WorldWideScience

Sample records for norm materials resulting

  1. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  2. Regulation of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) with emphasis on NORM disposal options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [Peter Gray and Associates, Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Regulation of radioactive material can occur at the Federal, State, and sometimes local level. In addition to regulations at the federal and state level, there are guidelines and standards that do not carry the weight of law, yet are often referenced. Neither the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) categorically regulates NORM at this time. However, many of the existing regulations and guidelines for licensed radioactive material can be applied by states and other regulatory agencies to NORM. The primary regulations covering radioactive materials and exposures were promulgated under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) or 1954, as amended. NRC licenses and regulates civilian use of nuclear materials to protect public health and safety and the environment. NRC makes rules and sets standards for licensees and inspects the activities of licensees to insure that they do not violate safety rules. OSHA regulations for worker protection from exposures to radioactivity are contained in 29CFR1910.96. These standards are designed to protect workers from exposure to radiation in programs other than those regulated by OSHA. The Uranium Mill Tailings Control Act, with implementing regulations found in 40CFR192 were promulgated by the EPA for cleanup of uranium mill tailings. These standards are often used by states and other agencies in regulating cleanup of NORM. EPA is currently considering regulation of NORM on NRC and DOE facilities under 40CFR195.

  3. Database of the radioactivity of norm used as industrial raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2012-12-01

    Most ores used as industrial raw materials are imported mainly because Japan has poor natural resources. The activity concentrations in these materials should be investigated to evaluate the radiation exposure of workers. In this study, imported industrial raw materials were collected, and the activity concentrations in these resources were measured by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and gamma ray spectrometry. Furthermore,  a database of activity concentrations of NORMs was developed by referring to the measured results as well as referring to the literature, and a database on the web was published. The purpose of the database is to relieve anxieties among the general public and to provide extensive data regarding NORM for researchers and regulators. The database provides more than 900 activity concentrations in worldwide NORMs at no fee. (NORM database; http://www.nirs.go.jp/db/anzendb/NORMDB/ENG/index.php).

  4. Bibliography of reports, papers, and presentations on naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.P.; Wilkey, M.L.; Hames, R.D.

    1997-07-01

    This bibliography was created to support projects conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) addressing issues related to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes. The bibliography provides citations for many of the available published reports, papers, articles, and presentations on petroleum industry NORM. In the past few years, the rapid expansion of NORM treatment and disposal technologies, the efforts to characterize NORM wastes and their associated potential risks, and the promulgation of state-level NORM regulatory programs have been well-documented in project reports and in papers presented at technical conferences and symposia. There are 221 citations.

  5. Characterization of NORM material produced in a water treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suursoo, S.; Kiisk, M.; Jantsikene, A.; Koch, R.; Isakar, K.; Realo, E. [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics (Estonia); Lumiste, L. [Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia)

    2014-07-01

    In February 2012 a water treatment plant was opened in Viimsi, Estonia. The plant is designed for removal of iron, manganese, and radium from groundwater. The first 2 years of operation have shown that the purification process generates significant amounts of materials with elevated radium levels. The treatment plant is fed by nine wells, which open to radium-rich aquifers. Purification is achieved by aeration and filtration processes. Aerated water is led through two successive filter columns, first of them is filled with MnO{sub 2} coated material FMH and filtration sand, the second one with zeolite. The plant has five parallel treatment lines with a total of 95 tons of FMH + filtration sand, and 45 tons of zeolite. The average capacity of the facility has been 2400 m{sup 3}/day. Yearly input of radium to the plant is estimated to be 325 MBq for Ra-226, and 420 MBq for Ra-228. Most of the radium (about 90%) accumulates in the filter columns. Some 8-9% of it is removed by backwash water during regular filter backwash cycles. To characterize radium accumulation and its removal by backwash in detail, treatment line no. 5 is sampled monthly for filter materials and backwash water. A steady growth of radium activity concentrations is apparent in both filter materials. In the top layer of the first stage filter (FMH+sand), Ra-226 and Ra-228 activity concentrations (per unit dry weight) reached (1540 ± 60) Bq/kg and (2510 ± 50) Bq/kg (k=2), respectively, by April 2013. At the same time, radium content in the top layer of the second stage filter (zeolite) was an order of magnitude higher: (19 600 ± 130) Bq/kg for Ra-226, and (22 260 ± 170) Bq/kg for Ra-228 (k=2). Radium is not evenly distributed throughout the filter columns. A rough estimate can be given that after 1.25 years of operation (by April 2013) the accumulated activities in treatment line no. 5 reached 1000 MBq for Ra-226 and 1200 MBq for Ra-228. Although filters are the most important type of NORM

  6. Family Life Program Accountability Norms: How Do Your Results Compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetsch, Robert J.

    1997-01-01

    Participants in cooperative extension family life programs (N=916) identified family strains, coping, quality of life, self-esteem, stress, and willingness to support extension services with tax dollars. The resulting normative data can be used to measure the impact of cooperative extension programs. (SK)

  7. Generalized Contraction and Invariant Approximation Results on Nonconvex Subsets of Normed Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujahid Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wardowski (2012 introduced a new type of contractive mapping and proved a fixed point result in complete metric spaces as a generalization of Banach contraction principle. In this paper, we introduce a notion of generalized F-contraction mappings which is used to prove a fixed point result for generalized nonexpansive mappings on star-shaped subsets of normed linear spaces. Some theorems on invariant approximations in normed linear spaces are also deduced. Our results extend, unify, and generalize comparable results in the literature.

  8. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) from a former phosphoric acid processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddow, H. [Geoscience Building, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Whiteknights, PO Box 227, University of Reading, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6AB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: h.l.beddow@reading.ac.uk; Black, S. [Geoscience Building, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Whiteknights, PO Box 227, University of Reading, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6AB (United Kingdom); Read, D. [Enterpris Ltd., Whiteknights, University of Reading, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6AB (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, University of Aberdeen, Meston Walk, Old Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries that extract and/or process ores and minerals containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). These industrial activities may result in significant radioactive contamination of (by-) products, wastes and plant installations. In this study, scale samples were collected from a decommissioned phosphoric acid processing plant. To determine the nature and concentration of NORM retained in pipe-work and associated process plant, four main areas of the site were investigated: (1) the 'Green Acid Plant', where crude acid was concentrated; (2) the green acid storage tanks; (3) the Purified White Acid (PWA) plant, where inorganic impurities were removed; and (4) the solid waste, disposed of on-site as landfill. The scale samples predominantly comprise the following: fluorides (e.g. ralstonite); calcium sulphate (e.g. gypsum); and an assemblage of mixed fluorides and phosphates (e.g. iron fluoride hydrate, calcium phosphate), respectively. The radioactive inventory is dominated by {sup 238}U and its decay chain products, and significant fractionation along the series occurs. Compared to the feedstock ore, elevated concentrations ({<=}8.8 Bq/g) of {sup 238}U were found to be retained in installations where the process stream was rich in fluorides and phosphates. In addition, enriched levels ({<=}11 Bq/g) of {sup 226}Ra were found in association with precipitates of calcium sulphate. Water extraction tests indicate that many of the scales and waste contain significantly soluble materials and readily release radioactivity into solution.

  9. DISCRETE MINUS ONE NORM LEAST-SQUARES FOR THE STRESS FORMULATION OF LINEAR ELASTICITY WITH NUMERICAL RESULTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sang Dong Kim; Byeong Chun Shin; Seokchan Kim; Gyungsoo Woo

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies the discrete minus one norm least-squares methods for the stress formulation of pure displacement linear elasticity in two dimensions. The proposed leastsquares functional is defined as the sum of the L2- and H-1-norms of the residual equations weighted appropriately. The minus one norm in the functional is replaced by the discrete minus one norm and then the discrete minus one norm least-squares methods are analyzed with various numerical results focusing on the finite element accuracy and multigrid convergence performances.

  10. Development of a methodology for doss assessment viewing the use of NORM on building materials; Desenvolvimento de uma metodologia para avaliacao de doses visando o uso de NORM em materiais de construcao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Antonio Fernando Costa de

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a methodology for estimating the radiological impact on man of the residues of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) that potentially can be used for the construction of homes and roads. Residues of this type, which are being produced in great quantities by the Brazilian mining industry, are typically deposited in non-appropriated conditions such that they may have a long-time adverse impact on the environment, and hence on man. A mathematical model was developed to calculate the doses resulting from the use of NORM residues, thus allowing a preliminary analysis of the possibility to recycle the residues. The model was used to evaluate the external dose due gamma radiation, the dose to skin caused by beta radiation, and the internal dose due to inhalation of radon and its decay products. The model was verified by comparisons with results of other studies about doses due to gamma and beta radiation from finite and infinite radioactive sources, with relatively good agreement. In order to validate the proposed methodology, a comparison was made against experimental results for a house constructed in accordance with CNEN regulations using building materials containing NORM residues. Comparisons were made of the dose due to gamma radiation and the radon concentration in the internal environment. Finally, the methodology was used also to estimate the dose caused by gamma radiation from a road constructed in the state of Rondonia, Brazil, which made use of another NORM residue. (author)

  11. GENERALIZED Ⅰ-NONEXPANSIVE MAPS AND INVARIANT APPROXIMATION RESULTS IN p-NORMED SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. Hussain

    2006-01-01

    We extend the concept of R-subcommuting maps due to Shahzad[17,18] to the case of non-starshaped domain and obtain a common fixed point result for this class of maps on non-starshaped domain in the setup of p-normed spaces. As applications, we establish noncommutative versions of various best approximation results for generalized I-nonexpansive maps on non-starshaped domain. Our results unify and extend that of Al-Thagafi, Dotson, Habiniak, Jungck and Sessa, Latif, Sahab, Khan and Sessa and Shahzad.

  12. Browder's Fixed Point Theorem and Some Interesting Results in Intuitionistic Fuzzy Normed Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cancan M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We define and study Browder's fixed point theorem and relation between an intuitionistic fuzzy convex normed space and a strong intuitionistic fuzzy uniformly convex normed space. Also, we give an example to show that uniformly convex normed space does not imply strongly intuitionistic fuzzy uniformly convex.

  13. Development of simple and rapid radioactivity analysis for thorium series in the products containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jae Ryong; Park, Se Young; Yoon, Seok Won; Ha, Wi Ho [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Kook; Kim, Kwang Pyo [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    It is necessary to analyze radioactivity of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in products to ensure radiological safety required by Natural Radiation Safety Management Act. The pretreatments for the existing analysis methods require high technology and time. Such destructive pretreatments including grinding and dissolution of samples make impossible to reuse products. We developed a rapid and simple procedure of radioactivity analysis for thorium series in the products containing NORM. The developed method requires non-destructive or minimized pretreatment. Radioactivity of the product without pretreatment is initially measured using gamma spectroscopy and then the measured radioactivity is adjusted by considering material composition, mass density, and geometrical shape of the product. The radioactivity adjustment can be made using scaling factors, which is derived by radiation transport Monte Carlo simulation. Necklace, bracelet, male health care product, and tile for health mat were selected as representative products for this study. The products are commonly used by the public and directly contacted with human body and thus resulting in high radiation exposure to the user. The scaling factors were derived using MCNPX code and the values ranged from 0.31 to 0.47. If radioactivity of the products is measured without pretreatment, the thorium series may be overestimated by up to 2.8 times. If scaling factors are applied, the difference in radioactivity estimates are reduced to 3-24%. The developed procedure in this study can be used for other products with various materials and shapes and thus ensuring radiological safety.

  14. NORM management; Gerencia de NORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Rocio dos

    2016-07-01

    In the chapter 9 concepts and examples for helping to solve the NORM question in the industries are presented. The challenge is to handle with radioactivity questions and many industries do not know that are producing radioactivity material besides having to learn and match the nuclear concepts and legislation with the conventional pollutants. The risks associated to NORM and a methodology to handle with the question are mentioned. The need for establishing responsibilities is also highlighted. Finally, a planning to manage NORM is suggested. The equation for determination os minerals activity and concentrates in secular equilibrium is annexed in A.

  15. Radiometric Mapping for Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM Assessment in Mamuju, West Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Syaeful

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mamuju has been known to have high radiation dose rate which comes from NORM in rock and soil. Major concern is due to its location which is near inhabitant settlement area. Preliminary research has been done by environmental team which is limited to main access road only, while some remote area has left untouched. The purpose of the research is to delineate the location and distribution of thorium and uranium anomaly in Mamuju, and also to provide adequate information regarding the anomaly and high dose rate area to decision makers and stakeholders in neither local nor central government. Method applied is radiometric mapping using spectrometer RS-125 with NaI(Tl detector in the area of interest Geological Formation of Adang Volcanic, which is more than 800 square km in size. The radiometric mapping method is widely used in uranium/thorium exploration, and now has been added with the measurement of radiation dose rate which is appropriate to environmental surveys. The mapping has been successfully delineated the area of NORM or the area with thorium and uranium anomaly. Thorium and uranium anomaly are related with multi-geological-process resulting the increase of grade into several fold from its original state

  16. Evaluation of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) in inorganic and organic oilfield scales from the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassioni, Ghada; Abdulla, Fareed; Morsy, Zeinab; El-Faramawy, Nabil

    2012-04-01

    The distribution of natural nuclide gamma-ray activities and their respective annual effective dose rates, produced by potassium-40 (⁴⁰K), uranium-238 (²³⁸U), thorium-232 (²³²Th), and radium-226 (²²⁶Ra), were determined for 14 oilfield scale samples from the Middle East. Accumulated radioactive materials concentrate in tubing and surface equipment, and workers at equipment-cleaning facilities and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) disposal facilities are the population most at risk for exposure to NORM radiation. Gamma-spectra analysis indicated that photo-gamma lines represent the parents of 10 radioactive nuclides: ²³⁴Th, plutonium-239, actinium-228, ²²⁶Ra, lead-212 (²¹²Pb), ²¹⁴Pb, thallium-238 (²⁰⁸Tl), bismuth-212 (²¹²Bi), ²¹⁴Bi, and ⁴⁰K. These nuclides represent the daughters of the natural radioactive series ²³⁸U and ²³²Th with ⁴⁰K as well. The mean activity concentration of ²³⁸U, ²³²Th, and ⁴⁰K were found to be 25.8 ± 11.6, 18.3 ± 8.1, and 4487.2 ± 2.5% Bq kg⁻¹ (average values for 14 samples), respectively. The annual effective dose rates and the absorbed doses in air, both indoor and outdoor, for the samples were obtained as well. The results can be used to assess the respective hazard on workers in the field and represent a basis for revisiting current engineering practices.

