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Sample records for normal alignment type

  1. Reliability of digital photography for assessing lower extremity alignment in individuals with flatfeet and normal feet types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashnagar, Zinat; Hadian, Mohammad Reza; Olyaei, Gholamreza; Talebian Moghadam, Saeed; Rezasoltani, Asghar; Saeedi, Hassan; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Mahmoodi, Rahimeh

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the intratester reliability of digital photographic method for quantifying static lower extremity alignment in individuals with flatfeet and normal feet types. Thirteen females with flexible flatfeet and nine females with normal feet types were recruited from university communities. Reflective markers were attached over the participant's body landmarks. Frontal and sagittal plane photographs were taken while the participants were in a standardized standing position. The markers were removed and after 30 min the same procedure was repeated. Pelvic angle, quadriceps angle, tibiofemoral angle, genu recurvatum, femur length and tibia length were measured from photographs using the Image j software. All measured variables demonstrated good to excellent intratester reliability using digital photography in both flatfeet (ICC: 0.79-0.93) and normal feet type (ICC: 0.84-0.97) groups. The findings of the current study indicate that digital photography is a highly reliable method of measurement for assessing lower extremity alignment in both flatfeet and normal feet type groups. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. FACT. Normalized and asynchronous mirror alignment for Cherenkov telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Sebastian Achim [ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Buss, Jens [TU Dortmund (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) need fast and large imaging optics to map the faint Cherenkov light emitted in cosmic ray air showers onto their image sensors. Segmented reflectors are inexpensive, lightweight and offer good image quality. However, alignment of the mirror facets remains a challenge. A good alignment is crucial in IACT observations to separate gamma rays from hadronic cosmic rays. We present a star tracking alignment method which is not restricted to clear nights. It normalizes the mirror facet reflections to be independent of the reference star or the cloud coverage. It records asynchronously of the telescope drive which makes the method easy to integrate in existing telescopes. It can be combined with remote facet actuation, but it does not need one to work. Furthermore, it can reconstruct all individual mirror facet point spread functions. We present the method and alignment results on the First Geiger-mode Photo Diode Avalanche Cherenkov Telescope (FACT) on the Canary Island of La Palma, Spain.

  3. Dynamic knee alignment and collateral knee laxity and its variations in normal humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal eDeep

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alignment of normal, arthritic and replaced human knees is a much debated subject as is the collateral ligamentous laxity. Traditional quantitative values have been challenged. Methods used to measure these are also not without flaws. Authors review the recent literature and a novel method of measurement of these values has been included. This method includes use of computer navigation technique in clinic setting for assessment of the normal or affected knee before the surgery. Computer navigation has been known for achievement of alignment accuracy during knee surgery. Now its use in clinic setting has added to the inventory of measurement methods. Authors dispel the common myth of straight mechanical axis in normal knees and also look at quantification of amount of collateral knee laxity. Based on the scientific studies it has been shown that the mean alignment is in varus in normal knees. It changes from lying non weight bearing position to standing weight bearing position in both coronal and the sagittal planes. It also varies with gender and race. The collateral laxity is also different for males and females. Further studies are needed to define the ideal alignment and collateral laxity which the surgeon should aim for individual knees.

  4. Autonomous monitoring of control hardware to predict off-normal conditions using NIF automatic alignment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awwal, Abdul A.S.; Wilhelmsen, Karl; Leach, Richard R.; Miller-Kamm, Vicki; Burkhart, Scott; Lowe-Webb, Roger; Cohen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An automatic alignment system was developed to process images of the laser beams. ► System uses processing to adjust a series of control loops until alignment criteria are satisfied. ► Monitored conditions are compared against nominal values with an off-normal alert. ► Automated health monitoring system trends off-normals with a large image history. - Abstract: The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a high power laser system capable of supporting high-energy-density experimentation as a user facility for the next 30 years. In order to maximize the facility availability, preventive maintenance enhancements are being introduced into the system. An example of such an enhancement is a camera-based health monitoring system, integrated into the automated alignment system, which provides an opportunity to monitor trends in measurements such as average beam intensity, size of the beam, and pixel saturation. The monitoring system will generate alerts based on observed trends in measurements to allow scheduled pro-active maintenance before routine off-normal detection stops system operations requiring unscheduled intervention.

  5. Autonomous monitoring of control hardware to predict off-normal conditions using NIF automatic alignment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awwal, Abdul A.S., E-mail: awwal1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Wilhelmsen, Karl; Leach, Richard R.; Miller-Kamm, Vicki; Burkhart, Scott; Lowe-Webb, Roger; Cohen, Simon [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An automatic alignment system was developed to process images of the laser beams. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System uses processing to adjust a series of control loops until alignment criteria are satisfied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monitored conditions are compared against nominal values with an off-normal alert. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Automated health monitoring system trends off-normals with a large image history. - Abstract: The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a high power laser system capable of supporting high-energy-density experimentation as a user facility for the next 30 years. In order to maximize the facility availability, preventive maintenance enhancements are being introduced into the system. An example of such an enhancement is a camera-based health monitoring system, integrated into the automated alignment system, which provides an opportunity to monitor trends in measurements such as average beam intensity, size of the beam, and pixel saturation. The monitoring system will generate alerts based on observed trends in measurements to allow scheduled pro-active maintenance before routine off-normal detection stops system operations requiring unscheduled intervention.

  6. The Chitranjan Ranawat award: is neutral mechanical alignment normal for all patients? The concept of constitutional varus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellemans, Johan; Colyn, William; Vandenneucker, Hilde; Victor, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Most knee surgeons have believed during TKA neutral mechanical alignment should be restored. A number of patients may exist, however, for whom neutral mechanical alignment is abnormal. Patients with so-called "constitutional varus" knees have had varus alignment since they reached skeletal maturity. Restoring neutral alignment in these cases may in fact be abnormal and undesirable and would likely require some degree of medial soft tissue release to achieve neutral alignment. We investigated what percentage of the normal population has constitutional varus knees and what are the contributing factors. We recruited a cohort of 250 asymptomatic adult volunteers between 20 and 27 years old for this cross-sectional study. All volunteers had full-leg standing digital radiographs on which 19 alignment parameters were analyzed. The incidence of constitutional varus alignment was determined and contributing factors were analyzed using multivariate prediction models. Thirty-two percent of men and 17% of women had constitutional varus knees with a natural mechanical alignment of 3° varus or more. Constitutional varus was associated with increased sports activity during growth, increased femoral varus bowing, an increased varus femoral neck-shaft angle, and an increased femoral anatomic mechanical angle. An important fraction of the normal population has a natural alignment at the end of growth of 3° varus or more. This might be a consequence of Hueter-Volkmann's law. Restoration of mechanical alignment to neutral in these cases may not be desirable and would be unnatural for them.

  7. Optical properties of orthodontic aligners?spectrophotometry analysis of three types before and after aging

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardo, Luca; Arreghini, Angela; Maccarrone, Roberta; Bianchi, Anna; Scalia, Santo; Siciliani, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim was to assess and compare absorbance and transmittance values of three types of clear orthodontic aligners before and after two cycles of in vitro aging. Methods Nine samples of orthodontic aligners from three different manufacturers (Invisalign, Align Technology, Santa Clara, CA, USA; All-In, Micerium, Avegno, GE, Italy; F22 Aligner, Sweden & Martina, Due Carrare, PD, Italy) were selected, and each sample was subjected to spectrophotometry analysis of both its transmittanc...

  8. Normalization by evaluation with typed abstract syntax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Rhiger, Morten; Rose, Kristoffer H.

    2001-01-01

    In higher-order abstract syntax, the variables and bindings of an object language are represented by variables and bindings of a meta-language. Let us consider the simply typed λ-calculus as object language and Haskell as meta-language. For concreteness, we also throw in integers and addition, bu...

  9. Colour stabilities of three types of orthodontic clear aligners exposed to staining agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen-Lu; Sun, Wen-Tian; Liao, Wen; Lu, Wen-Xin; Li, Qi-Wen; Jeong, Yunho; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Zhi-He

    2016-12-16

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the colour stabilities of three types of orthodontic clear aligners exposed to staining agents in vitro. Sixty clear orthodontic aligners produced by three manufacturers (Invisalign, Angelalign, and Smartee) were immersed in three staining solutions (coffee, black tea, and red wine) and one control solution (distilled water). After 12-h and 7-day immersions, the aligners were washed in an ultrasonic cleaner and measured with a colourimeter. The colour changes (ΔE*) were calculated on the basis of the Commission Internationale de I'Eclairage L*a*b* colour system (CIE L*a*b*), and the results were then converted into National Bureau of Standards (NBS) units. Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were conducted to observe the molecular and morphologic alterations to the aligner surfaces, respectively. The three types of aligners exhibited slight colour changes after 12 h of staining, with the exception of the Invisalign aligners stained with coffee. The Invisalign aligners exhibited significantly higher ΔE* values (ranging from 0.30 to 27.81) than those of the Angelalign and Smartee aligners (ΔE* values ranging from 0.33 to 1.89 and 0.32 to 1.61, respectively, Paligners did not exhibit significant chemical differences before and after the immersions. The SEM results revealed different surface alterations to the three types of aligner materials after the 7-day staining. The three types of aesthetic orthodontic appliances exhibited colour stability after the 12-h immersion, with the exception of the Invisalign aligners stained by coffee. The Invisalign aligners were more prone than the Angelalign and Smartee aligners to pigmentation. Aligner materials may be improved by considering aesthetic colour stability properties.

  10. Colour stabilities of three types of orthodontic clear aligners exposed to staining agents

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chen-Lu; Sun, Wen-Tian; Liao, Wen; Lu, Wen-Xin; Li, Qi-Wen; Jeong, Yunho; Liu, Jun; Zhao, Zhi-He

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the colour stabilities of three types of orthodontic clear aligners exposed to staining agents in vitro. Sixty clear orthodontic aligners produced by three manufacturers (Invisalign, Angelalign, and Smartee) were immersed in three staining solutions (coffee, black tea, and red wine) and one control solution (distilled water). After 12-h and 7-day immersions, the aligners were washed in an ultrasonic cleaner and measured with a colourimeter. Th...

  11. The normal radiological anteroposterior alignment of the lower limb in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popkov, Dmitry; Popkov, Arnold [Russian Ilizarov Scientific Center for Restorative Traumatology and Orthopaedics, Kurgan (Russian Federation); Lascombes, Pierre [University of Geneva, Division of Pediatric Orthopaedics, Geneva (Switzerland); Berte, Nicolas; Hetzel, Laurent; Baptista, Bruno Ribeiro; Journeau, Pierre [Children' s Hospital of Nancy, Department of Pediatric Orthopaedics, Nancy (France)

    2014-07-05

    The development of reconstructive surgery of the lower limbs aimed at multilevel correction demands a precise knowledge of the physiological variations in general radiological parameters of the lower limbs in children of various age groups. It is crucial in systemic skeletal diseases, when deformities affect limbs and the surgeon does not have an intact limb as a reference. The aim of this retrospective study was to establish the normal radiological values of lower limb parameters used in the surgical correction of deformities in children of various age groups. Teleradiographs of the lower limbs taken in children with unilateral congenital or posttraumatic deformity were retrospectively reviewed. Weight-bearing full-length anteroposterior radiographs of the entire lower extremities were taken in a standing position. The study involved 215 extremities of 208 children (93 girls and 115 boys); the ages ranged from 2 years 1 month to 15 years 11 months old. Key variables included the anatomic medial proximal femoral angle (aMPFA), anatomic lateral distal femoral angle (aLDFA), anatomic medial proximal tibial angle (aMPTA), anatomic lateral distal tibial angle (aLDTA), mechanical axis deviation (MAD), the angle formed by the femoral anatomical axis and the mechanical axis of the lower limb. The means and dynamics of variations, standard deviations (SD) and 95 % confidence intervals of each parameter were calculated for each age and gender group. Simple regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between the patient's age and the magnitude of aMPFA, aLDFA, aMPTA and aLDTA. Simple regression analysis showed a significant inverse correlation between patient age and the magnitude of aMPFA: the correlation coefficient was -0.77. A statistically significant inverse correlation between the MAD and the angle between the anatomic femoral axis and mechanical limb axis was found: the correlation coefficient was -0.53. In general, the received values were

  12. Optical properties of orthodontic aligners--spectrophotometry analysis of three types before and after aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Luca; Arreghini, Angela; Maccarrone, Roberta; Bianchi, Anna; Scalia, Santo; Siciliani, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to assess and compare absorbance and transmittance values of three types of clear orthodontic aligners before and after two cycles of in vitro aging. Nine samples of orthodontic aligners from three different manufacturers (Invisalign, Align Technology, Santa Clara, CA, USA; All-In, Micerium, Avegno, GE, Italy; F22 Aligner, Sweden & Martina, Due Carrare, PD, Italy) were selected, and each sample was subjected to spectrophotometry analysis of both its transmittance and absorbance a total of 27 times. Samples were subsequently aged in vitro at a constant temperature in artificial saliva supplemented with food colouring for two cycles of 14 days each. The spectrophotometry protocol was then repeated, and the resulting data were analysed and compared by means of ANOVA (p < 0.05). All types of aligners tested yielded lower transmittance and higher absorbance values after aging, but the difference was not significant in any case. That being said, the F22 aligners were found to be most transparent, both before and after aging, followed by Invisalign and All-In, and these differences were statistically significant. Commercial aligners possess significantly different optical, and therefore aesthetic, properties, both as delivered and following aging.

  13. Effects of joint alignment and type on mechanical properties of thermoplastic articulated ankle-foot orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fan; Carlton, William; Kapp, Susan

    2011-06-01

    Articulated or hinged ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) allow more range of motion. However, quantitative investigation on articulated AFO is still sparse. The objective of the study was to quantitatively investigate effects of alignment and joint types on mechanical properties of the thermoplastic articulated AFO. Tamarack dorsiflexion assist flexure joints with three durometers (75, 85 and 95) and free motion joint were tested. The AFO joint was aligned with the center of the motor shaft (surrogate ankle joint), 10 mm superior, inferior, anterior and posterior with respect to the motor shaft center. The AFO was passively moved from 20° plantar flexion to 15° dorsiflexion at a speed of 10°/s using a motorized device. Mechanical properties including index of hysteresis, passive resistance torque and quasi-static stiffness (at neutral, 5°, 10° and 15° in plantar flexion) were quantified. Significant effects of joint types and joint alignment on the mechanical properties of an articulated thermoplastic AFO were revealed. Specifically, center alignment showed minimum resistance and stiffness while anterior and posterior alignment showed significantly higher resistance and stiffness. The dorsiflexion assist torques at neutral position ranged from 0.69 ± 0.09 to 1.88 ± 0.10 Nm. Anterior and posterior alignment should be avoided as much as possible. The current study suggested that anterior and posterior alignment be avoided as much as possible in clinical practice due to potential skin irritation and increase in stress around the ankle joint.

  14. Normal freezing of ideal ternary systems of the pseudobinary type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C. H.

    1972-01-01

    Perfect liquid mixing but no solid diffusion is assumed in normal freezing. In addition, the molar compositions of the freezing solid and remaining liquid, respectively, follow the solidus and liquidus curves of the constitutional diagram. For the linear case, in which both the liquidus and solidus are perfectly straight lines, the normal freezing equation giving the fraction solidified at each melt temperature and the solute concentration profile in the frozen solid was determined as early as 1902, and has since been repeatedly published. Corresponding equations for quadratic, cubic or higher-degree liquidus and solidus lines have also been obtained. The equation of normal freezing for ideal ternary liquid solutions solidified into ideal solid solutions of the pseudobinary type is given. Sample computations with the use of this new equation were made and are given for the Ga-Al-As system.

  15. A radiographic analysis of alignment of the lower extremities--initiation and progression of varus-type knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, T; Hashimura, M; Takayama, K; Ishida, K; Kawakami, Y; Matsuzaki, T; Nakano, N; Matsushita, T; Kuroda, R; Kurosaka, M

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate alignment based on age in normal knees and alignment based on deformity in osteoarthritis (OA) knees using detailed radiographic parameters. Various parameters were measured from weight-bearing long leg radiographs of 1251 legs (797 normal and 454 OA knees) as a cross-sectional study. Normal knees were classified by age (young, middle aged, aged, and elderly) and symptomatic OA knees on the basis of the alignment (femorotibial angle (FTA): mild, moderate, severe and profound). The mean measurements in each group were calculated and compared within each group. The femoral shaft showed medially bowed curvature (femoral bowing) of approximately 2° in the young normal group, which shifted to lateral bowing with age. However, OA knees showed larger lateral bowing with OA grade, which might reduce the condylar-shaft angle and subsequently shifted the mechanical axis medially. Progression of mild to moderate OA might be associated with a decreasing condylar-shaft angle (femoral condylar orientation) and widening condylar-plateau angle (joint space narrowing) rather than decreasing tibial plateau flattering. Steeping of the tibial plateau inclination due to increasing tibial plateau shift (tibial plateau compression) rather than medial tibial bowing might be the main contributor to worsening of varus deformity in knees with severe and profound OA. This cross-sectional study might provide the possibility of OA initiation and progression. The lateral curvature of the femoral shaft associated with aging may contribute to the initiation of varus-type OA of the knee. These changes in the femur may be followed by secondary signs of OA progression including varus femoral condylar orientation, medial joint space narrowing, and tibial plateau compression. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Proportionate-type normalized last mean square algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this book is proportionate-type normalized least mean squares (PtNLMS) adaptive filtering algorithms, which attempt to estimate an unknown impulse response by adaptively giving gains proportionate to an estimate of the impulse response and the current measured error. These algorithms offer low computational complexity and fast convergence times for sparse impulse responses in network and acoustic echo cancellation applications. New PtNLMS algorithms are developed by choosing gains that optimize user-defined criteria, such as mean square error, at all times. PtNLMS algorithms ar

  17. Three dimensional radiological imaging of normal lower-limb alignment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlégl, Ádám Tibor; Szuper, Kinga; Somoskeöy, Szabolcs; Than, Péter

    2015-10-01

    Our study aimed at evaluating age- and gender-specific references describing lower-limb alignment in a large population of children using an accurate and reliable method (EOS 2D/3D). From our database, we selected 523 EOS records suitable for 3D modelling representing age groups between two and 16 years in which no relevant deviation influencing lower-limb biomechanics could be observed (the majority of the examined population had mild scoliosis). We performed reconstruction of both lower limbs, thus obtaining the value of the mechanical tibiofemoral angle (mTFA) and the femoral mechanical axis-femoral shaft angle (FM-FS) and calculated the anatomical tibiofemoral angle (aTFA) from previous parameters. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Spearman correlation, regression analysis and Welch test. The aTFA reaches its maximum by the age of three years: 13.07° in boys and 10.73° in girls; it then varies ∼4.44° in both genders. By the age of three years, the mTFA reaches 8.04° in boys and 4.85° in girls; it starts to decrease to -1.47° in boys and 0.13° in girls. By the age of three years, FM-FS increases to 5.02° in boys, then fluctuates at ∼4.08°, while in girls, it increases to 5.87°, then fluctuates at ∼4.24°. The pattern found in this study confirms the results of previous publications investigating Caucasian populations; however, absolute values differ significantly in several cases.

  18. CLINICAL STUDY OF THE CHRONOLOGICAL CHANGES IN KNEE ALIGNMENT PATTERN IN NORMAL SOUTH-EAST NIGERIAN CHILDREN AGED BETWEEN 0 AND 5 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezeuko V.C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to establish the chronological changes in knee alignment pattern in normal South-East Nigerian children aged between 0 and 5 years. A total number of 1450 subjects (680 males and 770 females were used for the study. The intercondylar/intermalleolar distances were measured using a vernier caliper with the subjects standing erect in anatomical position to determine straight knee, genu valgum and genu varum. The data was analysed with Microsoft Excel version 2007. The prevalence was presented as percentage (%.The result showed that the subjects have varum by the first year of life, prevalently genu valgum in type by the second year, valgum by the third year, neutral by the fourth and fifth year.

  19. Proximal and distal alignment of normal canine femurs: A morphometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Mehmet Erkut; Sevil-Kilimci, Figen; Dilek, Ömer Gürkan; Onar, Vedat

    2018-05-01

    Many researchers are interested in femoral conformation because most orthopaedic problems of the long bones occur in the femur and its joints. The neck-shaft (NSA) and the anteversion (AVA) angles are good predictors for understanding the orientation of the proximal end of the femur. The varus (aLDFA) and procurvatum (CDFA) angles have also been used to understand the orientation of the distal end of the femur. The purposes of this study were to investigate the relationship between the proximal and distal angles of the femur and to compare the distal femoral angles in male and female dogs in order to investigate the sexual dimorphism. The measurements of normal CDFAs, which have not been previously reported, may also provide a database of canine distal femoral morphology. A total of 75 cleaned healthy femora from different breeds or mixed breed of dogs were used. The three-dimensional images were reconstructed from computed tomographic images. The AVA, NSA, aLDFA and CDFA were measured on the 3D images. The correlation coefficients were calculated among the measured angles. The distal femoral angles were also compared between male and female femora. The 95% confidence intervals of the AVA and the NSA were calculated to be 24.22°-29.50° and 144.97°-147.50°, respectively. The 95% confidence intervals of the aLDFA and the CDFA for all studied dogs were 92.62°-94.08° and 89.09°-91.94°, respectively. The NSA showed no correlation with either the aLDFA or CDFA. There was a weak inverse correlation between the AVA and CDFA and a weak positive correlation between the AVA and aLDFA. The differences in the aLDFA and CDFA measurements between male and female dog were not significant. In conclusion, femoral version, regardless of the plane, might have little influence on distal femoral morphology in normal dogs. Besides this, there is no evidence of a sexual dimorphism in the varus and procurvatum angles of the dog distal femur. The data from this study may be used in

  20. Dobinski-type relations and the log-normal distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasiak, P; Penson, K A; Solomon, A I

    2003-01-01

    We consider sequences of generalized Bell numbers B(n), n = 1, 2, ..., which can be represented by Dobinski-type summation formulae, i.e. B(n) = 1/C Σ k =0 ∞ [P(k)] n /D(k), with P(k) a polynomial, D(k) a function of k and C = const. They include the standard Bell numbers (P(k) k, D(k) = k!, C = e), their generalizations B r,r (n), r = 2, 3, ..., appearing in the normal ordering of powers of boson monomials (P(k) (k+r)!/k!, D(k) = k!, C = e), variants of 'ordered' Bell numbers B o (p) (n) (P(k) = k, D(k) = (p+1/p) k , C = 1 + p, p = 1, 2 ...), etc. We demonstrate that for α, β, γ, t positive integers (α, t ≠ 0), [B(αn 2 + βn + γ)] t is the nth moment of a positive function on (0, ∞) which is a weighted infinite sum of log-normal distributions. (letter to the editor)

  1. Principal Typings in a Restricted Intersection Type System for Beta Normal Forms with De Bruijn Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ventura

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The lambda-calculus with de Bruijn indices assembles each alpha-class of lambda-terms in a unique term, using indices instead of variable names. Intersection types provide finitary type polymorphism and can characterise normalisable lambda-terms through the property that a term is normalisable if and only if it is typeable. To be closer to computations and to simplify the formalisation of the atomic operations involved in beta-contractions, several calculi of explicit substitution were developed mostly with de Bruijn indices. Versions of explicit substitutions calculi without types and with simple type systems are well investigated in contrast to versions with more elaborate type systems such as intersection types. In previous work, we introduced a de Bruijn version of the lambda-calculus with an intersection type system and proved that it preserves subject reduction, a basic property of type systems. In this paper a version with de Bruijn indices of an intersection type system originally introduced to characterise principal typings for beta-normal forms is presented. We present the characterisation in this new system and the corresponding versions for the type inference and the reconstruction of normal forms from principal typings algorithms. We briefly discuss the failure of the subject reduction property and some possible solutions for it.

  2. RV-Typer: A Web Server for Typing of Rhinoviruses Using Alignment-Free Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandurang S Kolekar

    Full Text Available Rhinoviruses (RV are increasingly being reported to cause mild to severe infections of respiratory tract in humans. RV are antigenically the most diverse species of the genus Enterovirus and family Picornaviridae. There are three species of RV (RV-A, -B and -C, with 80, 32 and 55 serotypes/types, respectively. Antigenic variation is the main limiting factor for development of a cross-protective vaccine against RV.Serotyping of Rhinoviruses is carried out using cross-neutralization assays in cell culture. However, these assays become laborious and time-consuming for the large number of strains. Alternatively, serotyping of RV is carried out by alignment-based phylogeny of both protein and nucleotide sequences of VP1. However, serotyping of RV based on alignment-based phylogeny is a multi-step process, which needs to be repeated every time a new isolate is sequenced. In view of the growing need for serotyping of RV, an alignment-free method based on "return time distribution" (RTD of amino acid residues in VP1 protein has been developed and implemented in the form of a web server titled RV-Typer. RV-Typer accepts nucleotide or protein sequences as an input and computes return times of di-peptides (k = 2 to assign serotypes. The RV-Typer performs with 100% sensitivity and specificity. It is significantly faster than alignment-based methods. The web server is available at http://bioinfo.net.in/RV-Typer/home.html.

  3. Properties and Alignment of Interstellar Dust Grains toward Type Ia Supernovae with Anomalous Polarization Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, Thiem, E-mail: thiemhoang@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Goethe Universität Frankfurt, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2017-02-10

    Recent photometric and polarimetric observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) show unusually low total-to-selective extinction ratios ( R {sub V} < 2) and wavelengths of maximum polarization ( λ{sub max} < 0.4 μ m) for several SNe Ia, which indicates peculiar properties of interstellar (IS) dust in the SN-hosted galaxies and/or the presence of circumstellar (CS) dust. In this paper, we use an inversion technique to infer the best-fit grain size distribution and the alignment function of interstellar grains along the lines of sight toward four SNe Ia with anomalous extinction and polarization data (SN 1986G, SN 2006X, SN 2008fp, and SN 2014J). We find that to reproduce low values of R{sub V}, a significant enhancement in the mass of small grains of radius a < 0.1 μ m is required. For SN 2014J, a simultaneous fit to its observed extinction and polarization is unsuccessful if all the data are attributed to IS dust (model 1), but a good fit is obtained when accounting for the contribution of CS dust (model 2). For SN 2008fp, our best-fit results for model 1 show that in order to reproduce an extreme value of λ{sub max} ∼ 0.15 μ m, small silicate grains must be aligned as efficiently as big grains. For this case, we suggest that strong radiation from the SN can induce efficient alignment of small grains in a nearby intervening molecular cloud via the radiative torque (RAT) mechanism. The resulting time dependence polarization from this RAT alignment model can be tested by observing at ultraviolet wavelengths.

  4. A novel image toggle tool for comparison of serial mammograms: automatic density normalization and alignment-development of the tool and initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Satoshi; Tsunoda, Hiroko; Fukuda, Wataru; Saida, Yukihisa

    2014-12-01

    The purpose is to develop a new image toggle tool with automatic density normalization (ADN) and automatic alignment (AA) for comparing serial digital mammograms (DMGs). We developed an ADN and AA process to compare the images of serial DMGs. In image density normalization, a linear interpolation was applied by taking two points of high- and low-brightness areas. The alignment was calculated by determining the point of the greatest correlation while shifting the alignment between the current and prior images. These processes were performed on a PC with a 3.20-GHz Xeon processor and 8 GB of main memory. We selected 12 suspected breast cancer patients who had undergone screening DMGs in the past. Automatic processing was retrospectively performed on these images. Two radiologists subjectively evaluated them. The process of the developed algorithm took approximately 1 s per image. In our preliminary experience, two images could not be aligned approximately. When they were aligned, image toggling allowed detection of differences between examinations easily. We developed a new tool to facilitate comparative reading of DMGs on a mammography viewing system. Using this tool for toggling comparisons might improve the interpretation efficiency of serial DMGs.

  5. High accuracy prediction of beta-turns and their types using propensities and multiple alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Patrick F J; Alix, Alain J P

    2005-06-01

    We have developed a method that predicts both the presence and the type of beta-turns, using a straightforward approach based on propensities and multiple alignments. The propensities were calculated classically, but the way to use them for prediction was completely new: starting from a tetrapeptide sequence on which one wants to evaluate the presence of a beta-turn, the propensity for a given residue is modified by taking into account all the residues present in the multiple alignment at this position. The evaluation of a score is then done by weighting these propensities by the use of Position-specific score matrices generated by PSI-BLAST. The introduction of secondary structure information predicted by PSIPRED or SSPRO2 as well as taking into account the flanking residues around the tetrapeptide improved the accuracy greatly. This latter evaluated on a database of 426 reference proteins (previously used on other studies) by a sevenfold crossvalidation gave very good results with a Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of 0.42 and an overall prediction accuracy of 74.8%; this places our method among the best ones. A jackknife test was also done, which gave results within the same range. This shows that it is possible to reach neural networks accuracy with considerably less computional cost and complexity. Furthermore, propensities remain excellent descriptors of amino acid tendencies to belong to beta-turns, which can be useful for peptide or protein engineering and design. For beta-turn type prediction, we reached the best accuracy ever published in terms of MCC (except for the irregular type IV) in the range of 0.25-0.30 for types I, II, and I' and 0.13-0.15 for types VIII, II', and IV. To our knowledge, our method is the only one available on the Web that predicts types I' and II'. The accuracy evaluated on two larger databases of 547 and 823 proteins was not improved significantly. All of this was implemented into a Web server called COUDES (French acronym

  6. Early Alzheimer-type lesions in cognitively normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsartsalis, Stergios; Xekardaki, Aikaterini; Hof, Patrick R; Kövari, Enikö; Bouras, Constantin

    2018-02-01

    Amyloid deposits and tau-immunoreactive neurofibrillary tangles, together with neuronal and synaptic loss, are the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Both proteins are present in the normal brain during aging. However, the temporal sequence of their involvement in the onset of AD pathology remains controversial. To define whether amyloid β protein deposits or tau protein lesions appear first during normal brain aging, we performed an immunohistological study on serial sections from 105 autopsy brains (age range: 40-104 years) from patients free of clinical signs of cognitive decline, using anti-tau (AT8) and anti-amyloid (4G8) antibodies in the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, inferior temporal cortex (Brodmann area 20), prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 9), occipital cortex (Brodmann areas 17 and 18), and in the brainstem. All cases older than 48 years displayed at least a few neurofibrillary tangles, which appeared more frequently in the entorhinal than in the transentorhinal cortex. Tau pathology in these areas preceded tau inclusions in the brainstem. Furthermore, the first site of the apparition of tau pathology is inconsistent, being the entorhinal cortex in most cases, and in fewer cases, the transentorhinal region. There was no case presenting with amyloid deposition in the absence of neurofibrillary tangles, lending evidence to the fact that neurofibrillary tangles appear earlier than amyloid plaques during normal brain aging. However, the role of amyloid in promoting tau deposition cannot be excluded in some cases but may not represent the sole mechanism of disease induction and progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Band alignment of type I at (100ZnTe/PbSe interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Konovalov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A junction of lattice-matched cubic semiconductors ZnTe and PbSe results in a band alignment of type I so that the narrow band gap of PbSe is completely within the wider band gap of ZnTe. The valence band offset of 0.27 eV was found, representing a minor barrier during injection of holes from PbSe into ZnTe. Simple linear extrapolation of the valence band edge results in a smaller calculated band offset, but a more elaborate square root approximation was used instead, which accounts for parabolic bands. PbSe was electrodeposited at room temperature with and without Cd2+ ions in the electrolyte. Although Cd adsorbs at the surface, the presence of Cd in the electrolyte does not influence the band offset.

  8. Emergent properties resulting from type-II band alignment in semiconductor nanoheterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shun S; Mirkovic, Tihana; Chuang, Chi-Hung; Burda, Clemens; Scholes, Gregory D

    2011-01-11

    The development of elegant synthetic methodologies for the preparation of monocomponent nanocrystalline particles has opened many possibilities for the preparation of heterostructured semiconductor nanostructures. Each of the integrated nanodomains is characterized by its individual physical properties, surface chemistry, and morphology, yet, these multicomponent hybrid particles present ideal systems for the investigation of the synergetic properties that arise from the material combination in a non-additive fashion. Of particular interest are type-II heterostructures, where the relative band alignment of their constituent semiconductor materials promotes a spatial separation of the electron and hole following photoexcitation, a highly desirable property for photovoltaic applications. This article highlights recent progress in both synthetic strategies, which allow for material and architectural modulation of novel nanoheterostructures, as well as the experimental work that provides insight into the photophysical properties of type-II heterostructures. The effects of external factors, such as electric fields, temperature, and solvent are explored in conjunction with exciton and multiexciton dynamics and charge transfer processes typical for type-II semiconductor heterostructures.

  9. A novel approach for evaluating acceptable intra-operative correction of lower limb alignment in femoral and tibial malunion using the deviation angle of the normal contralateral knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chi-Chuan

    2014-03-01

    A simple and appropriate approach for evaluating an acceptable alignment of bone around the knee during operation has not yet been reported. Thirty-five men and 35 women presenting with nonunion or malunion of the unilateral femoral shaft were included in the first study. Using the standing scanograph, the contralateral normal lower extremity was measured to determine the normal deviation angle (DA) of the medial malleolus when the medial aspect of the knee was placed in the midline of the body. In the second study, the normal DA from individual patients was used as a reference to evaluate knee alignment during operation in 40 other patients presenting with distal femoral or proximal tibial nonunion or malunion. The clinical and knee functional outcomes of these 40 patients were investigated. The average normal DA was 4.2° in men and 6.0° in women (palignment was maintained in all 30 patients with fracture union. Satisfactory function of the knee was achieved in 28 patients (82%, palignment of bone around the knee during operation. Level IV, Case series. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Predisposing Effect of Elbow Alignment on the Elbow Fracture Type in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seungcheol; Park, Soo-Sung

    2015-08-01

    Under the hypothesis that the elbow alignment, namely the carrying angle, could predispose individuals to a specific type of pediatric elbow fracture after a fall onto an outstretched arm, we investigated the relationship between radiographic carrying angle and elbow fracture type in children. Retrospective case-control study. Level I pediatric trauma center. We reviewed 374 children who were diagnosed with supracondylar fracture (SCF, n = 208), lateral condylar fracture (LCF, n = 132), and radial neck fracture (RNF, n = 34). The association between the radiographic carrying angle and the fracture type was investigated. To adjust for bias, 2 statistical methods were used: multivariate analysis using a baseline-category logistic model and a case-matching method using propensity score analysis. In the multivariate analysis, with SCF patients set as the baseline category, a more valgus-deviated elbow (increased carrying angle, P = 0.011) predisposed individuals to RNF, whereas a more varus-deviated elbow (decreased carrying angle, P predisposed them to LCF. In the case-matched analysis, there were also significant differences in carrying angles between RNF and case-matched SCF patients (14.3 vs. 11.4 degrees, P = 0.013) and between LCF and case-matched SCF patients (7.7 vs. 11.7 degrees, P fall onto an outstretched elbow, could be a predisposing factor for specific types of pediatric elbow fracture. The results provide the additional information about the injury mechanisms of pediatric elbow fracture and may deepen our understanding of the fractures. Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  11. Tension-Type Headache - The Normal and Most Prevalent Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Rigmor Højland

    2018-02-01

    Tension-type headache (TTH) is the most prevalent form of primary headache in the general population but paradoxically the least studied headache. In this article, the epidemiology and diagnostic challenges of TTH are presented and discussed. The typical features and differential diagnosis of TTH are highlighted and the situations more likely to raise doubts are discussed. A structured approach to the patient and a better comprehension of the very frequent coexistence of migraine and medication overuse headache in the clinical population are emphasized. According to the IHS classification, several diagnoses should be applied but still some clinicians prefer to apply a single combined diagnosis in the severely affected patients, namely chronic migraine. Such uneven practice may complicate the diagnostic comparability and the entire management of TTH. The present treatment strategies for TTH are summarized and hopefully an increased awareness of TTH can translate into better quality of care and a more specific diagnosis and treatment for the numerous TTH sufferers. © 2017 American Headache Society.

  12. THE RISE TIME OF NORMAL AND SUBLUMINOUS TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.; Perrett, K.; Carlberg, R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. george Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Conley, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 593 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0593 (United States); Bianco, F. B.; Howell, D. A.; Graham, M. L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Broida Hall, Mail Code 9530, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Sullivan, M.; Hook, I. M. [Department of Physics (Astrophysics), University of Oxford, DWB, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Fourmanoit, N.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R. [LPNHE, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Universite Paris Diderot Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Balam, D. [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Basa, S. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Pole de l' Etoile Site de Chateau-Gombert, 38, rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, 13388 Marseille cedex 13 (France); Fouchez, D. [CPPM, CNRS-IN2P3 and University Aix Marseille II, Case 907, 13288 Marseille cedex 9 (France); Lidman, C. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 296, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Palanque-Delabrouille, N., E-mail: gonzalez@astro.utoronto.ca [DSM/IRFU/SPP, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); and others

    2012-01-20

    We calculate the average stretch-corrected rise time of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the Supernova Legacy Survey. We use the aggregate light curves of spectroscopic and photometrically identified SNe Ia to fit the rising part of the light curve with a simple quadratic model. We obtain a light curve shape corrected, i.e., stretch-corrected, fiducial rise time of 17.02{sup +0.18}{sub -0.28} (stat) days. The measured rise time differs from an earlier finding by the SNLS (Conley et al.) due to the use of different SN Ia templates. We compare it to nearby samples using the same methods and find no evolution in the early part of the light curve of SNe Ia up to z = 1. We search for variations among different populations, particularly subluminous objects, by dividing the sample in stretch. Bright and slow decliners (s > 1.0) have consistent stretch-corrected rise times compared to fainter and faster decliners (0.8 < s {<=} 1.0); they are shorter by 0.57{sup +0.47}{sub -0.50} (stat) days. Subluminous SNe Ia (here defined as objects with s {<=} 0.8), although less constrained, are also consistent, with a rise time of 18.03{sup +0.81}{sub -1.37} (stat) days. We study several systematic biases and find that the use of different fiducial templates may affect the average rise time but not the intrinsic differences between populations. Based on our results, we estimate that subluminous SNe Ia are powered by 0.05-0.35 M{sub Sun} of {sup 56}Ni synthesized in the explosion. Our conclusions are the same for the single-stretch and two-stretch parameterizations of the light curve.

  13. Forces released during alignment with a preadjusted appliance with different types of elastomeric ligatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this in-vitro study was to compare the forces generated by new nonconventional elastomeric ligatures (NCEL) and conventional elastomeric ligatures (CEL) during leveling and aligning phases. The testing model consisted of 5 stainless steel 0.022-in preadjusted brackets for second premolar, first premolar, canine, lateral incisor, and central incisor. The canine bracket was welded to a sliding bar that allowed for different vertical positions. The forces generated by 3 sizes of wires (0.012-, 0.014-, and 0.016-in superelastic nickel-titanium) with the 2 types of elastomeric ligatures at different amounts of upward canine misalignment (1.5, 3, 4.5, and 6 mm) were recorded. Significant differences between CEL and NCEL were found for all tested variables (P <.01) with the exception of the 0.014- and 0.016-in wires at canine misalignment of 1.5 mm. A noticeable amount of force was generated with the NCEL at all 4 canine positions with all 3 wire sizes (from about 50 to about 150 g). With 4.5 mm of canine misalignment or more, the average amount of released force with the CEL was approximately zero.

  14. Strong normalization by type-directed partial evaluation and run-time code generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balat, Vincent; Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the synergy between type-directed partial evaluation and run-time code generation for the Caml dialect of ML. Type-directed partial evaluation maps simply typed, closed Caml values to a representation of their long βη-normal form. Caml uses a virtual machine and has the capability...... to load byte code at run time. Representing the long βη-normal forms as byte code gives us the ability to strongly normalize higher-order values (i.e., weak head normal forms in ML), to compile the resulting strong normal forms into byte code, and to load this byte code all in one go, at run time. We...... conclude this note with a preview of our current work on scaling up strong normalization by run-time code generation to the Caml module language....

  15. Strong Normalization by Type-Directed Partial Evaluation and Run-Time Code Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balat, Vincent; Danvy, Olivier

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the synergy between type-directed partial evaluation and run-time code generation for the Caml dialect of ML. Type-directed partial evaluation maps simply typed, closed Caml values to a representation of their long βη-normal form. Caml uses a virtual machine and has the capability...... to load byte code at run time. Representing the long βη-normal forms as byte code gives us the ability to strongly normalize higher-order values (i.e., weak head normal forms in ML), to compile the resulting strong normal forms into byte code, and to load this byte code all in one go, at run time. We...... conclude this note with a preview of our current work on scaling up strong normalization by run-time code generation to the Caml module language....

  16. Factors contributing to inherent varus alignment of lower limb in normal Asian adults: role of tibial plateau inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Gautam M; Mullaji, Arun; Bhayde, Sagar; Nha, Kyung Wook; Oh, Hyoung Keun

    2014-03-01

    This prospective study aimed to evaluate radiographically, mechanical or hip-knee-ankle (HKA) axis in healthy, asymptomatic, Asian (Indian and Korean) adults between 20 and 40 years of age to determine the incidence of inherent varus (mechanical limb alignment of >3° varus) and the factors influencing it. Three hundred and eighty-eight lower limbs were evaluated using full length, standing hip-to-ankle radiographs in 198 healthy, asymptomatic, Asian (Indian and Korean) adults between 20 and 40 years of age to assess the hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle, medial proximal tibial angle (MPTA), femoral bowing and femoral neck-shaft angle to determine the incidence of inherent varus (mechanical limb alignment of >3° varus) and the factors influencing it. Overall, the mean HKA angle was 177.6°±2.6° with 34.5% of limbs in inherent varus (mean HKA angle 174.9°±1.8°). The incidence of inherent varus was significantly higher (p=0.01) in males (40%) compared to females (28%) but similar among Indian (34%) and Korean subjects (35%). The hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle showed significant positive correlation (r=0.82, palignment of the lower limb is fairly common among asymptomatic, Asian adults. These results raise several pertinent questions regarding the role of inherent varus in the aetiopathogenesis of knee osteoarthritis and in lower limb realignment procedures. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative studies of types 1 and 2 herpes simplex virus infection of cultured normal keratinocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Su, S J; Wu, H H; Lin, Y H; Lin, H Y

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate the differences in biological properties, multiplication patterns, and cytopathic effects between type 1 and type 2 herpes simplex virus (HSV) through the replication of HSV in cultured normal human keratinocytes. METHODS--Keratinocytes were obtained from surgical specimens of normal gingiva, cervix, trunk skin, and newborn foreskin. They were cultured in serum free, chemically defined, culture medium and infected with a pool of HSV collected from clinical specimens. RESU...

  18. Design and Evaluation of a New Type of Knee Orthosis to Align the Mediolateral Angle of the Knee Joint with Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Esrafilian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Osteoarthritis (OA is a disease which influences the performance of the knee joint. Moreover, the force and moments applied on the joint increase in contrast to normal subjects. Various types of knee orthoses have been designed to solve the mentioned problems. However, there are other problems in terms of distal migration during walking and the alignment of the orthosis which cannot be changed following the use of brace. Therefore, the main aim of the research was to design an orthosis to solve the aforementioned problems. Method. A new type of knee orthosis was designed with a modular structure. Two patients with knee OA participated in this research project. The force applied on the foot, moment transmitted through the knee joint, and spatiotemporal gait parameters were measured by use of a motion analysis system. Results. The results of the research showed that the adduction moment applied on the knee joint decreased while subjects walked with the new knee orthosis (P-value < 0.05. Conclusion. The new design of the knee brace can be used as an effective treatment to decrease the loads applied on the knee joint and to improve the alignment whilst walking.

  19. Distribution of Basement Membrane Molecules, Laminin and Collagen Type IV, in Normal and Degenerated Cartilage Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Toh, Wei Seong; Gomoll, Andreas H; Olsen, Bjørn Reino; Spector, Myron

    2014-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence and distribution of 2 basement membrane (BM) molecules, laminin and collagen type IV, in healthy and degenerative cartilage tissues. Normal and degenerated tissues were obtained from goats and humans, including articular knee cartilage, the intervertebral disc, and meniscus. Normal tissue was also obtained from patella-tibial enthesis in goats. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed using anti-laminin and anti-collagen type IV antibodies. Human and goat skin were used as positive controls. The percentage of cells displaying the pericellular presence of the protein was graded semiquantitatively. When present, laminin and collagen type IV were exclusively found in the pericellular matrix, and in a discrete layer on the articulating surface of normal articular cartilage. In normal articular (hyaline) cartilage in the human and goat, the proteins were found co-localized pericellularly. In contrast, in human osteoarthritic articular cartilage, collagen type IV but not laminin was found in the pericellular region. Nonpathological fibrocartilaginous tissues from the goat, including the menisci and the enthesis, were also positive for both laminin and collagen type IV pericellularly. In degenerated fibrocartilage, including intervertebral disc, as in degenerated hyaline cartilage only collagen type IV was found pericellularly around chondrocytes but with less intense staining than in non-degenerated tissue. In calcified cartilage, some cells were positive for laminin but not type IV collagen. We report differences in expression of the BM molecules, laminin and collagen type IV, in normal and degenerative cartilaginous tissues from adult humans and goats. In degenerative tissues laminin is depleted from the pericellular matrix before collagen type IV. The findings may inform future studies of the processes underlying cartilage degeneration and the functional roles of these 2 extracellular matrix proteins

  20. Distribution of Basement Membrane Molecules, Laminin and Collagen Type IV, in Normal and Degenerated Cartilage Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Wei Seong; Gomoll, Andreas H.; Olsen, Bjørn Reino; Spector, Myron

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence and distribution of 2 basement membrane (BM) molecules, laminin and collagen type IV, in healthy and degenerative cartilage tissues. Design: Normal and degenerated tissues were obtained from goats and humans, including articular knee cartilage, the intervertebral disc, and meniscus. Normal tissue was also obtained from patella-tibial enthesis in goats. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed using anti-laminin and anti–collagen type IV antibodies. Human and goat skin were used as positive controls. The percentage of cells displaying the pericellular presence of the protein was graded semiquantitatively. Results: When present, laminin and collagen type IV were exclusively found in the pericellular matrix, and in a discrete layer on the articulating surface of normal articular cartilage. In normal articular (hyaline) cartilage in the human and goat, the proteins were found co-localized pericellularly. In contrast, in human osteoarthritic articular cartilage, collagen type IV but not laminin was found in the pericellular region. Nonpathological fibrocartilaginous tissues from the goat, including the menisci and the enthesis, were also positive for both laminin and collagen type IV pericellularly. In degenerated fibrocartilage, including intervertebral disc, as in degenerated hyaline cartilage only collagen type IV was found pericellularly around chondrocytes but with less intense staining than in non-degenerated tissue. In calcified cartilage, some cells were positive for laminin but not type IV collagen. Conclusions: We report differences in expression of the BM molecules, laminin and collagen type IV, in normal and degenerative cartilaginous tissues from adult humans and goats. In degenerative tissues laminin is depleted from the pericellular matrix before collagen type IV. The findings may inform future studies of the processes underlying cartilage degeneration and the functional

  1. The influence of type-I collagen-coated PLLA aligned nanofibers on growth of blood outgrowth endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Zhangqi; Huang Ningping; Wang Yichun; Gu Zhongze [State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Lu Huijun [Department of Vascular Surgery, Wuxi People' s Hospital, Wuxi 214023 (China); Leach, Michelle K [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Liu Changjian, E-mail: gu@seu.edu.c [Department of Vascular Surgery, The Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Nanofibrous scaffolds have been applied widely in tissue engineering to simulate the nanostructure of natural extracellular matrix (ECM) and promote cell bioactivity. The aim of this study was to design a biocompatible nanofibrous scaffold for blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) and investigate the interaction between the topography of the nanofibrous scaffold and cell growth. Poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) random and aligned nanofibers with a uniform diameter distribution were fabricated by electrospinning. NH{sub 3} plasma etching was used to create a hydrophilic surface on the nanofibers to improve type-I collagen adsorption; the conditions of the NH{sub 3} plasma etching were optimized by XPS and water contact angle analysis. Cell attachment, proliferation, viability, phenotype and morphology of BOECs cultured on type-I collagen-coated PLLA film (col-Film), random fibers (col-RFs) and aligned fibers (col-AFs) were detected over a 7 day culture period. The results showed that collagen-coated PLLA nanofibers improved cell attachment and proliferation; col-AFs induced the directional growth of cells along the aligned nanofibers and enhanced endothelialization. We suggest that col-AFs may be a potential implantable scaffold for vascular tissue engineering.

  2. Integral type operators from normal weighted Bloch spaces to QT,S spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyi GU

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Operator theory is an important research content of the analytic function space theory. The discussion of simultaneous operator and function space is an effective way to study operator and function space. Assuming that  is an analytic self map on the unit disk Δ, and the normal weighted bloch space μ-B is a Banach space on the unit disk Δ, defining a composition operator C∶C(f=f on μ-B for all f∈μ-B, integral type operator JhC and CJh are generalized by integral operator and composition operator. The boundeness and compactness of the integral type operator JhC acting from normal weighted Bloch spaces to QT,S spaces are discussed, as well as the boundeness of the integral type operators CJh acting from normal weighted Bloch spaces to QT,S spaces. The related sufficient and necessary conditions are given.

  3. Cerebrocerebellar relationships in normal subjects and patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type; A SPECT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Arai, Hisayuki; Abe, Shin' e; Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Takasaki, Masaru; Katsunuma, Hideyo; Suzuki, Takanari; Abe, Kimihiko; Amino, Saburo [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1993-02-01

    The relationships bewteen blood flow in the cerebrum and the cerebellum was investigated in 21 normal subjects and 21 patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT). In normal subjects, only asymmetry in the frontal cortical blood flow was significantly correlated with asymmetry in the contralateral cerebellar blood flow. However, a significant correlation between asymmetry in the cerebral cortical blood flow in many areas and the blood flow in the contralateral cerebellum in DAT patients was observed. These results suggest the existence of a functional relationship between the cerebrum and the cerebellum in both normal and DAT groups, mediated by neuronal mechanisms through crossed fiber pathways. However, there are regional differences in the cerebrocerebellar relationship in normal resting and pathological states. (author).

  4. Cerebrocerebellar relationships in normal subjects and patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Arai, Hisayuki; Abe, Shin'e; Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Takasaki, Masaru; Katsunuma, Hideyo; Suzuki, Takanari; Abe, Kimihiko; Amino, Saburo

    1993-01-01

    The relationships bewteen blood flow in the cerebrum and the cerebellum was investigated in 21 normal subjects and 21 patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT). In normal subjects, only asymmetry in the frontal cortical blood flow was significantly correlated with asymmetry in the contralateral cerebellar blood flow. However, a significant correlation between asymmetry in the cerebral cortical blood flow in many areas and the blood flow in the contralateral cerebellum in DAT patients was observed. These results suggest the existence of a functional relationship between the cerebrum and the cerebellum in both normal and DAT groups, mediated by neuronal mechanisms through crossed fiber pathways. However, there are regional differences in the cerebrocerebellar relationship in normal resting and pathological states. (author)

  5. Normal Morning MCH Levels and No Association with REM or NREM Sleep Parameters in Narcolepsy Type 1 and Type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrölkamp, Maren; Jennum, Poul J; Gammeltoft, Steen

    2017-01-01

    in rapid eye movement (REM) and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep regulation. Hypocretin neurons reciprocally interact with MCH neurons. We hypothesized that altered MCH secretion contributes to the symptoms and sleep abnormalities of narcolepsy and that this is reflected in morning cerebrospinal fluid...... MCH levels. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that MCH levels in CSF collected in the morning are normal in narcolepsy and not associated with the clinical symptoms, REM sleep abnormalities, nor number of muscle movements during REM or NREM sleep of the patients. We conclude that morning lumbar CSF MCH......STUDY OBJECTIVES: Other than hypocretin-1 (HCRT-1) deficiency in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1), the neurochemical imbalance of NT1 and narcolepsy type 2 (NT2) with normal HCRT-1 levels is largely unknown. The neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is mainly secreted during sleep and is involved...

  6. Comparing Executive Function and Behavioral Inhibition in Schizophrenia, Bipolar Mood Disorder Type I and Normal Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziye Khodaee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive performance in patients with schizophrenia and Bipolar I disorder seems to be different from the normal individuals, that these defects affect their treatment results. Therefore, this study aimed to compare executive function and behavioral inhibition within patients suffering from schizophrenia, bipolar type I as well as a normal group. Methods: In this descriptive-comparative study, out of all patients hospitalized in daily psychiatric clinic in Najafabad in 2014 due to these disorders, 20 schizophrenia and 20 bipolar type I as well as 20 normal individuals were selected via the convinience sampling. All the study participants completed the computerizing tests including Tower of London and Go-No Go. The study data were analyzed utilizing SPSS software (ver 22 via MANOVA. Results: The study findings revealed a significant difference between the two patient groups and the normal group in regard with executive function and behavioral inhibition (p<0.05, whereas no differences were detected between schizophrenics and bipolar patient groups. Furthermore, patients suffering from schizophrenia and bipolar I mood disorder demonstrated significantly poor performance in cognitive function and behavioral inhibition compared to the normal group. Conclusion: The present study results can be significantly applied in pathology and therapy of these disorders, so as recognizing the inability of such patients can be effective in developing cognitive rehabilitation programs in these patients.

  7. Blood pressure directly correlates with blood viscosity in diabetes type 1 children but not in normals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Beatriz Y Salazar; Vázquez, Miguel A Salazar; Jáquez, Manuel Guajardo; Huemoeller, Antonio H Bracho; Intaglietta, Marcos; Cabrales, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    To determine the relationship between mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and blood viscosity in diabetic type 1 children and healthy controls to investigate whether MAP is independent of blood viscosity in healthy children, and vice versa. Children with diabetes type 1 treated by insulin injection were studied. Controls were healthy children of both sexes. MAP was calculated from systolic and diastolic pressure measurements. Blood viscosity was determined indirectly by measuring blood hemoglobin (Hb) content. The relationship between Hb, hematocrit (Hct) and blood viscosity was determined in a subgroup of controls and diabetics selected at random. 21 (10.6+/-2.5 years) type 1 diabetic children treated with insulin and 25 healthy controls age 9.6+/-1.7 years were studied. Hb was 13.8+/-0.8 g/dl in normal children vs. 14.3+/-0.9 g/dl in the diabetic group (p<0.05). MAP was 71.4+/-8.2 in the normal vs. 82.9+/-7.2 mmHg in the diabetic group (p<0.001). Glucose was 89.3+/-10.6 vs. 202.4+/-87.4 mg/dl respectively. Diabetics had a positive MAP/Hb correlation (p=0.007), while normals showed a non significant (p=0.2) negative correlation. The blood viscosity/Hb relationship was studied in a subgroup of 8 healthy controls and 8 diabetic type 1 children. There was no significant difference in Hb and Hct between groups. Diabetics showed a trend of increasing blood viscosity (+7%, p=0.15). Normal children compensate for the increase in vascular resistance due to increased blood viscosity (increased Hb and Hct) while diabetic children do not, probably due to endothelial dysfunction.

  8. [Revision of Schatzker type Ⅵ tibial plateau fracture failure focus on the recovery of lower limb alignment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, R J; Liu, J F; Jiang, Y; Dilixiati, Duolikun; Hou, X D; Zheng, L P

    2018-03-01

    Objective: To explore the influence of the lower extremity abnormal alignment and the joint surface, and to explore the surgical skills. Methods: Twenty-two cases of tibial plateau Schatzker Ⅵ fracture internal fixation failure revision from January 2012 to January 2017 in Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai 10(th) Hospital.One year follow-up after initial surgery to make sure of failure.Three-dimensional CT scan, radiography, infection index, gait analysis, knee joint ROM, femur tibia angle, tibial plateau tibial shaft angle and posterior slope if tibial plateau were observed. The medial approach and bi-planer osteotoma were used.Autogenous iliac bone graft, postoperative fast recovery channel were used.Follow-up point included preoperative and postoperative 7 days, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months.Obvervational index included double lower limbs radiography, knee society score(KSS), complications such as infection, skin necrosis, joint main passive activity, double lower limbs alignment the last follow-up SF-36 scale.Rate was compared by χ(2) test, measurement data using paired sample t test.Correlation was analyzed by Pearson correlation regression testing. Results: Twenty-two patients received follow-up.KSS, more than 21 cases were benign, with good gait.One case was poor, with claudication gait.Not skin necrosis, no deep infection cases, 1 case get blisters 2 days postoperatively, and disappear after 5 days with detumescence and cold therapy.Whether restoring force line affect the KSS significantly(χ(2)=22.000, P =0.000). Knee joint ROM, SF-36 score, KSS and lower limb alignment were improved significantly. In different individual the articular surface and anatomical angle recovered greatly but the posterior slope angle was quite difference which has no correlation with KSS and SF-36 scale( P >0.01). Conclusions: Revision of Schatzker type Ⅵ tibial plateau fracture failure should focus on the recovery of lower limb alignment.moderate overcorrect bone

  9. Simple mucin-type carbohydrates in normal and malignant human endometrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, V; Mandel, U; Svenstrup, B

    1995-01-01

    The simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens, Tn, sialosyl-Tn, and T, are tumor-associated antigens of adenocarcinomas. We evaluated by immunohistochemistry the expression of Tn, sialosyl-Tn (s-Tn), T, and sialosyl-T (s-T) antigens in normal nonsecretory, early gestational, and malignant human...... and malignant endometrium, and the expression of s-T antigen was positively correlated with E2 levels in serum. Our findings suggest a hormonal influence on expression of simple mucin-type carbohydrates in human endometrium. However, the accumulation of Tn and s-Tn antigens in malignant endometrial cells seem...

  10. Comparison of gamma glutamyltransferase in normal and in type 2 diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Comparison of gamma glutamyltransferase in normal and type 2 diabetics. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 100 apparently normal healthy subjects and, 47 type 2 diabetic subjects were selected from either sex with ages between 18-65 years. Subjects were measured for waist/hip ratio, BMI and serum levels of ALT, AST, Alk Phosphatase and Glutamyl Transferase (GGT). The study excluded by screening for Anti HCV, HBsAg and patients with aspartate amino transferase (SGOT), alanine amino transferase (SGPT), GGT levels more than three times the normal and subject with a total leukocyte count more than 10,000/ mu l. Results: The levels of GGT levels were found to be most significant among all the liver enzymes (P = 0.001). The levels of GGT compared with type 2 diabetics was found to be significantly increased when compared with BMI, waist/circumference, cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Low density Lipoprotein (LDL), fasting blood sugar level and blood pressure (P = 0.001). The pearson regression analysis showed a positive relation with systolic, diastolic blood pressure and fasting blood sugar. Conclusion: These results indicate that levels of GGT were raised with increased waist girth, BMI, blood pressure TG and low HDL, all of these are the features of metabolic syndrome according to ATP III criteria. Hence, serum GGT may be an important investigation for diabetes and metabolic syndrome. (author)

  11. Substituting Normal and Waxy-Type Whole Wheat Flour on Dough and Baking Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Induck; Kang, Chun-Sik; Cheong, Young-Keun; Hyun, Jong-Nae; Kim, Kee-Jong

    2012-01-01

    Normal (cv. Keumkang, KK) and waxy-type (cv. Shinmichal, SMC) whole wheat flour was substituted at 20 and 40% for white wheat flour (WF) during bread dough formulation. The flour blends were subjected to dough and baking property measurement in terms of particle size distribution, dough mixing, bread loaf volume and crumb firmness. The particle size of white wheat flour was the finest, with increasing coarseness as the level of whole wheat flour increased. Substitution of whole wheat flour decreased pasting viscosity, showing all RVA parameters were the lowest in SMC40 composite flour. Water absorption was slightly higher with 40% whole wheat flour regardless of whether the wheat was normal or waxy. An increased mixing time was observed when higher levels of KK flour were substituted, but the opposite reaction occurred when SMC flour was substituted at the same levels. Bread loaf volume was lower in breads containing a whole wheat flour substitution compared to bread containing only white wheat flour. No significant difference in bread loaf volume was observed between normal and waxy whole flour, but the bread crumb firmness was significantly lower in breads containing waxy flour. The results of these studies indicate that up to 40% whole wheat flour substitution could be considered a practical option with respect to functional qualities. Also, replacing waxy whole flour has a positive effect on bread formulation over normal whole wheat flour in terms of improving softness and glutinous texture. PMID:24471084

  12. Normal urinary albumin excretion in recently diagnosed type 1 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, B; Jensen, T; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1989-01-01

    of diabetes. Urinary albumin excretion (median and 95% confidence interval) was similar in the diabetic patients and normal control subjects (8 (6-11) vs 8 (6-11) mg 24-h-1, NS). Four diabetic patients had urinary albumin excretion in the microalbuminuric range of 30-300 mg 24-h-1. There was no significant...... difference between the two groups in urinary excretion of retinol binding protein. The distribution among the individuals of both urinary proteins was positively skewed and similar in the two groups. In conclusion, no significant differences in the urinary excretion of albumin and retinol binding protein...... were found between recently diagnosed Type 1 diabetic patients and normal subjects....

  13. Construction of normal-regular decisions of Bessel typed special system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasmambetov, Zhaksylyk N.; Talipova, Meiramgul Zh.

    2017-09-01

    Studying a special system of differential equations in the separate production of the second order is solved by the degenerate hypergeometric function reducing to the Bessel functions of two variables. To construct a solution of this system near regular and irregular singularities, we use the method of Frobenius-Latysheva applying the concepts of rank and antirank. There is proved the basic theorem that establishes the existence of four linearly independent solutions of studying system type of Bessel. To prove the existence of normal-regular solutions we establish necessary conditions for the existence of such solutions. The existence and convergence of a normally regular solution are shown using the notion of rank and antirank.

  14. The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes is not increased in normal-weight women with PCOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelanis, Rasa; Mellembakken, Jan Roar; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2017-01-01

    of prediabetes and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) which is closely linked to obesity and possibly age, ethnicity and PCOS phenotype. Several guidelines recommend OGTT upon diagnosis of PCOS and during follow-up. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A Nordic cross-sectional study including 876 women. PARTICIPANTS....../MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: The 876 Nordic women with PCOS, aged 14-57 years, were examined for T2D and prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance [IGT] or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) by OGTT. MAIN RESULT AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Of all study subjects 3% (23/876) had T2D, 23% (204/876) prediabetes and 74% (649....../876) had normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Increased BMI and waist circumference were significantly (P prediabetes and T2D. No normal-weight woman (BMI

  15. Aligning drivers, contract, and management of IT-outsourcing relationships: a type-dependent model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenfeldt, Katrine; Corty Dam, Amalie; Fenger, Kim Harder

    2017-01-01

    In today’s competitive business environment, information technology outsourcing has become a wide-spread reality across all industries and sectors. Researchers have investigated this complex phenomenon from various angles, and established a sound knowledge base regarding the drivers, management......, and success factors related to IT outsourcing. However, little is known about the relationship between outsourcing drivers and goals on the one hand, and contractual and managerial aspects on the other hand. To overcome this gap, this study presents a synthesized conceptual model of existing literature...... that relates aspects of contractual governance and relationship management to three generic types of IT outsourcing, based on their underlying drivers: task-based, process-based, and partnership-based outsourcing. Our model identifies the specific contractual and managerial factors relevant for each type...

