrians, they do not for 3-D Mondrians. A constant paint does not exhibit perfect color constancy, but rather shows significant shifts in lightness, hue and chroma in response to the structure in the nonuniform illumination. Color appearance depends on the spatial information in both the illumination and the reflectances of objects. The spatial information of the quanta catch from the array of retinal receptors generates sensations that have variable correlation with surface reflectance. Models of appearance in humans need to calculate the departures from perfect constancy measured here. This article provides a dataset of measurements of color appearances for computational models of sensation.

  9. Radiological appearances of degenerative uterine leiomyomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzvetankov, K.; Hadjidekov, G.; Plachkov, I.; Yankova, M.

    2013-01-01

    Uterine fibroids, also known as leiomyomas, are the most common uterine neoplasms. Although benign, they can be associated with significant morbidity and are the commonest indication for hysterectomy. They are often discovered incidentally when performing imaging for other reasons. Usually first identified with US, they can be further characterized with MRI. They are usually easily recognizable, but degenerate fibroids can have unusual appearances. Knowledge of the different appearances of fibroids on imaging is important as it enables prompt diagnosis and thereby guides treatment. (authors)

  10. What Genes Tell about Iris Appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Stine; Christoffersen, Susanne R.; Johansen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Predicting phenotypes based on genotypes is generally hard, but has shown good results for prediction of iris color. We propose to correlate the appearance of iris with DNA. Six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have previously been shown to correlate with human iris color, and we demonstrat...

  11. 'Unusual' MRI appearance of sphenoid sinus mucocele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruelle, A.; Pisani, R.; Andrioli, G.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report a case of sphenoid sinus mucocele which exhibited unusual MRI features. However a review of the literature shows that these lesions may present with different MRI appearances probably related to the variability of the cyst content. Further series are needed for a better definition of the MRI behaviour of the lesions. (orig.)

  12. 39 CFR 3001.6 - Appearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Commission online as a Principal Account Holder, or signs a paper filed with the Commission, his/her personal appearance, online submission, or signature, shall constitute a representation to the Commission that he/she..., 1971, as amended at 38 FR 4327, Feb. 13, 1973; 51 FR 8827, Mar. 14, 1986; 58 FR 38976, July 21, 1993...

  13. 40 CFR 305.10 - Appearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS COMPREHENSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE, COMPENSATION, AND LIABILITY ACT... appear as counsel or other representative must conform to the standards of conduct and ethics required of...

  14. Object tracking using active appearance models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille

    2001-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that (near) real-time object tracking can be accomplished by the deformable template model; the Active Appearance Model (AAM) using only low-cost consumer electronics such as a PC and a web-camera. Successful object tracking of perspective, rotational and translational...

  15. 40 CFR 22.10 - Appearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances. 22.10 Section 22.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CONSOLIDATED RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING... and ethics required of practitioners before the courts of the United States. ...

  16. Protean appearance of craniopharyngioma on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danziger, A.; Price, H.I.

    1979-01-01

    Craniopharyngiomas present a diverse appearance on computed tomography. Histological diagnosis is not always possible, but computed tomography is of great assistance in the delineation of the tumour as well as of the degree of associated hydrocephalus. Computed tomography also enables rapid non-invasive follow-up after surgery or radiotherapy, or both

  17. Physical Appearance and Student/Teacher Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Scientific and cultural research suggests that attractiveness does affect the ways that people perceive and respond to each other. In this paper, the author talks about the impact of one's appearance in academe as well as in the relationship between students and professors. From the research literature, popular writings, and many comments from his…

  18. Ultrasound appearances of Implanon implanted contraceptive devices.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNeill, G

    2009-09-01

    Subdermal contraceptive devices represent a popular choice of contraception. Whilst often removed without the use of imaging, circumstances exist where imaging is required. Ultrasound is the modality of choice. The optimal technique and typical sonographic appearances are detailed in this article.

  19. Radiological appearances of papillary breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookes, M.J.; Bourke, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    This review illustrates the varied appearances of benign and malignant papillary breast tumours, as identified by a breast cancer-screening programme. The commonest mammographic appearance of a papillary tumour is as a soft-tissue mass, with calcification present in less than half of cases. When calcification is present the pattern is variable, but clusters of pleomorphic calcification can occur, sometimes resembling the mammographic appearance of invasive ductal carcinoma. Ultrasonography of papillary lesions typically shows a solid, oval, intraductal mass, often associated with duct dilatation. A cystic component is also commonly seen, and lesions may appear hypervascular on colour Doppler ultrasound. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a high sensitivity, but low specificity for detecting papillary tumours, and is useful in establishing the extent and distribution of lesions in patients with multiple papillomatosis. Despite a benign histology on core biopsy, an argument exists for complete surgical excision of all papillary tumours, as a significant proportion of papillomas will contain foci of atypia or overt malignant change

  20. Radiological appearances of papillary breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookes, M.J. [Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Perth, Western Australia (Australia)], E-mail: mattbrookes@doctors.org.uk; Bourke, A.G. [Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Perth, Western Australia (Australia)

    2008-11-15

    This review illustrates the varied appearances of benign and malignant papillary breast tumours, as identified by a breast cancer-screening programme. The commonest mammographic appearance of a papillary tumour is as a soft-tissue mass, with calcification present in less than half of cases. When calcification is present the pattern is variable, but clusters of pleomorphic calcification can occur, sometimes resembling the mammographic appearance of invasive ductal carcinoma. Ultrasonography of papillary lesions typically shows a solid, oval, intraductal mass, often associated with duct dilatation. A cystic component is also commonly seen, and lesions may appear hypervascular on colour Doppler ultrasound. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a high sensitivity, but low specificity for detecting papillary tumours, and is useful in establishing the extent and distribution of lesions in patients with multiple papillomatosis. Despite a benign histology on core biopsy, an argument exists for complete surgical excision of all papillary tumours, as a significant proportion of papillomas will contain foci of atypia or overt malignant change.

  1. Nodular fasciitis: MRI appearance and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, L.Y.J.; Shu, S.J.; Chan, M.K.; Chan, C.H.S.; Chan, A.C.L.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe the MRI features of nodular fasciitis and to review the clinical, MRI and histologic aspects of the tumor. Design and patients: Three patients with biopsy-proven nodular fasciitis were selected for a retrospective study. A literature review was also carried out. Results and conclusions: All the lesions appeared slightly hyperintense to skeletal muscle on T1-weighted images, and hyperintense on T2-weighted images with fat saturation [either frequency saturation or Short TI Inversion Recovery (STIR) sequences]. Two enhanced homogeneously after intravenous gadolinium, whereas the third showed heterogeneous enhancement with a nonenhancing area. Despite the difference in enhancing patterns, the histologic appearances of these lesions were similar. Our study shows that the MRI appearance of nodular fasciitis may not be related to the location of lesion. It is thought that the age of nodular fasciitis may reflect its gross morphology, and it is possible that the MRI and histologic appearances could correlate with the age of the lesion, but it would require a larger series to evaluate this concept. (orig.)

  2. White matter disease of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melville, G.E.; Fernandez, R.E.; Kishore, P.R.S.; Lee, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    The white matter disorders that are discussed in this chapter are subdivided into those disorders within which there is breakdown of normal myelin, termed myelinoclastic, and those diseases involving either formation or maintenance of abnormal myeline, termed dysmyelinating. CT is a well-established technique for studying white matter disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a new noninvasive technique which has shown greater sensitivity to white matter abnormalities. However, because of the rarity of may white matter diseases coupled with limited availability of MR facilities, the MRI experience in evaluating these patients is not extensive yet. Some patients may not be suitable for MRI because of the longer period of patient immobility that is required to avoid motion artifacts

  3. White matter abnormalities in tuberous sclerosis complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, P.D. [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Academic Dept. of Radiology; Bolton, P. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Section of Developmental Psychiatry; Verity, C. [Addenbrooke`s NHS Trust, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Dept. of Paediatric Radiology

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and describe the range of white matter abnormalities in children with tuberous sclerosis complex by means of MR imaging. Material and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed on the basis of MR imaging findings in 20 cases of tuberous sclerosis complex in children aged 17 years or younger. Results: White matter abnormalities were present in 19/20 (95%) cases of tuberous sclerosis complex. These were most frequently (19/20 cases) found in relation to cortical tubers in the supratentorial compartment. White matter abnormalities related to tubers were found in the cerebellum in 3/20 (15%) cases. White matter abnormalities described as radial migration lines were found in relation to 5 tubers in 3 (15%) children. In 4/20 (20%) cases, white matter abnormalities were found that were not related to cortical tubers. These areas had the appearance of white matter cysts in 3 cases and infarction in the fourth. In the latter case there was a definable event in the clinical history, supporting the diagnosis of stroke. Conclusion: A range of white matter abnormalities were found by MR imaging in tuberous sclerosis complex, the commonest being gliosis and hypomyelination related to cortical tubers. Radial migration lines were seen infrequently in relation to cortical tubers and these are thought to represent heterotopic glia and neurons along the expected path of cortical migration. (orig.)

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in normal aging and dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, A.; Fazekas, F.; Chawluk, J.; Zimmerman, R.

    1987-01-01

    The unusual sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging in detecting white matter lesions has yielded striking results in studying the aging brain and in diagnosing a variety of central nervous system disorders. These lesions are most obvious in the periventricular white matter and appear as punctate or confluent hyperintense abnormalities on T2-weighted images. Their correlation with increasing age and the ensuing increase of cardiovascular risk factors suggests ischemic damage as their probable underlying pathologic cause. MRI thus may prove an early and very sensitive indicator of incipient cerebrovascular disease, adding information on the association of vascular damage with the development of dementing illness. This report is a preliminary communication of an ongoing study which is evaluating the importance of these findings in the 'normal' aging brain and different forms of dementia. 11 refs.; 1 table

  5. MR guided spatial normalization of SPECT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouch, B.; Barnden, L.R.; Kwiatek, R.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: In SPECT population studies where magnetic resonance (MR) scans are also available, the higher resolution of the MR scans allows for an improved spatial normalization of the SPECT scans. In this approach, the SPECT images are first coregistered to their corresponding MR images by a linear (affine) transformation which is calculated using SPM's mutual information maximization algorithm. Non-linear spatial normalization maps are then computed either directly from the MR scans using SPM's built in spatial normalization algorithm, or, from segmented TI MR images using DARTEL, an advanced diffeomorphism based spatial normalization algorithm. We compare these MR based methods to standard SPECT based spatial normalization for a population of 27 fibromyalgia patients and 25 healthy controls with spin echo T 1 scans. We identify significant perfusion deficits in prefrontal white matter in FM patients, with the DARTEL based spatial normalization procedure yielding stronger statistics than the standard SPECT based spatial normalization. (author)

  6. The Functionality of Facial Appearance and Its Importance to a Korean Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Jun Kim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMany people have an interest in the correction of facial scars or deformities caused by trauma. The increasing ability to correct such flaws has been one of the reasons for the increase in the popularity of facial plastic surgery. In addition to its roles in communication, breathing, eating, olfaction and vision, the appearance of the face also plays an important role in human interactions, including during social activities. However, studies on the importance of the functional role of facial appearance. As a function of the face are scare. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the importance of the functions of the face in Korea.MethodsWe conducted an online panel survey of 300 participants (age range, 20-70 years. Each respondent was administered the demographic data form, Facial Function Assessment Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and standard gamble questionnaires.ResultsIn the evaluation on the importance of facial functions, a normal appearance was considered as important as communication, breathing, speech, and vision. Of the 300 participants, 85% stated that a normal appearance is important in social activities.ConclusionsThe results of this survey involving a cross-section of the Korean population indicated that a normal appearance was considered one of the principal facial functions. A normal appearance was considered more important than the functions of olfaction and expression. Moreover, a normal appearance was determined to be an important facial function for leading a normal life in Korea.

  7. CT appearance of focal fatty infiltration of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halvorsen, R.A.; Korobkin, M.; Ram, P.C.; Thompson, W.M.

    1982-01-01

    Focal fatty infiltration of the liver is an entity that may be confused with liver metastasis on computed tomography (CT). The imaging results and medical records of 16 patients with CT appearance suggestive of focal fatty liver were reviewed, three of whom had the simultaneous presence of metastitic liver disease. Focal fatty liver often has a distinctive appearance with CT, usually with a nonspherical shape, absence of mass effect, and density close to water. Liver metastases are usually round or oval, and unless cystic or necrotic, they have CT attenuation values closer to normal liver parenchyma than water. A radionuclide liver scan almost always resolves any confusion about the differential diagnosis of focal fatty liver: a well defined focus of photon deficiency is due to neoplasm rather than focal fatty infiltration. Sonography sometimes helps to confirm the CT impression, but may be misleading if the diagnosis of focal or diffuse fatty infiltration is not suspected before the examination

  8. Appearance of the temporomandibular joint after meniscoplasty on MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, W.F.; Hayes, C.W.; Campbell, R.L.; Laskin, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-five postmeniscoplasty temporomandibular joints (TMJs) were studied in 20 patients. In all patients, preoperative MR images showed anteriorly dislocated disks. The patients underwent a similar postoperative MR examination 4-12 months after surgery. Surgical results were classified clinically as either poor, fair, good, or excellent at the time of the follow-up MR imaging. Forty percent of patients had good or excellent clinical results, and 60% had poor or fair results. The good/excellent group all had disks that appeared to be in normal or near normal position. Almost all disks were fixed in position. The degree of condylar translation was variable. The poor/fair group all had postoperative joints with anteriorly dislocated disks that were fixed in place. Recapture of the disk was variable, as was the degree of condylar translation

  9. Experimental and histological studies on appearance mechanism of ring enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasugi, Shinsuke; Kageyama, Takefumi; Yamashita, Shigeru; Kusaka, Kazumasa; Ueda, Shin

    1980-01-01

    Intracerebral hematoma was experimentally induced in 26 adult dogs of mixed breed by injecting autologous venous blood into the internal capsule of dogs. CT images and histological findings of these dogs with intracerebral hematoma were compared with time, and causes of changes in contrast enhancement (CE) CT images and CE positive images were discussed pathologically. It was thought that CE-CT positive images of intracerebral hematoma did not show special phenomena which occurred variously according to causes of hematoma, but general phenomena observed in the process of recovery of general intracerebral hematoma. Ring enhancement appeared mostly about 9 days after hematoma formation. There was a close relationship between appearance of ring enhancement and new vascularization which appeared in the process of recovery of hematoma. It was also thought that blood-brain barrier (B.B.B.) such as normal cerebral capillary vessels did not exist because new vascularization had the fine structure similar to muscle type capillary vessels. Ring enhancement might be seen probably because of the accumulation of contrast medium in regions where new vascularization without B.B.B. appeared. (Tsunoda, M.)

  10. Experimental microangiographic study in normal rabbit liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yoon Gyoo; Park, Jong Yeon; Han, Kook Sang; Moon, Ki Ho; Choi, Chang Ho; Han, Koon Taek; Lee, Suck Hong; Kim, Byung Soo

    1994-01-01

    Microangiography is an experimental radiologic technique for evaluation of the morphology and the function of small vessels. The purpose of this study is to introduce a good microangiographic technique and to present the microangiographic appearance of normal hepatic vascular pattern. Five white rabbits weighing 2.5-2.9Kg were objected. Polyethylene catheters were inserted in portal vein and then in IVC. Heparin mixed normal saline (2cc/1000cc) was infused through portal vein and blood was drained to IVC. Barium suspension was infused via the catheter placed in portal vein until the liver surface showed satisfactory finding in barium filling. The liver was removed and this preparation was fixed in 10% formaline for 7 days. After fixation, the liver was sectioned on 1-2mm thickness. The slices were radiographed on high resolution plate using Faxitron. H-E staining of liver tissue was also done. The microbrium was well distributed in all small vessels without filling defect. And we could find the hexagonal shaped classic liver lobule, in which the central vein was located at central portion and portal vein at periphery. The enlargement was showed numerous sinusoids, but there was less dye in the central portion of lobule, but the central vein was well filled by microbarium. The peripheral portion of lobule was well filled with microbarium. So, we could find diamond shaped liver acinus, in which central vein was located at priperal portion and the center of liver acinus was terminal portal vein that growed out from a small portal space. The three acini made the complex acinus and acinar agglomerate was composed of three or four complex acini. It is considered that the liver acinus pattern of Rapparport is more acceptable on microangiography than the classic concept of hepatic lobule

  11. CT appearance of menetrier's disease (a report of 4 cases)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Weijun; Zhang Pei; Zhou Kangrong; Chen Huiming

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To define the CT imaging characteristic of menetrier's disease. Methods: Four patients with proved Menetrier's disease were retrospectively studied by means of CT performed with the water as oral contrast, hypotonic agent and dynamic or spiral CT technique. Results: All cases showed that the enlarged rugae were seen projecting into the gastric lumen, but the gastric wall was otherwise normal. CT detected all lesions and made a confirmed diagnosis before pathology biopsy. Conclusion: The primary result revealed that the CT appearance of Menetrier's disease was quite characteristic, CT is a very valuable tool for the diagnosis of Menetrier's disease

  12. Stereotypical beliefs about appearance: implications for retailing and consumer issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, C R; Klassen, M L

    1990-10-01

    This research was designed to identify current stereotypical beliefs about obese men and women, assess subjects' desire to work with individuals described as "normal" weight as opposed to obese, examine subjects' perceptions of their own body size, inquire about subjects' personal desire to gain and lose weight, and identify subjects' diet and consumption behavior. The data indicate sex differences in subjects' perceptions of bodily appearance, desire to work with obese people, perceptions of their own weight, desire to lose rather than gain weight, and consumption and diet behavior.

  13. An Active Illumination and Appearance (AIA) Model for Face Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahraman, Fatih; Gokmen, Muhittin; Darkner, Sune

    2007-01-01

    Face recognition systems are typically required to work under highly varying illumination conditions. This leads to complex effects imposed on the acquired face image that pertains little to the actual identity. Consequently, illumination normalization is required to reach acceptable recognition...... rates in face recognition systems. In this paper, we propose an approach that integrates the face identity and illumination models under the widely used Active Appearance Model framework as an extension to the texture model in order to obtain illumination-invariant face localization...

  14. Characteristics of Blister Rust Cankers on Eastern White Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R. Phelps; Ray Weber

    1969-01-01

    The growth, development, and sporulation of white pine blister rust cankers were studied on eastern white pine in Wisconsin and Minnesota. Three district canker types were identified on the basis of physical appearance, growth rate, and sporulation. Canker growth rate and sporulation decreased as tree size or age increased, and many cankers apparently became inactive...

  15. HOW TO Identify White Pine Blister Rust and Remove Cankers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas H. Nicholls; Robert L. Anderson

    1977-01-01

    White pine blister rust (caused by the fungus Cronartium ribicola J. C. Fisch. ex Rabenh.) was introduced into the United States about 1900 and has since spread throughout the range of white pine. The disease intensity varies throughout the range but is normally most severe where late summers (July-September) are cool (below 67? F) and damp, conditions necessary for...

  16. In vivo evidence of cerebellar atrophy and cerebral white matter loss in Huntington disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fennema-Notestine, C; Archibald, S.L.; Jacobsen, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    and education. Primary analyses defined six subcortical regions, the gray and white matter of primary cortical lobes and cerebellum, and abnormal signal in the cerebral white matter. RESULTS: As expected, basal ganglia and cerebral cortical gray matter volumes were significantly smaller in HD. The HD group also...... demonstrated significant cerebral white matter loss and an increase in the amount of abnormal signal in the white matter; occipital white matter appeared more affected than other cerebral white matter regions. Cortical gray and white matter measures were significantly related to caudate volume. Cerebellar gray...

  17. Ultrasonography of the uterus after normal vaginal delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bdour, Abdel-Nabi A.; Akasheh, Hakam F.; Al-Husban, Naser A.

    2004-01-01

    To define the appearence of the uterus and the uterine cavity, as revealed by the ultrasound in normal women following a vaginal delivery. This prospective, longitudinal study took place at the Prince Hashem and the Prince Ali Military Hospitals, Amman Jordan from December 2002 to March 2003. Fifty four women were scanned on postpartum days 1, 7, 14, 28 and 56. Ultrasound operation was performed transabdominally for all women. The involution process of the uterus was assessed by measuring the anteroposterior diameter and uterine cavity. The appearence of the uterine cavity content was documented. Factors related to the involution process: parity, breast-feeding, smoking and infant's birth weight were also evaluated. The maximum anteroposterior diameter of the uterus diminished substantially and progressively from 93mm on day one postpartum to 38.5 mm on day 56. The maximum anteroposterior diameter of the uterine cavity diminished from15.2 mm on day one to 4.0 mm on day 56. The position of the uterus, its shape and the appearence of its cavity during the normal puerperium was observed. The uterus was most often retroverted and empty in the early puerperium. Fluid and debris in the whole cavity were seen in mid puerperium, the cavity was empty and appeared as a thin white line. No correlation was found between the involution of the uterus and parity, breast-feeding and infant's birth weight. Transabdominal sonography is suitable for examination of the uterus during the early puerperium period. The uterine body and position, as well as the cavity, are easy to examine by ultrasound. Accumulation of fluid and debris in the uterine cavity is a common and insignificant finding of the invluting uterus. (author)

  18. Autochthonous white rot fungi from the tropical forest: Potential of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... local biodiversity in tropical area appears as a potentially productive approach for identifying promising ... senting thirteen species and ten different genera (Table ..... which has clear connexions with white biotechnology.

  19. Possible Tau Appearance Experiment with Atmospheric Neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor

    1999-12-27

    We suggest an experimental measurement that could detect the appearance of tau neutrinos due to {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations of atmospheric neutrinos by measuring the energy spectra of neutrino induced showers. {tau} neutrinos deposit a large fraction of their energy in showers generated by {nu}{sub {tau}} charge current interactions and the subsequent {tau} -lepton decay. The appearance of {nu}{sub {tau}} will enhance the spectrum of neutrino induced showers in energy ranges corresponding to the neutrino oscillation parameters. A shower rate lower than the ''no oscillation'' prediction is an indication for {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub s} oscillations. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  20. Tau appearance in atmospheric neutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Lawrence J.; Murayama, Hitoshi

    1998-01-01

    If the correct interpretation of the Super-Kamiokande atmospheric neutrino data is ν μ → ν τ oscillation, the contained data sample should already have more than 10 τ appearance events. We study the challenging task of detecting the τ, focusing on the decay chain τ ± → ρ ± → π ± π 0 in events with quasi-elastic τ production. The background level, which is currently quite uncertain because of a lack of relevant neutral current data, can be measured by the near detector in the K2K experiment. Our estimates of the background suggest that it may be possible to detect τ appearance in Super-Kamiokande with 5-10 years of running

  1. MR image appearance of cerebrospinal fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, K.; Quencer, R.M.; Post, M.J.D.; Diaz, R.; Shapiro, R.