  17. A century of oil and gas exploration in Albania: assessment of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs)

    CERN Document Server

    Xhixha, Gerti; Callegari, Ivan; Colonna, Tommaso; Hasani, Fadil; Mantovani, Fabio; Shala, Ferat; Strati, Virginia; Kaçeli, Merita Xhixha

    2015-01-01

    Because potential Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) generated from oil and gas extractions in Albania have been disposed without regulatory criteria in many decades, an extensive survey in one of the most productive regions (Vlora-Elbasan) has been performed. Among 52 gamma-ray spectrometry measurements of soil, oil-sand, sludge, produced water and crude oil samples, we discover that relatively low activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th and 40K, which are 23 +/- 2 Bq/kg, 23 +/- 2 Bq/kg, 24 +/- 3 Bq/kg and 549 +/- 12 Bq/kg, respectively, come from oil-sand produced by hydrocarbon extraction from molasses formations. The mineralogical characterization together with the 228Ra/40K and 226Ra/40K ratios of these Neogene deposits confirm the geological and geodynamic model that predicts a dismantling of Mesozoic source rocks. The average activity concentrations (+/- standard deviations) of the radium isotopes (226Ra, 228Ra) and of the 228Th and 40K radionuclides in soil samples are determined...

  18. NORM regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    The author reviews the question of regulation for naturally occuring radioactive material (NORM), and the factors that have made this a more prominent concern today. Past practices have been very relaxed, and have often involved very poor records, the involvment of contractors, and the disposition of contaminated equipment back into commercial service. The rationale behind the establishment of regulations is to provide worker protection, to exempt low risk materials, to aid in scrap recycling, to provide direction for remediation and to examine disposal options. The author reviews existing regulations at federal and state levels, impending legislation, and touches on the issue of site remediation and potential liabilities affecting the release of sites contaminated by NORM.

  19. A century of oil and gas exploration in Albania: assessment of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhixha, G; Baldoncini, M; Callegari, I; Colonna, T; Hasani, F; Mantovani, F; Shala, F; Strati, V; Xhixha Kaçeli, M

    2015-11-01

    The Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) that are potentially generated from oil and gas extractions in Albania have been disposed of without regulations for many decades, and therefore, an extensive survey in one of the most productive regions (Vlora-Elbasan) was performed. A total of 52 gamma ray spectrometry measurements of soil, oil-sand, sludge, produced water and crude oil samples were performed. We discovered that relatively low activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th and (40)K, with concentrations of 23±2Bq/kg, 23±2Bq/kg, 24±3Bq/kg and 549±12Bq/kg, respectively, came from the oil-sands produced by the hydrocarbon extraction of the molasses formations. The mineralogical characterizations and the (228)Ra/(40)K and (226)Ra/(40)K ratios of these Neogene deposits confirmed the predictions of the geological and geodynamic models of a dismantling of the Mesozoic source rocks. The average activity concentrations (±standard deviations) of the radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) and of the (228)Th and (40)K radionuclides in soil samples were 20±5Bq/kg, 25±10Bq/kg, 25±9Bq/kg and 326±83Bq/kg, respectively. Based on the measurements in this study, the future radiological assessments of other fields in the region should be strategically planned to focus on the oil-sands from the molasses sediments. Disequilibrium in the (228)Ra decay segment was not observed in the soil, sludge or oil-sand samples within the standard uncertainties. After a detailed radiological characterization of the four primary oil fields, we concluded that the outdoor absorbed dose rate never exceeded the worldwide population weighted average absorbed dose rate in outdoor air from terrestrial gamma radiation.

  20. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) generated from lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasani, F; Shala, F; Xhixha, G; Xhixha, M K; Hodolli, G; Kadiri, S; Bylyku, E; Cfarku, F

    2014-12-01

    The energy production in Kosovo depends primarily on lignite-fired power plants. During coal combustion, huge amounts of fly ash and bottom ash are generated, which may result in enriched natural radionuclides; therefore, these radionuclides need to be investigated to identify the possible processes that may lead to the radiological exposure of workers and the local population. Lignite samples and NORMs of fly ash and bottom ash generated in lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo are analyzed using a gamma-ray spectrometry method for the activity concentration of natural radionuclides. The average activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th in lignite are found to be 36 ± 8 Bq kg(-1), 9 ± 1 Bq kg(-1) and 9 ± 3 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Indications on the occurrence and geochemical behavior of uranium in the lignite matrix are suggested. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in fly ash and bottom ash samples are found to be concentrated from 3 to 5 times that of the feeding lignite. The external gamma-ray absorbed dose rate and the activity concentration index are calculated to assess the radiological hazard arising from ash disposal and recycling in the cement industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Electrogastrographic norms in children: toward the development of standard methods, reproducible results, and reliable normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, J; Harris, J; Chen, J; Sapoznikov, D; Riley, B; De La Nuez, W; Khaskelberg, A

    2001-10-01

    Surface electrogastrography (EGG) is a noninvasive technique that detects gastric myoelectrical electric activity, principally the underlying pacemaker activity generated by the specialized interstitial cells of Cajal. Interest in the use of this methodology has grown because of its potential applications in describing functional gastrointestinal disorders, particularly as a tool in the evaluation of nausea, anorexia, and other dyspeptic symptoms. Fifty-five healthy volunteers (27 female), ranging in age from 6 to 18 years (mean, 11.7 years), were studied for a 1-hour baseline preprandial period and a 1-hour postprandial period after consumption of a standard 448-kcal meal. Recordings were obtained with an EGG Digitrapper or modified Polygraph (Medtronic-Synectics, Shoreview, MN). Spectral analysis by an autoregressive moving average method was used to extract numerical data on the power and frequency of gastric electrical activity from the EGG signal. The authors present normative data for healthy children and adolescents studied under a standardized protocol. Mean dominant frequency was found to be 2.9 +/- 0.40 cycles per minute preprandially and 3.1 +/- 0.35 postprandially, with 80% +/- 13% of test time spent in the normogastric range (2-4 cycles per minute) before and 85% +/- 11% after the test meal. The response of several key parameters to meal consumption was considered, and the effects of age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) on the EGG were sought. There is a postprandial increase in the rhythmicity and amplitude of gastric slow waves, as other investigators have shown in adults. Key normative values are not dependent on age, gender, or BMI. The authors discuss limitations in the data set and its interpretability. The authors establish a normative data set after developing a standardized recording protocol and test meal and show that EGG recordings can be obtained reliably in the pediatric population. Development of similar norms by investigators using

  2. The dominance of norm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward L. Rubin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to revisit the debate about rational choice theory from the legal cultural and historical perspectives. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena allowing to analyze them in their historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of subjective and objective factors this determines the choice of the research methods systemicstructural formallegal and comparative. Results The first part of this chapter will explain the way in which people in societies different from our own were subject to other motivations in situations where selfinterest would tend to dominate in our society. The reasoning is based on three examples one drawn from the history of Ancient Rome one from the High Middle Ages of the European society and one from a contemporary nonWestern culture. The second part of the chapter analyzes the reason why material selfinterest maximizing became a dominant motivation in the modern Western society. The works on historical sociology attribute this development to Calvinism but this hypothesis suffers from some serious defects. In the article we prove that the modern sensibility resulted from much longeracting trends specifically secularization urbanization and commercialization. The final section of the chapter explores the relationship between the Westrsquos prevailing norm of selfinterest maximization and the particular norms that have been discussed in microeconomic theory. It argues that some of these norms are internal to the prevailing one and are thus explicable in terms of material selfinterest but that others reflect additional norms in the general society that exist alongside and sometimes in competition with the prevailing norm of selfinterest maximization. The historicallybased view that selfinterest maximizing is a prevailing norm rather than a human universal allows these other norms to be acknowledged in a plausible and realistic manner rather than being explained away by a

  3. Evaluation of NORM concentration in water treatment of Pocos de Caldas municipality, MG, Brazil: preliminary results; Avaliacao da presenca de NORM no tratamento de agua do municipio de Pocos de Caldas: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Adriano Mota; Villegas, Raul A.S.; Fukuma, Henrique Takuji, E-mail: htfukuma@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: adrianomotaferreira@gmail.com [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    NORM is the acronym used to refer to naturally occurring radioactive materials. Besides being objects of study and monitoring such materials can be used as raw material or as by-products or waste of industrial activities. Oil and gas, mining and water treatment are examples of facilities that can handle NORM. In such cases, their concentration at significant levels from the perspective of environmental and occupational radiation protection may occur. This study aims to evaluate the presence of the natural radioactive {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series in the treatment of city water elements Pocos de Caldas - MG (water, materials and waste). The study can serve as an indication of the necessity of a more detailed review in the locally and in the country on this radiological issue. (author)

  4. Low-cost NORM concentrations measuring technique for building materials of Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarov, Akmal; Safarov, Askar; Azimov, Askarali; Darby, Iain G.

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of natural radionuclides of building materials are important in order to estimate exposure of humans to radiation, who can spend up to 80% of their time indoors. One of the indicators of building materials' safety is the radium equivalent activity, which is regulated by national and international normative documents [1,2,3]. Materials with Ra(eq) =ageing. Long measurement times including ageing of samples are major constraints for performing large number of analyses [6]. Typically ageing of samples and analysis is 40 days. Gamma-spectrometric analysis of brick, crushed stone, red sand, granite, white marble and concrete cubes was performed both before and after ageing of samples (10, 20, 30 and 40 days). Measurement times of samples were 1, 3, 6 and 12 hours. Samples were measured in 1 liter Marinelli beaker geometry, using NaI(Tl) spectrometers with crystal sizes 2.5 x 2.5 in and 3.1 x 3.1 in. Efficiency calibration of spectrometers was done using certified volumetric (1 liter Marinelli beaker) Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 sources filled with silica sand and density 1,7 kg/l. Herein we present results indicating that one hour measuring may be sufficient for samples in 1 liter Marinelli beakers offering prospect of significant time and cost improvements. References: 1. NEA-OECD (1979): Exposure to radiation from natural radioactivity in building materials. Report by Group of Experts of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Paris 2. STUK (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) (2003): The radioactivity of building materials and ash. Regulatory Guides on Radiation Safety (ST Guides) ST 12.2 (Finland) (8 October 2003) 3. GOST 30108-94 (1995): Building materials and elements. Determination of specific activity of natural radioactive nuclei. Interstate Standard. 4. Krisiuk E.M. et al., (1971). A study on Radioactivity in Building Materials (Leningrad: Research Institute for radiation Hygiene) 5. Beretka, J., & Mathew, P. J. (1985). Natural radioactivity of

  5. Characterization of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) in Oil and Gas Industry Equipment and Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, A.S.; White, G.J.

    1999-10-07

    This Sampling and Analysis (S and A) Plan was developed for the NORM Characterization Program, and describes the information to be gained through the program, how the required information is to be collected, and the anticipated form and content of the final data. The S and A Plan provides detailed procedures describing the work to be performed, how and why the work will be performed, and who will be responsible for conducting the various aspects of the work. The S and A Plan has been prepared with input from all parties involved with the program. Where appropriate, portions of the procedures described in the S and A Plan will be field tested by personnel of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Grand Junction Project Office (GJPO), as well as representatives of the cosponsor organizations prior to their use in the field.

  6. Reference materials produced for a European metrological research project focussing on measurements of NORM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larijani, C; Pearce, A K; Regan, P H; Russell, B C; Jerome, S M; Crespo, M T; de Felice, P; Lutter, G; Maringer, F; Mazánová, M

    2017-08-01

    Reliable measurement of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials is of significance in order to comply with environmental regulations and for radiological protection purposes. This paper discusses the standardisation of three reference materials, namely sand, tuff and TiO2 to serve as quality control materials for traceability, method validation and instrument calibration. The sample preparation, material characterization via γ, α and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and the assignment of values for both the 4n (Thorium) and 4n+2 (Uranium) decay series are described. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Linguistic Norm History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litvinov V. A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of norm and normative approach to the diachronic language study. It identifies specificity of the normative approach to linguistic means within various linguistic traditions and determines the main features of the linguistic norm. The author points out that specific norms appear at each stage of language development as the result of correlation of the existing language means.

  8. Quotient Normed Cones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Oscar Valero

    2006-05-01

    Given a normed cone (, ) and a subcone , we construct and study the quotient normed cone $(X/Y,\\tilde{p})$ generated by . In particular we characterize the bicompleteness of $(X/Y,\\tilde{p})$ in terms of the bicompleteness of (, ), and prove that the dual quotient cone $((X/Y)^∗,\\|\\cdot\\|_{\\tilde{p},u})$ can be identified as a distinguished subcone of the dual cone $(X^∗,\\|\\cdot\\|_{\\tilde{p},u})$. Furthermore, some parts of the theory are presented in the general setting of the space $CL(X,Y)$ of all continuous linear mappings from a normed cone (, ) to a normed cone (, ), extending several well-known results related to open continuous linear mappings between normed linear spaces.

  9. Shared cultural norms for justice in water institutions: results from Fiji, Ecuador, Paraguay, New Zealand, and the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutich, Amber; York, Abigail M; Brewis, Alexandra; Stotts, Rhian; Roberts, Christopher M

    2012-12-30

    It is widely agreed that current institutions are insufficient to meet global water challenges, and extensive institutional reforms are needed. To achieve effective local water management, institutional rules should be congruent with local cultural norms. Conversely, a major potential challenge is posed by tensions between institutional rules and local cultural norms for justice. We propose and demonstrate a new approach to cross-cultural analysis designed to investigate this tension, which can assess when local cultural norms are likely to facilitate or impede the acceptance of specific institutional rules. Using data from 238 respondents in five global sites (in Fiji, Ecuador, Paraguay, New Zealand, and the U.S.) analyzed using cultural consensus analysis, we find evidence of culturally-shared norms of justice in water institutions in at least six domains: a human right to water, water governance, water access, environmental stewardship, aspects of water markets, and aspects of water quality and health. Additionally, local cultural models across sites differed on only two topics: (1) ownership and allocation and (2) restrictions and enforcement. Indigenous heritage is the best single predictor of views on controversial institutional rules dealing with water restrictions/enforcement and ownership/allocation. This approach can help build effective water management solutions by identifying cases in which specific institutional reforms are congruent with local cultural norms (or not), and when those will matter most.