  16. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from normal rats stimulates DNA synthesis in rat alveolar type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, C.C.; McCormick-Shannon, K.; Mason, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Proliferation of alveolar type II cells after lung injury is important for the restoration of the alveolar epithelium. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) may represent an important source of growth factors for alveolar type II cells. To test this possibility, BALF fluid was collected from normal rats, concentrated 10-fold by Amicon filtration, and tested for its ability to stimulate DNA synthesis in rat alveolar type II cells in primary culture. BALF induced a dose-dependent increase in type II cell DNA synthesis resulting in a 6-fold increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation. Similar doses also stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation into rat lung fibroblasts by 6- to 8-fold. Removal of pulmonary surface active material by centrifugation did not significantly reduce the stimulatory activity of BALF for type II cells. The stimulation of type II cell DNA synthesis by BALF was reduced by 100% after heating at 100 degrees C for 10 min, and by approximately 80% after reduction with dithiothreitol, and after trypsin treatment. Dialysis of BALF against 1 N acetic acid resulted in a 27% reduction in stimulatory activity. The effect of BALF in promoting type II cell DNA synthesis was more pronounced when tested in the presence of serum, although serum itself has very little effect on type II cell DNA synthesis. When BALF was tested in combination with other substances that stimulate type II cell DNA synthesis (cholera toxin, insulin, epidermal growth factor, and acidic fibroblast growth factor), additive effects or greater were observed. When BALF was chromatographed over Sephadex G150, the activity eluted with an apparent molecular weight of 100 kDa

  17. Comparative pharmacokinetics of arctigenin in normal and type 2 diabetic rats after oral and intravenous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-yan; Dong, Shu; He, Nan-nan; Jiang, Chun-jie; Dai, Yue; Xia, Yu-feng

    2015-09-01

    Arctigenin is the main active ingredient of Fructus Arctii for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In this study, the pharmacokinetics of arctigenin in normal and type 2 diabetic rats following oral and intravenous administration was investigated. As compared to normal rats, Cmax and AUC(0-10h) values of oral arctigenin in diabetic rats increased by 356.8% and 223.4%, respectively. In contrast, after intravenous injection, the Cmax and AUC(0-10h) values of arctigenin showed no significant difference between diabetic and normal rats. In order to explore how the bioavailability of oral arctigenin increased under diabetic condition, the absorption behavior of arctigenin was evaluated by in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP). The results indicated that arctigenin was a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The absorption difference of arctigenin in the normal and diabetic rats could be eliminated by the pretreatment of classic P-gp inhibitor verapamil, suggesting that P-gp might be the key factor causing the absorption enhancement of arctigenin in diabetic rats. Further studies revealed that the uptake of rhodamine 123 (Rho123) in diabetic rats was significantly higher, indicating that diabetes mellitus might impair P-gp function. Consistently, a lower mRNA level of P-gp in the intestine of diabetic rats was found. In conclusion, the absorption of arctigenin after oral administration was promoted in diabetic rats, which might be partially attribute to the decreased expression and impaired function of P-gp in intestines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Restoration of lumbopelvic sagittal alignment and its maintenance following transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF): comparison between straight type versus curvilinear type cage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Tae; Shin, Myung-Hoon; Lee, Ho-Jin; Choi, Du-Yong

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate a radiological and clinical difference between the curvilinear type cages compared to the straight type cages for the restoration of lumbopelvic sagittal alignment and its maintenance after transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) procedure. 68 patients who underwent single-level TLIF using either the straight type or curvilinear type cage were retrospectively reviewed. Assessment of the lumbopelvic parameters and the height of disc space was performed before surgery as well as 2 days, 6 and 12 months after surgery. Clinical outcome was assessed using VAS and ODI. The curvilinear type cages were positioned more anteriorly than the straight type. Restoration of the segmental lordosis (SL) in the curvilinear group was significantly greater than the straight group and at 12 months of follow-up, the straight group showed greater decrease in the disc height than the curvilinear group. The straight group failed to show improvement of lumbar lordosis (LL), while the curvilinear group showed significant restoration of LL and could maintain it to the 6 months of follow-up. In both groups, pelvic tilt was significantly decreased and it lasted to 6 months in the straight group; whereas in the curvilinear group, it was maintained to the last follow-up of 12 months. There were no significant differences between the two groups in mean VAS and ODI score over the follow-up period. This study demonstrates that the curvilinear type cage is superior to the straight type cage in improving the SL and maintaining both the restored lumbopelvic parameters and elevated disc height. These results could be attributable to the anterior position of the curvilinear cage which permits easy restoration of segmental lordosis and less sinking of cages.

  19. Prevalence of asinine herpesvirus type 5 (AsHV-5) infection in clinically normal Lipizzaner horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, James Oliver; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Nell, Barbara; Nowotny, Norbert

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the extent of asinine herpesvirus (AsHV) type 5 infection in 'closed' populations of clinically normal Lipizzaner horses. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells plus nasal and conjunctival swabs were obtained on four occasions over an 18 month period from 266 animals as part of a health surveillance programme. Sequence analysis of samples that were positive by nested consensus herpesvirus PCR but negative using quantified equid herpesvirus (EHV) type 2 and 5 PCR, revealed a total of 51 samples from 39 horses positive for AsHV-5. No statistically significant association between animal age, gender or geographical location and infection status was identified. The findings suggest sub-clinical AsHV-5 infection may be encountered more frequently than previously reported. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Spectroscopy and dynamics of charge transfer excitons in type-II band aligned quantum confined heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushavah, Dushyant [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology and Science, IIT Bombay-400076, Mumbai (India); Mohapatra, P. K.; Vasa, P.; Singh, B. P., E-mail: bhanups@iitb.ac.in [Department of physics, IIT Bombay, Mumbai-400076 (India); Rustagi, K. C. [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Bhopal-462066, Bhopal (India); Bahadur, D. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, IIT Bombay, Mumbai-400076 (India)

    2015-05-15

    We illustrate effect of charge transfer (CT) in type-II quantum confined heterostructure by comparing CdSe quantum dots (QDs), CdSe/CdTe heterostructure quantum dots (HQDs) and CdSe/CdTe/CdSe quantum well-quantum dots (QWQDs) heterostructures. CdSe core QDs were synthesized using a kinetic growth method where QD size depends on reaction time. For shell coating we used modified version of successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). Size of different QDs ∼5 to 7 nm were measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Strong red shift from ∼597 to ∼746 nm in photoluminescence (PL) spectra from QDs to QWQDs shows high tunability which is not possible with single constituent semiconductor QDs. PL spectra have been recorded at different temperatures (10K-300K). Room temperature time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) measurements for QDs to QWQDs show three exponential radiative decay. The slowest component decay constant in QWQDs comes around eight fold to ∼51 ns as compared to ∼6.5 ns in HQD suggesting new opportunities to tailor the radiative carrier recombination rate of CT excitons.

  1. Morphometric analysis of three normal facial types in mixed dentition using posteroanterior cephalometric radiographs: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Bigliazzi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the craniofacial features of subjects with normal occlusion with different vertical patterns in the mixed dentition using morphometric analysis (Thin-Plate Spline analysis - TPS applied to posteroanterior (PA films. The sample comprised 39 individuals (18 females and 21 males, all in mixed dentition, aged from 8.4 to 10 years with satisfactory occlusion and balanced profile and with no history of orthodontic or facial orthopedic treatment. The sample was divided into three groups (mesofacial, brachyfacial and dolichofacial according to the facial types proposed by Ricketts (1989. The average craniofacial configurations of each study group were obtained by orthogonal superimposition of Procrustes, thereby eliminating size differences and allowing only shape differences between groups to be analyzed by viewing the TPS deformation grid. Significant differences were found among the three facial types but were more remarkable between mesofacials and dolichofacials than between mesofacials and brachyfacials. TPS morphometric analysis proved efficient for accurate visualization of transverse and vertical differences among facial types even before pubertal growth spurt. These differences cannot be easily detected by traditional posteroanterior cephalometry.

  2. Theory of the normal modes of vibrations in the lanthanide type crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Roberto; Soto-Bubert, Andres

    2008-11-01

    For the lanthanide type crystals, a vast and rich, though incomplete amount of experimental data has been accumulated, from linear and non linear optics, during the last decades. The main goal of the current research work is to report a new methodology and strategy to put forward a more representative approach to account for the normal modes of vibrations for a complex N-body system. For illustrative purposes, the chloride lanthanide type crystals Cs2NaLnCl6 have been chosen and we develop new convergence tests as well as a criterion to deal with the details of the F-matrix (potential energy matrix). A novel and useful concept of natural potential energy distributions (NPED) is introduced and examined throughout the course of this work. The diagonal and non diagonal contributions to these NPED-values, are evaluated for a series of these crystals explicitly. Our model is based upon a total of seventy two internal coordinates and ninety eight internal Hooke type force constants. An optimization mathematical procedure is applied with reference to the series of chloride lanthanide crystals and it is shown that the strategy and model adopted is sound from both a chemical and a physical viewpoints. We can argue that the current model is able to accommodate a number of interactions and to provide us with a very useful physical insight. The limitations and advantages of the current model and the most likely sources for improvements are discussed in detail.

  3. The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes is not increased in normal-weight women with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelanis, Rasa; Mellembakken, Jan Roar; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger; Ravn, Pernille; Morin-Papunen, Laure; Tapanainen, Juha S; Piltonen, Terhi; Puurunen, Johanna; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén; Fedorcsak, Peter; Andersen, Marianne; Glintborg, Dorte

    2017-11-01

    Is oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) needed in all women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? OGTT is not routinely needed in women with PCOS and BMI PCOS is associated with insulin resistance and increased prevalence of prediabetes and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) which is closely linked to obesity and possibly age, ethnicity and PCOS phenotype. Several guidelines recommend OGTT upon diagnosis of PCOS and during follow-up. A Nordic cross-sectional study including 876 women. The 876 Nordic women with PCOS, aged 14-57 years, were examined for T2D and prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance [IGT] or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) by OGTT. Of all study subjects 3% (23/876) had T2D, 23% (204/876) prediabetes and 74% (649/876) had normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Increased BMI and waist circumference were significantly (P PCOS phenotype did not predict 2-h glucose levels during OGTT after adjustment for BMI and age. The present study included cross-sectional data and prospective studies are needed to confirm our results. These results may not apply to populations of other ethnic origin. Routine OGTT may not be indicated in normal-weight women with PCOS. None. N/A. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Monomiality principle, Sheffer-type polynomials and the normal ordering problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penson, K A; Blasiak, P; Dattoli, G; Duchamp, G H E; Horzela, A; Solomon, A I

    2006-01-01

    We solve the boson normal ordering problem for (q(a † )a + v(a † )) n with arbitrary functions q(x) and v(x) and integer n, where a and a † are boson annihilation and creation operators, satisfying [a, a † ] = 1. This consequently provides the solution for the exponential e λ(q(a † )a+v(a † )) generalizing the shift operator. In the course of these considerations we define and explore the monomiality principle and find its representations. We exploit the properties of Sheffer-type polynomials which constitute the inherent structure of this problem. In the end we give some examples illustrating the utility of the method and point out the relation to combinatorial structures

  5. On the use of plate-type normal pressure cells in silos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, Alvaro; Nielsen, Jørgen; Ayuga, F.

    2010-01-01

    the interpretation of results. Once the cells have been delivered from the manufacturer to the researcher, they should be calibrated and validated with reference to the measurement of pressure from a granular material against a silo wall. Two related papers deal with a specific plate-type normal pressure cell...... for use in an installation of three full-scale steel silos with different hopper eccentricities (concentric, half-eccentric and full-eccentric) as part of a silo research project. It was found to be necessary to validate the performance of the cells when measuring pressures in the silos in order to arrive...... at a solid basis for the interpretation of the pressure measurements in the silo installation aforementioned. This paper presents calibration results from three investigated methods as well as results from a finite element analysis of the plate deflection of the pressure cell which were performed to evaluate...

  6. Central leptin action on euglycemia restoration in type 1 diabetes: Restraining responses normally induced by fasting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanzhong; Tong, Qingchun

    2017-07-01

    Leptin monotherapy is sufficient to restore euglycemia in insulinopenic type 1 diabetes (T1D), yet the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that the brain mediates the leptin action on euglycemia restoration. Here, we first review evidence supporting that symptoms in T1D resemble an uncontrolled response to fasting. Then, we discuss recent research progress on brain neurons and their neurotransmitters that potentially mediate the leptin action. Finally, peripheral effective pathways, which are normally involved in fasting responses and associated with leptin action on euglycemia restoration in T1D, will also be discussed. This summary complements several previous excellent reviews on this topic (Meek and Morton, 2016; Perry et al., 2016; Fujikawa and Coppari, 2015). A deep understanding of neurocircuitry and the peripheral effective pathways that mediate the leptin action on euglycemia restoration will likely lead to novel targets for an insulin-independent therapeutics against T1D. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Type II band alignment in Ge1-x-ySixSny/Ge1-α-βSiαSnβ heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Swagata; Mukhopadhyay, Bratati; Sen, Gopa; Basu, P. K.

    2018-02-01

    We have examined type II band alignment in Ge1-x-ySixSny/Ge1-α-βSiαSβ heterojunctions grown on virtual substrates in Si platform. It is found that, for different values of x, y, α and β, direct band gap type II band line up can be achieved for both tensile and compressive strains. The calculated band gap energy corresponds to the mid infrared to far infrared regions in the electromagnetic spectrum.

  8. RADIOMETRIC NORMALIZATION OF LARGE AIRBORNE IMAGE DATA SETS ACQUIRED BY DIFFERENT SENSOR TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gehrke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Generating seamless mosaics of aerial images is a particularly challenging task when the mosaic comprises a large number of im-ages, collected over longer periods of time and with different sensors under varying imaging conditions. Such large mosaics typically consist of very heterogeneous image data, both spatially (different terrain types and atmosphere and temporally (unstable atmo-spheric properties and even changes in land coverage. We present a new radiometric normalization or, respectively, radiometric aerial triangulation approach that takes advantage of our knowledge about each sensor’s properties. The current implementation supports medium and large format airborne imaging sensors of the Leica Geosystems family, namely the ADS line-scanner as well as DMC and RCD frame sensors. A hierarchical modelling – with parameters for the overall mosaic, the sensor type, different flight sessions, strips and individual images – allows for adaptation to each sensor’s geometric and radiometric properties. Additional parameters at different hierarchy levels can compensate radiome-tric differences of various origins to compensate for shortcomings of the preceding radiometric sensor calibration as well as BRDF and atmospheric corrections. The final, relative normalization is based on radiometric tie points in overlapping images, absolute radiometric control points and image statistics. It is computed in a global least squares adjustment for the entire mosaic by altering each image’s histogram using a location-dependent mathematical model. This model involves contrast and brightness corrections at radiometric fix points with bilinear interpolation for corrections in-between. The distribution of the radiometry fixes is adaptive to each image and generally increases with image size, hence enabling optimal local adaptation even for very long image strips as typi-cally captured by a line-scanner sensor. The normalization approach is implemented in

  9. Immunostimulant, cerebroprotective & nootropic activities of Andrographis paniculata leaves extract in normal & type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhika, P; Annapurna, A; Rao, S Nageswara

    2012-05-01

    A large number of plants have been recognized to be effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Persistent hyperglycaemia is associated with decreased function of immune system and cerebral ischaemia mainly due to increased oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Andrographis paniculata is a medicinal plant widely used in folk medicine for various purposes. In this study the effect of chronic administration (7 days) of methanolic extract of A. paniculata leaves was studied in rats with experimentally induced diabetes, nootropic and immunostimulant activities were evaluated. The effect of acute administration of methanolic extract of A. paniculata leaves was also studied for cerebroprotective activity. Type 2 diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ) (65 mg/kg) + nicotinamide (150 mg/kg). Various biochemical parameters were estimated using standard methods. A significant (Ppaniculata leaves was evident by decreased tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and increased SOD levels. These properties may be responsible for the observed cerebroprotective activity. The methanolic leaf extract of A. paniculata showed significant immunostimulant, cerebroprotective and nootropic activities in normal and type 2 diabetic rats.

  10. Epigenetic regulation of normal human mammary cell type-specific miRNAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrba, Lukas [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Arizona Cancer Center; Inst. of Plant Molecular Biology, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic). Biology Centre ASCR; Garbe, James C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Life Sciences Center; Stampfer, Martha R. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Arizona Cancer Center; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Life Sciences Center; Futscher, Bernard W. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Arizona Cancer Center and Dept. of Pharmacology & Toxicology

    2011-08-26

    Epigenetic mechanisms are important regulators of cell type–specific genes, including miRNAs. In order to identify cell type-specific miRNAs regulated by epigenetic mechanisms, we undertook a global analysis of miRNA expression and epigenetic states in three isogenic pairs of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) and human mammary fibroblasts (HMF), which represent two differentiated cell types typically present within a given organ, each with a distinct phenotype and a distinct epigenotype. While miRNA expression and epigenetic states showed strong interindividual concordance within a given cell type, almost 10% of the expressed miRNA showed a cell type–specific pattern of expression that was linked to the epigenetic state of their promoter. The tissue-specific miRNA genes were epigenetically repressed in nonexpressing cells by DNA methylation (38%) and H3K27me3 (58%), with only a small set of miRNAs (21%) showing a dual epigenetic repression where both DNA methylation and H3K27me3 were present at their promoters, such as MIR10A and MIR10B. Individual miRNA clusters of closely related miRNA gene families can each display cell type–specific repression by the same or complementary epigenetic mechanisms, such as the MIR200 family, and MIR205, where fibroblasts repress MIR200C/141 by DNA methylation, MIR200A/200B/429 by H3K27me3, and MIR205 by both DNA methylation and H3K27me3. Since deregulation of many of the epigenetically regulated miRNAs that we identified have been linked to disease processes such as cancer, it is predicted that compromise of the epigenetic control mechanisms is important for this process. Overall, these results highlight the importance of epigenetic regulation in the control of normal cell type–specific miRNA expression.

  11. Comparison of Apraxia between Patients with Senile Dementia of Alzheimer Type and Normal Aged People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Yadegari

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In addition to memory deficits and aphasia, many patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD are apraxic which may bring about disturbances in their daily living. The purpose of present study was investigating the presence of any apraxic disorder in patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT and comparison with normal aged people. Materials & Methods: In this case–control and analytical study 14 SDAT patients were compared with 20 normal ageing people that they were matched with patients according to age and education. Patients were selected from Iranian Alzheimer Association clients with psychiatrist diagnostic confirmation and MMSE scores between 15-27 and compared with controls with MMSE scores between 25-30. Apraxia Test was administered on both groups. The Test included 4 subtests: conceptual movements gestured conceptual movements, oral and respiratory movements & pantomime of movements of object manipulations. Data was analyzed by using Kolmogoroff – Smirnoff test, Man – Witney, T-test for independent groups and pearsonian correlation coefficient. Results: Findings showed that apraxia scores were significantly (P<0/001 different between groups so that (SDAT patients were diagnosed as apraxic and controls were not. Besides, comparison of subtests scores of (SDAT patients revealed that conceptual movements scores were significantly (P<0/001 less than the other subtests (more apraxic and oral and respiratory movements scores were significantly (P<0/001 higher than the other subtests (less apraxic. Conclusion: Apraxia could be considered as one of the neuropsychological signs early in the disease development. It can be applied complementarily for differential diagnosis. Also apraxia subgroup scoring could be used for apraxia categorization, understanding observed disorders and determining possible rehabilitation ways.

  12. Alignment of the Kübler-Ross grief cycle phases with the process of adaptation to type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isla Pera, Pilar; Moncho Vasallo, Joaquín; Guasch Andreu, Oscar; Torras Rabasa, Alberto

    2008-02-01

    To understand the process of adaptation to type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) and analyze its alignment with the grief cycle phases described by Kübler-Ross. We performed an ethnographic study through in-depth interviews with 20 patients, 10 relatives and 12 health professionals (6 physicians and 6 nurses). For the analysis, the Miles and Huberman qualitative data analysis model was used. Patients diagnosed with DM1 and their families face a loss of lifestyle and of the objects, real or imaginary, of their previous life. Patients and relatives experience emotional reactions that in some cases can be similar to the grief cycle phases described by Kübler-Ross for terminal diseases (denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance). However, there are some differences depending on personal and psycho-social factors. Health professionals tend to relate low adherence to denial of the disease, but some patients feel threatened by the demands of treatment and control and their effects on their quality of life, and consciously choose not to follow recommendations. It is more realistic to talk about disease adaptation than acceptance, since the loss processes are ongoing and patients must reconstruct their identity according to their situation. The grief cycle also affects the family and may differ from that of the patient in its duration, intensity and assessment of problems. Adaptation is a complex process in which many variables intervene. There are observable differences among the mechanisms used by each specific individual. Healthcare professionals, and specifically nurses, should consider the multiple psycho-social dimensions of chronic disease. Copyright © 2008 Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Normal fasting plasma glucose levels and type 2 diabetes in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Amir; Shai, Iris; Tekes-Manova, Dorit; Israeli, Eran; Pereg, David; Shochat, Tzippora; Kochba, Ilan; Rudich, Assaf

    2005-10-06

    The normal fasting plasma glucose level was recently defined as less than 100 mg per deciliter (5.55 mmol per liter). Whether higher fasting plasma glucose levels within this range independently predict type 2 diabetes in young adults is unclear. We obtained blood measurements, data from physical examinations, and medical and lifestyle information from men in the Israel Defense Forces who were 26 to 45 years of age. A total of 208 incident cases of type 2 diabetes occurred during 74,309 person-years of follow-up (from 1992 through 2004) among 13,163 subjects who had baseline fasting plasma glucose levels of less than 100 mg per deciliter. A multivariate model, adjusted for age, family history of diabetes, body-mass index, physical-activity level, smoking status, and serum triglyceride levels, revealed a progressively increased risk of type 2 diabetes in men with fasting plasma glucose levels of 87 mg per deciliter (4.83 mmol per liter) or more, as compared with those whose levels were in the bottom quintile (less than 81 mg per deciliter [4.5 mmol per liter], P for trend <0.001). In multivariate models, men with serum triglyceride levels of 150 mg per deciliter (1.69 mmol per liter) or more, combined with fasting plasma glucose levels of 91 to 99 mg per deciliter (5.05 to 5.50 mmol per liter), had a hazard ratio of 8.23 (95 percent confidence interval, 3.6 to 19.0) for diabetes, as compared with men with a combined triglyceride level of less than 150 mg per deciliter and fasting glucose levels of less than 86 mg per deciliter (4.77 mmol per liter). The joint effect of a body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) of 30 or more and a fasting plasma glucose level of 91 to 99 mg per deciliter resulted in a hazard ratio of 8.29 (95 percent confidence interval, 3.8 to 17.8), as compared with a body-mass index of less than 25 and a fasting plasma glucose level of less than 86 mg per deciliter. Higher fasting plasma glucose

  14. A SPECTROSCOPICALLY NORMAL TYPE Ic SUPERNOVA FROM A VERY MASSIVE PROGENITOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, Stefano; Pastorello, Andrea; Benetti, Stefano; Cappellaro, Enrico; Tomasella, Lina; Turatto, Massimo; Taubenberger, Stefan; Aramyan, Levon; Botticella, Maria Teresa; Fraser, Morgan; Smartt, Stephen J.; Magill, Lindsay; Kotak, Rubina; Wright, Darryl E.; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Ergon, Mattias; Sollerman, Jesper; Magnier, Eugene; Price, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    We present observations of the Type Ic supernova (SN Ic) 2011bm spanning a period of about one year. The data establish that SN 2011bm is a spectroscopically normal SN Ic with moderately low ejecta velocities and with a very slow spectroscopic and photometric evolution (more than twice as slow as SN 1998bw). The Pan-STARRS1 retrospective detection shows that the rise time from explosion to peak was ∼40 days in the R band. Through an analysis of the light curve and the spectral sequence, we estimate a kinetic energy of ∼7-17 foe and a total ejected mass of ∼7-17 M ☉ , 5-10 M ☉ of which is oxygen and 0.6-0.7 M ☉ is 56 Ni. The physical parameters obtained for SN 2011bm suggest that its progenitor was a massive star of initial mass 30-50 M ☉ . The profile of the forbidden oxygen lines in the nebular spectra shows no evidence of a bi-polar geometry in the ejected material.

  15. Open-type congenital cholesteatoma: differential diagnosis for conductive hearing loss with a normal tympanic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Hyung; Cho, Yang-Sun; Chu, Ho-Suk; Jang, Jeon-Yeob; Chung, Won-Ho; Hong, Sung Hwa

    2012-06-01

    In patients with progressive conductive hearing loss and a normal tympanic membrane (TM), and with soft tissue density in the middle ear cavity (MEC) on temporal bone computed tomography (TBCT) scan, open-type congenital cholesteatoma (OCC) should be highly suspected and a proper surgical plan that includes mastoid exploration and second-stage operation is required. The clinical presentation of OCC is very similar to congenital ossicular anomaly (COA) presenting with a conductive hearing loss with intact TM. Therefore, it is challenging to make a correct preoperative diagnosis in patients with OCC. We evaluated the clinical characteristics of OCC compared with those of COA to find diagnostic clues useful in diagnosis of OCC. The medical records of 12 patients with surgically proven OCC and 14 patients with surgically proven COA were reviewed for demographic data, otologic history, preoperative TBCT findings, intraoperative findings, and pre- and postoperative audiologic data. There was no difference between OCC and COA based on demographic data, preoperative hearing, and ossicular status on TBCT. However, the presence of progressive hearing loss, soft tissue density in the MEC on TBCT scan, and the need for mastoid surgery and second-stage operation were significantly more frequent in OCC patients.

  16. Normal conditions of transport thermal analysis and testing of a Type B drum package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerrell, J.W.; Alstine, M.N. van; Gromada, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Increasing the content limits of radioactive material packagings can save money and increase transportation safety by decreasing the total number of shipments required to transport large quantities of material. The contents of drum packages can be limited by unacceptable containment vessel pressures and temperatures due to the thermal properties of the insulation. The purpose of this work is to understand and predict the effects of insulation properties on containment system performance. The type B shipping container used in the study is a double containment fiberboard drum package. The package is primarily used to transport uranium and plutonium metals and oxides. A normal condition of transport (NCT) thermal test was performed to benchmark an NCT analysis of the package. A 21 W heater was placed in an instrumented package to simulate the maximum source decay heat. The package reached thermal equilibrium 120 hours after the heater was turned on. Testing took place indoors to minimize ambient temperature fluctuations. The thermal analysis of the package used fiberboard properties reported in the literature and resulted in temperature significantly greater than those measured during the test. Details of the NCT test will be described and transient temperatures at key thermocouple locations within the package will be presented. Analytical results using nominal fiberboard properties will be presented. Explanations of the results and the attempt to benchmark the analysis will be presented. The discovery that fiberboard has an anisotropic thermal conductivity and its effect on thermal performance will also be discussed

  17. Gennemgang af en ny type hereditært angioødem med normal komplement C1-inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okholm-Hansen, Maria Bach; Winther, Anna Hillert; Fagerberg, Christina

    2018-01-01

    Hereditary angio-oedema (HAE) is a rare, potentially fatal disease characterized by recurrent swelling of skin and mucosa. Besides HAE with quantitative (type I) or qualitative (type II) deficiency of complement C1-inhibitor (C1-INH), a new subtype of HAE is now described with normal levels of C1...

  18. Human papillomavirus in normal conjunctival tissue and in conjunctival papilloma: types and frequencies in a large series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjö, Nicolai Christian; von Buchwald, Christian; Cassonnet, Patricia; Norrild, Bodil; Prause, Jan Ulrik; Vinding, Troels; Heegaard, Steffen

    2007-08-01

    To examine conjunctival papilloma and normal conjunctival tissue for the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV). Archival paraffin wax-embedded tissue from 165 conjunctival papillomas and from 20 histological normal conjunctival biopsy specimens was analysed for the presence of HPV by PCR. Specimens considered HPV positive using consensus primers, but with a negative or uncertain PCR result using type-specific HPV probes, were analysed with DNA sequencing. HPV was present in 86 of 106 (81%) beta-globin-positive papillomas. HPV type 6 was positive in 80 cases, HPV type 11 was identified in 5 cases and HPV type 45 was present in a single papilloma. All the 20 normal conjunctival biopsy specimens were beta-globin positive and HPV negative. There is a strong association between HPV and conjunctival papilloma. The study presents the largest material of conjunctival papilloma investigated for HPV and the first investigation of HPV in normal conjunctival tissue. HPV types 6 and 11 are the most common HPV types in conjunctival papilloma. This also is the first report of HPV type 45 in conjunctival papilloma.

  19. Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of different types of dental cement on normal cultured human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakopoulou, A; Mourelatos, D; Tsiftsoglou, A S; Giassin, N P; Mioglou, E; Garefis, P

    2009-01-31

    In this study we have investigated the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of eluates derived from different types of commercially available dental cements, including glass ionomer cements (GICs) (Ketac Cem/3M ESPE and GC Fuji I/GC Corp), resin-modified glass ionomer cements (RM-GICs) (RelyX Luting/3M ESPE and Vitrebond/3M ESPE) and dual-cure resin cements (RCs) (Variolink II/ Ivoclar-Vivadent and Panavia F 2.0/Kuraray) on normal cultured human lymphocytes. Lymphocyte primary cultures obtained from blood samples of three healthy donors were exposed to serial dilutions of eluates derived from specimens of each material tested. Metaphases were induced with phytohaemagglutinin, collected after 72h treatment by use of colchicine and stained according to the fluorescence plus giemsa (FPG) procedure. Preparations were scored for sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and chromosomal aberrations (CAs), while the proliferation rate index (PRI) was also calculated. Our results show that eluates derived from the RM-GICs and RCs caused severe genotoxic effects by significantly increasing the frequencies of SCEs and CAs in cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes and by decreasing the relevant PRI values in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the two GICs caused only minor cytogenetic effects. Eluates of the two RM-GICs (Vitrebond and RelyX) were also very cytotoxic, as the first serial dilutions of both materials caused a complete mitotic arrest in lymphocyte cultures. Overall, the degree of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity caused by dental cements decreased as follows: Viterbond>Rely X>Panavia F 2.0>Variolink II>Ketac Cem=GC Fuji I. These results indicate that different types of dental cement differ extensively in their genotoxic and cytotoxic potential and their ability to affect chromosomal integrity, cell-cycle progression, DNA replication and repair. Although these results cannot be directly extrapolated to the clinical situation, the potential occurrence of adverse effects caused by the

  20. Normal foot and ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    The foot may be thought of as a bag of bones tied tightly together and functioning as a unit. The bones re expected to maintain their alignment without causing symptomatology to the patient. The author discusses a normal radiograph. The bones must have normal shape and normal alignment. The density of the soft tissues should be normal and there should be no fractures, tumors, or foreign bodies

  1. Design and fabrication of a self-aligned parallel-plate-type silicon micromirror minimizing the effect of misalignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Byung-Wook; Jin, Joo-Young; Jang, Yun-Ho; Kim, Yong-Kweon; Park, Jae-Hyoung

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a self-alignment method whereby a mirror actuation voltage, corresponding to a specific tilting angle, is unvarying in terms of misalignment during fabrication. A deep silicon etching process is proposed to penetrate the top silicon layer (the micromirror layer) and an amorphous silicon layer (the addressing electrode layer) together, through an aluminum mask pattern, in order to minimize the misalignment effect on the micromirror actuation. The size of a fabricated mirror plate is 250 × 250 × 4 µm 3 . A pair of amorphous silicon electrodes under the mirror plate is about half the size of the mirror plate individually. Numerical analysis associated with calculating the pull-in voltage and the bonding misalignment is performed to verify the self-alignment concepts focused upon in this paper. Curves of the applied voltage versus the tilt angle of the self-aligned micromirror are observed using a position sensing detector in order to compare the measurement results with MATLAB analysis of the expected static deflections. Although a 3.7 µm misalignment is found between the mirror plate and the electrodes, in the direction perpendicular to the shallow trench of the electrodes, before the self-alignment process, the measured pull-in voltage has been found to be 103.4 V on average; this differs from the pull-in voltage of a perfectly aligned micromirror by only 0.67%. Regardless of the unpredictable misalignments in repetitive photolithography and bonding, the tilting angles corresponding to the driving voltages are proved to be uniform along the single axis as well as conform to the results of analytical analysis

  2. AlignMe—a membrane protein sequence alignment web server

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Marcus; Staritzbichler, René; Khafizov, Kamil; Forrest, Lucy R.

    2014-01-01

    We present a web server for pair-wise alignment of membrane protein sequences, using the program AlignMe. The server makes available two operational modes of AlignMe: (i) sequence to sequence alignment, taking two sequences in fasta format as input, combining information about each sequence from multiple sources and producing a pair-wise alignment (PW mode); and (ii) alignment of two multiple sequence alignments to create family-averaged hydropathy profile alignments (HP mode). For the PW sequence alignment mode, four different optimized parameter sets are provided, each suited to pairs of sequences with a specific similarity level. These settings utilize different types of inputs: (position-specific) substitution matrices, secondary structure predictions and transmembrane propensities from transmembrane predictions or hydrophobicity scales. In the second (HP) mode, each input multiple sequence alignment is converted into a hydrophobicity profile averaged over the provided set of sequence homologs; the two profiles are then aligned. The HP mode enables qualitative comparison of transmembrane topologies (and therefore potentially of 3D folds) of two membrane proteins, which can be useful if the proteins have low sequence similarity. In summary, the AlignMe web server provides user-friendly access to a set of tools for analysis and comparison of membrane protein sequences. Access is available at http://www.bioinfo.mpg.de/AlignMe PMID:24753425

  3. Effect of Clopidogrel on Platelet CD Markers in Normal Individuals and in Patients with Untreated Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboor, M.; Moinuddin, M.; Ilyas, S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of clopidogrel response in patients with untreated type 2 diabetes mellitus as compared with normal individuals. One hundred and seven subjects i.e. 32 normal and 75 patients with untreated type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled in this study. In the first step, normal subjects as well as diabetic patients were selected and tested for various laboratory parameters and platelets flow cytometry. In the second step, an antiplatelet drug (clopidogrel) was administered for 10 days to each individual enrolled in the study. After 10 days blood samples were collected for platelets flow cytometry. CD41 and CD61 did not show any change after the administration of clopidogrel in resting and activated platelets. CD63 and CD62p positivity was increased in normal and in diabetic patients' platelets after activation with ADP before clopidogrel. It was decreased in normal resting and ADP stimulated platelets after clopidogrel treatment. CD63 and CD62p positivity in resting and ADP stimulated patients platelets was also decreased after clopidogrel treatment. The change was, however, not as marked as in normal subjects. (author)

  4. Evolution of biological sequences implies an extreme value distribution of type I for both global and local pairwise alignment scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Olivier; Maréchal, Eric

    2008-08-07

    Confidence in pairwise alignments of biological sequences, obtained by various methods such as Blast or Smith-Waterman, is critical for automatic analyses of genomic data. Two statistical models have been proposed. In the asymptotic limit of long sequences, the Karlin-Altschul model is based on the computation of a P-value, assuming that the number of high scoring matching regions above a threshold is Poisson distributed. Alternatively, the Lipman-Pearson model is based on the computation of a Z-value from a random score distribution obtained by a Monte-Carlo simulation. Z-values allow the deduction of an upper bound of the P-value (1/Z-value2) following the TULIP theorem. Simulations of Z-value distribution is known to fit with a Gumbel law. This remarkable property was not demonstrated and had no obvious biological support. We built a model of evolution of sequences based on aging, as meant in Reliability Theory, using the fact that the amount of information shared between an initial sequence and the sequences in its lineage (i.e., mutual information in Information Theory) is a decreasing function of time. This quantity is simply measured by a sequence alignment score. In systems aging, the failure rate is related to the systems longevity. The system can be a machine with structured components, or a living entity or population. "Reliability" refers to the ability to operate properly according to a standard. Here, the "reliability" of a sequence refers to the ability to conserve a sufficient functional level at the folded and maturated protein level (positive selection pressure). Homologous sequences were considered as systems 1) having a high redundancy of information reflected by the magnitude of their alignment scores, 2) which components are the amino acids that can independently be damaged by random DNA mutations. From these assumptions, we deduced that information shared at each amino acid position evolved with a constant rate, corresponding to the

  5. Evolution of biological sequences implies an extreme value distribution of type I for both global and local pairwise alignment scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maréchal Eric

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Confidence in pairwise alignments of biological sequences, obtained by various methods such as Blast or Smith-Waterman, is critical for automatic analyses of genomic data. Two statistical models have been proposed. In the asymptotic limit of long sequences, the Karlin-Altschul model is based on the computation of a P-value, assuming that the number of high scoring matching regions above a threshold is Poisson distributed. Alternatively, the Lipman-Pearson model is based on the computation of a Z-value from a random score distribution obtained by a Monte-Carlo simulation. Z-values allow the deduction of an upper bound of the P-value (1/Z-value2 following the TULIP theorem. Simulations of Z-value distribution is known to fit with a Gumbel law. This remarkable property was not demonstrated and had no obvious biological support. Results We built a model of evolution of sequences based on aging, as meant in Reliability Theory, using the fact that the amount of information shared between an initial sequence and the sequences in its lineage (i.e., mutual information in Information Theory is a decreasing function of time. This quantity is simply measured by a sequence alignment score. In systems aging, the failure rate is related to the systems longevity. The system can be a machine with structured components, or a living entity or population. "Reliability" refers to the ability to operate properly according to a standard. Here, the "reliability" of a sequence refers to the ability to conserve a sufficient functional level at the folded and maturated protein level (positive selection pressure. Homologous sequences were considered as systems 1 having a high redundancy of information reflected by the magnitude of their alignment scores, 2 which components are the amino acids that can independently be damaged by random DNA mutations. From these assumptions, we deduced that information shared at each amino acid position evolved with a

  6. Regional organization of fibre types in normal and reinnervated hindlimb muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Liangchun

    2001-01-01

    The present thesis concerns the spatial distribution of the "slow" type I fibres within muscles of the hindlimb. It is known since long ago that some muscles may have strikingly heterogeneous distributions of type I and II fibres, but this phenomenon of "fibre type regionalization" has still not

  7. Dynamic response characteristics of high temperature superconducting maglev systems: Comparison between Halbach-type and normal permanent magnet guideways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, B.; Zheng, J.; Che, T.; Zheng, B.T.; Si, S.S.; Deng, Z.G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The loading weight affects the RF tremendously. • Reducing the FCH can improve the stability of the maglev vehicle. • The Halbach-type PMG has better loading capacity than the conventional PMG. • Pre-load is an effective way to enhance the dynamic characteristic of the HTS maglev vehicle. - Abstract: The permanent magnet guideway (PMG) is very important for the performance of the high temperature superconducting (HTS) system in terms of electromagnetic force and operational stability. The dynamic response characteristics of a HTS maglev model levitating on two types of PMG, which are the normal PMG with iron flux concentration and Halbach-type PMG, were investigated by experiments. The dynamic signals for different field-cooling heights (FCHs) and loading/unloading processes were acquired and analyzed by a vibration analyzer and laser displacement sensors. The resonant frequency, stiffness and levitation height of the model were discussed. It was found that the maglev model on the Halbach-type PMG has higher resonant frequency and higher vertical stiffness compared with the normal PMG. However, the low lateral stiffness of the model on the Halbach-type PMG indicates poor lateral stability. Besides, the Halbach-type PMG has better loading capacity than the normal PMG. These results are helpful to design a suitable PMG for the HTS system in practical applications.

  8. Dynamic response characteristics of high temperature superconducting maglev systems: Comparison between Halbach-type and normal permanent magnet guideways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, B. [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, P R China (China); Zheng, J., E-mail: jzheng@swjtu.cn [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, P R China (China); Che, T. [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, P R China (China); Zheng, B.T.; Si, S.S. [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, P R China (China); School of Electrical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, P R China (China); Deng, Z.G., E-mail: deng@swjtu.cn [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, P R China (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • The loading weight affects the RF tremendously. • Reducing the FCH can improve the stability of the maglev vehicle. • The Halbach-type PMG has better loading capacity than the conventional PMG. • Pre-load is an effective way to enhance the dynamic characteristic of the HTS maglev vehicle. - Abstract: The permanent magnet guideway (PMG) is very important for the performance of the high temperature superconducting (HTS) system in terms of electromagnetic force and operational stability. The dynamic response characteristics of a HTS maglev model levitating on two types of PMG, which are the normal PMG with iron flux concentration and Halbach-type PMG, were investigated by experiments. The dynamic signals for different field-cooling heights (FCHs) and loading/unloading processes were acquired and analyzed by a vibration analyzer and laser displacement sensors. The resonant frequency, stiffness and levitation height of the model were discussed. It was found that the maglev model on the Halbach-type PMG has higher resonant frequency and higher vertical stiffness compared with the normal PMG. However, the low lateral stiffness of the model on the Halbach-type PMG indicates poor lateral stability. Besides, the Halbach-type PMG has better loading capacity than the normal PMG. These results are helpful to design a suitable PMG for the HTS system in practical applications.

  9. 25-hydroxyvitamin D in obese youth across the spectrum of glucose tolerance from normal to prediabetes to type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to 1) determine if plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations differ among obese youth with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) versus prediabetes versus type 2 diabetes and 2) assess the relationships between 25(OH)D and in vivo insulin sensitivity and Beta-cell ...

  10. MaxAlign: maximizing usable data in an alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Rodrigo Gouveia; Sackett, Peter Wad; Pedersen, Anders Gorm

    2007-01-01

    Align. In this paper we also introduce a new simple measure of tree similarity, Normalized Symmetric Similarity (NSS) that we consider useful for comparing tree topologies. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate how MaxAlign is helpful in detecting misaligned or defective sequences without requiring manual inspection. We also...

  11. Oxygen effects on the interfacial electronic structure of titanyl phthalocyanine film: p-Type doping, band bending and Fermi level alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Toshio; Kanai, Kaname; Ouchi, Yukio; Willis, Martin R.; Seki, Kazuhiko

    2006-01-01

    The effect of oxygen doping on titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc) film was investigated by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The electronic structure of the interface formed between TiOPc films deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) was clearly different between the films prepared in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) and under O 2 atmosphere (1.3 x 10 -2 Pa). The film deposited in UHV showed downward band bending characteristic of n-type semiconductor, possibly due to residual impurities working as unintentional n-type dopants. On the other hand, the film deposited under O 2 atmosphere showed upward band bending characteristic of p-type semiconductor. Such trends, including the conversion from n- to p-type, are in excellent correspondence with reported field effect transistor characteristics of TiOPc, and clearly demonstrates that bulk TiOPc film was p-doped with oxygen. In order to examine the Fermi level alignment between TiOPc film and the substrate, the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of TiOPc relative to the Fermi level of the conductive substrate was determined for various substrates. The alignment between the Fermi level of conductive substrate and Fermi level of TiOPc film at fixed energy in the bandgap was not observed for the TiOPc film prepared in UHV, possibly because of insufficient charge density in the TiOPc film. This situation was drastically changed when the TiOPc film exposed to O 2 , and clear alignment of the Fermi level fixed at 0.6 eV above the HOMO with the Fermi level of the conducting substrate was observed, probably by p-type doping effect of oxygen. These are the first direct and quantitative information about bulk oxygen doping from the viewpoint of the electronic structure. These results suggest that similar band bending with Fermi level alignment may be also achieved for other organic semiconductors under practical device conditions, and also call for caution at the comparison of experimental

  12. Adipose Tissues Characteristics of Normal, Obesity, and Type 2 Diabetes in Uygurs Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our results showed that, at the same BMI level, Uygurs have greater WHR values, abdominal visceral fat content, and diabetes risks than Kazaks. In addition, values of HDL-C in Uygur subjects were lower than those in Kazak subjects, and values of creatinine, uric acid, diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose, and fructosamine in Uygur male subjects were lower than those in Kazak male subjects. In contrast, systolic blood pressure values in Uygur subjects were greater than those in Kazak subjects, and blood glucose values were greater in Uygur female subjects than in Kazak female subjects. Additionally, in Uygurs, visceral adipose tissue expression levels of TBX1 and TCF21 were greater in obesity group than in normal and T2DM groups and lower in T2DM group than in normal group (P<0.01. The visceral adipose tissue expression levels of APN in normal group was greater than those in obesity and T2DM groups, and visceral adipose tissue expression levels of TNF-α and MCP-1 in normal group were lower than those in obesity and T2DM groups (P<0.01. In conclusion, T2DM in Uygurs was mainly associated with not only distribution of adipose tissue in body, but also change in metabolic activity and adipocytokines secretion of adipose tissue.

  13. INR calibration of Owren-type prothrombin time based on the relationship between PT% and INR utilizing normal plasma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Tomas L; Egberg, Nils; Hillarp, Andreas; Ødegaard, Ole R; Edlund, Bror; Svensson, Jan; Sandset, Per M; Rånby, Mats

    2004-06-01

    Prothrombin time (PT) is clinically important and is used to monitor oral anticoagulant therapy. To obtain PT results in international normalized ratio (INR), the current standardization procedure is complex and involves reference reagents. The PT of diluted plasma samples can be determined with a combined thromboplastin (the Owren-type procedure), but not necessarily with a plain thromboplastin (the Quick-type procedure). Owren-type PT procedures can therefore, as an alternative to the INR calibration, be calibrated with diluted normal plasma to give PT results in percent of normal PT activity (PT%). The present study explored if a plasma-based calibration of an Owren-type PT procedure can be used to obtain results in INR. The approach was to establish a relationship between PT% and INR by multi-center analysis of 365 samples from healthy individuals and patients on warfarin treatment. INR values were obtained by manual Quick-type reference procedure and PT% values by various automated Owren-type procedures. A relationship INR = (1/PT% + 0.018)/0.028 was found. A calibration procedure, based on the relationship, was investigated. Calibrators were the median PT of 21 normal plasma at dilutions representing 100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5% and 6.25% of normal PT activity. These were assigned INR values of 1.00, 1.36, 2.07, 3.05 and 6.36. Calibration of various Owren-type assays was repeatedly performed by 5 expert laboratories during 3 consecutive years. The INR values of certain lyophilised or frozen control plasmas were determined. The frozen control plasmas had externally assigned INR values according to WHO guide-lines. Within the laboratory, CV was typically below 3%. No appreciable difference among the results of the different laboratories or the three assay occasions was found. Externally assigned and INR values were essentially identical to those found. These and other results indicated that the calibration procedure was reproducible, precise and accurate. Thus, an

  14. Stretched alignment due to pairing correlation between the normal and abnormal parity orbits for the γ-soft nuclei in the light rare-earth region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, H.; Wu, L.

    1996-01-01

    For the γ-soft rotational motion, a two-parameter model is constructed considering the pair correlation between the normal and abnormal parity states based on the fermion dynamical symmetry model. The numerical calculation of this model shows that the data of ground bands of ten typical γ-soft rotational nuclei in the light rare-earth region are fitted in a very high quality. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  15. Dynamic response characteristics of high temperature superconducting maglev systems: Comparison between Halbach-type and normal permanent magnet guideways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Zheng, J.; Che, T.; Zheng, B. T.; Si, S. S.; Deng, Z. G.

    2015-12-01

    The permanent magnet guideway (PMG) is very important for the performance of the high temperature superconducting (HTS) system in terms of electromagnetic force and operational stability. The dynamic response characteristics of a HTS maglev model levitating on two types of PMG, which are the normal PMG with iron flux concentration and Halbach-type PMG, were investigated by experiments. The dynamic signals for different field-cooling heights (FCHs) and loading/unloading processes were acquired and analyzed by a vibration analyzer and laser displacement sensors. The resonant frequency, stiffness and levitation height of the model were discussed. It was found that the maglev model on the Halbach-type PMG has higher resonant frequency and higher vertical stiffness compared with the normal PMG. However, the low lateral stiffness of the model on the Halbach-type PMG indicates poor lateral stability. Besides, the Halbach-type PMG has better loading capacity than the normal PMG. These results are helpful to design a suitable PMG for the HTS system in practical applications.

  16. UNDERSTANDING THE STRUCTURE OF THE HOT INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN NORMAL EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, Liam; Kim, Dong-Woo; Chandra Galaxy Atlas

    2018-01-01

    The hot interstellar medium (ISM) of early-type galaxies (ETG's) provides crucial insight into the understanding of their formation and evolution. Mechanisms such as type Ia supernovae heating, AGN feedback, deepening potential depth through dark matter assembly and ramp-pressure stripping are known to affect the structure of the ISM. By using temperature maps and radial temperature profiles of the hot ISM from ~70 ETG's with archival Chandra data, it is possible to classify the galaxy's ISM into common structural types. This is extended by using 3D fitting of the radial temperature profile in order to provide models that further constrain the structural types. Five structural types are present, negative (temperature decreases with radii), positive (temperature increases with radii), hybrid-dip (temperature decreases at small radii and increases at large radii), hybrid-bump (inverse of hybrid-dip) and quasi-isothermal (temperature is constant at all radii). This work will be continued by 1) determining which mechanisms are present in which galaxies and 2) analysing the model parameters between galaxies within each structural type to determine whether each type can be described by a single set of model parameters, indicating that the same physical processes are responsible for creating that structural type.

  17. Search for aligned structure of 12C-α-12C type at high excitation energy in 28Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnereau, Nicole.

    1975-01-01

    The 16 O+ 12 C→ 12 C+α+ 12 C reaction is studied mainly at 46MeV (at this energy a state of 28 Si is presumably formed with a spin value of 14 + ; resonance of 19.7MeV c.m.). The motivation is to detect an α particle with a negligible energy in the c.m. system. This is the signature of the preformation of three aligned clusters in which the average location of the α particle is in between the two 12 C's at the center of symmetry of the system. Such a detection is performed by detecting two 12 C's in coincidence at specific angles. The data are understood by three-body calculations with a coupling of relative angular momenta governed by an unique J value. Experimentally, an α energy of 200keV is measured with good statistics, supporting the idea of aligned clusters as 28 Si intrinsic shape, related to some highly excited states [fr

  18. ALIGNMENT BETWEEN THE TYPES OF PROJECTS AND SKILLS PROJECT MANAGEMENT IN THE AES SUL DISTRIBUIDORA GAÚCHA DE ENERGIA S.A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greice de Bem Noro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The pursuit of excellence and new markets and customers has driven companies to build methods to reach goals and improve their strategies and competitive advantages. Therefore, the project management (PM has played a key role in the organizations to adjust deadlines, organizing methods and decision-making. Although many companies already use the PM as resource, this research attempt to contribute to increase the area trough the debate about alignment of companies projects types with the choice of the leader, in line with their skills. The study was developed in the AES Sul Distribuidora Gaúcha de Energia SA (AES Sul and examined how the alignment of the types of projects and management competencies can add value to the organization. The methodological procedure is classified as qualitative, quantitative and descriptive, conducted through a case study. The main results show the need for adjustments between the essential skills and AES Sul types of projects, beyond find some gaps regarding the leaders competencies.

  19. Propagation of a normal-superconducting interface in type I superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delon, P.

    1976-01-01

    The speed of propagation of an N-S boundary was measured as a function of temperature, and, when the superconductive phase increases, two minima are observed in the speed. Limited thermal conductivity gives the minimum situated at the highest temperature, the second minimum is caused by interference of quasi-particles through a superconductive sheet which covers a part of the normal state [fr

  20. Cell-Type-Specific Gene Programs of the Normal Human Nephron Define Kidney Cancer Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, David; Eriksson, Pontus; Krawczyk, Krzysztof; Nilsson, Helén; Hansson, Jennifer; Veerla, Srinivas; Sjölund, Jonas; Höglund, Mattias; Johansson, Martin E; Axelson, Håkan

    2017-08-08

    Comprehensive transcriptome studies of cancers often rely on corresponding normal tissue samples to serve as a transcriptional reference. In this study, we performed in-depth analyses of normal kidney tissue transcriptomes from the TCGA and demonstrate that the histological variability in cellularity, inherent in the kidney architecture, lead to considerable transcriptional differences between samples. This should be considered when comparing expression profiles of normal and cancerous kidney tissues. We exploited these differences to define renal-cell-specific gene signatures and used these as a framework to analyze renal cell carcinoma (RCC) ontogeny. Chromophobe RCCs express FOXI1-driven genes that define collecting duct intercalated cells, whereas HNF-regulated genes, specific for proximal tubule cells, are an integral part of clear cell and papillary RCC transcriptomes. These networks may be used as a framework for understanding the interplay between genomic changes in RCC subtypes and the lineage-defining regulatory machinery of their non-neoplastic counterparts. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Type I - type II band alignment of GaAsSb/InAs/GaAs quantum dot heterostructure influenced by dot size and strain reducing layer composition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hospodková, Alice; Zíková, Markéta; Pangrác, Jiří; Oswald, Jiří; Kubištová, Jana; Kuldová, Karla; Hazdra, P.; Hulicius, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 9 (2013), "095103-1"-"095103-9" ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/10/1201; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : quantum dot * band alignment * InAs/GaAs * GaAsSb * MOVPE Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.521, year: 2013 http://iopscience.iop.org/0022-3727/46/9/095103/

  2. Patients with type 2 diabetes have normal mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, R; Gnaiger, E; Schjerling, P

    2007-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport capacity are diminished in the skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic subjects......, as a result of a reduction in the mitochondrial content. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The O(2) flux capacity of permeabilised muscle fibres from biopsies of the quadriceps in healthy subjects (n = 8; age 58 +/- 2 years [mean+/-SEM]; BMI 28 +/- 1 kg/m(2); fasting plasma glucose 5.4 +/- 0.2 mmol/l) and patients...... with type 2 diabetes (n = 11; age 62 +/- 2 years; BMI 32 +/- 2 kg/m(2); fasting plasma glucose 9.0 +/- 0.8 mmol/l) was measured by high-resolution respirometry. RESULTS: O(2) flux expressed per mg of muscle (fresh weight) during ADP-stimulated state 3 respiration was lower (p type 2...

  3. Hepatic mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is normal in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Michael Taulo; Kristensen, Marianne Dalsgaard; Hansen, Merethe

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Obese patients with (T2DM) and without (OB) type 2 diabetes are characterized by high hepatic lipid content and hepatic insulin resistance. This may be linked to impaired hepatic mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity. The aim of the present study was to investiga...... role in the development of obesity-induced type 2 diabetes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  4. Beyond Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyond Alignment: Applying Systems Thinking to Architecting Enterprises is a comprehensive reader about how enterprises can apply systems thinking in their enterprise architecture practice, for business transformation and for strategic execution. The book's contributors find that systems thinking...

  5. Simple eigenvectors of unbounded operators of the typenormal plus compact”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gil'

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with operators of the form \\(A=S+B\\, where \\(B\\ is a compact operator in a Hilbert space \\(H\\ and \\(S\\ is an unbounded normal one in \\(H\\, having a compact resolvent. We consider approximations of the eigenvectors of \\(A\\, corresponding to simple eigenvalues by the eigenvectors of the operators \\(A_n=S+B_n\\ (\\(n=1,2, \\ldots\\, where \\(B_n\\ is an \\(n\\-dimensional operator. In addition, we obtain the error estimate of the approximation.

  6. Role of plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 in radiation-induced normal tissues injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abderrahmani, R.

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy is an essential tool for cancer treatment, but there is a balance between benefits and risks related to the use of ionizing radiation: the objective is to deliver a maximum dose to the tumour to destroy or to sterilize it while protecting surrounding normal tissues. Radio-induced damages to normal tissues are therefore a limiting factor when increasing the dose delivered to the tumour. One of the objectives of this research thesis is to bring to the fore a relationship between the initiation of lesions and the development of late damages, more particularly in the intestine, and to identify the involved molecular actors and their inter-connectivity. After a first part presenting ionizing radiation, describing biological effects of ionizing radiation and their use in radiotherapy, presenting the intestine and the endothelium and discussing the intestine radio-sensitivity, discussing the radio-induced intestine damages and radiotherapy-induced complications, and presenting the plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and its behaviour in presence of ionizing radiation, two articles are reproduced. The first one addresses the effect of a pharmacological inhibition and of genetic deficiency in PAI-1 on the evolution of radio-induced intestine lesions. The second one discusses the fact that radio-induced PAI-1-related death of endothelial cells determines the severity of early radio-induced intestine lesions

  7. The effect of font size and type on reading performance with Arabic words in normally sighted and simulated cataract subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Abdullah Z

    2007-05-01

    Previous investigations have shown that reading is the most common functional problem reported by patients at a low vision practice. While there have been studies investigating effect of fonts in normal and low vision patients in English, no study has been carried out in Arabic. Additionally, there has been no investigation into the use of optimum print sizes or fonts that should be used in Arabic books and leaflets for low vision patients. Arabic sentences were read by 100 normally sighted volunteers with and without simulated cataract. Subjects read two font types (Times New Roman and Courier) in three different sizes (N8, N10 and N12). The subjects were asked to read the sentences aloud. The reading speed was calculated as number of words read divided by the time taken, while reading rate was calculated as the number of words read correctly divided by the time taken. There was an improvement in reading performance of normally sighted and simulated visually impaired subjects when the print size increased. There was no significant difference in reading performance between the two types of font used at small print size, however the reading rate improved as print size increased with Times New Roman. The results suggest that the use of N12 print in Times New Roman enhanced reading performance in normally sighted and simulated cataract subjects.

  8. Kidney volume in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with normal or increased urinary albumin excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Hegedüs, L; Mathiesen, E R

    1991-01-01

    Forty-seven patients with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and 14 normal subjects had renal volume determined by an ultrasonic technique. Renal volume of 299 +/- 49 ml/1.73 m2 (mean +/- SD) in type 1 diabetic patients with normal urinary albumin excretion exceeded that in the normal...... subjects (245 +/- 53 ml/1.73 m2, p less than 0.05). Compared with diabetic patients with normal urinary albumin excretion, renal volume was significantly higher in patients with microalbuminuria (372 +/- 24 ml/1.73 m2, p less than 0.05) and patients with clinical nephropathy (352 +/- 48 ml/1.73 m2, p less...... than 0.05). In a multiple linear regression with HbA1c, urinary albumin excretion, age, diabetes duration and mean blood pressure as independent variables, variations in HbA1c could account for 33% of the variations in kidney volume (n = 47, r = 0.57, p less than 0.01). The other variables played...

  9. Clear aligners in orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, T

    2017-03-01

    Since the introduction of the Tooth Positioner (TP Orthodontics) in 1944, removable appliances analogous to clear aligners have been employed for mild to moderate orthodontic tooth movements. Clear aligner therapy has been a part of orthodontic practice for decades, but has, particularly since the introduction of Invisalign appliances (Align Technology) in 1998, become an increasingly common addition to the orthodontic armamentarium. An internet search reveals at least 27 different clear aligner products currently on offer for orthodontic treatment. The present paper will highlight the increasing popularity of clear aligner appliances, as well as the clinical scope and the limitations of aligner therapy in general. Further, the paper will outline the differences between the various types of clear aligner products currently available. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  10. Metformin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes have normal mitochondrial complex I respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Rabøl, R; Hansen, C N

    2012-01-01

    The glucose-lowering drug metformin has been shown to inhibit complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in skeletal muscle. To investigate this effect in vivo we studied skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity and content from patients with type 2 diabetes treated...

  11. ERE environment- and cell type-specific transcriptional effects of estrogen in normal endometrial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascombe, I; Sallot, M; Vuillermoz, C; Weisz, A; Adessi, G L; Jouvenot, M

    1998-04-30

    Our previous results have suggested a repression of E2 (17beta-estradiol) effect on the c-fos gene of cultured guinea-pig endometrial cells. To investigate this repression, the expression of three human c-fos gene recombinants, pFC1-BL (-2250/+41), pFC2-BL (-1400/+41) and pFC2E (-1300/-1050 and -230/+41), known to be E2-responsive in Hela cells, was studied in stromal (SC) and glandular epithelial cells (GEC). In both cellular types, pFC1-BL was not induced by E2, even in the presence of growth factors or co-transfected estrogen receptor. The pattern of pFC2-BL and pFC2E expression was strikingly different and depended on the cellular type: pFC2-BL and pFC2E induction was restricted to the glandular epithelial cells and did not occur in the SCs. We argue for a repression of E2 action which is dependent on the estrogen-responsive cis-acting element (ERE) environment and also cell type-specific involving DNA/protein and/or protein/protein interactions with cellular type-specific factors.

  12. Behavioural, Academic and Neuropsychological Profile of Normally Gifted Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descheemaeker, M.-J.; Ghesquiere, P.; Symons, H.; Fryns, J. P.; Legius, E.

    2005-01-01

    In the present study the neuropsychological, academic and social-emotional profiles were examined in Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) children. Subjects: 17 NF1 children (ages 7-11) with NF1 without serious medical problems and with a full scale IQ (FSIQ) above 70. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R), academic tests and an…

  13. Cell renewal of glomerular cell types in normal rats. An autoradiographic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabst, R.; Sterzel, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    Normal adult Sprague-Dawley rats received either a single or repetitive injection of the DNA precursor 3 H-thymidine ( 3 H-TdR). For autoradiography semi-thin sections were prepared 2 hr to 14 days after labeling. The majority of labeled cells noted in glomerular tufts were endothelial cells. Mesangial cells had a lower production rate. Podocytes revealed no evidence of proliferation. Bowman's capsule cells showed a higher labeling index than tuft cells at all times. Neither the urinary nor the vascular pole was found to be a proliferative zone for Bowman's capsule cells. The flash and repetitive labeling experiments demonstrated a constant rate of cell renewal of about 1% per day, resulting in a long life span for endothelial and mesangial cells as well as Bowman's capsule cells. These data provide a basis for cell kinetic studies in models of glomerular diseases

  14. Digital Photography to Assess Smile Types in Class I ‎Normal Occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Issam Merzah ‎ Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to analysis smile type, evaluate, and quantify upper lip soft tissue changes in the vertical dimensions at both rest and maximum smileusing digital camera.Methods thirty-eight subjects aged 18 to 24 (mean, 21.5 years)were recruited for this study. For each subject, eight measurements ofupper lip position and maxillary incisor crown height at rest and in maximum smile were recorded by using digital camera.Results: low smile was more prominent and more in female ...

  15. Effect of different types of music on exercise performance in normal individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Anuprita M; Yardi, Sujata S

    2013-01-01

    While exercising, people seem to enjoy listening to music believing that it relaxes them or helps give the necessary rhythm for exercise. But is music really beneficial? In view of different people listening to different types of music, this study was intended to assess effect of different types of music on exercise performance. 30 healthy female college students in the age group of 18 to 25 years were made to walk on the treadmill 3 times at one week interval: without music (A), with slow music (B), with fast music (C). Duration of exercise and rate of perceived exertion were recorded at the end of each session. The results showed an increase in the duration of exercise in Group B and Group C as compared to Group A and the increase was more in Group C as compared to Group B. It was observed that level of RPE was the same at the end of every exercise session. The reason for increase in exercise duration with music could be because of various factors like dissociation, arousal, motivation, etc. It can be thus suggested that exercises can be performed for longer duration with music than without music and the effect is more with fast music than with slow music. Also with music, the same level of exertion is perceived though the walking duration is considerably increased.