    1986-01-01

    The cerebrospinal fluid flow void phenomenon (FVP) was retrospectively reviewed in 402 brain MR imaging examinations to determine the incidence of, physical parameters responsible for, and clinical significance of the finding. A grading system was devised comparing T2-weighted signal intensities between lateral ventricles and other CSF spaces. FVP was classified as marked, moderate, or absent. Although FVP may be present (240 of 292, 82%) or absent (50 of 292, 18%) in healthy subjects, in all 13 cases of obstructive hydrocephalus (including three cases of normal pressure hydrocephalus) FVP was found. Hydrocephalus ex vacuo revealed no consistent pattern. The authors conclude that FVP may be a normal finding and may help distinguish various types of hydrocephalus

  2. CT appearance and features of tubal pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaohong, Wang; Hong, Shan; Zaibo, Jiang; Xinghe, Deng; Xiaochun, Meng; Bingbing, Ye; Mingyue, Luo; Yunya, Lin [Sun Yat-sen Univ., Guangzhou (China). The Third Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Radiology

    2004-06-01

    Objective: To investigate the CT appearance and features of tubal pregnancy. Methods: Precontrast and postcontrast CT scans were employed in 38 patients who were clinically and ultrasonographically suspected of tubal pregnancy. 34 of them were verified as tubal pregnancy through operative pathology. Results: 1. The direct CT imaging feature was the whole pregnancies sac (4/34, 11.8%) or half-baked pregnancies sac (14/34, 41.2%); 2. The indirect CT imaging features were: (1) abnormal density image, which could be enhanced, in a cystic mass around adnexal area (8/34, 23.5%); (2) mix density mass around adnexal area, which was mainly solid and had mild to moderate inhomogeneous enhancement (19/34, 55.9%); (3) large area irregular shadow with high density were found beside the uterus, with no enhancement (3/34, 8.8%). (4) bloody density in uterus-rectum-fossa (23/34, 67.6%). 3. The CT imaging features of tubal pregnancy was classified as: (1) Pregnant sac type (4/34, 11.8%); (2) Cystic (8/34, 23.5%); (3) Massive type (17/34, 50%); (4) Chronic mass type (2/34, 5.9%); (5) Bleeding type (3/34, 8.8%). 4. The CT imaging appearance of tubal pregnancy related with the pregnancy location; 5. The CT imaging appearance of tubal pregnancy related with the clinical significant. Conclusion: The CT imaging appearance of tubal pregnancy has some features, which can help in the diagnosis or differential diagnosis of the pelvis masses. CT scan is an effective supplementary attempt to the clinically and ultrasonographically suspected tubal pregnancy patients.

  3. Scintigraphic appearance of the piriformis muscle syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karl, R.D. Jr.; Yedinak, M.A.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Cawthon, M.A.; Bauman, J.M.; Howard, W.H.; Bunker, S.R.

    1985-01-01

    This is the first report in the nuclear medicine literature of the scintigraphic appearance of the piriformis muscle syndrome. This syndrome previously has been thought to be a purely clinical diagnosis and imaging modalities have been ignored. However, its confusing clinical presentation can lead to unnecessary surgical exploration. This case is presented to illustrate the characteristic scintigraphic pattern and suggest the role of nuclear medicine scanning in establishing the diagnosis

  4. CT appearance and features of tubal pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaohong; Shan Hong; Jiang Zaibo; Deng Xinghe; Meng Xiaochun; Ye Bingbing; Luo Mingyue; Lin Yunya

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the CT appearance and features of tubal pregnancy. Methods: Precontrast and postcontrast CT scans were employed in 38 patients who were clinically and ultrasonographically suspected of tubal pregnancy. 34 of them were verified as tubal pregnancy through operative pathology. Results: 1. The direct CT imaging feature was the whole pregnancies sac (4/34, 11.8%) or half-baked pregnancies sac (14/34, 41.2%); 2. The indirect CT imaging features were: (1) abnormal density image, which could be enhanced, in a cystic mass around adnexal area (8/34, 23.5%); (2) mix density mass around adnexal area, which was mainly solid and had mild to moderate inhomogeneous enhancement (19/34, 55.9%); (3) large area irregular shadow with high density were found beside the uterus, with no enhancement (3/34, 8.8%). (4) bloody density in uterus-rectum-fossa (23/34, 67.6%). 3. The CT imaging features of tubal pregnancy was classified as: (1) Pregnant sac type (4/34, 11.8%); (2) Cystic (8/34, 23.5%); (3) Massive type (17/34, 50%); (4) Chronic mass type (2/34, 5.9%); (5) Bleeding type (3/34, 8.8%). 4. The CT imaging appearance of tubal pregnancy related with the pregnancy location; 5. The CT imaging appearance of tubal pregnancy related with the clinical significant. Conclusion: The CT imaging appearance of tubal pregnancy has some features, which can help in the diagnosis or differential diagnosis of the pelvis masses. CT scan is an effective supplementary attempt to the clinically and ultrasonographically suspected tubal pregnancy patients

  5. Complexity in White Noise Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Takeyuki

    We restrict our attention to random complex systems and discuss degree their degree of complexity based on a white noise. The white noise is realized as the time derivative of a Brownian motion B(t), and denoted by Ḃ(t). The collection {Ḃ(t)}, is a system of idealized elementary variables and at the same time the system is a stochastic representation of the time t, in other words it is time-oriented. Having expressed the given evolutional random phenomena in question in terms of the Ḃ(t), we introduce the notion of spectral multiplicity, which describes how much the phenomena are complex. The multiplicity is the number of cyclic subspaces that are spanned by the given random phenomena. Each cyclic subspace has further structure. Typical property is multiple Markov property, although this property appears only particular cases. As a related property, in fact as a characteristic of a complex system, one can speak of the time reversibility and irreversibility of certain random phenomena in terms of the white noise. We expect an irreversible random complex system may be decomposed into reversible systems.

  6. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  7. Seven-Tesla Magnetization Transfer Imaging to Detect Multiple Sclerosis White Matter Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I-Jun; Lim, Su-Yin; Tanasescu, Radu; Al-Radaideh, Ali; Mougin, Olivier E; Tench, Christopher R; Whitehouse, William P; Gowland, Penny A; Constantinescu, Cris S

    2018-03-01

    Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging at 3 Tesla (T) field strength is the most sensitive modality for detecting white matter lesions in multiple sclerosis. While 7T FLAIR is effective in detecting cortical lesions, it has not been fully optimized for visualization of white matter lesions and thus has not been used for delineating lesions in quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the normal appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of 7T magnetization-transfer-weighted (MT w ) images in the detection of white matter lesions compared with 3T-FLAIR. Fifteen patients with clinically isolated syndrome, 6 with multiple sclerosis, and 10 healthy participants were scanned with 7T 3-dimensional (D) MT w and 3T-2D-FLAIR sequences on the same day. White matter lesions visible on either sequence were delineated. Of 662 lesions identified on 3T-2D-FLAIR images, 652 were detected on 7T-3D-MT w images (sensitivity, 98%; 95% confidence interval, 97% to 99%). The Spearman correlation coefficient between lesion loads estimated by the two sequences was .910. The intrarater and interrater reliability for 7T-3D-MT w images was good with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 98.4% and 81.8%, which is similar to that for 3T-2D-FLAIR images (ICC 96.1% and 96.7%). Seven-Tesla MT w sequences detected most of the white matter lesions identified by FLAIR at 3T. This suggests that 7T-MT w imaging is a robust alternative for detecting demyelinating lesions in addition to 3T-FLAIR. Future studies need to compare the roles of optimized 7T-FLAIR and of 7T-MT w imaging. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Neuroimaging published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society of Neuroimaging.

  8. Ultrasound appearance of chronic mammary duct ectasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchesne, N. [Ottawa Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: nathalie_duchesne_22@yahoo.ca; Skolnik, S. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Family Medicine, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Bilmer, S. [Ottawa Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2005-12-15

    Mammary duct ectasia (MDE), also called periductal mastitis, mammary dysplasia, or plasma cell mastitis, is a benign condition of the mammary gland first described by Haagensen in 1951. The etiology of MDE is unknown and its pathogenesis still controversial; the periductal inflammation could be either the cause or the result of dilated damaged ducts. The process is usually bilateral and asymptomatic, with only a small percentage of patients presenting with symptoms that may include long course of tumour formation, usually subareolar breast lumps, nipple discharge, nipple retraction, mastalgia, and mammary abscess or fistulas. Mammographic presentation of MDE is well known; its features include periductal calcification, benign intraductal calcification, and retroareolar duct dilatation. The periductal calcification results from dystrophic calcification and forms calcified rings or very dense, oval, elongated calcifications, each with a central lucency representing the dilated duct. Intraductal calcifications of duct ectasia represent inspissated intraductal material and are typically of uniform high density, often needle-like, and occasionally branching. Occasionally, there are no mammographic findings, and the diagnosis must rely on sonographic features. Appearance of MDE on ultrasonography (US) depends on the stage of the disease and the contents of the dilated ducts. The acute presentation has been demonstrated in the literature more often than has its chronic counterpart. In the former, duct content can vary from anechoic to isoechoic with surrounding fatty tissue. In chronic MDE, episodes of inflammation are longer. This tends to result in secretions that have a more solid, cheesy texture, partly due to cholesterol crystals, foam cells, and inflammatory cells. For both types of MDE, the appearance can mimic high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) on US. In this essay, 2 chronic MDE cases are presented and their US appearance discussed. Our goal is to explore

  9. Ultrasound appearance of chronic mammary duct ectasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchesne, N.; Skolnik, S.; Bilmer, S.

    2005-01-01

    Mammary duct ectasia (MDE), also called periductal mastitis, mammary dysplasia, or plasma cell mastitis, is a benign condition of the mammary gland first described by Haagensen in 1951. The etiology of MDE is unknown and its pathogenesis still controversial; the periductal inflammation could be either the cause or the result of dilated damaged ducts. The process is usually bilateral and asymptomatic, with only a small percentage of patients presenting with symptoms that may include long course of tumour formation, usually subareolar breast lumps, nipple discharge, nipple retraction, mastalgia, and mammary abscess or fistulas. Mammographic presentation of MDE is well known; its features include periductal calcification, benign intraductal calcification, and retroareolar duct dilatation. The periductal calcification results from dystrophic calcification and forms calcified rings or very dense, oval, elongated calcifications, each with a central lucency representing the dilated duct. Intraductal calcifications of duct ectasia represent inspissated intraductal material and are typically of uniform high density, often needle-like, and occasionally branching. Occasionally, there are no mammographic findings, and the diagnosis must rely on sonographic features. Appearance of MDE on ultrasonography (US) depends on the stage of the disease and the contents of the dilated ducts. The acute presentation has been demonstrated in the literature more often than has its chronic counterpart. In the former, duct content can vary from anechoic to isoechoic with surrounding fatty tissue. In chronic MDE, episodes of inflammation are longer. This tends to result in secretions that have a more solid, cheesy texture, partly due to cholesterol crystals, foam cells, and inflammatory cells. For both types of MDE, the appearance can mimic high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) on US. In this essay, 2 chronic MDE cases are presented and their US appearance discussed. Our goal is to explore

  10. Comparison of hydrocephalus appearance at spinaldysraphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshani, Besnik; Lenjani, Basri

    2013-01-01

    Congenital malformation of spinal dysraphism followed by hydrocephalus are phenomenon reveals during intrauterine child growth. Prime objective of this work was to present Comparison of hydrocephalus appearance at spinal dysraphism respectively at its meningocele and myelomeningocele forms in Neurosurgery Clinic in UCC in Prishtina. It is perfected with retrospective and prospective method precisely of its epidemiologic part summarizing notices from patients' histories which in 2000-2006 are hospitalized in Neurosurgery Clinic from (QFLPK)--Pediatric Clinic and Children Box (Department)--Gynecology Clinic and from Sanitary Regional Center throughout Kosova. Our study objects were two groups, as the first group 90 patients with spinal dysraphism where neurosurgery operations were done and classified types of dysraphism. At myelomeningocele hydrocephalus has dominated and in a percent of appearance and as acute of its active form was 97% of hydrocephalus form where subjected to cerebrospinal liquid derivation with ventriculo -peritoneal shunt in comparison with meningocele we do not have involvation of spinal nerve element, hydrocephalus takes active form with intervention indication in 60% of cases. Reflection in shown deficit aspect is totally different at myelomeningoceles where lower paraplegia dominate more than paraparesis. The second patient operative technique developed by hydrocephalus with neurosurgical intervention indication has to do with placing of (VP) ventriculo- peritoneal system (shant) at myelomeningoceles with hydrocephalus 58 cases and 12 cases meningoceles with hydrocephalus. Post operative meningitis (shant meningitis): from 70 operated cases of hydrocephalus with spinal dysraphism shunts complications from all types are just cases. Finally that appearance of hydrocephalus compared at spinal dysraphism dominate at myellomeningoceles as in notice time aspect, it is persisting and further acute, with vital motivation for neurosurgical

  11. Postoperative CT appearance in chronic subdural hematomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Takaaki; Nishikawa, Michio; Handa, Hajime; Iwaki, Kazuo; Sawai, Teruaki; Munaka, Masahiro

    1988-05-01

    Postoperative CT appearances in 65 cases of chronic subdural hematomas were evaluated in terms of patient's age, preoperative neurological symptoms and CT findings, final outcomes, and so on. All of the cases were treated with trepanation and irrigation. CT appearances were divided into four different types as follows; Type Ia: No abnormal findings in the subdural sapce, Type Ib: The same as above except for a linear high density suggestive of thickened outer membrane, Type II: Persistence subdural fluid collection and widened cortical sulci which indicate underlining brain atrophy, Type III: Remaining hematoma and/or density changes during follow-up period. Although the mean age of the patients in type Ib was higher than those in type Ia and reexpansion of the brain appear to delay in type Ib and preoperative CT in type Ib tended to show mixed density, final outcome in both groups were excellent. Characteristics in type II were that most of cases were in the eighth decade, preceding head injury was unclear, preoperative psychiatric symptoms and disturbance of consciousness were common and postoperative improvement of the symptoms was not satisfactory compared to other types. Aged patients as in type Ib and type II and thick hematomas of over 2 cm depth with mixed or high density tended to show type III postoperatively. All of the nine patients who required reoperation were included in this type. The present study indicates that thick hematomas with sizable mass effect and mixed or high density in the aged must be carefully treated, such as with placement of the subdural drainage or keeping the patient in the Trendelenburg position, to facilitate postoperative reexpansion of the brain.

  12. Appearance of Keplerian discs orbiting Kerr superspinars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuchlik, Zdenek; Schee, Jan, E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@fpf.slu.c, E-mail: jan.schee@fpf.slu.c [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezrucovo nam. 13, Opava (Czech Republic)

    2010-11-07

    We study optical phenomena related to the appearance of Keplerian accretion discs orbiting Kerr superspinars predicted by string theory. The superspinar exterior is described by standard Kerr naked singularity geometry breaking the black hole limit on the internal angular momentum (spin). We construct local photon escape cones for a variety of orbiting sources that enable us to determine the superspinars silhouette in the case of distant observers. We show that the superspinar silhouette depends strongly on the assumed edge where the external Kerr spacetime is joined to the internal spacetime governed by string theory and significantly differs from the black hole silhouette. The appearance of the accretion disc is strongly dependent on the value of the superspinar spin in both their shape and frequency shift profile. Apparent extension of the disc grows significantly with the growing spin, while the frequency shift grows with the descending spin. This behaviour differs substantially from the appearance of discs orbiting black holes enabling thus, at least in principle, to distinguish clearly the Kerr superspinars and black holes. In vicinity of a Kerr superspinar the non-escaped photons have to be separated to those captured by the superspinar and those being trapped in its strong gravitational field leading to self-illumination of the disc that could even influence its structure and cause self-reflection effect of radiation of the disc. The amount of trapped photons grows with descending superspinar spin. We thus can expect significant self-illumination effects in the field of Kerr superspinars with near-extreme spin a {approx} 1.

  13. Appearance and methods of prostatic arteriography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Gang; Yang Zhigang; Meng Fanzhe; Zhang Yingguang; Chen Zhiqiang; Yang Ming

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the methods of prostatic arteriography and evaluate the arteriographic appearance of prostatic blood supply. Methods: Selective and super-selective prostatic arteriographies were performed in 62 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic cancer. Results: The prostatic blood supply originated mainly from inferior vesical artery or internal pudendal artery or prostatic artery (80%). Prostatic arteriography could be performed successfully with skillful catheterization and high resolution DSA. Conclusions: Prostatic arteriography is helpful for evaluating the origin and quantity of prostate vasculature and important to differentiate benign prostatic hyperplasia from prostatic cancer

  14. Computed tomography appearances of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, C.; Al-Zwae, K.; Nair, S.; Cast, J.E.I.

    2007-01-01

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) characterized by thickened peritoneal membranes, which lead to decreased ultra-filtration and intestinal obstruction. Its early clinical features are nonspecific, and it is often diagnosed late following laparotomy and peritoneal biopsy, when the patient develops small bowel obstruction, which can be a life-threatening complication. However, this is changing with increasing awareness of computed tomography (CT) findings in SEP. CT can yield an early, non-invasive diagnosis that may improve patient outcome. We present a review of the CT appearances of SEP

  15. Rapid Material Appearance Acquisition Using Consumer Hardware

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filip, Jiří; Vávra, Radomír; Krupička, Mikuláš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 10 (2014), s. 19785-19805 ISSN 1424-8220 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02652S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10911S; GA ČR GAP103/11/0335 Grant - others:EC FP7, European Reintegration Grant(BE) 239294 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : measurement setup * material appearance * BTF * ABRDF * visual psychophysics Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 2.245, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/RO/filip-0433583.pdf

  16. An intragastric trichobezoar: computerised tomographic appearance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris B

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old lady presented with a history of abdominal pain and distension since two months. The ultrasound examination showed an epigastric mass, which was delineated as a filling defect in the stomach on barium studies. The computerised tomographic scan showed a gastric mass with pockets of air in it, without post-contrast enhancement. This case highlights the characteristic appearance on computerised tomography of a bezoar within the stomach, a feature that is not commonly described in medical literature.

  17. Computed tomography appearances of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, C. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: cheriangeorge@hotmail.com; Al-Zwae, K. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom); Nair, S. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom); Cast, J.E.I. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-15

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) characterized by thickened peritoneal membranes, which lead to decreased ultra-filtration and intestinal obstruction. Its early clinical features are nonspecific, and it is often diagnosed late following laparotomy and peritoneal biopsy, when the patient develops small bowel obstruction, which can be a life-threatening complication. However, this is changing with increasing awareness of computed tomography (CT) findings in SEP. CT can yield an early, non-invasive diagnosis that may improve patient outcome. We present a review of the CT appearances of SEP.

  18. Appearance-related bullying and skin disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magin, Parker

    2013-01-01

    Bullying encompasses verbal aggression, physical aggression, and social exclusion. It involves "harm-doing" that is carried out repeatedly, over time, and within a relationship, involving a power imbalance between the bully and the bullied. Being bullied may have considerable adverse sequelae, including psychologic or psychiatric harm. Much bullying is appearance-related, and it would be surprising if some individuals with skin disease were not bullied given the high visibility of skin diseases. The limited evidence available does suggest that individuals with skin disease, particularly those with acne, psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis, are often bullied, which can adversely affect them psychologically. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. THE WHITE BLOOD ANCESTOR?

    OpenAIRE

    M.Arulmani; V.R.Hema Latha

    2014-01-01

    This scientific research article focus that “Red colour blood” of human shall be considered as the 3rd generation Blood and the Human on origin shall be considered having white colour Blood. The white colour blood of human Ancestor shall be considered composed of only ions of Photon, Electron, Proton and free from Hydrogen, Carbon, Nitrogen, Ozone.

  20. Racializing white drag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyne, Ragan

    2004-01-01

    While drag is primarily understood as a performance of gender, other performative categories such as race, class, and sexuality create drag meaning as well. Though other categories of identification are increasingly understood as essential elements of drag by performers of color, whiteness remains an unmarked category in the scholarship on drag performances by white queens. In this paper, I argue that drag by white queens must be understood as a performance of race as well as gender and that codes of gender excess are specifically constructed through the framework of these other axes of identity. This essay asks whether white performance by white queens necessarily reinscribes white supremacy through the performance of an unmarked white femininity, or might drag performance complicate (though not necessarily subvert) categories of race as well as gender? In this essay, I will suggest that camp drag performances, through the deployment of class as a crucial category of performative femininity, might indeed be a key site through which whiteness is denaturalized and its power challenged. Specifically, I will read on camp as a politicized mode of race, class and gender performance, focusing on the intersections of these categories of identity in the drag performance of Divine.

  1. Creating White Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise; Carey, Jane

    Vedtagelsen af White Australien som regeringens politik i 1901 viser, at hvidheden var afgørende for den måde, hvorpå den nye nation i Australien blev konstitueret. Og alligevel har historikere i vid udstrækning overset hvidhed i deres studier af Australiens race fortid. 'Creating White Australia...

  2. Appearance detection device for fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Toshihiro

    1998-01-01

    The prevent invention provides an appearance detection device which improves accuracy of images on a display and facilitates editing and selection of images upon detection of appearance of a reactor fuel assembly. Namely, the device of the present invention comprises (1) television cameras movable along fuel assemblies of a reactor, (2) a detection means for detecting the positions of the television cameras, (3) a convertor for converting analog image signals of the television cameras to digital image signals, (4) a memory means for sampling a predetermined portion of the images of the television camera and storing it together with the position signal obtained by the detection means and (5) a computer for selecting a plurality of images and positions from the above-mentioned means and joining them to one or a plurality of static images of the fuel assembly. At least two television cameras are disposed oppositely with each other. Then, position signals of the television cameras are designated by the stored sampling signals, and the fuel assembly at the position can be displayed quickly. It is scrolled, compressed or enlarged and formed into images. (I.S.)

  3. Rapid Material Appearance Acquisition Using Consumer Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Filip

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A photo-realistic representation of material appearance can be achieved by means of bidirectional texture function (BTF capturing a material’s appearance for varying illumination, viewing directions, and spatial pixel coordinates. BTF captures many non-local effects in material structure such as inter-reflections, occlusions, shadowing, or scattering. The acquisition of BTF data is usually time and resource-intensive due to the high dimensionality of BTF data. This results in expensive, complex measurement setups and/or excessively long measurement times. We propose an approximate BTF acquisition setup based on a simple, affordable mechanical gantry containing a consumer camera and two LED lights. It captures a very limited subset of material surface images by shooting several video sequences. A psychophysical study comparing captured and reconstructed data with the reference BTFs of seven tested materials revealed that results of our method show a promising visual quality. Speed of the setup has been demonstrated on measurement of human skin and measurement and modeling of a glue dessication time-varying process. As it allows for fast, inexpensive, acquisition of approximate BTFs, this method can be beneficial to visualization applications demanding less accuracy, where BTF utilization has previously been limited.

  4. The horizontal plane appearances of scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illés, Tamás S.; Burkus, Máté; Somoskeőy, Szabolcs

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: A posterior-anterior vertebral vector is proposed to facilitate visualization and understanding of scoliosis. The aim of this study was to highlight the interest of using vertebral vectors, especially in the horizontal plane, in clinical practice. Methods: We used an EOS two-/three-dimen......Purpose: A posterior-anterior vertebral vector is proposed to facilitate visualization and understanding of scoliosis. The aim of this study was to highlight the interest of using vertebral vectors, especially in the horizontal plane, in clinical practice. Methods: We used an EOS two...... cases of a normal spine and a thoracic scoliosis are presented. Results: For a normal spine, vector projections in the transverse plane are aligned with the posterior-anterior anatomical axis. For a scoliotic spine, vector projections in the horizontal plane provide information on the lateral...... decompensation of the spine and the lateral displacement of vertebrae. In the horizontal plane view, vertebral rotation and projections of the sagittal curves can also be analyzed simultaneously. Conclusions: The use of posterior-anterior vertebral vector facilitates the understanding of the 3D nature...