  10. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the oil and gas processing and production facilities; La contaminacion radiactiva de origen natural (CRON) en las instalaciones de produccion y procesamiento de aceite y gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najera F, J. [PEMEX Exploracion y Produccion, Lima (Peru)

    1994-12-31

    NORM contamination is produced by concentration in petroleum facilities of naturally occurring radioactive materials. The presence of NORM in petroleum reservoirs and in the oil and gas industry has been widely recognized. It`s not a critical technical problem if you proceed timely to solve it. NORM is a great but controllable hazard to the human health and the environment, and represents a severe waste management problem. We suggest to the latino american oil companies to conduct studies to detect NORM contamination in their facilities an use to them to plan the appropriate actions to control the situation. (author). 15 refs.

  11. Space Research Results Purify Semiconductor Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    While President Obama's news that NASA would encourage private companies to develop vehicles to take NASA into space may have come as a surprise to some, NASA has always encouraged private companies to invest in space. More than two decades ago, NASA established Commercial Space Centers across the United States to encourage industry to use space as a place to conduct research and to apply NASA technology to Earth applications. Although the centers are no longer funded by NASA, the advances enabled by that previous funding are still impacting us all today. For example, the Space Vacuum Epitaxy Center (SVEC) at the University of Houston, one of the 17 Commercial Space Centers, had a mission to create advanced thin film semiconductor materials and devices through the use of vacuum growth technologies both on Earth and in space. Making thin film materials in a vacuum (low-pressure environment) is advantageous over making them in normal atmospheric pressures, because contamination floating in the air is lessened in a vacuum. To grow semiconductor crystals, researchers at SVEC utilized epitaxy the process of depositing a thin layer of material on top of another thin layer of material. On Earth, this process took place in a vacuum chamber in a clean room lab. For space, the researchers developed something called the Wake Shield Facility (WSF), a 12-foot-diameter disk-shaped platform designed to grow thin film materials using the low-pressure environment in the wake of the space shuttle. Behind an orbiting space shuttle, the vacuum levels are thousands of times better than in the best vacuum chambers on Earth. Throughout the 1990s, the WSF flew on three space shuttle missions as a series of proof-of-concept missions. These experiments are a lasting testament to the success of the shuttle program and resulted in the development of the first thin film materials made in the vacuum of space, helping to pave the way for better thin film development on Earth.

  12. Extremal norms of graphs and matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Nikiforov, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    In the recent years, the trace norm of graphs has been extensively studied under the name of graph energy. In this paper some of this research is extended to more general matrix norms, like the Schatten p-norms and the Ky Fan k-norms. Whenever possible the results are given both for graphs and general matrices.

  13. Overview of NORM and activities by a NORM licensed permanent decontamination and waste processing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirro, G.A. [Growth Resources, Inc., Lafayette, LA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of issues related to handling NORM materials, and provides a description of a facility designed for the processing of NORM contaminated equipment. With regard to handling NORM materials the author discusses sources of NORM, problems, regulations and disposal options, potential hazards, safety equipment, and issues related to personnel protection. For the facility, the author discusses: description of the permanent facility; the operations of the facility; the license it has for handling specific radioactive material; operating and safety procedures; decontamination facilities on site; NORM waste processing capabilities; and offsite NORM services which are available.

  14. Advanced Materials for Exploration Task Research Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, M. B. (Compiler); Murphy, K. L.; Schneider, T.

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Materials for Exploration (AME) Activity in Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC s) Exploration Science and Technology Directorate coordinated activities from 2001 to 2006 to support in-space propulsion technologies for future missions. Working together, materials scientists and mission planners identified materials shortfalls that are limiting the performance of long-term missions. The goal of the AME project was to deliver improved materials in targeted areas to meet technology development milestones of NASA s exploration-dedicated activities. Materials research tasks were targeted in five areas: (1) Thermal management materials, (2) propulsion materials, (3) materials characterization, (4) vehicle health monitoring materials, and (5) structural materials. Selected tasks were scheduled for completion such that these new materials could be incorporated into customer development plans.

  15. Employees' Perceptions of Social Norms as a Result of Implementing the Participatory Approach at Supervisor Level : Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, S M; Schaafsma, F G; Geldof, M F; Boot, C R L; Kraaijeveld, R A; Shaw, W S; Bültmann, U; Twisk, J; Anema, J R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A multifaceted implementation strategy was targeted at supervisors to encourage them to apply a participatory approach (PA) in dealing with employees' work functioning problems due to health concerns. This paper assesses the effect on employees' perceived social norms regarding the use of th

  16. A norm knockout method on indirect reciprocity to reveal indispensable norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Okada, Isamu; Uchida, Satoshi; Sasaki, Tatsuya

    2017-03-01

    Although various norms for reciprocity-based cooperation have been suggested that are evolutionarily stable against invasion from free riders, the process of alternation of norms and the role of diversified norms remain unclear in the evolution of cooperation. We clarify the co-evolutionary dynamics of norms and cooperation in indirect reciprocity and also identify the indispensable norms for the evolution of cooperation. Inspired by the gene knockout method, a genetic engineering technique, we developed the norm knockout method and clarified the norms necessary for the establishment of cooperation. The results of numerical investigations revealed that the majority of norms gradually transitioned to tolerant norms after defectors are eliminated by strict norms. Furthermore, no cooperation emerges when specific norms that are intolerant to defectors are knocked out.

  17. On Minimal Norms on Mn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madjid Mirzavaziri

    2007-01-01

    norms ‖⋅‖1 and ‖⋅‖2 on ℂn such that N(A=max{‖Ax‖2:‖x‖1=1, x∈ℂn} for all A∈ℳn. This may be regarded as an extension of a known result on characterization of minimal algebra norms.

  18. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in ashes from a fuel-oil power plant in Cienfuegos, Cuba, and the associated radiation hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Hernández, C M; Bernal-Castillo, J; Morera-Gómez, Y; Guillen-Arruebarrena, A; Cartas-Aguila, H A; Acosta-Milián, R

    2014-03-01

    The radioactivity of NORM was measured in ashes collected from a fuel-oil power plant in Cienfuegos, Cuba, using an HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer. The (226)Ra, (210)Pb, (40)K, (232)Th and (238)U activity concentrations reached 240, 77, 59, 70 and 15 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The potential radiological hazard of these residuals was assessed. The radium equivalent activities of the samples varied from 54 to 345 Bq kg(-1). The gamma index was calculated to be lower than that of the reference values, and the gamma absorbed dose rate was higher than the average reported for the earth's crust; however, the assessed annual effective dose was slightly lower than the annual effective dose limit for public, i.e. 1 mSv. Therefore, these bottom ashes were not dramatically enriched with radionuclides and may be used as an additive for building materials without restrictions from a radiological protection point of view.

  19. Quality of decision making and group norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postmes, T; Spears, R; Cihangir, S

    2001-06-01

    Two studies investigated the impact of group norms for maintaining consensus versus norms for critical thought on group decisions in a modification of the biased sampling paradigm (G. Stasser & W. Titus, 1985). Both studies showed that critical norms improved the quality of decisions, whereas consensus norms did not. This effect appeared to be mediated by the perceived value of shared and unshared information: Consensus norm groups valued shared information more highly than critical groups did, and valence was a good predictor of decision outcome. In addition, the 2nd study showed that the group norm manipulation has no impact on individual decisions, consistent with the assumption that this is a group effect. Results suggest that the content of group norms is an important factor influencing the quality of group decision-making processes and that the content of group norms may be related to the group's proneness for groupthink.

  20. Transparent conducting materials: Overview and recent results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Illiberi, A.; Hovestad, A.; Barbu, I.; Klerk, L.; Buskens, P.

    2012-01-01

    An overview of different transparent conductors is given. In addition, atmospheric pressure CVD of ZnO resulted in conductivities below 1 mΩ cm for a temperature of 480°C, whereas at a process temperature of 200°C a value of 2 mΩ cm was obtained. Also atmospheric pressure spatial ALD was used to

  1. Supremum norm differentiability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Leonard

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available The points of Gateaux and Fréchet differentiability of the norm in C(T,E are obtained, where T is a locally compact Hausdorff space and E is a real Banach space. Applications of these results are given to the space ℓ∞(E of all bounded sequences in E and to the space B(ℓ1,E of all bounded linear operators from ℓ1 into E

  2. Consistency of trace norm minimization

    CERN Document Server

    Bach, Francis

    2007-01-01

    Regularization by the sum of singular values, also referred to as the trace norm, is a popular technique for estimating low rank rectangular matrices. In this paper, we extend some of the consistency results of the Lasso to provide necessary and sufficient conditions for rank consistency of trace norm minimization with the square loss. We also provide an adaptive version that is rank consistent even when the necessary condition for the non adaptive version is not fulfilled.

  3. Nasalance Norms in Greek Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal…

  4. Nasalance Norms in Greek Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal…

  5. Are NORMs Accumulated in Filters of Drinking Water Facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choung, S.; Shin, W.; Park, M.; Han, J. H.; Ryu, J. S.; Han, W. S.; Chang, B. U.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater is used as raw water to produce mineral drinking water through filtering processes in bottled water facilities. Although natural occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) exist in groundwater, accumulation of NORMs were rarely studied due to their low concentrations in groundwater. The goal of this study is to evaluate potential accumulation of NORMs in filters used at the drinking water facilities. Raw water and treated water after each filtering step, bottled water, and used filters were collected from a total of 13 bottled water facilities to analyze major dissolved ions and NORMs. Additionally, surface radioactive dose rate were measured at individual filter housings. The measured concentrations of NORMs in raw and treated water were quite low. However, the surface radioactivity dose rates dramatically increased around filter housing located at very first step regardless of filter type (i.e., activated carbon or membrane filter) in 4 out of 6 facilities. Some used filters showed approximately 20 times greater contents of Pb-210 than the Korean regulation level of 1 Bq g-1. Also, the concentrations of uranium and thorium were detected up to 75 µg g-1filter and 2 µg g-1filter, respectively, in 4 water facilities. These results implies potential accumulation of NORMs in filters used at bottled water facilities. Therefore, the filters need to be monitored during manufacturing processes of bottled water, and may be properly managed after use.

  6. Uranium Mining and Norm in North America-Some Perspectives on Occupational Radiation Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven H; Chambers, Douglas B

    2017-07-01

    All soils and rocks contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Many ores and raw materials contain relatively elevated levels of natural radionuclides, and processing such materials can further increase the concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides. In the U.S., these materials are sometimes referred to as technologically-enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM). Examples of NORM minerals include uranium ores, monazite (a source of rare earth minerals), and phosphate rock used to produce phosphate fertilizer. The processing of these materials has the potential to result in above-background radiation exposure to workers. Following a brief review of the sources and potential for worker exposure from NORM in these varied industries, this paper will then present an overview of uranium mining and recovery in North America, including discussion on the mining methods currently being used for both conventional (underground, open pit) and in situ leach (ISL), also referred to as In Situ Recovery (ISR), and the production of NORM materials and wastes associated with these uranium recovery methods. The radiological composition of the NORM products and wastes produced and recent data on radiological exposures received by workers in the North American uranium recovery industry are then described. The paper also identifies the responsible government agencies in the U.S. and Canada assigned the authority to regulate and control occupational exposure from these NORM materials.

  7. Expanding Norms for Narration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cynthia J.

    1995-01-01

    This article addresses issues in determining normal development of narrative skills in school-age children and adolescents. It considers the purpose and use of norms in this area and research on currently available norms. It focuses on difficulties in compiling norms, including children's wide ability range and effects of situational variables,…

  8. Normed BCI-algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Jia-yin

    2011-01-01

    The notions of norm and distance in BCI-algebras are introduced,and some basic properties in normed BCI-algebras are given.It is obtained that the isomorphic(homomorphic)image and inverse image of a normed BCI-algebra are still normed BCI-algebras.The relations of normaled properties between BCI-algebra and Cartesian product of BCIalgebras are investigated.The limit notion of sequence of points in normed BCI-algebras is introduced,and its related properties are investigated.

  9. A Factorial Analysis of Variance and Resulting Norm Tables for Tennessee Head Start Children Based on the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Barbara A.

    Data from a statewide screening of Tennessee Head Start children on the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) are analyzed in this report for two purposes: to determine whether sex, race, and residence have a significant influence on visual motor development as measured by the VMI, and to develop VMI norms for the Tennessee Head…

  10. The Role of Knowledge, Social Norms, and Attitudes toward Organic Products and Shopping Behavior: Survey Results from High School Students in Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotschi, Elisabeth; Vogel, Stefan; Lindenthal, Thomas; Larcher, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    In 2005 a survey was used to investigate social norms and attitudes of Viennese high school students (14-20 years, n = 340) toward organic products. Young people, who already participate in household decisions and consume organic products, have not yet been recognized sufficiently in research. The Theory of Reasoned Action and discriminant…

  11. The Role of Knowledge, Social Norms, and Attitudes toward Organic Products and Shopping Behavior: Survey Results from High School Students in Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotschi, Elisabeth; Vogel, Stefan; Lindenthal, Thomas; Larcher, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    In 2005 a survey was used to investigate social norms and attitudes of Viennese high school students (14-20 years, n = 340) toward organic products. Young people, who already participate in household decisions and consume organic products, have not yet been recognized sufficiently in research. The Theory of Reasoned Action and discriminant…

  12. Relations for certain symmetric norms and anti-norms before and after partial trace

    CERN Document Server

    Rastegin, Alexey E

    2012-01-01

    Changes of some unitarily invariant norms and anti-norms under the operation of partial trace are examined. The norms considered form a two-parametric family, including both the Ky Fan and Schatten norms as particular cases. The obtained results concern operators acting on the tensor product of two finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. For any such operator, we obtain lower bounds on norms of its partial trace in terms of the corresponding dimensionality and norms of this operator. Similar inequalities, but in the opposite direction, are obtained for certain anti-norms of positive matrices. Applications of the results to generalized quantum entropies are discussed. We derive inequalities between the unified entropies of a composite quantum system and one of its subsystems, where the traced-out dimensionality is involved as well.