  16. Role of C-type natriuretic peptide in the function of normal human sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP is a newly discovered type of local regulatory factor that mediates its biological effects through the specific, membrane-bound natriuretic peptide receptor-B (NPR-B. Recent studies have established that CNP is closely related to male reproductive function. The aims of this study were to determine the distribution of CNP/NPR-B in human ejaculated spermatozoa through different methods (such as immunolocalization, real time polymerase chain reaction and Western Blot, and then to evaluate the influence of CNP on sperm function i n vitro, such as motility and acrosome reaction. Human semen samples were collected from consenting donors who met the criteria of the World Health Organization for normozoospermia. Our results show that the specific receptor NPR-B of CNP is localized in the acrosomal region of the head and the membrane of the front-end tail of the sperm, and there is no signal of CNP in human sperm. Compared with the control, CNP can induce a significant dose-dependent increase in spermatozoa motility and acrosome reaction. In summary, CNP/NPR-B can affect sperm motility and acrosome reaction, thus regulating the reproductive function of males. CNP may be a new key factor in regulating sperm function.

  17. Digital Photography to Assess Smile Types in Class I ‎Normal Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issam Merzah ‎ Abdullah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to analysis smile type, evaluate, and quantify upper lip soft tissue changes in the vertical dimensions at both rest and maximum smileusing digital camera.Methods thirty-eight subjects aged 18 to 24 (mean, 21.5 yearswere recruited for this study. For each subject, eight measurements ofupper lip position and maxillary incisor crown height at rest and in maximum smile were recorded by using digital camera.Results: low smile was more prominent and more in female than male, the high smile line come with more central incisal display and 23% upper lip contraction during smiling.Conclusions:Low smile was prominent among female and male and the variation in smile typespartially may be related to the maxillary central incisor display and total lip elevation

  18. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha mutation in normal glucose-tolerant subjects and early-onset type 2 diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Dong Mee; Huh, Nam; Park, Keun Yong

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aims The prevalence of diabetes in Korea is reported to be approximately 10%, but cases of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) are rare in Korea. A diagnostic technique for autosomal dominant MODY is being actively sought. In this regard, we used a DNA chip to investigate the frequency of mutations of the MODY3 gene (hepatocyte nuclear factor-1?) in Korean patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes. Methods The genomic DNA of 30 normal individuals [age, 24.9?8.6 years] and 2...

  19. Type I band alignment in GaAs{sub 81}Sb{sub 19}/GaAs core-shell nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, T. [Institut d' Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologies (IEMN), CNRS, UMR 8520, Département ISEN, 41 bd Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Key Laboratory of Advanced Display and System Application, Shanghai University, 149 Yanchang Road, Shanghai 200072 (China); Wei, M. J. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Display and System Application, Shanghai University, 149 Yanchang Road, Shanghai 200072 (China); Capiod, P.; Díaz Álvarez, A.; Han, X. L.; Troadec, D.; Nys, J. P.; Berthe, M.; Lefebvre, I.; Grandidier, B., E-mail: bruno.grandidier@isen.iemn.univ-lille1.fr [Institut d' Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologies (IEMN), CNRS, UMR 8520, Département ISEN, 41 bd Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Patriarche, G. [CNRS-Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures (LPN), Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Plissard, S. R. [Institut d' Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologies (IEMN), CNRS, UMR 8520, Département ISEN, 41 bd Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); CNRS-Laboratoire d' Analyse et d' Architecture des Systèmes (LAAS), Univ. de Toulouse, 7 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Caroff, P. [Institut d' Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologies (IEMN), CNRS, UMR 8520, Département ISEN, 41 bd Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200 (Australia); and others

    2015-09-14

    The composition and band gap of the shell that formed during the growth of axial GaAs/GaAs{sub 81}Sb{sub 19}/ GaAs heterostructure nanowires have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy combined with energy dispersion spectroscopy, scanning tunneling spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations. On the GaAs{sub 81}Sb{sub 19} intermediate segment, the shell is found to be free of Sb (pure GaAs shell) and transparent to the tunneling electrons, despite the (110) biaxial strain that affects its band gap. As a result, a direct measurement of the core band gap allows the quantitative determination of the band offset between the GaAs{sub 81}Sb{sub 19} core and the GaAs shell and identifies it as a type I band alignment.

  20. Does overnight normalization of plasma glucose by insulin infusion affect assessment of glucose metabolism in Type 2 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staehr, P; Højlund, Kurt; Hother-Nielsen, O

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: In order to perform euglycaemic clamp studies in Type 2 diabetic patients, plasma glucose must be reduced to normal levels. This can be done either (i) acutely during the clamp study using high-dose insulin infusion, or (ii) slowly overnight preceding the clamp study using a low-dose insulin...... infusion. We assessed whether the choice of either of these methods to obtain euglycaemia biases subsequent assessment of glucose metabolism and insulin action. METHODS: We studied seven obese Type 2 diabetic patients twice: once with (+ ON) and once without (- ON) prior overnight insulin infusion. Glucose...... turnover rates were quantified by adjusted primed-constant 3-3H-glucose infusions, and insulin action was assessed in 4-h euglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic (40 mU m-2 min-1) clamp studies using labelled glucose infusates (Hot-GINF). RESULTS: Basal plasma glucose levels (mean +/- sd) were 5.5 +/- 0.5 and 10...

  1. Mice deficient in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 lack bone marrow adipocytes, but maintain normal bone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jeannette; Mosekilde, Lis; Holmes, Megan

    2004-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) exert potent, but poorly characterized, effects on the skeleton. The cellular activity of GCs is regulated at a prereceptor level by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11betaHSDs). The type 1 isoform, which predominates in bone, functions as a reductase in intact cells...... and regenerates active cortisol (corticosterone) from circulating inert 11-keto forms. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of this intracrine activation of GCs on normal bone physiology in vivo using mice deficient in 11betaHSD1 (HSD1(-/-)). The HSD1(-/-) mice exhibited no significant changes...... in cortical or trabecular bone mass compared with wild-type (Wt) mice. Aged HSD1(-/-) mice showed age-related bone loss similar to that observed in Wt mice. Histomorphometric analysis showed similar bone formation and bone resorption parameters in HSD1(-/-) and Wt mice. However, examination of bone marrow...

  2. Type II iodothyronine deiodinase provides intracellular 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine to normal and regenerating mouse skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsili, Alessandro; Tang, Dan; Harney, John W.; Singh, Prabhat; Zavacki, Ann Marie; Dentice, Monica; Salvatore, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    The FoxO3-dependent increase in type II deiodinase (D2), which converts the prohormone thyroxine (T4) to 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3), is required for normal mouse skeletal muscle differentiation and regeneration. This implies a requirement for an increase in D2-generated intracellular T3 under these conditions, which has not been directly demonstrated despite the presence of D2 activity in skeletal muscle. We directly show that D2-mediated T4-to-T3 conversion increases during differentiation in C2C12 myoblast and primary cultures of mouse neonatal skeletal muscle precursor cells, and that blockade of D2 eliminates this. In adult mice given 125I-T4 and 131I-T3, the intracellular 125I-T3/131I-T3 ratio is significantly higher than in serum in both the D2-expressing cerebral cortex and the skeletal muscle of wild-type, but not D2KO, mice. In D1-expressing liver and kidney, the 125I-T3/131I-T3 ratio does not differ from that in serum. Hypothyroidism increases D2 activity, and in agreement with this, the difference in 125I-T3/131I-T3 ratio is increased further in hypothyroid wild-type mice but not altered in the D2KO. Notably, in wild-type but not in D2KO mice, the muscle production of 125I-T3 is doubled after skeletal muscle injury. Thus, D2-mediated T4-to-T3 conversion generates significant intracellular T3 in normal mouse skeletal muscle, with the increased T3 required for muscle regeneration being provided by increased D2 synthesis, not by T3 from the circulation. PMID:21771965

  3. Superconductor-normal metal-superconductor process development for the fabrication of small Josephson junctions in ramp type configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poepel, R.; Hagedorn, D.; Weimann, T.; Buchholz, F.-I.; Niemeyer, J.

    2000-01-01

    At PTB, a fabrication process has been developed in SNS Nb/PdAu/Nb technology for the verification of small Josephson junctions (JJs) in the deep sub-micron range to enable the implementation of JJs as active elements in highly integrated superconducting circuits. Two steps of this technological development are described with regard to appropriately designed circuit layouts of JJ series arrays (JJAs), the first one in a conventional window type junction (WTJ) configuration and the second one in a ramp type junction (RTJ) configuration. Test circuits of JJAs containing up to 10 000 JJs have been fabricated and experimentally tested. In WTJ configuration, the circuits proved to be sensitive to external perturbing effects affecting the stability of circuit operation. In contrast to that, in RTJ configuration, the circuits realized showed correct function and a high grade of reliability of operation. To produce RTJ circuits, the technology parameters have been set to realize JJs with contact areas of A=0.25μmx1.3μm. At a thickness of the PdAu normal metal layer of d = 40 nm, the values achieved for the critical current density and for the product of critical current and normal state resistance are about j c = 200 k Acm -2 and about I c R N = 21 μV. (author)

  4. Metabolic markers associated with insulin resistance predict type 2 diabetes in Koreans with normal blood pressure or prehypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ki-Chul; Park, Hyun-Young; Kim, Min-Ju; Reaven, Gerald

    2016-03-22

    Questions remain as to the association between essential hypertension and increased incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The premise of this analysis is that insulin resistance/compensatory hyperinsulinemia is a major predictor of T2DM, and the greater the prevalence of insulin resistance within any population, normotensive or hypertensive, the more likely T2DM will develop. The hypothesis to be tested is that surrogate estimates of insulin resistance will predict incident T2DM to a significant degree in persons with normal blood pressure or prehypertension. Analysis of data from a population-based survey of 10, 038 inhabitants of rural and urban areas of Korea, ≥40 years-old, initiated in 2001, with measures of demographic and metabolic characteristics at baseline and 8-years later. Participants were classified as having normal blood pressure or prehypertension, and three simple manifestations of insulin resistance related to the pathophysiology of T2DM used to predict incident T2DM: (1) glycemia (plasma glucose concentration 2-hour after 75 g oral glucose challenge = 2-hour PG); (2) hyperinsulinemia (plasma insulin concentration 2-hour after 75 g oral glucose challenge = 2-hour PI); and (3) dyslipidemia (ratio of fasting plasma triglyceride/high/density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration = TG/HDL-C ratio). Fully adjusted hazard ratios (HR, 95 % CI) for incident T2DM were highest (P insulin resistance was the 2-hour PI concentration. Subjects with normal blood pressure in the highest quartile of 2-hour PI concentrations were significantly associated with incident T2DM, with HRs of 1.5 (1.02-2.20, P = 0.25) and 2.02 (1.35-3.02, P insulin resistance (glycemia, insulinemia, and dyslipidemia) predict the development of T2DM in patients with either normal blood pressure or prehypertension.

  5. Consortium for Osteogenesis Imperfecta Mutations in the Helical Domain of Type I Collagen: Regions Rich in Lethal Mutations Align With Collagen Binding Sites for Integrins and Proteoglycans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Joan C.; Forlino, Antonella; Cabral, Wayne A.; Barnes, Aileen M.; San Antonio, James D.; Milgrom, Sarah; Hyland, James C.; Körkkö, Jarmo; Prockop, Darwin J.; De Paepe, Anne; Coucke, Paul; Symoens, Sofie; Glorieux, Francis H.; Roughley, Peter J.; Lund, Alan M.; Kuurila-Svahn, Kaija; Hartikka, Heini; Cohn, Daniel H.; Krakow, Deborah; Mottes, Monica; Schwarze, Ulrike; Chen, Diana; Yang, Kathleen; Kuslich, Christine; Troendle, James; Dalgleish, Raymond; Byers, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a generalized disorder of connective tissue characterized by fragile bones and easy susceptibility to fracture. Most cases of OI are caused by mutations in type I collagen. We have identified and assembled structural mutations in type I collagen genes (COL1A1 and COL1A2, encoding the proα1(I) and proα2(I) chains, respectively) that result in OI. Quantitative defects causing type I OI were not included. Of these 832 independent mutations, 682 result in substitution for glycine residues in the triple helical domain of the encoded protein and 150 alter splice sites. Distinct genotype–phenotype relationships emerge for each chain. One-third of the mutations that result in glycine substitutions in α1(I) are lethal, especially when the substituting residues are charged or have a branched side chain. Substitutions in the first 200 residues are nonlethal and have variable outcome thereafter, unrelated to folding or helix stability domains. Two exclusively lethal regions (helix positions 691–823 and 910–964) align with major ligand binding regions (MLBRs), suggesting crucial interactions of collagen monomers or fibrils with integrins, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), fibronectin, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). Mutations in COL1A2 are predominantly nonlethal (80%). Lethal substitutions are located in eight regularly spaced clusters along the chain, supporting a regional model. The lethal regions align with proteoglycan binding sites along the fibril, suggesting a role in fibril–matrix interactions. Recurrences at the same site in α2(I) are generally concordant for outcome, unlike α1(I). Splice site mutations comprise 20% of helical mutations identified in OI patients, and may lead to exon skipping, intron inclusion, or the activation of cryptic splice sites. Splice site mutations in COL1A1 are rarely lethal; they often lead to frameshifts and the mild type I phenotype. In α2(I), lethal exon skipping events are

  6. Safety and immunogenicity of a novel therapeutic DNA vaccine encoding chicken type II collagen for rheumatoid arthritis in normal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Long; Xiao, Zhao; Song, Yun; Zhijian, Zhang; Jing, Jin; Kun, Yu; Yuna, Hao; Dongfa, Dai; Lili, Ding; Liuxin, Tan; Fei, Liang; Nan, Liu; Fang, Yuan; Yuying, Sun; Yongzhi, Xi

    2015-01-01

    Current clinically available treatments for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) fail to cure the disease or unsatisfactorily halt disease progression. To overcome these limitations, the development of therapeutic DNA vaccines and boosters may offer new promising strategies. Because type II collagen (CII) as a critical autoantigen in RA and native chicken type II collagen (nCCII) has been used to effectively treat RA, we previously developed a novel therapeutic DNA vaccine encoding CCII (pcDNA-CCOL2A1) with efficacy comparable to that of the current "gold standard", methotrexate(MTX). Here, we systemically evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of the pcDNA-CCOL2A1 vaccine in normal Wistar rats. Group 1 received only a single intramuscular injection into the hind leg with pcDNA-CCOL2A1 at the maximum dosage of 3 mg/kg on day 0; Group 2 was injected with normal saline (NS) as a negative control. All rats were monitored daily for any systemic adverse events, reactions at the injection site, and changes in body weights. Plasma and tissues from all experimental rats were collected on day 14 for routine examinations of hematology and biochemistry parameters, anti-CII IgG antibody reactivity, and histopathology. Our results indicated clearly that at the maximum dosage of 3 mg/kg, the pcDNA-CCOL2A1 vaccine was safe and well-tolerated. No abnormal clinical signs or deaths occurred in the pcDNA-CCOL2A1 group compared with the NS group. Furthermore, no major alterations were observed in hematology, biochemistry, and histopathology, even at the maximum dose. In particularly, no anti-CII IgG antibodies were detected in vaccinated normal rats at 14 d after vaccination; this was relevant because we previously demonstrated that the pcDNA-CCOL2A1 vaccine, when administered at the therapeutic dosage of 300 μg/kg alone, did not induce anti-CII IgG antibody production and significantly reduced levels of anti-CII IgG antibodies in the plasma of rats with established collagen-induced arthritis

  7. Autonomous parvoviruses neither stimulate nor are inhibited by the type I interferon response in human normal or cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglino, Justin C; Andres, Wells; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2014-05-01

    Members of the genus Parvovirus are small, nonenveloped single-stranded DNA viruses that are nonpathogenic in humans but have potential utility as cancer therapeutics. Because the innate immune response to parvoviruses has received relatively little attention, we compared the response to parvoviruses to that of several other types of viruses in human cells. In normal human glia, fibroblasts, or melanocytes, vesicular stomatitis virus evoked robust beta interferon (IFN-β) responses. Cytomegalovirus, pseudorabies virus, and Sindbis virus all evoked a 2-log-unit or greater upregulation of IFN-β in glia; in contrast, LuIII and MVMp parvoviruses did not evoke a detectable IFN-β or interferon-stimulated gene (ISG; MX1, oligoadenylate synthetase [OAS], IFIT-1) response in the same cell types. The lack of response raised the question of whether parvoviral infection can be attenuated by IFN; interestingly, we found that IFN did not decrease parvovirus (MVMp, LuIII, and H-1) infectivity in normal human glia, fibroblasts, or melanocytes. The same was true in human cancers, including glioma, sarcoma, and melanoma. Similarly, IFN failed to attenuate transduction by the dependovirus vector adeno-associated virus type 2. Progeny production of parvoviruses was also unimpaired by IFN in both glioma and melanoma, whereas vesicular stomatitis virus replication was blocked. Sarcoma cells with upregulated IFN signaling that show high levels of resistance to other viruses showed strong infection by LuIII. Unlike many other oncolytic viruses, we found no evidence that impairment of innate immunity in cancer cells plays a role in the oncoselectivity of parvoviruses in human cells. Parvoviral resistance to the effects of IFN in cancer cells may constitute an advantage in the virotherapy of some tumors. Understanding the interactions between oncolytic viruses and the innate immune system will facilitate employing these viruses as therapeutic agents in cancer patients. The cancer

  8. High Prevalence of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Normal Plasma Aminotransferase Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo-Sanchez, Paola; Bril, Fernando; Maximos, Maryann; Lomonaco, Romina; Biernacki, Diane; Orsak, Beverly; Subbarayan, Sreevidya; Webb, Amy; Hecht, Joan; Cusi, Kenneth

    2015-06-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its more severe form with steatohepatitis (NASH) are common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, they are usually believed to largely affect those with elevated aminotransferases. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of NAFLD by the gold standard, liver magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in patients with T2DM and normal aminotransferases, and to characterize their metabolic profile. We recruited 103 patients with T2DM and normal plasma aminotransferases (age, 60 ± 8 y; body mass index [BMI], 33 ± 5 kg/m(2); glycated hemoglobin [A1c], 7.6 ± 1.3%). We measured the following: 1) liver triglyceride content by (1)H-MRS; 2) systemic insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance); and 3) adipose tissue insulin resistance, both fasting (as the adipose tissue insulin resistance index: fasting plasma free fatty acids [FFA] × insulin) and during an oral glucose tolerance test (as the suppression of FFA). The prevalence of NAFLD and NASH were much higher than expected (50% and 56% of NAFLD patients, respectively). The prevalence of NAFLD was higher in obese compared with nonobese patients as well as with increasing BMI (P = .001 for trend). Higher plasma A1c was associated with a greater prevalence of NAFLD and worse liver triglyceride accumulation (P = .01). Compared with nonobese patients without NAFLD, patients with NAFLD had severe systemic (liver/muscle) and, particularly, adipose tissue (fasting/postprandial) insulin resistance (all P < .01). The prevalence of NAFLD is much higher than previously believed in overweight/obese patients with T2DM and normal aminotransferases. Moreover, many are at increased risk of NASH. Physicians should have a lower threshold for screening patients with T2DM for NAFLD/NASH.

  9. Evaluation of MRI and cannabinoid type 1 receptor PET templates constructed using DARTEL for spatial normalization of rat brains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronfeld, Andrea; Müller-Forell, Wibke; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Maus, Stephan; Reuss, Stefan; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Miederer, Isabelle; Lutz, Beat

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Image registration is one prerequisite for the analysis of brain regions in magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) or positron-emission-tomography (PET) studies. Diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) is a nonlinear, diffeomorphic algorithm for image registration and construction of image templates. The goal of this small animal study was (1) the evaluation of a MRI and calculation of several cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor PET templates constructed using DARTEL and (2) the analysis of the image registration accuracy of MR and PET images to their DARTEL templates with reference to analytical and iterative PET reconstruction algorithms. Methods: Five male Sprague Dawley rats were investigated for template construction using MRI and [ 18 F]MK-9470 PET for CB1 receptor representation. PET images were reconstructed using the algorithms filtered back-projection, ordered subset expectation maximization in 2D, and maximum a posteriori in 3D. Landmarks were defined on each MR image, and templates were constructed under different settings, i.e., based on different tissue class images [gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and GM + WM] and regularization forms (“linear elastic energy,” “membrane energy,” and “bending energy”). Registration accuracy for MRI and PET templates was evaluated by means of the distance between landmark coordinates. Results: The best MRI template was constructed based on gray and white matter images and the regularization form linear elastic energy. In this case, most distances between landmark coordinates were <1 mm. Accordingly, MRI-based spatial normalization was most accurate, but results of the PET-based spatial normalization were quite comparable. Conclusions: Image registration using DARTEL provides a standardized and automatic framework for small animal brain data analysis. The authors were able to show that this method works with high reliability and validity. Using DARTEL templates

  10. Evaluation of MRI and cannabinoid type 1 receptor PET templates constructed using DARTEL for spatial normalization of rat brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronfeld, Andrea; Müller-Forell, Wibke [Institute of Neuroradiology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Langenbeckstraße 1, Mainz 55131 (Germany); Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Maus, Stephan; Reuss, Stefan; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Miederer, Isabelle, E-mail: isabelle.miederer@unimedizin-mainz.de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Langenbeckstraße 1, Mainz 55131 (Germany); Lutz, Beat [Institute of Physiological Chemistry, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Duesbergweg 6, Mainz 55128 (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Image registration is one prerequisite for the analysis of brain regions in magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) or positron-emission-tomography (PET) studies. Diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) is a nonlinear, diffeomorphic algorithm for image registration and construction of image templates. The goal of this small animal study was (1) the evaluation of a MRI and calculation of several cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor PET templates constructed using DARTEL and (2) the analysis of the image registration accuracy of MR and PET images to their DARTEL templates with reference to analytical and iterative PET reconstruction algorithms. Methods: Five male Sprague Dawley rats were investigated for template construction using MRI and [{sup 18}F]MK-9470 PET for CB1 receptor representation. PET images were reconstructed using the algorithms filtered back-projection, ordered subset expectation maximization in 2D, and maximum a posteriori in 3D. Landmarks were defined on each MR image, and templates were constructed under different settings, i.e., based on different tissue class images [gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and GM + WM] and regularization forms (“linear elastic energy,” “membrane energy,” and “bending energy”). Registration accuracy for MRI and PET templates was evaluated by means of the distance between landmark coordinates. Results: The best MRI template was constructed based on gray and white matter images and the regularization form linear elastic energy. In this case, most distances between landmark coordinates were <1 mm. Accordingly, MRI-based spatial normalization was most accurate, but results of the PET-based spatial normalization were quite comparable. Conclusions: Image registration using DARTEL provides a standardized and automatic framework for small animal brain data analysis. The authors were able to show that this method works with high reliability and validity. Using DARTEL

  11. Spectral Sequences of Type Ia Supernovae. I. Connecting Normal and Subluminous SNe Ia and the Presence of Unburned Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heringer, E.; Kerkwijk, M. H. van [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 Saint George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Sim, S. A. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Kerzendorf, W. E. [European Southern Observatory (ESO), Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-09-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are generally agreed to arise from thermonuclear explosions of carbon–oxygen white dwarfs. The actual path to explosion, however, remains elusive, with numerous plausible parent systems and explosion mechanisms suggested. Observationally, SNe Ia have multiple subclasses, distinguished by their light curves and spectra. This raises the question of whether these indicate that multiple mechanisms occur in nature or that explosions have a large but continuous range of physical properties. We revisit the idea that normal and 91bg-like SNe can be understood as part of a spectral sequence in which changes in temperature dominate. Specifically, we find that a single ejecta structure is sufficient to provide reasonable fits of both the normal SN Ia SN 2011fe and the 91bg-like SN 2005bl, provided that the luminosity and thus temperature of the ejecta are adjusted appropriately. This suggests that the outer layers of the ejecta are similar, thus providing some support for a common explosion mechanism. Our spectral sequence also helps to shed light on the conditions under which carbon can be detected in premaximum SN Ia spectra—we find that emission from iron can “fill in” the carbon trough in cool SNe Ia. This may indicate that the outer layers of the ejecta of events in which carbon is detected are relatively metal-poor compared to events in which carbon is not detected.

  12. Tissue-specific increases in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in normal weight postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therése Andersson

    Full Text Available With age and menopause there is a shift in adipose distribution from gluteo-femoral to abdominal depots in women. Associated with this redistribution of fat are increased risks of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Glucocorticoids influence body composition, and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1 which converts inert cortisone to active cortisol is a putative key mediator of metabolic complications in obesity. Increased 11betaHSD1 in adipose tissue may contribute to postmenopausal central obesity. We hypothesized that tissue-specific 11betaHSD1 gene expression and activity are up-regulated in the older, postmenopausal women compared to young, premenopausal women. Twenty-three pre- and 23 postmenopausal, healthy, normal weight women were recruited. The participants underwent a urine collection, a subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy and the hepatic 11betaHSD1 activity was estimated by the serum cortisol response after an oral dose of cortisone. Urinary (5alpha-tetrahydrocortisol+5beta-tetrahydrocortisol/tetrahydrocortisone ratios were higher in postmenopausal women versus premenopausal women in luteal phase (P<0.05, indicating an increased whole-body 11betaHSD1 activity. Postmenopausal women had higher 11betaHSD1 gene expression in subcutaneous fat (P<0.05. Hepatic first pass conversion of oral cortisone to cortisol was also increased in postmenopausal women versus premenopausal women in follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (P<0.01, at 30 min post cortisone ingestion, suggesting higher hepatic 11betaHSD1 activity. In conclusion, our results indicate that postmenopausal normal weight women have increased 11betaHSD1 activity in adipose tissue and liver. This may contribute to metabolic dysfunctions with menopause and ageing in women.

  13. Forces released during alignment with a preadjusted appliances with SPEED supercable wire and different types of elastomeric ligatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suruchi Jatol-Tekade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate a new combination of wire and ligature to reduce friction further by combining slide ligatures and supercable wires. Materials and Methods: The testing model consisted of five stainless steel 0.022 inch preadjusted brackets for second premolar, first premolar, canine, lateral incisor, and central incisor. The canine bracket was welded to a sliding bar that allowed different vertical positions. The forces generated by five sizes of wires superelastic nickel-titanium (SE Ni-Ti (Unitek Nitinol Super-Elastic Archwire of diameter 0.012", 0.014", 0.016", 0.018", and 0.020" inch and three sizes of SPEED supercable wires (0.016", 0.018", and 0.022" inch with the two types of elastomeric ligatures; conventional elastomeric ligatures (CELs (Unitek, silver mini modules, with inside diameter of 1.3 mm and thickness of 0.9 mm and nonconventional elastomeric ligatures (NCELs (Slide, Leone Orthodontic Products, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze, Italy at different amounts of upward canine misalignment (CM (1.5, 3, 4.5, and 6 mm were recorded. Results and Conclusions: Significant differences between CEL and NCEL were found for all tested variables (P - 0.01 a noticeable amount of force was generated with the NCEL at all four canine positions with all three wire sizes (from about 50 to about 150 g. With 4.5 mm of CM or more, the average amount of released force with the CEL was approximately zero.

  14. The use of normalized climatological anomalies to rank synoptic-scale events and their relation to Weather Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A. M.; Lorenzo, M. N.; Gimeno, L.; Nieto, R.; Añel, J. A.

    2009-09-01

    Several methods have been developed to rank meteorological events in terms of severity, social impact or economic impacts. These classifications are not always objective since they depend of several factors, for instance, the observation network is biased towards the densely populated urban areas against rural or oceanic areas. It is also very important to note that not all rare synoptic-scale meteorological events attract significant media attention. In this work we use a comprehensive method of classifying synoptic-scale events adapted from Hart and Grumm, 2001, to the European region (30N-60N, 30W-15E). The main motivation behind this method is that the more unusual the event (a cold outbreak, a heat wave, or a flood), for a given region, the higher ranked it must be. To do so, we use four basic meteorological variables (Height, Temperature, Wind and Specific Humidity) from NCEP reanalysis dataset over the range of 1000hPa to 200hPa at a daily basis from 1948 to 2004. The climatology used embraces the 1961-1990 period. For each variable, the analysis of raking climatological anomalies was computed taking into account the daily normalized departure from climatology at different levels. For each day (from 1948 to 2004) we have four anomaly measures, one for each variable, and another, a combined where the anomaly (total anomaly) is the average of the anomaly of the four variables. Results will be analyzed on a monthly, seasonal and annual basis. Seasonal trends and variability will also be shown. In addition, and given the extent of the database, the expected return periods associated with the anomalies are revealed. Moreover, we also use an automated version of the Lamb weather type (WT) classification scheme (Jones et al, 1993) adapted for the Galicia area (Northwestern corner of the Iberian Peninsula) by Lorenzo et al (2008) in order to compute the daily local circulation regimes in this area. By combining the corresponding daily WT with the five anomaly

  15. Thyroid hormone uptake and T4 derived T3 formation in different skeletal muscle types of normal and hyperthyroid rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardeveld, C. van; Kassenaar, A.A.H.

    1978-01-01

    In this study hind-limb perfusion was used to investigate conversion of T 4 to T 3 in skeletal muscle tissue. For this purpose the rats were depleted of thyroid hormones by thyroid ablation with 0.75 mCi 131 I and were perfused 2 weeks later, when the skeletal muscle tissue consumed oxygen at a normal rate due to one subcutaneous dose of 10 μg T 3 /100 g b. w. 3 days before the perfusion experiments were started. T 4 * of high specific activity (> 2000 μCi/μg) was added to the perfusate. In the muscle (mixed type) a mean T 4 → T 3 conversion of 2% (range 0.5-3.9) was found after 120 min of perfusion. T 3 generation from T 4 in skeletal muscle did not correspond with T 3 muscle uptake. This observation makes a significant overestimation of T 3 by selective uptake of a small contamination of T 3 * in the T 4 * preparation highly improbable. In red muscle the T 4 and T 3 uptake was about 50 % higher than in white muscle. The observed Tetracsup(c) and T 3 sup(c) were significantly higher in red than in white muscle. The uptake of thyroid hormones by both muscle types was not changed in hyperthyroid rats. The Tetrac and T 3 formation from T 4 , however, was increased in red muscles of hyperthyroid rats. The results show that thyroid hormone metabolism can vary markedly depending upon the type of muscle studied and they present a basis for a better understanding of clinical and biochemical evidence for a different susceptibility of red and white muscle fibers to thyroid hormones. (Abbreviations: *= 125 I; **= 131 I; T 3 sup(c)=T 4 derived T 3 ; Tetracsup(c)=T 4 derived Tetrac) (author)

  16. Ichthyophonus parasite phylogeny based on ITS rDNA structure prediction and alignment identifies six clades, with a single dominant marine type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Jacob; Thompson, Rachel L.; Purcell, Maureen; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Hershberger, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Despite their widespread, global impact in both wild and cultured fishes, little is known of the diversity, transmission patterns, and phylogeography of parasites generally identified as Ichthyophonus. This study constructed a phylogeny based on the structural alignment of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequences to compare Ichthyophonus isolates from fish hosts in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and several rivers and aquaculture sites in North America, Europe, and Japan. Structure of the Ichthyophonus ITS1–5.8S–ITS2 transcript exhibited several homologies with other eukaryotes, and 6 distinct clades were identified within Ichthyophonus. A single clade contained a majority (71 of 98) of parasite isolations. This ubiquitous Ichthyophonus type occurred in 13 marine and anadromous hosts and was associated with epizootics in Atlantic herring, Chinook salmon, and American shad. A second clade contained all isolates from aquaculture, despite great geographic separation of the freshwater hosts. Each of the 4 remaining clades contained isolates from single host species. This study is the first to evaluate the genetic relationships among Ichthyophonus species across a significant portion of their host and geographic range. Additionally, parasite infection prevalence is reported in 16 fish species.

  17. Ichthyophonus parasite phylogeny based on ITS rDNA structure prediction and alignment identifies six clades, with a single dominant marine type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Jacob L; Powers, Rachel L; Purcell, Maureen K; Friedman, Carolyn S; Hershberger, Paul K

    2016-07-07

    Despite their widespread, global impact in both wild and cultured fishes, little is known of the diversity, transmission patterns, and phylogeography of parasites generally identified as Ichthyophonus. This study constructed a phylogeny based on the structural alignment of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequences to compare Ichthyophonus isolates from fish hosts in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and several rivers and aquaculture sites in North America, Europe, and Japan. Structure of the Ichthyophonus ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 transcript exhibited several homologies with other eukaryotes, and 6 distinct clades were identified within Ichthyophonus. A single clade contained a majority (71 of 98) of parasite isolations. This ubiquitous Ichthyophonus type occurred in 13 marine and anadromous hosts and was associated with epizootics in Atlantic herring, Chinook salmon, and American shad. A second clade contained all isolates from aquaculture, despite great geographic separation of the freshwater hosts. Each of the 4 remaining clades contained isolates from single host species. This study is the first to evaluate the genetic relationships among Ichthyophonus species across a significant portion of their host and geographic range. Additionally, parasite infection prevalence is reported in 16 fish species.

  18. Automatic alignment of radionuclide images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    The variability of the position, dimensions and orientation of a radionuclide image within the field of view of a gamma camera hampers attempts to analyse the image numerically. This paper describes a method of using a set of training images of a particular type, in this case right lateral brain images, to define the likely variations in the position, dimensions and orientation for that type of image and to provide alignment data for a program that automatically aligns new images of the specified type to a standard position, size and orientation. Examples are given of the use of this method on three types of radionuclide image. (author)

  19. Type I error rates of rare single nucleotide variants are inflated in tests of association with non-normally distributed traits using simple linear regression methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Sung, Heejong; Sabourin, Jeremy A; Justice, Cristina M; Sorant, Alexa J M; Wilson, Alexander F

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of (a) the minor allele frequency of the single nucleotide variant (SNV), (b) the degree of departure from normality of the trait, and (c) the position of the SNVs on type I error rates were investigated in the Genetic Analysis Workshop (GAW) 19 whole exome sequence data. To test the distribution of the type I error rate, 5 simulated traits were considered: standard normal and gamma distributed traits; 2 transformed versions of the gamma trait (log 10 and rank-based inverse normal transformations); and trait Q1 provided by GAW 19. Each trait was tested with 313,340 SNVs. Tests of association were performed with simple linear regression and average type I error rates were determined for minor allele frequency classes. Rare SNVs (minor allele frequency < 0.05) showed inflated type I error rates for non-normally distributed traits that increased as the minor allele frequency decreased. The inflation of average type I error rates increased as the significance threshold decreased. Normally distributed traits did not show inflated type I error rates with respect to the minor allele frequency for rare SNVs. There was no consistent effect of transformation on the uniformity of the distribution of the location of SNVs with a type I error.

  20. Histamine type I (H1) receptor radioligand binding studies on normal T cell subsets, B cells, and monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, W.; Doyle, K.; Rocklin, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    A single, specific binding site for [ 3 H]pyrilamine on normal human T helper, T suppressor, B cells, and monocytes was documented. The binding of the radioligand to its receptor is reversible with cold H 1 antagonist, saturates at 40 to 60 nM, and binding equilibrium is achieved in 2 to 4 min. Using a computer program (Ligand), the authors calculated the dissociation constants, binding capacities, and numbers of receptors per cell for each of the different cell types. Monocytes were found to have the highest affinity for [ 3 H]pyrilamine, followed by T helper cells, B cells and T suppressor cells (K/sub D/ = 44.6 +/- 49.4 nM). T suppressor cells were found to express the higher number of H 1 receptors per cell followed by B cells, T helper cells, and monocytes. The binding affinity for [ 3 H]pyrilamine increased over a 48-hr period, whereas the number of receptors per T cell was essentially unchanged. In contrast, T cells stimulated with Con A or PHA were shown to have a greater than fourfold increase in the number of receptors per cell, whereas the binding affinity for [ 3 H]pyrilamine decreased over the 48-hr period. Although the function of H 1 receptors on T cells, B cells, and monocytes has not been completely defined, this receptor has the potential of playing an important role in the modulating the immune response

  1. Spatial distribution of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 in normal canine central and peripheral nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Freundt-Revilla

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system is a regulatory pathway consisting of two main types of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2 and their endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids. The CB1 receptor is highly expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems (PNS in mammalians and is involved in neuromodulatory functions. Since endocannabinoids were shown to be elevated in cerebrospinal fluid of epileptic dogs, knowledge about the species specific CB receptor expression in the nervous system is required. Therefore, we assessed the spatial distribution of CB1 receptors in the normal canine CNS and PNS. Immunohistochemistry of several regions of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves from a healthy four-week-old puppy, three six-month-old dogs, and one ten-year-old dog revealed strong dot-like immunoreactivity in the neuropil of the cerebral cortex, Cornu Ammonis (CA and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, midbrain, cerebellum, medulla oblongata and grey matter of the spinal cord. Dense CB1 expression was found in fibres of the globus pallidus and substantia nigra surrounding immunonegative neurons. Astrocytes were constantly positive in all examined regions. CB1 labelled neurons and satellite cells of the dorsal root ganglia, and myelinating Schwann cells in the PNS. These results demonstrate for the first time the spatial distribution of CB1 receptors in the healthy canine CNS and PNS. These results can be used as a basis for further studies aiming to elucidate the physiological consequences of this particular anatomical and cellular distribution.

  2. Application of the Oral Minimal Model to Korean Subjects with Normal Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hyuk Lim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe oral minimal model is a simple, useful tool for the assessment of β-cell function and insulin sensitivity across the spectrum of glucose tolerance, including normal glucose tolerance (NGT, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in humans.MethodsPlasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide levels were measured during a 180-minute, 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in 24 Korean subjects with NGT (n=10 and T2DM (n=14. The parameters in the computational model were estimated, and the indexes for insulin sensitivity and β-cell function were compared between the NGT and T2DM groups.ResultsThe insulin sensitivity index was lower in the T2DM group than the NGT group. The basal index of β-cell responsivity, basal hepatic insulin extraction ratio, and post-glucose challenge hepatic insulin extraction ratio were not different between the NGT and T2DM groups. The dynamic, static, and total β-cell responsivity indexes were significantly lower in the T2DM group than the NGT group. The dynamic, static, and total disposition indexes were also significantly lower in the T2DM group than the NGT group.ConclusionThe oral minimal model can be reproducibly applied to evaluate β-cell function and insulin sensitivity in Koreans.

  3. Effect of physical activity on pulse wave velocity in elderly subjects with normal glucose, prediabetes or Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsämarttila, Erja; Rodilla, Enrique; Jokelainen, Jari; Herrala, Sauli; Leppäluoto, Juhani; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Herzig, Karl-Heinz

    2018-05-23

    Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity ((cf)PWV) is a measure of arterial stiffness, predicting cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that the amount of physical activity (PA) is correlated with reduced arterial stiffness in Type 2 diabetic (T2D) subjects. 570 subjects from the 1945 Oulu birth cohort were included in the analysis. (cf)PWV was determined by a non-invasive applanation tonometry. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed and LDL and HDL cholesterol analyzed. PA was registered daily with a wrist-worn acceleration meter for two weeks. (cf)PWV values in subjects with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) and T2D were higher than in normal glycemic subjects (P < 0.001). PA, fasting and 2 h glucose and HbA1c correlated significantly with (cf)PWV, but HDL or LDL cholesterol did not. The 2 h glucose, heart rate and alcohol consumption in T2D subjects had independent effects on (cf)PWV in multiple regression analysis. T2D and IGM were significantly associated to (cf)PWV. Interestingly, lipids did not have an additional effect on (cf)PWV. Subjects walking more than 10 000 steps/day had 0.2 m/s lower (cf)PWV than those walking less than 6000 steps/day. Presence of T2D, elevated heart rate and alcohol consumption in males were associated with increased aortic stiffening in elderly subjects.

  4. Comparative proteomic analysis of off-type and normal phenotype somatic plantlets derived from somatic embryos of Feijoa (Acca sellowiana (O. Berg) Burret).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Hugo Pacheco de Freitas; Agapito-Tenfen, Sarah Zanon; Caprestano, Clarissa Alves; Nodari, Rubens Onofre; Guerra, Miguel Pedro

    2013-09-01

    Morphological disorders in a relevant portion of emerged somatic embryos have been a limiting factor in the true-to-type plantlet formation in Acca sellowiana. In this sense, the present study undertook a comparison between normal phenotype and off-type somatic plantlets protein profiles by means of the 2-D DIGE proteomics approach. Off-type and normal phenotype somatic plantlets obtained at 10 and 20 days conversion were evaluated. Results indicated 12 exclusive spots between normal and off-type plantlets at 10 days conversion, and 17 exclusive spots at 20 days conversion. Also at 20 days conversion, 4 spots were differentially expressed, up- or down-regulated. Two proteins related to carbohydrate metabolism were only expressed in off-types at 10 days conversion, suggesting a more active respiratory pathway. A vicilin-like storage protein was only found in off-types at 20 days conversion, indicating that plantlets may present an abnormality in the mobilization of storage compounds, causing reduced vigor in the development of derived plantlets. The presence of heat shock proteins were only observed during formation of normal phenotype somatic plantlets, indicating that these proteins may be involved in normal morphogenesis of plantlets formed. These new findings shed light on possible genetic or epigenetic mechanisms governing A. sellowiana morphogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Correlation Between Dietary Fat Intake and Atherogenic Indices in Normal, Overweight and Obese Adults with or Without Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaf Mustapha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: We investigated the association of dietary intake, particularly fat and its constituent fatty acids, with atherogenic indices in adult patients with overweight, obesity and/or type 2 diabetes (T2D. Material and Methods: Two hundred eighty-five outpatients were selected in two cities located in the Northwestern region of Algeria. Anthropometric measurements for body weight, height, body mass index (BMI and waist circumference were performed. Relationships between dietary intakes, estimated by a 3- days food record, and fasting blood atherogenic indices - total cholesterol-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TC/HDL-c and apolipoprotein (apo B-to-apo A1 ratio, were analysed. Results: Study group included 58.59% overweight/obese T2D patients, 24.91% normal weight T2D patients and 16.49 % overweight/obese patients without diabetes. Higher dietary consumption (p= 0.003 of total fat, saturated fatty acids (SFAs and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, was recorded in the group of overweight/obese T2D patients. Significant positive correlations were observed between apo B/apo A1 and total fat (p= 0.035, total SFAs (p= 0.042 and palmitic acid (p= 0.042 in the group of overweight/obese T2D patients and with ω6 fatty acid (p= 0.030 in the group of overweight/obese patients without diabetes. In the two groups of T2D patients, whether normal weight, overweight/obese, numerous positive correlations with TC/HDL-c were disclosed for PUFAs, ω6 and fatty acids ratios, namely, ω6/ω3, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA/SFAs and (MUFAs+PUFAs/SFAs. Conclusion: Most adults, whom are either affected by an excess weight or T2D or both together, are prone to cardiovascular risk. Dietary intakes, particularly in fat and its constituent fatty acids, have an important effect on blood lipid atherogenic indices (TC/HDL-c and apo B/apo A1 ratios.

  6. Nuclear alignment following compound nucleus reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, P.A.; Nolan, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure for calculating the alignment of a nuclear state populated by a compound nucleus reaction is given and used to investigate how alignment varies for different types of population mechanisms. The calculations are compared to both predictions of Gaussian models for the state population distribution and to experimental data, for a variety of types of nuclear reactions. The treatment of alignment in the analysis of γ-ray angular distribution is discussed. (orig.)

  7. Ancestral sequence alignment under optimal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Daniel G

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple genome alignment is an important problem in bioinformatics. An important subproblem used by many multiple alignment approaches is that of aligning two multiple alignments. Many popular alignment algorithms for DNA use the sum-of-pairs heuristic, where the score of a multiple alignment is the sum of its induced pairwise alignment scores. However, the biological meaning of the sum-of-pairs of pairs heuristic is not obvious. Additionally, many algorithms based on the sum-of-pairs heuristic are complicated and slow, compared to pairwise alignment algorithms. An alternative approach to aligning alignments is to first infer ancestral sequences for each alignment, and then align the two ancestral sequences. In addition to being fast, this method has a clear biological basis that takes into account the evolution implied by an underlying phylogenetic tree. In this study we explore the accuracy of aligning alignments by ancestral sequence alignment. We examine the use of both maximum likelihood and parsimony to infer ancestral sequences. Additionally, we investigate the effect on accuracy of allowing ambiguity in our ancestral sequences. Results We use synthetic sequence data that we generate by simulating evolution on a phylogenetic tree. We use two different types of phylogenetic trees: trees with a period of rapid growth followed by a period of slow growth, and trees with a period of slow growth followed by a period of rapid growth. We examine the alignment accuracy of four ancestral sequence reconstruction and alignment methods: parsimony, maximum likelihood, ambiguous parsimony, and ambiguous maximum likelihood. Additionally, we compare against the alignment accuracy of two sum-of-pairs algorithms: ClustalW and the heuristic of Ma, Zhang, and Wang. Conclusion We find that allowing ambiguity in ancestral sequences does not lead to better multiple alignments. Regardless of whether we use parsimony or maximum likelihood, the

  8. Galaxy Alignments: Theory, Modelling & Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessling, Alina; Cacciato, Marcello; Joachimi, Benjamin; Kirk, Donnacha; Kitching, Thomas D.; Leonard, Adrienne; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Schäfer, Björn Malte; Sifón, Cristóbal; Brown, Michael L.; Rassat, Anais

    2015-11-01

    The shapes of galaxies are not randomly oriented on the sky. During the galaxy formation and evolution process, environment has a strong influence, as tidal gravitational fields in the large-scale structure tend to align nearby galaxies. Additionally, events such as galaxy mergers affect the relative alignments of both the shapes and angular momenta of galaxies throughout their history. These "intrinsic galaxy alignments" are known to exist, but are still poorly understood. This review will offer a pedagogical introduction to the current theories that describe intrinsic galaxy alignments, including the apparent difference in intrinsic alignment between early- and late-type galaxies and the latest efforts to model them analytically. It will then describe the ongoing efforts to simulate intrinsic alignments using both N-body and hydrodynamic simulations. Due to the relative youth of this field, there is still much to be done to understand intrinsic galaxy alignments and this review summarises the current state of the field, providing a solid basis for future work.

  9. Oral administration of soybean peptide Vglycin normalizes fasting glucose and restores impaired pancreatic function in Type 2 diabetic Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hua; Feng, Jueping; Du, Zhongxia; Zhen, Hui; Lin, Mei; Jia, Shaohui; Li, Tao; Huang, Xinyuan; Ostenson, Claes-Goran; Chen, Zhengwang

    2014-09-01

    Vglycin, a natural 37-residue polypeptide isolated from pea seeds in which six half-cysteine residues are embedded in three pairs of disulfide bonds, is resistant to digestive enzymes and has antidiabetic potential. To investigate the pharmacological activity of Vglycin in vivo and to examine the mechanisms involved, the therapeutic effect of Vglycin in diabetic rats was examined. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by high-fat diet and multiple streptozotocin intraperitoneal injections. Diabetic rats were treated daily with Vglycin for 4 weeks. Body weight, food intake, fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels were assayed weekly. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were conducted on Day 29. Subsequently, levels of p-Akt in the liver and pancreas and cleaved PARP, Pdx-1 and insulin in the pancreas were detected by immunoblotting. The morphology of the pancreas and the insulin expression in the pancreas were analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Furthermore, human liver-derived cell lines were used to explore the in vitro effects of Vglycin on insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake. Chronic treatment with Vglycin normalized fasting glucose levels in diabetic rats. The improvement in glucose homeostasis and the increased insulin sensitivity mediated by restored insulin signaling likely contributed to decreased food intake and reduced body weight. Vglycin protected pancreatic cells from damage by streptozotocin. Although insulin synthesis and secretion in impaired β-cell were not significantly elevated, islets morphology was improved in the Vglycin-treated groups. These results suggest that Vglycin could be useful in Type 2 diabetes for restoring impaired insulin signaling, glucose tolerance and pancreatic function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Normal telomere lengths in naive and memory CD4+ T cells in HIV type 1 infection: a mathematical interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthers, K. C.; Noest, A. J.; Otto, S. A.; Miedema, F.; de Boer, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    To study CD4+ T cell productivity during HIV-1 infection, CD4+ T cell telomere lengths were measured. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of HIV-1-infected individuals with CD4+ T cells counts >300 cells/mm3 showed normal average telomeric restriction fragment (TRF) length and normal

  11. Normal telomere lengths in naive and memory CD4 T cells in HIV type 1 infection : a mathematical interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthers, K.C.; Noest, A.J.; Otto, S.A.; Miedema, F.; Boer, R.J. de

    1999-01-01

    To study CD4+ T cell productivity during HIV-1 infection, CD4+ T cell telomere lengths were measured. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of HIV-1-infected individuals with CD4+ T cells counts >300 cells/mm3 showed normal average telomeric restriction fragment (TRF) length and normal

  12. Physician-Hospital Alignment in Orthopedic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Brandon D

    2015-09-01

    The concept of "alignment" between physicians and hospitals is a popular buzzword in the age of health care reform. Despite their often tumultuous histories, physicians and hospitals find themselves under increasing pressures to work together toward common goals. However, effective alignment is more than just simple cooperation between parties. The process of achieving alignment does not have simple, universal steps. Alignment will differ based on individual situational factors and the type of specialty involved. Ultimately, however, there are principles that underlie the concept of alignment and should be a part of any physician-hospital alignment efforts. In orthopedic surgery, alignment involves the clinical, administrative, financial, and even personal aspects of a surgeon's practice. It must be based on the principles of financial interest, clinical authority, administrative participation, transparency, focus on the patient, and mutual necessity. Alignment can take on various forms as well, with popular models consisting of shared governance and comanagement, gainsharing, bundled payments, accountable care organizations, and other methods. As regulatory and financial pressures continue to motivate physicians and hospitals to develop alignment relationships, new and innovative methods of alignment will also appear. Existing models will mature and evolve, with individual variability based on local factors. However, certain trends seem to be appearing as time progresses and alignment relationships deepen, including regional and national collaboration, population management, and changes in the legal system. This article explores the history, principles, and specific methods of physician-hospital alignment and its critical importance for the future of health care delivery. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Xenon contrast CT-CBF scanning of the brain differentiates normal age-related changes from multi-infarct dementia and senile dementia of Alzheimer type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, H.; Meyer, J.S.; Okayasu, H.; Shaw, T.G.; Kandula, P.; Rogers, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    Local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) and partition coefficients (L lambda) were measured during inhalation of stable xenon gas with serial CT scanning among normal volunteers (N . 15), individuals with multi-infarct dementia (MID, N . 10), and persons with senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT, N . 8). Mean gray matter flow values were reduced in both MID and SDAT. Age-related declines in LCBF values in normals were marked in frontal cortex and basal ganglia. LCBF values were decreased beyond normals in frontal and temporal cortices and thalamus in MID and SDAT, in basal ganglia only in MID. Unlike SDAT and age-matched normals, L lambda values were reduced in fronto-temporal cortex and thalamus in MID. Multifocal nature of lesions in MID was apparent. Coefficients of variation for LCBFs were greater in MID compared with SDAT and/or age-matched normals

  14. The human adenovirus type 5 E1B 55 kDa protein obstructs inhibition of viral replication by type I interferon in normal human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasdave S Chahal

    Full Text Available Vectors derived from human adenovirus type 5, which typically lack the E1A and E1B genes, induce robust innate immune responses that limit their therapeutic efficacy. We reported previously that the E1B 55 kDa protein inhibits expression of a set of cellular genes that is highly enriched for those associated with anti-viral defense and immune responses, and includes many interferon-sensitive genes. The sensitivity of replication of E1B 55 kDa null-mutants to exogenous interferon (IFN was therefore examined in normal human fibroblasts and respiratory epithelial cells. Yields of the mutants were reduced at least 500-fold, compared to only 5-fold, for wild-type (WT virus replication. To investigate the mechanistic basis of such inhibition, the accumulation of viral early proteins and genomes was compared by immunoblotting and qPCR, respectively, in WT- and mutant-infected cells in the absence or presence of exogenous IFN. Both the concentration of viral genomes detected during the late phase and the numbers of viral replication centers formed were strongly reduced in IFN-treated cells in the absence of the E1B protein, despite production of similar quantities of viral replication proteins. These defects could not be attributed to degradation of entering viral genomes, induction of apoptosis, or failure to reorganize components of PML nuclear bodies. Nor was assembly of the E1B- and E4 Orf6 protein- E3 ubiquitin ligase required to prevent inhibition of viral replication by IFN. However, by using RT-PCR, the E1B 55 kDa protein was demonstrated to be a potent repressor of expression of IFN-inducible genes in IFN-treated cells. We propose that a primary function of the previously described transcriptional repression activity of the E1B 55 kDa protein is to block expression of IFN- inducible genes, and hence to facilitate formation of viral replication centers and genome replication.

  15. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Ogura-type male-sterile cytoplasm and its comparative analysis with that of normal cytoplasm in radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Yoshiyuki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant mitochondrial genome has unique features such as large size, frequent recombination and incorporation of foreign DNA. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS is caused by rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome, and a novel chimeric open reading frame (ORF created by shuffling of endogenous sequences is often responsible for CMS. The Ogura-type male-sterile cytoplasm is one of the most extensively studied cytoplasms in Brassicaceae. Although the gene orf138 has been isolated as a determinant of Ogura-type CMS, no homologous sequence to orf138 has been found in public databases. Therefore, how orf138 sequence was created is a mystery. In this study, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of two radish mitochondrial genomes, namely, Ogura- and normal-type genomes, and analyzed them to reveal the origin of the gene orf138. Results Ogura- and normal-type mitochondrial genomes were assembled to 258,426-bp and 244,036-bp circular sequences, respectively. Normal-type mitochondrial genome contained 33 protein-coding and three rRNA genes, which are well conserved with the reported mitochondrial genome of rapeseed. Ogura-type genomes contained same genes and additional atp9. As for tRNA, normal-type contained 17 tRNAs, while Ogura-type contained 17 tRNAs and one additional trnfM. The gene orf138 was specific to Ogura-type mitochondrial genome, and no sequence homologous to it was found in normal-type genome. Comparative analysis of the two genomes revealed that radish mitochondrial genome consists of 11 syntenic regions (length >3 kb, similarity >99.9%. It was shown that short repeats and overlapped repeats present in the edge of syntenic regions were involved in recombination events during evolution to interconvert two types of mitochondrial genome. Ogura-type mitochondrial genome has four unique regions (2,803 bp, 1,601 bp, 451 bp and 15,255 bp in size that are non-syntenic to normal-type genome, and the gene orf138

  16. Aligning the unalignable: bacteriophage whole genome alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérard, Sèverine; Chateau, Annie; Pompidor, Nicolas; Guertin, Paul; Bergeron, Anne; Swenson, Krister M

    2016-01-13

    In recent years, many studies focused on the description and comparison of large sets of related bacteriophage genomes. Due to the peculiar mosaic structure of these genomes, few informative approaches for comparing whole genomes exist: dot plots diagrams give a mostly qualitative assessment of the similarity/dissimilarity between two or more genomes, and clustering techniques are used to classify genomes. Multiple alignments are conspicuously absent from this scene. Indeed, whole genome aligners interpret lack of similarity between sequences as an indication of rearrangements, insertions, or losses. This behavior makes them ill-prepared to align bacteriophage genomes, where even closely related strains can accomplish the same biological function with highly dissimilar sequences. In this paper, we propose a multiple alignment strategy that exploits functional collinearity shared by related strains of bacteriophages, and uses partial orders to capture mosaicism of sets of genomes. As classical alignments do, the computed alignments can be used to predict that genes have the same biological function, even in the absence of detectable similarity. The Alpha aligner implements these ideas in visual interactive displays, and is used to compute several examples of alignments of Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium bacteriophages, involving up to 29 genomes. Using these datasets, we prove that Alpha alignments are at least as good as those computed by standard aligners. Comparison with the progressive Mauve aligner - which implements a partial order strategy, but whose alignments are linearized - shows a greatly improved interactive graphic display, while avoiding misalignments. Multiple alignments of whole bacteriophage genomes work, and will become an important conceptual and visual tool in comparative genomics of sets of related strains. A python implementation of Alpha, along with installation instructions for Ubuntu and OSX, is available on bitbucket (https://bitbucket.org/thekswenson/alpha).

  17. Normalization: A Preprocessing Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Patro, S. Gopal Krishna; Sahu, Kishore Kumar

    2015-01-01

    As we know that the normalization is a pre-processing stage of any type problem statement. Especially normalization takes important role in the field of soft computing, cloud computing etc. for manipulation of data like scale down or scale up the range of data before it becomes used for further stage. There are so many normalization techniques are there namely Min-Max normalization, Z-score normalization and Decimal scaling normalization. So by referring these normalization techniques we are ...

  18. Maltitol inhibits small intestinal glucose absorption and increases insulin mediated muscle glucose uptake ex vivo but not in normal and type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuma, Chika Ifeanyi; Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of maltitol on intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake using ex vivo and in vivo experimental models. The ex vivo experiment was conducted in isolated jejunum and psoas muscle from normal rats. The in vivo study investigated the effects of a single bolus dose of maltitol on gastric emptying, intestinal glucose absorption and digesta transit in normal and type 2 diabetic rats. Maltitol inhibited glucose absorption in isolated rat jejunum and increased glucose uptake in isolated rat psoas muscle in the presence of insulin but not in the absence of insulin. In contrast, maltitol did not significantly (p > 0.05) alter small intestinal glucose absorption or blood glucose levels as well as gastric emptying and digesta transit in normal or type 2 diabetic rats. The results suggest that maltitol may not be a suitable dietary supplement for anti-diabetic food and food products to improve glycemic control.

  19. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV : unusual congenital anomalies in a mother and son with a COL3A1 mutation and a normal collagen III protein profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, HY; Pals, G; van Essen, AJ

    A mother and son with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type IV and unusual congenital anomalies are described. The congenital anomalies include, in the mother, amniotic band-like constrictions on one hand, a unilateral clubfoot, and macrocephaly owing to normal-pressure hydrocephaly and, in the son, an

  20. Patients newly diagnosed with clinical type 2 diabetes mellitus but presenting with HbA1c within normal range: 19-year mortality and clinical outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veloso, A.G.; Siersma, V.; Heldgaard, P.E.

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate whether long-term mortality or clinical outcomes differed between patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus and presenting with HbA1c within or above normal range at time of diagnosis. METHODS: Data were from a population-based sample of 1136 individuals with newly dia...

  1. Cloning, chromosomal localization, and functional expression of the alpha 1 subunit of the L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel from normal human heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, D; Mikala, G; Yatani, A; Engle, D B; Iles, D E; Segers, B; Sinke, R J; Weghuis, D O; Klöckner, U; Wakamori, M

    1993-01-01

    A unique structural variant of the cardiac L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha 1 subunit cDNA was isolated from libraries derived from normal human heart mRNA. The deduced amino acid sequence shows significant homology to other calcium channel alpha 1 subunits. However, differences from

  2. Effect of Coarse Aggregate and Slag Type on the Mechanical Behavior of High and Normal Weight Concrete Used at Barrage Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sanaullah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Present study is an effort to assess the composite effect of limestone aggregate and blast furnace slag on the mechanical characteristics of normal and high weight concrete at various structural units (barrage girders, main weir and block apron of New Khanki Barrage Project, Punjab. Mix designs for different concrete classes falling under the domain of high and normal weight concrete were prepared after aggregate quality testing. On attaining satisfactory results of quality testing nine concrete mixes were designed (three for each class: A1, A and B by absolute volume method (ACI- 211.1. The required compressive strength of normal and high strength was set at 6200, 5200 and 4200 Psi for the concrete types A1, A and B respectively after 28 days (ACI -318. For compressive strength assessment, a total 27 concrete cylinders were casted (9-cylinders for each mix and were water cured. The achieved average UCS of cylinder concrete specimens at 3, 7 and 28 days are 5170, 6338 and 7320 Psi for A1 – type, 3210, 4187 and 5602 Psi for A-type and 2650, 3360 and 4408 Psi for B- type mix. It has been found that all concrete mixes for suggested classes attained target strength at age of 7-days. The coarse aggregate (Margala Hill limestone and fine aggregates (from Lawrancepur /Qibla Bandi quarries used in all concrete mix designs have demonstrated a sound mechanical suitability for high and normal weight concrete.

  3. Small copper fixed-point cells of the hybrid type to be used in place of normal larger cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battuello, M.; Girard, F.; Florio, M.

    2012-10-01

    Two small cells for the realization of the fixed point of copper were constructed and investigated at INRIM. They are of the same hybrid design generally adopted for the eutectic high-temperature fixed-point cells, namely a structure with a sacrificial graphite sleeve and a layer of flexible carbon-carbon composite sheet (C/C sheet). Because of the largely different design with respect to the cells normally adopted for the construction of pure metal fixed points, they were compared and characterized with respect to the normal cells used at INRIM for the ITS-90 realization. Two different furnaces were used to compare hybrid and normal cells. One of the hybrid cells was also used in different configurations, i.e. without the C/C sheet and with two layers of sheet. The cells were compared with different operative conditions, i.e. temperature settings of the furnaces for inducing the freeze, and repeatability and reproducibility were investigated. Freezing temperature and shape of the plateaux obtained under the different conditions were analysed. As expected the duration of the plateaux obtained with the hybrid cells is considerably shorter than with the normal cell, but this does not affect the results in terms of freezing temperature. Measurements with the modified cell showed that the use of a double C/C sheet may improve both repeatability and reproducibility of the plateaux.

  4. Small copper fixed-point cells of the hybrid type to be used in place of normal larger cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battuello, M; Girard, F; Florio, M

    2012-01-01

    Two small cells for the realization of the fixed point of copper were constructed and investigated at INRIM. They are of the same hybrid design generally adopted for the eutectic high-temperature fixed-point cells, namely a structure with a sacrificial graphite sleeve and a layer of flexible carbon–carbon composite sheet (C/C sheet). Because of the largely different design with respect to the cells normally adopted for the construction of pure metal fixed points, they were compared and characterized with respect to the normal cells used at INRIM for the ITS-90 realization. Two different furnaces were used to compare hybrid and normal cells. One of the hybrid cells was also used in different configurations, i.e. without the C/C sheet and with two layers of sheet. The cells were compared with different operative conditions, i.e. temperature settings of the furnaces for inducing the freeze, and repeatability and reproducibility were investigated. Freezing temperature and shape of the plateaux obtained under the different conditions were analysed. As expected the duration of the plateaux obtained with the hybrid cells is considerably shorter than with the normal cell, but this does not affect the results in terms of freezing temperature. Measurements with the modified cell showed that the use of a double C/C sheet may improve both repeatability and reproducibility of the plateaux. (paper)

  5. A Monte Carlo Study of Levene's Test of Homogeneity of Variance: Empirical Frequencies of Type I Error in Normal Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, John H.; Stallings, William M.

    An influential statistics test recommends a Levene text for homogeneity of variance. A recent note suggests that Levene's test is upwardly biased for small samples. Another report shows inflated Alpha estimates and low power. Neither study utilized more than two sample sizes. This Monte Carlo study involved sampling from a normal population for…

  6. Buckling resistance calculation of Guide Thimbles for the mechanical design of fuel assembly type PWR under normal reactor operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, C.B.L.