  5. Appearance of the canine meninges in subtraction magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Christopher R; Lam, Richard; Keenihan, Erin K; Frean, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The canine meninges are not visible as discrete structures in noncontrast magnetic resonance (MR) images, and are incompletely visualized in T1-weighted, postgadolinium images, reportedly appearing as short, thin curvilinear segments with minimal enhancement. Subtraction imaging facilitates detection of enhancement of tissues, hence may increase the conspicuity of meninges. The aim of the present study was to describe qualitatively the appearance of canine meninges in subtraction MR images obtained using a dynamic technique. Images were reviewed of 10 consecutive dogs that had dynamic pre- and postgadolinium T1W imaging of the brain that was interpreted as normal, and had normal cerebrospinal fluid. Image-anatomic correlation was facilitated by dissection and histologic examination of two canine cadavers. Meningeal enhancement was relatively inconspicuous in postgadolinium T1-weighted images, but was clearly visible in subtraction images of all dogs. Enhancement was visible as faint, small-rounded foci compatible with vessels seen end on within the sulci, a series of larger rounded foci compatible with vessels of variable caliber on the dorsal aspect of the cerebral cortex, and a continuous thin zone of moderate enhancement around the brain. Superimposition of color-encoded subtraction images on pregadolinium T1- and T2-weighted images facilitated localization of the origin of enhancement, which appeared to be predominantly dural, with relatively few leptomeningeal structures visible. Dynamic subtraction MR imaging should be considered for inclusion in clinical brain MR protocols because of the possibility that its use may increase sensitivity for lesions affecting the meninges. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  6. Lightness dependence of achromatic loci in color-appearance coordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro eKuriki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Shifts in the appearance of color under different illuminant chromaticity are known to be incomplete, and fit nicely with a simple linear transformation of cone responses that aligns the achromatic points under two illuminants. Most chromaticity-transfer functions with von-Kries-like transformations use only one set of values to fit the color shifts from one illuminant to another. However, an achromatic point shifts its chromaticity depending on the lightness of the test stimulus. This lightness dependence of the achromatic-point locus is qualitatively similar to a phenomenon known as the Helson-Judd effect. The present study suggests that the lightness dependency of achromatic points appears to be a general trend, which is supported by the results from deriving the optimal von-Kries coefficients for different lightness levels that best fit the color shifts under different illuminant chromaticities. Further, we report that such a lightness dependence of the achromatic-point loci can be represented simply as a straight line in coordinates defined using color-appearance models such as CIECAM when normalized for daylight.

  7. Imaging the corpus callosum, septum pellucidum and fornix in children: normal anatomy and variations of normality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, Paul D.; Batty, Ruth; Connolly, Dan J.A.; Reeves, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The midline structures of the supra-tentorial brain are important landmarks for judging if the brain has formed correctly. In this article, we consider the normal appearances of the corpus callosum, septum pellucidum and fornix as shown on MR imaging in normal and near-normal states. (orig.)

  8. Normalization: A Preprocessing Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Patro, S. Gopal Krishna; Sahu, Kishore Kumar

    2015-01-01

    As we know that the normalization is a pre-processing stage of any type problem statement. Especially normalization takes important role in the field of soft computing, cloud computing etc. for manipulation of data like scale down or scale up the range of data before it becomes used for further stage. There are so many normalization techniques are there namely Min-Max normalization, Z-score normalization and Decimal scaling normalization. So by referring these normalization techniques we are ...

  9. Abdominal retained surgical sponges: CT appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalovidouris, A.; Kehagias, D.; Moulopoulos, L.; Gouliamos, A.; Pentea, S.; Vlahos, L. [Department of Radiology, University of Athens (Greece)

    1999-09-01

    Retention of surgical sponges is rare. They cause either an aseptic reaction without significant symptoms or an exudative reaction which results in early but nonspecific symptoms. Computed tomography is very useful for recognition of retained sponges. The appearance of retained sponges is widely variable. Air trapping into a surgical sponge results in the spongiform pattern which is characteristic but unfortunately uncommon. A low-density, high-density, or complex mass is found in the majority of cases, but these patterns are not specific. Sometimes, a thin high-density capsule may be seen. Rim or internal calcification is a rare finding. Finally, a radiopaque marker is not a reliable sign. Differentiation from abscess and hematoma is sometimes difficult. (orig.) With 11 figs., 12 refs.

  10. Abdominal retained surgical sponges: CT appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalovidouris, A.; Kehagias, D.; Moulopoulos, L.; Gouliamos, A.; Pentea, S.; Vlahos, L.

    1999-01-01

    Retention of surgical sponges is rare. They cause either an aseptic reaction without significant symptoms or an exudative reaction which results in early but nonspecific symptoms. Computed tomography is very useful for recognition of retained sponges. The appearance of retained sponges is widely variable. Air trapping into a surgical sponge results in the spongiform pattern which is characteristic but unfortunately uncommon. A low-density, high-density, or complex mass is found in the majority of cases, but these patterns are not specific. Sometimes, a thin high-density capsule may be seen. Rim or internal calcification is a rare finding. Finally, a radiopaque marker is not a reliable sign. Differentiation from abscess and hematoma is sometimes difficult. (orig.)

  11. Visualising the environmental appearance of audio products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stilma, M. [Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Stevels, A. [Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)]|[Philips Consumer Electronics, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Christiaans, H.; Kandachar, P. [Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    Can environmental friendliness be communicated by the design style and appearance of products? (such as form, colour, style or material)? Consumers are interested in buying environmental products and design styles might be used as communicative tools. However, current 'green' products show something else. Environmental aspects are chiefly promoted by marketing programs based on technical items like the use of materials, hazardous substances, energy consumption, etc. By a qualitative and exploratory research the environmental design styles according to consumers' opinions were analysed with larger audio products as case study. Visible distinctive differences can be identified between the most and the least environmental rated products. A 'Green flagship', which claims to be environmentally orientated, wasn't recognised as such by consumers. And women and men perceive environmental friendliness in another way. From this research can be concluded that more attention is needed to visualise the good technical environmental performance of products. (orig.)

  12. Computed tomographic appearance of resectable pancreatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itai, Y.; Araki, T.; Tasaka, A.; Maruyama, M.

    1982-01-01

    Thirteen patients with resectable pancreatic carcinoma were examined by computed tomography (CT). Nine had a mass, 2 had dilatation of the main pancreatic duct, 1 appeared to have ductal dilatation, and 1 had no sign of abnormality. Resectable carcinoma was diagnosed retrospectively in 8 cases, based on the following criteria: a mass with a distinct contour, frequently containing a tiny or irregular low-density area and accompanied by dilatation of the caudal portion of the main pancreatic duct without involvement of the large vessels, liver, or lymph nodes. Including unresectable cancer, chronic pancreatitis, and obstructive jaundice from causes other than cancer, the false-positive rate was less than 6%. However, a small cancer without change in pancreatic contour is difficult to detect with CT

  13. Statistical shape and appearance models of bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkalkan, Nazli; Weinans, Harrie; Zadpoor, Amir A

    2014-03-01

    When applied to bones, statistical shape models (SSM) and statistical appearance models (SAM) respectively describe the mean shape and mean density distribution of bones within a certain population as well as the main modes of variations of shape and density distribution from their mean values. The availability of this quantitative information regarding the detailed anatomy of bones provides new opportunities for diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of skeletal diseases. The potential of SSM and SAM has been recently recognized within the bone research community. For example, these models have been applied for studying the effects of bone shape on the etiology of osteoarthritis, improving the accuracy of clinical osteoporotic fracture prediction techniques, design of orthopedic implants, and surgery planning. This paper reviews the main concepts, methods, and applications of SSM and SAM as applied to bone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Animal biometrics: quantifying and detecting phenotypic appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Burghardt, Tilo

    2013-07-01

    Animal biometrics is an emerging field that develops quantified approaches for representing and detecting the phenotypic appearance of species, individuals, behaviors, and morphological traits. It operates at the intersection between pattern recognition, ecology, and information sciences, producing computerized systems for phenotypic measurement and interpretation. Animal biometrics can benefit a wide range of disciplines, including biogeography, population ecology, and behavioral research. Currently, real-world applications are gaining momentum, augmenting the quantity and quality of ecological data collection and processing. However, to advance animal biometrics will require integration of methodologies among the scientific disciplines involved. Such efforts will be worthwhile because the great potential of this approach rests with the formal abstraction of phenomics, to create tractable interfaces between different organizational levels of life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesized Mammography: Clinical Evidence, Appearance, and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Durand

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT has improved conventional mammography by increasing cancer detection while reducing recall rates. However, these benefits come at the cost of increased radiation dose. Synthesized mammography (s2D has been developed to provide the advantages of DBT with nearly half the radiation dose. Since its F.D.A. approval, multiple studies have evaluated the clinical performance of s2D. In clinical practice, s2D images are not identical to conventional 2D images and are designed for interpretation with DBT as a complement. This article reviews the present literature to assess whether s2D is a practical alternative to conventional 2D, addresses the differences in mammographic appearance of findings, and provides suggestions for implementation into clinical practice.

  16. Radiological appearances in the near-drowned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhardt, K.

    1981-01-01

    Three patients who were unconscious when rescued from drowning had radiographic studies of their lungs carried out after several hours, or on the following day. The findings had to be interpreted as pulmonary oedema. The most seriously affected patient showed the picture of massive acute interstitial oedema on the second day. After initial regression, coarse shadows developed, indicating the alveolar form of pulmonary oedema. The sputum contained candida, but there was no evidence of pulmonary candidiasis. In two patients there were transient signs of limited atelectases. Two patients were re-examined after five years. There were no features which could be interpreted as a consequence of the drowning episode. The radiographic appearances showed minor changes which could be due to mild pulmonary fibrosis. (orig.) [de

  17. Radiological appearances in the near-drowned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, K.

    1981-10-01

    Three patients who were unconscious when rescued from drowning had radiographic studies of their lungs carried out after several hours, or on the following day. The findings had to be interpreted as pulmonary oedema. The most seriously affected patient showed the picture of massive acute interstitial oedema on the second day. After initial regression, coarse shadows developed, indicating the alveolar form of pulmonary oedema. The sputum contained candida, but there was no evidence of pulmonary candidiasis. In two patients there were transient signs of limited atelectases. Two patients were re-examined after five years. There were no features which could be interpreted as a consequence of the drowning episode. The radiographic appearances showed minor changes which could be due to mild pulmonary fibrosis.

  18. Synthesized Mammography: Clinical Evidence, Appearance, and Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Melissa A

    2018-04-04

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has improved conventional mammography by increasing cancer detection while reducing recall rates. However, these benefits come at the cost of increased radiation dose. Synthesized mammography (s2D) has been developed to provide the advantages of DBT with nearly half the radiation dose. Since its F.D.A. approval, multiple studies have evaluated the clinical performance of s2D. In clinical practice, s2D images are not identical to conventional 2D images and are designed for interpretation with DBT as a complement. This article reviews the present literature to assess whether s2D is a practical alternative to conventional 2D, addresses the differences in mammographic appearance of findings, and provides suggestions for implementation into clinical practice.

  19. Musculoskeletal desmoid tumours: Diagnostic imaging appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Daniel; Perera, Warren; Schlicht, Stephen; Choong, Peter; Slavin, John; Pianta, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to discuss the role medical imaging has on diagnosis of musculoskeletal desmoid tumours and to describe their radiological appearances on various imaging modalities. Imaging of histologically proven cases of desmoid tumours at St. Vincent's Hospital Melbourne were obtained via picture archiving communication system (PACS) and then assessed by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Suitable imagings were obtained from PACS. All imaging chosen was de-identified. Desmoid tumours can occur in many areas of the body. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of these tumours and magnetic resonance imaging has been the gold standard for imaging and is the most accurate in terms of assessing tumour margins and involvement of surrounding structure.

  20. MR imaging appearance of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvlin, M.J.; Fielding, R.; Rajan, S.S.; Muraki, A.; Manz, G.; Schellinger, D.; Hackney, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have investigated fresh (normal) and fixed (histologically proven amyotrophic lateral sclerosis [ALS]) cord specimens using high-resolution MR techniques in order to document, accurately and noninvasively, the internal structure of the spinal cord. Short TR/TE (500/27 [repetition time/echo time, msec]) and long TR/TE (2,00/54) spin-echo images were obtained in the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes at 4.7 T (Varian), with inplane resolution of either 85 x 150 or 40 x 50 μm, section thickness of 0.8-1.5 mm. In the ALS cords, the bilateral degeneration of corticospinal tracts was well visualized as areas of high signal intensity on both short TR/TE and long TR/TE images

  1. CT appearances of emphysema and clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinlian; Ma Daqing; Chen Budong; He Wen; Guan Yansheng; Zhang Yansong; Tang Hongqu; Wang Zhenguang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate CT appearances of different types of emphysema and to determine the clinic value for differential diagnosis. Methods: Twenty-three specimens with emphysema selected from 33 autopsy specimens were included in this study. All specimens were inflated and fixed by Heitzman's method, then examined by spiral CT scan. The CT appearances of different types of emphysema in every specimen were analyzed. After the specimens were cut into 10 mm thickness slices, the CT- pathologic correlation was done. Fifteen clinical cases confirmed by pathology or clinical process were all performed spiral CT scan and analyzed, including emphysema-accompanying pneumonia 11 cases, emphysema-accompanying nodule 4 cases. Result: Centriacinar emphysema (CAE)can be seen in 21 of 23 specimens, pancinar emphysema(PAE) can be seen in 5 of 23 specimens, all coexisting with CAE. Distal acinar emphysema(DAE) can be seen in 19 of 23 specimens, irregular emphysema can be seen in 3 of 23 specimens. In all specimens, emphysema can be seen in bilateral lung fields, distributing similarly. Seventeen of 23 eases (17/23) showed no less than two types of emphysema. Fourteen cases of emphysema- accompanying pneumonia (clinic: 11 cases, specimen: 3 cases) showed 'pseudocavity' or 'pseudohoneycombing' (emphysema lesion that had not been filled in the consolidation). Four eases of emphysema-accompanying nodule showed 'pseudopleuralhollow' (wall of DAE or bulla connecting with nodule). Conclusion: The CT manifestations of emphysema, the characteristics of distribution and multi- type of emphysema coexisting can help differentiate cystic air space diseases. The characteristics of complications of emphysema, the 'pseudocavity', 'pseudohoneycombing' and 'pseudopleuralhollow', may be help for differential diagnosis. (authors)

  2. Reduced binding of Pittsburgh Compound-B in areas of white matter hyperintensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Goodheart

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The amyloid imaging agent, Pittsburgh Compound-B, binds with high affinity to β-amyloid (Aβ in the brain, and it is well established that PiB also shows non-specific retention in white matter (WM. However, little is known about retention of PiB in areas of white matter hyperintensities (WMH, abnormalities commonly seen in older adults. Further, it is hypothesized that WMH are related to both cognitive dysfunction and Aβ deposition. The goal of the present study was to explore PiB retention in both normal-appearing WM (NAWM and WMH in a group of elderly, cognitively normal individuals. In a group of cognitively normal elderly (n = 64; 86.5 ± 2.6 years two analyses were applied: (1 ROIs were placed over periventricular areas in which WMH caps are commonly seen on all subjects, regardless of WMH burden or size. (2 Subject-specific maps of NAWM and WMH were co-registered with the PiB-PET images and mean SUVR values were calculated in these NAWM and WMH maps. PiB retention was significantly reduced in the ROIs of subjects with high WMH compared to subjects with low WMH. Additionally, in subjects with high WMH, there was significantly lower PiB retention in subject-specific maps of WMH compared to NAWM, which was not observed in subjects with low WMH, likely because of the small size of WMH maps in this group. These data suggest that WM in areas of WMH binds PiB less effectively than does normal WM. Further exploration of this phenomenon may lead to insights about the molecular basis of the non-specific retention of amyloid tracers in white matter.

  3. The Embeddedness of White Fragility within White Pre-Service Principals' Reflections on White Privilege

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Mack T., III

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the prevalence of white fragility within the six white, pre-service principals' online responses to readings about white privilege. Six white, pre-service principals were asked to provide commentary to class readings on the relevance of white privilege to their preparation for future positions as principals. The findings showed…

  4. Body Image and the Appearance Culture Among Adolescent Girls and Boys: An Examination of Friend Conversations, Peer Criticism, Appearance Magazines, and the Internalization of Appearance Ideals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Diane Carlson; Vigfusdottir, Thorbjorg Helga; Lee, Yoonsun

    2004-01-01

    This research evaluates the contributions of three dimensions of appearance culture (appearance magazine exposure, appearance conversations with friends, and peer appearance criticism) and body mass index (BMI) to internalization of appearance ideals and body image dissatisfaction. Four hundred thirty-three girls and 347 boys in Grades 7 through…

  5. Appearance of the aging pancreas on CT scans: Implications in diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattison, G.R.; Francis, I.R.; Glazer, G.M.; Trenkner, S.W.

    1986-01-01

    Because early pancreatic cancer may not appear on CT as a frank mass, the CT-based diagnosis relies on detection of subtle changes such as focal loss of lobulation or asymmetry in the distribution of tissue. The author studied the normal pancreas in 140 patients of different ages to determine if there is an overlap in the appearance of the normal aging pancreas and subtle signs of pancreatic cancer. Both contour lobulation and fatty infiltration were found to increase with age and involved the pancreatic body and tail more than the head. These normal age-related changes should be recognized to avoid overdiagnosing pancreatic head masses

  6. MR imaging of metabolic white matter diseases: Therapeutic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebarski, S.S.; Allen, R.

    1987-01-01

    In metabolic diseases affecting the brain, MR imaging abnormalities include white-matter signal aberrations suggesting myelination delay, dysmyelination and demyelination, pathologic iron storage, and finally, loss of substance usually in a nonspecific pattern. The authors suggest that MR imaging may have therapeutic implications: (1) classic galactosemia - white-matter signal aberration became normal after dietary therapy; (2) phenylketonuria - age- and sex-matched treated and nontreated adolescents showed marked differences in brain volume, with the treated patient's volume nearly normal; (3) maple syrup urine disease - gross white-matter signal aberration became nearly normal after dietary therapy; and (4) hyperglycinemia - relentless progression of white-matter signal aberration and loss of brain substance despite therapy. These data suggest that brain MR imaging may provide a therapeutic index in certain metabolic diseases

  7. [Research on brain white matter network in cerebral palsy infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Yang, Cheng; Wang, Yuanjun; Nie, Shengdong

    2017-10-01

    Present study used diffusion tensor image and tractography to construct brain white matter networks of 15 cerebral palsy infants and 30 healthy infants that matched for age and gender. After white matter network analysis, we found that both cerebral palsy and healthy infants had a small-world topology in white matter network, but cerebral palsy infants exhibited abnormal topological organization: increased shortest path length but decreased normalize clustering coefficient, global efficiency and local efficiency. Furthermore, we also found that white matter network hub regions were located in the left cuneus, precuneus, and left posterior cingulate gyrus. However, some abnormal nodes existed in the frontal, temporal, occipital and parietal lobes of cerebral palsy infants. These results indicated that the white matter networks for cerebral palsy infants were disrupted, which was consistent with previous studies about the abnormal brain white matter areas. This work could help us further study the pathogenesis of cerebral palsy infants.

  8. MRI appearances and diagnosis of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Binglun; Li Guiying; Gao Peng; Wang Chaofan; Huang Wenqi; Cheng Jingliang; Yang Yunjun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the MRI appearances and diagnostic value of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy in children. Methods: MRI manifestations in 16 children patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, confirmed by pathology and laboratory examination from January of 1996 to December of 2002, were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Cerebral foci of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy showed as multiple and symmetrical abnormal slight long T 1 and long T 2 signals in all 16 cases. Deep grey matter was only invaded in 9 of 16 cases, both cerebral cortex and deep grey matter were involved in 6 cases, and white matter was only invaded in 1 case, respectively. Their main clinical manifestations were progressive declination of the intelligence (n=12) and muscle force (n=10). The biopsy in the skeletal muscle showed ragged red fiber and abnormal mitochondria. Conclusion: Gradual declination of intelligence and muscle force is the common clinical manifestations of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy in children. The main MRI findings were multiple symmetrical abnormal signal intensities in the deep grey matter, and MRI is an important way to show the cerebral lesions and benefit to the diagnosis of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. But the definite diagnosis of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy depends on skeletal muscle biopsy and gene examination

  9. Hypermedicalization in White Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Josef

    2015-09-01

    The Nazis hijacked Germany's medical establishment and appropriated medical language to hegemonize their ideology. In White Noise, shifting medical information stifles the public into docility. In Nazi Germany the primacy of language and medical authority magnified the importance of academic doctors. The muddling of identities caused complex insecurities and the need for psychological doubles. In White Noise, Professor Gladney is driven by professional insecurities to enact a double in Murray. Through the manipulation of language and medical overreach the U.S., exemplified in the novel White Noise, has become a hypermedicalized society where the spirit of the Hippocratic Oath has eroded.

  10. Sonographic appearance of anal cushions of hemorrhoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimaiti, Adilijiang; A Ba Bai Ke Re, Ma Mu Ti Jiang; Ibrahim, Irshat; Chen, Hui; Tuerdi, Maimaitituerxun; Mayinuer

    2017-05-28

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of different sonographic methods in hemorrhoids. Forty-two healthy volunteers and sixty-two patients with grades I-IV hemorrhoids received two different sonographic examinations from January 2013 to January 2016 at the First and Second Hospitals of Xinjiang Medical University in a prospective way. We analyzed the ultrasonographic findings of these participants and evaluated the outcomes. Resected grades III and IV hemorrhoid tissues were pathologically examined. The concordance of ultrasonographic results with pathology results was assessed with the Cohen's kappa coefficient. All healthy volunteers and all patients had no particular complications related to sonography. There were no statistically significant differences between the participants regarding age ( P = 0.5919), gender ( P = 0.4183), and persistent symptoms ( P > 0.8692). All healthy control participants had no special findings. However, 30 patients with hemorrhoids showed blood signals around the dentate line on ultrasonography. When grades I and II hemorrhoids were analyzed, there were no significant differences between transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), transperianal ultrasound (TPUS), and transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) ( P > 0.05). Grades III and IV hemorrhoids revealed blood flow with different directions which could be observed as a "mosaic pattern". In patients with grades III and IV hemorrhoids, the number of patients with "mosaic pattern" as revealed by TRUS, TPUS and TVUS was 22, 12, and 4, respectively. Patients with grades III and IV disease presented with a pathologically abnormal cushion which usually appeared as a "mosaic pattern" in TPUS and an arteriovenous fistula in pathology. Subepithelial vessels of resected grades III and IV hemorrhoid tissues were manifested by obvious structural impairment and retrograde and ruptured changes of internal elastic lamina. Some parts of the Trietz's muscle showed hypertrophy and distortion. Arteriovenous fistulas and

  11. Herniographic appearance of the lateral inguinal fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekberg, O.; Kesek, P.