  13. Is the Association between Neighborhood Drug Prevalence and Marijuana use Independent of Peer Drug and Alcohol Norms? Results from a Household Survey of Urban Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifheit, Kathryn M; Parekh, Jenita; Matson, Pamela A; Moulton, Lawrence H; Ellen, Jonathan M; Jennings, Jacky M

    2015-08-01

    To inform policy debates surrounding marijuana decriminalization and add to our understanding of social and structural influences on youth drug use, we sought to determine whether there was an independent association between neighborhood drug prevalence and individual-level marijuana use after controlling for peer drug and alcohol norms. We analyzed cross-sectional data from a household survey of 563 youth aged 15-24 in Baltimore, Maryland. The study population was 88 % African-American. Using gender-stratified, weighted, multilevel logistic regression, we tested whether neighborhood drug prevalence was associated with individual-level marijuana use after controlling for peer drug and alcohol norms. Bivariate analyses identified a significant association between high neighborhood drug prevalence and marijuana use among female youth (AOR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.26, 2.47); the association was in a similar direction but not significant among male youth (AOR = 1.26, 95% CI = 0.85, 1.87). In multivariable regression controlling for peer drug and alcohol norms, high neighborhood drug prevalence remained significantly associated among female youth (AOR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.12, 2.27). Among male youth, the association was attenuated toward the null (AOR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.63, 1.45). In the multivariable model, peer drug and alcohol norms were significantly associated with individual-level marijuana use among female youth (AOR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.17, 2.04) and male youth (AOR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.65, 4.07). This work suggests that individual-level marijuana use among female youth is associated with neighborhood drug prevalence independent of peer norms. This finding may have important implications as the policy landscape around marijuana use changes.

  14. Results of the material screening program of the NEXT experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Dafni, T; Bandac, I; Bettini, A; Borges, F I G M; Camargo, M; Carcel, S; Cebrian, S; Cervera, A; Conde, C A N; Diaz, J; Esteve, R; Fernandes, L M P; Fernandez, M; Ferrario, P; Ferreira, A L; Freitas, E D C; Gehman, V M; Goldschmidt, A; Gomez, H; Gomez-Cadenas, J J; Gonzalez-Diaz, D; Gutierrez, R M; Hauptman, J; Morata, J A Hernando; Herrera, D C; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Labarga, L; Laing, A; Liubarsky, I; Lorca, D; Losada, M; Luzon, G; Mari, A; Martin-Albo, J; Martinez, A; Martinez-Lema, G; Miller, T; Monrabal, F; Monserrate, M; Monteiro, C M B; Mora, F J; Moutinho, L M; Vidal, J Munoz; Nebot-Guinot, M; Nygren, D; Oliveira, C A B; Perez, J; Aparicio, J L Perez; Renner, J; Ripoll, L; Rodriguez, A; Rodriguez, J; Santos, F P; Santos, J M F dos; Segui, L; Serra, L; Shuman, D; Simon, A; Sofka, C; Sorel, M; Toledo, J F; Torrent, J; Tsamalaidze, Z; Veloso, J F C A; Villar, J A; Webb, R C; White, J T; Yahlali, N

    2014-01-01

    The 'Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC (NEXT)', intended to investigate neutrinoless double beta decay, requires extremely low background levels. An extensive material screening and selection process to assess the radioactivity of components is underway combining several techniques, including germanium gamma-ray spectrometry performed at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory; recent results of this material screening program are presented here.

  15. Socializing Democratic Norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flockhart, Trine

    The volume investigates how state socialization of the Euro-Atlantic constitutive norm set has taken place from a number of European and transatlantic international organizations into the 'New Europe'. The volume utilizes a new framework for norms transfer called 'Complex Socialization'....

  16. RECONSTRUCTION OF THE FRAGMENT OF HISTORY OF GRAMMATICAL NORM OF THE CHURCH SLAVONIC LANGUAGE (ON THE MATERIAL OF “COLLECTION” BY NILUS OF SORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karavaeva Polina Yuryevna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents some results of the research that are aimed at identifying specific realization of grammatical norms of the Church Slavonic language (Russian edition of the XV – beginning of XVI century. In Hagiography 'Life of Saint Anuria of the Desert', which is included into "Sobornik of the Greek Saints' lives" by St. Nilus of Sora, functional-semantic specificity of the forms of the past tense is defined. It is established that in the Hagiography all possible preterit forms are used: aorist, imperfect, perfect, pluperfect. On the example of aorist and imperfect forms' usage it is proved that they implement not only the original semantics, but also the meanings, that are characteristic of other preteritum. Due to the context the aorist form can express the following aeristhesia meanings: specifically factual (when referring to a specifically singled undifferentiated actions attributable to the past and without any connection with reality, specifically processional (if the characteristic of a specific condition or process is associated with a specific moment in the past, and perfect (in case of designating condition at the moment of speech, which was the result of actions in the past, pluscuamperfecto (when referring to actions that preceded another past action and imperfective (when referring to either long-term, continuous or repeated action in the past. The imperfect is used not only in its original meaning (long-term, repeated action or state, but also in the meanings of other preterito, in particular of the aorist. The mixture of past tense forms indicates a change in the nature of strict grammatical rules and the emergency of new grammatical rules of the Church Slavonic language (Russian edition.

  17. Method Validation for the Gamma-ray Spectrometric Determination of Natural Radioactive Nuclides in NORM Samples - Method Validation for the Gamma-ray Spectrometric Determination of Natural Radionuclides in raw materials and by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Young-Yong; Lim, Jong-Myoung; Jang, Mee; Kim, Chang-Jong; Chung, Kun Ho; Kang, Mun Ja; Choi, Geun-Sik [Environmental Radioactivity Assessment Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 111, Daedeok-daero 989, Yuseong, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    It has established the 'Act on safety control of radioactive rays around living environment' in Korea, since 2011, to protect the public from natural occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and their by-products. The increasing concerns regarding the radioactivity of those materials therefore dictate many demands for the radioactive analysis for them. There are several methods to determine the concentration of natural radionuclides, such as {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, and so on, through a radiochemical analysis using an alpha spectrometer, mass spectrometer and liquid scintillation counter. However, gamma-ray spectroscopy still has an effect on the assessment of radioactive concentration for these nuclides and their progenies. To adapt a gamma spectrometer to the determination of natural radionuclides, the feasibility of their analysis methods should be first verified and validated with respect to accuracy and time and cost constraints. In general, one of the well-known processes in analyzing uranium with a gamma spectrometer is an indirect measurement using the secular equilibrium state with their progenies in a sample. This method, however, demands the time elapsed about 3 weeks to reach the equilibrium state between {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn and the sufficient integrity of a sample bottle to prevent the leakage of radon isotopes which is a form of noble gas. The simple and quick method is to directly measure a full energy absorption peak of 186.2 keV from {sup 226}Ra without the secular equilibrium state between {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn in the common sample bottle. However, this direct measurement also has difficulties about the interference with a full energy absorption peak of 185.7 keV from {sup 235}U. In this study, direct measurement with the interference correction technique, which uses several reference peaks for gamma-rays from {sup 235}U and {sup 234}Th, and indirect measurement, which means the identification of {sup

  18. Weighted norm inequalities and indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Martín

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend and simplify several classical results on weighted norm inequalities for classical operators acting on rearrangement invariant spaces using the theory of indices. As an application we obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for generalized Hardy type operators to be bounded on ?p(w, ?p,8(w, Gp(w and Gp,8(w.

  19. NORM -- The new kid on the block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estey, H.P. [Tiger Cleaning Systems, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The existence of radioactive materials in accumulations of scale and sludge in oil and gas production equipment is a relatively new issue. This developing issue first gained international attention in 1981 when significant radiation levels were detected on oil and gas production platforms in the North Sea; it didn`t become a domestic issue until 1986 when a similar situation was detected in a Mississippi pipe yard. Most published papers on the occurrence of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in oil and gas production equipment have been based on studies of NORM-related activities in the United Kingdom (North Sea NORM). This paper addresses the occurrences and regulation of NORM in the US oil and gas production industry as experienced, witnessed and/or observed by the author over the past four years.

  20. What's in a norm? Sources and processes of norm change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluck, Elizabeth Levy

    2009-03-01

    This reply to the commentary by E. Staub and L. A. Pearlman (2009) revisits the field experimental results of E. L. Paluck (2009). It introduces further evidence and theoretical elaboration supporting Paluck's conclusion that exposure to a reconciliation-themed radio soap opera changed perceptions of social norms and behaviors, not beliefs. Experimental and longitudinal survey evidence reinforces the finding that the radio program affected socially shared perceptions of typical or prescribed behavior-that is, social norms. Specifically, measurements of perceptions of social norms called into question by Staub and Pearlman are shown to correlate with perceptions of public opinion and public, not private, behaviors. Although measurement issues and the mechanisms of the radio program's influence merit further testing, theory and evidence point to social interactions and emotional engagement, not individual education, as the likely mechanisms of change. The present exchange makes salient what is at stake in this debate: a model of change based on learning and personal beliefs versus a model based on group influence and social norms. These theoretical models recommend very different strategies for prejudice and conflict reduction. Future field experiments should attempt to adjudicate between these models by testing relevant policies in real-world settings.

  1. Development of fast measurements of concentration of NORM U-238 by HPGe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Seokki; Kim, Siu; Kim, Geehyun

    2017-02-01

    Naturally Occureed Radioactive Material (NORM) generated from the origin of earth can be found all around us and even people who are not engaged in the work related to radiation have been exposed to unnecessary radiation. This NORM has a potential risk provided that is concentrated or transformed by artificial activities. Likewise, a development of fast measruement method of NORM is emerging to prevent the radiation exposure of the general public and person engaged in the work related to the type of business related thereto who uses the material in which NORM is concentrated or transfromed. Based on such a background, many of countries have tried to manage NORM and carried out regulatory legislation. To effienctly manage NORM, there is need for developing new measurement to quickly and accurately analyze the nuclide and concentration. In this study, development of the fast and reliable measurement was carried out. In addition to confirming the reliability of the fast measurement, we have obtained results that can suggest the possibility of developing another fast measurement. Therefore, as a follow-up, it is possible to develop another fast analytical measurement afterwards. The results of this study will be very useful for the regulatory system to manage NORM. In this study, a review of two indirect measurement methods of NORM U-238 that has used HPGe on the basis of the equilibrium theory of relationships of mother and daughter nuclide at decay-chain of NORM U-238 has been carried out. For comparative study(in order to know reliabily), direct measurement that makes use of alpha spectrometer with complicated pre-processing process was implemented.

  2. Characterisation of NORM Contaminated Objects: Reliable and Efficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breddam, Kresten; Hou, Xiaolin; Koufakis, Markos

    The predominant contributors to the production of Technologically En-hanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (TENORM) and NORM-waste in the Nordic countries are the on- and offshore oil and gas produc-ers. In oil and gas production processes, host rock formation water con-taining low...... concentrations of NORM is mixed with seawater containing high concentrations of sulphate. This leads to precipitation of NORM (Ra, Pb, Po)SO4, which is deposited as either scale or sludge in the production equipment. NORM contaminated pipes, tubes, pumps and tanks, etc. are therefore subject to radiological...... characterization in order to ensure safe reuse or recycling as well as safe NORM waste handling.The procedures and measurement techniques may significantly affect the amount of mate-rial that is categorized as NORM contaminated equipment and NORM waste. At present, different procedures are used for categorization...

  3. Interpreting finite element results for brittle materials in endodontic restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-González, Antonio; Iserte-Vilar, José L; González-Lluch, Carmen

    2011-06-02

    Finite element simulation has been used in last years for analysing the biomechanical performance of post-core restorations in endodontics, but results of these simulations have been interpreted in most of the works using von Mises stress criterion. However, the validity of this failure criterion for brittle materials, which are present in these restorations, is questionable. The objective of the paper is to analyse how finite element results for brittle materials of endodontic restorations should be interpreted to obtain correct conclusions about the possible failure in the restoration. Different failure criteria (Von Mises, Rankine, Coulomb-Mohr, Modified Mohr and Christensen) and material strength data (diametral tensile strength and flexural strength) were considered in the study. Three finite element models (FEM) were developed to simulate an endodontic restoration and two typical material tests: diametral tensile test and flexural test. Results showed that the Christensen criterion predicts similar results as the Von Mises criterion for ductile components, while it predicts similar results to all other criteria for brittle components. The different criteria predict different failure points for the diametral tensile test, all of them under multi-axial stress states. All criteria except Von Mises predict failure for flexural test at the same point of the specimen, with this point under uniaxial tensile stress. From the results it is concluded that the Christensen criterion is recommended for FEM result interpretation in endodontic restorations and that the flexural test is recommended to estimate tensile strength instead of the diametral tensile test.

  4. Physical and chemical test results of electrostatic safe flooring materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gompf, R. H.

    1988-01-01

    This test program was initiated because a need existed at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to have this information readily available to the engineer who must make the choice of which electrostatic safe floor to use in a specific application. The information, however, should be of value throughout both the government and private industry in the selection of a floor covering material. Included are the test results of 18 floor covering materials which by test evaluation at KSC are considered electrostatically safe. Tests were done and/or the data compiled in the following areas: electrostatics, flammability, hypergolic compatibility, outgassing, floor type, material thickness, and available colors. Each section contains the test method used to gather the data and the test results.

  5. RxNorm

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — RxNorm provides normalized names for clinical drugs and links its names to many of the drug vocabularies commonly used in pharmacy management and drug interaction...

  6. The uses of norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, M.P.; Arrott, M.; Balke, T.; Chopra, A.; Christiaanse, R.M.J.; Cranefield, S.; Dignum, F.; Eynard, D.; Farcas, E.; Fornare, N.; Gandon, F.; Governatori, G...; Dam, H.K.; Hulstijn, J.; Krueger, I.; Lam, H.P.; Meisinger, M.; Noriega, P.; Tony, B.; Savarimuthu, R.; Tadanki, K.; Verhagen, H.; Villata, S.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a variety of applications of norms. These applications include governance in sociotechnical systems, data licensing and data collection, understanding software development teams, requirements engineering, assurance, natural resource allocation, wireless grids, autonomous vehicl

  7. Social norms and money

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Luís

    2000-01-01

    In an economy where there is no double coincidence of wants and without recordkeeping of past transactions, money is usually seen as the only mechanism that can support exchange. In this paper, we show that, as long as the population is finite and agents are sufficiently patient, a social norm establishing gift-exchange can substitute for money. Notwithstanding, for a given discount factor, the growth of the population size eventually leads to the breakdown of the social norm, ...