    1990-01-01

    The calculations demonstrate the fulfillment of one of the mechanical design criteria for the Fuel Assembly Structure under normal reactor operating conditions. The calculations of stresses in the Guide Thimbles are performed with the aid of the program ANSYS. This paper contains program parameters and modelling of a typical Fuel Assembly for a Reactor similar to ANGRA II. (author)

  7. Evidence of Type-II Band Alignment in III-nitride Semiconductors: Experimental and theoretical investigation for In0.17Al0.83N/GaN heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaming; Xu, Fujun; Zhang, Xia; An, Wei; Li, Xin-Zheng; Song, Jie; Ge, Weikun; Tian, Guangshan; Lu, Jing; Wang, Xinqiang; Tang, Ning; Yang, Zhijian; Li, Wei; Wang, Weiying; Jin, Peng; Chen, Yonghai; Shen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Type-II band alignment structure is coveted in the design of photovoltaic devices and detectors, since it is beneficial for the transport of photogenerated carriers. Regrettably, for group-III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductors, all existing devices are limited to type-I heterostructures, owing to the unavailable of type-II ones. This seriously restricts the designing flexibility for optoelectronic devices and consequently the relevant performance of this material system. Here we show a brandnew type-II band alignment of the lattice-matched In0.17Al0.83N/GaN heterostructure from the perspective of both experimental observations and first-principle theoretical calculations. The band discontinuity is dominated by the conduction band offset ΔEC, with a small contribution from the valence band offset ΔEV which equals 0.1 eV (with being above). Our work may open up new prospects to realize high-performance III-Nitrides optoelectronic devices based on type-II energy band engineering. PMID:25283334

  8. Low plasma aldosterone despite normal plasma renin activity in uncomplicated type 1 diabetes mellitus : effects of RAAS stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luik, PT; Kerstens, MN; Hoogenberg, K; Navis, GJ; Dullaart, RPF

    Background Data on levels and responsiveness of PRA and aldosterone in type 1 diabetes mellitus are conflicting. Earlier studies were not standardized with respect to the type of diabetes mellitus, the presence of diabetic complications or sodium intake. Therefore, we studied plasma renin activity

  9. Comparison of skin barrier function and sensory nerve electric current perception threshold between IgE-high extrinsic and IgE-normal intrinsic types of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, T; Ishida, K; Mukumoto, S; Yamada, Y; Imokawa, G; Kabashima, K; Kobayashi, M; Bito, T; Nakamura, M; Ogasawara, K; Tokura, Y

    2010-01-01

    Background Two types of atopic dermatitis (AD) have been proposed, with different pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this seemingly heterogeneous disorder. The extrinsic type shows high IgE levels presumably as a consequence of skin barrier damage and feasible allergen permeation, whereas the intrinsic type exhibits normal IgE levels and is not mediated by allergen-specific IgE. Objectives To investigate the relationship between pruritus perception threshold and skin barrier function of patients with AD in a comparison between the extrinsic and intrinsic types. Methods Enrolled in this study were 32 patients with extrinsic AD, 17 with intrinsic AD and 24 healthy individuals. The barrier function of the stratum corneum was assessed by skin surface hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and pruritus perception was evaluated by the electric current perception threshold (CPT) of sensory nerves upon neuroselective transcutaneous electric stimulation. Results Skin surface hydration was significantly lower and TEWL was significantly higher in extrinsic AD than intrinsic AD or normal controls. Although there was no statistically significant difference in CPT among extrinsic AD, intrinsic AD and normal controls, CPT was significantly correlated with skin surface hydration and inversely with TEWL in intrinsic AD and normal controls, but not extrinsic AD. Finally, CPT was correlated with the visual analogue scale of itch in the nonlesional skin of patients with extrinsic but not intrinsic AD. Conclusions Patients with extrinsic AD have an impaired barrier, which increases the pre-existing pruritus but rather decreases sensitivity to external stimuli. In contrast, patients with intrinsic AD retain a normal barrier function and sensory reactivity to external pruritic stimuli.

  10. ALIGNMENTS OF GROUP GALAXIES WITH NEIGHBORING GROUPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yougang; Chen Xuelei; Park, Changbom; Yang Xiaohu; Choi, Yun-Young

    2009-01-01

    Using a sample of galaxy groups found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4, we measure the following four types of alignment signals: (1) the alignment between the distributions of the satellites of each group relative to the direction of the nearest neighbor group (NNG); (2) the alignment between the major axis direction of the central galaxy of the host group (HG) and the direction of the NNG; (3) the alignment between the major axes of the central galaxies of the HG and the NNG; and (4) the alignment between the major axes of the satellites of the HG and the direction of the NNG. We find strong signal of alignment between the satellite distribution and the orientation of central galaxy relative to the direction of the NNG, even when the NNG is located beyond 3r vir of the host group. The major axis of the central galaxy of the HG is aligned with the direction of the NNG. The alignment signals are more prominent for groups that are more massive and with early-type central galaxies. We also find that there is a preference for the two major axes of the central galaxies of the HG and NNG to be parallel for the system with both early central galaxies, however, not for the systems with both late-type central galaxies. For the orientation of satellite galaxies, we do not find any significant alignment signals relative to the direction of the NNG. From these four types of alignment measurements, we conclude that the large-scale environment traced by the nearby group affects primarily the shape of the host dark matter halo, and hence also affects the distribution of satellite galaxies and the orientation of central galaxies. In addition, the NNG directly affects the distribution of the satellite galaxies by inducing asymmetric alignment signals, and the NNG at very small separation may also contribute a second-order impact on the orientation of the central galaxy in the HG.

  11. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez.

    Since June of 2009, the muon alignment group has focused on providing new alignment constants and on finalizing the hardware alignment reconstruction. Alignment constants for DTs and CSCs were provided for CRAFT09 data reprocessing. For DT chambers, the track-based alignment was repeated using CRAFT09 cosmic ray muons and validated using segment extrapolation and split cosmic tools. One difference with respect to the previous alignment is that only five degrees of freedom were aligned, leaving the rotation around the local x-axis to be better determined by the hardware system. Similarly, DT chambers poorly aligned by tracks (due to limited statistics) were aligned by a combination of photogrammetry and hardware-based alignment. For the CSC chambers, the hardware system provided alignment in global z and rotations about local x. Entire muon endcap rings were further corrected in the transverse plane (global x and y) by the track-based alignment. Single chamber track-based alignment suffers from poor statistic...

  12. Normalization of Phenotypic Data from a Clinical Data Warehouse: Case Study of Heterogeneous Blood Type Data with Surprising Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, James J

    2015-01-01

    Clinical data warehouses often contain analogous data from disparate sources, resulting in heterogeneous formats and semantics. We have developed an approach that attempts to represent such phenotypic data in its most atomic form to facilitate aggregation. We illustrate this approach with human blood antigen typing (ABO-Rh) data drawn from the National Institutes of Health's Biomedical Translational Research Information System (BTRIS). In applying the method to actual patient data, we discovered a 2% incidence of changed blood types. We believe our approach can be applied to any institution's data to obtain comparable patient phenotypes. The actual discrepant blood type data will form the basis for a future study of the reasons for blood typing variation.

  13. Hepatic and renal extraction of circulating type I procollagen aminopropeptide in patients with normal liver function and in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytte, S; Hansen, M; Møller, S

    1999-01-01

    40-65, palcoholic cirrhosis. Size-chromatography revealed no significant change in the ratio of the high and low molecular forms of PINP following extraction in liver and kidney......The circulating level and splanchnic and renal extraction of serum type I procollagen aminoterminal propeptide (PINP) was studied in 20 patients with normal liver function and in 15 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. In patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, the concentration of PINP....... It is concluded that circulating PINP is extracted in the normal liver and kidney, and that the serum concentration of PINP is significantly higher in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis than in patients with normal liver function. Both the hepatic and the renal clearance of PINP are seriously impaired...

  14. Comparative Study of Optical and Magneto-Optical Properties of Normal, Disordered and Inverse Spinel Type Oxides

    OpenAIRE

    Zviagin, Vitaly; Richter, Peter; Böntgen, Tammo; Lorenz, Michael; Ziese, Michael; Zahn, Dietrich R. T.; Salvan, Georgeta; Grundmann, Marius; Schmidt-Grund, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Co$_3$O$_4$, ZnFe$_2$O$_4$, CoFe$_2$O$_4$, ZnCo$_2$O$_4$, and Fe$_3$O$_4$ thin films were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition at high and low temperatures resulting in crystalline single-phase normal, inverse, as well as disordered spinel oxide thin films with smooth surface morphology. The dielectric function, determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry in a wide spectral range from 0.5 eV to 8.5 eV, is compared with the magneto-optical response of the dielectric tensor, investigated by magne...

  15. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez and J. Pivarski

    2011-01-01

    Alignment efforts in the first few months of 2011 have shifted away from providing alignment constants (now a well established procedure) and focussed on some critical remaining issues. The single most important task left was to understand the systematic differences observed between the track-based (TB) and hardware-based (HW) barrel alignments: a systematic difference in r-φ and in z, which grew as a function of z, and which amounted to ~4-5 mm differences going from one end of the barrel to the other. This difference is now understood to be caused by the tracker alignment. The systematic differences disappear when the track-based barrel alignment is performed using the new “twist-free” tracker alignment. This removes the largest remaining source of systematic uncertainty. Since the barrel alignment is based on hardware, it does not suffer from the tracker twist. However, untwisting the tracker causes endcap disks (which are aligned ...

  16. Construction of an external electrode for determination of electrochemical corrosion potential in normal operational conditions of an BWR type reactor for hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar T, J.A.; Rivera M, H.; Hernandez C, R.

    2001-01-01

    The behavior of the corrosion processes at high temperature requires of external devices that being capable to resist a temperature of 288 Centigrade and a pressure of 80 Kg/cm 2 , to give stable and reproducible results of some variable and resisting physically and chemically the radiation. The external electrode of Ag/AgCl fulfils all the requirements in the determination of the electrochemical corrosion potential under normal operational conditions of a BWR type reactor in hot cells. (Author)

  17. The Particularities of the Monologue Speech Type Manifestations in Stuttering Schoolchildren with Tatar-Russian Bilingualism Compared to the Normality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipovskaya, Marina P.; Sharifzyanova, Kadriya Sh.; Zamaletdinova, Zalfira I.

    2016-01-01

    Actuality of studying of an issue on specific manifestations of a monologue speech type in bilingual schoolchildren with stutter has been stipulated by the necessity of elaboration of a constituent concept on central mechanisms underlying this kind of communication disorder, on the nature of disturbances of speech formation mechanisms in the…

  18. Normal viability and altered pharmacokinetics in mice lacking mdr1-type (drug-transporting) P-glycoproteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, A. H.; Mayer, U.; Wagenaar, E.; Mol, C. A.; van Deemter, L.; Smit, J. J.; van der Valk, M. A.; Voordouw, A. C.; Spits, H.; van Tellingen, O.; Zijlmans, J. M.; Fibbe, W. E.; Borst, P.

    1997-01-01

    The mdr1-type P-glycoproteins (P-gps) confer multidrug resistance to cancer cells by active extrusion of a wide range of drugs from the cell. To study their physiological roles, we have generated mice genetically deficient in the mdr1b gene [mdr1b (-/-) mice] and in both the mdr1a and mdr1b genes

  19. [Glomerular filtration and renal volume in type II diabetes (non-insulin-dependent): study in normal and microalbuminuria patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, A M; Tanganelli, I; Fondelli, C; Vattimo, A; Ferrari, F; Borgogni, P; Borgogni, L; Gragnoli, G

    1991-08-01

    In type 2 diabetes elevated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and increased renal volume (RV), often accompanied to normo or microalbuminuria, were demonstrated. This condition is considered a pathogenetic factor for clinical nephropathy. As this topic is little studied in type 2 diabetes, we have investigated 73 type 2 diabetic patients (34 normo and 39 microalbuminuric), looking for a correlation between GFR, RV, hypertension, duration of diabetes and indexes of metabolic control. GFR was measured by a scintigraphy, after infusion of 99Tc-DTPA. Renal volume was determined by ultrasound scanning. Between the groups GFR and RV weren't different; elevated GFR was demonstrated in 3 patients; increased RV in 1 patient. In the hypertensive group GFR was lower than in normotensive group and in controls. Multivariate analysis in stepwise demonstrated that GFR presents a negative correlation to systolic blood pressure as in normo as in microalbuminuric patients. In the normotensive group GFR didn't correlate to the other variables. The present data suggest that in type 2 diabetes there is a little prevalence of glomerular hyperfiltration and increased renal volume and that hypertension plays a role on GFR of hypertensive diabetic patients.

  20. Unified Alignment of Protein-Protein Interaction Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malod-Dognin, Noël; Ban, Kristina; Pržulj, Nataša

    2017-04-19

    Paralleling the increasing availability of protein-protein interaction (PPI) network data, several network alignment methods have been proposed. Network alignments have been used to uncover functionally conserved network parts and to transfer annotations. However, due to the computational intractability of the network alignment problem, aligners are heuristics providing divergent solutions and no consensus exists on a gold standard, or which scoring scheme should be used to evaluate them. We comprehensively evaluate the alignment scoring schemes and global network aligners on large scale PPI data and observe that three methods, HUBALIGN, L-GRAAL and NATALIE, regularly produce the most topologically and biologically coherent alignments. We study the collective behaviour of network aligners and observe that PPI networks are almost entirely aligned with a handful of aligners that we unify into a new tool, Ulign. Ulign enables complete alignment of two networks, which traditional global and local aligners fail to do. Also, multiple mappings of Ulign define biologically relevant soft clusterings of proteins in PPI networks, which may be used for refining the transfer of annotations across networks. Hence, PPI networks are already well investigated by current aligners, so to gain additional biological insights, a paradigm shift is needed. We propose such a shift come from aligning all available data types collectively rather than any particular data type in isolation from others.

  1. High-normal blood pressure and long-term risk of type 2 diabetes: 35-year prospective population based cohort study of men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stahl Christina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The link between type 2 diabetes and hypertension is well established and the conditions often coexist. High normal blood pressure, defined by WHO-ISH as systolic blood pressure (SBP 130–139 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP 85–89 mm Hg, has been found to be an independent predictor for type 2 diabetes in studies, although with relatively limited follow-up periods of approximately 10 years. The aim of this study was to investigate whether hypertension, including mildly elevated blood pressure within the normal range, predicted subsequent development of type 2 diabetes in men over an extended follow-up of 35 years. Methods Data were derived from the Gothenburg Primary Prevention Study where a random sample of 7 494 men aged 47–55 years underwent a baseline screening investigation in the period 1970–1973. A total of 7 333 men were free from previous history of diabetes at baseline. During a 35-year follow-up diabetes was identified through the Swedish hospital discharge and death registries. The cumulative risk of diabetes adjusted for age and competing risk of death was calculated. Using Cox proportional hazard models we calculated the multiple adjusted hazard ratios (HR (95% confidence interval (CI for diabetes at different blood pressure levels. Results During a 35-year follow-up, 956 men (13% were identified with diabetes. The 35-year cumulative risk of diabetes after adjusting for age and competing risk of death in men with SBP levels Conclusion In this population, at mid-life, even high-normal SBP levels were shown to be a significant predictor of type 2 diabetes, independently of BMI and other conventional type 2 diabetes risk factors over an extended follow-up.

  2. Effects of isradipine in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with albuminuria and normal blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, K; Jensen, T; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1992-01-01

    The effects of the calcium channel blocker, isradipine, on BP, urinary albumin excretion, plasma lipoproteins and natriuresis in albuminuric Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients were assessed. Fifteen Type 1 diabetic patients aged 22-52 years were studied. All had elevated urinary albumin...... or placebo for eight weeks. Then, after 4 weeks (the wash-out period), each patient received the drug he or she had not taken before for another 8 weeks. Systolic blood pressure was lowered by 8 mmHg from 127 (114-139) mmHg (P less than 0.01) and diastolic by 5 mmHg from 81 (70-87) mmHg (P less than 0...... cholesterol and triglyceride decreased significantly (P less than 0.01) and the level of HDL cholesterol increased, but not significantly (P = 0.08). In conclusion, treatment of Type 1 diabetic patients, at risk of progressive clinical nephropathy, with the calcium channel blocker, isradipine, had beneficial...

  3. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez

    2010-01-01

    The main developments in muon alignment since March 2010 have been the production, approval and deployment of alignment constants for the ICHEP data reprocessing. In the barrel, a new geometry, combining information from both hardware and track-based alignment systems, has been developed for the first time. The hardware alignment provides an initial DT geometry, which is then anchored as a rigid solid, using the link alignment system, to a reference frame common to the tracker. The “GlobalPositionRecords” for both the Tracker and Muon systems are being used for the first time, and the initial tracker-muon relative positioning, based on the link alignment, yields good results within the photogrammetry uncertainties of the Tracker and alignment ring positions. For the first time, the optical and track-based alignments show good agreement between them; the optical alignment being refined by the track-based alignment. The resulting geometry is the most complete to date, aligning all 250 DTs, ...

  4. Fast global sequence alignment technique

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal; Salama, Khaled N.

    2011-01-01

    fast alignment algorithm, called 'Alignment By Scanning' (ABS), to provide an approximate alignment of two DNA sequences. We compare our algorithm with the wellknown sequence alignment algorithms, the 'GAP' (which is heuristic) and the 'Needleman

  5. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Z. Szillasi and G. Gomez.

    2013-01-01

    When CMS is opened up, major components of the Link and Barrel Alignment systems will be removed. This operation, besides allowing for maintenance of the detector underneath, is needed for making interventions that will reinforce the alignment measurements and make the operation of the alignment system more reliable. For that purpose and also for their general maintenance and recalibration, the alignment components will be transferred to the Alignment Lab situated in the ISR area. For the track-based alignment, attention is focused on the determination of systematic uncertainties, which have become dominant, since now there is a large statistics of muon tracks. This will allow for an improved Monte Carlo misalignment scenario and updated alignment position errors, crucial for high-momentum muon analysis such as Z′ searches.

  6. Hypoglycemia-associated changes in the electroencephalogram in patients with type 1 diabetes and normal hypoglycemia awareness or unawareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejling, Anne-Sophie; Kjær, Troels W; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is associated with increased activity in the low-frequency bands in the electroencephalogram (EEG). We investigated whether hypoglycemia awareness and unawareness are associated with different hypoglycemia-associated EEG changes in patients with type 1 diabetes.Twenty-four patients...... and hypoglycemia symptom scores were recorded and the counterregulatory hormonal response was measured.Quantitative EEG analysis showed that the absolute amplitude of the theta band and alpha-theta band up to doubled during hypoglycemia with no difference between the two groups. In the recovery period the theta...

  7. XYLITOL IMPROVES ANTI-OXIDATIVE DEFENSE SYSTEM IN SERUM, LIVER, HEART, KIDNEY AND PANCREAS OF NORMAL AND TYPE 2 DIABETES MODEL OF RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuma, Chika Ifeanyi; Islam, Shahidul

    2017-05-01

    The present study investigated the anti-oxidative effects of xylitol both in vitro and in vivo in normal and type 2 diabetes (T2D) rat model. Free radical scavenging and ferric reducing potentials of different concentrations of xylitol were investigated in vitro. For in vivo study, six weeks old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups, namely: Normal Control (NC), Diabetic Control (DBC), Normal Xylitol (NXYL) and Diabetic Xylitol (DXYL). T2D was induced in the DBC and DXYL groups. After the confirmation of diabetes, a 10% xylitol solution was supplied instead of drinking water to NXYL and DXYL, while normal drinking water was supplied to NC and DBC ad libitum. After five weeks intervention period, the animals were sacri- ficed and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations as well as superoxide dismutase, catalase glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activities were determined in the liver, heart, kidney, pancreatic tissues and serum samples. Xylitol exhibited significant (p foods and food products.

  8. Relevance of the serial position effect in the differential diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer-type dementia, and normal ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, M E; Sasson, Y; Crivelli, L; Roldán Gerschovich, E; Campos, J A; Calcagno, M L; Leiguarda, R; Sabe, L; Allegri, R F

    2013-05-01

    Serial position effects are observed when a person memorises a series of words exceeding his or her attention span. Cognitively normal individuals recall words at the beginning and end of the list more frequently than those in the middle, which reflects the way that short- and long-term episodic memory works. To study the serial position effect in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) compared to subjects with Alzheimer-type dementia (AD) or normal ageing (NA). 30 AD, 25 MCI and 20 NA subjects underwent neurological and neuropsychological assessment. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) was used to study primacy, middle, and recency effects and delayed recall for each group. The general memory pattern of MCI subjects was very similar to that of AD subjects, and was characterised by reduced learning capacity, rapid forgetfulness and clear recency effect in learning. With regard to delayed recall, however, there were differences in performance; MCI subjects' ability to recall words at the beginning and middle of the list was similar to that of normal subjects, while their memory of words at the end of the list was poor, as in AD subjects. RAVLT is a tool permitting us to distinguish between MCI and NA subjects. The recency index for the delayed recall task is a valid indicator for distinguishing between MCI patients and patients with normal ageing. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Point-contact spectroscopic studies on normal and superconducting AFe2As2-type iron pnictide single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xin; Park, W K; Greene, L H; Yuan, H Q; Chen, G F; Luo, G L; Wang, N L; Sefat, A S; McGuire, M A; Jin, R; Sales, B C; Mandrus, D; Gillett, J; Sebastian, Suchitra E

    2010-01-01

    Point-contact Andreev reflection spectroscopy is applied to investigate the gap structure in iron pnictide single-crystal superconductors of the AFe 2 As 2 (A = Ba, Sr) family ('Fe-122'). The observed point-contact junction conductance curves, G(V), can be divided into two categories: one where Andreev reflection is present for both (Ba 0.6 K 0.4 )Fe 2 As 2 and Ba(Fe 0.9 Co 0.1 ) 2 As 2 , and the other with a V 2/3 background conductance universally observed, extending even up to 100 meV for Sr 0.6 Na 0.4 Fe 2 As 2 and Sr(Fe 0.9 Co 0.1 ) 2 As 2 . The latter is also observed in point-contact junctions on the nonsuperconducting parent compound BaFe 2 As 2 and superconducting (Ba 0.6 K 0.4 )Fe 2 As 2 crystals. Mesoscopic phase-separated coexistence of magnetic and superconducting orders is considered to explain distinct behaviors in the superconducting samples. For Ba 0.6 K 0.4 Fe 2 As 2 , double peaks due to Andreev reflection with a strongly sloping background are frequently observed for point contacts on freshly cleaved c-axis surfaces. If normalized using a background baseline and analyzed using the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk model, the data show a gap size of ∼ 3.0-4.0 meV with 2Δ 0 /k B T c ∼ 2.0-2.6, consistent with the smaller gap size reported for the LnFeAsO family ('Fe-1111'). For the Ba(Fe 0.9 Co 0.1 ) 2 As 2 , the G(V) curves typically display a zero-bias conductance peak.

  10. Intravenous glucagon-like peptide 1 normalizes blood glucose after major surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Weyhe, Dirk; Michaely, Mark

    2004-01-01

    of GLP-1 (1.2 pmol x kg x min) and placebo over 8 hrs, each administered in randomized order in the fasting state. C-reactive protein concentrations of 4.9+/-4.2 mg/dL indicated a systemic inflammation. Blood was drawn in 30-min intervals for glucose (glucose oxidase), insulin, C-peptide, glucagon...... practicability and the risk of hypoglycemia. Therefore, the glucose-lowering effect of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) was investigated in patients with type 2 diabetes after major surgery. DESIGN: Randomised clinical study. SETTING: A surgical unit of a university hospital. PATIENTS......, and GLP-1 (specific immunoassays). Statistics were done with repeated-measures analysis of variance and Duncan's post hoc tests. MAIN RESULTS: During the intravenous infusion of GLP-1, plasma glucose concentrations were significantly lowered, reaching the normoglycemic fasting glucose range within 150...

  11. Control rod housing alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, R.C.; Deaver, G.A.; Punches, J.R.; Singleton, G.E.; Erbes, J.G.; Offer, H.P.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a process for measuring the vertical alignment between a hole in a core plate and the top of a corresponding control rod drive housing within a boiling water reactor. It comprises: providing an alignment apparatus. The alignment apparatus including a lower end for fitting to the top of the control rod drive housing; an upper end for fitting to the aperture in the core plate, and a leveling means attached to the alignment apparatus to read out the difference in angularity with respect to gravity, and alignment pin registering means for registering to the alignment pin on the core plate; lowering the alignment device on a depending support through a lattice position in the top guide through the hole in the core plate down into registered contact with the top of the control rod drive housing; registering the upper end to the sides of the hole in the core plate; registering the alignment pin registering means to an alignment pin on the core plate to impart to the alignment device the required angularity; and reading out the angle of the control rod drive housing with respect to the hole in the core plate through the leveling devices whereby the angularity of the top of the control rod drive housing with respect to the hole in the core plate can be determined

  12. Some Alignment Considerations for the Next Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruland, R

    2004-01-01

    Next Linear Collider type accelerators require a new level of alignment quality. The relative alignment of these machines is to be maintained in an error envelope dimensioned in micrometers and for certain parts in nanometers. In the nanometer domain our terra firma cannot be considered monolithic but compares closer to jelly. Since conventional optical alignment methods cannot deal with the dynamics and cannot approach the level of accuracy, special alignment and monitoring techniques must be pursued

  13. Host-cell reactivation of uv-irradiated and chemically treated Herpes simplex virus type 1 strain MP in normal and xeroderma pigmentosum skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selsky, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    The host-cell reactivation of UV-irradiated and N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene-treated herpes simplex virus type 1 strain mp was studied in normal human skin fibroblasts and xeroderma pigmentosum skin fibroblasts from XP genetic complementation groups A-D and in an XP variant. The increasing relative order for the host-cell reactivation of both types of damaged virus in the different complementation groups is A = D < B < C; XP variant = normal controls. XP complementation group D cells, which manifest the most severe inhibition of her ability for both UV-irradiated and N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene-treated virus, can reactivate nitrogen mustard treated HSV-1 mp to the same extent as normal cells. Together, these results indicate that (1) Excision repair of UV and N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene DNA damaged viruses share a common rate limiting enzymatic step and (2) The repair defect in xeroderma pigmentosum cells plays little or no role in the recovery of nitrogen mustard treated virus. The results of studies on the effect of caffeine on the survival of both UV- and N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene-treated virus in normal and XP cells imply that the reactivation of HSV-1 mp is mediated by an excision repair process with little if any recovery contributed by post-replication repair mechanisms. The host-cell reactivation of N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene-treated HSV-1 mp was also correlated with the defective UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in two skin fibroblast strains established from a skin biopsy obtained from each of two juvenile females who had been clinically diagnosed as xeroderma pigmentosum. These findings are discussed in relation to the further characterization of the xeroderma pigmentosum phenotype and their possible utilization for the selection and isolation of new mammalian cell DNA repair mutants

  14. Twelve-Week Treatment With Liraglutide as Add-on to Insulin in Normal-Weight Patients With Poorly Controlled Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Christian S; Dejgaard, Thomas F; Holst, Jens J

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the efficacy and safety of once-daily liraglutide 1.2 mg versus placebo as add-on to insulin treatment in normal-weight patients with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a randomized (1:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 40...... patients with type 1 diabetes (HbA1c ≥8% [64 mmol/mol]) received once-daily liraglutide 1.2 mg or placebo for 12 weeks. Continuous glucose monitoring was performed before and at the end of treatment. The primary end point was change in HbA1c. Secondary end points included change in insulin dose, weight...... was more frequently associated with gastrointestinal adverse effects. The incidence of hypoglycemia did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Liraglutide significantly reduces body weight and insulin requirements but has no additional effect on HbA1c in normal-weight patients with type 1 diabetes...

  15. Effect of baking process on postprandial metabolic consequences: randomized trials in normal and type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizkalla, S W; Laromiguiere, M; Champ, M; Bruzzo, F; Boillot, J; Slama, G

    2007-02-01

    To determine the impact of the form, fibre content, baking and processing on the glycaemic, insulinaemic and lipidaemic responses of different French breads. First study: Nine healthy subjects were randomized to consume in a crossover design one of six kinds of French bread (each containing 50 g available carbohydrate): classic baguette, traditional baguette, loaf of wholemeal bread (WM-B), loaf of bread fermented with yeast or with leaven, a sandwich and a glucose challenge as reference. The glycaemic index (GI) values ranged from 57+/-9% (mean+/-s.e.m.), for the traditional baguette, to 85+/-27% for the WM-B. No significant difference was found among the different tested bread. The insulinaemic index (II), however, of the traditional baguette and of the bread fermented with leaven were lower than the other breads (analysis of variance: Pvarieties of French bread (the TB) have lower II, in healthy subjects, and lower GI, in type 2 diabetic subjects, than that of the other varieties. These results might be due to bread processing difference rather than fibre content. Supported by grants from the National French Milling Association.

  16. Memory performance on the Auditory Inference Span Test is independent of background noise type for young adults with normal hearing at high speech intelligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnberg, Niklas; Rudner, Mary; Lunner, Thomas; Stenfelt, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Listening in noise is often perceived to be effortful. This is partly because cognitive resources are engaged in separating the target signal from background noise, leaving fewer resources for storage and processing of the content of the message in working memory. The Auditory Inference Span Test (AIST) is designed to assess listening effort by measuring the ability to maintain and process heard information. The aim of this study was to use AIST to investigate the effect of background noise types and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on listening effort, as a function of working memory capacity (WMC) and updating ability (UA). The AIST was administered in three types of background noise: steady-state speech-shaped noise, amplitude modulated speech-shaped noise, and unintelligible speech. Three SNRs targeting 90% speech intelligibility or better were used in each of the three noise types, giving nine different conditions. The reading span test assessed WMC, while UA was assessed with the letter memory test. Twenty young adults with normal hearing participated in the study. Results showed that AIST performance was not influenced by noise type at the same intelligibility level, but became worse with worse SNR when background noise was speech-like. Performance on AIST also decreased with increasing memory load level. Correlations between AIST performance and the cognitive measurements suggested that WMC is of more importance for listening when SNRs are worse, while UA is of more importance for listening in easier SNRs. The results indicated that in young adults with normal hearing, the effort involved in listening in noise at high intelligibility levels is independent of the noise type. However, when noise is speech-like and intelligibility decreases, listening effort increases, probably due to extra demands on cognitive resources added by the informational masking created by the speech fragments and vocal sounds in the background noise.

  17. Memory performance on the Auditory Inference Span Test is independent of background noise type for young adults with normal hearing at high speech intelligibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas eRönnberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Listening in noise is often perceived to be effortful. This is partly because cognitive resources are engaged in separating the target signal from background noise, leaving fewer resources for storage and processing of the content of the message in working memory. The Auditory Inference Span Test (AIST is designed to assess listening effort by measuring the ability to maintain and process heard information. The aim of this study was to use AIST to investigate the effect of background noise types and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR on listening effort, as a function of working memory capacity (WMC and updating ability (UA. The AIST was administered in three types of background noise: steady-state speech-shaped noise, amplitude modulated speech-shaped noise, and unintelligible speech. Three SNRs targeting 90% speech intelligibility or better were used in each of the three noise types, giving nine different conditions. The reading span test assessed WMC, while UA was assessed with the letter memory test. Twenty young adults with normal hearing participated in the study. Results showed that AIST performance was not influenced by noise type at the same intelligibility level, but became worse with worse SNR when background noise was speech-like. Performance on AIST also decreased with increasing MLL. Correlations between AIST performance and the cognitive measurements suggested that WMC is of more importance for listening when SNRs are worse, while UA is of more importance for listening in easier SNRs. The results indicated that in young adults with normal hearing, the effort involved in listening in noise at high intelligibility levels is independent of the noise type. However, when noise is speech-like and intelligibility decreases, listening effort increases, probably due to extra demands on cognitive resources added by the informational masking created by the speech-fragments and vocal sounds in the background noise.

  18. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity. PMID:25379262

  19. Normal Morning Melanin-Concentrating Hormone Levels and No Association with Rapid Eye Movement or Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Parameters in Narcolepsy Type 1 and Type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrölkamp, Maren; Jennum, Poul J; Gammeltoft, Steen

    2017-01-01

    in rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep regulation. Hypocretin neurons reciprocally interact with MCH neurons. We hypothesized that altered MCH secretion contributes to the symptoms and sleep abnormalities of narcolepsy and that this is reflected in morning cerebrospinal fluid...... MCH levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that MCH levels in CSF collected in the morning are normal in narcolepsy and not associated with the clinical symptoms, REM sleep abnormalities, nor number of muscle movements during REM or NREM sleep of the patients. We conclude that morning lumbar CSF MCH......STUDY OBJECTIVES: Other than hypocretin-1 (HCRT-1) deficiency in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1), the neurochemical imbalance of NT1 and narcolepsy type 2 (NT2) with normal HCRT-1 levels is largely unknown. The neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is mainly secreted during sleep and is involved...

  20. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez

    2010-01-01

    Most of the work in muon alignment since December 2009 has focused on the geometry reconstruction from the optical systems and improvements in the internal alignment of the DT chambers. The barrel optical alignment system has progressively evolved from reconstruction of single active planes to super-planes (December 09) to a new, full barrel reconstruction. Initial validation studies comparing this full barrel alignment at 0T with photogrammetry provide promising results. In addition, the method has been applied to CRAFT09 data, and the resulting alignment at 3.8T yields residuals from tracks (extrapolated from the tracker) which look smooth, suggesting a good internal barrel alignment with a small overall offset with respect to the tracker. This is a significant improvement, which should allow the optical system to provide a start-up alignment for 2010. The end-cap optical alignment has made considerable progress in the analysis of transfer line data. The next set of alignment constants for CSCs will there...

  1. Tidal alignment of galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, Jonathan; Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš

    2015-08-01

    We develop an analytic model for galaxy intrinsic alignments (IA) based on the theory of tidal alignment. We calculate all relevant nonlinear corrections at one-loop order, including effects from nonlinear density evolution, galaxy biasing, and source density weighting. Contributions from density weighting are found to be particularly important and lead to bias dependence of the IA amplitude, even on large scales. This effect may be responsible for much of the luminosity dependence in IA observations. The increase in IA amplitude for more highly biased galaxies reflects their locations in regions with large tidal fields. We also consider the impact of smoothing the tidal field on halo scales. We compare the performance of this consistent nonlinear model in describing the observed alignment of luminous red galaxies with the linear model as well as the frequently used "nonlinear alignment model," finding a significant improvement on small and intermediate scales. We also show that the cross-correlation between density and IA (the "GI" term) can be effectively separated into source alignment and source clustering, and we accurately model the observed alignment down to the one-halo regime using the tidal field from the fully nonlinear halo-matter cross correlation. Inside the one-halo regime, the average alignment of galaxies with density tracers no longer follows the tidal alignment prediction, likely reflecting nonlinear processes that must be considered when modeling IA on these scales. Finally, we discuss tidal alignment in the context of cosmic shear measurements.

  2. Diabetic subjects diagnosed through the Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1 (DPT-1) are often asymptomatic with normal A1C at diabetes onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triolo, Taylor M; Chase, H Peter; Barker, Jennifer M

    2009-05-01

    Upon diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, patients are usually symptomatic, and many have ketoacidosis. Screening for islet autoantibodies (IAs) has been shown to decrease A1C level and rate of hospitalization at diabetes onset. Metabolic tests and the presence of symptoms were described at diabetes onset during the Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1 (DPT-1). The DPT-1 screened relatives of patients with type 1 diabetes for islet cell autoantiobodies (ICAs). Those with positive ICAs had intravenous and oral glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs and OGTTs) and were randomized into one of two prevention trials. Throughout the DPT-1 parenteral and oral insulin study, 246 people were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Of the 246 subjects diagnosed with diabetes, 218 had data regarding the presence of symptoms, and 138 (63.3%) reported no symptoms suggestive of diabetes. Eight subjects (3.67%) presented with ketosis. Subjects presented with a mean +/- SD A1C of 6.41 +/- 1.15%. At diagnosis, 90 subjects (50.8%) had A1C in the normal range (IA followed by OGTT) may allow diagnosis of diabetes before severe metabolic decompensation. Screening with A1C will miss identifying many of the subjects with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes in this cohort.

  3. Interest alignment and competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Gottschalg, Oliver; Zollo, Mauricio

    2006-01-01

    This paper articulates a theory of the conditions under which the alignment between individual and collective interests generates sustainable competitive advantage. The theory is based on the influence of tacitness, context-specificity and casual ambiguity in the determinants of different types of motivation (extrinsic, normative intrinsic and hedonic intrinsic), under varying conditions of environmental dynamism. The analysis indicates the need to consider mitivational processes as a complem...

  4. Conceptual analysis of a preliminary model for instability study in normal operation of a natural circulation reactor type EBWR, using Relap5/Mod 3.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojeda S, J.; Morales S, J.; Chavez M, C.

    2009-10-01

    This work intends a model using the code Relap5/Mod 3.2, for the instability study in normal operation of a natural circulation reactor type ESBWR. A conceptual analysis is considered because all the information was obtained of the open literature, and some of reactor operation or dimension (not available) parameters were approached. As starting point was took the pattern developed for reactor type BWR, denominated Browns Ferry and changes were focused in elimination of bonds of forced recirculation, in modification of operation parameters, dimensions and own control parameters, according to internal code structure. Additionally the nodalization outline is described analyzing for separate the four fundamental areas employees in peculiar geometry of natural circulation reactor. Comparative analysis of results of stability behavior obtained with those reported in the open literature were made, by part of commercial reactor designer ESBWR. (Author)

  5. Effect of mixing scanner types and reconstruction kernels on the characterization of lung parenchymal pathologies: emphysema, interstitial pulmonary fibrosis and normal non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ye; van Beek, Edwin J.; McLennan, Geoffrey; Guo, Junfeng; Sonka, Milan; Hoffman, Eric

    2006-03-01

    In this study we utilize our texture characterization software (3-D AMFM) to characterize interstitial lung diseases (including emphysema) based on MDCT generated volumetric data using 3-dimensional texture features. We have sought to test whether the scanner and reconstruction filter (kernel) type affect the classification of lung diseases using the 3-D AMFM. We collected MDCT images in three subject groups: emphysema (n=9), interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n=10), and normal non-smokers (n=9). In each group, images were scanned either on a Siemens Sensation 16 or 64-slice scanner, (B50f or B30 recon. kernel) or a Philips 4-slice scanner (B recon. kernel). A total of 1516 volumes of interest (VOIs; 21x21 pixels in plane) were marked by two chest imaging experts using the Iowa Pulmonary Analysis Software Suite (PASS). We calculated 24 volumetric features. Bayesian methods were used for classification. Images from different scanners/kernels were combined in all possible combinations to test how robust the tissue classification was relative to the differences in image characteristics. We used 10-fold cross validation for testing the result. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated. One-way Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was used to compare the classification result between the various combinations of scanner and reconstruction kernel types. This study yielded a sensitivity of 94%, 91%, 97%, and 93% for emphysema, ground-glass, honeycombing, and normal non-smoker patterns respectively using a mixture of all three subject groups. The specificity for these characterizations was 97%, 99%, 99%, and 98%, respectively. The F test result of ANOVA shows there is no significant difference (p <0.05) between different combinations of data with respect to scanner and convolution kernel type. Since different MDCT and reconstruction kernel types did not show significant differences in regards to the classification result, this study suggests that the 3-D AMFM can

  6. Comparison of the nerve fiber layer of type 2 diabetic patients without glaucoma with normal subjects of the same age and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takis A

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Alexandros Takis,1 Dimitrios Alonistiotis,1 Dimitrios Panagiotidis,1 Nikolaos Ioannou,1 Dimitris Papaconstantinou,2 Panagiotis Theodossiadis1 1Ophthalmological University Clinic of Athens, Attikon Hospital, Athens, Greece; 2Ophthalmological University Clinic of Athens, Geniko Kratiko Hospital, Athens, Greece Background: The retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 was compared to normal subjects of similar age and sex, having first excluded any risk factors for glaucoma. The correlation between the RNFL thickness and the severity of diabetic retinopathy was investigated at its primary stages and with other ocular and diabetic parameters. Methods: A prospective, case series study was carried out. Twenty-seven diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy, 24 diabetic patients with mild retinopathy, and 25 normal, age-matched subjects underwent a complete ophthalmological examination and imaging with scanning laser polarimetry for the evaluation of the RNFL. Multivariate analysis was applied in order to investigate the correlation between RNFL and diabetic parameters, such as age, duration of diabetes, insulin therapy, levels of glycosylated hemoglobin; and ocular parameters, such as cup to disc ratio, levels of normal intraocular pressure, and central corneal thickness. Results: The mean inferior average of RNFL and the temporal-superior-nasal-inferior-temporal standard deviation were statistically significantly lower in both diabetic groups, and the nerve fiber index was higher (P=0.04 compared to the normal group. There was no statistically significant difference between the diabetic groups. The factor analysis showed no significant correlation between the RNFL and the previously mentioned diabetic and ocular parameters. Conclusion: The existence of diabetes should be seriously considered in evaluating the results of scanning laser polarimetry. Multivariate analysis for RNFL was used for the first

  7. SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF SN 2012fr: A LUMINOUS, NORMAL TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA WITH EARLY HIGH-VELOCITY FEATURES AND A LATE VELOCITY PLATEAU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childress, M. J.; Scalzo, R. A.; Sim, S. A.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Schmidt, B. P.; Cenko, S. B.; Filippenko, A. V.; Silverman, J. M.; Contreras, C.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Phillips, M.; Morrell, N.; Jha, S. W.; McCully, C.; Anderson, J. P.; De Jaeger, T.; Forster, F.; Benetti, S.; Bufano, F.

    2013-01-01

    We present 65 optical spectra of the Type Ia SN 2012fr, 33 of which were obtained before maximum light. At early times, SN 2012fr shows clear evidence of a high-velocity feature (HVF) in the Si II λ6355 line that can be cleanly decoupled from the lower velocity ''photospheric'' component. This Si II λ6355 HVF fades by phase –5; subsequently, the photospheric component exhibits a very narrow velocity width and remains at a nearly constant velocity of ∼12,000 km s –1 until at least five weeks after maximum brightness. The Ca II infrared triplet exhibits similar evidence for both a photospheric component at v ≈ 12,000 km s –1 with narrow line width and long velocity plateau, as well as an HVF beginning at v ≈ 31,000 km s –1 two weeks before maximum. SN 2012fr resides on the border between the ''shallow silicon'' and ''core-normal'' subclasses in the Branch et al. classification scheme, and on the border between normal and high-velocity Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the Wang et al. system. Though it is a clear member of the ''low velocity gradient'' group of SNe Ia and exhibits a very slow light-curve decline, it shows key dissimilarities with the overluminous SN 1991T or SN 1999aa subclasses of SNe Ia. SN 2012fr represents a well-observed SN Ia at the luminous end of the normal SN Ia distribution and a key transitional event between nominal spectroscopic subclasses of SNe Ia.

  8. Y-type congenital urethral duplication with normal dorsal urethra and small ventral fistula to perineal skin – 28th reported case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald E. Meier

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous types of urethral duplication previously described in the literature including a Type IIA2Y where a large ventral channel branches from the hypoplastic, dorsal, orthotopic urethra. There have been 27 previously reported cases of a similar defect, called “congenital posterior urethrocutaneous fistula” (CUPF with the only difference being that the ventral urethra is hypoplastic and the dorsal, orthotopic one normal. The difference in treatment for these 2 entities is markedly different, and preoperative identification of the appropriate abnormality is essential. Treatment of CUPF requires only safe excision of the ventral segment, but treatment for a Type IIA2Y duplication requires resection of the hypoplastic, orthotopic urethra and transposition of the larger ventral segment into the dorsal orthotopic position. The outcome for treatment of CUPF is much better than for treatment of Type IIA2Y entities. We herein present the 28th case of CUPF in the English literature with discussion of the anatomy, appropriate diagnostic criteria, and safe method of treatment for these entities.

  9. Assessment of the mandibular symphysis of Caucasian Brazilian adults with well-balanced faces and normal occlusion: the influence of gender and facial type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Evangelista Martins Arruda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to establish cephalometric reference values for mandibular symphysis in adults. Dentoalveolar, skeletal and soft tissue variables were measured considering the influence of gender and facial type. METHODS: The sample consisted of sixty cephalometric radiographs of white Brazilian adult patients, with a mean age of 27 years and 6 months, who had not undergone orthodontic treatment and who presented well-balanced faces and normal occlusion. The sample was standardized according to gender (30 males and 30 females and facial type (20 were dolichofacial, 20 mesofacial and 20 brachyfacial. RESULTS: The results showed that male and female symphyses are similar, except for symphyseal height, which was greater in males. In terms of facial type, the dolichofacial group presented narrower symphysis in dentoalveolar and basal areas, with a more accentuated lingual dentoalveolar inclination. CONCLUSION: The brachyfacial group showed broader symphysis in the dentoalveolar and basal areas and a greater buccal dentoalveolar inclination. The projection of the chin was 6.67 mm below the subnasal vertical line and there was no significant difference between the genders or facial types.

  10. Alignment for new Subaru ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ch.; Matsui, S.; Hashimoto, S.

    1999-01-01

    The New SUBARU is a synchrotron light source being constructed at the SPring-8 site. The main facility is a 1.5 GeV electron storage ring that provides light beam in the region from VUV to soft X-ray using SPring-8's 1 GeV linac as an injector. The ring, with a circumference of about 119 meters, is composed of six bending cells. Each bending cell has two normal dipoles of 34 degree and one inverse dipole of -8 degree. The ring has six straight sections: two very long straight sections for a 11-m long undulator and an optical klystron, four short straight sections for a 2.3-m undulator, a super-conducting wiggler, rf cavity and injection, etc. The magnets of the storage ring are composed of 12 dipoles (BMs), 6 invert dipoles (BIs), 56 quadrupoles and 44 sextupoles, etc. For the magnet alignment, positions of the dipoles (the BMs and BIs) are determined by network survey method. The multipoles, which are mounted on girders between the dipoles, are aligned with a laser-CCD camera system. This article presents the methodology used to position the different components and particularly to assure the precise alignment of the multipoles. (authors)

  11. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez

    Since December, the muon alignment community has focused on analyzing the data recorded so far in order to produce new DT and CSC Alignment Records for the second reprocessing of CRAFT data. Two independent algorithms were developed which align the DT chambers using global tracks, thus providing, for the first time, a relative alignment of the barrel with respect to the tracker. These results are an important ingredient for the second CRAFT reprocessing and allow, for example, a more detailed study of any possible mis-modelling of the magnetic field in the muon spectrometer. Both algorithms are constructed in such a way that the resulting alignment constants are not affected, to first order, by any such mis-modelling. The CSC chambers have not yet been included in this global track-based alignment due to a lack of statistics, since only a few cosmics go through the tracker and the CSCs. A strategy exists to align the CSCs using the barrel as a reference until collision tracks become available. Aligning the ...

  12. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez

    2011-01-01

    The Muon Alignment work now focuses on producing a new track-based alignment with higher track statistics, making systematic studies between the results of the hardware and track-based alignment methods and aligning the barrel using standalone muon tracks. Currently, the muon track reconstruction software uses a hardware-based alignment in the barrel (DT) and a track-based alignment in the endcaps (CSC). An important task is to assess the muon momentum resolution that can be achieved using the current muon alignment, especially for highly energetic muons. For this purpose, cosmic ray muons are used, since the rate of high-energy muons from collisions is very low and the event statistics are still limited. Cosmics have the advantage of higher statistics in the pT region above 100 GeV/c, but they have the disadvantage of having a mostly vertical topology, resulting in a very few global endcap muons. Only the barrel alignment has therefore been tested so far. Cosmic muons traversing CMS from top to bottom are s...

  13. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Gervasio Gomez

    The main progress of the muon alignment group since March has been in the refinement of both the track-based alignment for the DTs and the hardware-based alignment for the CSCs. For DT track-based alignment, there has been significant improvement in the internal alignment of the superlayers inside the DTs. In particular, the distance between superlayers is now corrected, eliminating the residual dependence on track impact angles, and good agreement is found between survey and track-based corrections. The new internal geometry has been approved to be included in the forthcoming reprocessing of CRAFT samples. The alignment of DTs with respect to the tracker using global tracks has also improved significantly, since the algorithms use the latest B-field mapping, better run selection criteria, optimized momentum cuts, and an alignment is now obtained for all six degrees of freedom (three spatial coordinates and three rotations) of the aligned DTs. This work is ongoing and at a stage where we are trying to unders...

  14. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez

    2011-01-01

    A new set of muon alignment constants was approved in August. The relative position between muon chambers is essentially unchanged, indicating good detector stability. The main changes concern the global positioning of the barrel and of the endcap rings to match the new Tracker geometry. Detailed studies of the differences between track-based and optical alignment of DTs have proven to be a valuable tool for constraining Tracker alignment weak modes, and this information is now being used as part of the alignment procedure. In addition to the “split-cosmic” analysis used to investigate the muon momentum resolution at high momentum, a new procedure based on reconstructing the invariant mass of di-muons from boosted Zs is under development. Both procedures show an improvement in the momentum precision of Global Muons with respect to Tracker-only Muons. Recent developments in track-based alignment include a better treatment of the tails of residual distributions and accounting for correla...

  15. Folic acid supplementation normalizes the endothelial progenitor cell transcriptome of patients with type 1 diabetes: a case-control pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stubbs Andrew

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelial progenitor cells play an important role in vascular wall repair. Patients with type 1 diabetes have reduced levels of endothelial progenitor cells of which their functional capacity is impaired. Reduced nitric oxide bioavailability and increased oxidative stress play a role in endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction in these patients. Folic acid, a B-vitamin with anti-oxidant properties, may be able to improve endothelial progenitor cell function. In this study, we investigated the gene expression profiles of endothelial progenitor cells from patients with type 1 diabetes compared to endothelial progenitor cells from healthy subjects. Furthermore, we studied the effect of folic acid on gene expression profiles of endothelial progenitor cells from patients with type 1 diabetes. Methods We used microarray analysis to investigate the gene expression profiles of endothelial progenitor cells from type 1 diabetes patients before (n = 11 and after a four week period of folic acid supplementation (n = 10 compared to the gene expression profiles of endothelial progenitor cells from healthy subjects (n = 11. The probability of genes being differentially expressed among the classes was computed using a random-variance t-test. A multivariate permutation test was used to identify genes that were differentially expressed among the two classes. Functional classification of differentially expressed genes was performed using the biological process ontology in the Gene Ontology database. Results Type 1 diabetes significantly modulated the expression of 1591 genes compared to healthy controls. These genes were found to be involved in processes regulating development, cell communication, cell adhesion and localization. After folic acid treatment, endothelial progenitor cell gene expression profiles from diabetic patients were similar to those from healthy controls. Genes that were normalized by folic acid played a prominent role in

  16. Human stefin B normal and patho-physiological role: molecular and cellular aspects of amyloid-type aggregation of certain EPM1 mutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira ePolajnar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsies are characterised by abnormal electrophysiological activity of the brain. Among various types of inherited epilepsies different epilepsy syndromes, among them progressive myoclonus epilepsies with features of ataxia and neurodegeneration, are counted. The progressive myoclonus epilepsy of type 1 (EPM1, also known as Unverricht-Lundborg disease presents with features of cerebellar atrophy and increased oxidative stress. It has been found that EPM1 is caused by mutations in human cystatin B gene (human stefin B. We first describe the role of protein aggregation in other neurodegenerative conditions. Protein aggregates appear intraneurally but are also excreted, such as is the case with senile plaques of amyloid- β (Aβ that accumulate in the brain parenchyma and vessel walls. A common characteristic of such diseases is the change of the protein conformation towards β secondary structure that accounts for the strong tendency of such proteins to aggregate and form amyloid fibrils. Second, we describe the patho-physiology of EPM1 and the normal and aberrant roles of stefin B in a mouse model of the disease. Furthermore, we discuss how the increased protein aggregation observed with some of the mutants of human stefin B may relate to the neurodegeneration that occurs in rare EPM1 patients. Our hypothesis (Ceru et al., 2005 states that some of the EPM1 mutants of human stefin B may undergo aggregation in neural cells, thus gaining additional toxic function (apart from loss of normal function. Our in vitro experiments thus far have confirmed that 4 mutants undergo increased aggregation relative to the wild-type protein. It has been shown that the R68X mutant forms amyloid-fibrils very rapidly, even at neutral pH and forms perinuclear inclusions, whereas the G4R mutant exhibits a prolonged lag phase, during which the toxic prefibrillar aggregates accumulate and are scattered more diffusely over the cytoplasm. Initial experiments on the G50E

  17. Unexpected effects of absorbed normal rabbit serum and bovine serum albumin on survival of Haemophilus influenzae type b in the infant rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, M R

    1988-01-01

    In the course of using the infant rat model to determine the ability of various rabbit antisera to protect against challenge by Haemophilus influenzae type b we made two unexpected observations. In these experiments 4-day-old rats were inoculated s.c. on the dorsum with either rabbit serum or physiological buffers (sham serum) and then were challenged the next day with H. influenzae type b injected i.p. Bacteremia, as a marker for disease, was measured 24 h later on day 6. We observed the following. (i) Pre-immune, i.e., normal rabbit serum, containing minimal levels of antibodies to outer membrane proteins and depleted of antibodies to capsule and lipopolysaccharide, nevertheless significantly (P less than 0.01) protected the rats from challenge with H. influenzae type b when compared to a sham inoculation of buffer; (ii) In the absence of a serum inoculation on day 4 (a buffer was used as a sham serum inoculation), the levels of bacteremia obtained after inoculation with bacteria on day 5 depended upon the composition of the buffer in which the H. influenzae inoculum was suspended. Use of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) resulted in higher levels of bacteremia than PBS containing 0.5% bovine serum albumin (PBS-BSA) (P less than 0.001), i.e. the BSA apparently acted to protect the rats from H. influenzae infection. In fact the use of PBS-BSA as an inoculum buffer masked the protective effect noted above of the absorbed normal rabbit serum.

  18. Evaluation of humoral and cellular immune responses to a DNA vaccine encoding chicken type II collagen for rheumatoid arthritis in normal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhao; Juan, Long; Song, Yun; Zhijian, Zhang; Jing, Jin; Kun, Yu; Yuna, Hao; Dongfa, Dai; Lili, Ding; Liuxin, Tan; Fei, Liang; Nan, Liu; Fang, Yuan; Yuying, Sun; Yongzhi, Xi

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in the development of effective therapies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is finding a method for the specific inhibition of the inflammatory disease processes without the induction of generalized immunosuppression. Of note, the development of therapeutic DNA vaccines and boosters that may restore immunological tolerance remains a high priority. pcDNA-CCOL2A1 is a therapeutic DNA vaccine encoding chicken type II collagen(CCII). This vaccine was developed by our laboratory and has been shown to exhibit efficacy comparable to that of the current "gold standard" treatment, methotrexate (MTX). Here, we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with anti-CII IgG antibodies, quantified the expression levels of Th1, Th2, and Th3 cytokines, and performed flow cytometric analyses of different T-cell subsets, including Th1, Th2, Th17, Tc, Ts, Treg, and CD4(+)CD29(+)T cells to systemically evaluate humoral and cellular immune responses to pcDNA-CCOL2A1 vaccine in normal rats. Similar to our observations at maximum dosage of 3 mg/kg, vaccination of normal rats with 300 μg/kg pcDNA-CCOL2A1 vaccine did not induce the production of anti-CII IgG. Furthermore, no significant changes were observed in the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12(IL-23p40), monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, regulated on activation in normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) or anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 in vaccinated normal rats relative to that in controls(P > 0.05). However, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β levels were significantly increased on days 10 and 14, while interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels were significantly decreased on days 28 and 35 after vaccination(P 0.05), with the exception of Treg cells, which were significantly

  19. Gene expression relationship between prostate cancer cells of Gleason 3, 4 and normal epithelial cells as revealed by cell type-specific transcriptomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal, Laura E; Liu, Alvin Y; Vêncio, Ricardo ZN; Page, Laura S; Liebeskind, Emily S; Shadle, Christina P; Troisch, Pamela; Marzolf, Bruz; True, Lawrence D; Hood, Leroy E

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer cells in primary tumors have been typed CD10 - /CD13 - /CD24 hi /CD26 + /CD38 lo /CD44 - /CD104 - . This CD phenotype suggests a lineage relationship between cancer cells and luminal cells. The Gleason grade of tumors is a descriptive of tumor glandular differentiation. Higher Gleason scores are associated with treatment failure. CD26 + cancer cells were isolated from Gleason 3+3 (G3) and Gleason 4+4 (G4) tumors by cell sorting, and their gene expression or transcriptome was determined by Affymetrix DNA array analysis. Dataset analysis was used to determine gene expression similarities and differences between G3 and G4 as well as to prostate cancer cell lines and histologically normal prostate luminal cells. The G3 and G4 transcriptomes were compared to those of prostatic cell types of non-cancer, which included luminal, basal, stromal fibromuscular, and endothelial. A principal components analysis of the various transcriptome datasets indicated a closer relationship between luminal and G3 than luminal and G4. Dataset comparison also showed that the cancer transcriptomes differed substantially from those of prostate cancer cell lines. Genes differentially expressed in cancer are potential biomarkers for cancer detection, and those differentially expressed between G3 and G4 are potential biomarkers for disease stratification given that G4 cancer is associated with poor outcomes. Differentially expressed genes likely contribute to the prostate cancer phenotype and constitute the signatures of these particular cancer cell types

  20. Fine-tuning structural RNA alignments in the twilight zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schirmer Stefanie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A widely used method to find conserved secondary structure in RNA is to first construct a multiple sequence alignment, and then fold the alignment, optimizing a score based on thermodynamics and covariance. This method works best around 75% sequence similarity. However, in a "twilight zone" below 55% similarity, the sequence alignment tends to obscure the covariance signal used in the second phase. Therefore, while the overall shape of the consensus structure may still be found, the degree of conservation cannot be estimated reliably. Results Based on a combination of available methods, we present a method named planACstar for improving structure conservation in structural alignments in the twilight zone. After constructing a consensus structure by alignment folding, planACstar abandons the original sequence alignment, refolds the sequences individually, but consistent with the consensus, aligns the structures, irrespective of sequence, by a pure structure alignment method, and derives an improved sequence alignment from the alignment of structures, to be re-submitted to alignment folding, etc.. This circle may be iterated as long as structural conservation improves, but normally, one step suffices. Conclusions Employing the tools ClustalW, RNAalifold, and RNAforester, we find that for sequences with 30-55% sequence identity, structural conservation can be improved by 10% on average, with a large variation, measured in terms of RNAalifold's own criterion, the structure conservation index.

  1. Light to Moderate Alcohol Consumption Is Protective for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Normal Weight and Overweight Individuals but Not the Obese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Metcalf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the association between alcohol consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM overall and by body mass index. Methods. Cross-sectional study of employed individuals. Daily alcohol intakes were calculated from a self-administered food frequency questionnaire by 5,512 Maori, Pacific Island, and European workers (3,992 men, 1520 women aged 40 years and above. Results. There were 170 new cases of T2DM. Compared to the group with no alcohol consumption and adjusting for age, sex, and ethnicity, the group consuming alcohol had relative risks of T2DM of 0.23 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.65 in normal weight individuals, 0.38 (0.18, 0.81 in overweight individuals, and 0.99 (0.59, 1.67 in obese individuals. After further adjusting for total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, smoking habit, physical activity, socioeconomic status, body mass index, and hypertension, the relative risks of T2DM were 0.16 (0.05, 0.50 in normal weight individuals, 0.43 (0.19, 0.97 in overweight individuals, and 0.92 (0.52, 1.60 in overweight individuals. Across the categories of alcohol consumption, there was an approximate U-shaped relationship for new cases of T2DM. There was no significant association between alcohol consumption and IGT. Conclusions. Alcohol consumption was protective against diagnosis of T2DM in normal and overweight individuals but not in the obese.

  2. Anti-diabetic effects of Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides-chromium (III) complex in type 2 diabetic mice and its sub-acute toxicity evaluation in normal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Chen, Zhongqin; Pan, Yuxiang; Gao, Xudong; Chen, Haixia

    2017-10-01

    Polysaccharides are important bioactive ingredients from Inonotus obliquus. This study aimed to synthesize and characterize a novel I. obliquus polysaccharides-chromium (III) complex (UIOPC) and investigate the anti-diabetic effects in streptozotocin (STZ) induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) mice and sub-acute toxicity in normal mice. The molecular weight of UIOPC was about 11.5 × 10 4  Da with the chromium content was 13.01% and the chromium was linked with polysaccharides through coordination bond. After treatment of UIOPC for four weeks, the body weight, fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels, plasma insulin levels of the diabetic mice were significantly reduced when compared with those of the diabetic mice (p < 0.05). The results on serum profiles and antioxidant enzymes activities revealed that UIOPC had a positive effect on hypoglycemic and antioxidant ability. Histopathology results showed that UIOPC could effectively alleviate the STZ-lesioned tissues in diabetic mice. Furthermore, high dose administration of UIOPC had no obviously influence on serum profiles levels and antioxidant ability of the normal mice and the organ tissues maintained organized and integrity in the sub-acute toxicity study. These results suggested that UIOPC might be a good candidate for the functional food or pharmaceuticals in the treatment of T2DM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of seropositivity of human T lymphotropic virus type 1 in mycosis fungoides patients and normal volunteers: A case-control study and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seirafi Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There have been controversial reports about the possible association between mycosis fungoides (MF, its leukemic variant Sιzary syndrome (SS and human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 in different geographical regions. Aims: The purpose of this study was to explore any association between MF and presence of HTLV-1 infection in Iran. Methods: In a case-control setting, 150 clinically and histopathologically proven MF patients had been admitted to the tertiary referral skin center during a 10-year period and another 150 normal volunteers had been compared with each other for the presence of HTLV-1 infection. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to detect antibodies against HTLV-1, and positive results were confirmed with western blotting. Results: Only three MF patients had HTLV-1 infection, whereas two cases of normal subjects had the infection ( P > 0.05. The only three seropositive MF patients were male and from North-Eastern Iran . Conclusion: This study showed that MF does not correlate with HTLV-1 infection in Iran.

  4. Belt Aligning Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurchenko Vadim

    2017-01-01

    parts of the conveyor, the sides of the belt wear intensively. This results in reducing the life of the belt. The reasons for this phenomenon are well investigated, but the difficulty lies in the fact that they all act simultaneously. The belt misalignment prevention can be carried out in two ways: by minimizing the effect of causes and by aligning the belt. The construction of aligning devices and errors encountered in practice are considered in this paper. Self-aligning roller supports rotational in plan view are recommended as a means of combating the belt misalignment.

  5. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael Benjamin

    2001-07-03

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  6. Precision alignment device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, N.E.

    1988-03-10

    Apparatus for providing automatic alignment of beam devices having an associated structure for directing, collimating, focusing, reflecting, or otherwise modifying the main beam. A reference laser is attached to the structure enclosing the main beam producing apparatus and produces a reference beam substantially parallel to the main beam. Detector modules containing optical switching devices and optical detectors are positioned in the path of the reference beam and are effective to produce an electrical output indicative of the alignment of the main beam. This electrical output drives servomotor operated adjustment screws to adjust the position of elements of the structure associated with the main beam to maintain alignment of the main beam. 5 figs.