    1987-01-01

    Herniography frequently reveals clinically undetected groin hernia. Thereby herniography contributes to the clinical work-up in patients with obscure groin pain. However, the distinction between clinically important and unimportant abnormalities within the lateral inguinal fossa can be difficult. This study was therefore designed in order to elucidate the herniographic appearance of the lateral inguinal fossa in patients with obscure groin pain. Herniographic findings were compared with laterality of the patients' symptoms. The lateral umbilical fold was visible in only 47% of the groins. A triangular shaped outpouching from the lateral inguinal fossa and a patent processus vaginalis were found with equal frequency on the left and right side. They were five times as frequent in men as in women. Their presence did not correlate with laterality of the patients' symptoms. Indirect hernias were almost twice as common on the symptomatic side as compared with the asymptomatic side. On the left side they were found twice as often in men as in women while there was no significant sex difference on the right side. Our results show that neither a patent processus vaginalis nor a triangular outpouching from the lateral inguinal fossa correlate with the laterality of the patients' symptoms while true indirect hernias do. (orig.)

  12. Calcified trichinosis of pectoral muscle: mammographic appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apesteguia, L.; Murillo, A.; Biurrun, J.; Garcia-Rostan, G.; Reta, A.; Dominguez, F.

    1995-01-01

    By mammographic screening we had detected six asymptomatic women who showed numerious tiny and well-delineated round to ovoid microcalcification superimposed on pectoral shadows, in the oblique medio-lateral (OML) view. Our objective was to achieve a better evaluation of these calcifications and investigate their origin. Magnified mammograms of pectoral muscles were done in the six women. A questionnaire concerning the patients' diets was also administered. Trichinella antibody titres were quantified by sero-agglutination. Microcalcifications within pectoral muscle fibres were demonstrated in all the cases. Five women admitted to having eaten home-made pork products in the past. One of them showed a slightly elevated antibody titre. We confirmed the suspected diagnosis of calcified trichinosis by a surgical biopsy of the pectoral muscle performed on one of the patients. We conclude that chronic calcified trichinosis of the pectoral muscle can be visualised in the OML view of a conventional mammogram. The mammographic appearance of this entity is very characteristic and biopsy would not be required for its diagnosis in the future. (orig.)

  13. Elastofibroma Dorsi: CT and MRI appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonini, Claudio J.; Costamagna, Cecilia L.; Staffieri, Roberto; Villavicencio, Roberto L.; Milatich, Viviana

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe the findings of fibroelastomas by CT and MR imaging. Material and Methods: We studied 7 female patients, aged 60 to 75 years. All patients presented a unilateral soft tissue mass in the periscapular region (4 left sided and 3 right sided); one patient developed a contralateral lesion one year later. Four patients had pain and underwent surgical excision of the lesions; 2 patients underwent percutaneous biopsy and the last patient is under clinical and imaging follow-up. Results: The lesions had a tomographic density to muscle, but with the presence of hypodense bands corresponding to adipose tissue. After the administration of IV contrast (5 cases) density remained similar to that of muscle. By MR, in the T1 sequence, the lesions were isointense to muscle and had hyperintense linear areas corresponding to adipose tissue bands. In the FSE T2 sequences, the lesions appeared mildly hyperintense. After the administration of IV gadolinium, the T1 sequence with fat suppression showed marked enhancement of the tumors. There was no involvement of neighboring bony or muscle structures. Conclusion: CT and MRI are useful methods for the detection of periscapular fibroelastomas. (author)

  14. Calcified trichinosis of pectoral muscle: mammographic appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apesteguia, L. [Servicio de Radiologia, Hospital Virgen del Camino, Pamplona (Spain); Murillo, A. [Servicio de Radiologia, Hospital Virgen del Camino, Pamplona (Spain); Biurrun, J. [Servicio de Radiologia, Hospital Virgen del Camino, Pamplona (Spain); Garcia-Rostan, G. [Servicio Anatomia Patologica, Hospital Virgen del Camino, Pamplona (Spain); Reta, A. [Servicio de Analisis Clinicos, Hospital Virgen del Camino, Pamplona (Spain); Dominguez, F. [Servicio Cirugia, Hospital Virgen del Camino, Pamplona (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    By mammographic screening we had detected six asymptomatic women who showed numerious tiny and well-delineated round to ovoid microcalcification superimposed on pectoral shadows, in the oblique medio-lateral (OML) view. Our objective was to achieve a better evaluation of these calcifications and investigate their origin. Magnified mammograms of pectoral muscles were done in the six women. A questionnaire concerning the patients` diets was also administered. Trichinella antibody titres were quantified by sero-agglutination. Microcalcifications within pectoral muscle fibres were demonstrated in all the cases. Five women admitted to having eaten home-made pork products in the past. One of them showed a slightly elevated antibody titre. We confirmed the suspected diagnosis of calcified trichinosis by a surgical biopsy of the pectoral muscle performed on one of the patients. We conclude that chronic calcified trichinosis of the pectoral muscle can be visualised in the OML view of a conventional mammogram. The mammographic appearance of this entity is very characteristic and biopsy would not be required for its diagnosis in the future. (orig.)

  15. How To Control Color Appearance With Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Margaret E.

    1980-05-01

    Colorimetry, as defined by the International Commission on Illumination, is the measurement of colors, made possible by the properties of the eye and based on a set of conventions. Instrumentation for measuring object color, therefore, must be based on a human observer. The intent is to design an instrument that in effect responds as a person would, so that research development, production control and quality control areas have some means of assessing the acceptability of the appearance of a product. Investigations of a human observer's psychological response to color, and the manner in which visual observations are made, give the instrument designer and manufacturer data necessary to answer two questions: a. How can we put numbers (instrument read-out) on a perception that occurs in the brain of the observer? b. What can we learn from examination of a visual observing situation that will guide us in our design of an instrumental simulation of this situation? Involving as it does our own daily, almost unconscious, practice of making judgments concerning the things we see, the design and manufacture of color measurement instruments is an exceedingly interesting field. The advances being made concurrently today in research concerning human color vision and in optical and electronic technology will make possible increasingly useful instrumentation for quality control of product color.

  16. ESCO White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA developed this white paper to explore energy performance contracting with Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) and its potential to be a best practice for installing solar thermal water heating systems in the commercial and industrial sector.

  17. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Heino, M. 2010. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting. In Life cycle spatial patterns of small pelagic fish in the Northeast Atlantic, pp. 59-64. Ed by P. Petitgas. ICES Cooperative Research Report 306. ICES, Copenhagen.

  18. White House Communications Agency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    ...; and the Deputy Secretary of Defense requested the audit. The Deputy Secretary of Defense emphasized that this review should be as thorough as possible of all White House Communications Agency (WHCA...

  19. Good looks and good practice: the attitudes of career practitioners to attractiveness and appearance

    OpenAIRE

    Yates, Julia; Hooley, Tristram; Kaur Bagri, Kiren

    2016-01-01

    Empirical evidence attests the impact that career image has on objective career success, yet little is known of how career practitioners conceptualise and operationalise this information. This article presents the quantitative findings of an online survey of career practitioners (n = 399, 74% female, 89% white and 75% from the U.K.) exploring their attitudes and practices towards issues of appearance and attractiveness. Career practitioners who participated in this survey acknowledged that be...

  20. Progenitors of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drilling, J.S.; Schoenberner, D.

    1985-01-01

    Direct observational evidence is presented which indicates that the immediate progenitors of white dwarfs are the central stars of planetary nebulae (approximately 70%), other post-AGB objects (approximately 30%), and post-HB objects not massive enough to climb the AGB (approximately 0.3%). The combined birth rate for these objects is in satisfactory agreement with the death rate of main-sequence stars and the birth rate of white dwarfs

  1. Black and white holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeldovich, Ya.; Novikov, I.; Starobinskij, A.

    1978-01-01

    The theory is explained of the origination of white holes as a dual phenomenon with regard to the formation of black holes. Theoretically it is possible to derive the white hole by changing the sign of time in solving the general theory of relativity equation implying the black hole. The white hole represents the amount of particles formed in the vicinity of a singularity. For a distant observer, matter composed of these particles expands and the outer boundaries of this matter approach from the inside the gravitational radius Rsub(r). At t>>Rsub(r)/c all radiation or expulsion of matter terminates. For the outside observer the white hole exists for an unlimited length of time. In fact, however, it acquires the properties of a black hole and all processes in it cease. The qualitative difference between a white hole and a black hole is in that a white hole is formed as the result of an inner quantum explosion from the singularity to the gravitational radius and not as the result of a gravitational collapse, i.e., the shrinkage of diluted matter towards the gravitational radius. (J.B.)

  2. Black and white holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeldovich, Ya; Novikov, I; Starobinskii, A

    1978-07-01

    The theory is explained of the origination of white holes as a dual phenomenon with regard to the formation of black holes. Theoretically it is possible to derive the white hole by changing the sign of time in solving the general theory of relativity equation implying the black hole. The white hole represents the amount of particles formed in the vicinity of a singularity. For a distant observer, matter composed of these particles expands and the outer boundaries of this matter approach from the inside the gravitational radius R/sub r/. At t>>R/sub r//c all radiation or expulsion of matter terminates. For the outside observer the white hole exists for an unlimited length of time. In fact, however, it acquires the properties of a black hole and all processes in it cease. The qualitative difference between a white hole and a black hole is in that a white hole is formed as the result of an inner quantum explosion from the singularity to the gravitational radius and not as the result of a gravitational collapse, i.e., the shrinkage of diluted matter towards the gravitational radius.

  3. Magnetization transfer imaging of periventricular white matter lesions in patients with multi-infarct dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Imon, Yukari; Asano, Tetsuichi; Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Takasaki, Masaru

    1998-01-01

    Using magnetization transfer (MT) imaging, we studied the underlying pathological conditions of periventricular hyperintense (PVH) white matter changes seen on T2-weighted MR images of patients with multi-infarct dementia. Twenty-two patients with multiple lacunar infarcts and PVH lesions, including 11 with dementia (diagnosed as multi-infarct dementia) and 11 without dementia, and 10 control subjects (with multiple lacunes, but no PVH lesion) were studied using the MT technique. MT ratios (MTRs) were calculated for PVH lesions (normal-appearing frontal white matter in controls) and the genu of the corpus callosum. Signal intensities on T2-weighted images in PVH lesions of patients were significantly higher than those in normal-appearing white matter of controls, while there were no significant differences in signal intensity in the genu of the corpus callosum among the dementia, non-dementia and control groups. However, MTRs in patients with PVH lesions were significantly lower than those in controls, and MTRs in demented patients were significantly lower than those in non-demented patients. Moreover, MTRs in the genu of the corpus callosum of demented patients were significantly lower than in those in non-demented patients and controls. MTRs in PVH lesions and the genu of the corpus callosum significantly correlated with Hasegawa's dementia scale score. These results suggest that there is some difference in histopathologic changes of PVH lesions between demented and non-demented patients and that the pathological substrate in the corpus callosum may play a role in inducing cognitive decline. Studies with MT imaging may allow the characterization of different pathological conditions that cannot be visualized by conventional MRI. (author)

  4. Electron Neutrino Appearance in the MINOS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holin, Anna Maria [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-01

    The MINOS experiment is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment which sends a high intensity muon neutrino beam through two functionally identical detectors, a Near detector at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Illinois, 1km from the beam source, and a Far detector, 734km away, in the Soudan Mine in Minnesota. MINOS may be able to measure the neutrino mixing angle parameter sin213 for the rst time. Detector granularity, however, makes it very hard to distinguish any e appearance signal events characteristic of a non-zero value of θ 13 from background neutral current (NC) and short-track vμ charged current (CC) events. Also, uncertainties in the hadronic shower modeling in the kinematic region characteristic of this analysis are relatively large. A new data-driven background decomposition method designed to address those issues is developed and its results presented. By removing the long muon tracks from vμ-CC events, the Muon Removed Charge Current (MRCC) method creates independent pseudo-NC samples that can be used to correct the MINOS Monte Carlo to agree with the high-statistics Near detector data and to decompose the latter into components so as to predict the expected Far detector background. The MRCC method also provides an important cross-check in the Far detector to test the background in the signal selected region. MINOS finds a 1.0-1.5 σ ve-CC excess above background in the Far detector data, depending on method used, for a total exposure of 3.14 x 1020 protons-on-target. Interpreting this excess as signal, MINOS can set limits on sin213. Using the MRCC method, MINOS sets a limit of sin2 2 θ 13 < 0.265 at the 90% confidence limit for a CP-violating phase δ = 0.

  5. Investigation of likely causes of white patch formation on irradiated WWER fuel rod claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibilashvili, Yu.K.; Velioukhanov, V.P.; Ioltoukhovski, A.Y.; Pogodin, V.P.

    1999-01-01

    The information concerning white patches observed on fuel cladding surfaces has been analytically treated. The analysis shows at least three kinds of the white patch appearance: bright white spots which appear to be loose corrosion product deposits disclosing corrosion pits upon spalling; indistinct streaks with separate pronounced spots 1-2 in dia. The spots seem to be thin superficial deposits; light-coloured dense uniform crud distributed over the surface of fuel claddings and fuel assembly jackets. (author)

  6. Patellar calcar: MRI appearance of a previously undescribed anatomical entity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Mark S.; Tiegs-Heiden, Christin A.; Stuart, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The femoral calcar is a constant anatomical structure within the proximal femur representing a condensation of bone trabeculae. It is our impression that a similar structure is present within the patella. The purpose of this retrospective study was to define the prevalence, appearance, location, and configuration of the patellar calcar on MRI examinations. One hundred consecutive unenhanced knee MRIs were retrospectively reviewed by two readers who were blinded to the clinical indication. The patellar calcar was defined as a dark signaling, linear or curvilinear structure subjacent to the patellar articular surface. If present, the patellar calcar was assigned to a ''well seen,'' ''moderately well seen,'' or ''faintly seen'' category. Location of the calcar within the patella, orientation, configuration, and thickness were recorded. Confounding variables, such as marrow edema, patellar chondromalacia, bipartite patella, or postoperative changes were also recorded. The patellar calcar was visualized in 81 out of 100 (81 %) MRIs. When detected, the calcar was well seen in 20 out of 81 (25 %), moderately well seen in 35 out of 81 (43 %), and faintly seen in 26 out of 81 (32 %). The anteroposterior width of the calcar measured at its thickest segment was: 1 mm in 10 out of 81 (12 %). The patellar calcar was seen in the majority of knee MRIs and had a consistent imaging appearance. The calcar may be obscured by degenerative arthrosis of the patella and rarely may mimic patellar stress fracture or osteochondritis dissecans. Radiologists and clinicians should be familiar with this normal anatomical structure. (orig.)

  7. The MRI appearance of cystic lesions around the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, Catherine L.; McNally, Eugene G.

    2004-01-01

    This review presents a comprehensive illustrated overview of the wide variety of cystic lesions around the knee. The aetiology, clinical presentation, MRI appearances and differential diagnosis are discussed. Bursae include those related to the patella as well as pes anserine, tibial collateral ligament, semimembranosus-tibial collateral ligament, iliotibial and fibular collateral ligament-biceps femoris. The anatomical extension, imaging features and clinical significance of meniscal cysts are illustrated. Review of ganglia includes intra-articular, extra-articular, intraosseous and periosteal ganglia, highlighting imaging findings and differential diagnoses. The relationship between proximal tibiofibular joint cysts and intraneural peroneal nerve ganglia is discussed. Intraosseous cystic lesions, including insertional and degenerative cysts, as well as lesions mimicking cysts of the knee are described and illustrated. Knowledge of the location, characteristic appearance and distinguishing features of cystic masses around the knee as well as potential imaging pitfalls such as normal anatomical recesses and atypical cyst contents on MR imaging aids in allowing a specific diagnosis to be made. This will prevent unnecessary additional investigations and determine whether intra-articular surgery or conservative management is appropriate. (orig.)

  8. Intracranial tuberculosis in children: CT appearance and clinical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, R C; Burton, E M; Gerald, B E [Le Bonheur Children' s Medical Center, Memphis, TN (United States). Dept. of Radiology Tennessee Univ., Memphis (United States); Barrett, F F; Leggiadro, R J [Le Bonheur Children' s Medical Center, Memphis, TN (United States). Dept. of Pediatrics Tennessee Univ., Memphis (United States); Lasater, O E [Le Bonheur Children' s Medical Center, Memphis, TN (United States). Dept. of Pathology Tennessee Univ., Memphis (United States)

    1991-05-01

    We retrospectively evaluated the CT studies of 9 children who presented with intracranial tuberculosis during 1981-1987, and compared their radiographic appearance with the clinical outcome. The most common radiographic findings were: 1) Ventriculomegaly (7/9), 2) tuberculoma formation (6/9), and 3) infarction (4/9). Of 7 patients with ventriculomegaly, 3 required a ventricular shunt and 2 had spontaenous resolution of ventricular dilatation. Four children with ventriculomegaly were moderately or severely retarded, one had cognitive dysfunction, and one was neurologically normal. Four of six children with tuberculoma also had infarction and/or ventriculomegaly; of these four children, three were moderately or severely retarded. Two patients with tuberculoma as the only intracranial abnormality had complete resolution or the granuloma with normal neurologic outcome following antituberculous therapy. The four children with large vessel infarction also had ventriculomegaly; three had poor clinical outcome. The presence of tuberculoma alone is not necessarily predictive of poor neurologic outcome; age less than 20 months, infarct, and/or ventriculomegaly are usually associated with sequelae. (orig.).

  9. Atrophy of gray and white matters in the brain during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Shumpei; Matsuzawa, Taiju; Ito, Hisao.

    1984-01-01

    We studied atrophy of gray and white matter during aging in 57 males and 44 females with no neurological disturbances using x-ray computed tomography. The ages ranged from 12 to 80 years. Brain atrophy was expressed as brain volume index: 100% x [(brain volume/cranial cavity volume) in individual subjects]/[(brain volume/cranial cavity volume) in normal subjects of 20-39 years]. Atrophy of gray and white matter volume was expressed as gray and white matter volume indices: 100% x (apparent gray or white matter volume index in individual subjects)/(apparent gray or white matter volume index in normal subjects whose brain volume index was greater than 98%), where apparent gray and white matter volume indices were expressed as 100% x [(gray or white matter volume/cranial cavity volume) in individual subjects]/[(gray or white matter volume/cranial cavity volume) in normal subjects of 20-39 years]. Both the gray and white matter volume indices changed proportionally to the brain volume index (p<0.001). As the brain atrophy advanced, the gray matter volume index decreased more than the white matter volume index (P<0.001). Decrease in the gray and white matter volume indices was statistically significant only in seventies (P<0.002 for gray matter, P<0.05 for white matter). (author)

  10. The apparent diffusion coefficient of water in gray and white matter of the infant brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P B; Leth, H; Peitersen, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose was to obtain normal values of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the infant brain and to compare ADC maps with T1- and T2-weighted images. METHOD: Diffusion was measured in nine infants with an ECG-gated SE sequence compensated for first-order motion. One axial slice...... it appeared on T1- or T2-weighted images. In gray and white matter, the mean ADC ranged from 0.95 x 10(-9) to 1.76 x 10(-9) m2/s. In the frontal and occipital white matter, in the genu corporis callosi, and in the lentiform nucleus, the ADC decreased with increasing age. The cortex/white matter ratio...... of the ADC increased with age and approached 1 at the age of 30 weeks. CONCLUSION: ADC maps add information to the T1 and T2 images about the size and course of unmyelinated as well as myelinated tracts in the immature brain....

  11. Numerical simulation model of hyperacute/acute stage white matter infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Koji; Yamada, Kei; Oouchi, Hiroyuki; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2008-01-01

    Although previous studies have revealed the mechanisms of changes in diffusivity (apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC]) in acute brain infarction, changes in diffusion anisotropy (fractional anisotropy [FA]) in white matter have not been examined. We hypothesized that membrane permeability as well as axonal swelling play important roles, and we therefore constructed a simulation model using random walk simulation to replicate the diffusion of water molecules. We implemented a numerical diffusion simulation model of normal and infarcted human brains using C++ language. We constructed this 2-pool model using simple tubes aligned in a single direction. Random walk simulation diffused water. Axon diameters and membrane permeability were then altered in step-wise fashion. To estimate the effects of axonal swelling, axon diameters were changed from 6 to 10 microm. Membrane permeability was altered from 0% to 40%. Finally, both elements were combined to explain increasing FA in the hyperacute stage of white matter infarction. The simulation demonstrated that simple water shift into the intracellular space reduces ADC and increases FA, but not to the extent expected from actual human cases (ADC approximately 50%; FA approximately +20%). Similarly, membrane permeability alone was insufficient to explain this phenomenon. However, a combination of both factors successfully replicated changes in diffusivity indices. Both axonal swelling and reduced membrane permeability appear important in explaining changes in ADC and FA based on eigenvalues in hyperacute-stage white matter infarction.

  12. Unusual progression of herpes simplex encephalitis with basal ganglia and extensive white matter involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Manabe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a 51-year old male with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE showing unusual progression and magnetic resonance (MR findings. The initial neurological manifestation of intractable focal seizure with low-grade fever persisted for three days, and rapidly coma, myoclonic status, and respiratory failure with high-grade fever emerged thereafter. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR result of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was positive for HSV-1 DNA. In the early stage, MR images (MRI were normal. On subsequent MR diffusion-weighted (DW and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR images, high-intensity areas first appeared in the left frontal cortex, which was purely extra-temporal involvement, and extended into the basal ganglia, then the white matter, which are relatively spared in HSE. Antiviral therapy and immunosuppressive therapy did not suppress the progression of HSE, and finally severe cerebral edema developed into cerebral herniation, which required emergency decompressive craniectomy. Histological examination of a biopsy specimen of the white matter detected perivascular infiltration and destruction of basic structure, which confirmed non specific inflammatory change without obvious edema or demyelination. The present case shows both MR and pathological findings in the white matter in the acute stage of HSE.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of white matter diseases of prematurity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, Mary A.; Supramaniam, Veena; Ederies, Ashraf; Chew, Andrew; Anjari, Mustafa; Counsell, Serena [Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, Robert Steiner MR Unit, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); Bassi, Laura; Groppo, Michela; Ramenghi, Luca A. [University of Milan, NICU, Institute of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena, Milan (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    Periventricular leucomalacia (PVL) and parenchymal venous infarction complicating germinal matrix/intraventricular haemorrhage have long been recognised as the two significant white matter diseases responsible for the majority of cases of cerebral palsy in survivors of preterm birth. However, more recent studies using magnetic resonance imaging to assess the preterm brain have documented two new appearances, adding to the spectrum of white matter disease of prematurity: punctate white matter lesions, and diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI). These appear to be more common than PVL but less significant in terms of their impact on individual neurodevelopment. They may, however, be associated with later cognitive and behavioural disorders known to be common following preterm birth. It remains unclear whether PVL, punctate lesions, and DEHSI represent a continuum of disorders occurring as a result of a similar injurious process to the developing white matter. This review discusses the role of MR imaging in investigating these three disorders in terms of aetiology, pathology, and outcome. (orig.)