  8. Primary Results of New Rare Earth Materials for Hongti Grape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Qiong; Gu Jiangyuan; Wang Jiachen

    2004-01-01

    New rare earth (RE) materials including RE phosphate as base fertilizer, bioactive RE micro-fertilizer and RE entire plant nutrition agent as topdressing fertilizer are treated on Hongti grope.The result showes that the plant leaves become thicker, the color is dark green, the plant disease index is lower, and the sugar content significantly increases.

  9. Results and applications in thermoelasticity of materials with voids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Ciarletta

    1991-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider the linear theory of a thermoelastic porous solid in which the skeletal or matrix is a thermoelastic material and the interstices are void of material. We assume that the initial body is free from stresses. The concept of a distributed body asserts that the mass density at time t has the decomposition γν, where γ is the density of the matrix material and ν (0 In the first part, in order to derive some applications of the reciprocity theorem, we recall some results established by same authors in [3]. Then we obtain integral representations of the solution and prove that the solving of the boundary-initial value problem can be reduced to the solving of an associated uncoupled problem and to an integral equation for the volume fraction field.

  10. Professional Development of PMRI Teachers For Introducing Social Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratu Ilma Indra Putri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports implementation results of designing a workshop for mathematics teacher in introducing classroom social norms. The participants are eight mathematics teachers in primary and junior secondary level. Teachers learned and did some activities about social norms during the workshop. First, they watched an example of learning videos about social norms. Then they discussed and shared in the group about their experiences in using social norms in the classroom. Finally, they made a commitment to try their knowledge about social norms in their classroom. This research used the design research method. Data were collected using videotaped, interview, and focus group discussion and were analyzed qualitatively. Results show that: (1 Teachers satisfied in following all activities relating to the social norms in the workshop. (2 Teachers realized that they had used some activities of social norms such as guiding students to communicate, asking questions and giving argumentation. (3 Teachers have more confidence to use social norms in their mathematics classroom

  11. A database for storing the results of material radiopurity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loach, J. C.; Cooley, J.; Cox, G. A.; Li, Z.; Nguyen, K. D.; Poon, A. W. P.

    2016-12-01

    Searches for rare nuclear processes, such as neutrinoless double beta-decay and the interactions of WIMP dark matter, are motivating experiments with ever-decreasing levels of radioactive backgrounds. These background reductions are achieved using various techniques, but amongst the most important is minimizing radioactive contamination in the materials from which the experiment is constructed. To this end there have been decades of advances in material sourcing, manufacture and certification, during which researchers have accumulated many thousands of measurements of material radiopurity. Some of these assays are described in publications, others are in databases, but many are still communicated informally. Until this work, there has been no standard format for encoding assay results and no effective, central location for storing them. The aim of this work is to address these long-standing problems by creating a concise and flexible material assay data format and powerful software application to manipulate it. A public installation of this software, available at http://www.radiopurity.org, is the largest database of assay results ever compiled and is intended as a long-term repository for the community's data.

  12. Effects of Group Norms on Children's Intentions to Bully

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesdale, Drew; Durkin, Kevin; Maass, Anne; Kiesner, Jeff; Griffiths, Judith A.

    2008-01-01

    A minimal group study examined the effect of peer group norms on children's direct and indirect bullying intentions. Prior to an inter-group drawing competition, children (N = 85) aged seven and nine years were assigned to a group that had a norm of out-group dislike or out-group liking. Results indicated that, regardless of group norms, the…

  13. Estimation of Exposure Doses for Several Scenarios of the Landfill Disposal of NORM Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Ko, Nak Yul; Baik, Min Hoon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ki Hoon [Korea Institude of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The Act on safety control of radioactive materials around living environment was promulgated to protect citizen's health and environment in 2013. According to this Act, the integrated plan for radiation protection and the necessary safety guides for treatment, reuse, and disposal of NORM wastes have to be made. And NORM wastes have to be disposed in landfill sites by reducing the concentration of radionuclide, and they should not be reutilized. In this study, we estimated exposure doses for several scenarios for NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) waste disposal into a reference landfill site to check the radiological safety. Also, we estimated the amount of NORM wastes for different activity levels of important radionuclides in wastes to be disposed into a landfill site based on the exposure dose limits to support the establishment of technical bases for safety guide. We estimated the amount of NORM wastes for different activity levels of wastes containing U series, Th series, and {sup 40}K based on the exposure dose limits. The results of this study can be used as technical bases to support the establishment of a guide for the safe management of NORM waste disposal.

  14. Induced Norm Control Toolbox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beran, Eric Bengt

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the basic nature of the InducedNorm Control Toolbox (INCT). The toolbox is a set of Matlab-filesusing LMITOOL and the Semidefinite Programming package(SP). Thetoolbox is public domain. The INCT provides a series of analysisand synthesis tools for continuous time-invariant lin......This paper describes the basic nature of the InducedNorm Control Toolbox (INCT). The toolbox is a set of Matlab-filesusing LMITOOL and the Semidefinite Programming package(SP). Thetoolbox is public domain. The INCT provides a series of analysisand synthesis tools for continuous time...

  15. Italian Word Association Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-07-01

    Ricerche Istituto Nazionale I Psicologia , Roma Italy. A different, but not unrelated, approach is to use word association norms to study other types of... Psicologia , 1961 , 55, 1,13-155. Chiari, S. 11 comportamento associative nell’eta ovolutiva, Rivista di Psicologia , 1 96 1b , 55, 175-189. Cofer, C.N...and Russell, VI.A. Systematic changes in word association norms: 1910-1952. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 19C0, 60, 293-303. lilb Kurez, I

  16. Music to whose ears? The effect of social norms on young people's risk perceptions of hearing damage resulting from their music listening behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliver, Megan; Carter, Lyndal; Macoun, Denise; Rosen, Jenny; Williams, Warwick

    2012-01-01

    Professional and community concerns about the potentially dangerous noise levels for common leisure activities has led to increased interest on providing hearing health information to participants. However, noise reduction programmes aimed at leisure activities (such as music listening) face a unique difficulty. The noise source that is earmarked for reduction by hearing health professionals is often the same one that is viewed as pleasurable by participants. Furthermore, these activities often exist within a social setting, with additional peer influences that may influence behavior. The current study aimed to gain a better understanding of social-based factors that may influence an individual's motivation to engage in positive hearing health behaviors. Four hundred and eighty-four participants completed questionnaires examining their perceptions of the hearing risk associated with listening to music listening and asking for estimates of their own and their peer's music listening behaviors. Participants were generally aware of the potential risk posed by listening to personal stereo players (PSPs) and the volumes likely to be most dangerous. Approximately one in five participants reported using listening volumes at levels perceived to be dangerous, an incidence rate in keeping with other studies measuring actual PSP use. However, participants showed less awareness of peers' behavior, consistently overestimating the volumes at which they believed their friends listened. Misperceptions of social norms relating to listening behavior may decrease individuals' perceptions of susceptibility to hearing damage. The consequences of hearing health promotion are discussed, along with suggestions relating to the development of new programs.

  17. Variation, structure and norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Peter

    2014-01-01

    that an evolutionary account can reintegrate the opposed fragments into a whole picture that puts each of them in their ‘ecological position’ with respect to each other. Empirical usage facts should be seen in the context of operational norms in relation to which actual linguistic choices represent adaptations...

  18. Linking Norms and Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McBreen, J.; Tosto, Di G.; Dignum, F.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to propose a method of modelling the evolution of social norms in different cultural settings. We analyse the role of culture in shaping agents' normative reasoning and hence their behaviour. The general notion of 'value' is discussed from the perspective of the BDI framewo

  19. Linking Norms and Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McBreen, J.; Tosto, Di G.; Dignum, F.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to propose a method of modelling the evolution of social norms in different cultural settings. We analyse the role of culture in shaping agents' normative reasoning and hence their behaviour. The general notion of 'value' is discussed from the perspective of the BDI

  20. Combining norms to prove termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genaim, S.; Codish, M.; Gallagher, John Patrick;

    2002-01-01

    of deriving automatically a candidate norm with which to prove termination. Instead of deriving a single, complex norm function, it is sufficient to determine a collection of simpler norms, some combination of which, leads to a proof of termination. We propose that a collection of simple norms, one for each...... of the recursive data-types in the program, is often a suitable choice. We first demonstrate the power of combining norm functions and then the adequacy of combining norms based on regular types....

  1. L1TV Computes the Flat Norm for Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P. Morgan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that the recently introduced L1TV functional can be used to explicitly compute the flat norm for codimension one boundaries. Furthermore, using L1TV, we also obtain the flat norm decomposition. Conversely, using the flat norm as the precise generalization of L1TV functional, we obtain a method for denoising nonboundary or higher codimension sets. The flat norm decomposition of differences can made to depend on scale using the flat norm with scale which we define in direct analogy to the L1TV functional. We illustrate the results and implications with examples and figures.

  2. Music to whose ears? The effect of social norms on young people′s risk perceptions of hearing damage resulting from their music listening behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Gilliver

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Professional and community concerns about the potentially dangerous noise levels for common leisure activities has led to increased interest on providing hearing health information to participants. However, noise reduction programmes aimed at leisure activities (such as music listening face a unique difficulty. The noise source that is earmarked for reduction by hearing health professionals is often the same one that is viewed as pleasurable by participants. Furthermore, these activities often exist within a social setting, with additional peer influences that may influence behavior. The current study aimed to gain a better understanding of social-based factors that may influence an individual′s motivation to engage in positive hearing health behaviors. Four hundred and eighty-four participants completed questionnaires examining their perceptions of the hearing risk associated with listening to music listening and asking for estimates of their own and their peer′s music listening behaviors. Participants were generally aware of the potential risk posed by listening to personal stereo players (PSPs and the volumes likely to be most dangerous. Approximately one in five participants reported using listening volumes at levels perceived to be dangerous, an incidence rate in keeping with other studies measuring actual PSP use. However, participants showed less awareness of peers′ behavior, consistently overestimating the volumes at which they believed their friends listened. Misperceptions of social norms relating to listening behavior may decrease individuals′ perceptions of susceptibility to hearing damage. The consequences of hearing health promotion are discussed, along with suggestions relating to the development of new programs.

  3. Differential calculus in normed linear spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjea, Kalyan

    2007-01-01

    This book presents Advanced Calculus from a geometric point of view: instead of dealing with partial derivatives of functions of several variables, the derivative of the function is treated as a linear transformation between normed linear spaces. Not only does this lead to a simplified and transparent exposition of "difficult" results like the Inverse and Implicit Function Theorems but also permits, without any extra effort, a discussion of the Differential Calculus of functions defined on infinite dimensional Hilbert or Banach spaces.The prerequisites demanded of the reader are modest: a sound understanding of convergence of sequences and series of real numbers, the continuity and differentiability properties of functions of a real variable and a little Linear Algebra should provide adequate background for understanding the book. The first two chapters cover much of the more advanced background material on Linear Algebra (like dual spaces, multilinear functions and tensor products.) Chapter 3 gives an ab ini...

  4. Results of the mole penetration tests in different materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzaszek, Roman; Seweryn, Karol; Grygorczuk, Jerzy; Banaszkiewicz, Marek; Rybus, Tomasz; Wisniewski, Lukasz; Neal, Clive R.; Huang, Shaopeng

    2010-05-01

    . Influence of the material compaction on the mole progress was also investigated. For these tests the small testbed has been used. It allowed us to test our mole penetrator up to the depth of 0.5 meters. Obtained results show that 'KRET' is able to penetrate even compacted lunar regolith simulant CHENOBI with minimum progress rate about 2mm per stroke. Moreover, we have confirmed that the mole works properly in both materials with low and high cohesion.

  5. NORM contamination in the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. (Peter Gray and Associates, Inc. (United States))

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on contamination of oil and gas facilities with naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) which is now widespread. Some contamination may be sufficiently severe that maintenance and other personnel may be exposed to hazardous concentrations. Contamination with radium is common in oil-production facilities, whereas contamination with radon and radon decay products is more prevalent in natural-gas production and processing facilities. Although largely unregulated until recently, U.S. states, notably Louisiana and Texas, have or are enacting legislation to control NORM contamination in the petroleum industry.industry.

  6. Adaptation and perceptual norms in color vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A; Leonard, Deanne

    2008-11-01

    Many perceptual dimensions are thought to be represented relative to an average value or norm. Models of norm-based coding assume that the norm appears psychologically neutral because it reflects a neutral response in the underlying neural code. We tested this assumption in human color vision by asking how judgments of "white" are affected as neural responses are altered by adaptation. The adapting color was varied to determine the stimulus level that did not bias the observer's subjective white point. This level represents a response norm at the stages at which sensitivity is regulated by the adaptation, and we show that these response norms correspond to the perceptually neutral stimulus and that they can account for how the perception of white varies both across different observers and within the same observer at different locations in the visual field. We also show that individual differences in perceived white are reduced when observers are exposed to a common white adapting stimulus, suggesting that the perceptual differences are due in part to differences in how neural responses are normalized. These results suggest a close link between the norms for appearance and coding in color vision and illustrate a general paradigm for exploring this link in other perceptual domains.

  7. Infinity-Norm Sphere-Decoding

    CERN Document Server

    Seethaler, Dominik

    2008-01-01

    The most promising approaches for efficient detection in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless systems are based on sphere-decoding (SD). The conventional (and optimum) norm that is used to conduct the tree traversal step in SD is the l-two norm. It was, however, recently shown that using the l-infinity norm instead significantly reduces the VLSI implementation complexity of SD at only a marginal performance loss. These savings are due to a reduction in the length of the critical path and the silicon area of the circuit, but also, as observed previously through simulation results, a consequence of a reduction in the computational (algorithmic) complexity. The aim of this paper is an analytical performance and computational complexity analysis of l-infinity norm SD. For i.i.d. Rayleigh fading MIMO channels, we show that l-infinity norm SD achieves full diversity order with an asymptotic SNR gap, compared to l-two norm SD, that increases at most linearly in the number of receive antennas. Moreover, we ...