  7. Alignment for CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shoujin; Man Kaidi; Guo Yizhen; Cai Guozhu; Guo Yuhui

    2002-01-01

    Cooled Storage Ring of Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL-CSR) belongs to China great scientific project in China. The alignment for it is very difficult because of very large area and very high accuracy. For the special case in HIRFL-CSR, some new methods and new instruments are used, including the construction of survey control network, the usage of laser tracker, and CSR alignment database system with applications developed to store and analyze data. The author describes the whole procedure of CSR alignment

  8. Methods in ALFA Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Melendez, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    This note presents two model-independent methods for use in the alignment of the ALFA forward detectors. Using a Monte Carlo simulated LHC run at \\beta = 90m and \\sqrt{s} = 7 TeV, the Kinematic Peak alignment method is utilized to reconstruct the Mandelstam momentum transfer variable t for single-diractive protons. The Hot Spot method uses fluctuations in the hitmap density to pinpoint particular regions in the detector that could signal a misalignment. Another method uses an error function fit to find the detector edge. With this information, the vertical alignment can be determined.

  9. Design and fabrication of a eccentric wheels based motorised alignment mechanism for cylindrical accelerator components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundra, G.; Jain, V.; Karmarkar, Mangesh; Kotaiah, S.

    2006-01-01

    Precision alignment mechanisms with long term stability are required for accelerator components. For some of the components motorised and remotely operable alignment mechanism are required. An eccentric wheel mechanism based alignment system is very much suitable for such application. One such alignment system is designed, a prototype is machined/fabricated for SFDTL type accelerating structure and preliminary trial experiments have been done. (author)

  10. The impact of EndoBarrier gastrointestinal liner in obese patients with normal glucose tolerance and in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Ulrich; Federspiel, Cecilie A; Vilmann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    metabolism, gut hormone secretion, gallbladder emptying, appetite and food intake in patients undergoing DJBS treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten normal glucose tolerant (NGT) obese subjects and nine age, body weight and body mass index-matched metformin-treated T2D patients underwent a liquid mixed meal...... intake was reduced at 1w in NGT subjects; no changes in appetite measures or food intake were observed in the T2D group. No effect of DJBS on postprandial gallbladder emptying was observed, and gastric emptying was not delayed. CONCLUSIONS: DJBS-induced weight loss was associated with only marginal......AIMS: The duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve ((DJBS) or EndoBarrier Gastrointestinal Liner) induces weight loss in obese subjects and may improve glucose homeostasis in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). To explore the underlying mechanisms, we evaluated postprandial physiology including glucose...

  11. In vivo imaging of oxidative stress in the kidney of diabetic mice and its normalization by angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonta, Toshiyo; Inoguchi, Toyoshi; Matsumoto, Shingo; Yasukawa, Keiji; Inuo, Mieko; Tsubouchi, Hirotaka; Sonoda, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Kunihisa; Utsumi, Hideo; Nawata, Hajime

    2005-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate oxidative stress in the kidney of diabetic mice by electron spin resonance (ESR) imaging technique. Oxidative stress in the kidney was evaluated as organ-specific reducing activity with the signal decay rates of carbamoyl-PROXYL probe using ESR imaging. The signal decay rates were significantly faster in corresponding image pixels of the kidneys of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice than in those of controls. This technique further demonstrated that administration of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), olmesartan (5 mg/kg), completely restored the signal decay rates in the diabetic kidneys to control values. In conclusion, this study provided for the first time the in vivo evidence for increased oxidative stress in the kidneys of diabetic mice and its normalization by ARB as evaluated by ESR imaging. This technique would be useful as a means of further elucidating the role of oxidative stress in diabetic nephropathy

  12. Electrical tuning of the band alignment and magnetoconductance in an n-type ferromagnetic semiconductor (In,Fe)As-based spin-Esaki diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Le Duc; Hai, Pham Nam; Tanaka, Masaaki

    2018-03-01

    We report a strong bias dependence of the magnetoconductance (MC) of a spin-Esaki diode composed of n+-type ferromagnetic semiconductor (FMS) (In,Fe)As and p+-type Be doped InAs grown on a p+-InAs (001) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. When the bias voltage V is increased above 450 mV in the forward bias, we found that the MC, measured at 3.5 K under a magnetic field H of 1 T in the in-plane [110] direction, changes its sign from positive to negative and its magnitude rises rapidly from 0.5% at V fluid model, we explain both the magnitude and the anisotropy of the MC based on the evolution of the spin-Esaki diode's band profile with V. This analysis provides insights into the density of states and spin-polarization of the conduction band and the Fe-related impurity band in n-type FMS (In,Fe)As.

  13. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  14. Cumulative increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus with increasing triglyceride glucose index in normal-weight people: The Rural Chinese Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Bingyuan; Liu, Yu; Sun, Xizhuo; Luo, Xinping; Wang, Chongjian; Li, Linlin; Zhang, Lu; Ren, Yongcheng; Zhao, Yang; Zhou, Junmei; Han, Chengyi; Zhao, Jingzhi; Hu, Dongsheng

    2017-03-01

    Risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increased in metabolically obese but normal-weight people. However, we have limited knowledge of how to prevent T2DM in normal-weight people. We aimed to evaluate the association between triglyceride glucose (TyG) index and incident T2DM among normal-weight people in rural China. We included data from 5706 people with normal body mass index (BMI) (18.5-23.9 kg/m 2 ) without baseline T2DM in a rural Chinese cohort followed for a median of 6.0 years. A Cox proportional-hazard model was used to assess the risk of incident T2DM by quartiles of TyG index and difference in TyG index between follow-up and baseline (TyG-D), estimating hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A generalized additive plot was used to show the nonparametric smoothed exposure-response association between risk of T2DM and TyG index as a continuous variable. TyG was calculated as ln [fasting triglyceride level (mg/dl) × fasting plasma glucose level (mg/dl)/2]. Risk of incident T2DM was increased with quartiles 2, 3 and 4 versus quartile 1 of TyG index (adjusted HR [aHR] 2.48 [95% CI 1.20-5.11], 3.77 [1.83-7.79], and 5.30 [2.21-12.71], P trend  index). Risk of incident T2DM was increased with quartile 4 versus quartile 1 of TyG-D (aHR 3.91 [2.22-6.87]). The results were consistent when analyses were restricted to participants without baseline metabolic syndrome and impaired fasting glucose level. The generalized additive plot showed cumulative increased risk of T2DM with increasing TyG index. Risk of incident T2DM is increased with increasing TyG index among rural Chinese people, so the index might be an important indicator for identifying people at high risk of T2DM.

  15. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G.Gomez

    Since September, the muon alignment system shifted from a mode of hardware installation and commissioning to operation and data taking. All three optical subsystems (Barrel, Endcap and Link alignment) have recorded data before, during and after CRAFT, at different magnetic fields and during ramps of the magnet. This first data taking experience has several interesting goals: •    study detector deformations and movements under the influence of the huge magnetic forces; •    study the stability of detector structures and of the alignment system over long periods, •    study geometry reproducibility at equal fields (specially at 0T and 3.8T); •    reconstruct B=0T geometry and compare to nominal/survey geometries; •    reconstruct B=3.8T geometry and provide DT and CSC alignment records for CMSSW. However, the main goal is to recons...

  16. Alignment of CEBAF cryomodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, W.J.; Bisognano, J.J.; Fischer, J.

    1993-06-01

    CEBAF, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, when completed, will house a 4 GeV recirculating accelerator. Each of the accelerator's two linacs contains 160 superconducting radio frequency (SRF) 1497 MHz niobium cavities in 20 cryomodules. Alignments of the cavities within the cryomodule with respect to beam axis is critical to achieving the optimum accelerator performance. This paper discusses the rationale for the current specification on cavity mechanical alignment: 2 mrad (rms) applied to the 0.5 m active length cavities. We describe the tooling that was developed to achieve the tolerance at the time of cavity pair assembly, to preserve and integrate alignment during cryomodule assembly, and to translate alignment to appropriate installation in the beam line

  17. Biaxial magnetic grain alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staines, M.; Genoud, J.-Y.; Mawdsley, A.; Manojlovic, V.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: We describe a dynamic magnetic grain alignment technique which can be used to produce YBCO thick films with a high degree of biaxial texture. The technique is, however, generally applicable to preparing ceramics or composite materials from granular materials with orthorhombic or lower crystal symmetry and is therefore not restricted to superconducting applications. Because magnetic alignment is a bulk effect, textured substrates are not required, unlike epitaxial coated tape processes such as RABiTS. We have used the technique to produce thick films of Y-247 on untextured silver substrates. After processing to Y-123 the films show a clear enhancement of critical current density relative to identically prepared untextured or uniaxially textured samples. We describe procedures for preparing materials using magnetic biaxial grain alignment with the emphasis on alignment in epoxy, which can give extremely high texture. X-ray rocking curves with FWHM of as little as 1-2 degrees have been measured

  18. Postprandial glucose-lowering effect of premeal consumption of protein-enriched, dietary fiber-fortified bar in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus or normal glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jae Hyun; Kim, Lee Kyung; Min, Se Hee; Ahn, Chang Ho; Cho, Young Min

    2018-03-04

    Protein preload improves postprandial glycemia by stimulating secretion of insulin and incretin hormones. However, it requires a large dose of protein to produce a significant effect. The present study was carried out to investigate the postprandial glucose-lowering effect of a premeal protein-enriched, dietary fiber-fortified bar (PFB), which contains moderate amounts of protein, in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus or normal glucose tolerance (NGT). The participants (15 type 2 diabetes mellitus and 15 NGT) were randomly assigned to either a premeal or postmeal PFB group and underwent two mixed meal tolerance tests, 1 week apart in reverse order. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide were measured. During the mixed meal tolerance tests, the incremental area under the curve from 0 to 180 min of plasma glucose levels was lower with premeal PFB than with postmeal PFB in the type 2 diabetes mellitus (14,723 ± 1,310 mg min/dL vs 19,642 ± 1,367 mg min/dL; P = 0.0002) and NGT participants (3,943 ± 416 mg min/dL vs 4,827 ± 520 mg min/dL, P = 0.0296). In the type 2 diabetes mellitus participants, insulinogenic index and the incremental area under the curve from 0 to 180 min of plasma total glucagon-like peptide-1 levels were higher with premeal PFB than with postmeal PFB, but not in the NGT participants. There was no difference in postprandial glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide levels between premeal and postmeal PFB in both groups. Acute administration of premeal PFB decreased postprandial glucose excursion in both type 2 diabetes mellitus and NGT participants. In the type 2 diabetes mellitus participants, premeal PFB augmented the early-phase insulin secretion, possibly through enhancing glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons

  19. Axially alignable nuclear fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, E.B.; Klahn, D.H.; Marlowe, M.O.

    1978-01-01

    An axially alignable nuclear fuel pellet of the type stacked in end-to-end relationship within a tubular cladding is described. Fuel cladding failures can occur at pellet interface locations due to mechanical interaction between misaligned fuel pellets and the cladding. Mechanical interaction between the cladding and the fuel pellets loads the cladding and causes increased cladding stresses. Nuclear fuel pellets are provided with an end structure that increases plastic deformation of the pellets at the interface between pellets so that lower alignment forces are required to straighten axially misaligned pellets. Plastic deformation of the pellet ends results in less interactions beween the cladding and the fuel pellets and significantly lowers cladding stresses. The geometry of pellets constructed according to the invention also reduces alignment forces required to straighten fuel pellets that are tilted within the cladding. Plastic deformation of the pellets at the pellet interfaces is increased by providing pellets with at least one end face having a centrally-disposed raised area of convex shape so that the mean temperature and shear stress of the contact area is higher than that of prior art pellets

  20. Pairwise Sequence Alignment Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-05-20

    Vector extensions, such as SSE, have been part of the x86 CPU since the 1990s, with applications in graphics, signal processing, and scientific applications. Although many algorithms and applications can naturally benefit from automatic vectorization techniques, there are still many that are difficult to vectorize due to their dependence on irregular data structures, dense branch operations, or data dependencies. Sequence alignment, one of the most widely used operations in bioinformatics workflows, has a computational footprint that features complex data dependencies. The trend of widening vector registers adversely affects the state-of-the-art sequence alignment algorithm based on striped data layouts. Therefore, a novel SIMD implementation of a parallel scan-based sequence alignment algorithm that can better exploit wider SIMD units was implemented as part of the Parallel Sequence Alignment Library (parasail). Parasail features: Reference implementations of all known vectorized sequence alignment approaches. Implementations of Smith Waterman (SW), semi-global (SG), and Needleman Wunsch (NW) sequence alignment algorithms. Implementations across all modern CPU instruction sets including AVX2 and KNC. Language interfaces for C/C++ and Python.

  1. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    S. Szillasi

    2013-01-01

    The CMS detector has been gradually opened and whenever a wheel became exposed the first operation was the removal of the MABs, the sensor structures of the Hardware Barrel Alignment System. By the last days of June all 36 MABs have arrived at the Alignment Lab at the ISR where, as part of the Alignment Upgrade Project, they are refurbished with new Survey target holders. Their electronic checkout is on the way and finally they will be recalibrated. During LS1 the alignment system will be upgraded in order to allow more precise reconstruction of the MB4 chambers in Sector 10 and Sector 4. This requires new sensor components, so called MiniMABs (pictured below), that have already been assembled and calibrated. Image 6: Calibrated MiniMABs are ready for installation For the track-based alignment, the systematic uncertainties of the algorithm are under scrutiny: this study will enable the production of an improved Monte Carlo misalignment scenario and to update alignment position errors eventually, crucial...

  2. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez

    2012-01-01

      A new muon alignment has been produced for 2012 A+B data reconstruction. It uses the latest Tracker alignment and single-muon data samples to align both DTs and CSCs. Physics validation has been performed and shows a modest improvement in stand-alone muon momentum resolution in the barrel, where the alignment is essentially unchanged from the previous version. The reference-target track-based algorithm using only collision muons is employed for the first time to align the CSCs, and a substantial improvement in resolution is observed in the endcap and overlap regions for stand-alone muons. This new alignment is undergoing the approval process and is expected to be deployed as part of a new global tag in the beginning of December. The pT dependence of the φ-bias in curvature observed in Monte Carlo was traced to a relative vertical misalignment between the Tracker and barrel muon systems. Moving the barrel as a whole to match the Tracker cures this pT dependence, leaving only the &phi...

  3. Normalization of fasting glycaemia by intravenous GLP-1 ([7-36 amide] or [7-37]) in type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauck, M A; Weber, I; Bach, I

    1998-01-01

    (glucose-oxidase), insulin and C-peptide (ELISA) was measured during infusion and for 4 h thereafter. Indirect calorimetry was performed. Fasting hyperglycaemia was 11.7+/-0.9 [7-36 amide] and 11.3+/-0.9 mmol l(-1) [7-37]. GLP-1 infusions stimulated insulin secretion approximately 3-fold (insulin peak 168......Intravenous GLP-1 [7-36 amide] can normalize fasting hyperglycaemia in Type 2 diabetic patients. Whether GLP-1 [7-37] has similar effects and how quickly plasma glucose concentrations revert to hyperglycaemia after stopping GLP-1 is not known. Therefore, 8 patients with Type 2 diabetes (5 female, 3...... male; 65+/-6 years; BMI 34.3+/-7.9 kg m(-2); HbA1c 9.6+/-1.2%; treatment with diet alone (n=2), sulphonylurea (n=5), metformin (n=1)) were examined twice in randomized order. GLP-1 [7-36 amide] or [7-37] (1 pmol kg(-1)min(-1) were infused intravenously over 4 h in fasted subjects. Plasma glucose...

  4. Sorbitol increases muscle glucose uptake ex vivo and inhibits intestinal glucose absorption ex vivo and in normal and type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuma, Chika Ifeanyi; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have suggested that sorbitol, a known polyol sweetener, possesses glycemic control potentials. However, the effect of sorbitol on intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake still remains elusive. The present study investigated the effects of sorbitol on intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake as possible anti-hyperglycemic or glycemic control potentials using ex vivo and in vivo experimental models. Sorbitol (2.5% to 20%) inhibited glucose absorption in isolated rat jejuna (IC 50 = 14.6% ± 4.6%) and increased glucose uptake in isolated rat psoas muscle with (GU 50 = 3.5% ± 1.6%) or without insulin (GU 50 = 7.0% ± 0.5%) in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, sorbitol significantly delayed gastric emptying, accelerated digesta transit, inhibited intestinal glucose absorption, and reduced blood glucose increase in both normoglycemic and type 2 diabetic rats after 1 h of coingestion with glucose. Data of this study suggest that sorbitol exhibited anti-hyperglycemic potentials, possibly via increasing muscle glucose uptake ex vivo and reducing intestinal glucose absorption in normal and type 2 diabetic rats. Hence, sorbitol may be further investigated as a possible anti-hyperglycemic sweetener.

  5. Molecular analysis of immunoglobulin variable genes supports a germinal center experienced normal counterpart in primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg-type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham-Ledard, Anne; Prochazkova-Carlotti, Martina; Deveza, Mélanie; Laforet, Marie-Pierre; Beylot-Barry, Marie; Vergier, Béatrice; Parrens, Marie; Feuillard, Jean; Merlio, Jean-Philippe; Gachard, Nathalie

    2017-11-01

    Immunophenotype of primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg-type (PCLBCL-LT) suggests a germinal center-experienced B lymphocyte (BCL2+ MUM1+ BCL6+/-). As maturation history of B-cell is "imprinted" during B-cell development on the immunoglobulin gene sequence, we studied the structure and sequence of the variable part of the genes (IGHV, IGLV, IGKV), immunoglobulin surface expression and features of class switching in order to determine the PCLBCL-LT cell of origin. Clonality analysis with BIOMED2 protocol and VH leader primers was done on DNA extracted from frozen skin biopsies on retrospective samples from 14 patients. The clonal DNA IGHV sequence of the tumor was aligned and compared with the closest germline sequence and homology percentage was calculated. Superantigen binding sites were studied. Features of selection pressure were evaluated with the multinomial Lossos model. A functional monoclonal sequence was observed in 14 cases as determined for IGHV (10), IGLV (2) or IGKV (3). IGV mutation rates were high (>5%) in all cases but one (median:15.5%), with superantigen binding sites conservation. Features of selection pressure were identified in 11/12 interpretable cases, more frequently negative (75%) than positive (25%). Intraclonal variation was detected in 3 of 8 tumor specimens with a low rate of mutations. Surface immunoglobulin was an IgM in 12/12 cases. FISH analysis of IGHM locus, deleted during class switching, showed heterozygous IGHM gene deletion in half of cases. The genomic PCR analysis confirmed the deletions within the switch μ region. IGV sequences were highly mutated but functional, with negative features of selection pressure suggesting one or more germinal center passage(s) with somatic hypermutation, but superantigen (SpA) binding sites conservation. Genetic features of class switch were observed, but on the non functional allele and co-existing with primary isotype IgM expression. These data suggest that cell-of origin is

  6. Fabrication and assembly of two-dimensional TiO2/WO3·H2O heterostructures with type II band alignment for enhanced photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Wang, Yun; Zhou, Xiaofang; Zheng, Xiaoli; Xu, Qun; Chen, Zhimin; Ren, Yumei; Yan, Bo

    2017-05-01

    The recombination of photo-induced charges is one of the main issues to limit the large-scale applications in photocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis. To improve the charge separation, we fabricate a novel type II 2D ultrathin TiO2/WO3·H2O heterostructures with the assistance of supercritical CO2 (SC CO2) in this work. The as-fabricated heterostructures possess high photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange(MO) and high photocurrent response under simulated solar light (AM 1.5). For the TiO2/WO3·H2O heterostructures, the MO solution could be degraded by 95.5% in 150 min, and the photocurrent density reaches to 6.5 μA cm-2, exhibiting a significant enhancement compared with pure TiO2 and WO3·H2O nanosheets.

  7. Design of practical alignment device in KSTAR Thomson diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. H., E-mail: jhlee@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S. H. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yamada, I. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    The precise alignment of the laser path and collection optics in Thomson scattering measurements is essential for accurately determining electron temperature and density in tokamak experiments. For the last five years, during the development stage, the KSTAR tokamak’s Thomson diagnostic system has had alignment fibers installed in its optical collection modules, but these lacked a proper alignment detection system. In order to address these difficulties, an alignment verifying detection device between lasers and an object field of collection optics is developed. The alignment detection device utilizes two types of filters: a narrow laser band wavelength for laser, and a broad wavelength filter for Thomson scattering signal. Four such alignment detection devices have been successfully developed for the KSTAR Thomson scattering system in this year, and these will be tested in KSTAR experiments in 2016. In this paper, we present the newly developed alignment detection device for KSTAR’s Thomson scattering diagnostics.

  8. Autonomic Neuropathy—a Prospective Cohort Study of Symptoms and E/I Ratio in Normal Glucose Tolerance, Impaired Glucose Tolerance, and Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Zimmerman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAutonomic neuropathy in diabetes, in addition to causing a range of symptoms originating from the autonomic nervous system, may increase cardiovascular morbidity. Our aim was to study the progression of autonomic neuropathy, based on symptom score and evaluation of an autonomic test, in persons with normal and impaired glucose tolerance and in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D.MethodsParticipants were recruited in 2003/2004 with a follow-up in 2014. The participants’ glucose tolerance was categorized using oral glucose tolerance tests. Symptoms were evaluated using an autonomic symptom score (ASS, ECG was used to test cardiac autonomic function based on the expiration/inspiration ratio (E/I ratio, and blood samples were taken on both occasions.ResultsASSs were higher at follow-up in the T2D patients than in the normal glucose tolerance group (mean 1.21 ± 1.30 vs. 0.79 ± 0.7; p < 0.05. E/I ratio did not deteriorate more than could be expected as an aging effect in well-controlled T2D. No relationship was found between E/I ratio and HbA1c or ASS.ConclusionThe presence of autonomic symptoms increased over time in T2D patients, but the symptoms did not correlate with the E/I ratio in this metabolically well-controlled cohort. ASSs can be a useful clinical tool when assessing the progression of autonomic dysfunction in patients with abnormal glucose metabolism.

  9. Proteomics reveals novel oxidative and glycolytic mechanisms in type 1 diabetic patients' skin which are normalized by kidney-pancreas transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Folli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In type 1 diabetes (T1D vascular complications such as accelerated atherosclerosis and diffused macro-/microangiopathy are linked to chronic hyperglycemia with a mechanism that is not yet well understood. End-stage renal disease (ESRD worsens most diabetic complications, particularly, the risk of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease is increased several fold.We evaluated protein regulation and expression in skin biopsies obtained from T1D patients with and without ESRD, to identify pathways of persistent cellular changes linked to diabetic vascular disease. We therefore examined pathways that may be normalized by restoration of normoglycemia with kidney-pancreas (KP transplantation. Using proteomic and ultrastructural approaches, multiple alterations in the expression of proteins involved in oxidative stress (catalase, superoxide dismutase 1, Hsp27, Hsp60, ATP synthase delta chain, and flavin reductase, aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis (ACBP, pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme, and phosphoglycerate kinase 1, and intracellular signaling (stratifin-14-3-3, S100-calcyclin, cathepsin, and PPI rotamase as well as endothelial vascular abnormalities were identified in T1D and T1D+ESRD patients. These abnormalities were reversed after KP transplant. Increased plasma levels of malondialdehyde were observed in T1D and T1D+ESRD patients, confirming increased oxidative stress which was normalized after KP transplant.Our data suggests persistent cellular changes of anti-oxidative machinery and of aerobic/anaerobic glycolysis are present in T1D and T1D+ESRD patients, and these abnormalities may play a key role in the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia-related vascular complications. Restoration of normoglycemia and removal of uremia with KP transplant can correct these abnormalities. Some of these identified pathways may become potential therapeutic targets for a new generation of drugs.

  10. Immortalization of normal human embryonic fibroblasts by introduction of either the human papillomavirus type 16 E6 or E7 gene alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Akito; Kumakura, Shin-ichi; Uchida, Minoru; Barrett, J Carl; Tsutsui, Takeki

    2003-09-01

    The ability of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6 or E7 gene to induce immortalization of normal human embryonic fibroblast WHE-7 cells was examined. WHE-7 cells at 9 population doublings (PD) were infected with retrovirus vectors encoding either HPV-16 E6 or E7 alone or both E6 and E7 (E6/E7). One of 4 isolated clones carrying E6 alone became immortal and is currently at >445 PD. Four of 4 isolated clones carrying E7 alone escaped from crisis and are currently at >330 PD. Three of 5 isolated clones carrying E6/E7 were also immortalized and are currently at >268 PD. The immortal clone carrying E6 only and 2 of the 3 immortal clones carrying E6/E7 expressed a high level of E6 protein, and all the immortal clones carrying E7 alone and the other immortal clone carrying E6/E7 expressed a high level of E7 protein when compared to their mortal or precrisis clones. The immortal clones expressing a high level of E6 or E7 protein were positive for telomerase activity or an alternative mechanism of telomere maintenance, respectively, known as ALT (alternative lengthening of telomeres). All the mortal or precrisis clones were negative for both phenotypes. All the immortal clones exhibited abrogation of G1 arrest after DNA damage by X-ray irradiation. The expression of INK4a protein (p16(INK4a)) was undetectable in the E6-infected mortal and immortal clones, whereas Rb protein (pRb) was hyperphosphorylated only in the immortal clone. The p16(INK4a) protein was overexpressed in all the E7-infected immortal clones and their clones in the pre-crisis period as well as all the E6/E7-infected mortal and immortal clones, but the pRb expression was downregulated in all of these clones. These results demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge that HPV-16 E6 or E7 alone can induce immortalization of normal human embryonic fibroblasts. Inactivation of p16(INK4a)/pRb pathways in combination with activation of a telomere maintenance mechanism is suggested to be necessary for

  11. Acromioclavicular joint: Normal variation and the diagnosis of dislocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keats, T.E.; Pope, T.L. Jr.

    1988-04-01

    Acromioclavicular separation is a common traumatic injury. Diagnosis rests on clinical and radiographic findings. However, normal variation in the alignment of the acromioclavicular joint may make the roentgen diagnosis more difficult. We stress the variations of normal alignment at the acromioclavicular joint and offer suggestions for avoiding pitfalls in this clinical situation.

  12. The acromioclavicular joint: Normal variation and the diagnosis of dislocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, T.E.; Pope, T.L. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Acromioclavicular separation is a common traumatic injury. Diagnosis rests on clinical and radiographic findings. However, normal variation in the alignment of the acromioclavicular joint may make the roentgen diagnosis more difficult. We stress the variations of normal alignment at the acromioclavicular joint and offer suggestions for avoiding pitfalls in this clinical situation. (orig.)

  13. Type-I band alignment at MoS2/In0.15Al0.85N lattice matched heterojunction and realization of MoS2 quantum well

    KAUST Repository

    Tangi, Malleswarara

    2017-08-31

    The valence and conduction band offsets (VBO and CBO) at the semiconductor heterojunction are crucial parameters to design the active region of contemporary electronic and optoelectronic devices. In this report, to study the band alignment parameters at the In0.15Al0.85N/MoS2 lattice matched heterointerface, large area MoS2 single layers are chemical vapor deposited on molecular beam epitaxial grown In0.15Al0.85N films and vice versa. We grew InAlN having an in-plane lattice parameter closely matching with that of MoS2. We confirm that the grown MoS2 is a single layer from optical and structural analyses using micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy. The band offset parameters VBO and CBO at the In0.15Al0.85N/MoS2 heterojunction are determined to be 2.08 ± 0.15 and 0.60 ± 0.15 eV, respectively, with type-I band alignment using high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in conjunction with ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Furthermore, we design a MoS2 quantum well structure by growing an In0.15Al0.85N layer on MoS2/In0.15Al0.85N type-I heterostructure. By reducing the nitrogen plasma power and flow rate for the overgrown In0.15Al0.85N layers, we achieve unaltered structural properties and a reasonable preservation of photoluminescence intensity with a peak width of 70 meV for MoS2 quantum well (QW). The investigation provides a pathway towards realizing large area, air-stable, lattice matched, and eventual high efficiency In0.15Al0.85N/MoS2/In0.15Al0.85N QW-based light emitting devices.

  14. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for

  15. INTRINSIC ALIGNMENT OF CLUSTER GALAXIES: THE REDSHIFT EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Jiangang; Kubo, Jeffrey M.; Feldmann, Robert; Annis, James; Johnston, David E.; Lin Huan; McKay, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    We present measurements of two types of cluster galaxy alignments based on a volume limited and highly pure (≥90%) sample of clusters from the GMBCG catalog derived from Data Release 7 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR7). We detect a clear brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) alignment (the alignment of major axis of the BCG toward the distribution of cluster satellite galaxies). We find that the BCG alignment signal becomes stronger as the redshift and BCG absolute magnitude decrease and becomes weaker as BCG stellar mass decreases. No dependence of the BCG alignment on cluster richness is found. We can detect a statistically significant (≥3σ) satellite alignment (the alignment of the major axes of the cluster satellite galaxies toward the BCG) only when we use the isophotal fit position angles (P.A.s), and the satellite alignment depends on the apparent magnitudes rather than the absolute magnitudes of the BCGs. This suggests that the detected satellite alignment based on isophotal P.A.s from the SDSS pipeline is possibly due to the contamination from the diffuse light of nearby BCGs. We caution that this should not be simply interpreted as non-existence of the satellite alignment, but rather that we cannot detect them with our current photometric SDSS data. We perform our measurements on both SDSS r-band and i-band data, but do not observe a passband dependence of the alignments.

  16. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Gervasio Gomez

    2012-01-01

      The new alignment for the DT chambers has been successfully used in physics analysis starting with the 52X Global Tag. The remaining main areas of development over the next few months will be preparing a new track-based CSC alignment and producing realistic APEs (alignment position errors) and MC misalignment scenarios to match the latest muon alignment constants. Work on these items has been delayed from the intended timeline, mostly due to a large involvement of the muon alignment man-power in physics analyses over the first half of this year. As CMS keeps probing higher and higher energies, special attention must be paid to the reconstruction of very-high-energy muons. Recent muon POG reports from mid-June show a φ-dependence in curvature bias in Monte Carlo samples. This bias is observed already at the tracker level, where it is constant with muon pT, while it grows with pT as muon chamber information is added to the tracks. Similar studies show a much smaller effect in data, at le...

  17. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez

    2010-01-01

    For the last three months, the Muon Alignment group has focussed on providing a new, improved set of alignment constants for the end-of-year data reprocessing. These constants were delivered on time and approved by the CMS physics validation team on November 17. The new alignment incorporates several improvements over the previous one from March for nearly all sub-systems. Motivated by the loss of information from a hardware failure in May (an entire MAB was lost), the optical barrel alignment has moved from a modular, super-plane reconstruction, to a full, single loop calculation of the entire geometry for all DTs in stations 1, 2 and 3. This makes better use of the system redundancy, mitigating the effect of the information loss. Station 4 is factorised and added afterwards to make the system smaller (and therefore faster to run), and also because the MAB calibration at the MB4 zone is less precise. This new alignment procedure was tested at 0 T against photogrammetry resulting in precisions of the order...

  18. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Dallavalle

    2013-01-01

    A new Muon misalignment scenario for 2011 (7 TeV) Monte Carlo re-processing was re-leased. The scenario is based on running of standard track-based reference-target algorithm (exactly as in data) using single-muon simulated sample (with the transverse-momentum spectrum matching data). It used statistics similar to what was used for alignment with 2011 data, starting from an initially misaligned Muon geometry from uncertainties of hardware measurements and using the latest Tracker misalignment geometry. Validation of the scenario (with muons from Z decay and high-pT simulated muons) shows that it describes data well. The study of systematic uncertainties (dominant by now due to huge amount of data collected by CMS and used for muon alignment) is finalised. Realistic alignment position errors are being obtained from the estimated uncertainties and are expected to improve the muon reconstruction performance. Concerning the Hardware Alignment System, the upgrade of the Barrel Alignment is in progress. By now, d...

  19. Probabilistic biological network alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, Andrei; Dobra, Alin; Kahveci, Tamer

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between molecules are probabilistic events. An interaction may or may not happen with some probability, depending on a variety of factors such as the size, abundance, or proximity of the interacting molecules. In this paper, we consider the problem of aligning two biological networks. Unlike existing methods, we allow one of the two networks to contain probabilistic interactions. Allowing interaction probabilities makes the alignment more biologically relevant at the expense of explosive growth in the number of alternative topologies that may arise from different subsets of interactions that take place. We develop a novel method that efficiently and precisely characterizes this massive search space. We represent the topological similarity between pairs of aligned molecules (i.e., proteins) with the help of random variables and compute their expected values. We validate our method showing that, without sacrificing the running time performance, it can produce novel alignments. Our results also demonstrate that our method identifies biologically meaningful mappings under a comprehensive set of criteria used in the literature as well as the statistical coherence measure that we developed to analyze the statistical significance of the similarity of the functions of the aligned protein pairs.

  20. The implications of autoantibodies to a single islet antigen in relatives with normal glucose tolerance: development of other autoantibodies and progression to type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingley, Polly J; Boulware, David C; Krischer, Jeffrey P

    2016-03-01

    Autoantibodies directed at single islet autoantigens are associated with lower overall risk of type 1 diabetes than multiple autoantibodies, but individuals with one autoantibody may progress to higher risk categories. We examined the characteristics of this progression in relatives followed prospectively in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention. The study population comprised 983 relatives who were single autoantibody positive with normal baseline glucose tolerance (median age 16.2 years). Samples were screened for antibodies to GAD, insulinoma-associated antigen 2 (IA-2) and insulin, and all positive samples tested for antibodies to zinc transporter 8 and islet cell antibodies. Antibodies to at least one additional islet autoantigen appeared in 118 of 983 relatives (overall 5 year risk 22%, 95% CI [17.9, 26.1]). At baseline, antibodies to GAD alone (68%) were more frequent than antibodies to insulin (26%) or IA-2 (6%), but all were associated with a similar risk of developing additional autoantibodies. Risk was associated with younger age (p = 0.002) and HLA class II genotype, but was similar in high and intermediate genetic risk groups (p = 0.65). Relatives who became multiple autoantibody positive during the follow-up had increased risk of developing diabetes comparable with the risk in relatives with multiple autoantibodies at study entry. Progression of islet autoimmunity in single autoantibody positive relatives in late childhood/adult life is associated with a predominance of autoantibodies to GAD and a distinct HLA risk profile. This heterogeneity in type 1 diabetes autoimmunity has potentially important implications for disease prevention.

  1. Aligning Responsible Business Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weller, Angeli E.

    2017-01-01

    This article offers an in-depth case study of a global high tech manufacturer that aligned its ethics and compliance, corporate social responsibility, and sustainability practices. Few large companies organize their responsible business practices this way, despite conceptual relevance and calls t...... and managers interested in understanding how responsible business practices may be collectively organized.......This article offers an in-depth case study of a global high tech manufacturer that aligned its ethics and compliance, corporate social responsibility, and sustainability practices. Few large companies organize their responsible business practices this way, despite conceptual relevance and calls...... to manage them comprehensively. A communities of practice theoretical lens suggests that intentional effort would be needed to bridge meaning between the relevant managers and practices in order to achieve alignment. The findings call attention to the important role played by employees who broker...

  2. FMIT alignment cart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, R.C.; Dauelsberg, L.B.; Clark, D.C.; Grieggs, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility alignment cart must perform several functions. It must serve as a fixture to receive the drift-tube girder assembly when it is removed from the linac tank. It must transport the girder assembly from the linac vault to the area where alignment or disassembly is to take place. It must serve as a disassembly fixture to hold the girder while individual drift tubes are removed for repair. It must align the drift tube bores in a straight line parallel to the girder, using an optical system. These functions must be performed without violating any clearances found within the building. The bore tubes of the drift tubes will be irradiated, and shielding will be included in the system for easier maintenance

  3. Alignment of whole genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcher, A L; Kasif, S; Fleischmann, R D; Peterson, J; White, O; Salzberg, S L

    1999-01-01

    A new system for aligning whole genome sequences is described. Using an efficient data structure called a suffix tree, the system is able to rapidly align sequences containing millions of nucleotides. Its use is demonstrated on two strains of Mycoplasma tuberculosis, on two less similar species of Mycoplasma bacteria and on two syntenic sequences from human chromosome 12 and mouse chromosome 6. In each case it found an alignment of the input sequences, using between 30 s and 2 min of computation time. From the system output, information on single nucleotide changes, translocations and homologous genes can easily be extracted. Use of the algorithm should facilitate analysis of syntenic chromosomal regions, strain-to-strain comparisons, evolutionary comparisons and genomic duplications. PMID:10325427

  4. Changes in spinal alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veintemillas Aráiz, M T; Beltrán Salazar, V P; Rivera Valladares, L; Marín Aznar, A; Melloni Ribas, P; Valls Pascual, R

    2016-04-01

    Spinal misalignments are a common reason for consultation at primary care centers and specialized departments. Misalignment has diverse causes and is influenced by multiple factors: in adolescence, the most frequent misalignment is scoliosis, which is idiopathic in 80% of cases and normally asymptomatic. In adults, the most common cause is degenerative. It is important to know the natural history and to detect factors that might predict progression. The correct diagnosis of spinal deformities requires specific imaging studies. The degree of deformity determines the type of treatment. The aim is to prevent progression of the deformity and to recover the flexibility and balance of the body. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. The SCA1 (Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 and MJD (Machado-Joseph disease CAG repeats in normal individuals: segregation analysis and allele frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Emília Vieira Wiezel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1 and Machado-Joseph disease (MJD/SCA3 are autosomal dominant neurodegenerative diseases caused by expansions of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the SCA1 and MJD genes. These expanded sequences are unstable upon transmission, leading to an intergeneration increase in the number of repeats (dynamic mutation. The transmission of the CAG repeat was studied in normal mother-father-child trios, referred for paternity testing (SCA1, n = 367; MJD, n = 879. No segregation distortion was detected. The CAG allele frequencies were determined in 330 unrelated individuals (fathers from couples tested for paternity. The allele frequency distributions did not differ from those previously reported for European populations. The estimated values for the statistic parameters indicating diversity at the SCA1 locus did not differ much from those reported previously for other STRs in the Brazilian population, while those for the MJD locus were close to or higher than the maximum values of previous reports. This shows that SCA1 and MJD are highly informative loci for applications in genetic and population studies and for forensic analysis.

  6. Pancreatic beta-cell responses to GLP-1 after near-normalization of blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Meena; Højberg, Patricia V; Deacon, Carolyn F

    2010-01-01

    glucose (BG) using insulin (mean diurnal BG: 6.4+/-0.3 mmol/l; HbA(1)c: 6.6+/-0.3%). Nine matched healthy subjects acted as controls. In controls, area-under-curve (AUC) for amylin, C-peptide and proinsulin were higher with GLP-1 than saline (PAUC amylin/C-peptide ratio was similar on both......This study investigated the effects of strict glycaemic control on beta-cell function in nine obese subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), using graded glucose infusions together with infusions of saline or GLP-1 before (HbA(1)c: 8.0+/-0.4%) and after four weeks of near-normalization of blood...... amylin/C-peptide ratios rose to control levels. Near-normoglycaemia tended to reduce AUC proinsulin/C-peptide ratio, which was significant (P=0.04) with GLP-1, but still higher than with saline (P=0.004). In conclusion, amylin, C-peptide and proinsulin responses to glucose were unaffected by four weeks...

  7. Pancreatic ß-cell responses to GLP-1 after near-normalization of blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Meena; Højberg, Patricia; Deacon, Carolyn F.

    2010-01-01

    glucose (BG) using insulin (mean diurnal BG: 6.4+/-0.3 mmol/l; HbA(1)c: 6.6+/-0.3%). Nine matched healthy subjects acted as controls. In controls, area-under-curve (AUC) for amylin, C-peptide and proinsulin were higher with GLP-1 than saline (PAUC amylin/C-peptide ratio was similar on both......This study investigated the effects of strict glycaemic control on beta-cell function in nine obese subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), using graded glucose infusions together with infusions of saline or GLP-1 before (HbA(1)c: 8.0+/-0.4%) and after four weeks of near-normalization of blood...... amylin/C-peptide ratios rose to control levels. Near-normoglycaemia tended to reduce AUC proinsulin/C-peptide ratio, which was significant (P=0.04) with GLP-1, but still higher than with saline (P=0.004). In conclusion, amylin, C-peptide and proinsulin responses to glucose were unaffected by four weeks...

  8. Plasmonic Properties of Vertically Aligned Nanowire Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanowires (NWs/Ag sheath composites were produced to investigate plasmonic coupling between vertically aligned NWs for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS applications. In this investigation, two types of vertical NW arrays were studied; those of ZnO NWs grown on nanosphere lithography patterned sapphire substrate via vapor-liquid-solid (VLS mechanism and Si NW arrays produced by wet chemical etching. Both types of vertical NW arrays were coated with a thin layer of silver by electroless silver plating for SERS enhancement studies. The experimental results show extremely strong SERS signals due to plasmonic coupling between the NWs, which was verified by COMSOL electric field simulations. We also compared the SERS enhancement intensity of aligned and random ZnO NWs, indicating that the aligned NWs show much stronger and repeatable SERS signal than those grown in nonaligned geometries.

  9. Simulation of beamline alignment operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annese, C; Miller, M G.

    1999-01-01

    The CORBA-based Simulator was a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that applied simulation techniques to explore critical questions about distributed control systems. The simulator project used a three-prong approach that studied object-oriented distribution tools, computer network modeling, and simulation of key control system scenarios. The National Ignition Facility's (NIF) optical alignment system was modeled to study control system operations. The alignment of NIF's 192 beamlines is a large complex operation involving more than 100 computer systems and 8000 mechanized devices. The alignment process is defined by a detailed set of procedures; however, many of the steps are deterministic. The alignment steps for a poorly aligned component are similar to that of a nearly aligned component; however, additional operations/iterations are required to complete the process. Thus, the same alignment operations will require variable amounts of time to perform depending on the current alignment condition as well as other factors. Simulation of the alignment process is necessary to understand beamline alignment time requirements and how shared resources such as the Output Sensor and Target Alignment Sensor effect alignment efficiency. The simulation has provided alignment time estimates and other results based on documented alignment procedures and alignment experience gained in the laboratory. Computer communication time, mechanical hardware actuation times, image processing algorithm execution times, etc. have been experimentally determined and incorporated into the model. Previous analysis of alignment operations utilized average implementation times for all alignment operations. Resource sharing becomes rather simple to model when only average values are used. The time required to actually implement the many individual alignment operations will be quite dynamic. The simulation model estimates the time to complete an operation using

  10. Experimental image alignment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, A. L.; Kowel, S. T.; Kornreich, P. G.

    1980-01-01

    A microcomputer-based instrument for image alignment with respect to a reference image is described which uses the DEFT sensor (Direct Electronic Fourier Transform) for image sensing and preprocessing. The instrument alignment algorithm which uses the two-dimensional Fourier transform as input is also described. It generates signals used to steer the stage carrying the test image into the correct orientation. This algorithm has computational advantages over algorithms which use image intensity data as input and is suitable for a microcomputer-based instrument since the two-dimensional Fourier transform is provided by the DEFT sensor.

  11. Laser alignment of rotating equipment at PNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berndt, R.H.

    1994-05-01

    Lateral vibration in direct-drive equipment is usually caused by misalignment. Over the years, because of the need to improve on techniques and ways of working more efficiently, various types of alignment methods have evolved. In the beginning, craftsmen used a straight-edge scale across the coupling with a feeler gauge measuring the misalignment error. This is still preferred today for aligning small couplings. The industry has since decided that alignment of large direct-drive equipment needed a more accurate type of instrumentation. Rim and face is another of the first alignment methods and is used on all sizes of equipment. A disadvantage of the rim and face method is that in most cases the coupling has to be disassembled. This can cause alignment problems when the coupling is reassembled. Also, the rim and face method is not fast enough to work satisfactorily on alignment of thermally hot equipment. Another concern is that the coupling has to be manufactured accurately for correct rim and face readings. Reverse dial alignment is an improvement over the rim and face method, and depending on the operator's experience, this method can be very accurate. A good training program along with field experience will bring the operator to a proper level of proficiency for a successful program. A hand-held computer with reverse dial calculations in memory is a must for job efficiency. An advantage over the rim and face method is that the coupling is not disassembled and remains locked together. Reverse dial instrumentation measures from both shaft center lines, rather than the coupling surface so the machining of the coupling during manufacture is not a major concern

  12. Short proofs of strong normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Wojdyga, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.

  13. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Myers

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  14. Evaluation of alignment marks using ASML ATHENA alignment system in 90nm BEOL process

    CERN Document Server

    Tan Chin Boon; Koh Hui Peng; Koo Chee, Kiong; Siew Yong Kong; Yeo Swee Hock

    2003-01-01

    As the critical dimension (CD) in integrated circuit (IC) device reduces, the total overlay budget needs to be more stringent. Typically, the allowable overlay error is 1/3 of the CD in the IC device. In this case, robustness of alignment mark is critical, as accurate signal is required by the scanner's alignment system to precisely align a layer of pattern to the previous layer. Alignment issue is more severe in back-end process partly due to the influenced of Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP), which contribute to the asymmetric or total destruction of the alignment marks. Alignment marks on the wafer can be placed along the scribe-line of the IC pattern. ASML scanner allows such type of wafer alignment using phase grating mark, known as Scribe-line Primary Mark (SPM) which can be fit into a standard 80um scribe-line. In this paper, we have studied the feasibility of introducing Narrow SPM (NSPM) to enable a smaller scribe-line. The width of NSPM has been shrunk down to 70% of the SPM and the length remain...

  15. Aligning Mental Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kano Glückstad, Fumiko

    2013-01-01

    This work introduces a framework that implements asymmetric communication theory proposed by Sperber and Wilson [1]. The framework applies a generalization model known as the Bayesian model of generalization (BMG) [2] for aligning knowledge possessed by two communicating parties. The work focuses...

  16. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Gomez and Y. Pakhotin

    2012-01-01

      A new track-based alignment for the DT chambers is ready for deployment: an offline tag has already been produced which will become part of the 52X Global Tag. This alignment was validated within the muon alignment group both at low and high momentum using a W/Z skim sample. It shows an improved mass resolution for pairs of stand-alone muons, improved curvature resolution at high momentum, and improved DT segment extrapolation residuals. The validation workflow for high-momentum muons used to depend solely on the “split cosmics” method, looking at the curvature difference between muon tracks reconstructed in the upper or lower half of CMS. The validation has now been extended to include energetic muons decaying from heavily boosted Zs: the di-muon invariant mass for global and stand-alone muons is reconstructed, and the invariant mass resolution is compared for different alignments. The main areas of development over the next few months will be preparing a new track-based C...

  17. Community Alignment ANADP

    OpenAIRE

    Halbert, Martin; Bicarregui, Juan; Anglada, Lluis; Duranti, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Aligning National Approaches to Digital Preservation: An Action Assembly Biblioteca de Catalunya (National Library of Catalonia) November 18-20, 2013, Barcelona, Spain Auburn University Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) Digital Curation Centre (DCC) Digital Preservation Network (DPN) Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) University of North Texas Virginia Tech Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) Innovative Inte...

  18. Discriminative Shape Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, M.; de Bruijne, M.

    2009-01-01

    , not taking into account that eventually the shapes are to be assigned to two or more different classes. This work introduces a discriminative variation to well-known Procrustes alignment and demonstrates its benefit over this classical method in shape classification tasks. The focus is on two...

  19. Resource Alignment ANADP

    OpenAIRE

    Grindley, Neil; Cramer, Tom; Schrimpf, Sabine; Wilson, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Aligning National Approaches to Digital Preservation: An Action Assembly Biblioteca de Catalunya (National Library of Catalonia) November 18-20, 2013, Barcelona, Spain Auburn University Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) Digital Curation Centre (DCC) Digital Preservation Network (DPN) Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) University of North Texas Virginia Tech Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) Innovative Inte...

  20. Capacity Alignment ANADP

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Joy; Whitehead, Martha; Molloy, Laura; Molinaro, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Aligning National Approaches to Digital Preservation: An Action Assembly Biblioteca de Catalunya (National Library of Catalonia) November 18-20, 2013, Barcelona, Spain Auburn University Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) Digital Curation Centre (DCC) Digital Preservation Network (DPN) Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) University of North Texas Virginia Tech Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) Innovative Inte...

  1. ABS: Sequence alignment by scanning

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal

    2011-08-01

    Sequence alignment is an essential tool in almost any computational biology research. It processes large database sequences and considered to be high consumers of computation time. Heuristic algorithms are used to get approximate but fast results. We introduce fast alignment algorithm, called Alignment By Scanning (ABS), to provide an approximate alignment of two DNA sequences. We compare our algorithm with the well-known alignment algorithms, the FASTA (which is heuristic) and the \\'Needleman-Wunsch\\' (which is optimal). The proposed algorithm achieves up to 76% enhancement in alignment score when it is compared with the FASTA Algorithm. The evaluations are conducted using different lengths of DNA sequences. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. ABS: Sequence alignment by scanning

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal; Salama, Khaled N.

    2011-01-01

    Sequence alignment is an essential tool in almost any computational biology research. It processes large database sequences and considered to be high consumers of computation time. Heuristic algorithms are used to get approximate but fast results. We introduce fast alignment algorithm, called Alignment By Scanning (ABS), to provide an approximate alignment of two DNA sequences. We compare our algorithm with the well-known alignment algorithms, the FASTA (which is heuristic) and the 'Needleman-Wunsch' (which is optimal). The proposed algorithm achieves up to 76% enhancement in alignment score when it is compared with the FASTA Algorithm. The evaluations are conducted using different lengths of DNA sequences. © 2011 IEEE.

  3. Fast global sequence alignment technique

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal

    2011-11-01

    Bioinformatics database is growing exponentially in size. Processing these large amount of data may take hours of time even if super computers are used. One of the most important processing tool in Bioinformatics is sequence alignment. We introduce fast alignment algorithm, called \\'Alignment By Scanning\\' (ABS), to provide an approximate alignment of two DNA sequences. We compare our algorithm with the wellknown sequence alignment algorithms, the \\'GAP\\' (which is heuristic) and the \\'Needleman-Wunsch\\' (which is optimal). The proposed algorithm achieves up to 51% enhancement in alignment score when it is compared with the GAP Algorithm. The evaluations are conducted using different lengths of DNA sequences. © 2011 IEEE.

  4. Visceral adiposity is associated with altered myocardial glucose uptake measured by (18)FDG-PET in 346 subjects with normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyuri; Jo, Kwanhyeong; Kim, Kwang Joon; Lee, Yong-ho; Han, Eugene; Yoon, Hye-jin; Wang, Hye Jin; Kang, Eun Seok; Yun, Mijin

    2015-11-04

    The heart requires constant sources of energy mostly from free fatty acids (FFA) and glucose. The alteration in myocardial substrate metabolism occurs in the heart of diabetic patients, but its specific association with other metabolic variables remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate glucose uptake in hearts of subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography ((18)FDG-PET) in association with visceral and subcutaneous adiposity, and metabolic laboratory parameters. A total of 346 individuals (NGT, n = 76; prediabetes, n = 208; T2DM, n = 62) in a health promotion center of a tertiary hospital were enrolled. The fasting myocardial glucose uptake, and visceral and subcutaneous fat areas were evaluated using (18)FDG-PET and abdominal computed tomography, respectively. Myocardial glucose uptake was significantly decreased in subjects with T2DM compared to the NGT or prediabetes groups (p for trend = 0.001). Multivariate linear regression analyses revealed that visceral fat area (β = -0.22, p = 0.018), fasting FFA (β = -0.39, p < 0.001), and uric acid levels (β = -0.21, p = 0.007) were independent determinants of myocardial glucose uptake. Multiple logistic analyses demonstrated that decreased myocardial glucose uptake (OR 2.32; 95% CI 1.02-5.29, p = 0.045) and visceral fat area (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03, p = 0.018) were associated with T2DM. Our findings indicate visceral adiposity is strongly associated with the alteration of myocardial glucose uptake evaluated by (18)FDG-PET, and its association further relates to T2DM.

  5. Pancreatic beta-cell responses to GLP-1 after near-normalization of blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Meena; Højberg, Patricia V; Deacon, Carolyn F; Hare, Kristine; Holst, Jens J; Madsbad, Sten

    2010-02-25

    This study investigated the effects of strict glycaemic control on beta-cell function in nine obese subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), using graded glucose infusions together with infusions of saline or GLP-1 before (HbA(1)c: 8.0+/-0.4%) and after four weeks of near-normalization of blood glucose (BG) using insulin (mean diurnal BG: 6.4+/-0.3 mmol/l; HbA(1)c: 6.6+/-0.3%). Nine matched healthy subjects acted as controls. In controls, area-under-curve (AUC) for amylin, C-peptide and proinsulin were higher with GLP-1 than saline (PAUC amylin/C-peptide ratio was similar on both days, while AUC proinsulin/C-peptide ratio was higher with GLP-1 (P=0.02). In the patients, amylin, C-peptide and proinsulin AUCs were unaltered by near-normoglycaemia per se. Proinsulin responses to GLP-1 were unchanged, but amylin and C-peptide AUCs increased (PAUC amylin/C-peptide ratios rose to control levels. Near-normoglycaemia tended to reduce AUC proinsulin/C-peptide ratio, which was significant (P=0.04) with GLP-1, but still higher than with saline (P=0.004). In conclusion, amylin, C-peptide and proinsulin responses to glucose were unaffected by four weeks of near-normoglycaemia, whereas GLP-1 increased amylin and C-peptide secretion and amylin/C-peptide ratio. Near-normoglycaemia reduced proinsulin/C-peptide ratio during stimulation with GLP-1, suggesting that strict glycaemic control might ameliorate some of the disturbances in beta-cell function characterizing T2DM. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Formatt: Correcting protein multiple structural alignments by incorporating sequence alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniels Noah M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of multiple protein structure alignments are usually computed and assessed based on geometric functions of the coordinates of the backbone atoms from the protein chains. These purely geometric methods do not utilize directly protein sequence similarity, and in fact, determining the proper way to incorporate sequence similarity measures into the construction and assessment of protein multiple structure alignments has proved surprisingly difficult. Results We present Formatt, a multiple structure alignment based on the Matt purely geometric multiple structure alignment program, that also takes into account sequence similarity when constructing alignments. We show that Formatt outperforms Matt and other popular structure alignment programs on the popular HOMSTRAD benchmark. For the SABMark twilight zone benchmark set that captures more remote homology, Formatt and Matt outperform other programs; depending on choice of embedded sequence aligner, Formatt produces either better sequence and structural alignments with a smaller core size than Matt, or similarly sized alignments with better sequence similarity, for a small cost in average RMSD. Conclusions Considering sequence information as well as purely geometric information seems to improve quality of multiple structure alignments, though defining what constitutes the best alignment when sequence and structural measures would suggest different alignments remains a difficult open question.

  7. Reducing beam shaper alignment complexity: diagnostic techniques for alignment and tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, Todd E.

    2011-10-01

    Safe and efficient optical alignment is a critical requirement for industrial laser systems used in a high volume manufacturing environment. Of specific interest is the development of techniques to align beam shaping optics within a beam line; having the ability to instantly verify by a qualitative means that each element is in its proper position as the beam shaper module is being aligned. There is a need to reduce these types of alignment techniques down to a level where even a newbie to optical alignment will be able to complete the task. Couple this alignment need with the fact that most laser system manufacturers ship their products worldwide and the introduction of a new set of variables including cultural and language barriers, makes this a top priority for manufacturers. Tools and methodologies for alignment of complex optical systems need to be able to cross these barriers to ensure the highest degree of up time and reduce the cost of maintenance on the production floor. Customers worldwide, who purchase production laser equipment, understand that the majority of costs to a manufacturing facility is spent on system maintenance and is typically the largest single controllable expenditure in a production plant. This desire to reduce costs is driving the trend these days towards predictive and proactive, not reactive maintenance of laser based optical beam delivery systems [10]. With proper diagnostic tools, laser system developers can develop proactive approaches to reduce system down time, safe guard operational performance and reduce premature or catastrophic optics failures. Obviously analytical data will provide quantifiable performance standards which are more precise than qualitative standards, but each have a role in determining overall optical system performance [10]. This paper will discuss the use of film and fluorescent mirror devices as diagnostic tools for beam shaper module alignment off line or in-situ. The paper will also provide an overview

  8. Accurate and robust brain image alignment using boundary-based registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Douglas N; Fischl, Bruce

    2009-10-15

    The fine spatial scales of the structures in the human brain represent an enormous challenge to the successful integration of information from different images for both within- and between-subject analysis. While many algorithms to register image pairs from the same subject exist, visual inspection shows that their accuracy and robustness to be suspect, particularly when there are strong intensity gradients and/or only part of the brain is imaged. This paper introduces a new algorithm called Boundary-Based Registration, or BBR. The novelty of BBR is that it treats the two images very differently. The reference image must be of sufficient resolution and quality to extract surfaces that separate tissue types. The input image is then aligned to the reference by maximizing the intensity gradient across tissue boundaries. Several lower quality images can be aligned through their alignment with the reference. Visual inspection and fMRI results show that BBR is more accurate than correlation ratio or normalized mutual information and is considerably more robust to even strong intensity inhomogeneities. BBR also excels at aligning partial-brain images to whole-brain images, a domain in which existing registration algorithms frequently fail. Even in the limit of registering a single slice, we show the BBR results to be robust and accurate.

  9. Effects of variable attachment shapes and aligner material on aligner retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasy, Hiltrud; Dasy, Andreas; Asatrian, Greg; Rózsa, Noémi; Lee, Hao-Fu; Kwak, Jin Hee

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the retention of four types of aligners on a dental arch with various attachments. For this study, three casts were manufactured, two of which contained attachments (ellipsoid and beveled), and one without any attachments to serve as a control. Four types of aligners were thermoformed: Clear-Aligner (CA)-soft, CA-medium, and CA-hard, with various thicknesses, and Essix ACE. Measurements of vertical displacement force during aligner removal were performed with the Gabo Qualimeter Eplexor. Means and standard deviations were next compared between different aligner thicknesses and attachment shapes. CA-soft, CA-medium, and CA-hard did not present a significant increase in retention, except when used in the presence of attachments. Additionally, CA-medium and CA-hard required significantly more force for removal. Essix ACE demonstrated a significant decrease in retention when used with ellipsoid attachments. The force value for Essix ACE removal from the cast with beveled attachments was comparable to that of CA-medium. Forces for aligner removal from the model without attachments showed a linear trend. Essix ACE did not show a continuous increase in retention for each model. Overall, ellipsoid attachments did not present a significant change in retention. In contrast, beveled attachments improved retention. Ellipsoid attachments had no significant influence on the force required for aligner removal and hence on aligner retention. Essix ACE showed significantly less retention than CA-hard on the models with attachments. Furthermore, beveled attachments were observed to increase retention significantly, compared with ellipsoid attachments and when using no attachments.

  10. Evaluation of the mineral content of peripheral bones (radius) by photon-absorption technique in normals as well as in patients with various types of bone diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runge, H.; Fengler, F.; Franke, J.; Koall, W.

    1980-10-01

    The evaluation of the mineral content of peripheral bones by measuring the photon absorption of the radius has proven to be a valuable method for routine clinical work: for diagnosis, follow-up and control of therapy. While there was a significant difference in the findings of normal persons compared with those of patients suffering from osteoporosis, renal osteodystrophy, osteogenesis imperfecta and skeletal fluorosis, there was no difference between normals and these patients suffering from Bechterew, Scheuermann, coxarthrosis, spondylosis, skoliosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Normal values for the mineral content and the width of the radius at the junction of the middle and lower third - based on 8000 examinations - are mentioned.

  11. Evaluation of the mineral content of peripheral bones (radius) by photon-absorption technique in normals as well as in patients with various types of bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runge, H.; Fengler, F.; Franke, J.; Koall, W.

    1980-01-01

    The evaluation of the mineral content of peripheral bones by measuring the photon absorption of the radius has proven to be a valuable method for routine clinical work: for diagnosis, follow-up and control of therapy. While there was a significant difference in the findings of normal persons compared with those of patients suffering from osteoporosis, renal osteodystrophy, osteogenesis imperfecta and skeletal fluorosis, there was no difference between normals and these patients suffering from Bechterew, Scheuermann, coxarthrosis, spondylosis, skoliosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Normal values for the mineral content and the width of the radius at the junction of the middle and lower third - based on 8000 examinations - are mentioned. (orig.) [de

  12. Viewing angle switching of patterned vertical alignment liquid crystal display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Young Jin; Jeong, Eun; Chin, Mi Hyung; Lee, Seung Hee; Ji, Seunghoon; Lee, Gi-Dong

    2008-01-01

    Viewing angle control of a patterned vertical alignment (PVA) liquid crystal display using only one panel is investigated. In conventional PVA modes, a vertically aligned liquid crystal (LC) director tilts down in four directions making 45 deg. with respect to crossed polarizers to exhibit a wide viewing angle. In the viewing angle control device, one pixel was divided into two sub-pixels such that the LC director in the main pixel is controlled to be tilted down in multiple directions making an angle with the polarizer, playing the role of main display with the wide viewing angle, while the LC director in the sub-pixel is controlled to be tilted down to the polarizer axis, playing the role of sub-pixel to the viewing angle control for the narrow viewing angle. Using sub-pixel control, light leakage or any type of information such as characters and image can be generated in oblique viewing directions without distorting the image quality in the normal direction, which will prevent others from peeping at the displayed image by overlapping the displayed image with the made image

  13. Alignment of concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tariq Osman; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Kensing, Finn

    E-health promises to enable and support active patient participation in chronic care. However, these fairly recent innovations are complicated matters and emphasize significant challenges, such as patients’ and clinicians’ different ways of conceptualizing disease and illness. Informed by insight...... from medical phenomenology and our own empirical work in telemonitoring and medical care of heart patients, we propose a design rationale for e-health systems conceptualized as the ‘alignment of concerns’....

  14. Aligned, plasma sprayed SmCo5 deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, K.; Das, D.

    1986-01-01

    Highly aligned SmCo 5 deposits were produced using plasma spraying. c-axis alignment, normal to the plane of the deposit, was achieved by depositing the Sm-Co alloys on steel substrates maintained at high temperatures. The substrates were heated by the plasma flame to obtain the high temperatures. The attainment of a range of substrate temperatures was made possible through control over the geometry of the substrate

  15. Alignment at the ESRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.; Levet, N.; Gatta, G.

    1999-01-01

    The ESRF Survey and Alignment group is responsible for the installation, control and periodic realignment of the accelerators and experiments which produce high quality x-rays used by scientists from Europe and around the world. Alignment tolerances are typically less than one millimetre and often in the order of several micrometers. The group is composed of one engineer, five highly trained survey technicians, one electronic and one computer technician. This team is fortified during peak periods by technicians from an external survey company. First an overview and comparative study of the main large-scale survey instrumentation and methods used by the group is made. Secondly a discussion of long term deformation on the ESRF site is presented. This is followed by presentation of the methods used in the realignment of the various machines. Two important aspects of our work, beamline and front-end alignment, and the so-called machine exotic devices are briefly discussed. Finally, the ESRF calibration bench is presented. (authors)

  16. Seeking the perfect alignment

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The first full-scale tests of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer are about to begin in Prévessin. The set-up includes several layers of Monitored Drift Tubes Chambers (MDTs) and will allow tests of the performance of the detectors and of their highly accurate alignment system.   Monitored Drift Chambers in Building 887 in Prévessin, where they are just about to be tested. Muon chambers are keeping the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer team quite busy this summer. Now that most people go on holiday, the beam and alignment tests for these chambers are just starting. These chambers will measure with high accuracy the momentum of high-energy muons, and this implies very demanding requirements for their alignment. The MDT chambers consist of drift tubes, which are gas-filled metal tubes, 3 cm in diameter, with wires running down their axes. With high voltage between the wire and the tube wall, the ionisation due to traversing muons is detected as electrical pulses. With careful timing of the pulses, the position of the muon t...