  14. Semantic attributes for people's appearance description: an appearance modality for video surveillance applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frikha, Mayssa; Fendri, Emna; Hammami, Mohamed

    2017-09-01

    Using semantic attributes such as gender, clothes, and accessories to describe people's appearance is an appealing modeling method for video surveillance applications. We proposed a midlevel appearance signature based on extracting a list of nameable semantic attributes describing the body in uncontrolled acquisition conditions. Conventional approaches extract the same set of low-level features to learn the semantic classifiers uniformly. Their critical limitation is the inability to capture the dominant visual characteristics for each trait separately. The proposed approach consists of extracting low-level features in an attribute-adaptive way by automatically selecting the most relevant features for each attribute separately. Furthermore, relying on a small training-dataset would easily lead to poor performance due to the large intraclass and interclass variations. We annotated large scale people images collected from different person reidentification benchmarks covering a large attribute sample and reflecting the challenges of uncontrolled acquisition conditions. These annotations were gathered into an appearance semantic attribute dataset that contains 3590 images annotated with 14 attributes. Various experiments prove that carefully designed features for learning the visual characteristics for an attribute provide an improvement of the correct classification accuracy and a reduction of both spatial and temporal complexities against state-of-the-art approaches.

  15. Concerns about Appearing Prejudiced Get Under the Skin: Stress Responses to Interracial Contact in the Moment and across Time

    OpenAIRE

    Trawalter, Sophie; Adam, Emma K.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; Richeson, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Many White Americans are concerned about appearing prejudiced. How these concerns affect responses during actual interracial interactions, however, remains understudied. The present work examines stress responses to interracial contact—both in the moment, during interracial interactions (Study 1), and over time as individuals have repeated interracial contact (Study 2). Results of Study 1 revealed that concerns about appearing prejudiced were associated with heightened stress responses during...

  16. Frontal white matter hyperintensities, clasmatodendrosis and gliovascular abnormalities in ageing and post-stroke dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Aiqing; Akinyemi, Rufus O; Hase, Yoshiki; Firbank, Michael J; Ndung'u, Michael N; Foster, Vincent; Craggs, Lucy J L; Washida, Kazuo; Okamoto, Yoko; Thomas, Alan J; Polvikoski, Tuomo M; Allan, Louise M; Oakley, Arthur E; O'Brien, John T; Horsburgh, Karen; Ihara, Masafumi; Kalaria, Raj N

    2016-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities as seen on brain T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging are associated with varying degrees of cognitive dysfunction in stroke, cerebral small vessel disease and dementia. The pathophysiological mechanisms within the white matter accounting for cognitive dysfunction remain unclear. With the hypothesis that gliovascular interactions are impaired in subjects with high burdens of white matter hyperintensities, we performed clinicopathological studies in post-stroke survivors, who had exhibited greater frontal white matter hyperintensities volumes that predicted shorter time to dementia onset. Histopathological methods were used to identify substrates in the white matter that would distinguish post-stroke demented from post-stroke non-demented subjects. We focused on the reactive cell marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) to study the incidence and location of clasmatodendrosis, a morphological attribute of irreversibly injured astrocytes. In contrast to normal appearing GFAP+ astrocytes, clasmatodendrocytes were swollen and had vacuolated cell bodies. Other markers such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member L1 (ALDH1L1) showed cytoplasmic disintegration of the astrocytes. Total GFAP+ cells in both the frontal and temporal white matter were not greater in post-stroke demented versus post-stroke non-demented subjects. However, the percentage of clasmatodendrocytes was increased by >2-fold in subjects with post-stroke demented compared to post-stroke non-demented subjects (P = 0.026) and by 11-fold in older controls versus young controls (P < 0.023) in the frontal white matter. High ratios of clasmotodendrocytes to total astrocytes in the frontal white matter were consistent with lower Mini-Mental State Examination and the revised Cambridge Cognition Examination scores in post-stroke demented subjects. Double immunofluorescent staining showed aberrant co-localization of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in retracted GFAP+ astrocytes with

  17. Normal foot and ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    The foot may be thought of as a bag of bones tied tightly together and functioning as a unit. The bones re expected to maintain their alignment without causing symptomatology to the patient. The author discusses a normal radiograph. The bones must have normal shape and normal alignment. The density of the soft tissues should be normal and there should be no fractures, tumors, or foreign bodies

  18. Concerns about Appearing Prejudiced Get Under the Skin: Stress Responses to Interracial Contact in the Moment and across Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trawalter, Sophie; Adam, Emma K; Chase-Lansdale, P Lindsay; Richeson, Jennifer A

    2012-05-01

    Many White Americans are concerned about appearing prejudiced. How these concerns affect responses during actual interracial interactions, however, remains understudied. The present work examines stress responses to interracial contact-both in the moment, during interracial interactions (Study 1), and over time as individuals have repeated interracial contact (Study 2). Results of Study 1 revealed that concerns about appearing prejudiced were associated with heightened stress responses during interracial encounters (Study 1). White participants concerned about appearing prejudiced exhibited significant increases in cortisol "stress hormone" levels as well as increases in anxious behavior during interracial but not same-race contact. Participants relatively unconcerned about appearing prejudiced did not exhibit these stress responses. Study 2 examined stress responses to interracial contact over an entire academic year. Results revealed that White participants exhibited shifts in cortisol diurnal rhythms on days after interracial contact. Moreover, participants' cortisol rhythms across the academic year, from fall to spring, were related to their concerns about appearing prejudiced and their interracial contact experiences. Taken together, these data offer the first evidence that chronic concerns about appearing prejudiced are related to short- and longer-term stress responses to interracial contact. Implications for life in diverse spaces are discussed.

  19. Normalization of ADC does not improve correlation with overall survival in patients with high-grade glioma (HGG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lei; Li, Angie; Qu, Jinrong; Reinshagen, Katherine; Li, Xiang; Cheng, Su-Chun; Bryant, Annie; Young, Geoffrey S

    2018-04-01

    Mixed reports leave uncertainty about whether normalization of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) to a within-subject white matter reference is necessary for assessment of tumor cellularity. We tested whether normalization improves the previously reported correlation of resection margin ADC with 15-month overall survival (OS) in HGG patients. Spin-echo echo-planar DWI was retrieved from 3 T MRI acquired between maximal resection and radiation in 37 adults with new-onset HGG (25 glioblastoma; 12 anaplastic astrocytoma). ADC maps were produced with the FSL DTIFIT tool (Oxford Centre for Functional MRI). 3 neuroradiologists manually selected regions of interest (ROI) in normal appearing white matter (NAWM) and in non-enhancing tumor (NT) Normalized ADC (nADC) was computed as the ratio of absolute NT ADC to NAWM ADC. Reproducibility of nADC and absolute ADC among the readers' ROI was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and within-subject coefficient of variation (wCV). Correlations of ADC and nADC with OS were compared using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. A p value 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Both mean ADC and nADC differed significantly between patients subgrouped by 15-month OS (p = 0.0014 and 0.0073 respectively). wCV and ICC among the readers were similar for absolute and normalized ADC. In ROC analysis of correlation with OS, nADC did not perform significantly better than absolute ADC. Normalization does not significantly improve the correlation of absolute ADC with OS in HGG, suggesting that normalization is not necessary for clinical or research ADC analysis in HGG patients.

  20. WHITE COLLAR CRIME - Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu

    2014-01-01

    WHITE COLLAR CRIME - Investigations Presentation By  Dr. Nyagudi MusanduForensic Criminologist 2nd International Securityand Safety Conference and Exhibition, 16th April, 2010 a forum hosted by Events Management Solutions at the Sarit Centre, Nairobi, Kenya  

  1. Quantitative evaluation of cerebral white matter in patients with multiple sclerosis using multicomponent T2 mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranovicova, Eva; Mlynarik, Vladimir; Kantorova, Ema; Hnilicova, Petra; Dobrota, Dusan

    2016-05-01

    A standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigation of white matter (WM) areas with visible or expected pathology does not explain satisfactorily the relation between pathology and clinical outcome. Therefore, we focused on multicomponent T2 mapping of WM with the intention to characterize the WM, including normal-appearing white matter that has normal and prolonged T2 and lesions, including degenerated tissue. Twenty-nine patients with clinically diagnosed MS and 27 healthy controls underwent MRI examination. T2 mapping of the WM across the two whole MRI slices was carried out. The relative abundance of biologically relevant T2 regions was correlated with age and the expanded disability status scale (EDSS). The relative abundance of the T2 values of water trapped in myelin increased with age in both healthy subjects (p T2 assigned to intra- and extracellular water decreased with age in both groups (p T2 above 110 ms were not related to age, but strongly increased with EDSS (p T2 mapping of the WM can be a useful parameter for monitoring the progression of MS in patients.

  2. Early appearance of SARS on chest CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Xiaoguang; Feng Suchen; Xia Guoguang; Zhao Tao; Gu Xiang; Qu Hui

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the early appearance of SARS on chest CT scan and its role in the early diagnosis. Methods: Forty cases of SARS in keeping with the criteria of the Ministry of Health had chest CT scans within 7 days of onset of symptoms, and CR chest X-ray films were available as well. These chest X-rays and CT images were retrospectively reviewed to determine if there were any abnormalities on the images. The lesions on the chest CT images were then further analyzed in terms of the number, location, size, and density. Results: Positive abnormalities on chest CT scans were revealed in all 40 SARS cases. Positive findings on CR chest films were showed in only 25 cases, equivocal in 6, and normal in 9 cases. The main abnormalities seen on CT and X-rays were pulmonary infiltrations varied markedly in severity. 70 % cases had 1 or 2 lesions on chest CT scan, 30 % cases had 3 or more lesions. The lesions seen on chest CT scan tended to be ground-glass opacification, sometimes with consolidation which was very faint and inhomogeneous, easily missed on chest X-rays. Typically the lesions were located in the periphery of the lung, or both central and peripheral lung, but very rare in a pure central location. They were commonly in the shape of patch or ball. Conclusions: Chest CT scan is much more sensitive in detecting the lesions of the lung in SARS. The early appearance of SARS on chest CT scan is characteristic but non-specific, indicating that chest CT scan plays a very important role in the early diagnosis and differential diagnosis of SARS

  3. Patellar calcar: MRI appearance of a previously undescribed anatomical entity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Mark S.; Tiegs-Heiden, Christin A. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Stuart, Michael J. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The femoral calcar is a constant anatomical structure within the proximal femur representing a condensation of bone trabeculae. It is our impression that a similar structure is present within the patella. The purpose of this retrospective study was to define the prevalence, appearance, location, and configuration of the patellar calcar on MRI examinations. One hundred consecutive unenhanced knee MRIs were retrospectively reviewed by two readers who were blinded to the clinical indication. The patellar calcar was defined as a dark signaling, linear or curvilinear structure subjacent to the patellar articular surface. If present, the patellar calcar was assigned to a ''well seen,'' ''moderately well seen,'' or ''faintly seen'' category. Location of the calcar within the patella, orientation, configuration, and thickness were recorded. Confounding variables, such as marrow edema, patellar chondromalacia, bipartite patella, or postoperative changes were also recorded. The patellar calcar was visualized in 81 out of 100 (81 %) MRIs. When detected, the calcar was well seen in 20 out of 81 (25 %), moderately well seen in 35 out of 81 (43 %), and faintly seen in 26 out of 81 (32 %). The anteroposterior width of the calcar measured at its thickest segment was: < 1 mm in 43 out of 81 (53 %), 1 mm in 28 out of 81 (35 %), and >1 mm in 10 out of 81 (12 %). The patellar calcar was seen in the majority of knee MRIs and had a consistent imaging appearance. The calcar may be obscured by degenerative arthrosis of the patella and rarely may mimic patellar stress fracture or osteochondritis dissecans. Radiologists and clinicians should be familiar with this normal anatomical structure. (orig.)

  4. Orthotopic neobladder reconstrution: postoperative CT appearance, complications and potential pitfalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Su Lim; Jung, Seung Eun; Im, Yeon Soo; Lee, Jae Mun; Lee, Ji Youl; Yoon, Moon Soo; Hahn, Seong Tai [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-08-01

    To evaluate the postoperative CT appearance, complications and potential pitfalls of radical cystectomy with orthotopic neobladder reconstruction. We examined 46 patients [43 men and 3 women aged 34-72 (mean, 56.7) years] who had undergone neobladder reconstruction (ileocolic neobladder in 25 patients and ileal-W neobladder in 21). The CT scans were assessed in terms of their depiction of normal anatomy, namely the shape, location and internal architecture of the neobladder, the location of bladder bases, and the ureteral course. Early and late complications were also assessed. The characteristics of ileocolic neobadder were a right-side location, a lobulated outer margin, interal projections due to haustra or plication, a base in the retropubis, and right-side insertion of both ureters. In contrast, the characteristics of an ileal-W neobladder were a central location, an ovoid shape, nodular thickening at the ureteral insertion site, internal projections due to plication, and a retropubic bladder base. Early complications included hematoma with abscess formation (n=2), and postoperative peritonitis (n=1), while late complications were hydronephrosis due to stricture ar the ureteral anastomotic site (n=16), tumor recurrence at this site (n=1), distal ureteral stone (n=1), mucus urinary retention (n=1), incisional hernia (n=2), tumor recurrence in the pelvic side wall (n=1), carcinomatosis peritonei (n=1), and liver metastasis (n=2). A knowledge of normal anatomic changes is essential for the accurate interpretation of CT scans. CT is a useful modality of the evaluation of postoperative change and the complications occurring in patients who have undergone radial cystectomy with othotopic neobladder reconstruction.

  5. Complete normal ordering 1: Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ellis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories (in generic spacetime dimension and background perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to ‘complete normal order’ the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all ‘cephalopod’ Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of ‘complete normal ordering’ (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative interactions, and by using a point splitting ‘trick’ we extend this result to theories with derivative interactions, such as those appearing as non-linear σ-models in the world-sheet formulation of string theory. We focus here on theories with trivial vacua, generalising the discussion to non-trivial vacua in a follow-up paper.

  6. False positive paediatric labelled white blood cell study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beveridge, N.; Bennett, E.; Thomas, P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: An eight-month-old female presented for a technetium labelled white blood cell study (LWBC) to exclude an intra-abdominal abscess. Born premature, the child had surgery to repair a perforated bowel and had repeated presentations with diarrhoea, fevers, a tender right upper quadrant and a raised leucocyte count. Multiple imaging modalities failed to demonstrate recurrent bowel perforation, ischaemia or an intra-abdominal mass. A LWBC study was performed with whole body imaging at 1 and 5 hours post re-injection of the radiolabelled blood. No abnormal uptake was visualised in the abdomen but abnormal white cell accumulation was noted in the right hind foot and the length of the right lower leg. This activity appeared to lie along the course of the right tibia. Plain X-ray demonstrated no evidence of tibial osteomyelitis. Concern that the LWBC may be falsely negative in a patient on antibiotics, a gallium scan was immediately performed to re-examine the abdomen. The whole body gallium images demonstrated normal physiological uptake in the abdomen and no evidence of infection in the right leg. The patient had no clinical features to support right leg pathology. The abnormal LWBC localisation in the right lower leg/foot was therefore falsely positive. The most likely explanation is increased activation of the autologous LWBC by 'rough' handling during difficult venesection and re-injection through small veins and needles/cannulas. The slow flow through the veins draining the foot injection site would contribute to margination in these vessel walls. This is a potential cause for false positive LWBC studies- with significant implications for patient care. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  7. Plato: White and Non-white Love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amo Sulaiman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Plato’s dialogues, the Symposium, and Phaedrus, provide a reasonableexplanation of love. G. Vlastos and M. Nussbaum do not share such anopinion. The former contends that Plato’s view of love is about lovingonly a person’s beauty, but not the entire person; thus, it falls short of anappropriate explanation of love. The latter holds that a theory of love should be complete, and that Plato’s one is incomplete on the grounds that it does not account for personal love. These criticisms will be re-evaluated in light of the duality of love (the white and non-white horses—in Phaedrus as well as participants’ views in the Symposium; a re-assessment will weaken the mentioned objections. This paper contends that from the Symposium and Phaedrus, one can have a fruitful understanding of being in love, being out of love, falling inlove, loving for its own sake and being erotically in love. In order to account for these related issues of love it is important to consider Plato’s works in terms of his “official” and “unofficial” views. The former is construed as the doctrine of the lover or loving for its own sake: this is associates with Diotima’s views which are repeated by Socrates. With reference to the latter, it is possible to explain what personal love or being in love, being out of love, falling in love, and being erotically in love involve. Erotic love will be interpreted as an extension of our philosophical conception of love, related to views of love that are mentioned in the Symposium other than Socrates’ report of Diotima’s conceptions. This paper is divided into two parts: the first one will show views of love in the Symposium. That is, being in love, being out of love, falling in love and loving for its own sake will be discussed. In addition, the forementioned criticisms will be re-evaluated. In the second section, we will show that Aristophanes’ speech expresses erotic love, and then Kant’s objections will be

  8. Strong white photoluminescence from annealed zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Zhenhua; Fujii, Minoru; Imakita, Kenji; Hayashi, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    The optical properties of zeolites annealed at various temperatures are investigated for the first time. The annealed zeolites exhibit strong white photoluminescence (PL) under ultraviolet light excitation. With increasing annealing temperature, the emission intensity of annealed zeolites first increases and then decreases. At the same time, the PL peak red-shifts from 495 nm to 530 nm, and then returns to 500 nm. The strongest emission appears when the annealing temperature is 500 °C. The quantum yield of the sample is measured to be ∼10%. The PL lifetime monotonously increases from 223 μs to 251 μs with increasing annealing temperature. The origin of white PL is ascribed to oxygen vacancies formed during the annealing process. -- Highlights: • The optical properties of zeolites annealed at various temperatures are investigated. • The annealed zeolites exhibit strong white photoluminescence. • The maximum PL enhancement reaches as large as 62 times. • The lifetime shows little dependence on annealing temperature. • The origin of white emission is ascribed to the oxygen vacancies

  9. MRI appearances of inflammatory vertebral osteitis in early ankylosing spondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurugoglu, Sebuh; Kanberoglu, Kaya; Mihmanli, Ismail; Cokyuksel, Oktay [Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University (Turkey); Kanberoglu, Ayfer [Department of Physical Medicine, SSK Istanbul Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2002-03-01

    Background: Undiagnosed and early ankylosing spondylitis (AS), especially in adolescent patients suffering from back pain, may present with the finding of vertebral osteitis on MRI. Aims: To identify the early MRI changes of vertebral osteitis in AS. Patients and methods: Five patients (three boys, two girls) aged 11-20 years (mean 15.4 years) suffering from back pain underwent MRI of the thoracolumbar spine. There was no initial diagnosis of AS. After clinical and radiological suspicion of AS, MRI of the sacroiliac (SI) joints was performed. Results: During the course of AS, destructive and reactive changes affect the discovertebral junctions that are initially seen in the thoracolumbar area. At this stage plain radiography of the spinal column may be normal. On MR images, inflammatory osteitis of the vertebrae is seen as hypointense areas on T1-weighted images and hyperintense areas on T2-W images. The lesions enhance homogenously with contrast material. Conclusions: Awareness of the MRI appearances of vertebral osteitis is helpful in suspecting AS. Radiological examination of the SI facilitates the diagnosis and unnecessary further imaging can be avoided. (orig.)

  10. Posteromedial subtalar coalition: imaging appearances in three cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNally, E.G.

    1999-01-01

    Objective. To define the imaging appearances in three cases of posteromedial subtalar coalition.Design. Three patients who presented with hindfoot pain were found to have non-osseous coalition involving the posteromedial hindfoot. This entity is distinct from conventional middle facet coalition as the sustentaculum is uninvolved.Results. Plain radiographs, available in two cases, demonstrated subtle irregularity of the posterior facet. MRI (three cases) demonstrated a mixed bony and cartilaginous mass lying posterior to the sustentaculum. There was trabecular oedema within the mass and adjacent talus, and narrowing of the space between the middle and posterior facets. Prominence and dilatation of the posterior tibial veins with tenosynovitis of the adjacent tibialis posterior tendon was seen. CT demonstrated the bony mass but did not detect the adjacent bony oedema.Conclusion. Posteromedial subtalar coalition may present with hindfoot pain and stiffness. The presence of a pseudarthrosis posterior to a normal middle facet is characteristic. The abnormality can be difficult to detect on plain radiographs. (orig.)

  11. Posteromedial subtalar coalition: imaging appearances in three cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNally, E.G. [Dept. of Radiology, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1999-12-01

    Objective. To define the imaging appearances in three cases of posteromedial subtalar coalition.Design. Three patients who presented with hindfoot pain were found to have non-osseous coalition involving the posteromedial hindfoot. This entity is distinct from conventional middle facet coalition as the sustentaculum is uninvolved.Results. Plain radiographs, available in two cases, demonstrated subtle irregularity of the posterior facet. MRI (three cases) demonstrated a mixed bony and cartilaginous mass lying posterior to the sustentaculum. There was trabecular oedema within the mass and adjacent talus, and narrowing of the space between the middle and posterior facets. Prominence and dilatation of the posterior tibial veins with tenosynovitis of the adjacent tibialis posterior tendon was seen. CT demonstrated the bony mass but did not detect the adjacent bony oedema.Conclusion. Posteromedial subtalar coalition may present with hindfoot pain and stiffness. The presence of a pseudarthrosis posterior to a normal middle facet is characteristic. The abnormality can be difficult to detect on plain radiographs. (orig.)

  12. Magnetic resonance and cranial ultrasound characteristics of periventricular white matter abnormalities in newborn infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, Anne-Marie; Cornette, Luc; Ramenghi, Luca A.; Tanner, Steven F.; Arthur, Rosemary J.; Martinez, Delia; Levene, Malcolm I.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the range of abnormalities within the periventricular white matter (PVWM) in a cohort of newborns using magnetic resonance (MR) brain imaging and to compare the focal MR abnormalities with the cranial ultrasound (CUS) findings. METHODS: Retrospective study of MR brain and CUS findings of infants born in the 18-month period 1998-1999. PVWM abnormalities were identified by MR and focal lesions were characterized by size, number and distribution using a grading scale. Correspondence with CUS findings was assessed. RESULTS: 175 MR examinations corresponding to n = 105 preterm infants, (median GA 28, range 23-36 weeks) and n = 25 term infants (median GA 39, range 37-42 weeks) were analysed for PVWM abnormalities. In the preterm group, MR demonstrated a normal PVWM in n = 76, focal areas of altered signal intensity (SI) in PVWM in n = 26 and venous infarction inn 3. In the term group, MR demonstrated a normal PVWM in n = 15, focal areas of altered SI in PVWM in n = 4, oedematous PVWM in n = 2 and a middle cerebral artery infarction in n = 4. All infants with normal MR had normal CUS findings. A focal PVWM SI abnormality detectable on MR corresponded with an abnormality on CUS in only n = 10/30. CONCLUSIONS: MR appears considerably more sensitive than CUS in demonstrating the existence and extent of focal PVWM lesions in newborn infants. Satisfactory correspondence between the two imaging investigations is obtained only for cystic PVWM lesions. Childs, A.-M. et al. (2001)

  13. Dismantling the White Supremacy Embedded in Our Classrooms: White Faculty in Pursuit of More Equitable Educational Outcomes for Racially Minoritized Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Chayla

    2017-01-01

    An investigation of the literature revealed that racial consciousness and the behaviors of White faculty in the classroom appeared linked. A conceptual framework, Racial Consciousness and Its Influence on the Behaviors of White Faculty in the Classroom, was subsequently developed and tested in this constructivist grounded theory study. Findings…

  14. Asteroseismology of White Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Carl J.

    1997-01-01

    The primary purpose of this investigation has been to study various aspects of multimode pulsations in variable white dwarfs. In particular, nonlinear interactions among pulsation modes in white dwarfs (and, to some extent, in other variable stars), analysis of recent observations where such interactions are important, and preliminary work on the effects of crystallization in cool white dwarfs are reported.