  8. Cyber Norms for Civilian Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spirito, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    The international community agrees that the safe operation of civilian nuclear infrastructure is in every population’s best interest. One challenge each government must address is defining and agreeing to a set of acceptable norms of behavior in cyberspace as they relate to these facilities. The introduction of digital systems and networking technologies into these environments has led to the possibility that control and supporting computer systems are now accessible and exploitable, especially where interconnections to global information and communications technology (ICT) networks exist. The need for norms of behavior in cyberspace includes what is expected of system architects and cyber defenders as well as adversaries who should abide by rules of engagement even while conducting acts that violate national and international laws. The goal of this paper is to offer three behavioral cyber norms to improve the overall security of the ICT and Operational Technology (OT) networks and systems that underlie the operations of nuclear facilities. These norms of behavior will be specifically defined with the goals of reducing the threats associated to the theft of nuclear materials, accidental release of radiation and sabotage of nuclear processes. These norms would also include instances where an unwitting attacker or intelligence collection entity inadvertently makes their way into a nuclear facility network or system and can recognize they are in a protected zone and an approach to ensuring that these zones are not exploitable by bad actors to place their sensitive cyber effect delivery systems.

  9. Curriculum reform and the classroom norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fatih Özmantar

    2009-07-01

    used in classrooms by others are evaluated along with the basic skills. The analyses are carried out independently by each of the authors who determined such norms as they think are necessary for basic skills to develop. The determined norms are later compared and contrasted along with the targeted skills by the curricula. The norms are finalized through the agreement of all the authors and the relations between the determined norms and every each of basic skills are detailed.Results: The analyses of the official documents and details of the basic skills given in those documents lead to the development of eight classroom norms which, we believe, need to be existent in each and every classroom concerned with teaching the students these skills. The determined norms are as follows:1.      Explanation of the ideas (i.e. solutions, arguments and explanations2.      Justification of the arguments3.      Sharing the ideas without any fear4.      Making real effort to understand the others’ ideas5.      Stating agreement or disagreement with the ideas shared in the classrooms6.      Stating explicitly what is understood and what is not7.      Developing alternative solutions8.      Questioning the validity of the argumentsThese norms are closely related to each other and every one of them needs to be established in the classrooms in order to create an environment in which students find opportunities to gain the basic skills that the new curricula aim. The use and importance of these norms are exemplified through dialogues obtained from Cobb et al’s (1997 study. The dialogues take place in a mathematics class where a teacher tries to establish similar norms as proposed in this study. The dialogues are examined in terms of both the norms and the basic skills in such a way to exemplify the relationships amongst them.Discussion: The discussion addresses teachers with regard to creating particular classroom cultures through the determined

  10. Curriculum reform and the classroom norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz Sağlam

    2009-07-01

    by others are evaluated along with the basic skills. The analyses are carried out independently by each of the authors who determined such norms as they think are necessary for basic skills to develop. The determined norms are later compared and contrasted along with the targeted skills by the curricula. The norms are finalized through the agreement of all the authors and the relations between the determined norms and every each of basic skills are detailed.Results: The analyses of the official documents and details of the basic skills given in those documents lead to the development of eight classroom norms which, we believe, need to be existent in each and every classroom concerned with teaching the students these skills. The determined norms are as follows:1. Explanation of the ideas (i.e. solutions, arguments and explanations2. Justification of the arguments3. Sharing the ideas without any fear4. Making real effort to understand the others’ ideas5. Stating agreement or disagreement with the ideas shared in the classrooms6. Stating explicitly what is understood and what is not7. Developing alternative solutions8. Questioning the validity of the argumentsThese norms are closely related to each other and every one of them needs to be established in the classrooms in order to create an environment in which students find opportunities to gain the basic skills that the new curricula aim. The use and importance of these norms are exemplified through dialogues obtained from Cobb et al’s (1997 study. The dialogues take place in a mathematics class where a teacher tries to establish similar norms as proposed in this study. The dialogues are examined in terms of both the norms and the basic skills in such a way to exemplify the relationships amongst them.Discussion: The discussion addresses teachers with regard to creating particular classroom cultures through the determined classroom norms and how these norms can be used to help students to obtain the basic skills. It

  11. Emissivity Results on High Temperature Coatings for Refractory Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlhorst, Craig W.; Vaughn, Wallace L.; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Lewis, Ronald K.; Rodriguez, Alvaro C.; Milhoan, James D.; Koenig, John R.

    2007-01-01

    The directional emissivity of various refractory composite materials considered for application for reentry and hypersonic vehicles was investigated. The directional emissivity was measured at elevated temperatures of up to 3400 F using a directional spectral radiometric technique during arc-jet test runs. A laboratory-based relative total radiance method was also used to measure total normal emissivity of some of the refractory composite materials. The data from the two techniques are compared. The paper will also compare the historical database of Reinforced Carbon-Carbon emissivity measurements with emissivity values generated recently on the material using the two techniques described in the paper.

  12. Tests of composite materials at cryogenic temperatures facilities and results

    CERN Document Server

    Dahlerup-Petersen, K

    1980-01-01

    The design and installation of test facilities for the determination of macromechanical and thermal properties of fiber-reinforced polymer materials at temperatures down to 4.2K are presented. Construction and performance details are given for the following test equipment: quasi- static-tensile and compression-test facilities equipped with an automatic data acquisition system for calculation of material properties, deformation characteristics and various statistics; a thermal contraction-expansion measuring system; a thermal conductivity measurement cell. (1 refs).

  13. Uncertainties in the dosimetric assessments of NORM management in conventional waste repository; Incertidumbres en las evaluaciones dosimetricas de la gestion de NORM en repositorios de residuos convencionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, J. C.; Robles, B.

    2012-07-01

    Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) are generated in huge quantities in several industries-NORM industries-and their management has been formerly carried out in most countries under considerations of industrial non radioactive wastes, with varying considerations on their radioactive content. As the concentration of non radioactive tonics in several of those materials is relatively high, they were treated as toxic materials. This implies that the materials must be previously conditioned using conventional methods and that the waste disposal itself must be prepared to isolate the toxic from the environment for long periods of time. Spanish regulation for these conventional toxic waste disposals include conditions that assure adequate isolation, also including considerations on their radioactive content in such a way that their management way guarantee radiological protection on the people and the environment. After the 96/29 European Directive (the European BSS), radiological implications on NORM industries and their residual materials must be considered. One option that can be considered for the disposal of NORM with activity concentrations above the established unconditional clearance level is the use of the same industrial waste disposals, if guarantees for corresponding radiological criteria are accomplished, according to Authorities establishment. This work analyses the radiological implications of the management of NORM under the considerations applicable for their management as conventional waste, emphasising in activity concentrations slightly over unconditional clearance levels specifically from 1 Bq up to 50 Bq.g{sup -}1. Resulting generic dose assessments are usually carried out under highly conservative hypothesis. This study discusses uncertainties that should be considered to include possible variation due to climate factors or other parameters used in the assessment models. (Author)13 refs.

  14. Influence of Insulating Materials on Green Building Rating System Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bisegna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact of a change in the thermal insulating material on both the energy and environmental performance of a building, evaluated through two different green building assessment methods: Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED and Istituto per l’innovazione e Trasparenza degli Appalti e la Compatibilità Ambientale (ITACA. LEED is one of the most qualified rating systems at an international level; it assesses building sustainability thanks to a point-based system where credits are divided into six different categories. One of these is fully related to building materials. The ITACA procedure derives from the international evaluation system Sustainable Building Tool (SBTool, modified according to the Italian context. In the region of Umbria, ITACA certification is composed of 20 technical sheets, which are classified into five macro-areas. The analysis was developed on a residential building located in the central Italy. It was built taking into account the principles of sustainability as far as both structural and technical solutions are concerned. In order to evaluate the influence of thermal insulating material, different configurations of the envelope were considered, replacing the original material (glass wool with a synthetic one (expanded polystyrene, EPS and two natural materials (wood fiber and kenaf. The study aims to highlight how the materials characteristics can affect building energy and environmental performance and to point out the different approaches of the analyzed protocols.

  15. A moist "available enthalpy" norm: definition and comparison with existing "energy" norms

    CERN Document Server

    Marquet, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Moist-air norms and inner-products are currently used in atmospheric science for computing dry or moist singular vectors and for determining forecast errors or sensitivity to observations based on tangent linear and adjoint models. A new moist-air norm is defined starting from old results published in Marquet (QJRMS 1993) and based on the "Available Enthalpy" approach, namely one of the Exergy function defined in general thermodynamics. Some interesting and promising impacts of this new "Available Enthalpy" norm are described in this brief version of a paper to be submitted to the QJRMS.

  16. Norms as Group-Level Constructs: Investigating School-Level Teen Pregnancy Norms and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W; Boardman, Jason D

    2014-09-01

    Social norms are a group-level phenomenon, but past quantitative research has rarely measured them in the aggregate or considered their group-level properties. We used the school-based design of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to measure normative climates regarding teen pregnancy across 75 U.S. high schools. We distinguished between the strength of a school's norm against teen pregnancy and the consensus around that norm. School-level norm strength and dissensus were strongly (r = -0.65) and moderately (r = 0.34) associated with pregnancy prevalence within schools, respectively. Normative climate partially accounted for observed racial differences in school pregnancy prevalence, but norms were a stronger predictor than racial composition. As hypothesized, schools with both a stronger average norm against teen pregnancy and greater consensus around the norm had the lowest pregnancy prevalence. Results highlight the importance of group-level normative processes and of considering the local school environment when designing policies to reduce teen pregnancy.

  17. Establishing cephalometric norms for a Mexican population using Ricketts, Steiner, Tweed and Arnett analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Balut Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Most existing cephalometric analyses are based on norms for the Caucasian population. Therefore, they cannot be properly applied for Latin-American (Hispanic patients. It is the purpose of this study to establish specific cephalometric standards for a Mexican ethnic group, using the Ricketts, Steiner, Tweed and Arnett analyses. Materials and Methods: Lateral cephalograms of 100 non-growing patients which consists of 50 females and 50 males with native Mexican features and born in the central regions of Mexico, were traced manually and with the Quick Ceph Image Pro TM computer program. Lateral cephalograms of another subset of 30 patients with pleasant profiles (19 females and 11 males were traced and Arnett Facial Analysis was performed. Results were statistically analyzed with the t-value, P value (P < 0.01 and the 95% of the confidence statistic interval for a population mean was applied for each cephalometric measurement and norm. Results: The statistical results of these cephalometric norms for a Hispanic population showed significant differences in the upper and lower incisors, facial axis and interincisal angles as well as other cephalometric measurements when compared to the Caucasian norms. Conclusion: These cephalometric norms can be applied for Native Americans from the USA and Latin-Americans from Central and South American countries due to the strong anthropometric, facial and ethnic similarities to the Mexican population.

  18. Craniofacial anthropometric norms of Malaysian Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngeow W

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was done to establish the craniofacial anthropometric norms of the young adult (18- 25 years Malaysian Indian. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of convenient samples of 100 healthy volunteers, with equal number of female and male subjects who had no history of mixed racial-parentage. Twenty-two linear measurements were taken twice from 28 landmarks over six craniofacial regions. The methodology and evaluation of indices of the craniofacial region was adapted from Hajnis et al. Results: The minimum measurements are always contributed by the female Indian except for the nose height (n-sn, (left eye fissure length (ex-en, upper vermillion height (ls-sto, and lower vermillion height (sto-li. There is a gender difference in all the measurements except the (left eye fissure height (independent t-test; P < 0.05. The Malaysian Indians exhibit some North American White Caucasian (NAWC features in all regions. The cephalic index indicates a brachycephalic or relatively short wide head with a tendency towards mesocephaly. From the low nasal index, the Malaysian Indian female have a nose that is narrow or leptorrhin similar to the NAWCs. The lower value of the upper lip height to mouth width index in the Indian female indicates a relatively shorter upper lip height compared to the mouth width, also similar to the NAWC. Conclusion: This study establishes the craniofacial anthropometric norms of the Malaysian Indian over 22 parameters. Male in general has a significantly higher measurement than female. The Malaysian Indians do exhibit some NAWC features.

  19. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    The currently used concept of personal or moral norms is ambiguous with regard to its motivational content. Therefore, a revision of the norm taxonomy is suggested, implying a distinction between three types of personal norms, called introjected, identified, and integrated norms. A preliminary...... assessment of the taxonomy is carried out based of a survey of a random sample of Danish residents 18 years or older. A range of norm constructs were measured with regard to four environmentally relevant behaviours: buying organic milk, buying energy saving light bulbs, source-separating compostable kitchen...... is also supported, with the reservation that the different behavioural references are more than just different methods of measuring the same latent construct(s). People evidently hold different norms for different environmentally responsible behaviours....

  20. Tensor norms and operator ideals

    CERN Document Server

    Defant, A; Floret, K

    1992-01-01

    The three chapters of this book are entitled Basic Concepts, Tensor Norms, and Special Topics. The first may serve as part of an introductory course in Functional Analysis since it shows the powerful use of the projective and injective tensor norms, as well as the basics of the theory of operator ideals. The second chapter is the main part of the book: it presents the theory of tensor norms as designed by Grothendieck in the Resumé and deals with the relation between tensor norms and operator ideals. The last chapter deals with special questions. Each section is accompanied by a series of exer

  1. Biology, norms, and personality: a developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    af Klinteberg, B

    1996-01-01

    The focus concerns psychobiological risk factors in the development of antisocial behavior among male and female subjects. Using longitudinal data, violent and nonviolent criminal offences were studied in relation to childhood vulnerability indicators, norm-breaking behavior in adolescence, and to personality traits and biochemical measures in adult age. Subsequently, levels of norm-breaking behavior in adolescence were studied as related to personality and biochemical measures in adult age. Data were obtained from a representative group of 82 male and 87 female subjects as (1) teacher ratings of behavior at age 13, assumed to differentially reflect vulnerability to externalizing and internalizing psychosocial disturbances; (2) self-ratings of norm-breaking behaviors at age 15; (3) Karolinska Scales of Personality scores and biochemical measures at age 26-27 years, and (4) records for criminal offences up to age 40. In both the male and female groups, criminal offences during the life span were associated with childhood externalizing and adolescent norm-breaking behavior. Furthermore, in the male group, criminal and violent offences were associated with adult psychopathy-related personality traits and a biochemical indicator of psychosocial vulnerability; platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity. Among female subjects, criminal offenders displayed significantly lower MAO activity in comparison to noncriminals. High levels of norm-breaking behavior in adolescence were associated with adult high impulsiveness, low socialization, and low platelet MAO activity in both male and female subjects. The results of the analyses were used as a basis for some theoretical and methodological conclusions.