  17. Malware Normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Christodorescu, Mihai; Kinder, Johannes; Jha, Somesh; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Veith, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Malware is code designed for a malicious purpose, such as obtaining root privilege on a host. A malware detector identifies malware and thus prevents it from adversely affecting a host. In order to evade detection by malware detectors, malware writers use various obfuscation techniques to transform their malware. There is strong evidence that commercial malware detectors are susceptible to these evasion tactics. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a malware normalizer ...

  18. The CMS Muon System Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez Ruiz-Del-Arbol, P

    2009-01-01

    The alignment of the muon system of CMS is performed using different techniques: photogrammetry measurements, optical alignment and alignment with tracks. For track-based alignment, several methods are employed, ranging from a hit and impact point (HIP) algorithm and a procedure exploiting chamber overlaps to a global fit method based on the Millepede approach. For start-up alignment as long as available integrated luminosity is still significantly limiting the size of the muon sample from collisions, cosmic muon and beam halo signatures play a very strong role. During the last commissioning runs in 2008 the first aligned geometries have been produced and validated with data. The CMS offline computing infrastructure has been used in order to perform improved reconstructions. We present the computational aspects related to the calculation of alignment constants at the CERN Analysis Facility (CAF), the production and population of databases and the validation and performance in the official reconstruction. Also...

  19. Flux flow and proximity effects in aligned Pb--Cd eutectic lamellar structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, C. R.

    1977-09-01

    A high speed directional solidification technique was used to fabricate lamellar Pb-Cd and (Pb-Mg)--(Cd-Mg) superconductor-normal metal composites in which all the lamellae are oriented perpendicular to the broad surface of the sample. These lamellar composites are found to behave like a large number (approximately 1000) of superconducting-normal-superconducting junctions. For the Pb-Cd eutectic system, the critical current densities and critical fields have shown no dependence upon the lamellar periods between 1.0 and 3.1 microns. The critical current density of the aligned lamellar Pb-Cd structures was enhanced approximately 50% when compared to quenched eutectic alloy and to pure Pb. The superconducting transition temperature, T/sub c/, varies inversely with the square of the thickness of the superconducting material as expected from Ginzburg-Landau theory. Upon annealing, the Pb lamellae change from type II to type I superconductivity.

  20. Flux flow and proximity effects in aligned Pb--Cd eutectic lamellar structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, C.R.

    1977-09-01

    A high speed directional solidification technique was used to fabricate lamellar Pb-Cd and (Pb-Mg)--(Cd-Mg) superconductor-normal metal composites in which all the lamellae are oriented perpendicular to the broad surface of the sample. These lamellar composites are found to behave like a large number (approximately 1000) of superconducting-normal-superconducting junctions. For the Pb-Cd eutectic system, the critical current densities and critical fields have shown no dependence upon the lamellar periods between 1.0 and 3.1 microns. The critical current density of the aligned lamellar Pb-Cd structures was enhanced approximately 50% when compared to quenched eutectic alloy and to pure Pb. The superconducting transition temperature, T/sub c/, varies inversely with the square of the thickness of the superconducting material as expected from Ginzburg-Landau theory. Upon annealing, the Pb lamellae change from type II to type I superconductivity

  1. Normal accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrow, C.

    1989-01-01

    The author has chosen numerous concrete examples to illustrate the hazardousness inherent in high-risk technologies. Starting with the TMI reactor accident in 1979, he shows that it is not only the nuclear energy sector that bears the risk of 'normal accidents', but also quite a number of other technologies and industrial sectors, or research fields. The author refers to the petrochemical industry, shipping, air traffic, large dams, mining activities, and genetic engineering, showing that due to the complexity of the systems and their manifold, rapidly interacting processes, accidents happen that cannot be thoroughly calculated, and hence are unavoidable. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Overweight and obese but not normal weight women with PCOS are at increased risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus—a prospective, population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollila, M.-M.E.; West, S.; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, S.; Jokelainen, J.; Auvinen, J.; Puukka, K.; Ruokonen, A.; Järvelin, M.-R.; Tapanainen, J.S.; Franks, S.; Piltonen, T.T.; Morin-Papunen, L.C.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What are the respective roles of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), long-term weight gain and obesity for the development of prediabetes or Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by age 46 years? SUMMARY ANSWER The risk of T2DM in women with PCOS is mainly due to overweight and obesity, although these two factors have a synergistic effect on the development of T2DM. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY PCOS is associated with an increased risk of prediabetes and T2DM. However, the respective roles of PCOS per se and BMI for the development of T2DM have remained unclear. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION In a prospective, general population-based follow-up birth cohort 1966 (n = 5889), postal questionnaires were sent at ages 14 (95% answered), 31 (80% answered) and 46 years (72% answered). Questions about oligoamenorrhoea and hirsutism were asked at age 31 years, and a question about PCOS diagnosis at 46 years. Clinical examination and blood sampling were performed at 31 years in 3127 women, and at 46 years in 3280 women. A 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at 46 years of age in 2780 women. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Women reporting both oligoamenorrhoea and hirsutism at age 31 years and/or diagnosis of PCOS by 46 years were considered as women with PCOS (n = 279). Women without any symptoms at 31 years and without PCOS diagnosis by 46 years were considered as controls (n = 1577). The level of glucose metabolism was classified according to the results of the OGTT and previous information of glucose metabolism status from the national drug and hospital discharge registers. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE PCOS per se significantly increased the risk of T2DM in overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m2) women with PCOS when compared to overweight/obese controls (odds ratio: 2.45, 95% CI: 1.28–4.67). Normal weight women with PCOS did not present with an increased risk of prediabetes or T2DM. The increase in weight between ages 14, 31 and 46 years

  3. Overweight and obese but not normal weight women with PCOS are at increased risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus-a prospective, population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollila, M-M E; West, S; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, S; Jokelainen, J; Auvinen, J; Puukka, K; Ruokonen, A; Järvelin, M-R; Tapanainen, J S; Franks, S; Piltonen, T T; Morin-Papunen, L C

    2017-02-01

    What are the respective roles of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), long-term weight gain and obesity for the development of prediabetes or Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by age 46 years? The risk of T2DM in women with PCOS is mainly due to overweight and obesity, although these two factors have a synergistic effect on the development of T2DM. PCOS is associated with an increased risk of prediabetes and T2DM. However, the respective roles of PCOS per se and BMI for the development of T2DM have remained unclear. In a prospective, general population-based follow-up birth cohort 1966 (n = 5889), postal questionnaires were sent at ages 14 (95% answered), 31 (80% answered) and 46 years (72% answered). Questions about oligoamenorrhoea and hirsutism were asked at age 31 years, and a question about PCOS diagnosis at 46 years. Clinical examination and blood sampling were performed at 31 years in 3127 women, and at 46 years in 3280 women. A 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at 46 years of age in 2780 women. Women reporting both oligoamenorrhoea and hirsutism at age 31 years and/or diagnosis of PCOS by 46 years were considered as women with PCOS (n = 279). Women without any symptoms at 31 years and without PCOS diagnosis by 46 years were considered as controls (n = 1577). The level of glucose metabolism was classified according to the results of the OGTT and previous information of glucose metabolism status from the national drug and hospital discharge registers. PCOS per se significantly increased the risk of T2DM in overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m 2 ) women with PCOS when compared to overweight/obese controls (odds ratio: 2.45, 95% CI: 1.28-4.67). Normal weight women with PCOS did not present with an increased risk of prediabetes or T2DM. The increase in weight between ages 14, 31 and 46 years was significantly greater in women with PCOS developing T2DM than in women with PCOS and normal glucose tolerance, with the most significant increase occurring

  4. Pareto optimal pairwise sequence alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRonne, Kevin W; Karypis, George

    2013-01-01

    Sequence alignment using evolutionary profiles is a commonly employed tool when investigating a protein. Many profile-profile scoring functions have been developed for use in such alignments, but there has not yet been a comprehensive study of Pareto optimal pairwise alignments for combining multiple such functions. We show that the problem of generating Pareto optimal pairwise alignments has an optimal substructure property, and develop an efficient algorithm for generating Pareto optimal frontiers of pairwise alignments. All possible sets of two, three, and four profile scoring functions are used from a pool of 11 functions and applied to 588 pairs of proteins in the ce_ref data set. The performance of the best objective combinations on ce_ref is also evaluated on an independent set of 913 protein pairs extracted from the BAliBASE RV11 data set. Our dynamic-programming-based heuristic approach produces approximated Pareto optimal frontiers of pairwise alignments that contain comparable alignments to those on the exact frontier, but on average in less than 1/58th the time in the case of four objectives. Our results show that the Pareto frontiers contain alignments whose quality is better than the alignments obtained by single objectives. However, the task of identifying a single high-quality alignment among those in the Pareto frontier remains challenging.

  5. PR2ALIGN: a stand-alone software program and a web-server for protein sequence alignment using weighted biochemical properties of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Igor B; McDuffie, Michael

    2015-05-07

    Alignment of amino acid sequences is the main sequence comparison method used in computational molecular biology. The selection of the amino acid substitution matrix best suitable for a given alignment problem is one of the most important decisions the user has to make. In a conventional amino acid substitution matrix all elements are fixed and their values cannot be easily adjusted. Moreover, most existing amino acid substitution matrices account for the average (dis)similarities between amino acid types and do not distinguish the contribution of a specific biochemical property to these (dis)similarities. PR2ALIGN is a stand-alone software program and a web-server that provide the functionality for implementing flexible user-specified alignment scoring functions and aligning pairs of amino acid sequences based on the comparison of the profiles of biochemical properties of these sequences. Unlike the conventional sequence alignment methods that use 20x20 fixed amino acid substitution matrices, PR2ALIGN uses a set of weighted biochemical properties of amino acids to measure the distance between pairs of aligned residues and to find an optimal minimal distance global alignment. The user can provide any number of amino acid properties and specify a weight for each property. The higher the weight for a given property, the more this property affects the final alignment. We show that in many cases the approach implemented in PR2ALIGN produces better quality pair-wise alignments than the conventional matrix-based approach. PR2ALIGN will be helpful for researchers who wish to align amino acid sequences by using flexible user-specified alignment scoring functions based on the biochemical properties of amino acids instead of the amino acid substitution matrix. To the best of the authors' knowledge, there are no existing stand-alone software programs or web-servers analogous to PR2ALIGN. The software is freely available from http://pr2align.rit.albany.edu.

  6. Alignment of the TFTR bumper limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, G.W.; Owens, D.K.; Loesser, G.D.; Ulrickson, M.

    1989-01-01

    The TFTR Bumper Limiter (BL) is an axisymmetric toroidal limiter mounted on the inner wall of the vacuum vessel. It subtends 120 degree poloidally and has a surface area of 22 m 2 . The plasma facing surface consists of 1,000 kg of graphite tiles mounted on watercooled Inconel backing plates. During the initial installation in the Spring of 1985, the limiter surface was aligned to the toroidal magnetic field by mechanical and magnetic measurements to an estimated accuracy of ±2 mm. During subsequent operation, especially in the 1988 run period in which 30 MW of Neutral Beam Injection routinely occurred, several tiles at points on the limiter which protruded slightly into the plasma were severely damaged. The damage, cracked and spalled tiles, is believed to be initiated by high energy disruptions and aggravated by normal high power operation. The damage pattern and temperature rise during normal operation are consistent with this interpretation. A vacuum vessel opening to replace the damaged tiles and realign the limiter was required. The bumper limiter was reshaped to be circular to ±0.5 mm at the midplane by means of mechanical measurements in order to better distribute the heat loads and eliminate hot spots. The ±0.5 mm accuracy is determined by the variation in individual tile thickness which is ±0.5 mm. This paper describes the methods used to mechanically align the limiter and presents evidence based on machine operation with plasma that the limiter is reasonably well aligned with the toroidal field. Future work dealing with the alignment of the total limiter to the toroidal field using mechanical and magnetic measurements and the replacement of a subset of the carbon tiles with carbon-carbon composite material is also discussed. 7 refs., 4 figs

  7. Precise synaptic efficacy alignment suggests potentiation dominated learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph eHartmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that parallel synapses from the same axonal branch onto the same dendritic branch have almost identical strength. It has been proposed that this alignment is only possible through learning rules that integrate activity over long time spans. However, learning mechanisms such as spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP are commonly assumed to be temporally local. Here, we propose that the combination of temporally local STDP and a multiplicative synaptic normalization mechanism is sufficient to explain the alignment of parallel synapses.To address this issue, we introduce three increasingly complex models: First, we model the idealized interaction of STDP and synaptic normalization in a single neuron as a simple stochastic process and derive analytically that the alignment effect can be described by a so-called Kesten process. From this we can derive that synaptic efficacy alignment requires potentiation-dominated learning regimes. We verify these conditions in a single-neuron model with independent spiking activities but more realistic synapses. As expected, we only observe synaptic efficacy alignment for long-term potentiation-biased STDP. Finally, we explore how well the findings transfer to recurrent neural networks where the learning mechanisms interact with the correlated activity of the network. We find that due to the self-reinforcing correlations in recurrent circuits under STDP, alignment occurs for both long-term potentiation- and depression-biased STDP, because the learning will be potentiation dominated in both cases due to the potentiating events induced by correlated activity. This is in line with recent results demonstrating a dominance of potentiation over depression during waking and normalization during sleep. This leads us to predict that individual spine pairs will be more similar in the morning than they are after sleep depriviation.In conclusion, we show that synaptic normalization in conjunction with

  8. All about alignment

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The ALICE absorbers, iron wall and superstructure have been installed with great precision. The ALICE front absorber, positioned in the centre of the detector, has been installed and aligned. Weighing more than 400 tonnes, the ALICE absorbers and the surrounding support structures have been installed and aligned with a precision of 1-2 mm, hardly an easy task but a very important one. The ALICE absorbers are made of three parts: the front absorber, a 35-tonne cone-shaped structure, and two small-angle absorbers, long straight cylinder sections weighing 18 and 40 tonnes. The three pieces lined up have a total length of about 17 m. In addition to these, ALICE technicians have installed a 300-tonne iron filter wall made of blocks that fit together like large Lego pieces and a surrounding metal support structure to hold the tracking and trigger chambers. The absorbers house the vacuum chamber and are also the reference surface for the positioning of the tracking and trigger chambers. For this reason, the ab...

  9. Reconstructing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Fristed, Peter Billeskov

    2012-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is an area of priority for the Danish Government. As the field expands, this calls for increased knowledge about mental health nursing practice, as this is part of the forensic psychiatry treatment offered. However, only sparse research exists in this area. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the characteristics of forensic mental health nursing staff interaction with forensic mental health inpatients and to explore how staff give meaning to these interactions. The project included 32 forensic mental health staff members, with over 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal....... The intention is to establish a trusting relationship to form behaviour and perceptual-corrective care, which is characterized by staff's endeavours to change, halt, or support the patient's behaviour or perception in relation to staff's perception of normality. The intention is to support and teach the patient...

  10. Pursuing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Handberg, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    implying an influence on whether to participate in cancer survivorship care programs. Because of "pursuing normality," 8 of 9 participants opted out of cancer survivorship care programming due to prospects of "being cured" and perceptions of cancer survivorship care as "a continuation of the disease......BACKGROUND: The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... was to understand the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors to aid the future planning of cancer survivorship care and overcome barriers to participation. METHODS: Data were generated in a hematological ward during 4 months of ethnographic fieldwork, including participant observation and 46...

  11. Evaluation of the Normal Cochlear Second Interscalar Ridge Angle and Depth on 3D T2-Weighted Images: A Tool for the Diagnosis of Scala Communis and Incomplete Partition Type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, T N; Wick, C; Clarke, R; Kutz, J W; Medina, M; Gorsage, D; Xi, Y; Isaacson, B

    2018-05-01

    Cochlear malformations may be be subtle on imaging studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the angle and depth of the lateral second interscalar ridge or notch in ears without sensorineural hearing loss (normal ears) and compare them with ears that have a documented incomplete type II partition malformation. The second interscalar ridge notch angle and depth were measured on MR imaging in normal ears by a single experienced neuroradiologist. The images of normal and incomplete partition II malformation ears were then randomly mixed for 2 novice evaluators to measure both the second interscalar ridge notch angle and depth in a blinded manner. For the mixed group, interobserver agreement was calculated, normal and abnormal ear measurements were compared, and receiver operating characteristic curves were generated. The 94 normal ears had a mean second interscalar ridge angle of 80.86° ± 11.4° and depth of 0.54 ± 0.14 mm with the 98th percentile for an angle of 101° and a depth of 0.3 mm. In the mixed group, agreement between the 2 readers was excellent, with significant differences for angle and depth found between normal and incomplete partition type II ears for angle and depth on average ( P 114° and a depth of the second interscalar ridge notch of ≤0.31 mm suggest the diagnosis of incomplete partition type II malformation and scala communis. These measurements can be accurately made by novice readers. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  12. Nova laser alignment control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Arsdall, P.J.; Holloway, F.W.; McGuigan, D.L.; Shelton, R.T.

    1984-01-01

    Alignment of the Nova laser requires control of hundreds of optical components in the ten beam paths. Extensive application of computer technology makes daily alignment practical. The control system is designed in a manner which provides both centralized and local manual operator controls integrated with automatic closed loop alignment. Menudriven operator consoles using high resolution color graphics displays overlaid with transport touch panels allow laser personnel to interact efficiently with the computer system. Automatic alignment is accomplished by using image analysis techniques to determine beam references points from video images acquired along the laser chain. A major goal of the design is to contribute substantially to rapid experimental turnaround and consistent alignment results. This paper describes the computer-based control structure and the software methods developed for aligning this large laser system

  13. GraphAlignment: Bayesian pairwise alignment of biological networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolář Michal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With increased experimental availability and accuracy of bio-molecular networks, tools for their comparative and evolutionary analysis are needed. A key component for such studies is the alignment of networks. Results We introduce the Bioconductor package GraphAlignment for pairwise alignment of bio-molecular networks. The alignment incorporates information both from network vertices and network edges and is based on an explicit evolutionary model, allowing inference of all scoring parameters directly from empirical data. We compare the performance of our algorithm to an alternative algorithm, Græmlin 2.0. On simulated data, GraphAlignment outperforms Græmlin 2.0 in several benchmarks except for computational complexity. When there is little or no noise in the data, GraphAlignment is slower than Græmlin 2.0. It is faster than Græmlin 2.0 when processing noisy data containing spurious vertex associations. Its typical case complexity grows approximately as O(N2.6. On empirical bacterial protein-protein interaction networks (PIN and gene co-expression networks, GraphAlignment outperforms Græmlin 2.0 with respect to coverage and specificity, albeit by a small margin. On large eukaryotic PIN, Græmlin 2.0 outperforms GraphAlignment. Conclusions The GraphAlignment algorithm is robust to spurious vertex associations, correctly resolves paralogs, and shows very good performance in identification of homologous vertices defined by high vertex and/or interaction similarity. The simplicity and generality of GraphAlignment edge scoring makes the algorithm an appropriate choice for global alignment of networks.

  14. Interest alignment rents and competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    M. ZOLLO; O. GOTTSCHALG

    2007-01-01

    This paper articulates a theory of the conditions under which the alignment between individual and collective interests generates sustainable competitive advantage. The theory is based on the influence of tacitness, context specificity, and causal ambiguity in the determinants of different types of motivation (extrinsic, normative intrinsic, and hedonic instinsic) under varying conditions of environmental dynamism. The analysis indicates the need to consider motivational processes as a comple...

  15. Mechanical alignment based on beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farvacque, L.; Martin, D.; Nagaoka, R.

    1999-01-01

    This article studies the consequences of misalignment of the different components on the displacement of the beam. 3 types of motion have been investigated: quadrupole vertical displacement, quadrupole tilt and sextupole vertical displacement. For each shift a response matrix has been designed and from this formulation, aligning quadrupoles means inverting this matrix. The strategy for correction depends on the accuracy of the response matrix and on the quality of the beam position measurements. A modelling of the corrections is proposed. (A.C.)

  16. Mask alignment system for semiconductor processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Aaron P.; Carlson, Charles T.; Weaver, William T.; Grant, Christopher N.

    2017-02-14

    A mask alignment system for providing precise and repeatable alignment between ion implantation masks and workpieces. The system includes a mask frame having a plurality of ion implantation masks loosely connected thereto. The mask frame is provided with a plurality of frame alignment cavities, and each mask is provided with a plurality of mask alignment cavities. The system further includes a platen for holding workpieces. The platen may be provided with a plurality of mask alignment pins and frame alignment pins configured to engage the mask alignment cavities and frame alignment cavities, respectively. The mask frame can be lowered onto the platen, with the frame alignment cavities moving into registration with the frame alignment pins to provide rough alignment between the masks and workpieces. The mask alignment cavities are then moved into registration with the mask alignment pins, thereby shifting each individual mask into precise alignment with a respective workpiece.

  17. Quasiparticle Level Alignment for Photocatalytic Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migani, Annapaoala; Mowbray, Duncan J; Zhao, Jin; Petek, Hrvoje; Rubio, Angel

    2014-05-13

    Electronic level alignment at the interface between an adsorbed molecular layer and a semiconducting substrate determines the activity and efficiency of many photocatalytic materials. Standard density functional theory (DFT)-based methods have proven unable to provide a quantitative description of this level alignment. This requires a proper treatment of the anisotropic screening, necessitating the use of quasiparticle (QP) techniques. However, the computational complexity of QP algorithms has meant a quantitative description of interfacial levels has remained elusive. We provide a systematic study of a prototypical interface, bare and methanol-covered rutile TiO2(110) surfaces, to determine the type of many-body theory required to obtain an accurate description of the level alignment. This is accomplished via a direct comparison with metastable impact electron spectroscopy (MIES), ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), and two-photon photoemission (2PP) spectroscopy. We consider GGA DFT, hybrid DFT, and G0W0, scQPGW1, scQPGW0, and scQPGW QP calculations. Our results demonstrate that G0W0, or our recently introduced scQPGW1 approach, are required to obtain the correct alignment of both the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied interfacial molecular levels (HOMO/LUMO). These calculations set a new standard in the interpretation of electronic structure probe experiments of complex organic molecule/semiconductor interfaces.

  18. Non-stationary condition monitoring through event alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik; Larsen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    We present an event alignment framework which enables change detection in non-stationary signals. change detection. Classical condition monitoring frameworks have been restrained to laboratory settings with stationary operating conditions, which are not resembling real world operation....... In this paper we apply the technique for non-stationary condition monitoring of large diesel engines based on acoustical emission sensor signals. The performance of the event alignment is analyzed in an unsupervised probabilistic detection framework based on outlier detection with either Principal Component...... Analysis or Gaussian Processes modeling. We are especially interested in the true performance of the condition monitoring performance with mixed aligned and unaligned data, e.g. detection of fault condition of unaligned examples versus false alarms of aligned normal condition data. Further, we expect...

  19. Carcinogenic HPV prevalence and age-specific type distribution in 40,382 women with normal cervical cytology, ASCUS/LSIL, HSIL, or cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Susanne K; Munk, Christian; Junge, Jette

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assessment of the prevaccination type-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the general population is important for the prediction of the impact of HPV vaccination. METHODS: We collected consecutively residual specimens from liquid-based cytology samples from 40,382 women......, and histology if any, on all women. RESULTS: The participants were 14-95 years of age (median age 37 years) at enrollment. The overall prevalence of HR HPV was 20.6 % ranging from 46.0 % in 20-23-year-old women to 5.7 % in women 65 years or older. Independently of cytology/histology, HPV16 was the most...... prevalent type. For virtually all HPV types, the occurrence of CIN3+ was higher when the specific HPV type was present together with HPV16 than it was together with other high-risk HPV types than HPV16 or if the HPV type occurred as a single infection. The prevalence of HPV16 and/or HPV18 was 74...

  20. Flavor Alignment via Shining in RS

    CERN Document Server

    Csáki, Csaba; Surujon, Ze'ev; Weiler, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    We present a class of warped extra dimensional models whose flavor violating interactions are much suppressed compared to the usual anarchic case due to flavor alignment. Such suppression can be achieved in models where part of the global flavor symmetry is gauged in the bulk and broken in a controlled manner. We show that the bulk masses can be aligned with the down type Yukawa couplings by an appropriate choice of bulk flavon field representations and TeV brane dynamics. This alignment could reduce the flavor violating effects to levels which allow for a Kaluza-Klein scale as low as 2-3 TeV, making the model observable at the LHC. However, the up-type Yukawa couplings on the IR brane, which are bounded from below by recent bounds on CP violation in the D system, induce flavor misalignment radiatively. Off-diagonal down-type Yukawa couplings and kinetic mixings for the down quarks are both consequences of this effect. These radiative Yukawa corrections can be reduced by raising the flavon VEV on the IR brane...

  1. Effect of grain alignment on interface trap density of thermally oxidized aligned-crystalline silicon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woong; Lee, Jung-Kun; Findikoglu, Alp T.

    2006-12-01

    The authors report studies of the effect of grain alignment on interface trap density of thermally oxidized aligned-crystalline silicon (ACSi) films by means of capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. C-V curves were measured on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors fabricated on ⟨001⟩-oriented ACSi films on polycrystalline substrates. From high-frequency C-V curves, the authors calculated a decrease of interface trap density from 2×1012to1×1011cm-2eV-1 as the grain mosaic spread in ACSi films improved from 13.7° to 6.5°. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of grain alignment as a process technique to achieve significantly enhanced performance in small-grained (⩽1μm ) polycrystalline Si MOS-type devices.

  2. Silicon on insulator self-aligned transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    2003-11-18

    A method for fabricating thin-film single-crystal silicon-on-insulator (SOI) self-aligned transistors. Standard processing of silicon substrates is used to fabricate the transistors. Physical spaces, between the source and gate, and the drain and gate, introduced by etching the polysilicon gate material, are used to provide connecting implants (bridges) which allow the transistor to perform normally. After completion of the silicon substrate processing, the silicon wafer is bonded to an insulator (glass) substrate, and the silicon substrate is removed leaving the transistors on the insulator (glass) substrate. Transistors fabricated by this method may be utilized, for example, in flat panel displays, etc.

  3. The association between Western and Prudent dietary patterns and fasting blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetes and normal glucose metabolism in older Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Erin I; Jacka, Felice N; Butterworth, Peter; Anstey, Kaarin J; Cherbuin, Nicolas

    2017-06-01

    High blood glucose and type 2 diabetes are associated with a range of adverse health and cognitive outcomes. One factor that contributes to high blood glucose and type 2 diabetes is dietary intake. This study investigated the relationship between dietary patterns, fasting blood glucose and diabetes status in a sample of 209 participants aged 60-65. Blood plasma glucose was measured from venous blood samples. Individual Prudent and Western dietary patterns were estimated from a self-completed food frequency questionnaire. The relationship between dietary patterns, diabetes, and blood glucose was assessed via general linear model analyses controlling for age, sex, height, and total caloric intake. Results indicated that there was no association between Prudent diet and fasting blood glucose levels, or type 2 diabetes. In contrast, an individual in the upper tertile for Western dietary score had a significantly higher risk of having diabetes than an individual in the lower tertile for Western dietary score. However, there was no significant association between Western diet and fasting blood glucose. Western diet may be associated with type 2 diabetes through mechanisms beyond impacting blood plasma glucose directly. The fact that the association between Western diet and type 2 diabetes remained even when total caloric intake was controlled for highlights the need for policy and population health interventions targeting the reduction of unhealthy food consumption.

  4. Anti neuroinflammatory effect of Vildagliptin in ischaemia-reperfusion induced cerebral infarction in normal and STZ induced type-II diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaleru Purnachander

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is one of the major risk factor for cerebral ischemic stroke. Increased base line levels of oxidative stress in diabetes will lead to cerebral ischemic damage. In pathological conditions such as cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, free radicals cause oxidative stress and inflammation leading to increased injury of brain. Inflammation is one of the major pathological mechanisms involved in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury. Vildagliptin newer anti-diabetic drug of the class DPP-4 inhibitors is reported to have anti-inflammatory properties apart from its antihyperglycemic activity. Therefore the aim of the present study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of Vildagliptin against cerebral infarction induced ischemia reperfusion injury in normal and STZ induced diabetic Wistar rats. Cerebral infarction was induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion followed by 4 hr reperfusion. Percent infarction, inflammatory markers such as MPO, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 were analysed. Treatment with Vildagliptin for a period of four weeks produced significant reduction in percent cerebral infarct volume. Vildagliptin at 10 mg/kg dose, showed significant reduction in markers like MPO, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in diabetic group when compared to normal group and in contrast significant increase in anti-inflammatory marker like IL-10 levels. Vildagliptin showed significant cerebroprotective effect by antiinflammatory mechanisms.

  5. Normalized compression distance of multisets with applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, A.R.; Vitányi, P.M.B.

    Pairwise normalized compression distance (NCD) is a parameter-free, feature-free, alignment-free, similarity metric based on compression. We propose an NCD of multisets that is also metric. Previously, attempts to obtain such an NCD failed. For classification purposes it is superior to the pairwise

  6. Study and Development of a Laser Based Alignment System

    CERN Multimedia

    Stern, G

    2014-01-01

    CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) has tight requirements regarding pre-alignment of beam related components: 10 µm accuracy over a sliding window of 200 m along the 20 km of linac. To perform such an alignment, a new system is proposed combining laser beam as straight line reference and camera/shutter assemblies as sensors. The poster describes the alignment system and shows results regarding laser pointing stability with respect to time, shutter type, distance and environment. These results give a frame for future building and calibrating of sensors.

  7. A generalized global alignment algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoqiu; Chao, Kun-Mao

    2003-01-22

    Homologous sequences are sometimes similar over some regions but different over other regions. Homologous sequences have a much lower global similarity if the different regions are much longer than the similar regions. We present a generalized global alignment algorithm for comparing sequences with intermittent similarities, an ordered list of similar regions separated by different regions. A generalized global alignment model is defined to handle sequences with intermittent similarities. A dynamic programming algorithm is designed to compute an optimal general alignment in time proportional to the product of sequence lengths and in space proportional to the sum of sequence lengths. The algorithm is implemented as a computer program named GAP3 (Global Alignment Program Version 3). The generalized global alignment model is validated by experimental results produced with GAP3 on both DNA and protein sequences. The GAP3 program extends the ability of standard global alignment programs to recognize homologous sequences of lower similarity. The GAP3 program is freely available for academic use at http://bioinformatics.iastate.edu/aat/align/align.html.

  8. Vacuum Alignment with more Flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We study the alignment of the vacuum in gauge theories with $N_f$ Dirac fermions transforming according to a complex representation of the gauge group. The alignment of the vacuum is produced by adding a small mass perturbation to the theory. We study in detail the $N_f=2,3$ and $4$ case. For $N_...

  9. The CMS Silicon Tracker Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Castello, R

    2008-01-01

    The alignment of the Strip and Pixel Tracker of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment, with its large number of independent silicon sensors and its excellent spatial resolution, is a complex and challenging task. Besides high precision mounting, survey measurements and the Laser Alignment System, track-based alignment is needed to reach the envisaged precision.\\\\ Three different algorithms for track-based alignment were successfully tested on a sample of cosmic-ray data collected at the Tracker Integration Facility, where 15\\% of the Tracker was tested. These results, together with those coming from the CMS global run, will provide the basis for the full-scale alignment of the Tracker, which will be carried out with the first \\emph{p-p} collisions.

  10. Alignment-Annotator web server: rendering and annotating sequence alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, Christoph; Fähling, Michael; Weyand, Birgit; Wieland, Thomas; Gille, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    Alignment-Annotator is a novel web service designed to generate interactive views of annotated nucleotide and amino acid sequence alignments (i) de novo and (ii) embedded in other software. All computations are performed at server side. Interactivity is implemented in HTML5, a language native to web browsers. The alignment is initially displayed using default settings and can be modified with the graphical user interfaces. For example, individual sequences can be reordered or deleted using drag and drop, amino acid color code schemes can be applied and annotations can be added. Annotations can be made manually or imported (BioDAS servers, the UniProt, the Catalytic Site Atlas and the PDB). Some edits take immediate effect while others require server interaction and may take a few seconds to execute. The final alignment document can be downloaded as a zip-archive containing the HTML files. Because of the use of HTML the resulting interactive alignment can be viewed on any platform including Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, Android and iOS in any standard web browser. Importantly, no plugins nor Java are required and therefore Alignment-Anotator represents the first interactive browser-based alignment visualization. http://www.bioinformatics.org/strap/aa/ and http://strap.charite.de/aa/. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. Finding optimal interaction interface alignments between biological complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Xuefeng

    2015-06-13

    Motivation: Biological molecules perform their functions through interactions with other molecules. Structure alignment of interaction interfaces between biological complexes is an indispensable step in detecting their structural similarities, which are keys to understanding their evolutionary histories and functions. Although various structure alignment methods have been developed to successfully access the similarities of protein structures or certain types of interaction interfaces, existing alignment tools cannot directly align arbitrary types of interfaces formed by protein, DNA or RNA molecules. Specifically, they require a \\'blackbox preprocessing\\' to standardize interface types and chain identifiers. Yet their performance is limited and sometimes unsatisfactory. Results: Here we introduce a novel method, PROSTA-inter, that automatically determines and aligns interaction interfaces between two arbitrary types of complex structures. Our method uses sequentially remote fragments to search for the optimal superimposition. The optimal residue matching problem is then formulated as a maximum weighted bipartite matching problem to detect the optimal sequence order-independent alignment. Benchmark evaluation on all non-redundant protein-DNA complexes in PDB shows significant performance improvement of our method over TM-align and iAlign (with the \\'blackbox preprocessing\\'). Two case studies where our method discovers, for the first time, structural similarities between two pairs of functionally related protein-DNA complexes are presented. We further demonstrate the power of our method on detecting structural similarities between a protein-protein complex and a protein-RNA complex, which is biologically known as a protein-RNA mimicry case. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. MUMmer4: A fast and versatile genome alignment system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Marçais

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The MUMmer system and the genome sequence aligner nucmer included within it are among the most widely used alignment packages in genomics. Since the last major release of MUMmer version 3 in 2004, it has been applied to many types of problems including aligning whole genome sequences, aligning reads to a reference genome, and comparing different assemblies of the same genome. Despite its broad utility, MUMmer3 has limitations that can make it difficult to use for large genomes and for the very large sequence data sets that are common today. In this paper we describe MUMmer4, a substantially improved version of MUMmer that addresses genome size constraints by changing the 32-bit suffix tree data structure at the core of MUMmer to a 48-bit suffix array, and that offers improved speed through parallel processing of input query sequences. With a theoretical limit on the input size of 141Tbp, MUMmer4 can now work with input sequences of any biologically realistic length. We show that as a result of these enhancements, the nucmer program in MUMmer4 is easily able to handle alignments of large genomes; we illustrate this with an alignment of the human and chimpanzee genomes, which allows us to compute that the two species are 98% identical across 96% of their length. With the enhancements described here, MUMmer4 can also be used to efficiently align reads to reference genomes, although it is less sensitive and accurate than the dedicated read aligners. The nucmer aligner in MUMmer4 can now be called from scripting languages such as Perl, Python and Ruby. These improvements make MUMer4 one the most versatile genome alignment packages available.

  13. Standardisation of tracer and type of meal in the evaluation of gastric emptying and colon transit rates in normal Beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormehl, I.C.; Jordaan, J.H.; Jacobs, D.J.; Plessis, M. du; Pilloy, W.

    1984-01-01

    The transit of 111 In-labelled polymer beads of different particle sizes in the stomach and colon of five healthy Beagle dogs was monitored after intake of different kinds of meal by a gamma camera and data processor system. The various meals studied were a solid balanced type of dog food mixed with molk, pure milk, and finally a metal of raw meat. The polymer beads carried triethylenetetramine type functions which efficiently chelated 111 In +3 from an aqueous solution of InCl 3 . These labelled beads were well mixed into the food before being offered to the dogs. Gastric emptying curves from which half-times of emptying (Tsub(1/2)) could be obtained are presented and statistically compared. Good quality images with quantification of the colon transit rate also became possible. It appeared that standardisation of the tracer and of the metal is compulsory for relevant and reproducible results. (orig.)

  14. Standardisation of tracer and type of meal in the evaluation of gastric emptying and colon transit rates in normal Beagle dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dormehl, I.C.; Jordaan, J.H.; Jacobs, D.J.; Plessis, M. du; Pilloy, W.

    1984-01-01

    The transit of /sup 111/In-labelled polymer beads of different particle sizes in the stomach and colon of five healthy Beagle dogs was monitored after intake of different kinds of meal by a gamma camera and data processor system. The various meals studied were a solid balanced type of dog food mixed with molk, pure milk, and finally a meal of raw meat. The polymer beads carried triethylenetetramine type functions which efficiently chelated /sup 111/In/sup +3/ from an aqueous solution of InCl/sub 3/. These labelled beads were well mixed into the food before being offered to the dogs. Gastric emptying curves from which half-times of emptying (Tsub(1/2)) could be obtained are presented and statistically compared. Good quality images with quantification of the colon transit rate also became possible. It appeared that standardisation of the tracer and of the metal is compulsory for relevant and reproducible results.

  15. Normalization of glucose concentrations and deceleration of gastric emptying after solid meals during intravenous glucagon-like peptide 1 in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Gallwitz, Baptist; Salmen, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    in the fasting state and after a solid test meal (containing [(13)C]octanoic acid). Blood was drawn for glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, and GLP-1 determinations. The gastric emptying rate was calculated from the (13)CO(2) excretion rates in breath samples. Statistics were determined using repeated......The effects of different i.v. doses of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) on glucose homeostasis and gastric emptying were compared in patients with type 2 diabetes. Twelve patients with type 2 diabetes received three different infusion rates of GLP-1 (0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 pmol/kg x min) or placebo...... ingestion (P = 0.0031 and 0.0074, respectively). Glucagon secretion was suppressed with GLP-1. Gastric emptying was decelerated by GLP-1 in a dose-dependent fashion (P

  16. Normal blood pressure and preserved diurnal variation in offspring of type 2 diabetic patients characterized by features of the metabolic syndrome: the Fredericia Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Anne-Catherine; Vestbo, Else; Frøland, Anders

    2000-01-01

    index (P triglycerides (P ... monitoring and compared the BP level and profile with 275 offspring of nondiabetic subjects. Anthropometric measures and cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, and insulin levels were also compared between groups. RESULTS: No significant differences in BP level (P > 0.05) or diurnal BP profile were evident...... between the nondiabetic glucose-tolerant offspring of type 2 diabetic subjects and the offspring of nondiabetic subjects. BMI (P glucose (P

  17. Aligned flax fibre/polylactate composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Lilholt, Hans; Thygesen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The potential of biocomposites in engineering applications is demonstrated by using aligned flax fibre/polylactate composites as a materials model system. The failure stress of flax fibres is measured by tensile testing of single fibres and fibre bundles. For both fibre configurations, it is found...... that failure stress is decreased by increasing the tested fibre volume. Based on two types of flax fibre preforms: carded sliver and unidirectional non-crimp fabric, aligned flax fibre/polylactate composites were fabricated with variable fibre content. The volumetric composition and tensile properties...... of the composite were measured. For composites with a fibre content of 37 % by volume, stiffness is about 20 GPa and failure stress is about 180 MPa. The tensile properties of the composites are analysed with a modified rule of mixtures model, which includes the effect of porosity. The experimental results...

  18. HRE-type genes are regulated by growth-related changes in internal oxygen concentrations during the normal development of potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licausi, Francesco; Giorgi, Federico Manuel; Schmälzlin, Elmar; Usadel, Björn; Perata, Pierdomenico; van Dongen, Joost Thomas; Geigenberger, Peter

    2011-11-01

    The occurrence of hypoxic conditions in plants not only represents a stress condition but is also associated with the normal development and growth of many organs, leading to adaptive changes in metabolism and growth to prevent internal anoxia. Internal oxygen concentrations decrease inside growing potato tubers, due to their active metabolism and increased resistance to gas diffusion as tubers grow. In the present work, we identified three hypoxia-responsive ERF (StHRE) genes whose expression is regulated by the gradual decrease in oxygen tensions that occur when potato tubers grow larger. Increasing the external oxygen concentration counteracted the modification of StHRE expression during tuber growth, supporting the idea that the actual oxygen levels inside the organs, rather than development itself, are responsible for the regulation of StHRE genes. We identified several sugar metabolism-related genes co-regulated with StHRE genes during tuber development and possibly involved in starch accumulation. All together, our data suggest a possible role for low oxygen in the regulation of sugar metabolism in the potato tuber, similar to what happens in storage tissues during seed development.

  19. Prevalence and distribution of high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV types in invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and in normal women in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao BN

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the high incidence of cervical cancer reported from India, large scale population based studies on the HPV prevalence and genotype distribution are very few from this region. In view of the clinical trials for HPV vaccine taking place in India, it is of utmost importance to understand the prevalence of HPV genotypes in various geographical regions of India. We investigated the genotype distribution of high-risk HPV types in squamous cell carcinomas and the prevalence of high-risk HPV in cervicovaginal samples in the southern state of Andhra Pradesh (AP, India. Methods HPV genotyping was done in cervical cancer specimens (n = 41 obtained from women attending a regional cancer hospital in Hyderabad. HPV-DNA testing was also done in cervicovaginal samples (n = 185 collected from women enrolled in the cervical cancer screening pilot study conducted in the rural community, of Medchal Mandal, twenty kilometers away from Hyderabad. Results High-risk HPV types were found in 87.8% (n = 36/41 of the squamous cell carcinomas using a PCR-based line blot assay. Among the HPV positive cancers, the overall type distribution of the major high-risk HPV types was as follows: HPV 16 (66.7%, HPV 18 (19.4%, HPV 33 (5.6%, HPV 35 (5.6%, HPV 45 (5.6%, HPV 52 (2.8%, HPV 58(2.8%, HPV 59(2.8% and HPV 73 (2.8%. Women participating in the community screening programme provided both a self-collected vaginal swab and a clinician-collected cervical swab for HPV DNA testing. Primary screening for high risk HPV was performed using the Digene Hybrid Capture 2 (hc2 assay. All hc2 positive samples by any one method of collection were further analyzed using the Roche PCR-based line blot for genotype determination. The prevalence of high risk HPV infection in this community-based screening population was 10.3% (19/185 using the clinician-collected and 7.0% (13/185 using the self-collected samples. The overall agreement between self-collected and clinician

  20. Aligning for Innovation - Alignment Strategy to Drive Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hurel; Teltschik, David; Bussey, Horace, Jr.; Moy, James

    2010-01-01

    With the sudden need for innovation that will help the country achieve its long-term space exploration objectives, the question of whether NASA is aligned effectively to drive the innovation that it so desperately needs to take space exploration to the next level should be entertained. Authors such as Robert Kaplan and David North have noted that companies that use a formal system for implementing strategy consistently outperform their peers. They have outlined a six-stage management systems model for implementing strategy, which includes the aligning of the organization towards its objectives. This involves the alignment of the organization from the top down. This presentation will explore the impacts of existing U.S. industrial policy on technological innovation; assess the current NASA organizational alignment and its impacts on driving technological innovation; and finally suggest an alternative approach that may drive the innovation needed to take the world to the next level of space exploration, with NASA truly leading the way.

  1. Alignment control of GEO 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, H; Heinzel, G; Freise, A; Gossler, S; Willke, B; Lueck, H; Ward, H; Casey, M M; Strain, K A; Robertson, D I; Hough, J; Danzmannx, K

    2004-01-01

    We give an overview of the automatic mirror alignment system of the gravitational wave detector GEO 600. In order to achieve the required sensitivity of the Michelson interferometer, the axes of interfering beams have to be superimposed with a residual angle of the order 10 -8 rad. The beam spots have to be centred on the mirrors to minimize coupling of alignment noise into longitudinal signals. We present the actual control topology and results from the system in operation, which controls all alignment degrees of the power-recycled Michelson. With this system continuous lock stretches of more than 121 h duration were achieved

  2. Control rod housing alignment apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, R.C.; Deaver, G.A.; Punches, J.R.; Singleton, G.E.; Erbes, J.G.; Offer, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses an alignment device for precisely locating the position of the top of a control rod drive housing from an overlying and corresponding hole and alignment pin in a core plate within a boiling water nuclear reactor. It includes a shaft, the shaft having a length sufficient to extend from the vicinity of the top of the control rod drive housing up to and through the hole in the core plate; means for registering the top of the shaft to the hole in the core plate, the registering means including means for registering with an alignment pin in the core plate adjacent the hole

  3. Prediction of molecular alignment of nucleic acids in aligned media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Bin; Petersen, Michael; Girard, Frederic; Tessari, Marco; Wijmenga, Sybren S.

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate - using the data base of all deposited DNA and RNA structures aligned in Pf1-medium and RDC refined - that for nucleic acids in a Pf1-medium the electrostatic alignment tensor can be predicted reliably and accurately via a simple and fast calculation based on the gyration tensor spanned out by the phosphodiester atoms. The rhombicity is well predicted over its full range from 0 to 0.66, while the alignment tensor orientation is predicted correctly for rhombicities up to ca. 0.4, for larger rhombicities it appears to deviate somewhat more than expected based on structural noise and measurement error. This simple analytical approach is based on the Debye-Huckel approximation for the electrostatic interaction potential, valid at distances sufficiently far away from a poly-ionic charged surface, a condition naturally enforced when the charge of alignment medium and solute are of equal sign, as for nucleic acids in a Pf1-phage medium. For the usual salt strengths and nucleic acid sizes, the Debye-Huckel screening length is smaller than the nucleic acid size, but large enough for the collective of Debye-Huckel spheres to encompass the whole molecule. The molecular alignment is then purely electrostatic, but it's functional form is under these conditions similar to that for steric alignment. The proposed analytical expression allows for very fast calculation of the alignment tensor and hence RDCs from the conformation of the nucleic acid molecule. This information provides opportunities for improved structure determination of nucleic acids, including better assessment of dynamics in (multi-domain) nucleic acids and the possibility to incorporate alignment tensor prediction from shape directly into the structure calculation process. The procedures are incorporated into MATLAB scripts, which are available on request

  4. Cosmological information in the intrinsic alignments of luminous red galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisari, Nora Elisa [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Dvorkin, Cora, E-mail: nchisari@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: cdvorkin@ias.edu [Institute for Advanced Study, School of Natural Sciences, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The intrinsic alignments of galaxies are usually regarded as a contaminant to weak gravitational lensing observables. The alignment of Luminous Red Galaxies, detected unambiguously in observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, can be reproduced by the linear tidal alignment model of Catelan, Kamionkowski and Blandford (2001) on large scales. In this work, we explore the cosmological information encoded in the intrinsic alignments of red galaxies. We make forecasts for the ability of current and future spectroscopic surveys to constrain local primordial non-Gaussianity and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) in the cross-correlation function of intrinsic alignments and the galaxy density field. For the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, we find that the BAO signal in the intrinsic alignments is marginally significant with a signal-to-noise ratio of 1.8 and 2.2 with the current LOWZ and CMASS samples of galaxies, respectively, and increasing to 2.3 and 2.7 once the survey is completed. For the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument and for a spectroscopic survey following the EUCLID redshift selection function, we find signal-to-noise ratios of 12 and 15, respectively. Local type primordial non-Gaussianity, parametrized by f{sub NL} = 10, is only marginally significant in the intrinsic alignments signal with signal-to-noise ratios < 2 for the three surveys considered.

  5. Proper alignment of the microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenfusser, Rudi

    2013-01-01

    The light microscope is merely the first element of an imaging system in a research facility. Such a system may include high-speed and/or high-resolution image acquisition capabilities, confocal technologies, and super-resolution methods of various types. Yet more than ever, the proverb "garbage in-garbage out" remains a fact. Image manipulations may be used to conceal a suboptimal microscope setup, but an artifact-free image can only be obtained when the microscope is optimally aligned, both mechanically and optically. Something else is often overlooked in the quest to get the best image out of the microscope: Proper sample preparation! The microscope optics can only do its job when its design criteria are matched to the specimen or vice versa. The specimen itself, the mounting medium, the cover slip, and the type of immersion medium (if applicable) are all part of the total optical makeup. To get the best results out of a microscope, understanding the functions of all of its variable components is important. Only then one knows how to optimize these components for the intended application. Different approaches might be chosen to discuss all of the microscope's components. We decided to follow the light path which starts with the light source and ends at the camera or the eyepieces. To add more transparency to this sequence, the section up to the microscope stage was called the "Illuminating Section", to be followed by the "Imaging Section" which starts with the microscope objective. After understanding the various components, we can start "working with the microscope." To get the best resolution and contrast from the microscope, the practice of "Koehler Illumination" should be understood and followed by every serious microscopist. Step-by-step instructions as well as illustrations of the beam path in an upright and inverted microscope are included in this chapter. A few practical considerations are listed in Section 3. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  6. Overall human papilloma virus and types 16/18 prevalence in women with normal cervical cytology in Serbia: is it time for human papillomavirus testing and/or vaccination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisic, Emina; Brotto, Ksenija; Krivokuca, Ana; Cavic, Milena; Jankovic, Radmila

    2014-01-01

    Infection with high-risk human papilloma viruses (HR-HPV), especially types 16/18, is the main factor in cervical carcinogenesis. Although the incidence of cervical cancer in Serbia is among the highest ones in Europe, data about HPV infection are insufficient. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of overall and HPV16/18 infections in women with healthy appearance and cytologically (Pap) normal cervix. The study was performed on women who participated in this cervical cancer screening pilot study. Cervical HPV infection was detected by GP5+/6+ PCR. HPV16/18 were detected by amplification of E7/E1 viral gene, respectively. In 350 women we got the following results: cytological abnormalities (10.3%); visible cervical changes (20.3%); previous precancerous lesion (2.3%); normal Pap and speculum finding without history of precancerous lesion (67.1%). In the last group overall HPV prevalence was 41.3%, with 10.5% HPV16 and 23.7% HPV18. The rate of multiple HPV16 plus HPV18 infections was 2.6%. HR-HPV16/18 comprised 31.6% of the total HPV positive participants. Owing to the high prevalence of overall and HPV16/18 infections in women with healthy appearance and cytologically normal cervix, we postulate that testing/ prophylaxis for these HR-HPV types could be introduced in cervical cancer screening and preventive programmes in Serbia.

  7. Maximal lipid oxidation in patients with type 2 diabetes is normal and shows an adequate increase in response to aerobic training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, M; Vind, B F; Højlund, K

    2009-01-01

    AIM: Insulin resistance in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity is associated with an imbalance between the availability and the oxidation of lipids. We hypothesized that maximal whole-body lipid oxidation during exercise (FATmax) is reduced and that training-induced metabolic adaptation...... in response to aerobic training in obese subjects with and without T2D. These metabolic adaptations to training seem to be unrelated to changes in insulin sensitivity and indicate that an impaired capacity for lipid oxidation is not a major cause of insulin resistance in T2D....... subjects after training (all p Insulin-stimulated glucose disappearance rate (Rd) was lower in T2D vs. control subjects both before and after training. Rd increased...

  8. Assessment of Blood Glucose Regulation and Safety of Resistant Starch Formula-Based Diet in Healthy Normal and Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hung; Chang, Daw-Ming; Wu, Da-Jen; Peng, Hui-Yu; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of the new resistant starch (RS) formula, PPB-R-203, on glucose homeostasis in healthy subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes.A cohort consisting of 40 healthy participants received test and control diets and was checked for up to 3 hours post-meal. A randomized, 2-regimen, cross-over, comparative study was conducted in 44 subjects with type 2 diabetes and glycemic control was assessed with a continuous glucose monitoring system.In healthy participants, serum glucose values and incremental areas under the glucose curves (AUC) were significantly lower in the PPB-R-203 than the control group (P blood glucose concentrations for subjects on the control regimen were higher than those for subjects on the PPB-R-203-based regimen (7.9 ± 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.4-8.4 vs 7.4 ± 1.6, 95% CI 6.9-7.9 mmol/L, respectively; P = 0.023). AUCs for total blood glucose and hyperglycemia (glucose >10 mmol/L) were also reduced for subjects on the PPB-R-203-based regimen as compared with those on control regimen (total blood glucose: 16.2 ± 4.0, 95% CI 14.9-17.4 vs 18.7 ± 4.0, 95% CI 17.6-20.1, P AUC measurements for hypoglycemia (glucose glucose excursion.

  9. Search for aligned structure of /sup 12/C-. cap alpha. -/sup 12/C type at high excitation energy in /sup 28/Si. [46 MeV, J,. pi. , resonance, three-body problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnereau, N

    1975-01-01

    The /sup 16/O+/sup 12/C..-->../sup 12/C+..cap alpha..+/sup 12/C reaction is studied mainly at 46MeV (at this energy a state of /sup 28/Si is presumably formed with a spin value of 14/sup +/; resonance of 19.7MeV c.m.). The motivation is to detect an ..cap alpha.. particle with a negligible energy in the c.m. system. This is the signature of the preformation of three aligned clusters in which the average location of the ..cap alpha.. particle is in between the two /sup 12/C's at the center of symmetry of the system. Such a detection is performed by detecting two /sup 12/C's in coincidence at specific angles. The data are understood by three-body calculations with a coupling of relative angular momenta governed by an unique J value. Experimentally, an ..cap alpha.. energy of 200keV is measured with good statistics, supporting the idea of aligned clusters as /sup 28/Si intrinsic shape, related to some highly excited states.

  10. Antares automatic beam alignment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appert, Q.; Swann, T.; Sweatt, W.; Saxman, A.

    1980-01-01

    Antares is a 24-beam-line CO 2 laser system for controlled fusion research, under construction at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL). Rapid automatic alignment of this system is required prior to each experiment shot. The alignment requirements, operational constraints, and a developed prototype system are discussed. A visible-wavelength alignment technique is employed that uses a telescope/TV system to view point light sources appropriately located down the beamline. Auto-alignment is accomplished by means of a video centroid tracker, which determines the off-axis error of the point sources. The error is nulled by computer-driven, movable mirrors in a closed-loop system. The light sources are fiber-optic terminations located at key points in the optics path, primarily at the center of large copper mirrors, and remotely illuminated to reduce heating effects

  11. Fixture for aligning motor assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervington, Roger M.; Vaghani, Vallabh V.; Vanek, Laurence D.; Christensen, Scott A.

    2009-12-08

    An alignment fixture includes a rotor fixture, a stator fixture and a sensor system which measures a rotational displacement therebetween. The fixture precisely measures rotation of a generator stator assembly away from a NULL position referenced by a unique reference spline on the rotor shaft. By providing an adjustable location of the stator assembly within the housing, the magnetic axes within each generator shall be aligned to a predetermined and controlled tolerance between the generator interface mounting pin and the reference spline on the rotor shaft. Once magnetically aligned, each generator is essentially a line replaceable unit which may be readily mounted to any input of a multi-generator gearbox assembly with the assurance that the magnetic alignment will be within a predetermined tolerance.

  12. Aligning with New Digital Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeow, Adrian; Soh, Christina; Hansen, Rina

    2018-01-01

    Prior IS research has not fully addressed the aligning process in the highly dynamic context of digital strategy. To address this gap, we conduct a longitudinal analysis of a B2B company's journey to enact its B2C digital strategy, using the dynamic capabilities approach. We found...... that as an organization shifts towards a digital strategy, misalignments between the emergent strategy and resources give rise to tension. Our study resulted in the development of an aligning process model that is comprised of three phases (exploratory, building, and extending) and generalizable organizational aligning...... actions that form the organization's sensing, seizing, and transforming capacities. These aligning actions iteratively reconfigured organizational resources and refined strategy in order to respond to both changes in the environment and internal tensions. We also recognized that there are challenges...

  13. RNA Structural Alignments, Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havgaard, Jakob Hull; Gorodkin, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous alignment and secondary structure prediction of RNA sequences is often referred to as "RNA structural alignment." A class of the methods for structural alignment is based on the principles proposed by Sankoff more than 25 years ago. The Sankoff algorithm simultaneously folds and aligns...... is so high that it took more than a decade before the first implementation of a Sankoff style algorithm was published. However, with the faster computers available today and the improved heuristics used in the implementations the Sankoff-based methods have become practical. This chapter describes...... the methods based on the Sankoff algorithm. All the practical implementations of the algorithm use heuristics to make them run in reasonable time and memory. These heuristics are also described in this chapter....

  14. Semiautomated improvement of RNA alignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ebbe Sloth; Lind-Thomsen, Allan; Knudsen, Bjarne

    2007-01-01

    connects to external tools to provide a flexible semiautomatic editing environment. A new method, Pcluster, is introduced for dividing the sequences of an RNA alignment into subgroups with secondary structure differences. Pcluster was used to evaluate 574 seed alignments obtained from the Rfam database...... and we identified 71 alignments with significant prediction of inconsistent base pairs and 102 alignments with significant prediction of novel base pairs. Four RNA families were used to illustrate how SARSE can be used to manually or automatically correct the inconsistent base pairs detected by Pcluster......: the mir-399 RNA, vertebrate telomase RNA (vert-TR), bacterial transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA), and the signal recognition particle (SRP) RNA. The general use of the method is illustrated by the ability to accommodate pseudoknots and handle even large and divergent RNA families. The open architecture...

  15. XRD alignment, calibration and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davy, L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The quality of any diffractometer system is very much dependent on the alignment, calibration and performance. The three subjects are very much related. Firstly, you must know how to carry out the full diffractometer alignment. XRD alignment is easy once you know how. The presentation will show you step by step to carry out the full alignment. Secondly, you need to know how to calibrate the diffractometer system. The presentation will show you how to calibrate the goniometer, detector etc. Thirdly, to prove the system is working within the manufacturer specification. The presentation will show you how to carry out the resolution, reproducibility and linearity test. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  16. Sensing Characteristics of A Precision Aligner Using Moire Gratings for Precision Alignment System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Lizhong; Hideo Furuhashi; Yoshiyuki Uchida

    2001-01-01

    Sensing characteristics of a precision aligner using moire gratings for precision alignment sysem has been investigated. A differential moire alignment system and a modified alignment system were used. The influence of the setting accuracy of the gap length and inclination of gratings on the alignment accuracy has been studied experimentally and theoretically. Setting accuracy of the gap length less than 2.5μm is required in modified moire alignment. There is no influence of the gap length on the alignment accuracy in the differential alignment system. The inclination affects alignment accuracies in both differential and modified moire alignment systems.

  17. Self-Aligned van der Waals Heterojunction Diodes and Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwan, Vinod K; Beck, Megan E; Henning, Alex; Luo, Jiajia; Bergeron, Hadallia; Kang, Junmo; Balla, Itamar; Inbar, Hadass; Lauhon, Lincoln J; Hersam, Mark C

    2018-02-14

    A general self-aligned fabrication scheme is reported here for a diverse class of electronic devices based on van der Waals materials and heterojunctions. In particular, self-alignment enables the fabrication of source-gated transistors in monolayer MoS 2 with near-ideal current saturation characteristics and channel lengths down to 135 nm. Furthermore, self-alignment of van der Waals p-n heterojunction diodes achieves complete electrostatic control of both the p-type and n-type constituent semiconductors in a dual-gated geometry, resulting in gate-tunable mean and variance of antiambipolar Gaussian characteristics. Through finite-element device simulations, the operating principles of source-gated transistors and dual-gated antiambipolar devices are elucidated, thus providing design rules for additional devices that employ self-aligned geometries. For example, the versatility of this scheme is demonstrated via contact-doped MoS 2 homojunction diodes and mixed-dimensional heterojunctions based on organic semiconductors. The scalability of this approach is also shown by fabricating self-aligned short-channel transistors with subdiffraction channel lengths in the range of 150-800 nm using photolithography on large-area MoS 2 films grown by chemical vapor deposition. Overall, this self-aligned fabrication method represents an important step toward the scalable integration of van der Waals heterojunction devices into more sophisticated circuits and systems.

  18. The Rigors of Aligning Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    importance of the organization’s goals. To better align the commands goals with departmental goals, setting and continuously communicating goals and goal...which is vital to highlight the importance of the organization’s goals. To better align the commands goals with departmental goals, setting and...result of the 2004 organizational restructure, and as defined in the CONOPS, NAVFAC now operates as a matrix organization with integrated “vertical

  19. A comparative study of two different clear aligner systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercoli, Federica; Tepedino, Michele; Parziale, Vincenzo; Luzi, Cesare

    2014-05-02

    This study aims to compare the 'Nuvola®' system with 'Fantasmino®' system, examine their material properties, and define the indications for use of the aligners. Two groups of patients were selected and were respectively treated with Nuvola® aligner and Fantasmino® system. The goal of treatment has been achieved with the two systems. The two types of aligners have shown differences during the treatment. Fantasmino® system has elastic properties of high performance, but its size does not encourage compliance throughout the day. Nuvola® system determines good tooth movement and its size facilitates the patient's collaboration. In both aligner systems, difficulties were found in the correction of torque information and rotations.