  15. Lowering the glycemic index of white bread using a white bean extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Betsy B

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phase 2® is a dietary supplement derived from the common white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. Phase 2 has been shown to inhibit alpha-amylase, the complex carbohydrate digesting enzyme, in vitro. The inhibition of alpha-amylase may result in the lowering of the effective Glycemic Index (GI of certain foods. The objective of this study was to determine whether the addition of Phase 2 would lower the GI of a commercially available high glycemic food (white bread. Methods An open-label 6-arm crossover study was conducted with 13 randomized subjects. Standardized GI testing was performed on white bread with and without the addition of Phase 2 in capsule and powder form, each in dosages of 1500 mg, 2000 mg, and 3000 mg. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA of all seven treatment groups using unadjusted multiple comparisons (t tests to the white bread control. Results For the capsule formulation, the 1500 mg dose had no effect on the GI and the 2000 mg and 3000 mg capsule doses caused insignificant reductions in GI. For the powder, the 1500 mg and 2000 mg doses caused insignificant reductions in the GI, and the 3000 mg dose had a significant effect (-20.23 or 34.11%, p = 0.023 Conclusion Phase 2 white bean extract appears to be a novel and potentially effective method for reducing the GI of existing foods without modifying their ingredient profile. Trial Registration Trial Registration: ISRCTN50347345

  16. Lowering the glycemic index of white bread using a white bean extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Jay K; Singh, Betsy B; Barrett, Marilyn L; Preuss, Harry G

    2009-10-28

    Phase 2((R)) is a dietary supplement derived from the common white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Phase 2 has been shown to inhibit alpha-amylase, the complex carbohydrate digesting enzyme, in vitro. The inhibition of alpha-amylase may result in the lowering of the effective Glycemic Index (GI) of certain foods. The objective of this study was to determine whether the addition of Phase 2 would lower the GI of a commercially available high glycemic food (white bread). An open-label 6-arm crossover study was conducted with 13 randomized subjects. Standardized GI testing was performed on white bread with and without the addition of Phase 2 in capsule and powder form, each in dosages of 1500 mg, 2000 mg, and 3000 mg. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA of all seven treatment groups using unadjusted multiple comparisons (t tests) to the white bread control. For the capsule formulation, the 1500 mg dose had no effect on the GI and the 2000 mg and 3000 mg capsule doses caused insignificant reductions in GI. For the powder, the 1500 mg and 2000 mg doses caused insignificant reductions in the GI, and the 3000 mg dose had a significant effect (-20.23 or 34.11%, p = 0.023) Phase 2 white bean extract appears to be a novel and potentially effective method for reducing the GI of existing foods without modifying their ingredient profile. Trial Registration: ISRCTN50347345.

  17. 11 CFR 110.12 - Candidate appearances on public educational institution premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... educational institution exempt from federal taxation under 26 U.S.C. 115, such as a school, college or... normal charge. An unincorporated public educational institution exempt from federal taxation under 26 U.S... makes reasonable efforts to ensure that the appearances constitute speeches, question and answer...

  18. Defence White Paper 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    nurtured, particularly in Australia’s highly competitive labour market. The Government recognises that Defence’s approach to its people must be... satisfaction , increase attraction and retention, improve cost-effectiveness and support the contemporary Total Force employment model. Defence White...improve job satisfaction and thereby increase attraction and retention in areas of critical skill. Recruiting 10.13 To ensure that we have the high

  19. White in architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Hašič, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Throughout life, human beings are continuously in contact with colours and shapes. Some people are well aware of and understand their influence, while others are not aware or do not pay attention. Our feelings are often associated with certain colours. We tend to paint our living environment in mood-enhancing shades and cover ourselves with our favourite colours and materials. The colour that attracts my emotions is white, therefore I set out to dedicate my research to its nature and to find ...

  20. Differentiating therapy-induced leukoencephalopathy from unmyelinated white matter in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddick, Wilburn E.; Glass, John O.; Pui, Ching-Hon

    2003-05-01

    Reliably detecting subtle therapy-induced leukoencephalopathy in children treated for cancer is a challenging task due to its nearly identical MR properties and location with unmyelinated white matter. T1, T2, PD, and FLAIR images were collected for 44 children aged 1.7-18.7 (median 5.9) years near the start of therapy for ALL. The ICBM atlas and corresponding apriori maps were spatially normalized to each patient and resliced using SPM99 software. A combined imaging set consisting of MR images and WM, GM and CSF apriori maps were then analyzed with a Kohonen Self-Organizing Map. Vectors from hyperintense regions were compared to normal appearing genu vectors from the same patient. Analysis of the distributions of the differences, calculated on T2 and FLAIR images, revealed two distinct groups. The first large group, assumed normal unmyelinated white matter, consisted of 37 patients with changes in FLAIR ranging from 80 to 147 (mean 117-/+17) and T2 ranging from 92 to 217 (mean 144-/+28). The second group, assumed leukoencephalopathy, consisted of seven patients with changes in FLAIR ranging from 154 to 196 (mean 171-/+19) and T2 ranging from 190 to 287 (mean 216-/+33). A threshold was established for both FLAIR (change > 150) and T2 (change > 180).

  1. White dwarf planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonsor Amy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The recognition that planets may survive the late stages of stellar evolution, and the prospects for finding them around White Dwarfs, are growing. We discuss two aspects governing planetary survival through stellar evolution to the White Dwarf stage. First we discuss the case of a single planet, and its survival under the effects of stellar mass loss, radius expansion, and tidal orbital decay as the star evolves along the Asymptotic Giant Branch. We show that, for stars initially of 1 − 5 M⊙, any planets within about 1 − 5 AU will be engulfed, this distance depending on the stellar and planet masses and the planet's eccentricity. Planets engulfed by the star's envelope are unlikely to survive. Hence, planets surviving the Asymptotic Giant Branch phase will probably be found beyond ∼ 2 AU for a 1  M⊙ progenitor and ∼ 10 AU for a 5 M⊙ progenitor. We then discuss the evolution of two-planet systems around evolving stars. As stars lose mass, planet–planet interactions become stronger, and many systems stable on the Main Sequence become destabilised following evolution of the primary. The outcome of such instabilities is typically the ejection of one planet, with the survivor being left on an eccentric orbit. These eccentric planets could in turn be responsible for feeding planetesimals into the neighbourhood of White Dwarfs, causing observed pollution and circumstellar discs.

  2. Pathological changes associated with white striping in broiler breast muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttappan, V A; Shivaprasad, H L; Shaw, D P; Valentine, B A; Hargis, B M; Clark, F D; McKee, S R; Owens, C M

    2013-02-01

    White striping is a condition in broiler chickens characterized grossly by the occurrence of white striations, seen parallel to the direction of muscle fibers, on broiler breast fillets and thighs. Based on visual evaluation of the intensity of white striping, breast fillets can be categorized into normal (NORM), moderate (MOD), and severe (SEV) categories. This study was undertaken to evaluate the details of changes in histology as well as proximate composition occurring in the fillets with respect to the 3 degrees of white striping. In experiment 1, representative breast fillets for each degree of white striping (n = 20) were collected from 45-d-old broilers, approximately 2 h postmortem. From each fillet, 2 skeletal muscle samples were obtained and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin. To identify and differentiate the histological changes, slides were prepared and stained using hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's Trichrome, and Oil Red O stains. In experiment 2, samples with 3 degrees of white striping were collected from 57-d-old birds for conducting proximate analysis. Major histopathological changes observed in the MOD and SEV samples consisted of loss of cross striations, variability in fiber size, floccular/vacuolar degeneration and lysis of fibers, mild mineralization, occasional regeneration (nuclear rowing and multinucleated cells), mononuclear cell infiltration, lipidosis, and interstitial inflammation and fibrosis. Microscopic lesions were visually scored for degeneration and necrosis, fibrosis, and lipidosis. The scale used to score the samples ranged from 0 (normal) to 3 (severe). There was an increase (P white striping increased from NORM to SEV. The results from the histopathological study were supported by the findings from proximate analysis confirming that the fat and protein contents of muscle increased (P white striping increased. In conclusion, the histopathological changes occurring in white striping indicate a degenerative myopathy that

  3. Anisotropic diffusion within human white matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenevert, T.L.; Brunberg, J.A.; Pipe, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on measurements performed to assess the impact of fiber orientation on the apparent diffusion coefficient of human white matter in vivo. Orthogonal section selection pulses and strong motion sensitization gradient pulses were used for localized diffusion measurement along an anteroposteriorly oriented 1 x 1 cm tissue column in the left cerebral hemisphere. This region was selected since white matter fiber orientations are reasonably well defined. Independent acquisitions with motion sensitivity along anteroposterior and right-left directions allowed study of diffusion anisotropy. Motion artifacts were minimized by magnitude summation after one-dimensional Fourier transform of frequency-encoded echoes; consequently, cardiac gating was not required. Five normal volunteers were studied on a 1.5-T clinical MR system

  4. Baby Poop: What's Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I'm breast-feeding my newborn and her bowel movements are yellow and mushy. Is this normal for baby poop? Answers from Jay L. Hoecker, M.D. Yellow, mushy bowel movements are perfectly normal for breast-fed babies. Still, ...

  5. Defecography: A study of normal volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shorvon, P.; Stevenson, G.W.; McHugh, S.; Somers, P.

    1987-01-01

    This study of young volunteers was set up in an effort to establish true normal measurements for defecography with minimum selection bias. The results describe the mean (and the range) for the following: anorectal angle; anorectal junction position at rest; excursion on lift, strain, and evacuation; anal canal length and degree of closure; and the frequency and degree of features such as rectocele and intussusception which have previously been called abnormalities. The results indicate that there is a very wide range of normal appearances. Knowledge of these normal variations is important to avoid overreporting and unnecessary surgery

  6. Stark Broadening and White Dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Milan S.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available White dwarf and pre-white dwarfs are the best types of stars for the application of Stark broadening research results in astrophysics, since in the atmospheres of these stars physical conditions are very favorable for this line broadening mechanism - in hot hydrogen-deficient white dwarfs and pre-white dwarfs Teff = 75 000–180 000 K and log g = 5.5–8 [cgs]. Even for much cooler DA and DB white dwarfs with the typical effective temperatures 10 000-20 000 K, Stark broadening is usually the dominant broadening mechanism. In this review, Stark broadening in white dwarf spectra is considered, and the attention is drawn to the STARK-B database (http://stark-b.obspm.fr/, containing the parameters needed for analysis and synthesis of white dwarf spectra, as well as for the collective efforts to develop the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Center.

  7. Influential factors in the appearance of Erectile Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Celada Rodríguez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Determine erectile dysfunction (ED prevalence in patients with cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF. Assess ED incidence in relation to the extent of controlling CVRF. Methodology: An observational, descriptive, analytical, cross-sectional study. Resulting in a sample of 210 people, of which 31 could not complete the study for various reasons (change of address, death, refused to complete questionnaire, etc.. Variables analysis. We analysed: Age, Level of education, Civil status, Height, Weight and Body mass index (BMI, SBP, DBP, Smoking habit, No. cigarettes/day, year smoking began, ex-smoker, year smoking stopped, Alcohol consumption, grams alcohol/week. Consumption of other drugs, frequency and type. Blood test: glucose, haemoglobin glycated haemoglobin, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, artherogenic index, creatinine, urea, GOT, GPT, gamma-GT and PSA. Urine test: microalbuminuria, proteinuria and creatinine clearance. ECG. Diabetes diagnosed at least one year ago and prescribed drugs to treat it. High blood pressure diagnosed at least one year ago and prescribed drugs to treat it. Dyslipidaemia (hypercholesterolaemia diagnosed at least one year ago and prescribed drugs to treat it. Concomitant diseases of at least one year and drugs (up to 3 . Results: Of the 210 selected people, 179 completed the questionnaire (85.2%. The mean age was 64.5 ± 11.6 years. When analysing all the study variables in relation to the main variable, presence or absence of ED, age is seen to play an important role in ED appearing as ED incidence rises with age. Blood pressure had no significant relationship with the studied variable, and the same can be said of BMI and its subdivision into normal weight and obesity. As regards toxic habits, neither cigarette smoking nor alcohol consumption influenced the presence of ED. The same may be said of the sociological-type variables (civil states, level of education. Regarding the

  8. Visual Memories Bypass Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Ilona M; Watanabe, Yurika L; Kibbe, Melissa M; Ling, Sam

    2018-05-01

    How distinct are visual memory representations from visual perception? Although evidence suggests that briefly remembered stimuli are represented within early visual cortices, the degree to which these memory traces resemble true visual representations remains something of a mystery. Here, we tested whether both visual memory and perception succumb to a seemingly ubiquitous neural computation: normalization. Observers were asked to remember the contrast of visual stimuli, which were pitted against each other to promote normalization either in perception or in visual memory. Our results revealed robust normalization between visual representations in perception, yet no signature of normalization occurring between working memory stores-neither between representations in memory nor between memory representations and visual inputs. These results provide unique insight into the nature of visual memory representations, illustrating that visual memory representations follow a different set of computational rules, bypassing normalization, a canonical visual computation.

  9. Duodenal White Spots Mimicking Intestinal Candidiasis: Report of Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Turk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Duodenal white spots are mentioned in these nonspecific lesions until recently. Although there is not enough studies about duedonal white spots yet; these lesions described in a separate syndrome. Here now we reported a case that we diagnosed multiple Duodenal white spots mimicking intestinal candidiasis. Clinical manifestation and endoscopic appearance of lesions gave rise to thought intestinal candidiasis histopathological examination revealed us several duodenitis. There was no evidence of fungal infection in PAS staining. Early after endoscopy patient took treatment of Lansoprozole at the 30 mg dose and bismuth salicylate. Patients compliant declined and control endoscopy exposed white duodenal spots cleared away three months later. Duodenal white spots are becoming to be designated as a separate disease even a syndrome. Etiology of duodenal white spots must be determined carefully during endoscopy. Sometimes it is difficult to make the correct diagnosis by appearance of lesion; in such cases histopathological examination can be useful both differential diagnosis of disease and determination of etiological factor. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(4.000: 249-252

  10. Recurrent white thrombi formation in hemodialysis tubing: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathe, Kiran P; Yeo, Wee-Song; Liu, Isaac Desheng; Ekambaram, Sudha; Azar, Mohammed; Yap, Hui-Kim; Ng, Kar-Hui

    2015-01-15

    While the appearance of red clots in the dialyzer is a common phenomenon in every hemodialysis unit, the occurrence of white thrombi in the tubing is relatively rare. We describe an adolescent male with recurrent white thrombi formation in the hemodialysis tubing. This patient had chronic renal failure from focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, but was no longer nephrotic at the time of the thrombi formation. He had a history of recurrent thrombosis of his vascular access. However, no pro-thrombotic risk factors could be identified. White particulate matter, measuring 1 to 3mm in size, and adherent to the arterial and venous blood tubing lines was found during the rinse back of a hemodialysis session. This was associated with a 60% decrease in his platelet count. Light microscopic examination of the deposits revealed the presence of platelet aggregates. He subsequently developed thrombosis of his arteriovenous graft six hours later. The white thrombi recurred at the next dialysis session, as well as six months later. These episodes occurred regardless of the type of dialysis machine or tubing, and appeared to resolve with an increase in heparin dose. Recurrent white thrombi formation can occur in the hemodialysis tubing of a patient with no identifiable pro-thrombotic factors. The white thrombi may be a harbinger of arteriovenous graft thrombosis and may be prevented by an increase in heparin dose.

  11. Relationship between ultrasound estimated fetal gestational age and cerebellar appearance in healthy pregnant Nigerian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyekun, Ademola A; Orji, Michael O

    2015-01-01

    Fetal biometry by ultrasound provides reliable and important information about fetal growth and wellbeing. Evaluation of the fetal posterior fossa is useful in the assessment of neural tube-defects. Studies on normal ultrasound fetal cerebellar appearance and diameter across gestational age (GA) are scanty in the Nigerian medical literature. This study was carried out to study normal fetal cerebellar appearance and diameter at various GAs among healthy pregnant Nigerian Africans. This was a prospective study of 450 healthy singleton pregnant women between 13 and 42 weeks gestation. A curvilinear probe with a 3.5 MHz transducer of a SonoAce X6 (Medison Inc., Korea 2010) scanner was used to assess fetal transcerebellar diameter (TCD) and appearance. GA was also determined using fetal biometric parameters such as the biparietal diameter, femur length, and abdominal circumference. Fetal cerebellar appearance was correlated against GA. The cerebellar appearance was graded into: Grade I: 164 fetuses (36.4%), Grade II; 102 fetuses (22.7%) and Grade III: 184 fetuses (40.9%). Mean GA and TCD was 21 weeks and 21.2 mm for Grade I; 28 weeks and 32.6 mm for Grade II; and 35 weeks and 47.1 mm for Grade III. There was significance difference among the cerebellar grades at the GA groups and transverse cerebellar diameter (P < 0.000). There is a gradual and steady change in ultrasonographic appearance of the fetal cerebellar and diameter appearance with advancing gestation. The changes ranged from anechoic, "pair of eye glass" appearance at second trimester to relatively echogenic, "dumb-bell" appearance at early third trimester, and solid, "fan-shape" in late third trimester.

  12. Multiple whole body hyperthermia treatments on normal beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geist, B.J.; Gillette, E.L.; Tucker, A.; Robertshaw, D.; Benjamin, S.A.; Macy, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Twelve young adult male castrated beagles were randomized into either a treatment or a control group. The treatment group received 4 consecutive treatments at 1 week intertreatment intervals. A temperature and humidity controlled chamber was used to raise the core temperature to 42 0 C. Time required to raise the core temperature from 38 0 C to 42 0 C was approximately 70 minutes. Dogs were maintained at 42 0 C breathing halothane, 35% O/sub 2/ and 65 0 N/sub 2/ for 2 hours, followed by a 30 minute cool down period during which a shunt determination using 100% O/sub 2/ was done. No significant changes in temperature adjusted blood oxygen tension were noted during hyperthermia. Mean arterial blood pressure dropped an average of 15mm Hg during the 2 hour plateau. Cardiac rhythms remained stable and rates did not exceed 180 beats per minute. Central venous pressure remained stable and within normal range without treatment, 1.0 - 2.5 mm Hg. Dogs regained alertness and ambulation within 3 hours post treatment. No diarrhea was noted. The most significant acute changes appeared to be liver enzyme elevation, total protein decrement and transient changes in platelet and white blood cell counts

  13. MR imaging of the ankle: Normal variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noto, A.M.; Cheung, Y.; Rosenberg, Z.S.; Norman, A.; Leeds, N.E.

    1987-01-01

    Thirty asymptomatic ankles were studied with high-resolution surface coil MR imaging. The thirty ankles were reviewed for identification or normal structures. The MR appearance of the deltoid and posterior to talo-fibular ligaments, peroneous brevis and longus tendons, and posterior aspect of the tibial-talar joint demonstrated several normal variants not previously described. These should not be misinterpreted as pathologic processes. The specific findings included (1) cortical irregularity of the posterior tibial-talar joint in 27 of 30 cases which should not be mistaken for osteonecrois; (2) normal posterior talo-fibular ligament with irregular and frayed inhomogeneity, which represents a normal variant in seven of ten cases; and (3) fluid in the shared peroneal tendons sheath which may be confused for a longitudinal tendon tear in three of 30 cases. Ankle imaging with the use of MR is still a relatively new procedure. Further investigation is needed to better define normal anatomy as well as normal variants. The authors described several structures that normally present with variable MR imaging appearances. This is clinically significant in order to maintain a high sensitivity and specificity in MR imaging interpretation

  14. Masculinity, consumerism, and appearance: a look at men's hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardelli, Rosemary

    2011-05-01

    Historically, being concerned about appearance was stereotypically associated with women. Now masculinities too have become embedded in appearance norms. Consequently men too are increasingly concerned about their appearance. Via interviews with 14 Canadian men, the role of hair in self-identification and both satisfaction and dissatisfaction with appearance is examined. Emergent themes suggest that masculinity and appearance are increasingly intertwined, and consumer culture cultivates a climate that encourages men to view their appearance as something worthy of investment. Findings suggest that men are concerned about their appearance-specifically their hair-and that there is a relationship between masculinity, appearance, and self-identification. Findings are discussed within theories of masculinity and consumerism.

  15. Magnetic resonance appearance of adrenal hemorrhage in a neonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willemse, A.P.P.; Feldberg, M.A.M.; Witkamp, T.D.; Coppes, M.J.; Kramer, P.P.G.

    1989-01-01

    The Magnetic Resonance (MR) appearance of adrenal hemorrhage in a neonate is described and compared with Ultrasound (US). The value of US studies in adrenal neonatal hemorrhage is well known. We present the MR appearance of this common condition. (orig.)

  16. White Matter Integrity Dissociates Verbal Memory and Auditory Attention Span in Emerging Adults with Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Ryan C; King, Tricia Z; Burns, Thomas G; Drossner, David M; Mahle, William T

    2015-01-01

    White matter disruptions have been identified in individuals with congenital heart disease (CHD). However, no specific theory-driven relationships between microstructural white matter disruptions and cognition have been established in CHD. We conducted a two-part study. First, we identified significant differences in fractional anisotropy (FA) of emerging adults with CHD using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS). TBSS analyses between 22 participants with CHD and 18 demographically similar controls identified five regions of normal appearing white matter with significantly lower FA in CHD, and two higher. Next, two regions of lower FA in CHD were selected to examine theory-driven differential relationships with cognition: voxels along the left uncinate fasciculus (UF; a tract theorized to contribute to verbal memory) and voxels along the right middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP; a tract previously linked to attention). In CHD, a significant positive correlation between UF FA and memory was found, r(20)=.42, p=.049 (uncorrected). There was no correlation between UF and auditory attention span. A positive correlation between MCP FA and auditory attention span was found, r(20)=.47, p=.027 (uncorrected). There was no correlation between MCP and memory. In controls, no significant relationships were identified. These results are consistent with previous literature demonstrating lower FA in younger CHD samples, and provide novel evidence for disrupted white matter integrity in emerging adults with CHD. Furthermore, a correlational double dissociation established distinct white matter circuitry (UF and MCP) and differential cognitive correlates (memory and attention span, respectively) in young adults with CHD.

  17. Petechiae/purpura in well-appearing infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Melissa Huilin; Barnett, Peter L J

    2012-06-01

    Well infants with petechiae and/or purpura can present to emergency departments, and their management can be difficult. Many will have extensive investigations and treatment that may not be necessary. This was a retrospective and descriptive audit investigating well infants (purpura in the absence of fever to a pediatric emergency department over a 9½-year period. All presenting problems of petechiae or purpura were reviewed. Patients were excluded if they appeared unwell, were febrile or have a history of fever, or had eccyhmoses on presentation. Thirty-six babies were identified. The average age was 3.8 months (range, 1-7 months). The majority of the infants had localized purpura/petechiae to the lower limbs (92%) with two thirds of these patients having bilateral signs. None had generalized signs. Most infants had a full blood count (94%), coagulation profile (59%) and C-reactive protein (59%), and blood cultures (59%), with all being normal (except for mild elevation in platelets). Nine patients were admitted for observation, with only 1 patient having progression of signs. This patient had a diagnosis of acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy. The rest of the patients were thought to have either a mechanical reason for their petechiae/purpura (tourniquet phenomena) or a formal diagnosis was not specified. Well infants with localized purpura and/or petechiae with an absence of fever are more likely to have a benign etiology. Further study is required to determine if a full blood count and coagulation profile is necessary, or a period of observation (4 hours) is all that is required. If there is no progression of signs, it is likely that they can be safely discharged. The likely cause may be due to a tourniquet phenomenon (eg, diaper).