  2. EQ-5D Portuguese population norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Lara Noronha; Ferreira, Pedro L; Pereira, Luis N; Oppe, Mark

    2014-03-01

    The EQ-5D is a widely used preference-based measure. Normative data can be used as references to analyze the effects of healthcare, determine the burden of disease and enable regional or country comparisons. Population norms for the EQ-5D exist for other countries but have not been previously published for Portugal. The purpose of this study was to derive EQ-5D Portuguese population norms. The EQ-5D was applied by phone interview to a random sample of the Portuguese general population (n = 1,500) stratified by age, gender and region. The Portuguese value set was used to derive the EQ-5D index. Mean values were computed by gender and age groups, marital status, educational attainment, region and other variables to obtain the EQ-5D Portuguese norms. Health status declines with advancing age, and women reported worse health status than men. These results are similar to other EQ-5D population health studies. This study provides Portuguese population health-related quality of life data measured by the EQ-5D that can be used as population norms. These norms can be used to inform Portuguese policy makers, health care professionals and researchers in issues related to health care policy and planning and quantification of treatment effects on health status.

  3. Perceived legitimacy of normative expectations motivates compliance with social norms when nobody is watching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia eAndrighetto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Three main motivations can explain compliance with social norms: fear of peer punishment, the desire for others’ esteem and the desire to meet others’ expectations. Though all play a role, only the desire to meet others’ expectations can sustain compliance when neither public nor private monitoring is possible. Theoretical models have shown that such desire can indeed sustain social norms, but empirical evidence is lacking. Moreover it is unclear whether this desire ranges over others’ empirical or normative expectations. We propose a new experimental design to isolate this motivation and to investigate what expectations people are inclined to meet. Results indicate that, when nobody can assign either material or immaterial sanctions, the perceived legitimacy of others’ normative expectations can motivate a significant number of people to comply with costly social norms.

  4. PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF PMRI TEACHERS FOR INTRODUCING SOCIAL NORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratu Ilma Indra Putri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports implementation results of designing a workshop for mathematics teacher in introducing classroom social norms. The participants are eight mathematics teachers in primary and junior secondary level. Teachers learned and did some activities about social norms during the workshop. First, they watched an example of learning videos about social norms. Then they discussed and shared in the group about their experiences in using social norms in the classroom. Finally, they made a commitment to try their knowledge about social norms in their classroom. This research used the design research method. Data were collected using videotaped, interview, and focus group discussion and were analyzed qualitatively. Results show that: (1 Teachers satisfied in following all activities relating to the social norms in the workshop. (2 Teachers realized that they had used some activities of social norms such as guiding students to communicate, asking questions and giving argumentation. (3 Teachers have more confidence to use social norms in their mathematics classroom.Keywords: Classroom Social Norms, Teacher’s Workshop, Design Research, PMRI DOI: dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.61.11

  5. Linear System Identification via Atomic Norm Regularization

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Parikshit; Tang, Gongguo; Recht, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a new algorithm for linear system identification from noisy measurements. The proposed algorithm balances a data fidelity term with a norm induced by the set of single pole filters. We pose a convex optimization problem that approximately solves the atomic norm minimization problem and identifies the unknown system from noisy linear measurements. This problem can be solved efficiently with standard, freely available software. We provide rigorous statistical guarantees that explicitly bound the estimation error (in the H_2-norm) in terms of the stability radius, the Hankel singular values of the true system and the number of measurements. These results in turn yield complexity bounds and asymptotic consistency. We provide numerical experiments demonstrating the efficacy of our method for estimating linear systems from a variety of linear measurements.

  6. Method for obtaining ceramic compounds and resulting material

    OpenAIRE

    Torrecillas, Ramón; García Moreno, Olga; Fernández, Adolfo

    2009-01-01

    [ES] Partiendo como compuesto inicial de un componente LAS de acuerdo a la composición LixAlySizOw, donde x varía entre 0,8 y 1,2, Y varía entre 0,8 y 1,2, z varía entre 0,8 y 2 Y w varía entre 4 y 6, a continuación se efectúa una mezcla del componente LAS con nano partículas de SiC, obteniéndose una suspensión estable y homogénea. A continuación se procede a un secado de la suspensión resultante. Seguidamente se efectúa un conformado del material obtenido y, por últimos, se lleva a ...

  7. Institutions, Social Norms, and Bargaining Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Stratton, VCU, Leslie

    We exploit time use data from Denmark and the United States to examine the impact institutions and social norms have on individuals’ bargaining power within a household, hypothesizing that the more generous social welfare system and more egalitarian social norms in Denmark will mitigate the impact...... standard economic power measures have upon couples’ time use. Further we posit that leisure time will be more sensitive to power considerations than housework time which may be more influenced by preferences regarding household public goods, to gendered notions of time use, and to censoring. Our results...

  8. On the Norm of Finite Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junxin Wang; Xiuyun Guo

    2007-01-01

    The norm N(G) of a group G is the intersection of normalizers of all the subgroups of G. Let G be a finite group, p a prime dividing the order of G, and P a Sylow p-subgroup of G. In this paper, it is proved that G is p-nilpotent if Ω1(P)≤N(NG(P)),and when p = 2, Ω2(P) = .Some applications of this result are given. Finally, a class of finite p-groups in which the index of the norm is exactly p is described.

  9. MATNORM: Calculating NORM using composition matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruseth, Kamal L.

    2009-09-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of an entirely new set of formulas to calculate the CIPW norm. MATNORM does not involve any sophisticated programming skill and has been developed using Microsoft Excel spreadsheet formulas. These formulas are easy to understand and a mere knowledge of the if-then-else construct in MS-Excel is sufficient to implement the whole calculation scheme outlined below. The sequence of calculation used here differs from that of the standard CIPW norm calculation, but the results are very similar. The use of MS-Excel macro programming and other high-level programming languages has been deliberately avoided for simplicity.

  10. Evolutionary change in continuous reaction norms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murren, Courtney J; Maclean, Heidi J; Diamond, Sarah E

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of reaction norms remains a major challenge in ecology and evolution. Investigating evolutionary divergence in reaction norm shapes between populations and closely related species is one approach to providing insights. Here we use a meta-analytic approach to compare...... or species. These results show that evolutionary divergence of curvature is common and should be considered an important aspect of plasticity, together with slope. Biological details about traits and environments, including cryptic variation expressed in novel environmental conditions, may be critical...

  11. Distributed Controllers for Norm Enforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Testerink, B.J.G.; Dastani, M.M.; Bulling, Nils

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on computational mechanisms that control the behavior of autonomous systems at runtime without necessarily restricting their autonomy. We build on existing approaches from runtime verification, control automata, and norm-based systems, and define norm-based controllers that

  12. Distributed Controllers for Norm Enforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Testerink, B.J.G.; Dastani, M.M.; Bulling, Nils

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on computational mechanisms that control the behavior of autonomous systems at runtime without necessarily restricting their autonomy. We build on existing approaches from runtime verification, control automata, and norm-based systems, and define norm-based controllers that enforc

  13. Using Peer Injunctive Norms to Predict Early Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, Adam C; Aloise-Young, Patricia A

    2013-06-01

    The present study investigated the importance of the perceived injunctive norm to predict early adolescent cigarette smoking intentions. A total of 271 6(th) graders completed a survey that included perceived prevalence of friend smoking (descriptive norm), perceptions of friends' disapproval of smoking (injunctive norm), and future smoking intentions. Participants also listed their five best friends, in which the actual injunctive norm was calculated. Results showed that smoking intentions were significantly correlated with the perceived injunctive norm but not with the actual injunctive norm. Secondly, the perceived injunctive norm predicted an additional 3.4% of variance in smoking intentions above and beyond the perceived descriptive norm. These results demonstrate the importance of the perceived injunctive norm in predicting early adolescent smoking intentions.

  14. VARIOUS NOTIONS OF ORTHOGONALITY IN NORMED SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.B. OKELO; J.O. AGURE; P.O. OLECHE

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present various notions and aspects of orthogonality in normed spaces. Characterizations and generalizations of orthogonality are also consid-ered. Results on orthogonality of the range and the kernel of elementary operators and the operators implementing them also are given.

  15. Robust portfolio selection under norm uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we consider the robust portfolio selection problem which has a data uncertainty described by the ( p , w $(p,w$ -norm in the objective function. We show that the robust formulation of this problem is equivalent to a linear optimization problem. Moreover, we present some numerical results concerning our robust portfolio selection problem.

  16. Generalized Norms Inequalities for Absolute Value Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyas Ali

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we generalize some norms inequalities for sums, differences, and products of absolute value operators. Our results based on Minkowski type inequalities and generalized forms of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. Some other related inequalities are also discussed.

  17. Application of gamma-ray spectrometry in a NORM industry for its radiometrical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantero, J.; Gázquez, M. J.; Hurtado, S.; Bolívar, J. P.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2015-11-01

    Industrial activities involving Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) are found among the most important industrial sectors worldwide as oil/gas facilities, metal production, phosphate Industry, zircon treatment, etc. being really significant the radioactive characterization of the materials involved in their production processes in order to assess the potential radiological risk for workers or natural environment. High resolution gamma spectrometry is a versatile non-destructive radiometric technique that makes simultaneous determination of several radionuclides possible with little sample preparation. However NORM samples cover a wide variety of densities and composition, as opposed to the standards used in gamma efficiency calibration, which are either water-based solutions or standard/reference sources of similar composition. For that reason self-absorption correction effects (especially in the low energy range) must be considered individually in every sample. In this work an experimental and a semi-empirical methodology of self-absorption correction were applied to NORM samples, and the obtained results compared critically, in order to establish the best practice in relation to the circumstances of an individual laboratory. This methodology was applied in samples coming from a TiO2 factory (NORM industry) located in the south-west of Spain where activity concentration of several radionuclides from the Uranium and Thorium series through the production process was measured. These results will be shown in this work.

  18. Investigating Shared Norms in Multicultural Teams: Exploring How Team Member Scripts and Cognitive Adjustment Strategies Impact the Norm Formation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGurrin, Daniel Paul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how shared norms are developed in the early phase of multicultural team (MCT) formation. The development of shared norms is recognized as critical to MCTs' contributions to organizations, and they are a result of the cognitive adjustment of the team members in recognition of their differences (Brandl…

  19. Investigating Shared Norms in Multicultural Teams: Exploring How Team Member Scripts and Cognitive Adjustment Strategies Impact the Norm Formation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGurrin, Daniel Paul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how shared norms are developed in the early phase of multicultural team (MCT) formation. The development of shared norms is recognized as critical to MCTs' contributions to organizations, and they are a result of the cognitive adjustment of the team members in recognition of their differences (Brandl…

  20. Feasibility of re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, S. J.; Smith, K. P.

    1999-10-26

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) sometimes accumulate inside pieces of equipment associated with oil and gas production and processing activities. Typically, the NORM accumulates when radium that is present in solution in produced water precipitates out in scale and sludge deposits. Scrap equipment containing residual quantities of these NORM-bearing scales and sludges can present a waste management problem if the radium concentrations exceed regulatory limits or activate the alarms on radiation screening devices installed at most scrap metal recycling facilities. Although NORM-contaminated scrap metal currently is not disposed of by re-melting, this form of recycling could present a viable disposition option for this waste stream. Studies indicate that re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal is a viable recycling option from a risk-based perspective. However, a myriad of economic, regulatory, and policy issues have caused the recyclers to turn away virtually all radioactive scrap metal. Until these issues can be resolved, re-melting of the petroleum industry's NORM-impacted scrap metal is unlikely to be a widespread practice. This paper summarizes the issues associated with re-melting radioactive scrap so that the petroleum industry and its regulators will understand the obstacles. This paper was prepared as part of a report being prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission's NORM Subcommittee.

  1. Options and cost for disposal of NORM waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-10-22

    Oil field waste containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is presently disposed of both on the lease site and at off-site commercial disposal facilities. The majority of NORM waste is disposed of through underground injection, most of which presently takes place at a commercial injection facility located in eastern Texas. Several companies offer the service of coming to an operator's site, grinding the NORM waste into a fine particle size, slurrying the waste, and injecting it into the operator's own disposal well. One company is developing a process whereby the radionuclides are dissolved out of the NORM wastes, leaving a nonhazardous oil field waste and a contaminated liquid stream that is injected into the operator's own injection well. Smaller quantities of NORM are disposed of through burial in landfills, encapsulation inside the casing of wells that are being plugged and abandoned, or land spreading. It is difficult to quantify the total cost for disposing of NORM waste. The cost components that must be considered, in addition to the cost of the operation, include analytical costs, transportation costs, container decontamination costs, permitting costs, and long-term liability costs. Current NORM waste disposal costs range from $15/bbl to $420/bbl.

  2. Marketing norm perception among medical representatives in Indian pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed; Ramasamy, Ravindran

    2012-03-01

    Study of marketing norm perception among medical representatives is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the perception of marketing norms among medical representatives. The research design is quantitative and cross sectional study with medical representatives as unit of analysis. Data is collected from medical representatives (n=300) using a simple random and cluster sampling using a structured questionnaire. Results indicate that there is no difference in the perception of marketing norms among male and female medical representatives. But there is a difference in opinion among domestic and multinational company's medical representatives. Educational back ground of medical representatives also shows the difference in opinion among medical representatives. Degree holders and multinational company medical representatives have high perception of marketing norms compare to their counterparts. The researchers strongly believe that mandatory training on marketing norms is beneficial in decision making process during the dilemmas in the sales field.

  3. Privacy, technology, and norms: the case of Smart Meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Christine; Darras, Brice; Bean, Elyse; Srivastava, Anurag; Frickel, Scott

    2015-05-01

    Norms shift and emerge in response to technological innovation. One such innovation is Smart Meters - components of Smart Grid energy systems capable of minute-to-minute transmission of consumer electricity use information. We integrate theory from sociological research on social norms and privacy to examine how privacy threats affect the demand for and expectations of norms that emerge in response to new technologies, using Smart Meters as a test case. Results from three vignette experiments suggest that increased threats to privacy created by Smart Meters are likely to provoke strong demand for and expectations of norms opposing the technology and that the strength of these normative rules is at least partly conditional on the context. Privacy concerns vary little with actors' demographic characteristics. These findings contribute to theoretical understanding of norm emergence and have practical implications for implementing privacy protections that effectively address concerns of electricity users. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ethnic diversity, traditional norms, and marriage behaviour in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttenheim, Alison M; Nobles, Jenna

    2009-11-01

    What role do cultural norms play in shaping individual behaviour and how does this relationship change with rapid socio-economic development? While modernization and convergence theories predict a weakened relationship between culture and behaviour as individuals rely less on family and community members for economic opportunities, recent research suggests that such norms can persist and continue to influence behaviour. We explored this question for Indonesia, asking whether cultural norms for age at marriage and post-marriage residence-as embodied in local ethnicity-based laws and customs known as 'adat'-relate to actual marriage behaviour. We demonstrate that adat norms are strong predictors of marriage behaviour, both over time and net of large increases in educational attainment. Our results suggest more generally that traditional marriage norms can persist even when a society is in the process of rapid socio-economic development.