  20. BinAligner: a heuristic method to align biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jialiang; Li, Jun; Grünewald, Stefan; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2013-01-01

    The advances in high throughput omics technologies have made it possible to characterize molecular interactions within and across various species. Alignments and comparison of molecular networks across species will help detect orthologs and conserved functional modules and provide insights on the evolutionary relationships of the compared species. However, such analyses are not trivial due to the complexity of network and high computational cost. Here we develop a mixture of global and local algorithm, BinAligner, for network alignments. Based on the hypotheses that the similarity between two vertices across networks would be context dependent and that the information from the edges and the structures of subnetworks can be more informative than vertices alone, two scoring schema, 1-neighborhood subnetwork and graphlet, were introduced to derive the scoring matrices between networks, besides the commonly used scoring scheme from vertices. Then the alignment problem is formulated as an assignment problem, which is solved by the combinatorial optimization algorithm, such as the Hungarian method. The proposed algorithm was applied and validated in aligning the protein-protein interaction network of Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and that of varicella zoster virus (VZV). Interestingly, we identified several putative functional orthologous proteins with similar functions but very low sequence similarity between the two viruses. For example, KSHV open reading frame 56 (ORF56) and VZV ORF55 are helicase-primase subunits with sequence identity 14.6%, and KSHV ORF75 and VZV ORF44 are tegument proteins with sequence identity 15.3%. These functional pairs can not be identified if one restricts the alignment into orthologous protein pairs. In addition, BinAligner identified a conserved pathway between two viruses, which consists of 7 orthologous protein pairs and these proteins are connected by conserved links. This pathway might be crucial for virus packing and

  1. Disruption of myoblast alignment by highly motile rhabdomyosarcoma cell in tissue structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Menglu; Nagamori, Eiji; Kino-Oka, Masahiro

    2017-02-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a highly malignant tumor type of skeletal muscle origin, hallmarked by local invasion. Interaction between invasive tumor cells and normal cells plays a major role in tumor invasion and metastasis. Culturing tumor cells in a three-dimensional (3D) model can translate tumor malignancy relevant cell-cell interaction. To mimic tumor heterogeneity in vitro, a co-culture system consisting of a malignant embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) cell line RD and a normal human skeletal muscle myoblast (HSMM) cell line was established by cell sheet technology. Various ratios of RDs to HSMMs were employed to understand the quantitative effect on intercellular interactions. Disruption of sheet structure was observed in heterogeneous cell sheets having a low ratio of RDs to HSMMs, whereas homogeneous HSMM or RD sheets maintained intact structure. Deeper exploration of dynamic tumor cell behavior inside HSMM sheets revealed that HSMM cell alignment was disrupted by highly motile RDs. This study demonstrated that RMS cells are capable of compromising their surrounding environment through induced decay of HSMMs alignment in a cell-based 3D system. This suggests that muscle disruption might be a major consequence of RMS cell invasion into muscles, which could be a promising target to preventing tumor invasion. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Normalization of Hepatic Homeostasis in the Npc1nmf164 Mouse Model of Niemann-Pick Type C Disease Treated with the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Vorinostat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkacsi, Andrew B; Hammond, Natalie; Schneider, Remy T; Senanayake, Dinindu S; Higaki, Katsumi; Lagutin, Kirill; Bloor, Stephen J; Ory, Daniel S; Maue, Robert A; Chen, Fannie W; Hernandez-Ono, Antonio; Dahlson, Nicole; Repa, Joyce J; Ginsberg, Henry N; Ioannou, Yiannis A; Sturley, Stephen L

    2017-03-17

    Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) disease is a fatal genetic lipidosis for which there is no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved therapy. Vorinostat, an FDA-approved inhibitor of histone deacetylases, ameliorates lysosomal lipid accumulation in cultured NP-C patient fibroblasts. To assess the therapeutic potential of histone deacetylase inhibition, we pursued these in vitro observations in two murine models of NP-C disease. Npc1 nmf164 mice, which express a missense mutation in the Npc1 gene, were treated intraperitoneally, from weaning, with the maximum tolerated dose of vorinostat (150 mg/kg, 5 days/week). Disease progression was measured via gene expression, liver function and pathology, serum and tissue lipid levels, body weight, and life span. Transcriptome analyses of treated livers indicated multiple changes consistent with reversal of liver dysfunction that typifies NP-C disease. Significant improvements in liver pathology and function were achieved by this treatment regimen; however, NPC1 protein maturation and levels, disease progression, weight loss, and animal morbidity were not detectably altered. Vorinostat concentrations were >200 μm in the plasma compartment of treated animals but were almost 100-fold lower in brain tissue. Apolipoprotein B metabolism and the expression of key components of lipid homeostasis in primary hepatocytes from null ( Npc1 -/- ) and missense ( Npc1 nmf164 ) mutant mice were altered by vorinostat treatment, consistent with a response by these cells independent of the status of the Npc1 locus. These results suggest that HDAC inhibitors have utility to treat visceral NP-C disease. However, it is clear that improved blood-brain barrier penetration will be required to alleviate the neurological symptoms of human NP-C disease. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Normalization of Hepatic Homeostasis in the Npc1nmf164 Mouse Model of Niemann-Pick Type C Disease Treated with the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Vorinostat*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkacsi, Andrew B.; Hammond, Natalie; Schneider, Remy T.; Senanayake, Dinindu S.; Higaki, Katsumi; Lagutin, Kirill; Bloor, Stephen J.; Ory, Daniel S.; Maue, Robert A.; Chen, Fannie W.; Hernandez-Ono, Antonio; Dahlson, Nicole; Repa, Joyce J.; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Ioannou, Yiannis A.; Sturley, Stephen L.

    2017-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) disease is a fatal genetic lipidosis for which there is no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved therapy. Vorinostat, an FDA-approved inhibitor of histone deacetylases, ameliorates lysosomal lipid accumulation in cultured NP-C patient fibroblasts. To assess the therapeutic potential of histone deacetylase inhibition, we pursued these in vitro observations in two murine models of NP-C disease. Npc1nmf164 mice, which express a missense mutation in the Npc1 gene, were treated intraperitoneally, from weaning, with the maximum tolerated dose of vorinostat (150 mg/kg, 5 days/week). Disease progression was measured via gene expression, liver function and pathology, serum and tissue lipid levels, body weight, and life span. Transcriptome analyses of treated livers indicated multiple changes consistent with reversal of liver dysfunction that typifies NP-C disease. Significant improvements in liver pathology and function were achieved by this treatment regimen; however, NPC1 protein maturation and levels, disease progression, weight loss, and animal morbidity were not detectably altered. Vorinostat concentrations were >200 μm in the plasma compartment of treated animals but were almost 100-fold lower in brain tissue. Apolipoprotein B metabolism and the expression of key components of lipid homeostasis in primary hepatocytes from null (Npc1−/−) and missense (Npc1nmf164) mutant mice were altered by vorinostat treatment, consistent with a response by these cells independent of the status of the Npc1 locus. These results suggest that HDAC inhibitors have utility to treat visceral NP-C disease. However, it is clear that improved blood-brain barrier penetration will be required to alleviate the neurological symptoms of human NP-C disease. PMID:28031458

  4. Only marginal alignment of disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrae, René; Jahnke, Knud

    2011-12-01

    Testing theories of angular-momentum acquisition of rotationally supported disc galaxies is the key to understanding the formation of this type of galaxies. The tidal-torque theory aims to explain this acquisition process in a cosmological framework and predicts positive autocorrelations of angular-momentum orientation and spiral-arm handedness, i.e. alignment of disc galaxies, on short distance scales of 1 Mpc h-1. This disc alignment can also cause systematic effects in weak-lensing measurements. Previous observations claimed discovering these correlations but are overly optimistic in the reported level of statistical significance of the detections. Errors in redshift, ellipticity and morphological classifications were not taken into account, although they have a significant impact. We explain how to rigorously propagate all the important errors through the estimation process. Analysing disc galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data base, we find that positive autocorrelations of spiral-arm handedness and angular-momentum orientations on distance scales of 1 Mpc h-1 are plausible but not statistically significant. Current data appear not good enough to constrain parameters of theory. This result agrees with a simple hypothesis test in the Local Group, where we also find no evidence for disc alignment. Moreover, we demonstrate that ellipticity estimates based on second moments are strongly biased by galactic bulges even for Scd galaxies, thereby corrupting correlation estimates and overestimating the impact of disc alignment on weak-lensing studies. Finally, we discuss the potential of future sky surveys. We argue that photometric redshifts have too large errors, i.e. PanSTARRS and LSST cannot be used. Conversely, the EUCLID project will not cover the relevant redshift regime. We also discuss the potentials and problems of front-edge classifications of galaxy discs in order to improve the autocorrelation estimates of angular-momentum orientation.

  5. Probabilidade do erro do tipo I nas cartas X e S de Shewhart sob não normalidade Probability of type I error in X and S Shewhart Control Charts under non-normality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Korzenowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é verificar o comportamento das cartas de média e desvio padrão de Shewhart em relação à probabilidade do erro do tipo I quando da violação da suposição de normalidade. Foi realizada a simulação de uma série de 500.000 amostras (subgrupos de tamanho n = 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20 e 25. As amostras foram simuladas a partir das distribuições normal, t de Student, exponencial, qui-quadrado, gamma e Weibull. Verificou-se em dados não normais o aumento na probabilidade de erro do tipo I na carta de médias em todas as distribuições simuladas. O mínimo tamanho da amostra necessário está relacionado ao grau de assimetria da distribuição dos dados, sendo que, em alguns casos, nem mesmo n = 25 apresentou resultados satisfatórios. No gráfico S, o aumento da probabilidade de erro do tipo I é significativamente superior em quase todas as distribuições simuladas e seu comportamento é influenciado não só pelo tipo de distribuição, mas também pelo tamanho da amostra.The purpose of this article was to examine the performance of Shewhart average and standard deviation control charts in relation to the probability of type I error at the occurrence of normality assumption violation. A simulation of a series of 500,000 samples (subgroups of sizes n=3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20 and 25 was performed. The samples were simulated from the following distributions: Normal, Binomial, Poisson, Exponential, Chi-square, Gamma and Weibull. It was possible to find that, in non-normal data, there was an increase in the probability of type I error on the average chart of all simulated distributions. The minimum sample size required is related to the degree of asymmetry of the data distribution and, in some cases, not even n=25 presented satisfactory results. In the S chart, the increased probability of type I error is significantly higher for almost all distributions simulated and its performance is influenced not only by the type of

  6. VIBRATION DIAGNOSTICS AND VIBRATION ALIGNMENT – EFFECTIVE TOOL TO REDUCE THE COST OF REPAIRS AND MAINTENANCE OF EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Parkhomenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discribes the following types of adjusting rotary equipment such as: balancing in own bearings, on-center alignment and shaft alignment, elimination of soft foot. The vibration alignment is based on the results of vibration diagnostics at production run of OJSC «BSW – Management Company of Holding «BMC». 

  7. Vibration diagnostics and vibration alignment – effective tool to reduce the cost of repairs and maintenance of equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Пархоменко, Ю. В.

    2017-01-01

    The article discribes the following types of adjusting rotary equipment such as: balancing in own bearings, on-center alignment and shaft alignment, elimination of soft foot. The vibration alignment is based on the results of vibration diagnostics at production run of OJSC «BSW – Management Company of Holding «BMC». 

  8. HUMBOLDT alignment editor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horak, J.; Jurikovska, L.; Umlauf, M.; Jezek, J.; Hanzlova, M.; Zlatanova, S.

    2011-01-01

    The process of data harmonization starts with a description of data sources and mapping of differences among heterogeneous source and target data sets. The semantic differences usually include incompatible data schemas (structures, different data types, domains etc.) and differences in content

  9. Geodetic alignment of laser power installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shtorm, V.V.; Gostev, A.M.; Drobikov, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    Main problems occuring in applied geodesy under initial alignment of laser power installation optical channel are considered. Attention is paid to alignment of lens beamguide telescopic pairs and alignment quality control. Methods and means of geodetic measurements under alignment are indicated. Conclusions are made about the degree of working through certain aspects of the problem

  10. The prevalence of hypertension in relation with the normal albuminuria range in type 2 diabetes mellitus within the South Korean population: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Koh-Eun; Roh, Yong-Kyun; Cho, Kyung-Hwan; Han, Kyung-Do; Park, Yong-Gyu; Kim, Do-Hoon; Kim, Yang-Hyun

    2017-06-01

    The coexistence of hypertension (HTN) and diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. In some studies, normal albuminuria has also been associated with cardiovascular disease and HTN. Therefore, we examined the relationships between albuminuria and the prevalence of HTN and its control rate in type 2 DM patients. We analyzed data from the 2011-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and 1188 subjects with type 2 DM were included in the study. We divided albuminuria into 3 albuminuria tertiles (T): T1: hypertension had more ACR T3 (odds ratio=2.018, 95% confidence interval=1.445-2.818) than subjects without HTN. Subjects with controlled HTN had less ACR T3 than subjects without controlled HTN (odds ratio=0.566, 95% confidence interval=0.384-0.836). When, we redivided albuminuria by Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of complement receptors type 1 (CR1, CD35) and 2 (CR2, CD21) in promoting C3 fragment deposition and membrane attack complex formation on normal peripheral human B cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Pedersen, Morten Løbner; Marquart, Hanne Vibeke Hansen

    2002-01-01

    Normal human B lymphocytes are known to activate the alternative pathway (AP) of complement, leading to C3-fragment deposition and membrane attack complex (MAC) formation. The process is mediated via complement receptor type 2 (CR2, CD21), with complement receptor type 1 (CR1, CD35) playing...... a subsidiary role. In this study, we examine the relative contributions of CR1 and CR2 to the deposition of C3 fragments and MAC on B lymphocytes under circumstances where all complement pathways are operational. C3-fragment deposition and MAC formation were assessed on human peripheral B lymphocytes...... in the presence of 30% autologous serum. Blocking the CR2 ligand-binding site with monoclonal antibody (mAb) FE8 resulted in significant reduction (37.9+/-11.9%) in C3-fragment deposition, whereas MAC formation was only marginally affected (12.1+/-22.2% reduction). Blocking the CR1 binding-site resulted...

  12. Alignment method for parabolic trough solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diver, Richard B [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-02-23

    A Theoretical Overlay Photographic (TOP) alignment method uses the overlay of a theoretical projected image of a perfectly aligned concentrator on a photographic image of the concentrator to align the mirror facets of a parabolic trough solar concentrator. The alignment method is practical and straightforward, and inherently aligns the mirror facets to the receiver. When integrated with clinometer measurements for which gravity and mechanical drag effects have been accounted for and which are made in a manner and location consistent with the alignment method, all of the mirrors on a common drive can be aligned and optimized for any concentrator orientation.

  13. Hydrodynamic Cucker-Smale model with normalized communication weights and time delay

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Young-Pil

    2017-07-17

    We study a hydrodynamic Cucker-Smale-type model with time delay in communication and information processing, in which agents interact with each other through normalized communication weights. The model consists of a pressureless Euler system with time delayed non-local alignment forces. We resort to its Lagrangian formulation and prove the existence of its global in time classical solutions. Moreover, we derive a sufficient condition for the asymptotic flocking behavior of the solutions. Finally, we show the presence of a critical phenomenon for the Eulerian system posed in the spatially one-dimensional setting.

  14. Intradomain Textures in Block Copolymers: Multizone Alignment and Biaxiality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ishan; Seo, Youngmi; Hall, Lisa M.; Grason, Gregory M.

    2017-06-01

    Block copolymer (BCP) melt assembly has been studied for decades, focusing largely on self-organized spatial patterns of periodically ordered segment density. Here, we demonstrate that underlying the well-known composition profiles (i.e., ordered lamella, cylinders, spheres, and networks) are generic and heterogeneous patterns of segment orientation that couple strongly to morphology, even in the absence of specific factors that promote intra or interchain segment alignment. We employ both self-consistent field theory and coarse-grained simulation methods to measure polar and nematic order parameters of segments in a freely jointed chain model of diblock melts. We show that BCP morphologies have a multizone texture, with segments predominantly aligned normal and parallel to interdomain interfaces in the respective brush and interfacial regions of the microdomain. Further, morphologies with anisotropically curved interfaces (i.e., cylinders and networks) exhibit biaxial order that is aligned to the principal curvature axes of the interface.

  15. Beam based alignment at the KEK accelerator test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.; Nelson, J.; Woodley, M.; Wolski, A.

    2002-01-01

    The KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) damping ring is a prototype low emittance source for the NLC/JLC linear collider. To achieve the goal normalized vertical emittance gey = 20 nm-rad, magnet placement accuracy better than 30 mm must be achieved. Accurate beam-based alignment (BBA) is required. The ATF arc optics uses a FOBO cell with two horizontally focusing quadrupoles, two sextupoles and a horizontally defocusing gradient dipole, all of which must be aligned with BBA. BBA at ATF uses the quadrupole and sextupole trim windings to find the trajectory through the center of each magnet. The results can be interpreted to assess the accuracy of the mechanical alignment and the beam position monitor offsets

  16. Crowdsourcing RNA structural alignments with an online computer game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldispühl, Jérôme; Kam, Arthur; Gardner, Paul P

    2015-01-01

    The annotation and classification of ncRNAs is essential to decipher molecular mechanisms of gene regulation in normal and disease states. A database such as Rfam maintains alignments, consensus secondary structures, and corresponding annotations for RNA families. Its primary purpose is the automated, accurate annotation of non-coding RNAs in genomic sequences. However, the alignment of RNAs is computationally challenging, and the data stored in this database are often subject to improvements. Here, we design and evaluate Ribo, a human-computing game that aims to improve the accuracy of RNA alignments already stored in Rfam. We demonstrate the potential of our techniques and discuss the feasibility of large scale collaborative annotation and classification of RNA families.

  17. Strategic Alignment and New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acur, Nuran; Kandemir, Destan; Boer, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Strategic alignment is widely accepted as a prerequisite for a firm’s success, but insight into the role of alignment in, and its impact on, the new product evelopment (NPD) process and its performance is less well developed. Most publications on this topic either focus on one form of alignment...... of NPD performance indicators. Strategic planning and innovativeness appear to affect technological, market, and NPD-marketing alignment positively. Environmental munificence is negatively associated with NPD-marketing alignment, but has no effect on the two other forms of alignment. Technological change...... has a positive effect on technological alignment, a negative effect on NPD-marketing alignment, but no effect on market alignment. These findings suggest that internal capabilities are more likely to be associated with the development of strategic alignment than environmental factors are. Furthermore...

  18. DIDA: Distributed Indexing Dispatched Alignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mohamadi

    Full Text Available One essential application in bioinformatics that is affected by the high-throughput sequencing data deluge is the sequence alignment problem, where nucleotide or amino acid sequences are queried against targets to find regions of close similarity. When queries are too many and/or targets are too large, the alignment process becomes computationally challenging. This is usually addressed by preprocessing techniques, where the queries and/or targets are indexed for easy access while searching for matches. When the target is static, such as in an established reference genome, the cost of indexing is amortized by reusing the generated index. However, when the targets are non-static, such as contigs in the intermediate steps of a de novo assembly process, a new index must be computed for each run. To address such scalability problems, we present DIDA, a novel framework that distributes the indexing and alignment tasks into smaller subtasks over a cluster of compute nodes. It provides a workflow beyond the common practice of embarrassingly parallel implementations. DIDA is a cost-effective, scalable and modular framework for the sequence alignment problem in terms of memory usage and runtime. It can be employed in large-scale alignments to draft genomes and intermediate stages of de novo assembly runs. The DIDA source code, sample files and user manual are available through http://www.bcgsc.ca/platform/bioinfo/software/dida. The software is released under the British Columbia Cancer Agency License (BCCA, and is free for academic use.

  19. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  20. Sales Territory Alignment: A Review and Model

    OpenAIRE

    Andris A. Zoltners; Prabhakant Sinha

    1983-01-01

    The sales territory alignment problem may be viewed as the problem of grouping small geographic sales coverage units into larger geographic clusters called sales territories in a way that the sales territories are acceptable according to managerially relevant alignment criteria. This paper first reviews sales territory alignment models which have appeared in the marketing literature. A framework for sales territory alignment and several properties of a good sales territory alignment are devel...

  1. Grain alignment in starless cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T. J.; Bagley, M.; Krejny, M.; Andersson, B.-G.; Bastien, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present near-IR polarimetry data of background stars shining through a selection of starless cores taken in the K band, probing visual extinctions up to A V ∼48. We find that P K /τ K continues to decline with increasing A V with a power law slope of roughly −0.5. Examination of published submillimeter (submm) polarimetry of starless cores suggests that by A V ≳20 the slope for P versus τ becomes ∼−1, indicating no grain alignment at greater optical depths. Combining these two data sets, we find good evidence that, in the absence of a central illuminating source, the dust grains in dense molecular cloud cores with no internal radiation source cease to become aligned with the local magnetic field at optical depths greater than A V ∼20. A simple model relating the alignment efficiency to the optical depth into the cloud reproduces the observations well.

  2. Laser shaft alignment measurement model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Chang-tao; Chen, Changzheng; Hou, Xiang-lin; Zhang, Guoyu

    2007-12-01

    Laser beam's track which is on photosensitive surface of the a receiver will be closed curve, when driving shaft and the driven shaft rotate with same angular velocity and rotation direction. The coordinate of arbitrary point which is on the curve is decided by the relative position of two shafts. Basing on the viewpoint, a mathematic model of laser alignment is set up. By using a data acquisition system and a data processing model of laser alignment meter with single laser beam and a detector, and basing on the installation parameter of computer, the state parameter between two shafts can be obtained by more complicated calculation and correction. The correcting data of the four under chassis of the adjusted apparatus moving on the level and the vertical plane can be calculated. This will instruct us to move the apparatus to align the shafts.

  3. Adaptive Processing for Sequence Alignment

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.; Bonny, Talal; Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments for adaptive processing for sequence alignment. In one embodiment, among others, a method includes obtaining a query sequence and a plurality of database sequences. A first portion of the plurality of database sequences is distributed to a central processing unit (CPU) and a second portion of the plurality of database sequences is distributed to a graphical processing unit (GPU) based upon a predetermined splitting ratio associated with the plurality of database sequences, where the database sequences of the first portion are shorter than the database sequences of the second portion. A first alignment score for the query sequence is determined with the CPU based upon the first portion of the plurality of database sequences and a second alignment score for the query sequence is determined with the GPU based upon the second portion of the plurality of database sequences.

  4. Adaptive Processing for Sequence Alignment

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2012-01-26

    Disclosed are various embodiments for adaptive processing for sequence alignment. In one embodiment, among others, a method includes obtaining a query sequence and a plurality of database sequences. A first portion of the plurality of database sequences is distributed to a central processing unit (CPU) and a second portion of the plurality of database sequences is distributed to a graphical processing unit (GPU) based upon a predetermined splitting ratio associated with the plurality of database sequences, where the database sequences of the first portion are shorter than the database sequences of the second portion. A first alignment score for the query sequence is determined with the CPU based upon the first portion of the plurality of database sequences and a second alignment score for the query sequence is determined with the GPU based upon the second portion of the plurality of database sequences.

  5. Advanced Alignment of the ATLAS Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Pedraza Lopez, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    In order to reconstruct trajectories of charged particles, ATLAS is equipped with a tracking system built using different technologies embedded in a 2T solenoidal magnetic field. ATLAS physics goals require high resolution, unbiased measurement of all charged particle kinematic parameters in order to assure accurate invariant mass reconstruction and interaction and decay vertex finding. These critically depend on the systematic effects related to the alignment of the tracking system. In order to eliminate malicious systematic deformations, various advanced tools and techniques have been put in place. These include information from known mass resonances, energy of electrons and positrons measured by the electromagnetic calorimeters, etc. Despite being stable under normal running conditions, ATLAS tracking system responses to sudden environ-mental changes (temperature, magnetic field) by small collective deformations. These have to be identified and corrected in order to assure uniform, highest quality tracking...

  6. Replacing fuel alignment in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poetz, F.; Kalthoff, W.

    1991-01-01

    Up to the end of 1989 varying numbers of broken fuel alignment pins were detected in several German PWRs (80 broken pins in all). The distribution of these broken pins over the core cross-section was more or less random. The problem was due to the stress corrosion cracking of the pin material and was restricted to individual pins. It was concluded that all fuel alignment pins made of Inconel X-750 should be replaced. The development of a new pin, more resistant to intergranular stress corrosion, and the replacement technique are outlined. (author)

  7. Measurements of magnetic field alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchnir, M.; Schmidt, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    The procedure for installing Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipoles in their respective cryostats involves aligning the average direction of their field with the vertical to an accuracy of 0.5 mrad. The equipment developed for carrying on these measurements is described and the measurements performed on the first few prototypes SSC magnets are presented. The field angle as a function of position in these 16.6 m long magnets is a characteristic of the individual magnet with possible feedback information to its manufacturing procedure. A comparison of this vertical alignment characteristic with a magnetic field intensity (by NMR) characteristic for one of the prototypes is also presented. 5 refs., 7 figs

  8. XUV ionization of aligned molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkensberg, F.; Siu, W.; Gademann, G. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rouzee, A.; Vrakking, M. J. J. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Max-Born-Institut, Max-Born Strasse 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Johnsson, P. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Physics, Lund University, Post Office Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Lucchini, M. [Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano, Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie CNR-IFN, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Lucchese, R. R. [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3255 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    New extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) light sources such as high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) and free-electron lasers (FELs), combined with laser-induced alignment techniques, enable novel methods for making molecular movies based on measuring molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions. Experiments are presented where CO{sub 2} molecules were impulsively aligned using a near-infrared laser and ionized using femtosecond XUV pulses obtained by HHG. Measured electron angular distributions reveal contributions from four orbitals and the onset of the influence of the molecular structure.

  9. XUV ionization of aligned molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelkensberg, F.; Siu, W.; Gademann, G.; Rouzee, A.; Vrakking, M. J. J.; Johnsson, P.; Lucchini, M.; Lucchese, R. R.

    2011-01-01

    New extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) light sources such as high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) and free-electron lasers (FELs), combined with laser-induced alignment techniques, enable novel methods for making molecular movies based on measuring molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions. Experiments are presented where CO 2 molecules were impulsively aligned using a near-infrared laser and ionized using femtosecond XUV pulses obtained by HHG. Measured electron angular distributions reveal contributions from four orbitals and the onset of the influence of the molecular structure.

  10. The Relationship Between Foot and Pelvic Alignment While Standing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamis Sam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A normal motion and segmental interrelationship has been determined as a significant factor in normal function. Yet, the relationship between distal segments and pelvic alignment needs further investigation. The aim of this study was to investigate the interrelationship between distal and proximal lower extremity segments while standing and during induced feet hyperpronation. Changes in alignment of the pelvis and lower extremities were measured at a gait laboratory using the VICON 612 computerized motion analysis system. Thirty-five healthy volunteer subjects were recruited. Four randomized repeated-measure standing modes were used: standing directly on the floor and then on three wedges angled at 10°, 15° and 20° to induce bilateral hyperpronation for 20 seconds. A significant (p<0.05 bi-variate relationship was found between the anterior pelvic tilt and thigh internal rotation, in all four standing positions (.41≤r≤.46, in all p<0.014. A combined effect of rotational alignment between segments and the cumulative effect of foot hyperpronation on pelvic tilt revealed that only the shank significantly affected pelvic alignment, acting as a mediator between a foot and a thigh with the thigh having a crude significant effect on the pelvis. When internal rotation of the shank occurs, calcaneal eversion couples with thigh internal rotation and anterior pelvic tilt. It can be concluded that in response to induced hyperpronation, the shank is a pivotal segment in postural adjustment.

  11. A Comparative Study of the Monitoring of a Self Aligning Spherical Journal using Surface Vibration, Airborne Sound and Acoustic Emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raharjo, P; Tesfa, B; Gu, F; Ball, A D

    2012-01-01

    A Self aligning spherical journal bearing is a plain bearing which has spherical surface contact that can be applied in high power industrial machinery. This type of bearing can accommodate a misalignment problem. The journal bearing faults degrade machine performance, decrease life time service and cause unexpected failure which are dangerous for safety issues. Non-intrusive measurements such as surface vibration (SV), airborne sound (AS) and acoustic emission (AE) measurement are appropriate monitoring methods for early stage journal bearing fault in low, medium and high frequency. This paper focuses on the performance comparison using SV, AS and AE measurements in monitoring a self aligning spherical journal bearing for normal and faulty (scratch) conditions. It examines the signals in the time domain and frequency domain and identifies the frequency ranges for each measurement in which significant changes are observed. The results of SV, AS and AE experiments indicate that the spectrum can be used to detect the differences between normal and faulty bearing. The statistic parameter shows that RMS value and peak value for faulty bearing is higher than normal bearing.

  12. ''Identical'' bands in normally-deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, J.D.; Baktash, C.; Yu, C.H.

    1990-01-01

    Gamma-ray transitions energies in neighboring odd- and even-mass nuclei for normally-deformed nuclear configurations are analyzed in a manner similar to recent analyses for superdeformed states. The moment of inertia is shown to depend on pair correlations and the aligned angular momentum of the odd nucleon. The implications of this analysis for ''identical'' super-deformed bands are discussed. 26 refs., 9 figs

  13. Statistical distributions of optimal global alignment scores of random protein sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Jiaowei

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inference of homology from statistically significant sequence similarity is a central issue in sequence alignments. So far the statistical distribution function underlying the optimal global alignments has not been completely determined. Results In this study, random and real but unrelated sequences prepared in six different ways were selected as reference datasets to obtain their respective statistical distributions of global alignment scores. All alignments were carried out with the Needleman-Wunsch algorithm and optimal scores were fitted to the Gumbel, normal and gamma distributions respectively. The three-parameter gamma distribution performs the best as the theoretical distribution function of global alignment scores, as it agrees perfectly well with the distribution of alignment scores. The normal distribution also agrees well with the score distribution frequencies when the shape parameter of the gamma distribution is sufficiently large, for this is the scenario when the normal distribution can be viewed as an approximation of the gamma distribution. Conclusion We have shown that the optimal global alignment scores of random protein sequences fit the three-parameter gamma distribution function. This would be useful for the inference of homology between sequences whose relationship is unknown, through the evaluation of gamma distribution significance between sequences.

  14. Progressive multiple sequence alignments from triplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stadler Peter F

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of progressive sequence alignments strongly depends on the accuracy of the individual pairwise alignment steps since gaps that are introduced at one step cannot be removed at later aggregation steps. Adjacent insertions and deletions necessarily appear in arbitrary order in pairwise alignments and hence form an unavoidable source of errors. Research Here we present a modified variant of progressive sequence alignments that addresses both issues. Instead of pairwise alignments we use exact dynamic programming to align sequence or profile triples. This avoids a large fractions of the ambiguities arising in pairwise alignments. In the subsequent aggregation steps we follow the logic of the Neighbor-Net algorithm, which constructs a phylogenetic network by step-wisely replacing triples by pairs instead of combining pairs to singletons. To this end the three-way alignments are subdivided into two partial alignments, at which stage all-gap columns are naturally removed. This alleviates the "once a gap, always a gap" problem of progressive alignment procedures. Conclusion The three-way Neighbor-Net based alignment program aln3nn is shown to compare favorably on both protein sequences and nucleic acids sequences to other progressive alignment tools. In the latter case one easily can include scoring terms that consider secondary structure features. Overall, the quality of resulting alignments in general exceeds that of clustalw or other multiple alignments tools even though our software does not included heuristics for context dependent (mismatch scores.

  15. Alignment of diabetic feet images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Almar; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Slump, Cornelis H.; Uyl, M.J.; Philips, W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of aligning the images of feet taken at different instances in time. We propose to use SIFT keypoints to find the geometric deformation between two photo’s. We then have a set of landmarks for each image. By finding the corresponding landmarks (i.e. matching the

  16. Aligning Assessments for COSMA Accreditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Curt; Johnson, Dennis A.; Alderman, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Many higher education sport management programs are currently in the process of seeking accreditation from the Commission on Sport Management Accreditation (COSMA). This article provides a best-practice method for aligning student learning outcomes with a sport management program's mission and goals. Formative and summative assessment procedures…

  17. Enhancing Teaching through Constructive Alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, John

    1996-01-01

    An approach to college-level instructional design that incorporates the principles of constructivism, termed "constructive alignment," is described. The process is then illustrated with reference to a professional development unit in educational psychology for teachers, but the model is viewed as generalizable to most units or programs in higher…

  18. Global alignment algorithms implementations | Fatumo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we implemented the two routes for sequence comparison, that is; the dotplot and Needleman-wunsch algorithm for global sequence alignment. Our algorithms were implemented in python programming language and were tested on Linux platform 1.60GHz, 512 MB of RAM SUSE 9.2 and 10.1 versions.

  19. H2O2 homeostasis in wild-type and ethylene-insensitive Never ripe tomato in response to salicylic acid treatment in normal photoperiod and in prolonged darkness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Zoltán; Poór, Péter; Borbély, Péter; Czékus, Zalán; Szalai, Gabriella; Tari, Irma

    2018-05-01

    Ethylene proved to be an important modulator of salicylic acid (SA) signalling pathway. Since SA may regulate both the production and scavenging of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), which show light-dependency, the aim of this study was to compare H 2 O 2 metabolism in the leaves of SA-treated wild-type (WT) tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Ailsa Craig) and in ethylene receptor Never-ripe (Nr) mutants grown in normal photoperiod or in prolonged darkness. H 2 O 2 accumulation was higher in the WT than in the mutants in normal photoperiod after 1 mM SA treatment, while Nr leaves contained more H 2 O 2 after light deprivation. The expression of certain superoxide dismutase (SOD) genes and activity of the enzyme followed the same tendency as H 2 O 2 , which was scavenged by different enzymes in the two genotypes. Catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity was inhibited by SA in WT, while the mutants maintained enhanced enzyme activity in the dark. Thus, in WT, CAT inhibition was the major component of the H 2 O 2 accumulation elicited by 1 mM SA in a normal photoperiod, since the expression and/or activity of ascorbate (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) and guaiacol peroxidases (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) were induced in the leaves. The absence of APX and POD activation in mutant plants suggests that the regulation of these enzymes by SA needs functional ethylene signalling. While the block of ethylene perception in Nr mutants was overwritten in the transcription and activity of certain SOD and CAT isoenzymes during prolonged darkness, the low APX and POD activities led to H 2 O 2 accumulation in these tissues. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Aligned Layers of Silver Nano-Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii B. Golovin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new dichroic polarizers made by ordering silver nano-fibers to aligned layers. The aligned layers consist of nano-fibers and self-assembled molecular aggregates of lyotropic liquid crystals. Unidirectional alignment of the layers is achieved by means of mechanical shearing. Aligned layers of silver nano-fibers are partially transparent to a linearly polarized electromagnetic radiation. The unidirectional alignment and density of the silver nano-fibers determine degree of polarization of transmitted light. The aligned layers of silver nano-fibers might be used in optics, microwave applications, and organic electronics.

  1. Normal-Force and Hinge-Moment Characteristics at Transonic Speeds of Flap-Type Ailerons at Three Spanwise Locations on a 4-Percent-Thick Sweptback-Wing-Body Model and Pressure-Distribution Measurements on an Inboard Aileron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runckel, Jack F.; Hieser, Gerald

    1961-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted at the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel to determine the loading characteristics of flap-type ailerons located at inboard, midspan, and outboard positions on a 45 deg. sweptback-wing-body combination. Aileron normal-force and hinge-moment data have been obtained at Mach numbers from 0.80 t o 1.03, at angles of attack up to about 27 deg., and at aileron deflections between approximately -15 deg. and 15 deg. Results of the investigation indicate that the loading over the ailerons was established by the wing-flow characteristics, and the loading shapes were irregular in the transonic speed range. The spanwise location of the aileron had little effect on the values of the slope of the curves of hinge-moment coefficient against aileron deflection, but the inboard aileron had the greatest value of the slope of the curves of hinge-moment coefficient against angle of attack and the outboard aileron had the least. Hinge-moment and aileron normal-force data taken with strain-gage instrumentation are compared with data obtained with pressure measurements.

  2. Alignment of crystal orientations of the multi-domain photonic crystals in Parides sesostris wing scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, S.; Fujita, H.; Kinoshita, S.; Matsuhana, B.

    2014-01-01

    It is known that the wing scales of the emerald-patched cattleheart butterfly, Parides sesostris, contain gyroid-type photonic crystals, which produce a green structural colour. However, the photonic crystal is not a single crystal that spreads over the entire scale, but it is separated into many small domains with different crystal orientations. As a photonic crystal generally has band gaps at different frequencies depending on the direction of light propagation, it seems mysterious that the scale is observed to be uniformly green under an optical microscope despite the multi-domain structure. In this study, we have carefully investigated the structure of the wing scale and discovered that the crystal orientations of different domains are not perfectly random, but there is a preferred crystal orientation that is aligned along the surface normal of the scale. This finding suggests that there is an additional factor during the developmental process of the microstructure that regulates the crystal orientation. PMID:24352678

  3. Getting Your Peaks in Line: A Review of Alignment Methods for NMR Spectral Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung Nghia Vu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant challenges in the comparative analysis of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR metabolome profiles is the occurrence of shifts between peaks across different spectra, for example caused by fluctuations in pH, temperature, instrument factors and ion content. Proper alignment of spectral peaks is therefore often a crucial preprocessing step prior to downstream quantitative analysis. Various alignment methods have been developed specifically for this purpose. Other methods were originally developed to align other data types (GC, LC, SELDI-MS, etc., but can also be applied to NMR data. This review discusses the available methods, as well as related problems such as reference determination or the evaluation of alignment quality. We present a generic alignment framework that allows for comparison and classification of different alignment approaches according to their algorithmic principles, and we discuss their performance.

  4. GraphAlignment: Bayesian pairwise alignment of biological networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, Michal; Meier, J.; Mustonen, V.; Lässig, M.; Berg, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 6, November 21 (2012) ISSN 1752-0509 Grant - others:Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) SFB 680; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) SFB-TR12; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) BE 2478/2-1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Graph alignment * Biological networks * Parameter estimation * Bioconductor Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.982, year: 2012

  5. Nanoscratch technique for aligning multiwalled carbon nanotubes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carbon nanotube; arc discharge; characterization; alignment; nanoscratch. 1. Introduction ... During arc discharge, when the gap between the electrodes is ∼ 1 mm, ..... increase in the D band intensity in the aligned region may not be possibly ...

  6. Fiducialisation and initial alignment of CLIC component with micrometric accuracy

    CERN Document Server

    Mainaud Durand, Helene; Buzio, Marco; Caiazza, Domenico; Catalan Lasheras, Nuria; Cherif, Ahmed; Doytchinov, Iordan Petrov; Fuchs, Jean-Frederic; Gaddi, Andrea; Galindo Munoz, Natalia; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Kamugasa, Solomon William; Modena, Michele; Novotny, Peter; Sanz, Claude; Severino, Giordana; Russenschuck, Stephan; Tshilumba, David; Vlachakis, Vasileios; Wendt, Manfred; Zorzetti, Silvia; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new solution to fiducialise the three major components of the CLIC collider: quadrupoles, beam-position monitors (BPM), and accelerating structures (AS). This solution is based on the use of a copper-beryllium (CuBe) wire to locate the reference position, i.e. the symmetry axes of the components (their magnetic, respectively electromagnetic centre axis), and to determine their position in the common support assembly defining a local coordinate system, with respect to the fiducials. These alignment targets will be used later to align the support assembly in the tunnel. With such a method, several accelerator components of different types, supported by a dedicated adjustment system, can be simultaneously fiducialised and pre-aligned using the same wire, enabling a micrometric accuracy with help of a 3D coordinate measurement machine (CMM). Alternative solutions based on frequency scanning interferometry (FSI) and micro-triangulation are also under development, to perform such fiducialisation and in...

  7. Assessing strategic alignment to improve IT effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.T.; Fairchild, A.M.; Ribbers, P.M.A.; Milis, K.; van Geel, E.; Markus, M.L.; Hampe, J.F.; Gricar, J.; Pucihar, A.; Lenart, G.

    2009-01-01

    A long running challenge in both large and small organizations has been aligning information systems services with business needs. Good alignment is assumed to lead to good business results, but there is a need for good instruments to assess strategic alignment and business success in practice.

  8. Curricular Alignment: A Re-examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.

    2002-01-01

    Examines key differences among content coverage, opportunity to learn, and curriculum alignment, suggesting that the revised Taxonomy provides a framework for analyzing curriculum alignment and illustrating how the Taxonomy Table can be used to estimate curriculum alignment. The paper notes that the revised Taxonomy enables educators to probe…

  9. Alignment of the VISA Undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruland, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the R and D program towards a fourth generation light source, a Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) demonstration is being prepared. The Visible-Infrared SASE Amplifier (VISA) undulator is being installed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The VISA undulator is an in-vacuum, 4-meter long, 1.8 cm period, pure-permanent magnet device, with a novel, strong focusing, permanent magnet FODO array included within the fixed, 6 mm undulator gap. The undulator is constructed of 99 cm long segments. To attain maximum SASE gain requires establishing overlap of electron and photon beams to within 50 pm rms. This imposes challenging tolerances on mechanical fabrication and magnetic field quality, and necessitates use of laser straightness interferometry for calibration and alignment of the magnetic axes of the undulator segments. This paper describes the magnetic centerline determination, and the fiducialization and alignment processes, which were performed to meet the tolerance goal

  10. Position list word aligned hybrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deliege, Francois; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    Compressed bitmap indexes are increasingly used for efficiently querying very large and complex databases. The Word Aligned Hybrid (WAH) bitmap compression scheme is commonly recognized as the most efficient compression scheme in terms of CPU efficiency. However, WAH compressed bitmaps use a lot...... of storage space. This paper presents the Position List Word Aligned Hybrid (PLWAH) compression scheme that improves significantly over WAH compression by better utilizing the available bits and new CPU instructions. For typical bit distributions, PLWAH compressed bitmaps are often half the size of WAH...... bitmaps and, at the same time, offer an even better CPU efficiency. The results are verified by theoretical estimates and extensive experiments on large amounts of both synthetic and real-world data....

  11. The Influence of Natural Head Position on the Cervical Sagittal Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study investigated the relationship between the parameters related to the natural head position and cervical segmental angles and alignment of patients with neck pain. Material and Methods. The lateral radiographs of the cervical spine were collected from 103 patients and were used to retrospectively analyze the correlation between the natural head position, cervical local sagittal angles, and alignment. Sagittal measurements were as follows: cervical curvature classification, slope of McGregor’s line (McGS, local sagittal angles (C0–C2 angle, C2–C5 angle, C5–C7 angle, and C2–C7 angle, T1 slope, center of gravity of the head to sagittal vertical axis (CG–C7 SVA, and local sagittal alignment (C0–C2 SVA and C2–C7 SVA. Results. McGS was significantly correlated to C0–C2 angle (r=0.57, C0–C2 SVA (r=−0.53, C2–C7 SVA (r=−0.28, and CG–C7 SVA (r=−0.47. CG–C7 SVA was also significantly correlated to curvature type (r=0.27, C5–C7 angle (r=−0.37, and C2–C7 angle (r=−0.39. Conclusions. A backward shift with an extended head position may accompany a relatively normal curvature of the cervical spine. The effect of posture control in relieving abnormal mechanical state of the cervical spine needs to be further confirmed by biomechanical analysis.

  12. The rigors of aligning performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Andrew; Lucas, James

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This Joint Applied Project addresses what can be done within the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Northwest community to better align its goals among competing interests from various stakeholders, while balancing the operational and regulatory constraints that often conflict with stakeholder goals and objectives. As a cross-functional organization, competing interests among the various business lines, support lines, and other stake...

  13. Alignment in double capture processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto-Capelle, P.; Benhenni, M.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Benoit-Cattin, P.; Gleizes, A.

    1993-01-01

    The electron spectra emitted when a double capture occurs in N 7+ +He and Ne 8+ +He systems at 10 qkeV collisional energy, allow us to determine the angular distributions of the 3 ell 3 ell ' lines through a special spectra fitting procedure which includes interferences between neighbouring states. It is found that the doubly excited states populated in double capture processes are generally aligned

  14. Alignment in double capture processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretto-Capelle, P.; Benhenni, M.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Benoit-Cattin, P.; Gleizes, A. (IRSAMC, URA CNRS 770, Univ. Paul Sabatier, 118 rte de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France))

    1993-06-05

    The electron spectra emitted when a double capture occurs in N[sup 7+]+He and Ne[sup 8+]+He systems at 10 qkeV collisional energy, allow us to determine the angular distributions of the 3[ell]3[ell] [prime] lines through a special spectra fitting procedure which includes interferences between neighbouring states. It is found that the doubly excited states populated in double capture processes are generally aligned.

  15. International Business And Aligning CSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Miret

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The labor relationship between the employer and the workers is evaluated and directed by the labor rights which is a group of legal rights that are derived from human rights. Labor rights are more precisely relative to CSR as CSR are based on perspective and point of view of a given corporation. In this perspective implementing the workers and labor rights becomes more difficult compared to the implementation of the CSR. If an international corporation can be able to align CSR with the labor laws the friction between the employees and the corporation and the employee is likely to reduce. There is need to explore whether multinational corporations can be able to align CSR with the labor rights and employee initiatives global market. In this case the analysis focuses on China Brazil and India as the reference countries with cross-sectional secondary data obtained from a survey of the existing sources on the internet. The pertinent question is whether multinational corporations be successful while aligning CSR Corporate Social Responsibility with labor rights and employee initiatives in a competitive global market based on that cross-sectional data. The findings reveal that the uphold of labor rights largely determines morale of the employees and the will to participate in the growth and development of a given business both locally and international. Notably the continued change of CSR has resulted in the replacement of management and government dominated trade unions with more democratic unions of workers that pay attention to the initiatives of the workers. The combination of the internal code of conduct with the workers association labor associations and movements is one of the credible routes that show CSR can be aligned with labor rights.

  16. Grain alignment in starless cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T. J.; Bagley, M. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Krejny, M. [Cree Inc., 4600 Silicon Dr., Durham, NC (United States); Andersson, B.-G. [SOFIA Science Center, USRA, Moffett Field, CA (United States); Bastien, P., E-mail: tjj@astro.umn.edu [Centre de recherche en astrophysique du Québec and Départment de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal (Canada)

    2015-01-01

    We present near-IR polarimetry data of background stars shining through a selection of starless cores taken in the K band, probing visual extinctions up to A{sub V}∼48. We find that P{sub K}/τ{sub K} continues to decline with increasing A{sub V} with a power law slope of roughly −0.5. Examination of published submillimeter (submm) polarimetry of starless cores suggests that by A{sub V}≳20 the slope for P versus τ becomes ∼−1, indicating no grain alignment at greater optical depths. Combining these two data sets, we find good evidence that, in the absence of a central illuminating source, the dust grains in dense molecular cloud cores with no internal radiation source cease to become aligned with the local magnetic field at optical depths greater than A{sub V}∼20. A simple model relating the alignment efficiency to the optical depth into the cloud reproduces the observations well.

  17. Aligning molecules with intense nonresonant laser fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J.J.; Safvan, C.P.; Sakai, H.

    1999-01-01

    Molecules in a seeded supersonic beam are aligned by the interaction between an intense nonresonant linearly polarized laser field and the molecular polarizability. We demonstrate the general applicability of the scheme by aligning I2, ICl, CS2, CH3I, and C6H5I molecules. The alignment is probed...... by mass selective two dimensional imaging of the photofragment ions produced by femtosecond laser pulses. Calculations on the degree of alignment of I2 are in good agreement with the experiments. We discuss some future applications of laser aligned molecules....

  18. Accelerator and transport line survey and alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruland, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    This paper summarizes the survey and alignment processes of accelerators and transport lines and discusses the propagation of errors associated with these processes. The major geodetic principles governing the survey and alignment measurement space are introduced and their relationship to a lattice coordinate system shown. The paper continues with a broad overview about the activities involved in the step sequence from initial absolute alignment to final smoothing. Emphasis is given to the relative alignment of components, in particular to the importance of incorporating methods to remove residual systematic effects in surveying and alignment operations. Various approaches to smoothing used at major laboratories are discussed. 47 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  19. Effect of crystal alignment on the remanence of sintered NdFeB magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, T.; Ma, B.M.; Sankar, S.G.; Wallace, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    Nd 15.4 Fe 77.8 B 6.8 magnets of various degrees of crystal alignment have been prepared by the conventional powder metallurgy technique. The alignment of these magnets have been determined by x-ray diffraction and fitting the standard deviation of a Gaussian distribution for the relative intensity versus the angle between the normals of (hkl) and the tetragonal c axis. The standard deviation is a good indicator for crystal alignment. An aligning field of 8 kOe is found to be essential to obtain a well-aligned NdFeB magnet. The remanence of sintered magnets is directly affected by the crystal alignment. Furthermore, the effect of crystal alignment on the remanence follows the theoretical prediction of the Stoner--Wohlfarth model. Below the spin reorientation temperature, the effect of crystal alignment on the shape of hysteresis loop becomes more significant. The remanences extrapolated from first and second quadrant of the hysteresis loops have been found to be consistent with the prediction of Stoner--Wohlfarth model

  20. Efficient and robust model-to-image alignment using 3D scale-invariant features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Matthew; Wells, William M

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents feature-based alignment (FBA), a general method for efficient and robust model-to-image alignment. Volumetric images, e.g. CT scans of the human body, are modeled probabilistically as a collage of 3D scale-invariant image features within a normalized reference space. Features are incorporated as a latent random variable and marginalized out in computing a maximum a posteriori alignment solution. The model is learned from features extracted in pre-aligned training images, then fit to features extracted from a new image to identify a globally optimal locally linear alignment solution. Novel techniques are presented for determining local feature orientation and efficiently encoding feature intensity in 3D. Experiments involving difficult magnetic resonance (MR) images of the human brain demonstrate FBA achieves alignment accuracy similar to widely-used registration methods, while requiring a fraction of the memory and computation resources and offering a more robust, globally optimal solution. Experiments on CT human body scans demonstrate FBA as an effective system for automatic human body alignment where other alignment methods break down. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. No Difference in Mood and Quality of Life in DHEA-S Deficient Adults with Addison's Disease vs. Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Normal DHEA-S Levels: Implications for Management of These Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, Adrian H; Walther, Andreas; Davis, Julian R E; Moreno, Gabriela Y C; Kane, John; Livingston, Mark; Fowler, Helen L

    2017-01-01

    Patients with Addison's disease have relatively high rates of depression and anxiety symptoms compared with population-based reference samples. Addison's disease results in deficiency of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA-sulfate (DHEA-S). There is considerable debate about the specific effects of DHEA deficiency on energy level and mood. We measured emotional well-being in 16 patients with Addison's disease and a group of 16 hospital attendees with type 2 diabetes. Participants completed the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the World Health Organization's quality of life assessment (WHOQOL-BREF) and the Holmes-Rahe life event scale. DHEA-S was low in Addison's patients (Addison's men: 0.5 ± 0.1 μmol/l [normal range: 2.1-10.8] compared with diabetes men: 3.2 ± 1.2 μmol/l; Addison's women: 0.4 ± 0.01 μmol/l [normal range: 1.0-11.5] compared with diabetes women: 2.2 ± 0.71 μmol/l). Testosterone levels were similar in both groups studied. There were no differences in emotional well-being and quality of life (QOL) between patients with Addison's disease and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus as measured by GHQ-28 (Addison's: 22.4 ± 2.6, Diabetes: 19.6 ± 2.7), HADS Depression (Addison's: 5.4 ± 0.9, Diabetes: 4.5 ± 1.4), HADS Anxiety and WHOQOL-BREF. There were no gender differences in affective symptomatology within the Addison's group. Life event scores were above average in both groups (Addison's: 195 ± 39.6, Diabetes: 131 ± 43.8), but not significant for difference between groups as was GHQ-28 total score. Both groups scored highly on the GHQ-28 and the life event scale, indicative of poorer health perceptions than the general population. This could be due to the chronicity of both disorders. We have not identified any specific effects of DHEA-S deficiency on mood or QOL.

  2. No Difference in Mood and Quality of Life in DHEA-S Deficient Adults with Addison’s Disease vs. Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Normal DHEA-S Levels: Implications for Management of These Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, Adrian H.; Walther, Andreas; Davis, Julian R. E.; Moreno, Gabriela Y. C.; Kane, John; Livingston, Mark; Fowler, Helen L.

    2017-01-01

    Patients with Addison’s disease have relatively high rates of depression and anxiety symptoms compared with population-based reference samples. Addison’s disease results in deficiency of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA-sulfate (DHEA-S). There is considerable debate about the specific effects of DHEA deficiency on energy level and mood. We measured emotional well-being in 16 patients with Addison’s disease and a group of 16 hospital attendees with type 2 diabetes. Participants completed the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the World Health Organization’s quality of life assessment (WHOQOL-BREF) and the Holmes–Rahe life event scale. DHEA-S was low in Addison’s patients (Addison’s men: 0.5 ± 0.1 μmol/l [normal range: 2.1–10.8] compared with diabetes men: 3.2 ± 1.2 μmol/l; Addison’s women: 0.4 ± 0.01 μmol/l [normal range: 1.0–11.5] compared with diabetes women: 2.2 ± 0.71 μmol/l). Testosterone levels were similar in both groups studied. There were no differences in emotional well-being and quality of life (QOL) between patients with Addison’s disease and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus as measured by GHQ-28 (Addison’s: 22.4 ± 2.6, Diabetes: 19.6 ± 2.7), HADS Depression (Addison’s: 5.4 ± 0.9, Diabetes: 4.5 ± 1.4), HADS Anxiety and WHOQOL-BREF. There were no gender differences in affective symptomatology within the Addison’s group. Life event scores were above average in both groups (Addison’s: 195 ± 39.6, Diabetes: 131 ± 43.8), but not significant for difference between groups as was GHQ-28 total score. Both groups scored highly on the GHQ-28 and the life event scale, indicative of poorer health perceptions than the general population. This could be due to the chronicity of both disorders. We have not identified any specific effects of DHEA-S deficiency on mood or QOL. PMID:28553251

  3. No Difference in Mood and Quality of Life in DHEA-S Deficient Adults with Addison’s Disease vs. Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Normal DHEA-S Levels: Implications for Management of These Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian H. Heald

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Addison’s disease have relatively high rates of depression and anxiety symptoms compared with population-based reference samples. Addison’s disease results in deficiency of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and DHEA-sulfate (DHEA-S. There is considerable debate about the specific effects of DHEA deficiency on energy level and mood. We measured emotional well-being in 16 patients with Addison’s disease and a group of 16 hospital attendees with type 2 diabetes. Participants completed the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, the World Health Organization’s quality of life assessment (WHOQOL-BREF and the Holmes–Rahe life event scale. DHEA-S was low in Addison’s patients (Addison’s men: 0.5 ± 0.1 μmol/l [normal range: 2.1–10.8] compared with diabetes men: 3.2 ± 1.2 μmol/l; Addison’s women: 0.4 ± 0.01 μmol/l [normal range: 1.0–11.5] compared with diabetes women: 2.2 ± 0.71 μmol/l. Testosterone levels were similar in both groups studied. There were no differences in emotional well-being and quality of life (QOL between patients with Addison’s disease and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus as measured by GHQ-28 (Addison’s: 22.4 ± 2.6, Diabetes: 19.6 ± 2.7, HADS Depression (Addison’s: 5.4 ± 0.9, Diabetes: 4.5 ± 1.4, HADS Anxiety and WHOQOL-BREF. There were no gender differences in affective symptomatology within the Addison’s group. Life event scores were above average in both groups (Addison’s: 195 ± 39.6, Diabetes: 131 ± 43.8, but not significant for difference between groups as was GHQ-28 total score. Both groups scored highly on the GHQ-28 and the life event scale, indicative of poorer health perceptions than the general population. This could be due to the chronicity of both disorders. We have not identified any specific effects of DHEA-S deficiency on mood or QOL.

  4. Antares beam-alignment-system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appert, Q.D.; Bender, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    The beam alignment system for the 24-beam-sector Antares CO 2 fusion laser automatically aligns more than 200 optical elements. A visible-wavelength alignment technique is employed which uses a telescope/TV system to view point-light sources appropriately located down the beamline. The centroids of the light spots are determined by a video tracker, which generates error signals used by the computer control system to move appropriate mirrors in a closed-loop system. Final touch-up alignment is accomplished by projecting a CO 2 alignment laser beam through the system and sensing its position at the target location. The techniques and control algorithms employed have resulted in alignment accuracies exceeding design requirements. By employing video processing to determine the centroids of diffraction images and by averaging over multiple TV frames, we achieve alignment accuracies better than 0.1 times system diffraction limits in the presence of air turbulence

  5. Chromatic bifocus alignment system for SR stepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, Tsutomu

    1991-01-01

    A new alignment system developed for synchrotron radiation (SR) X-ray stepper is described. The alignment system has three key elements as follows. The first is a chromatic bifocus optics which observe high contrast bright images of alignment marks printed on a mask and a wafer. The second is broad band light illumination to observe the wafer alignment mark images which is unaffected by resist film coated on a wafer. The third is a new correlation function which is used in measuring of displacement between a mask and a wafer. The alignment system has achieved alignment accuracy on the order of 0.01 μm. The experimental results of this alignment system are discussed in this paper. (author)

  6. Engineering survey planning for the alignment of a particle accelerator: part I. Proposition of an assessment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira Leão, Rodrigo; Raffaelo Baldo, Crhistian; Collucci da Costa Reis, Maria Luisa; Alves Trabanco, Jorge Luiz

    2018-03-01

    The performance of particle accelerators depends highly on the relative alignment between their components. The position and orientation of the magnetic lenses that form the trajectory of the charged beam is kept to micrometric tolerances in a range of hundreds of meters of the length of the machines. Therefore, the alignment problem is fundamentally of a dimensional metrology nature. There is no common way of expressing these tolerances in terms of terminology and alignment concept. The alignment needs for a certain machine is normally given in terms of deviations between the position of any magnet in the accelerator and the fitted line that relates the actual position of the magnets’ assembly. Root mean square errors and standard deviations are normally used interchangeably and measurement uncertainty is often neglected. Although some solutions have been employed successfully in several accelerators, there is no off-the-shelf solution to perform the alignment. Also, each alignment campaign makes use of different measuring instruments to achieve the desired results, which makes the alignment process a complex measurement chain. This paper explores these issues by reviewing the tolerances specified for the alignment of particle accelerators, and proposes a metric to assess the quality of the alignment. The metric has the advantage of fully integrating the measurement uncertainty in the process.

  7. Electrostatic lower hybrid waves excited by electromagnetic whistler mode waves scattering from planar magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, T.F.; Ngo, H.D.

    1990-01-01

    Recent satellite observations demonstrate that high amplitude, short wavelength (5 m ≤ λ ≤ 100 m) electrostatic waves are commonly excited by electromagnetic whistler mode waves propagating in regions of the magnetosphere and topside ionosphere where small-scale magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities are thought to exist. A new theoretical model of this phenomenon is presented, based upon passive linear scattering in a cold magnetoplasma. In this model the electrostatic waves are excited by linear mode coupling as the incident electromagnetic whistler mode waves scatter from the magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities. The excited short wavelength waves are quasi-electrostatic whistler mode waves, a type of lower hybrid wave, whose wave normal lies near the whistler mode resonance cone where the wave refractive index becomes very large. The amplitude of the excited electrostatic lower hybrid waves is calculated for a wide range of values of input electromagnetic wave frequency, wave normal direction, electron plasma frequency, gyrofrequency, ion composition, and irregularity scale and density enhancement. Results indicate that high amplitude lower hybrid waves can be excited over a wide range of parameters for irregularity density enhancements as low as 5% whenever the scale of the irregularity is of the same order as the lower hybrid wavelength

  8. Normalized modes at selected points without normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausel, Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    As every textbook on linear algebra demonstrates, the eigenvectors for the general eigenvalue problem | K - λM | = 0 involving two real, symmetric, positive definite matrices K , M satisfy some well-defined orthogonality conditions. Equally well-known is the fact that those eigenvectors can be normalized so that their modal mass μ =ϕT Mϕ is unity: it suffices to divide each unscaled mode by the square root of the modal mass. Thus, the normalization is the result of an explicit calculation applied to the modes after they were obtained by some means. However, we show herein that the normalized modes are not merely convenient forms of scaling, but that they are actually intrinsic properties of the pair of matrices K , M, that is, the matrices already "know" about normalization even before the modes have been obtained. This means that we can obtain individual components of the normalized modes directly from the eigenvalue problem, and without needing to obtain either all of the modes or for that matter, any one complete mode. These results are achieved by means of the residue theorem of operational calculus, a finding that is rather remarkable inasmuch as the residues themselves do not make use of any orthogonality conditions or normalization in the first place. It appears that this obscure property connecting the general eigenvalue problem of modal analysis with the residue theorem of operational calculus may have been overlooked up until now, but which has in turn interesting theoretical implications.Á

  9. MEANS FOR DETERMINING CENTRIFUGE ALIGNMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W.Q.

    1958-08-26

    An apparatus is presented for remotely determining the alignment of a centrifuge. The centrifage shaft is provided with a shoulder, upon which two followers ride, one for detecting radial movements, and one upon the shoulder face for determining the axial motion. The followers are attached to separate liquid filled bellows, and a tube connects each bellows to its respective indicating gage at a remote location. Vibrations produced by misalignment of the centrifuge shaft are transmitted to the bellows, and tbence through the tubing to the indicator gage. This apparatus is particularly useful for operation in a hot cell where the materials handled are dangerous to the operating personnel.

  10. NON-ALIGNEMENT IN AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    G. Jacobs

    2012-01-01

    The first indications to the Western world that African non-alignment had achieved conscious political form became apparent only in the late 1940's. This strand of thought within the tapestry of Africanism reached its zenith with the declarations of Kwame Nkrumah, Jomo Kenyatta and Julius Nyerere in the years after the Pan-African Congress in Manchester in 1945. The causes of the movement go back far beyond the first official expressions of an African solidarity in the 1940's. As a mature exp...

  11. Multiple sequence alignment accuracy and phylogenetic inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, T Heath; Rosenberg, Michael S

    2006-04-01

    Phylogenies are often thought to be more dependent upon the specifics of the sequence alignment rather than on the method of reconstruction. Simulation of sequences containing insertion and deletion events was performed in order to determine the role that alignment accuracy plays during phylogenetic inference. Data sets were simulated for pectinate, balanced, and random tree shapes under different conditions (ultrametric equal branch length, ultrametric random branch length, nonultrametric random branch length). Comparisons between hypothesized alignments and true alignments enabled determination of two measures of alignment accuracy, that of the total data set and that of individual branches. In general, our results indicate that as alignment error increases, topological accuracy decreases. This trend was much more pronounced for data sets derived from more pectinate topologies. In contrast, for balanced, ultrametric, equal branch length tree shapes, alignment inaccuracy had little average effect on tree reconstruction. These conclusions are based on average trends of many analyses under different conditions, and any one specific analysis, independent of the alignment accuracy, may recover very accurate or inaccurate topologies. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian, in general, outperformed neighbor joining and maximum parsimony in terms of tree reconstruction accuracy. Results also indicated that as the length of the branch and of the neighboring branches increase, alignment accuracy decreases, and the length of the neighboring branches is the major factor in topological accuracy. Thus, multiple-sequence alignment can be an important factor in downstream effects on topological reconstruction.

  12. Modified alignment CGHs for aspheric surface test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae-Bong; Yang, Ho-Soon; Rhee, Hyug-Gyo; Lee, Yun-Woo

    2009-08-01

    Computer Generated Holograms (CGH) for optical test are commonly consisted of one main pattern for testing aspheric surface and some alignment patterns for aligning the interferometer, CGH, and the test optics. To align the CGH plate and the test optics, we designed the alignment CGHs modified from the cat's eye alignment method, which are consisted of a couple of CGH patterns. The incident beam passed through the one part of the alignment CGH pattern is focused onto the one radius position of the test aspheric surface, and is reflected to the other part, and vice versa. This method has several merits compared to the conventional cat's eye alignment method. First, this method can be used in testing optics with a center hole, and the center part of CGH plate can be assigned to the alignment pattern. Second, the alignment pattern becomes a concentric circular arc pattern. The whole CGH patterns including the main pattern and alignment patterns are consisted of only concentric circular fringes. This concentric circular pattern can be easily made by the polar coordinated writer with circular scanning. The required diffraction angle becomes relatively small, so the 1st order diffraction beams instead of the 3rd order diffraction beam can be used as alignment beams, and the visibility can be improved. This alignment method also is more sensitive to the tilt and the lateral shift of the test aspheric surface. Using this alignment pattern, a 200 mm diameter F/0.5 aspheric mirror and a 600 mm diameter F/0.9 mirror were tested.