  18. 22 CFR 41.102 - Personal appearance of applicant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... interview. (d) Cases in which personal appearance may not be waived. A consular officer or the Deputy... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Personal appearance of applicant. 41.102... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Application for Nonimmigrant Visa § 41.102 Personal appearance of...

  19. Robust glint detection through homography normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dan Witzner; Roholm, Lars; García Ferreiros, Iván

    2014-01-01

    A novel normalization principle for robust glint detection is presented. The method is based on geometric properties of corneal reflections and allows for simple and effective detection of glints even in the presence of several spurious and identically appearing reflections. The method is tested...

  20. Practical method for appearance match between soft copy and hard copy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Naoya

    1994-04-01

    CRT monitors are often used as a soft proofing device for the hard copy image output. However, what the user sees on the monitor does not match its output, even if the monitor and the output device are calibrated with CIE/XYZ or CIE/Lab. This is especially obvious when correlated color temperature (CCT) of CRT monitor's white point significantly differs from ambient light. In a typical office environment, one uses a computer graphic monitor having a CCT of 9300K in a room of white fluorescent light of 4150K CCT. In such a case, human visual system is partially adapted to the CRT monitor's white point and partially to the ambient light. The visual experiments were performed on the effect of the ambient lighting. Practical method for soft copy color reproduction that matches the hard copy image in appearance is presented in this paper. This method is fundamentally based on a simple von Kries' adaptation model and takes into account the human visual system's partial adaptation and contrast matching.

  1. The White Rabbit project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Gousiou, E; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T; Daniluk, G; Lipinski, M

    2013-01-01

    White Rabbit (WR) is a multi-laboratory, multi- company collaboration for the development of a new Ethernet-based technology which ensures sub-nanosecond synchronisation and deterministic data transfer. The project uses an open source paradigm for the development of its hardware, gateware and software components. This article provides an introduction to the technical choices and an explanation of the basic principles underlying WR. It then describes some possible applications and the current status of the project. Finally, it provides insight on current developments and future plans.

  2. Communication Apprehension among Black Students on Predominantly White Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Marquita L.; Sims, Anntarie L.

    1987-01-01

    A study of 114 Black undergraduates in two predominantly White midwestern universities demonstrates that communication apprehension (CA) among Blacks appears to be an audience-based phenomenon. Black females scored lower than Black males on the Personal Report of Communication Apprehension-24 (PRCA-24). The higher the CA score, the higher the…

  3. LGBTQ Women, Appearance Negotiations, and Workplace Dress Codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy-Best, Kelly L

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore LGBTQ women's experiences with unwritten or formal dress codes at work. I asked: What are LGBTQ women's experiences in the workplace with appearance management, and what are LGBTQ women's experiences navigating the written and unwritten dress codes in the workplace? To answer the research question, interviews were conducted with 24 self-identifying LGBTQ women. Six key themes emerged from the data. Themes included (1) expressed sexual identity in appearance, (2) unwritten dress codes in work environments did not always allow for expression of sexual identity in appearance, (3) motivations for pressure or desire to conceal expression of sexual identity in appearance at work, (4) negotiations of revealing or concealing sexual identity in appearance in the workplace impacted levels of comfort and confidence, (5) verbal and nonverbal negative experiences related to appearance at work, and (6) received compliments about appearance at work.

  4. Adolescents' reasons for tanning and appearance motives: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Suzanne M; Fenwick, Kimberley D; Peterson, Jasmine C

    2014-01-01

    We examined adolescents' reasons for tanning and how these relate to appearance evaluation and orientation. Two hundred and sixty-four Canadian adolescents (age range 15-19 years) in grades 10, 11, and 12 completed a survey that included scales measuring their reasons for tanning, appearance evaluation, and appearance orientation. It was found that girls and boys differed on four of nine subscales measuring reasons for tanning. Girls believed more strongly than boys that tanning improved their general appearance and that friends influenced their decision to tan. Girls also expressed less concern than boys that tanning caused immediate skin damage or premature aging. The pattern of correlations between the reasons for tanning and appearance orientation was similar for girls and boys. For both, appearance reasons for tanning and sociocultural influences on tanning were positively associated with appearance orientation. Suggestions for future research with adolescents and a proposal for a guiding model are provided. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improves the chance of a good recovery. Without treatment, symptoms may worsen and cause death. What research is being done? The NINDS conducts and supports research on neurological disorders, including normal pressure hydrocephalus. Research on disorders such ...

  6. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  7. Normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrocephalus - occult; Hydrocephalus - idiopathic; Hydrocephalus - adult; Hydrocephalus - communicating; Dementia - hydrocephalus; NPH ... Ferri FF. Normal pressure hydrocephalus. In: Ferri FF, ed. ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 648. Rosenberg GA. Brain edema and disorders ...

  8. Normal Functioning Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  9. Normal growth and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002456.htm Normal growth and development To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A child's growth and development can be divided into four periods: ...

  10. Computed tomography of the normal sternum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, L.R.; Teplick, S.K.; Kay, H.

    1983-01-01

    The normal CT anatomy of the sternum was studied in 35 patients. In addition to the normal appearance of the sternum, normal variants that may mimic desease were often noted. In the manubrium, part of the posterior cortical margin was unsharp and irregular in 34 of 35 patients. Part of the anterior cortical margin was indistinct in 20 of the 35 patients. Angulation of the CT gantry to a position more nearly perpendicular to the manubrium improved the definition of the cortical margins. The body of the sternum was ovoid to rectangular and usually had sharp cortical margins. Sections through the manubriosternal joint and xyphoid often demonstrated irregular mottled calcifications and indistinct margins again simulating bony lesions. The rib insertions, sternal clavicular joints, and adjacent soft-tissue appearance also were evaluated

  11. The White House saga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daković Nevena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Frank Capra expressed his gratitude to the immigrant dream come true by creating a brilliant cinematic myth about the American political system, presenting it as an 'inherently good' when in the hands of honest and good people. His 'morality fairytales', 'fantasies of good will' imbued with belief in restoration of old-new principles, offer complex reflections on an idealised Americanism of the 1930s which have become the foundation of representations of the American political system. The Capraesque narrative - 'a blend of optimism, humor, patriotism, and, to those who really understand his work, (and darkness, despair, and the need to fight for things you care about...' (Bassinger 1982: 48 - as a combination of all-American values, ordinary people and historical figures, a democracy myth - has been extended by an endless network of intertextual echoes in film and TV production. Following the developmental lines - through political melodrama, melodramatic politics and political soap opera - one will be led from Capra to the series The West Wing (1996 - 2006, House of Cards (2013 - 2015 and Madame Secretary (2014 - ; from the comprehensive Washington Postcard (Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, 1939 to the focal points at the White House; from Capra's comedy to the saga of the fight against terrorism led by the president and both ordinary and trained American citizens (White House Down, 2013, Roland Emmerich.

  12. White dwarfs and revelations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltas, Ippocratis D.; Sawicki, Ignacy; Lopes, Ilidio

    2018-05-01

    We use the most recent, complete and independent measurements of masses and radii of white dwarfs in binaries to bound the class of non-trivial modified gravity theories, viable after GW170817/GRB170817, using its effect on the mass-radius relation of the stars. We show that the uncertainty in the latest data is sufficiently small that residual evolutionary effects, most notably the effect of core composition, finite temperature and envelope structure, must now accounted for if correct conclusions about the nature of gravity are to be made. We model corrections resulting from finite temperature and envelopes to a base Hamada-Salpeter cold equation of state and derive consistent bounds on the possible modifications of gravity in the stars' interiors, finding that the parameter quantifying the strength of the modification Y< 0.14 at 95% confidence, an improvement of a factor of three with respect to previous bounds. Finally, our analysis reveals some fundamental degeneracies between the theory of gravity and the precise chemical makeup of white dwarfs.

  13. White piedra in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiken, David A; Sekaran, Anand; Antaya, Richard J; Davis, Amy; Imaeda, Suguru; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2006-12-01

    White piedra is a fungal infection of the hair shaft caused by species of Trichosporon. Rarely has this infection been reported in the United States. Historically, infected individuals required shaving of their hair to achieve clearance of the infection. We sought to describe 8 cases of Trichosporon scalp infections seen in the northeastern United States. We conducted chart review and prospective evaluation of 7 girls and 1 boy seen in two dermatology practices in New Haven, Conn, and New York, NY. Seven girls, ages 4 to 16 years old, and one 4-year-old boy were determined to have Trichosporon scalp infection, all through culture. Of the 8 children who were available for follow-up, 7 had clearance of their infection with a combination of oral azole antifungal medication and azole antifungal shampoo, without shaving the scalp hair. This was a sample of patients from a localized region of the United States. White piedra is emerging as a commonly seen hair and scalp infection in the northeastern United States. Contrary to prior publications, scalp and hair infection may be successfully treated with a combination of oral azole antifungals and shampoos without shaving the scalp.

  14. An Exploratory Study of Socialization Effects on Black Children: Some Black-White Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    1972-01-01

    Major conclusion from this exploratory analysis was that if the black families were viewed by white norms they appeared authoritarian, but that, unlike their white counterparts, the most authoritarian of these families produced the most self-assertive and independent girls. (Author)

  15. Negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increases pain perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiro Osumi

    Full Text Available Changing the visual body appearance by use of as virtual reality system, funny mirror, or binocular glasses has been reported to be helpful in rehabilitation of pain. However, there are interindividual differences in the analgesic effect of changing the visual body image. We hypothesized that a negative body image associated with changing the visual body appearance causes interindividual differences in the analgesic effect although the relationship between the visual body appearance and analgesic effect has not been clarified. We investigated whether a negative body image associated with changes in the visual body appearance increased pain. Twenty-five healthy individuals participated in this study. To evoke a negative body image, we applied the method of rubber hand illusion. We created an "injured rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with pain, a "hairy rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with embarrassment, and a "twisted rubber hand" to evoke unpleasantness associated with deviation from the concept of normality. We also created a "normal rubber hand" as a control. The pain threshold was measured while the participant observed the rubber hand using a device that measured pain caused by thermal stimuli. Body ownership experiences were elicited by observation of the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand as well as the normal rubber hand. Participants felt more unpleasantness by observing the injured rubber hand and hairy rubber hand than the normal rubber hand and twisted rubber hand (p<0.001. The pain threshold was lower under the injured rubber hand condition than with the other conditions (p<0.001. We conclude that a negative body appearance associated with pain can increase pain sensitivity.

  16. Torsion of the normal fallopian tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provost, M W

    1972-01-01

    From 1961 to 1970 a number of cases of torsion of the Fallopian tube were seen at the Kaiser Foundation Hospital in San Francisco of which 3 cases are reported. Of the many theories of causation, pelvic congestion seemed the most likely. The only universal symptom is pain, located in the quadrant of the affected tube and sometimes radiating to the thigh or flank. Nausea and vomiting are frequent; temperature and white cell count are only slightly elevated or normal. A mass is often felt, depending on the amount of hemorrhage. Correct diagnosis is almost never made preoperatively. The only treatment is laparotomy and surgical correction.

  17. A semi-automated method for measuring thickness and white matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A semi-automated method for measuring thickness and white matter integrity of the corpus callosum. ... and interhemispheric differences. Future research will determine normal values for age and compare CC thickness with peripheral white matter volume loss in large groups of patients, using the semiautomated technique.

  18. White Noise Assumptions Revisited : Regression Models and Statistical Designs for Simulation Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    2006-01-01

    Classic linear regression models and their concomitant statistical designs assume a univariate response and white noise.By definition, white noise is normally, independently, and identically distributed with zero mean.This survey tries to answer the following questions: (i) How realistic are these

  19. Appearances of diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI) on MR imaging following preterm birth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, Anthony R.; Smith, Michael F.; Rigby, Alan S.; Wallis, Lauren I.; Whitby, Elspeth H.

    2010-01-01

    Diffuse damage to the periventricular white matter has recently been suggested to be a cause of the cognitive deficits seen following preterm birth. It is unclear whether this form of injury can be visualised on MR imaging, but one group has described diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI) as a possible form of diffuse white matter injury. This finding is dependant on window imaging and the subjective assessment of the reviewer, but little data have been published on the degree of subjectivity on its appearance among raters. To assess the subjectivity of DEHSI on conventional and ultrafast T2-weighted MR imaging following preterm birth. An observational study of 40 preterm infants who had MR imaging of the brain around term-equivalent age, including conventional fast spin-echo (FSE) and ultrafast single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE) T2-weighted sequences in the axial plane. Images were anonymised and scored twice by four observers for the presence of DEHSI. Inter- and intra-observer agreement were calculated. Sixty-five percent of conventional and 100% of the ultrafast images were of diagnostic quality. DEHSI was noted in between 0% and 69.2% of conventional images and 27.5-90% of the ultrafast images. Inter- and intra-observer agreement ranged from none to moderate. The visual appearances of DEHSI on conventional FSE and ultrafast SSFSE T2-W images are highly subjective, limiting its clinical application. (orig.)

  20. Appearances of diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI) on MR imaging following preterm birth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Anthony R. [Sheffield Teaching Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Neonatology, Jessop Wing, Sheffield (United Kingdom); University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom); University of Sheffield, Department of Academic Radiology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Smith, Michael F. [Sheffield Teaching Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Neonatology, Jessop Wing, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Rigby, Alan S. [University of Hull, Postgraduate Medical Centre, Castle Hill Hospital, East Yorkshire (United Kingdom); Wallis, Lauren I.; Whitby, Elspeth H. [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    Diffuse damage to the periventricular white matter has recently been suggested to be a cause of the cognitive deficits seen following preterm birth. It is unclear whether this form of injury can be visualised on MR imaging, but one group has described diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI) as a possible form of diffuse white matter injury. This finding is dependant on window imaging and the subjective assessment of the reviewer, but little data have been published on the degree of subjectivity on its appearance among raters. To assess the subjectivity of DEHSI on conventional and ultrafast T2-weighted MR imaging following preterm birth. An observational study of 40 preterm infants who had MR imaging of the brain around term-equivalent age, including conventional fast spin-echo (FSE) and ultrafast single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE) T2-weighted sequences in the axial plane. Images were anonymised and scored twice by four observers for the presence of DEHSI. Inter- and intra-observer agreement were calculated. Sixty-five percent of conventional and 100% of the ultrafast images were of diagnostic quality. DEHSI was noted in between 0% and 69.2% of conventional images and 27.5-90% of the ultrafast images. Inter- and intra-observer agreement ranged from none to moderate. The visual appearances of DEHSI on conventional FSE and ultrafast SSFSE T2-W images are highly subjective, limiting its clinical application. (orig.)

  1. Coral disease physiology: the impact of Acroporid white syndrome on Symbiodinium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roff, G.; Kvennefors, E. C. E.; Ulstrup, Karin Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Acroporid white syndrome, a disease-like syndrome from the Great Barrier Reef, results from degenerative host tissue at lesion borders. Tissue preceding lesion borders appears visually healthy, but it is currently unclear whether the endosymbiotic zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium) are physiologically...

  2. Mitral valve perforation appearing years after radiofrequency ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisch-Thomsen, Marie; Jensen, Jesper K; Egeblad, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The case is reported of a young adult with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome who, three years after a complicated radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation procedure, developed dyspnea on exertion. Echocardiography revealed severe mitral valve regurgitation caused by a perforation of the posterior...

  3. Effect of UV-irradiation on immunological and histochemical markers of Langerhans cells in normal appearing skin of psoriatic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjernlund, U.; Juhlin, L.

    1982-01-01

    A total of 12 patients with moderately severe psoriasis was treated with psoralen baths and/or ultraviolet radiation. Punch biopsies were taken for mimunological markers and shave biopsies for ATPase detection. As immunological marker immunosorbent purified antibodies against Ia antigens and monoclonal antigens against thymocyte antigens were used. The study showed that in the clinical relevant situation PUVA treatment had a more profound effect on the immunological markers of epidermal Langerhans cells than had light treatment without psoralens. With UV treatment without psoralens the ATPase activity of the Langerhans cells seemed to be more influenced than the immunological markers. (orig.)

  4. Pulsations in white dwarf stars

    OpenAIRE

    Van Grootel, Valérie; Fontaine, Gilles; Brassard, Pierre; Dupret, Marc-Antoine

    2017-01-01

    I will present a description of the six distinct families of pulsating white dwarfs that are currently known. Pulsations are present at various stages of the evolution (from hot, pre-white dwarfs to cool white dwarfs), at various stellar masses, and for various atmospheric compositions. In all of them, a mechanism linked to opacity changes along the evolution drives the oscillations. The existence of these oscillations offers the opportunity to apply asteroseismology for constraining physics ...

  5. Alexander's disease in a neurologically normal child: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, Scott O.; Knowles, Paul; Marshall, Robert; Burton, Edward M.

    2003-01-01

    We report the clinical and MRI findings of symmetric hyperintensity involving the deep and subcortical white matter of the frontal lobes in a neurologically normal child with macrocephaly. In this patient, a serum test for mutations in glial fibrillary acidic protein, used to diagnose Alexander's disease (AD), was positive. This case indicates an extraordinarily mild or early form of juvenile-onset AD. (orig.)

  6. Satisfaction with Appearance and the Desired Treatment to Improve Aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bader K. Al-Zarea

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify participants’ satisfaction with appearance and the desired treatment to improve aesthetics. Materials and Methods. 220 participants (127 males and 93 females, mean age = 21.4 ± 1.5 years were recruited into the study. A structured questionnaire was used to assess patients’ satisfaction with appearance and what treatment they desire to improve aesthetics. Participants scored the level of satisfaction with appearance using visual analogue scale. Results. The VAS mean score of satisfaction with general appearance was 6.8 ± 2.3. Half participants were dissatisfied with tooth appearance and 65.9% were dissatisfied with tooth colour. Higher VAS scores were associated with higher desire for all treatments that improve tooth appearance (. Dissatisfaction with tooth appearance increased with increased dissatisfaction with teeth colour, feeling of poor tooth alignment, presence of fractured anterior teeth, and increased desire for orthodontic, crowns, and dentures treatments (. Dissatisfaction with tooth colour was associated with increased desire for tooth whitening and tooth coloured fillings (. Conclusions. Participants had high levels of dissatisfaction with tooth appearance and tooth colour. Dissatisfaction with tooth colour contributed to the increased dissatisfaction with tooth appearance. Dissatisfaction with tooth appearance, colour, alignment, and condition was significantly related to high desire for aesthetic treatments.

  7. Selecting fillers on emotional appearance improves lineup identification accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowe, Heather D; Klatt, Thimna; Colloff, Melissa F

    2014-12-01

    Mock witnesses sometimes report using criminal stereotypes to identify a face from a lineup, a tendency known as criminal face bias. Faces are perceived as criminal-looking if they appear angry. We tested whether matching the emotional appearance of the fillers to an angry suspect can reduce criminal face bias. In Study 1, mock witnesses (n = 226) viewed lineups in which the suspect had an angry, happy, or neutral expression, and we varied whether the fillers matched the expression. An additional group of participants (n = 59) rated the faces on criminal and emotional appearance. As predicted, mock witnesses tended to identify suspects who appeared angrier and more criminal-looking than the fillers. This tendency was reduced when the lineup fillers matched the emotional appearance of the suspect. Study 2 extended the results, testing whether the emotional appearance of the suspect and fillers affects recognition memory. Participants (n = 1,983) studied faces and took a lineup test in which the emotional appearance of the target and fillers was varied between subjects. Discrimination accuracy was enhanced when the fillers matched an angry target's emotional appearance. We conclude that lineup member emotional appearance plays a critical role in the psychology of lineup identification. The fillers should match an angry suspect's emotional appearance to improve lineup identification accuracy. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. {sup 1}H and {sup 31}P magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging of white matter signal hyperintensity areas in elderly subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constans, J M [Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of California Magnetic Resonance Unit, San Francisco, CA (United States); [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Meyerhoff, D J [Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of California Magnetic Resonance Unit, San Francisco, CA (United States); [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Norman, D [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Fein, G [Department of Veterans Affairs Psychiatry Service, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); [University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Psychiatry; Weiner, M W [Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of California Magnetic Resonance Unit, San Francisco, CA (United States); [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Medicine; [DVA Medical Center, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Unit, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    White matter signal hyperintensities (WMSH) are commonly seen on MRI of elderly subjects. The purpose of this study was to characterize metabolic changes in the white matter of elderly subjects with extensive WMSH. We used water-suppressed proton ({sup 1}H) magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) to compare six subjects with extensive WMSH with eight age-matched elderly subjects with minimal or absent WMSH, and phosphorus ({sup 31}P) MRSI to compare nine subjects with extensive WMSH and seven age-matched elderly subjects without extensive WMSH. Relative to region-matched tissue in elderly controls, extensive WMSH were associated with increased signal from choline-containing metabolites, no significant change of signal from N-acetylaspartate, and a trend to a decreased phosphomonoester (PME) resonance. These findings suggest that WMSH may be associated with an alteration of brain myelin phospholipids in the absence of axonal damage. There were no differences in energy phosphates, consistent with lack of ongoing brain ischemia. Within the group with extensive WMSH, PME resonance measures were significantly lower in WMSH than in contralateral normal-appearing white matter. These results provide information on pathophysiology of WMSH and a basis for comparison with WMSH in Alzheimer`s disease, vascular dementia, multiple sclerosis, and other diseases. (orig.). With 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Smooth quantile normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Stephanie C; Okrah, Kwame; Paulson, Joseph N; Quackenbush, John; Irizarry, Rafael A; Bravo, Héctor Corrada

    2018-04-01

    Between-sample normalization is a critical step in genomic data analysis to remove systematic bias and unwanted technical variation in high-throughput data. Global normalization methods are based on the assumption that observed variability in global properties is due to technical reasons and are unrelated to the biology of interest. For example, some methods correct for differences in sequencing read counts by scaling features to have similar median values across samples, but these fail to reduce other forms of unwanted technical variation. Methods such as quantile normalization transform the statistical distributions across samples to be the same and assume global differences in the distribution are induced by only technical variation. However, it remains unclear how to proceed with normalization if these assumptions are violated, for example, if there are global differences in the statistical distributions between biological conditions or groups, and external information, such as negative or control features, is not available. Here, we introduce a generalization of quantile normalization, referred to as smooth quantile normalization (qsmooth), which is based on the assumption that the statistical distribution of each sample should be the same (or have the same distributional shape) within biological groups or conditions, but allowing that they may differ between groups. We illustrate the advantages of our method on several high-throughput datasets with global differences in distributions corresponding to different biological conditions. We also perform a Monte Carlo simulation study to illustrate the bias-variance tradeoff and root mean squared error of qsmooth compared to other global normalization methods. A software implementation is available from https://github.com/stephaniehicks/qsmooth.