  13. Fabrication and assembly of two-dimensional TiO{sub 2}/WO{sub 3}·H{sub 2}O heterostructures with type II band alignment for enhanced photocatalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tao [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450052 (China); Wang, Yun, E-mail: yun.wang@griffith.edu.au [Centre for Clean Environment and Energy and Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, 4222 (Australia); Zhou, Xiaofang; Zheng, Xiaoli [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450052 (China); Xu, Qun, E-mail: qunxu@zzu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450052 (China); Chen, Zhimin; Ren, Yumei; Yan, Bo [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450052 (China)

    2017-05-01

    Graphical abstract: 2D heterostructures of TiO{sub 2}/WO{sub 3}·H{sub 2}O nanosheets have been successfully fabricated with assistance of supercritical CO{sub 2} (SC CO{sub 2}). The formation of heterostructures is beneficial to effective separation of the electron-hole pairs, thus resulting in enhanced photocatalytic activity toward the high photocurrent under simulated solar light irradiation. - Highlights: • In this study we have successfully exfoliated ultrathin WO{sub 3}·H{sub 2}O nanosheets from tunsten acid(H{sub 2}WO{sub 4}) with supercritical CO{sub 2} (SC CO{sub 2}). • A novel type II 2D ultrathin TiO{sub 2}/WO{sub 3}·H{sub 2}O heterostructures were fabricated with the assistance of SC CO{sub 2}. • The formation of TiO{sub 2}/WO{sub 3}·H{sub 2}O heterostructures is beneficial to effective separation of the electron-hole pairs. • The photocurrent response and MO degradation of TiO{sub 2}/WO{sub 3}·H{sub 2}O heterostructures exhibit significantly improvement. - Abstract: The recombination of photo-induced charges is one of the main issues to limit the large-scale applications in photocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis. To improve the charge separation, we fabricate a novel type II 2D ultrathin TiO{sub 2}/WO{sub 3}·H{sub 2}O heterostructures with the assistance of supercritical CO{sub 2} (SC CO{sub 2}) in this work. The as-fabricated heterostructures possess high photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange(MO) and high photocurrent response under simulated solar light (AM 1.5). For the TiO{sub 2}/WO{sub 3}·H{sub 2}O heterostructures, the MO solution could be degraded by 95.5% in 150 min, and the photocurrent density reaches to 6.5 μA cm{sup −2}, exhibiting a significant enhancement compared with pure TiO{sub 2} and WO{sub 3}·H{sub 2}O nanosheets.

  14. Shear Alignment of Diblock Copolymers for Patterning Nanowire Meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, Kyle T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-08

    Metallic nanowire meshes are useful as cheap, flexible alternatives to indium tin oxide – an expensive, brittle material used in transparent conductive electrodes. We have fabricated nanowire meshes over areas up to 2.5 cm2 by: 1) mechanically aligning parallel rows of diblock copolymer (diBCP) microdomains; 2) selectively infiltrating those domains with metallic ions; 3) etching away the diBCP template; 4) sintering to reduce ions to metal nanowires; and, 5) repeating steps 1 – 4 on the same sample at a 90° offset. We aligned parallel rows of polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) [PS(48.5 kDa)-b-P2VP(14.5 kDa)] microdomains by heating above its glass transition temperature (Tg ≈ 100°C), applying mechanical shear pressure (33 kPa) and normal force (13.7 N), and cooling below Tg. DiBCP samples were submerged in aqueous solutions of metallic ions (15 – 40 mM ions; 0.1 – 0.5 M HCl) for 30 – 90 minutes, which coordinate to nitrogen in P2VP. Subsequent ozone-etching and sintering steps yielded parallel nanowires. We aimed to optimize alignment parameters (e.g. shear and normal pressures, alignment duration, and PDMS thickness) to improve the quality, reproducibility, and scalability of meshes. We also investigated metals other than Pt and Au that may be patterned using this technique (Cu, Ag).

  15. RevTrans: multiple alignment of coding DNA from aligned amino acid sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernersson, Rasmus; Pedersen, Anders Gorm

    2003-01-01

    The simple fact that proteins are built from 20 amino acids while DNA only contains four different bases, means that the 'signal-to-noise ratio' in protein sequence alignments is much better than in alignments of DNA. Besides this information-theoretical advantage, protein alignments also benefit...... proteins. It is therefore preferable to align coding DNA at the amino acid level and it is for this purpose we have constructed the program RevTrans. RevTrans constructs a multiple DNA alignment by: (i) translating the DNA; (ii) aligning the resulting peptide sequences; and (iii) building a multiple DNA...

  16. A cross-species alignment tool (CAT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Heng; Guan, Liang; Liu, Tao

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The main two sorts of automatic gene annotation frameworks are ab initio and alignment-based, the latter splitting into two sub-groups. The first group is used for intra-species alignments, among which are successful ones with high specificity and speed. The other group contains more...... sensitive methods which are usually applied in aligning inter-species sequences. RESULTS: Here we present a new algorithm called CAT (for Cross-species Alignment Tool). It is designed to align mRNA sequences to mammalian-sized genomes. CAT is implemented using C scripts and is freely available on the web...... at http://xat.sourceforge.net/. CONCLUSIONS: Examined from different angles, CAT outperforms other extant alignment tools. Tested against all available mouse-human and zebrafish-human orthologs, we demonstrate that CAT combines the specificity and speed of the best intra-species algorithms, like BLAT...

  17. Optimization of sequence alignment for simple sequence repeat regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbonnaya Francis C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs, are tandemly repeated DNA sequences, including tandem copies of specific sequences no longer than six bases, that are distributed in the genome. SSR has been used as a molecular marker because it is easy to detect and is used in a range of applications, including genetic diversity, genome mapping, and marker assisted selection. It is also very mutable because of slipping in the DNA polymerase during DNA replication. This unique mutation increases the insertion/deletion (INDELs mutation frequency to a high ratio - more than other types of molecular markers such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs. SNPs are more frequent than INDELs. Therefore, all designed algorithms for sequence alignment fit the vast majority of the genomic sequence without considering microsatellite regions, as unique sequences that require special consideration. The old algorithm is limited in its application because there are many overlaps between different repeat units which result in false evolutionary relationships. Findings To overcome the limitation of the aligning algorithm when dealing with SSR loci, a new algorithm was developed using PERL script with a Tk graphical interface. This program is based on aligning sequences after determining the repeated units first, and the last SSR nucleotides positions. This results in a shifting process according to the inserted repeated unit type. When studying the phylogenic relations before and after applying the new algorithm, many differences in the trees were obtained by increasing the SSR length and complexity. However, less distance between different linage had been observed after applying the new algorithm. Conclusions The new algorithm produces better estimates for aligning SSR loci because it reflects more reliable evolutionary relations between different linages. It reduces overlapping during SSR alignment, which results in a more realistic

  18. Alignment performance monitoring for ASML systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Woong-Jae; Temchenko, Vlad; Hauck, Tarja; Schmidt, Sebastian

    2006-03-01

    In today's semiconductor industry downscaling of the IC design puts a stringent requirement on pattern overlay control. Tighter overlay requirements lead to exceedingly higher rework rates, meaning additional costs to manufacturing. Better alignment control became a target of engineering efforts to decrease rework rate for high-end technologies. Overlay performance is influenced by known parameters such as "Shift, Scaling, Rotation, etc", and unknown parameters defined as "Process Induced Variation", which are difficult to control by means of a process automation system. In reality, this process-induced variation leads to a strong wafer to wafer, or lot to lot variation, which are not easy to detect in the mass-production environment which uses sampling overlay measurements for only several wafers in a lot. An engineering task of finding and correcting a root cause for Process Induced Variations of overlay performance will be greatly simplified if the unknown parameters could be tracked for each wafer. This paper introduces an alignment performance monitoring method based on analysis of automatically generated "AWE" files for ASML scanner systems. Because "AWE" files include alignment results for each aligned wafer, it is possible to use them for monitoring, controlling and correcting the causes of "process induced" overlay performance without requiring extra measurement time. Since "AWE" files include alignment information for different alignment marks, it is also possible to select and optimize the best alignment recipe for each alignment strategy. Several case studies provided in our paper will demonstrate how AWE file analysis can be used to assist engineer in interpreting pattern alignment data. Since implementing our alignment data monitoring method, we were able to achieve significant improvement of alignment and overlay performance without additional overlay measurement time. We also noticed that the rework rate coming from alignment went down and

  19. Clear aligners generations and orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Joe; Al-Awadhi, Ebrahim A

    2016-03-01

    Clear aligner technology has evolved over the last 15 years, with these appliances continually being modified to increase the range of tooth movements that they can achieve. However, there is very little clinical research available to show how these appliances achieve their results. This article describes the different generations of clear aligners that are available and highlights their use. However, until more clinical research becomes available, aligners cannot be routinely prescribed as an effective alternative to fixed labial appliances.

  20. Triangular Alignment (TAME). A Tensor-based Approach for Higher-order Network Alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, Shahin [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Gleich, David F. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Kolda, Tamara G. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Grama, Ananth [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Network alignment is an important tool with extensive applications in comparative interactomics. Traditional approaches aim to simultaneously maximize the number of conserved edges and the underlying similarity of aligned entities. We propose a novel formulation of the network alignment problem that extends topological similarity to higher-order structures and provide a new objective function that maximizes the number of aligned substructures. This objective function corresponds to an integer programming problem, which is NP-hard. Consequently, we approximate this objective function as a surrogate function whose maximization results in a tensor eigenvalue problem. Based on this formulation, we present an algorithm called Triangular AlignMEnt (TAME), which attempts to maximize the number of aligned triangles across networks. We focus on alignment of triangles because of their enrichment in complex networks; however, our formulation and resulting algorithms can be applied to general motifs. Using a case study on the NAPABench dataset, we show that TAME is capable of producing alignments with up to 99% accuracy in terms of aligned nodes. We further evaluate our method by aligning yeast and human interactomes. Our results indicate that TAME outperforms the state-of-art alignment methods both in terms of biological and topological quality of the alignments.

  1. Detecting the limits of regulatory element conservation anddivergence estimation using pairwise and multiple alignments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, Daniel A.; Moses, Alan M.; Iyer, Venky N.; Eisen,Michael B.

    2006-08-14

    Background: Molecular evolutionary studies of noncodingsequences rely on multiple alignments. Yet how multiple alignmentaccuracy varies across sequence types, tree topologies, divergences andtools, and further how this variation impacts specific inferences,remains unclear. Results: Here we develop a molecular evolutionsimulation platform, CisEvolver, with models of background noncoding andtranscription factor binding site evolution, and use simulated alignmentsto systematically examine multiple alignment accuracy and its impact ontwo key molecular evolutionary inferences: transcription factor bindingsite conservation and divergence estimation. We find that the accuracy ofmultiple alignments is determined almost exclusively by the pairwisedivergence distance of the two most diverged species and that additionalspecies have a negligible influence on alignment accuracy. Conservedtranscription factor binding sites align better than surroundingnoncoding DNA yet are often found to be misaligned at relatively shortdivergence distances, such that studies of binding site gain and losscould easily be confounded by alignment error. Divergence estimates frommultiple alignments tend to be overestimated at short divergencedistances but reach a tool specific divergence at which they cease toincrease, leading to underestimation at long divergences. Our moststriking finding was that overall alignment accuracy, binding sitealignment accuracy and divergence estimation accuracy vary greatly acrossbranches in a tree and are most accurate for terminal branches connectingsister taxa and least accurate for internal branches connectingsub-alignments. Conclusions: Our results suggest that variation inalignment accuracy can lead to errors in molecular evolutionaryinferences that could be construed as biological variation. Thesefindings have implications for which species to choose for analyses, whatkind of errors would be expected for a given set of species and howmultiple alignment tools and

  2. Aligned carbon nanotubes patterned photolithographically by silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaoming; Mau, Albert H. W.

    2003-02-01

    Selective growth of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by pyrolysis of iron (II) phthalocyanine (FePc) on quartz substrate patterned photolithographically by metallic silver has been demonstrated. Micro/nanopattern of aligned CNTs can be achieved by using a photomask with features on a microscale. With convenient use of simple high-contract black and white films as a photomask, aligned nanotubes patterned with 20 μm resolution in large scale can be fabricated. This practical fabrication of aligned CNTs on patterned conducting substrate could be applied to various device applications of CNTs.

  3. The art of editing RNA structural alignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ebbe Sloth

    2014-01-01

    Manual editing of RNA structural alignments may be considered more art than science, since it still requires an expert biologist to take multiple levels of information into account and be slightly creative when constructing high-quality alignments. Even though the task is rather tedious, it is re......Manual editing of RNA structural alignments may be considered more art than science, since it still requires an expert biologist to take multiple levels of information into account and be slightly creative when constructing high-quality alignments. Even though the task is rather tedious...

  4. Peripheral pin alignment system for fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    An alignment system is provided for nuclear fuel assemblies in a nuclear core. The core support structure of the nuclear reactor includes upwardly pointing alignment pins arranged in a square grid and engage peripheral depressions formed in the lateral periphery of the lower ends of each of the fuel assemblies of the core. In a preferred embodiment, the depressions are located at the corners of the fuel assemblies so that each depression includes one-quarter of a cylindrical void. Accordingly, each fuel assembly is positioned and aligned by one-quarter of four separate alignment pins which engage the fuel assemblies at their lower exterior corners. (author)

  5. Healthy lifestyle and normal waist circumference are associated with a lower 5-year risk of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly individuals: Results from the healthy aging longitudinal study in Taiwan (HALST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chu-Chih; Liu, Kiang; Hsu, Chih-Chen; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chung, Hsiao-Chun; Liu, Jih-Shin; Liu, Yo-Hann; Tsai, Tsung-Lung; Liaw, Wen-Jin; Lin, I-Ching; Wu, Hsi-Wen; Juan, Chung-Chou; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Lee, Marion M; Hsiung, Chao A

    2017-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to be closely associated with lifestyle and obesity and has a prevalence that increases with age. This study aimed to assess the short-term composite effect of diet, physical activity, psychosocial health, and waist circumference (WC) on the incidence of DM in the elderly and to provide a lifestyle-based predictive index.We used baseline measurements (2009-2013) of 5349 community-dwelling participants (aged 55 years and older, 52% female) of the Healthy Aging Longitudinal Study in Taiwan (HALST) for fasting plasma glucose, HbA1C, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressures, WC, and outcomes of home-visit questionnaire. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify participants with a healthy lifestyle (HLF: higher diet, physical activity, and psychosocial scores) and a lower WC, with cutoffs determined by the receiver-operating characteristics. A Cox regression model was applied to 3424 participants without DM at baseline by linking to their National Health Insurance records (median follow-up of 3.1 years).In total, 247 new DM cases (7.2%) were identified. The HLF and lower WC group had a relative risk (RR) of DM of 0.54 (95% CI 0.35-0.82) compared to the non-HLF and higher WC group. When stratified by the presence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or metabolic syndrome (MS), only participants with IGT/MS showed significant risks (RR 0.55; 95% CI 0.33-0.92). However, except for WC, the individual lifestyle factors were nonsignificant in the overall model without PCA.A composite protective effect of HLF and normal WC on DM within 5 years was observed, especially in those with IGT or MS. Psychosocial health constituted an important lifestyle factor in the elderly. The cutoffs identified could be used as a lifestyle-based risk index for DM. Maintaining an HLF to prevent DM is especially important for the elderly.

  6. Pattern analysis of aligned nanowires in a microchannel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Young Jin; Kang, Hyun Wook; Ko, Seung Hwan; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2013-01-01

    An image processing method for evaluating the quality of nanowire alignment in a microchannel is described. A solution containing nanowires flowing into a microchannel will tend to deposit the nanowires on the bottom surface of the channel via near-wall shear flows. The deposited nanowires generally form complex directional structures along the direction of flow, and the physical properties of these structures depend on the structural morphology, including the alignment quality. A quantitative analysis approach to characterizing the nanowire alignment is needed to estimate the useful features of the nanowire structures. This analysis consists of several image processing methods, including ridge detection, texton analysis and autocorrelation function (ACF) calculation. The ridge detection method improved the ACF by extracting nanowire frames 1–2 pixels in width. Dilation filters were introduced to permit a comparison of the ACF results calculated from different images, regardless of the nanowire orientation. An ACF based on the FFT was then calculated over a square interrogation window. The alignment angle probability distribution was obtained using texton analysis. Monte Carlo simulations of artificially generated images were carried out, and the new algorithm was applied to images collected using two types of microscopy. (paper)

  7. Acid–base and hemodynamic status of patients with intraoperative hemorrhage using two solution types: Crystalloid Ringer lactate and 1.3% sodium bicarbonate in half-normal saline solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Jalal Hashemi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: 1.3% sodium bicarbonate in half-normal saline solution can lead to a proper correction of hemodynamic instability. By maintaining hemodynamic status, osmolarity and electrolytes as well as better balance of acid–base, 1.3% sodium bicarbonate solution in half-normal saline solution can be more effective than Ringer lactate solution during intraoperative bleeding.

  8. DNA Translator and Aligner: HyperCard utilities to aid phylogenetic analysis of molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eernisse, D J

    1992-04-01

    DNA Translator and Aligner are molecular phylogenetics HyperCard stacks for Macintosh computers. They manipulate sequence data to provide graphical gene mapping, conversions, translations and manual multiple-sequence alignment editing. DNA Translator is able to convert documented GenBank or EMBL documented sequences into linearized, rescalable gene maps whose gene sequences are extractable by clicking on the corresponding map button or by selection from a scrolling list. Provided gene maps, complete with extractable sequences, consist of nine metazoan, one yeast, and one ciliate mitochondrial DNAs and three green plant chloroplast DNAs. Single or multiple sequences can be manipulated to aid in phylogenetic analysis. Sequences can be translated between nucleic acids and proteins in either direction with flexible support of alternate genetic codes and ambiguous nucleotide symbols. Multiple aligned sequence output from diverse sources can be converted to Nexus, Hennig86 or PHYLIP format for subsequent phylogenetic analysis. Input or output alignments can be examined with Aligner, a convenient accessory stack included in the DNA Translator package. Aligner is an editor for the manual alignment of up to 100 sequences that toggles between display of matched characters and normal unmatched sequences. DNA Translator also generates graphic displays of amino acid coding and codon usage frequency relative to all other, or only synonymous, codons for approximately 70 select organism-organelle combinations. Codon usage data is compatible with spreadsheet or UWGCG formats for incorporation of additional molecules of interest. The complete package is available via anonymous ftp and is free for non-commercial uses.

  9. 3D Biometrics for Hindfoot Alignment Using Weightbearing CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintz, François; Welck, Matthew; Bernasconi, Alessio; Thornton, James; Cullen, Nicholas P; Singh, Dishan; Goldberg, Andy

    2017-06-01

    Hindfoot alignment on 2D radiographs can present anatomical and operator-related bias. In this study, software designed for weightbearing computed tomography (WBCT) was used to calculate a new 3D biometric tool: the Foot and Ankle Offset (FAO). We described the distribution of FAO in a series of data sets from clinically normal, varus, and valgus cases, hypothesizing that FAO values would be significantly different in the 3 groups. In this retrospective cohort study, 135 data sets (57 normal, 38 varus, 40 valgus) from WBCT (PedCAT; CurveBeam LLC, Warrington, PA) were obtained from a specialized foot and ankle unit. 3D coordinates of specific anatomical landmarks (weightbearing points of the calcaneus, of the first and fifth metatarsal heads and the highest and centermost point on the talar dome) were collected. These data were processed with the TALAS system (CurveBeam), which resulted in an FAO value for each case. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability were also assessed. In normal cases, the mean value for FAO was 2.3% ± 2.9%, whereas in varus and valgus cases, the mean was -11.6% ± 6.9% and 11.4% ± 5.7%, respectively, with a statistically significant difference among groups ( P biometrics. The present study introduces the concept of 3D biometrics and describes an efficient, semiautomatic tool for measuring hindfoot alignment. Level III, retrospective comparative study.

  10. Automated and Adaptable Quantification of Cellular Alignment from Microscopic Images for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Beyazoglu, Turker; Hefner, Evan; Gurkan, Umut Atakan

    2011-01-01

    Cellular alignment plays a critical role in functional, physical, and biological characteristics of many tissue types, such as muscle, tendon, nerve, and cornea. Current efforts toward regeneration of these tissues include replicating the cellular microenvironment by developing biomaterials that facilitate cellular alignment. To assess the functional effectiveness of the engineered microenvironments, one essential criterion is quantification of cellular alignment. Therefore, there is a need for rapid, accurate, and adaptable methodologies to quantify cellular alignment for tissue engineering applications. To address this need, we developed an automated method, binarization-based extraction of alignment score (BEAS), to determine cell orientation distribution in a wide variety of microscopic images. This method combines a sequenced application of median and band-pass filters, locally adaptive thresholding approaches and image processing techniques. Cellular alignment score is obtained by applying a robust scoring algorithm to the orientation distribution. We validated the BEAS method by comparing the results with the existing approaches reported in literature (i.e., manual, radial fast Fourier transform-radial sum, and gradient based approaches). Validation results indicated that the BEAS method resulted in statistically comparable alignment scores with the manual method (coefficient of determination R2=0.92). Therefore, the BEAS method introduced in this study could enable accurate, convenient, and adaptable evaluation of engineered tissue constructs and biomaterials in terms of cellular alignment and organization. PMID:21370940

  11. Characterization of reactively sputtered c-axis aligned nanocrystalline InGaZnO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, David M.; Zhu, Bin; Ast, Dieter G.; Thompson, Michael O. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Levin, Barnaby D. A. [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Muller, David A. [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kavli Institute for Nanoscale Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Greene, Raymond G. [Corning Incorporated, Corning, New York 14831 (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Crystallinity and texturing of RF sputtered c-axis aligned crystal InGaZnO{sub 4} (CAAC IGZO) thin films were quantified using X-ray diffraction techniques. Above 190 °C, nanocrystalline films with an X-ray peak at 2θ = 30° (009 planes) developed with increasing c-axis normal texturing up to 310 °C. Under optimal conditions (310 °C, 10% O{sub 2}), films exhibited a c-axis texture full-width half-maximum of 20°. Cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy confirmed these results, showing alignment variation of ±9° over a 15 × 15 nm field of view and indicating formation of much larger aligned domains than previously reported. At higher deposition temperatures, c-axis alignment was gradually lost as polycrystalline films developed.

  12. Flavor alignment via shining in Randall-Sundrum models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csaki, Csaba; Perez, Gilad; Surujon, Ze'ev; Weiler, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    We present a class of warped extra dimensional models whose flavor violating interactions are much suppressed compared to the usual anarchic case due to flavor alignment. Such suppression can be achieved in models where part of the global flavor symmetry is gauged in the bulk and broken in a controlled manner. We show that the bulk masses can be aligned with the down-type Yukawa couplings by an appropriate choice of bulk flavon field representations and TeV brane dynamics. This alignment could reduce the flavor violating effects to levels that allow for a Kaluza-Klein scale as low as 2-3 TeV, making the model observable at the LHC. However, the up-type Yukawa couplings on the IR brane, which are bounded from below by recent bounds on CP violation in the D system, induce flavor misalignment radiatively. Off-diagonal down-type Yukawa couplings and kinetic mixings for the down quarks are both consequences of this effect. These radiative Yukawa corrections can be reduced by raising the flavon vacuum expectation value on the IR brane (at the price of some moderate tuning), or by extending the Higgs sector. The flavor changing effects from the radiatively induced Yukawa mixing terms are at around the current upper experimental bounds. We also show the generic bounds on UV-brane induced flavor violating effects, and comment on possible additional flavor violations from bulk flavor gauge bosons and the bulk Yukawa scalars.

  13. Aligning seminars with Bologna requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Rainer; Lueg, Klarissa; Lauridsen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Changes in public policy, such as the Bologna Process, require students to be equipped with multifunctional competencies to master relevant tasks in unfamiliar situations. Achieving this goal might imply a change in many curricula toward deeper learning. As a didactical means to achieve deep...... learning results, the authors suggest reciprocal peer tutoring (RPT); as a conceptual framework the authors suggest the SOLO (Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes) taxonomy and constructive alignment as suggested by Biggs and Tang. Our study presents results from the introduction of RPT in a large...... and students, suggest that RPT fosters deeper learning than does teacher-led instruction. Based on these findings, the authors also offer guidelines regarding how to implement RPT and how to overcome barriers....

  14. Scintillation counter: photomultiplier tube alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into the sample receiving zone. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (auth)

  15. Quantized wobbling excitations with alignments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, Ikuko; Hagemann, Gudrun B.

    2003-01-01

    The wobbling excitations in the presence of an appreciable amount of alignment are expected to appear more easily at lower angular momenta of the yrast spectra, compared with those in the textbook example. The large B(E2;I→I-1) value for Δn=1 transitions where n expresses the number of wobbling phonons is shown to be a strongly increasing function of the triaxiality parameter γ, especially for γ > or approx. +20 deg., while it is relatively independent of moments of inertia. On the other hand, the relation of the wobbling phonon energy to the total angular momentum may be used to extract quantitative information on nuclear moments of inertia. It is concluded that the γ value of the triaxial, strongly deformed bands in 163 Lu is about equal to +20 deg. and may be slightly increasing as a function of I

  16. CT in normal pressure hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Katsuzo; Nogaki, Hidekazu; Noda, Masaya; Kusunoki, Tadaki; Tamaki, Norihiko

    1981-01-01

    CT scans were obtained on 33 patients (age 73y. to 31y.) with the diagnosis of normal pressure hydrocephalus. In each case, the diagnosis was made on the basis of the symptoms, CT and cisternographic findings. Underlying diseases of normal pressure hydrocephalus are ruptured aneurysms (21 cases), arteriovenous malformations (2 cases), head trauma (1 case), cerebrovascular accidents (1 case) and idiopathie (8 cases). Sixteen of 33 patients showed marked improvement, five, moderate or minimal improvement, and twelve, no change. The results were compared with CT findings and clinical response to shunting. CT findings were classified into five types, bases on the degree of periventricular hypodensity (P.V.H.), the extent of brain damage by underlying diseases, and the degree of cortical atrophy. In 17 cases of type (I), CT shows the presence of P.V.H. with or without minimal frontal lobe damage and no cortical atrophy. The good surgical improvements were achieved in all cases of type (I) by shunting. In 4 cases of type (II), CT shows the presence of P.V.H. and severe brain damage without cortical atrophy. The fair clinical improvements were achieved in 2 cases (50%) by shunting. In one case of type (III), CT shows the absence of P.V.H. without brain damage nor cortical atrophy. No clinical improvement was obtained by shunting in this type. In 9 cases of type (IV) with mild cortical atrophy, the fair clinical improvement was achieved in two cases (22%) and no improvement in 7 cases. In 2 cases of type (V) with moderate or marked cortical atrophy, no clinical improvement was obtained by shunting. In conclusion, it appeared from the present study that there was a good correlation between the result of shunting and the type of CT, and clinical response to shunting operation might be predicted by classification of CT findings. (author)

  17. Pairwise structure alignment specifically tuned for surface pockets and interaction interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Xuefeng

    2015-09-09

    (PROSTA) family of pairwise structure alignment methods [1, 2] that address the fragmentation issue of pockets and interfaces, and automatically align interfaces between any types of biological complexes. Our PROSTA structure alignment methods have two critical advantages comparing to existing structure alignment methods. First, our methods are completely sequence order independent, which is critical to the success of pairwise pocket and interface structure alignments. This is achieved by introducing contact groups that are not limited to backbone fragments, and by employing a maximum weighted bipartite matching solver from the beginning of the alignment process. In addition, our methods incorporate similarities of sequentially and structurally remote residues that potentially model the topology of the global structure. Comparing to existing methods that focus on local structure or whole sequence similarities, topological similarities are more reliable to find near-optimal structure alignments in the initial alignment state. As a result, a significant number of similar pockets and interfaces are newly discovered, and literatures also support that similar functions are shared between biological complexes in our cases studies. The PROSTA web-server and source codes are publicly available at "http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/prosta/".

  18. Heuristics for multiobjective multiple sequence alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Maryam; Paquete, Luís; Pereira, Francisco B

    2016-07-15

    Aligning multiple sequences arises in many tasks in Bioinformatics. However, the alignments produced by the current software packages are highly dependent on the parameters setting, such as the relative importance of opening gaps with respect to the increase of similarity. Choosing only one parameter setting may provide an undesirable bias in further steps of the analysis and give too simplistic interpretations. In this work, we reformulate multiple sequence alignment from a multiobjective point of view. The goal is to generate several sequence alignments that represent a trade-off between maximizing the substitution score and minimizing the number of indels/gaps in the sum-of-pairs score function. This trade-off gives to the practitioner further information about the similarity of the sequences, from which she could analyse and choose the most plausible alignment. We introduce several heuristic approaches, based on local search procedures, that compute a set of sequence alignments, which are representative of the trade-off between the two objectives (substitution score and indels). Several algorithm design options are discussed and analysed, with particular emphasis on the influence of the starting alignment and neighborhood search definitions on the overall performance. A perturbation technique is proposed to improve the local search, which provides a wide range of high-quality alignments. The proposed approach is tested experimentally on a wide range of instances. We performed several experiments with sequences obtained from the benchmark database BAliBASE 3.0. To evaluate the quality of the results, we calculate the hypervolume indicator of the set of score vectors returned by the algorithms. The results obtained allow us to identify reasonably good choices of parameters for our approach. Further, we compared our method in terms of correctly aligned pairs ratio and columns correctly aligned ratio with respect to reference alignments. Experimental results show

  19. Phrasal alignment in Functional Discourse Grammar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, M.

    2011-01-01

    Although the term is alignment is typically associated with morphosyntactic expression of arguments of the Clause, alignment is also relevant to units of the Phrase. In Functional Discourse Grammar a basic distinction is made between two kinds of dependency relations obtaining both within Phrases

  20. SOA-Driven Business-Software Alignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shishkov, Boris; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Quartel, Dick; Tsai, W.; Chung, J.; Younas, M.

    2006-01-01

    The alignment of business processes and their supporting application software is a major concern during the initial software design phases. This paper proposes a design approach addressing this problem of business-software alignment. The approach takes an initial business model as a basis in

  1. Plasmon Modes of Vertically Aligned Superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filonenko, Konstantin; Duggen, Lars; Willatzen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    By using the Finite Element Method we visualize the modes of vertically aligned superlattice composed of gold and dielectric nanocylinders and investigate the emitter-plasmon interaction in approximation of weak coupling. We find that truncated vertically aligned superlattice can function...

  2. Comparative genomics beyond sequence-based alignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Elfar; Yao, Zizhen; Wiklund, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Recent computational scans for non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in multiple organisms have relied on existing multiple sequence alignments. However, as sequence similarity drops, a key signal of RNA structure--frequent compensating base changes--is increasingly likely to cause sequence-based alignment me...

  3. The GEM Detector projective alignment simulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuest, C.R.; Belser, F.C.; Holdener, F.R.; Roeben, M.D.; Paradiso, J.A.; Mitselmakher, G.; Ostapchuk, A.; Pier-Amory, J.

    1993-01-01

    Precision position knowledge (< 25 microns RMS) of the GEM Detector muon system at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) is an important physics requirement necessary to minimize sagitta error in detecting and tracking high energy muons that are deflected by the magnetic field within the GEM Detector. To validate the concept of the sagitta correction function determined by projective alignment of the muon detectors (Cathode Strip Chambers or CSCs), the basis of the proposed GEM alignment scheme, a facility, called the ''Alignment Test Stand'' (ATS), is being constructed. This system simulates the environment that the CSCs and chamber alignment systems are expected to experience in the GEM Detector, albeit without the 0.8 T magnetic field and radiation environment. The ATS experimental program will allow systematic study and characterization of the projective alignment approach, as well as general mechanical engineering of muon chamber mounting concepts, positioning systems and study of the mechanical behavior of the proposed 6 layer CSCs. The ATS will consist of a stable local coordinate system in which mock-ups of muon chambers (i.e., non-working mechanical analogs, representing the three superlayers of a selected barrel and endcap alignment tower) are implemented, together with a sufficient number of alignment monitors to overdetermine the sagitta correction function, providing a self-consistency check. This paper describes the approach to be used for the alignment of the GEM muon system, the design of the ATS, and the experiments to be conducted using the ATS

  4. MEMS Integrated Submount Alignment for Optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, W. Jeffrey; Pearson, Raymond A.; Grenestedt, Joachim L.; Hutapea, Parsaoran; Gupta, Vikas

    2005-02-01

    One of the most expensive and time-consuming production processes for single-mode fiber-optic components is the alignment of the photonic chip or waveguide to the fiber. The alignment equipment is capital intensive and usually requires trained technicians to achieve desired results. Current technology requires active alignment since tolerances are only ~0.2 μ m or less for a typical laser diode. This is accomplished using piezoelectric actuated stages and active optical feedback. Joining technologies such as soldering, epoxy bonding, or laser welding may contribute significant postbond shift, and final coupling efficiencies are often less than 80%. This paper presents a method of adaptive optical alignment to freeze in place directly on an optical submount using a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) shape memory alloy (SMA) actuation technology. Postbond shift is eliminated since the phase change is the alignment actuation. This technology is not limited to optical alignment but can be applied to a variety of MEMS actuations, including nano-actuation and nano-alignment for biomedical applications. Experimental proof-of-concept results are discussed, and a simple analytical model is proposed to predict the stress strain behavior of the optical submount. Optical coupling efficiencies and alignment times are compared with traditional processes. The feasibility of this technique in high-volume production is discussed.

  5. Business and IT alignment in context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvius, A.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Already for more than two decades, the necessity and desirability of aligning business needs and information technology (IT) capabilities is considered to be one of the key issues in IT management. However, several studies report quite low scores on business and IT alignment (BIA). The question “Why

  6. Compositions for directed alignment of conjugated polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinsang; Kim, Bong-Gi; Jeong, Eun Jeong

    2016-04-19

    Conjugated polymers (CPs) achieve directed alignment along an applied flow field and a dichroic ratio of as high as 16.67 in emission from well-aligned thin films and fully realized anisotropic optoelectronic properties of CPs in field-effect transistor (FET).

  7. Novel method of aligning ATF-1 coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rome, J.A.; Harris, J.H.; Neilson, G.H.; Jernigan, T.C.

    1983-08-01

    The coils for the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF-1) torsatron may be easily aligned before the machine is placed under vacuum. This is done by creating nulls in the magnetic field by energizing the coils in various configurations. All of the nulls in vertical bar B vector vertical bar occur on the z-axis. When the nulls coincide, the coils are properly aligned

  8. STELLAR: fast and exact local alignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weese David

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale comparison of genomic sequences requires reliable tools for the search of local alignments. Practical local aligners are in general fast, but heuristic, and hence sometimes miss significant matches. Results We present here the local pairwise aligner STELLAR that has full sensitivity for ε-alignments, i.e. guarantees to report all local alignments of a given minimal length and maximal error rate. The aligner is composed of two steps, filtering and verification. We apply the SWIFT algorithm for lossless filtering, and have developed a new verification strategy that we prove to be exact. Our results on simulated and real genomic data confirm and quantify the conjecture that heuristic tools like BLAST or BLAT miss a large percentage of significant local alignments. Conclusions STELLAR is very practical and fast on very long sequences which makes it a suitable new tool for finding local alignments between genomic sequences under the edit distance model. Binaries are freely available for Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X at http://www.seqan.de/projects/stellar. The source code is freely distributed with the SeqAn C++ library version 1.3 and later at http://www.seqan.de.

  9. Aligning Application Architecture to the Business Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Blanken, Henk; Fokkinga, M.M.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Eder, J.; Missikoff, M.

    Alignment of application architecture to business architecture is a central problem in the design, acquisition and implementation of information systems in current large-scale information-processing organizations. Current research in architecture alignment is either too strategic or too software

  10. Alignment of Developments in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, John; George, Judith W.; Pinheiro-Torres, Andreia

    2004-01-01

    This study builds upon the concept of alignment within the curriculum (due to Biggs) and suggests, in the context of two current examples, an integrated methodology for effectively aligned development activities within universities. Higher Education institutions face important challenges. Firstly, quality enhancement of the curriculum is now an…

  11. Achieving Organisational Change through Values Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Christopher M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to, first, establish the interdependency between the successful achievement of organisational change and the attainment of values alignment within an organisation's culture and then, second, to describe an effective means for attaining such values alignment. Design/methodology/approach: Literature from the…

  12. Partial Automated Alignment and Integration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Gary Wayne (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is a Partial Automated Alignment and Integration System (PAAIS) used to automate the alignment and integration of space vehicle components. A PAAIS includes ground support apparatuses, a track assembly with a plurality of energy-emitting components and an energy-receiving component containing a plurality of energy-receiving surfaces. Communication components and processors allow communication and feedback through PAAIS.

  13. Angle alignment evokes perceived depth and illusory surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapley, Robert; Maertens, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    There is a distinct visual process that triggers the perception of illusory surfaces and contours along the intersections of aligned, zigzag line patterns. Such illusory contours and surfaces are qualitatively different from illusory contours of the Kanizsa type. The illusory contours and surfaces in this case are not the product of occlusion and do not imply occlusion of one surface by another. Rather, the aligned angles in the patterns are combined by the visual system into the perception of a fold or a 3-D corner, as of stairs on a staircase or a wall ending on a floor. The depth impression is ambiguous and reversible like the Necker cube. Such patterns were used by American Indian artists of the Akimel O'odham (Pima) tribe in basketry, and also by modern European and American artists like Josef Albers, Bridget Riley, Victor Vasarely, and Frank Stella. Our research aims to find out what manipulations of the visual image affect perceived depth in such patterns in order to learn about the perceptual mechanisms. Using paired comparisons, we find that human observers perceive depth in such patterns if, and only if, lines in adjacent regions of the patterns join to form angles, and also if, and only if, the angles are aligned precisely to be consistent with a fold or 3-D corner. The amount of perceived depth is graded, depending on the steepness and the density of angles in the aligned-angle pattern. The required precision of the alignment implies that early retinotopic visual cortical areas may be involved in this perceptual behavior, but the linkage of form with perceived depth suggests involvement of higher cortical areas as well.

  14. Automated quantification of aligned collagen for human breast carcinoma prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy S Bredfeldt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mortality in cancer patients is directly attributable to the ability of cancer cells to metastasize to distant sites from the primary tumor. This migration of tumor cells begins with a remodeling of the local tumor microenvironment, including changes to the extracellular matrix and the recruitment of stromal cells, both of which facilitate invasion of tumor cells into the bloodstream. In breast cancer, it has been proposed that the alignment of collagen fibers surrounding tumor epithelial cells can serve as a quantitative image-based biomarker for survival of invasive ductal carcinoma patients. Specific types of collagen alignment have been identified for their prognostic value and now these tumor associated collagen signatures (TACS are central to several clinical specimen imaging trials. Here, we implement the semi-automated acquisition and analysis of this TACS candidate biomarker and demonstrate a protocol that will allow consistent scoring to be performed throughout large patient cohorts. Methods: Using large field of view high resolution microscopy techniques, image processing and supervised learning methods, we are able to quantify and score features of collagen fiber alignment with respect to adjacent tumor-stromal boundaries. Results: Our semi-automated technique produced scores that have statistically significant correlation with scores generated by a panel of three human observers. In addition, our system generated classification scores that accurately predicted survival in a cohort of 196 breast cancer patients. Feature rank analysis reveals that TACS positive fibers are more well-aligned with each other, are of generally lower density, and terminate within or near groups of epithelial cells at larger angles of interaction. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the utility of a supervised learning protocol for streamlining the analysis of collagen alignment with respect to tumor stromal boundaries.

  15. MICA: Multiple interval-based curve alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Martin; Kahle, Hans-Peter; Beck, Matthias; Bender, Bela Johannes; Spiecker, Heinrich; Backofen, Rolf

    2018-01-01

    MICA enables the automatic synchronization of discrete data curves. To this end, characteristic points of the curves' shapes are identified. These landmarks are used within a heuristic curve registration approach to align profile pairs by mapping similar characteristics onto each other. In combination with a progressive alignment scheme, this enables the computation of multiple curve alignments. Multiple curve alignments are needed to derive meaningful representative consensus data of measured time or data series. MICA was already successfully applied to generate representative profiles of tree growth data based on intra-annual wood density profiles or cell formation data. The MICA package provides a command-line and graphical user interface. The R interface enables the direct embedding of multiple curve alignment computation into larger analyses pipelines. Source code, binaries and documentation are freely available at https://github.com/BackofenLab/MICA

  16. Ultrasonic inspections of fuel alignment pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathgeb, W.; Schmid, R.

    1994-01-01

    As a remedy to the practical problem of defects in fuel alignment pins made of Inconel X750, an inspection technique has been developed which fully meets the requirements of detecting defects. The newly used fuel alignment pins made of austenite are easy to test and therefore satisfy the necessity of further inspections.For the fuel alignment pins of the upper core structure a safe and fast inspection technique was made available. The inspection sensitivity is high and it is possible to give quantitative directions concerning defect orientation and depth. After the required inspections had been concluded in 1989, a total of 18 inspections were carried out in various national and international nuclear power plants in the following years. During this time more than 6000 fuel alignment pines were examined.For the fuel alignment pins the inspection technique provided could increase the understanding of the defect process. This technique contributed to the development of an adaptive and economical repair strategy. ((orig.))

  17. A Proposed Arabic Handwritten Text Normalization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Abu-Ain

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Text normalization is an important technique in document image analysis and recognition. It consists of many preprocessing stages, which include slope correction, text padding, skew correction, and straight the writing line. In this side, text normalization has an important role in many procedures such as text segmentation, feature extraction and characters recognition. In the present article, a new method for text baseline detection, straightening, and slant correction for Arabic handwritten texts is proposed. The method comprises a set of sequential steps: first components segmentation is done followed by components text thinning; then, the direction features of the skeletons are extracted, and the candidate baseline regions are determined. After that, selection of the correct baseline region is done, and finally, the baselines of all components are aligned with the writing line.  The experiments are conducted on IFN/ENIT benchmark Arabic dataset. The results show that the proposed method has a promising and encouraging performance.

  18. Comparable attenuation of sympathetic nervous system activity in obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance and treatment naïve type 2 diabetes following equivalent weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora E. Straznicky

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Elevated sympathetic nervous system (SNS activity is a characteristic of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D that contributes to target organ damage and cardiovascular risk. In this study we examined whether baseline metabolic status influences the degree of sympathoinhibition attained following equivalent dietary weight loss. Methods: Un-medicated obese individuals categorized as normal glucose tolerant (NGT, n=15, impaired glucose tolerant (IGT, n=24 and newly-diagnosed T2D (n=15 consumed a hypocaloric diet (29% fat, 23% protein, 45% carbohydrate for 4-months. The three groups were matched for baseline age (56 + 1 years, body mass index (BMI, 32.9 + 0.7 kg/m2 and gender. Clinical measurements included whole-body norepinephrine kinetics, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA, by microneurography, spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (BRS and oral glucose tolerance test. Results: Weight loss averaged -7.5 + 0.8, -8.1 + 0.5 and -8.0 + 0.9 % of body weight in NGT, IGT and T2D groups, respectively. T2D subjects had significantly greater reductions in fasting glucose, 2-h glucose and glucose area under the curve (AUC0-120 compared to NGT and IGT (group effect, P<0.001. Insulinogenic index decreased in IGT and NGT groups and increased in T2D (group x time, P=0.04. The magnitude of reduction in MSNA (-7 + 3, -8 + 4, -15 + 4 burst/100hb, respectively and whole-body norepinephrine spillover rate (-28 + 8, -18 + 6 and -25 + 7 %, respectively, time effect both P<0.001, did not differ between groups. After adjustment for age and change in body weight, ∆ insulin AUC0-120 was independently associated with reduction in arterial norepinephrine concentration, whilst ∆ LDL-cholesterol and improvement in BRS were independently associated with decrease in MSNA. Conclusions: Equivalent weight loss through hypocaloric diet is accompanied by similar sympathoinhibition in matched obese subjects with different baseline glucose tolerance

  19. Baby Poop: What's Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I'm breast-feeding my newborn and her bowel movements are yellow and mushy. Is this normal for baby poop? Answers from Jay L. Hoecker, M.D. Yellow, mushy bowel movements are perfectly normal for breast-fed babies. Still, ...

  20. Tracing magnetic fields with aligned grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarian, A.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic fields play a crucial role in various astrophysical processes, including star formation, accretion of matter, transport processes (e.g., transport of heat), and cosmic rays. One of the easiest ways to determine the magnetic field direction is via polarization of radiation resulting from extinction or/and emission by aligned dust grains. Reliability of interpretation of the polarization maps in terms of magnetic fields depends on how well we understand the grain-alignment theory. Explaining what makes grains aligned has been one of the big issues of the modern astronomy. Numerous exciting physical effects have been discovered in the course of research undertaken in this field. As both the theory and observations matured, it became clear that the grain-alignment phenomenon is inherent not only in diffuse interstellar medium or molecular clouds but also is a generic property of the dust in circumstellar regions, interplanetary space and cometary comae. Currently the grain-alignment theory is a predictive one, and its results nicely match observations. Among its predictions is a subtle phenomenon of radiative torques. This phenomenon, after having stayed in oblivion for many years after its discovery, is currently viewed as the most powerful means of alignment. In this article, I shall review the basic physical processes involved in grain alignment, and the currently known mechanisms of alignment. I shall also discuss possible niches for different alignment mechanisms. I shall dwell on the importance of the concept of grain helicity for understanding of many properties of grain alignment, and shall demonstrate that rather arbitrarily shaped grains exhibit helicity when they interact with gaseous and radiative flows

  1. On normal modes in classical Hamiltonian systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.

    1983-01-01

    Normal modes of Hamittonian systems that are even and of classical type are characterized as the critical points of a normalized kinetic energy functional on level sets of the potential energy functional. With the aid of this constrained variational formulation the existence of at least one family

  2. Aligning the Goldmann tonometer tip by means of the "precontact whitish rings".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, E Z

    1999-01-01

    A set of whitish rings observed before contact is made during Goldmann-type applanation tonometry can help simplify and speed the examination. The orientation and size of the rings are useful both in aligning the tonometer and in estimating the distance remaining before contact is made. Relying on these whitish rings can also avoid some of the shear-related damage exerted on the corneal epithelium from alignment movements of the tonometer tip after contact with the cornea has been made.

  3. Alignment-related Effects in Forward Proton Experiments at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Staszewski, R.; Korcyl, K.; Trzebiński, M.

    2015-11-21

    The activity in the field of difractive physics at the Large Hadron Collider has been constantly increasing. This includes the planning for additional dedicated apparatus -- horizontal forward proton detectors. This work focusses on the problems related to the alignment of such detectors. The effects of the misalignment of the detectors on their geometric acceptance and the proton kinematics reconstruction is studied. The requirements for the alignment precision is inferred for different types of possible measurements.

  4. Alignment-related effects in forward proton experiments at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staszewski, R., E-mail: Rafal.Staszewski@ifj.edu.pl; Chwastowski, J., E-mail: Janusz.Chwastowski@ifj.edu.pl; Korcyl, K., E-mail: Krzysztof.Korcyl@ifj.edu.pl; Trzebiński, M., E-mail: Maciej.Trzebinski@ifj.edu.pl

    2015-11-21

    The activity in the field of diffractive physics at the Large Hadron Collider has been constantly increasing. This includes the planning for additional dedicated apparatus – horizontal forward proton detectors. This work focuses on the problems related to the alignment of such devices. The effects of the misalignment of the detectors on their geometric acceptance and on the reconstruction of the proton kinematics are studied. The requirements for the alignment precision are inferred for different types of possible measurements.

  5. Visual Memories Bypass Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Ilona M; Watanabe, Yurika L; Kibbe, Melissa M; Ling, Sam

    2018-05-01

    How distinct are visual memory representations from visual perception? Although evidence suggests that briefly remembered stimuli are represented within early visual cortices, the degree to which these memory traces resemble true visual representations remains something of a mystery. Here, we tested whether both visual memory and perception succumb to a seemingly ubiquitous neural computation: normalization. Observers were asked to remember the contrast of visual stimuli, which were pitted against each other to promote normalization either in perception or in visual memory. Our results revealed robust normalization between visual representations in perception, yet no signature of normalization occurring between working memory stores-neither between representations in memory nor between memory representations and visual inputs. These results provide unique insight into the nature of visual memory representations, illustrating that visual memory representations follow a different set of computational rules, bypassing normalization, a canonical visual computation.

  6. Correlation between Auroral kilometric radiation and field-aligned currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.L.; Saflekos, N.A.; Gurnett, D.A.; Potemra, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of field-aligned currents (FAC) and auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) are compared from the polar-orbiting satellites Triad and Hawkeye. The Triad observations were restricted to the evening-to-midnight local time sector (1900 to 0100 hours magnetic local time) in the northern hemisphere. This is the region in which the most intense storms of AKR are believed to originate. The Hawkeye observations were restricted to when the satellite was in the AKR emission cone in the northern hemisphere and at radial distances > or =7R/sub E/ (earth radii) to avoid local propagation cutoff effects. A(R/7R/sub E/) 2 normalization to the power flux measurements of the kilometric radiation from Hawkeye is used to take into account the radial dependence of this radiation and to scale all intensity measurements so that they are independent of Hawkeye's position in the emission cone. Integrated field-aligned current intensities from Triad are determined from the observed transverse magnetic field disturbances. There appears to be a weak correlation between AKR intensity and the integrated current sheet intensity of field-aligned currents. In general, as the intensity of auroral kilometric radiation increases so does the integrated auroral zone current sheet intensity increase. Statistically, the linear correlation coefficient between the log of the AKR power flux and the log of the current sheet intensity is 0.57. During weak AKR bursts ( - 18 W m - 2 Hz - 1 ), Triad always observed weak FAC'S ( - 1 ), and when Triad observed large FAC's (> or =0.6 A m - 1 ), the AKR intensity from Hawkeye was moderately intense (10 - 5 to 10 - 14 W m - 2 Hz - 1 ) to intense (>10 - 14 W m - 2 Hz - 1 ). It is not clear from these preliminary results what the exact role is that auroral zone field-aligned currents play in the generation or amplification of auroral kilometric radiation

  7. Making nuclear 'normal'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haehlen, Peter; Elmiger, Bruno

    2000-01-01

    The mechanics of the Swiss NPPs' 'come and see' programme 1995-1999 were illustrated in our contributions to all PIME workshops since 1996. Now, after four annual 'waves', all the country has been covered by the NPPs' invitation to dialogue. This makes PIME 2000 the right time to shed some light on one particular objective of this initiative: making nuclear 'normal'. The principal aim of the 'come and see' programme, namely to give the Swiss NPPs 'a voice of their own' by the end of the nuclear moratorium 1990-2000, has clearly been attained and was commented on during earlier PIMEs. It is, however, equally important that Swiss nuclear energy not only made progress in terms of public 'presence', but also in terms of being perceived as a normal part of industry, as a normal branch of the economy. The message that Swiss nuclear energy is nothing but a normal business involving normal people, was stressed by several components of the multi-prong campaign: - The speakers in the TV ads were real - 'normal' - visitors' guides and not actors; - The testimonials in the print ads were all real NPP visitors - 'normal' people - and not models; - The mailings inviting a very large number of associations to 'come and see' activated a typical channel of 'normal' Swiss social life; - Spending money on ads (a new activity for Swiss NPPs) appears to have resulted in being perceived by the media as a normal branch of the economy. Today we feel that the 'normality' message has well been received by the media. In the controversy dealing with antinuclear arguments brought forward by environmental organisations journalists nowadays as a rule give nuclear energy a voice - a normal right to be heard. As in a 'normal' controversy, the media again actively ask themselves questions about specific antinuclear claims, much more than before 1990 when the moratorium started. The result is that in many cases such arguments are discarded by journalists, because they are, e.g., found to be

  8. Clear aligners for orthodontic treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi, Hanieh; Graham, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    PubMed/Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical trials (CENTRAL), Web of Knowledge, SCOPUS, Google Scholar and LILACS databases. Clinical prospective and retrospective studies of orthodontic treatment with clear aligners on patients over the age of 15 that included clear descriptions of the materials and applied technique were included. Selection was undertaken independently by two reviewers. Two reviewers extracted data independently with study quality being assessed using the grading system described by the Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU). A narrative summary of the findings was presented. Eleven studies involving a total of 480 patients were included consisting of two randomised controlled trials, five prospective studies and four retrospective studies. Six studies were considered to be of moderate quality, the remainder of limited quality. Most of the studies presented with methodological problems: small sample size, bias and confounding variables, lack of method error analysis, blinding in measurements, and deficient or missing statistical methods. The quality level of the studies was not sufficient to draw any evidence-based conclusions.

  9. Multiview alignment hashing for efficient image search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Yu, Mengyang; Shao, Ling

    2015-03-01

    Hashing is a popular and efficient method for nearest neighbor search in large-scale data spaces by embedding high-dimensional feature descriptors into a similarity preserving Hamming space with a low dimension. For most hashing methods, the performance of retrieval heavily depends on the choice of the high-dimensional feature descriptor. Furthermore, a single type of feature cannot be descriptive enough for different images when it is used for hashing. Thus, how to combine multiple representations for learning effective hashing functions is an imminent task. In this paper, we present a novel unsupervised multiview alignment hashing approach based on regularized kernel nonnegative matrix factorization, which can find a compact representation uncovering the hidden semantics and simultaneously respecting the joint probability distribution of data. In particular, we aim to seek a matrix factorization to effectively fuse the multiple information sources meanwhile discarding the feature redundancy. Since the raised problem is regarded as nonconvex and discrete, our objective function is then optimized via an alternate way with relaxation and converges to a locally optimal solution. After finding the low-dimensional representation, the hashing functions are finally obtained through multivariable logistic regression. The proposed method is systematically evaluated on three data sets: 1) Caltech-256; 2) CIFAR-10; and 3) CIFAR-20, and the results show that our method significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art multiview hashing techniques.

  10. Phylo: a citizen science approach for improving multiple sequence alignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kawrykow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Comparative genomics, or the study of the relationships of genome structure and function across different species, offers a powerful tool for studying evolution, annotating genomes, and understanding the causes of various genetic disorders. However, aligning multiple sequences of DNA, an essential intermediate step for most types of analyses, is a difficult computational task. In parallel, citizen science, an approach that takes advantage of the fact that the human brain is exquisitely tuned to solving specific types of problems, is becoming increasingly popular. There, instances of hard computational problems are dispatched to a crowd of non-expert human game players and solutions are sent back to a central server. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We introduce Phylo, a human-based computing framework applying "crowd sourcing" techniques to solve the Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA problem. The key idea of Phylo is to convert the MSA problem into a casual game that can be played by ordinary web users with a minimal prior knowledge of the biological context. We applied this strategy to improve the alignment of the promoters of disease-related genes from up to 44 vertebrate species. Since the launch in November 2010, we received more than 350,000 solutions submitted from more than 12,000 registered users. Our results show that solutions submitted contributed to improving the accuracy of up to 70% of the alignment blocks considered. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that, combined with classical algorithms, crowd computing techniques can be successfully used to help improving the accuracy of MSA. More importantly, we show that an NP-hard computational problem can be embedded in casual game that can be easily played by people without significant scientific training. This suggests that citizen science approaches can be used to exploit the billions of "human-brain peta-flops" of computation that are spent every day playing games

  11. Sparse alignment for robust tensor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhihui; Wong, Wai Keung; Xu, Yong; Zhao, Cairong; Sun, Mingming

    2014-10-01

    Multilinear/tensor extensions of manifold learning based algorithms have been widely used in computer vision and pattern recognition. This paper first provides a systematic analysis of the multilinear extensions for the most popular methods by using alignment techniques, thereby obtaining a general tensor alignment framework. From this framework, it is easy to show that the manifold learning based tensor learning methods are intrinsically different from the alignment techniques. Based on the alignment framework, a robust tensor learning method called sparse tensor alignment (STA) is then proposed for unsupervised tensor feature extraction. Different from the existing tensor learning methods, L1- and L2-norms are introduced to enhance the robustness in the alignment step of the STA. The advantage of the proposed technique is that the difficulty in selecting the size of the local neighborhood can be avoided in the manifold learning based tensor feature extraction algorithms. Although STA is an unsupervised learning method, the sparsity encodes the discriminative information in the alignment step and provides the robustness of STA. Extensive experiments on the well-known image databases as well as action and hand gesture databases by encoding object images as tensors demonstrate that the proposed STA algorithm gives the most competitive performance when compared with the tensor-based unsupervised learning methods.

  12. Face Alignment via Regressing Local Binary Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shaoqing; Cao, Xudong; Wei, Yichen; Sun, Jian

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a highly efficient and accurate regression approach for face alignment. Our approach has two novel components: 1) a set of local binary features and 2) a locality principle for learning those features. The locality principle guides us to learn a set of highly discriminative local binary features for each facial landmark independently. The obtained local binary features are used to jointly learn a linear regression for the final output. This approach achieves the state-of-the-art results when tested on the most challenging benchmarks to date. Furthermore, because extracting and regressing local binary features are computationally very cheap, our system is much faster than previous methods. It achieves over 3000 frames per second (FPS) on a desktop or 300 FPS on a mobile phone for locating a few dozens of landmarks. We also study a key issue that is important but has received little attention in the previous research, which is the face detector used to initialize alignment. We investigate several face detectors and perform quantitative evaluation on how they affect alignment accuracy. We find that an alignment friendly detector can further greatly boost the accuracy of our alignment method, reducing the error up to 16% relatively. To facilitate practical usage of face detection/alignment methods, we also propose a convenient metric to measure how good a detector is for alignment initialization.

  13. Bicervical Normal Uterus with Normal Vagina

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    led to alternative postulations which favor a segmental and bidirectional fusion of the ... the embryonic life. Initially, these ducts grow caudally, on the ... This type of anomaly can be explained if considered in the light of Acien's hypothesis[5,6] ...

  14. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to “Lactobacillus plantarum TENSIA® in the semi-hard Edam-type „heart cheese‟ of Harmony™” and maintenance of normal blood pressure pursuant to Article

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to “Lactobacillus plantarum TENSIA® in the semi-hard Edam-type “heart cheese” of Harmony™” and maintenance of normal blood pressure (BP). The food constituent L. plantarum TENSIA®, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised...... exert the claimed effect. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of Lactobacillus plantarum TENSIA®in the semi-hard Edam-type “heart cheese” of Harmony™ and maintenance of normal blood pressure........ The Panel considers that the maintenance of normal blood pressure is a beneficial physiological effect. The applicant provided 47 references which did not address the effects of L. plantarum TENSIA® on BP. The Panel considers that no conclusions can be drawn from these references for the scientific...

  15. DNAAlignEditor: DNA alignment editor tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guill Katherine E

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With advances in DNA re-sequencing methods and Next-Generation parallel sequencing approaches, there has been a large increase in genomic efforts to define and analyze the sequence variability present among individuals within a species. For very polymorphic species such as maize, this has lead to a need for intuitive, user-friendly software that aids the biologist, often with naïve programming capability, in tracking, editing, displaying, and exporting multiple individual sequence alignments. To fill this need we have developed a novel DNA alignment editor. Results We have generated a nucleotide sequence alignment editor (DNAAlignEditor that provides an intuitive, user-friendly interface for manual editing of multiple sequence alignments with functions for input, editing, and output of sequence alignments. The color-coding of nucleotide identity and the display of associated quality score aids in the manual alignment editing process. DNAAlignEditor works as a client/server tool having two main components: a relational database that collects the processed alignments and a user interface connected to database through universal data access connectivity drivers. DNAAlignEditor can be used either as a stand-alone application or as a network application with multiple users concurrently connected. Conclusion We anticipate that this software will be of general interest to biologists and population genetics in editing DNA sequence alignments and analyzing natural sequence variation regardless of species, and will be particularly useful for manual alignment editing of sequences in species with high levels of polymorphism.

  16. Prognostic value of normal stress myocardial perfusion imaging and ventricular function in Japanese asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes. A study of based on the J-ACCESS-2 database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Shinro; Nakajima, Kenichi; Yamasaki, Yoshimitsu; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the clinical risk for hard events after normal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and to identify the predictors of increased risk in asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus, based on a Japanese Assessment of Cardiac Events and Survival Studies by quantitative gated SPECT (J-ACCESS)-2 study. A total of 513 consecutive asymptomatic patients who underwent stress 99m Tc-tetrofosmin SPECT in Japan were included in this study. Based on SPECT image and QGS data, 319 had a summed stress score ≤3, a summed difference score <2 and normal cardiac function (end-systolic volume ≤60 ml, males, ≤40 ml females; left ventricular ejection fraction ≥49%, males, ≥50% females). Myocardial perfusion was normal in 62% of this study population. During a 3-year follow-up, there were a total of 8 cardiac major events (2.5%): 2 cases of sudden death, 5 of acute coronary syndrome, and 1 of hospitalization because of congestive heart failure. The annual major event rate was 0.8%. Subjects undergoing coronary angiography had significantly more major events than those who did not among normal SPECT subjects (P=0.01). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the cardiac major events rate was very low, and subjects with normal SPECT can be considered as low risk among asymptomatic patients with diabetes. An excellent prognosis was associated with a normal SPECT in asymptomatic patients with diabetes, so these patients can be exempted from further invasive procedure. (author)

  17. Survey of local and global biological network alignment: the need to reconcile the two sides of the same coin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzi, Pietro Hiram; Milenković, Tijana

    2017-01-05

    Analogous to genomic sequence alignment that allows for across-species transfer of biological knowledge between conserved sequence regions, biological network alignment can be used to guide the knowledge transfer between conserved regions of molecular networks of different species. Hence, biological network alignment can be used to redefine the traditional notion of a sequence-based homology to a new notion of network-based homology. Analogous to genomic sequence alignment, there exist local and global biological network alignments. Here, we survey prominent and recent computational approaches of each network alignment type and discuss their (dis)advantages. Then, as it was recently shown that the two approach types are complementary, in the sense that they capture different slices of cellular functioning, we discuss the need to reconcile the two network alignment types and present a recent first step in this direction. We conclude with some open research problems on this topic and comment on the usefulness of network alignment in other domains besides computational biology. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Alignment and stability of future machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiltsev, V.D.

    1996-06-01

    Leading accelerator laboratories mount serious efforts in alignment and vibration studies concerning stability of future accelerator facilities such as photon and meson factories, future linear colliders (LCs), and hadron supercolliders (HCs). Some 200 publications covered the topic since late 80s, following pioneering works of G.E. Fischer. Four International workshops on accelerator alignment were held since 1989 at SLAC, DESY, CERN and KEK. The SSCL hosted the workshop on vibration control and dynamic alignment (1992). This article briefly covers some present achievements and issues in the field. We discuss major effects and tolerances for the future accelerators, results of measurements up-to-date, correction techniques and make some conclusions

  19. Automatic Angular alignment of LHC Collimators

    CERN Document Server

    Azzopardi, Gabriella; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; Mereghetti, Alessio; Bruce, Roderik; Redaelli, Stefano; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    The LHC is equipped with a complex collimation system to protect sensitive equipment from unavoidable beam losses. Collimators are positioned close to the beam using an alignment procedure. Until now they have always been aligned assuming no tilt between the collimator and the beam, however, tank misalignments or beam envelope angles at large-divergence locations could introduce a tilt limiting the collimation performance. Three different algorithms were implemented to automatically align a chosen collimator at various angles. The implementation was tested on a number of collimators during this MD and no human intervention was required.

  20. NOVA integrated alignment/diagnostic sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Under Contract 3772003 to the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Aerojet ElectroSystems Company has investigated a number of alignment system design topics for the NOVA and SHIVA upgrade lasers. Prior reports dealt with the Main Beam Alignment System, and with Multipass Amplifier Alignment Concepts. This report, which completes the contract, examines ways in which the Return Beam Diagnostic (RBD) package and Incident Beam Diagnostic (IBD) packages may be reconfigured to a more integrated package. In particular, the report shows that the RBD optics may be directly integrated in the Pointing Focus and Centering (PFC) sensor, and that the IBD optics may use the same basic common configuration as the PFC/RBD package