  10. Clinical Importance of Morphological Appearance of Seminiferous Tubules During MicroTESE in NOA Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Haliloglu

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Design: Clinical study. Setting: Research Center on Infertility, Ankara University; and Urology Department. Patients: 65 men with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA.\tInterventions: Microscopical appearance of seminiferous tubules was recorded during TESE surgery. Differing from others, the largest opaque-white in color tubules were cut and removed. When all the tubules have no discriminating appearance, randomized biopsies were obtained. Removed tissue pieces were subjected to mechanical mincing under the stereomicroscope and then enzymatic digestion processes. Using inversion microscope (x32 magnification spermatozoa were searched. Main Outcome Measures: Morphological appearance of seminiferous tubules under optical magnification, spermatozoa recovery rates and histopathological findings were compared.\tRESULTS: In cases of Sertoli cell-only syndrome (SCOS, maturation arrest, hypospermatogenesis and focal spermatogenesis TESE yielded at least one spermatozoon in 37%, 52%, 100% and 63% of the cases, respectively. When all the seminiferous tubules were homogenously swollen, histopathological diagnosis was hypospermatogenesis in 100% of the cases. Homogenously thin and transparent tubules corresponded to SCOS or maturation arrest in 90% and 10% of the cases, respectively. Mature spermatozoa recovery rates were 100% and zero in homogenously-swollen observed and homogenously-thin observed tubules, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Present data indicate that in cases of all tubules are homogenous in appearance and none of them can be discriminated from others, using microscope has no advantage in selection of the tubuli to be removed, but randomizely selection would also be sufficient. MicroTESE significantly increases the success in NOA cases with seminiferous tubules dispersed heterogeneously.

  11. Satisfaction with appearance and the desired treatment to improve aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zarea, Bader K

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To identify participants' satisfaction with appearance and the desired treatment to improve aesthetics. Materials and Methods. 220 participants (127 males and 93 females, mean age = 21.4 ± 1.5 years) were recruited into the study. A structured questionnaire was used to assess patients' satisfaction with appearance and what treatment they desire to improve aesthetics. Participants scored the level of satisfaction with appearance using visual analogue scale. Results. The VAS mean score of satisfaction with general appearance was 6.8 ± 2.3. Half participants were dissatisfied with tooth appearance and 65.9% were dissatisfied with tooth colour. Higher VAS scores were associated with higher desire for all treatments that improve tooth appearance (P feeling of poor tooth alignment, presence of fractured anterior teeth, and increased desire for orthodontic, crowns, and dentures treatments (P desire for tooth whitening and tooth coloured fillings (P desire for aesthetic treatments.

  12. Fast Appearance Modeling for Automatic Primary Video Object Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiong; Price, Brian; Shen, Xiaohui; Lin, Zhe; Yuan, Junsong

    2016-02-01

    Automatic segmentation of the primary object in a video clip is a challenging problem as there is no prior knowledge of the primary object. Most existing techniques thus adapt an iterative approach for foreground and background appearance modeling, i.e., fix the appearance model while optimizing the segmentation and fix the segmentation while optimizing the appearance model. However, these approaches may rely on good initialization and can be easily trapped in local optimal. In addition, they are usually time consuming for analyzing videos. To address these limitations, we propose a novel and efficient appearance modeling technique for automatic primary video object segmentation in the Markov random field (MRF) framework. It embeds the appearance constraint as auxiliary nodes and edges in the MRF structure, and can optimize both the segmentation and appearance model parameters simultaneously in one graph cut. The extensive experimental evaluations validate the superiority of the proposed approach over the state-of-the-art methods, in both efficiency and effectiveness.

  13. Abnormal white matter properties in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Travis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anorexia nervosa (AN is a serious eating disorder that typically emerges during adolescence and occurs most frequently in females. To date, very few studies have investigated the possible impact of AN on white matter tissue properties during adolescence, when white matter is still developing. The present study evaluated white matter tissue properties in adolescent girls with AN using diffusion MRI with tractography and T1 relaxometry to measure R1 (1/T1, an index of myelin content. Fifteen adolescent girls with AN (mean age = 16.6 years ± 1.4 were compared to fifteen age-matched girls with normal weight and eating behaviors (mean age = 17.1 years ± 1.3. We identified and segmented 9 bilateral cerebral tracts (18 and 8 callosal fiber tracts in each participant's brain (26 total. Tract profiles were generated by computing measures for fractional anisotropy (FA and R1 along the trajectory of each tract. Compared to controls, FA in the AN group was significantly decreased in 4 of 26 white matter tracts and significantly increased in 2 of 26 white matter tracts. R1 was significantly decreased in the AN group compared to controls in 11 of 26 white matter tracts. Reduced FA in combination with reduced R1 suggests that the observed white matter differences in AN are likely due to reductions in myelin content. For the majority of tracts, group differences in FA and R1 did not occur within the same tract. The present findings have important implications for understanding the neurobiological factors underlying white matter changes associated with AN and invite further investigations examining associations between white matter properties and specific physiological, cognitive, social, or emotional functions affected in AN.

  14. Abnormal white matter properties in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Katherine E.; Golden, Neville H.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Solomon, Murray; Nguyen, Jenny; Mezer, Aviv; Yeatman, Jason D.; Dougherty, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious eating disorder that typically emerges during adolescence and occurs most frequently in females. To date, very few studies have investigated the possible impact of AN on white matter tissue properties during adolescence, when white matter is still developing. The present study evaluated white matter tissue properties in adolescent girls with AN using diffusion MRI with tractography and T1 relaxometry to measure R1 (1/T1), an index of myelin content. Fifteen adolescent girls with AN (mean age = 16.6 years ± 1.4) were compared to fifteen age-matched girls with normal weight and eating behaviors (mean age = 17.1 years ± 1.3). We identified and segmented 9 bilateral cerebral tracts (18) and 8 callosal fiber tracts in each participant's brain (26 total). Tract profiles were generated by computing measures for fractional anisotropy (FA) and R1 along the trajectory of each tract. Compared to controls, FA in the AN group was significantly decreased in 4 of 26 white matter tracts and significantly increased in 2 of 26 white matter tracts. R1 was significantly decreased in the AN group compared to controls in 11 of 26 white matter tracts. Reduced FA in combination with reduced R1 suggests that the observed white matter differences in AN are likely due to reductions in myelin content. For the majority of tracts, group differences in FA and R1 did not occur within the same tract. The present findings have important implications for understanding the neurobiological factors underlying white matter changes associated with AN and invite further investigations examining associations between white matter properties and specific physiological, cognitive, social, or emotional functions affected in AN. PMID:26740918

  15. White Faculty Transforming Whiteness in the Classroom through Pedagogical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbeneau, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this qualitative study is to present a conceptual framework of pedagogical practices reported by white faculty that serve to challenge the hegemony of whiteness in the university classroom. These transformative teaching practices surfaced through a review of racialized pedagogies discussed in the literature and in…

  16. Silvicultural guide for northern white-cedar (eastern white cedar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuelle Boulfroy; Eric Forget; Philip V. Hofmeyer; Laura S. Kenefic; Catherine Larouche; Guy Lessard; Jean-Martin Lussier; Fred Pinto; Jean-Claude Ruel; Aaron. Weiskittel

    2012-01-01

    Northern white-cedar (eastern white cedar; Thuja occidentalis L.) is an important tree species in the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, occurring both in pure stands and as a minor species in mixed stands of hardwoods or other softwoods. Yet practitioners have little and often contradictory information about cedar ecology and...

  17. White Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Peering deep inside a cluster of several hundred thousand stars, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has uncovered the oldest burned-out stars in our Milky Way Galaxy, giving astronomers a fresh reading on the age of the universe. Located in the globular cluster M4, these small, burned-out stars -- called white dwarfs -- are about 12 to 13 billion years old. By adding the one billion years it took the cluster to form after the Big Bang, astronomers found that the age of the white dwarfs agrees with previous estimates that the universe is 13 to 14 billion years old. The images, including some taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are available online at http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2002/10/ or http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. In the top panel, a ground-based observatory snapped a panoramic view of the entire cluster, which contains several hundred thousand stars within a volume of 10 to 30 light-years across. The Kitt Peak National Observatory's .9-meter telescope took this picture in March 1995. The box at left indicates the region observed by the Hubble telescope. The Hubble telescope studied a small region of the cluster. A section of that region is seen in the picture at bottom left. A sampling of an even smaller region is shown at bottom right. This region is only about one light-year across. In this smaller region, Hubble pinpointed a number of faint white dwarfs. The blue circles indicate the dwarfs. It took nearly eight days of exposure time over a 67-day period to find these extremely faint stars. Globular clusters are among the oldest clusters of stars in the universe. The faintest and coolest white dwarfs within globular clusters can yield a globular cluster's age. Earlier Hubble observations showed that the first stars formed less than 1 billion years after the universe's birth in the big bang. So, finding the oldest stars puts astronomers within

  18. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C

    2015-01-01

    10 cohorts. To assess the relative contribution of genetic factors to progression of WML, we compared in 7 cohorts risk models including demographics, vascular risk factors plus single-nucleotide polymorphisms that have been shown to be associated cross-sectionally with WML in the current......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants...... associated with WML progression in elderly participants from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium. METHODS: Heritability of WML progression was calculated in the Framingham Heart Study. The genome-wide association study included 7773 elderly participants from...

  19. ILC Higgs White Paper

    CERN Document Server

    Asner, D.M.; Calancha, C.; Fujii, K.; Graf, N.; Haber, H.E.; Ishikawa, A.; Kanemura, S.; Kawada, S.; Kurata, M.; Miyamoto, A.; Neal, H.; Ono, H.; Potter, C.; Strube, J.; Suehara, T.; Tanabe, T.; Tian, J.; Tsumura, J.; Watanuki, S.; Weiglein, G.; Yagyu, K.; Yokoya, H.

    2013-01-01

    The ILC Higgs White Paper is a review of Higgs Boson theory and experiment at the International Linear Collider (ILC). Theory topics include the Standard Model Higgs, the two-Higgs doublet model, alternative approaches to electroweak symmetry breaking, and precision goals for Higgs boson experiments. Experimental topics include the measurement of the Higgs cross section times branching ratio for various Higgs decay modes at ILC center of mass energies of 250, 500, and 1000 GeV, and the extraction of Higgs couplings and the total Higgs width from these measurements. Luminosity scenarios based on the ILC TDR machine design are used throughout. The gamma-gamma collider option at the ILC is also discussed.

  20. Quality Assurance Based on Descriptive and Parsimonious Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannik Boll; Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Kristensen, Rasmus Lyngby

    2015-01-01

    In this positional paper, we discuss the potential benefits of using appearance models in additive manufacturing, metal casting, wind turbine blade production, and 3D content acquisition. Current state of the art in acquisition and rendering of appearance cannot easily be used for quality assurance...... in these areas. The common denominator is the need for descriptive and parsimonious appearance models. By ‘parsimonious’ we mean with few parameters so that a model is useful both for fast acquisition, robust fitting, and fast rendering of appearance. The word ‘descriptive’ refers to the fact that a model should...

  1. Acute toxicity and sublethal effects of white phosphorus in mute swans, Cygnus olor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.; Day, D.; Klein, P.

    1999-01-01

    Among the waterfowl affected by white phosphorus (P4) at a military base in Alaska are tundra (Cygnus columbianus) and trumpeter (C. buccinator) swans. To estimate the toxicity of P4 to swans and compare the toxic effects to those of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), we dosed 30 juvenile mute swans (C. olor) with 0 to 5.28 mg P4 /kg body weight. The estimated LD50 was 3.65 mg/kg (95% CI: 1.40 to 4.68 mg/kg). However, many of the swans still had P4 in their gizzards after dying, as determined by 'smoking gizzards', and a lower LD50 might be calculated if all of the P4 had passed into the small intestines. We attribute the retention of P4 in swans to the presence of coarse sandlike particles of grit which were of similar size as the P4 pellets. Most swans took 1 to 4.5 days to die in contrast to the few hours normally required in mallards and death appeared to related more to liver dysfunction than to hemolysis. White phosphorus affected several plasma constituents, most notably elevated aspartate amiontransferase, blood urea nitrogen, lactate dehydrogenase, and alanine aminotransferase.

  2. Monitoring the normal body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    of practices for monitoring their bodies based on different kinds of calculations of weight and body size, observations of body shape, and measurements of bodily firmness. Biometric measurements are familiar to them as are health authorities' recommendations. Despite not belonging to an extreme BMI category...... provides us with knowledge about how to prevent future overweight or obesity. This paper investigates body size ideals and monitoring practices among normal-weight and moderately overweight people. Methods : The study is based on in-depth interviews combined with observations. 24 participants were...... recruited by strategic sampling based on self-reported BMI 18.5-29.9 kg/m2 and socio-demographic factors. Inductive analysis was conducted. Results : Normal-weight and moderately overweight people have clear ideals for their body size. Despite being normal weight or close to this, they construct a variety...

  3. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process......This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...

  4. Normalization of satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongsuk H.; Elman, Gregory C.

    1990-01-01

    Sets of Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery taken over the Washington, DC metropolitan area during the months of November, March and May were converted into a form of ground reflectance imagery. This conversion was accomplished by adjusting the incident sunlight and view angles and by applying a pixel-by-pixel correction for atmospheric effects. Seasonal color changes of the area can be better observed when such normalization is applied to space imagery taken in time series. In normalized imagery, the grey scale depicts variations in surface reflectance and tonal signature of multi-band color imagery can be directly interpreted for quantitative information of the target.

  5. The normal holonomy group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmos, C.

    1990-05-01

    The restricted holonomy group of a Riemannian manifold is a compact Lie group and its representation on the tangent space is a product of irreducible representations and a trivial one. Each one of the non-trivial factors is either an orthogonal representation of a connected compact Lie group which acts transitively on the unit sphere or it is the isotropy representation of a single Riemannian symmetric space of rank ≥ 2. We prove that, all these properties are also true for the representation on the normal space of the restricted normal holonomy group of any submanifold of a space of constant curvature. 4 refs

  6. Forced Normalization: Antagonism Between Epilepsy and Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Itoh, Yasuhiko

    2017-05-01

    The antagonism between epilepsy and psychosis has been discussed for a long time. Landolt coined the term "forced normalization" in the 1950s to describe psychotic episodes associated with the remission of seizures and disappearance of epileptiform activity on electroencephalograms in individuals with epilepsy. Since then, neurologists and psychiatrists have been intrigued by this phenomenon. However, although collaborative clinical studies and basic experimental researches have been performed, the mechanism of forced normalization remains unknown. In this review article, we present a historical overview of the concept of forced normalization, and discuss potential pathogenic mechanisms and clinical diagnosis. We also discuss the role of dopamine, which appears to be a key factor in the mechanism of forced normalization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. White LED with High Package Extraction Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Zheng; Stough, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    in the package may cause a deterioration of encapsulant materials, affecting the performance of both the LED die and phosphor, leading to a decrease in the luminous efficacy over lifetime. Recent studies from research groups at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute found that, under the condition to obtain a white light, about 40% of the light is transmitted outward of the phosphor layer and 60% of the light is reflected inward.1,2 It is claimed that using scattered photon extraction (SPE) technique, luminous efficacy is increased by 60%. In this project, a transparent/translucent monolithic phosphor was used to replace the powdered phosphor layer. In the normal pcLED package, the powdered phosphor is mixed with silicone either to be deposited on the top of LED die forming a chip level conversion (CLC) white LED or to be casted in the package forming a volume conversion white LED. In the monolithic phosphors there are no phosphor powder/silicone interfaces so it can reduce the light scattering caused by phosphor particles. Additionally, a multi-layer thin film selectively reflecting filter is inserted in the white LED package between the blue LED die and phosphor layer. It will selectively transmit the blue light from the LED die and reflect the phosphor's yellow inward emission outward. The two technologies try to recover backward light to the outward direction in the pcLED package thereby improving the package extraction efficiency.

  8. Axion cooling of white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Isern, J.; Catalan, S.; Garcia--Berro, E.; Salaris, M.; Torres, S.

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of white dwarfs is a simple gravothermal process. This process can be tested in two ways, through the luminosity function of these stars and through the secular variation of the period of pulsation of those stars that are variable. Here we show how the mass of the axion can be constrained using the white dwarf luminosity function.

  9. At-Risk Youth Appearance and Job Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeburg, Beth Winfrey; Workman, Jane E.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the relationship of at-risk youth workplace appearance to other job performance criteria. Employers (n = 30; each employing from 1 to 17 youths) evaluated 178 at-risk high school youths who completed a paid summer employment experience. Appearance evaluations were significantly correlated with evaluations of…

  10. Satisfaction with Appearance and the Desired Treatment to Improve Aesthetics

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Zarea, Bader K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To identify participants’ satisfaction with appearance and the desired treatment to improve aesthetics. Materials and Methods. 220 participants (127 males and 93 females, mean age = 21.4 ± 1.5 years) were recruited into the study. A structured questionnaire was used to assess patients’ satisfaction with appearance and what treatment they desire to improve aesthetics. Participants scored the level of ...

  11. Oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus: Unusual radiological appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedi, D.G.; Shaw, M.T.

    1986-08-01

    Primary oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus is a very rare tumour. The radiographic appearance of the three cases described in this paper are unusual because they resemble benign lesions such as leiomyoma, fibrous polyp and candidiasis. It would be interesting to investigate whether such an unusual appearance is common for this neoplasm.

  12. Oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus: Unusual radiological appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedi, D.G.; Shaw, M.T.

    1986-01-01

    Primary oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus is a very rare tumour. The radiographic appearance of the three cases described in this paper are unusual because they resemble benign lesions such as leiomyoma, fibrous polyp and candidiasis. It would be interesting to investigate whether such an unusual appearance is common for this neoplasm. (orig.)

  13. Combining Facial Dynamics With Appearance for Age Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dibeklioğlu, H.; Alnajar, F.; Salah, A.A.; Gevers, T.

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the age of a human from the captured images of his/her face is a challenging problem. In general, the existing approaches to this problem use appearance features only. In this paper, we show that in addition to appearance information, facial dynamics can be leveraged in age estimation. We

  14. Adrenal phaeochromocytoma: correlation of MRI appearances with histology and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques, Audrey E.T.; Sahdev, Anju; Sandrasagara, Madrika; Rockall, Andrea G.; Reznek, Rodney H.; Goldstein, Rick; Chew, Shern; Berney, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the range of appearances of adrenal phaeochromocytomas on T2-weighted MRI, correlate appearances with histopathology, and quantify the incidence of the previously described hyperintense appearance. The appearance and MR characteristics of 44 phaeochromocytomas were reviewed retrospectively. T2-weighted appearances were grouped: (1) 'classical', homogeneous, high signal intensity, isointense to CSF; (2) homogeneous, isointense or minimally hyperintense to spleen, hypointense to CSF; (3) heterogeneous, marbled appearance; (4) heterogeneous, multiple high signal intensity pockets. All 44 adrenal phaeochromocytomas were well circumscribed, 1.2-15 cm in maximum diameter, with no visual or quantitative signal loss on chemical shift imaging. On T2-weighted MRI 5/44 (11%) had group 1 appearance; 15/44 (34%) group 2, 7/44 (16%) group 3; and 17/44 (39%) group 4. Homogeneous group 1 and 2 lesions were smaller (mean 4.5 cm) than heterogeneous group 3 and 4 lesions (mean 6.3 cm). Increasing MRI heterogeneity correlated pathologically with increasing amounts of haemorrhage, necrosis and fibrosis. No MRI features were predictive of malignancy. Non-functioning phaeochromocytomas were larger than functioning lesions. No size difference was seen between syndrome and sporadic lesions. In this large series we report a wide range of appearances of adrenal phaeochromocytomas on T2-weighted MRI. The previously described classical hyperintense phaeochromocytoma is relatively uncommon. (orig.)

  15. Examining Appearance-Based Rejection Sensitivity during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Thomas, Katelyn K.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Park, Lora E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study of 150 adolescents ("M" age = 13.05 years) examined the associations between appearance-based rejection sensitivity (Appearance-RS) and psychological adjustment during early adolescence, and evaluated three types of other-gender peer experiences (other-gender friendship, peer acceptance, and romantic relationships) as…

  16. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Myers

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  17. Medically-enhanced normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møldrup, Claus; Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To consider public perspectives on the use of medicines for non-medical purposes, a usage called medically-enhanced normality (MEN). Method: Examples from the literature were combined with empirical data derived from two Danish research projects: a Delphi internet study and a Telebus...

  18. The Normal Fetal Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivilevitch, Zvi; Achiron, Reuven; Perlman, Sharon; Gilboa, Yinon

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the sonographic feasibility of measuring the fetal pancreas and its normal development throughout pregnancy. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective study between 19 and 36 weeks' gestation. The study included singleton pregnancies with normal pregnancy follow-up. The pancreas circumference was measured. The first 90 cases were tested to assess feasibility. Two hundred ninety-seven fetuses of nondiabetic mothers were recruited during a 3-year period. The overall satisfactory visualization rate was 61.6%. The intraobserver and interobserver variability had high interclass correlation coefficients of of 0.964 and 0.967, respectively. A cubic polynomial regression described best the correlation of pancreas circumference with gestational age (r = 0.744; P pancreas circumference percentiles for each week of gestation were calculated. During the study period, we detected 2 cases with overgrowth syndrome and 1 case with an annular pancreas. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of sonography for measuring the fetal pancreas and established a normal reference range for the fetal pancreas circumference throughout pregnancy. This database can be helpful when investigating fetomaternal disorders that can involve its normal development. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  19. Changes in Appearance in the Presence of Major Stress Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E. Stitz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between experiencing major stress events (MSEs and changes in appearance (CAs was studied in a sample of 128 participants. All participants completed the Major Stress Event and Changes in Appearance Inventory. Results indicated a significant correlation between experiencing MSEs and considered or actual CAs (r = .50 p < .01. Scores on the Changes in Appearance Inventory were significantly higher in groups with moderate to high scores on the Major Stress Event scale. This relationship between MSEs and CAs was affected by age but not gender. These results suggest that stressful life events may prompt body image dissatisfaction and underlie motivations for changes in body appearance to promote self-image. Successive or dramatic appearance changes may be an important signal of stressful experiences.

  20. The role of appearance schematicity in the internalization of media appearance ideals: A panel study of preadolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Ann; Gamble, Hilary; Eggermont, Steven

    2017-10-01

    Individuals who are more strongly invested in their appearance, appearance schematics, have a tendency to engage in appearance-related comparison. Appearance schematicity consists of two components. The self-evaluative component concerns the degree to which appearance is central to self-worth, referred to as dysfunctional appearance beliefs. Motivational salience refers to the engagement in behaviors designed to enhance appearance, such as body surveillance. Based on a three-wave panel survey of 973 Flemish preadolescents (M age  = 11.15, SD = 1.13) we found that the motivational and self-evaluative components had a different impact on media internalization. For preadolescents who engaged in more body surveillance, watching television resulted in more media internalization. For preadolescents who had fewer dysfunctional appearance beliefs, watching television resulted in more media internalization. These findings suggest that appearance schematicity is an important susceptibility variable in the relationship between TV-exposure and media internalization, and emphasize the importance of investigating individual dispositions beyond gender differences. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.