  5. Social norms of cigarette and hookah smokers in Iranian universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Shahnam, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: First experiences of tobacco use usually occur in adolescence. The recognition of social norms leading to youth smoking is hence necessary. We tried to assess the social norms among Iranian young cigarette and hookah smokers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 451...... girls and 361 boys aging 20-25 years old who entered Isfahan and Kashan Universities (Iran) in 2007. Demographic factors (age, gender, and age at smoking onset) cigarette and hookah smoking status, having a smoking father or smoking friends and four related social norms were recorded. Binary logistic...... regression analysis was used to separately determine associations between hookah and cigarette smoking and the four social norm variables. RESULTS: CIGARETTE AND HOOKAH SMOKERS HAD SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES WITH NONSMOKERS IN TWO SOCIAL NORMS: "Perceived smoking by important characters" [odds ratio (OR) = 1...

  6. Civilsamfundets ABC: N for Norm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anker Brink; Meyer, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    Bogstaveligt talt: Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til N for Norm.......Bogstaveligt talt: Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til N for Norm....

  7. Update on cavern disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-09-22

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. Argonne National Laboratory has previously evaluated the feasibility, legality, risk and economics of disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes, other than NORM waste, in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste, other than NORM waste, is occurring at four Texas facilities, in several Canadian facilities, and reportedly in Europe. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns as well. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, a review of federal regulations and regulations from several states indicated that there are no outright prohibitions against NORM disposal in salt caverns or other Class II wells, except for Louisiana which prohibits disposal of radioactive wastes or other radioactive materials in salt domes. Currently, however, only Texas and New Mexico are working on disposal cavern regulations, and no states have issued permits to allow cavern disposal of NORM waste. On the basis of the costs currently charged for cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal in caverns is likely to be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  8. Regulatory framework for NORM residues in Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepin, S.; Dehandschutter, B.; Poffijn, A.; Sonck, M. [Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC), Rue Ravenstein 36, 1000 Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-07-01

    The Belgian radiation protection authority (Federal Agency for Nuclear Control - FANC) has published in March 2013 a decree regulating the acceptance of NORM residues by nonradioactive waste treatment facilities. This regulation is based on the concept of 'work activities involving natural radiation sources' in the sense of article 40 of the 96/29/EURATOM directive. The disposal or processing facilities which accept NORM residues with an activity concentration above a generic exemption level will be considered as 'work activities' and submitted to declaration according to the Belgian radiation protection regulations. On basis of this declaration, specific acceptance criteria for the different types of processing/ disposal of the residues (disposal on landfill, recycling into building materials, etc.) are imposed. FANC has drafted guidelines for these acceptance criteria. A methodological guide for the operators of the concerned facilities was also published. Moreover, sites where significant quantities of NORM residues are or have been disposed, are subjected to an environmental monitoring in the framework of the national program of radiological surveillance of FANC. FANC also introduced in its regulations the concept of anthropogenic radon-prone areas: e.g. former phosphogypsum stacks have been defined as anthropogenic radon-prone areas, which allows some form of regulatory control of these sites. (authors)

  9. Waardes as norme en as meta-norme/beginsels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Van Niekerk

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available The fruitfulness and the necessity of the distinction between values and norms and as principles are investigated by way of the theory of political development, the legal philosophical issue surrounding natural law and positivism and the views of Habermas. In political developmental theory questions centring on value gained legitimate relevancy under the influ­ ence of the post-behaviorist approach. The quest for cultural universalia or values as principles became important in this sphere because it seems to be the only way to escape from the syndrome of modernity. Through the rejection of the oppositions and one-sidedness of legal positivism and natural law and with the aid of the distinction between values, norms and principles the productive contribution of this spurious dilemma is high­ lighted and a clearer delineation is given of the concepts legal develop­ ment and structural violence. In conclusion Habermas's distinction between norms and meta-norms is investigated critically and immanent contradictions in his views are pointed out. The central place which this issue has in his thought can be seen as a confirmation of the importance of this distinction. It is relevant for all the normative disciplines which - in contrast to the natural sciences - focus on the role of linguistic, social, ethical, legal and artistic norms valid for human societies.

  10. L1-norm packings from function fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hongli

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we study some packings in a cube, namely, how to pack n points in a cube so as to maximize the minimal distance. The distance is induced by the L1-norm which is analogous to the Hamming distance in coding theory. Two constructions with reasonable parameters are obtained, by using some results from a function field including divisor class group, narrow ray class group, and so on. We also present some asymptotic results of the two packings.

  11. Cephalometric norms for 6-17 year-old Iranians with normal occlusion and well-balanced faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Azarbayejani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caucasian norms are still used in the orthodontic treatment of Iranian patients, despite the different ethnic backgrounds of Iranians. The aims of this study were to evaluate the cephalometric features of an Iranian population and to establish cephalometric norms for Iranian living in the central region of Iran (Isfahan. Materials and Methods: A total of 238 lateral cephalometric radiographs and dental casts of Iranians (142 females and 96 males; aged 6-17 years with acceptable profiles and Class I dental relationships were analyzed in five age groups. The mean value, standard deviation and range of 20 angular and linear variables were calculated. The resulting norms for Iranian were compared with Caucasian norms and results of other studies on Iranian population using t-test. Male and female groups were also compared using the independent t-test (P < 0.05. Results: Iranians tend to have an increased angle of convexity and IMPA (incisor to mandibular plane angle and bimaxillary protrusion as compared with norms of Down′s analysis. Anterior lower face height and anterior face height were greater than Burrstone′s sample measurement. Sella-Nasion (S-N length was greater than Rakosi′s norm. Iranians tend to have an increased ANB (A point-Nasion-B point angle as compared with Steiner′s norms. Males tend to have greater cranial dimensions than females as indicated by the statistically significant increase in anterior face height and S-N length (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Iranians have distinct cephalometric features, which should be used as a reference in treating Iranian orthodontic patients.

  12. ON Lp-MATRICIALLY NORMED SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Turdebek N. Bekjan

    2005-01-01

    It is proved that there is only one Lp-matricially normed space of dimension 1 and that quotient spaces of Lp-matricially normed spaces are also Lp-matricially normed spaces. Some properties of Lp-matricially normed spaces are given.

  13. European and American WAIS III Norms: Cross-National Differences in Performance Subtest Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roivainen, Eka

    2010-01-01

    For this study, European WAIS III performance subtest norms were compared to the original US norms. When European WAIS III raw scores were scored using US norms, the resulting perceptual organization index (POI) means were significantly higher than the processing speed index (PSI) means. The POI/PSI difference is roughly 5-10 points for the German…

  14. Deviancy from the Norms of Science: The Effects of Anomie and Alienation in the Academic Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braxton, John M.

    1993-01-01

    A study applying anomie theory to behavior of college faculty, especially as alienation from the academic reward system results in deviation from professional norms of communality, disinterestedness, universalism, and organized skepticism, is reported. Implications for use of norms as interpretive devices, ambivalence of academics toward norms,…

  15. Deviancy from the Norms of Science: The Effects of Anomie and Alienation in the Academic Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braxton, John M.

    1993-01-01

    A study applying anomie theory to behavior of college faculty, especially as alienation from the academic reward system results in deviation from professional norms of communality, disinterestedness, universalism, and organized skepticism, is reported. Implications for use of norms as interpretive devices, ambivalence of academics toward norms,…

  16. Potential radiological doses associated with the disposal of petroleum industry NORM via landspreading. Final report, September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.P.; Blunt, D.L.; Arnish, J.J.

    1998-12-01

    As a result of oil and gas production and processing operations, naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) sometimes accumulate at elevated concentrations in by-product waste streams. The primary radionuclides of concern in NORM wastes are radium-226 of the uranium-238 decay series, and radium-228, of the thorium-232 decay series. The production waste streams most likely to be contaminated by elevated radium concentrations include produced water, scale, and sludge. Scales and sludges removed from production equipment often are disposed of by landspreading, a method in which wastes are spread over the soil surface to allow the hydrocarbon component of the wastes to degrade. In this study, the disposal of NORM-contaminated wastes by landspreading was modeled to evaluate potential radiological doses and resultant health risks to workers and the general public. A variety of future land use scenarios--including residential, industrial, recreational, and agricultural scenarios--were considered. The waste streams considered included scales and sludges containing NORM above background levels. The objectives of this study were to (1) estimate potential radiological doses to workers and the general public resulting from the disposal of NORM wastes by noncommercial landspreading activities and (2) analyze the effect of different land use scenarios on potential doses.

  17. Adalimumab improves health-related quality of life in patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis compared with the United States general population norms: Results from a randomized, controlled Phase III study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harnam Neesha

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate the impact of adalimumab on health-related quality of life (HRQOL for patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Background Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory, immune-mediated disease that has a significant impact on patients' HRQOL. Adalimumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that blocks tumor necrosis factor, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, and is effective and well-tolerated for patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. Methods Data were obtained for a secondary analysis of patients in a randomized, controlled Phase III trial evaluating the effect of adalimumab in patients with psoriasis (N = 1,205. Patients with moderate to severe psoriasis were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to adalimumab 80 mg (two 40 mg injections administered subcutaneously at baseline followed by one 40 mg injection every other week from Week 1 to Week 15 or placebo. Short Form-36 (SF-36 Health Survey scores of psoriasis patients were used to assess HRQOL and were compared with United States (US population norms at baseline and Week 16. Results Baseline Physical Component Summary (PCS scores for the placebo and adalimumab groups were similar to the general US population. Baseline mean Mental Component Summary (MCS scores were significantly lower for the adalimumab and placebo groups compared with the general population (47.4, 47.7, and 50.8 points, respectively; p Conclusion Psoriasis has a broad impact on patient functioning and well-being. Improvement in skin lesions and joint symptoms associated with adalimumab treatment was accompanied by improvements in HRQOL to levels that were similar to or greater than those of the general US population. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00237887

  18. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF INFORMAL NORMS OF URBAN COLORISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Alexandrowna Griber

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was informal social norms of urban culture. The paper contains the detailed description of the experimental situation and the main steps of the field research, focused on the observance of informal social norms in the sphere of urban coloristics. The experiment was conducted in three districts of Smolensk (Russia – Leninskiy, Zadneprovskiy and Promyshlennyy. Particular attention was paid to the analysis of the results of the field research, including evaluation of reaction of participants (residents of multi-storied houses, breakers of informal norms of urban coloristics (experimenters and casual experiment witnesses (neighbors and passersby. In addition, the accuracy of results “forecasting”, done before the beginning of the experiment, is analyzed. The research was conducted using the methodology of breaking experiment that is one of the most provocative ways of studying informal norms in sociology and social psychology. The experiment allowed to draw a number of important conclusions. It showed that urban coloristics is regulated by strict informal norms, that are not noticed by citizens until a violation occurs. The power of informal norms is significantly underestimated by citizens, and their break causes a negative reaction and protest. The most important contribution to the study of informal norms of urban culture was the comparison of the reaction degree by men and women, by the residents of different districts (central, residential or blue-collar neighborhoods, by different age groups.

  19. Social Groups and Children's Intergroup Attitudes: Can School Norms Moderate the Effects of Social Group Norms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesdale, Drew; Lawson, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of social group norms (inclusion vs. exclusion vs. exclusion-plus-relational aggression) and school norms (inclusion vs. no norm) on 7- and 10-year-old children's intergroup attitudes were examined. Children (n = 383) were randomly assigned to a group with an inclusion or exclusion norm, and to 1 of the school norm conditions. Findings…

  20. Lagrange, central norms, and quadratic Diophantine equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Mollin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the Diophantine equation of the form x2−Dy2=c, where c=±1,±2, and provide a generalization of results of Lagrange with elementary proofs using only basic properties of simple continued fractions. As a consequence, we achieve a completely general, simple, and elegant criterion for the central norm to be 2 in the simple continued fraction expansion of D.

  1. Test results of chemical reactivity test (CRT) analysis of structural materials and explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, P.S.; Barnhart, B.V.; Walters, R.R.; Haws, L.D.; Collins, L.W.

    1980-03-21

    The chemical reactivity test, CRT, is a procedure used to screen the compatibility of component structure materials with explosives. This report contains the results of CRT materials evaluations conducted at Mound Facility. Data about materials combinations are catalogued both under the name of the explosive and the nonexplosive.

  2. Rapid matching algorithm for hyperspectral image based on norm sifting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Li; Yong Ma; Kun Liang; Yin Yu

    2012-01-01

    We propose a rapid spectral matching method by lowering number of comparisons,processing time can be saved.Firstly,1-norm is chosen as length measure of spectrum,and with this criterion,a 1-norm database is built.Secondly,a subspace is constructed from the whole reference library by retaining the references with the most similar 1-norm values.Finally,matching operations are performed in the subspace to obtain the match result.Simulations of geological mapping with ASTER spectral library show that the proposed method can significantly reduce processing time and enhance accuracy compared with traditional and dimension reduction methods.

  3. Clinical ethics and values: how do norms evolve from practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spranzi, Marta

    2013-02-01

    Bioethics laws in France have just undergone a revision process. The bioethics debate is often cast in terms of ethical principles and norms resisting emerging social and technological practices. This leads to the expression of confrontational attitudes based on widely differing interpretations of the same principles and values, and ultimately results in a deadlock. In this paper I would like to argue that focusing on values, as opposed to norms and principles, provides an interesting perspective on the evolution of norms. As Joseph Raz has convincingly argued, "life-building" values and practices are closely intertwined. Precisely because values have a more indeterminate meaning than norms, they can be cited as reasons for action by concerned stakeholders, and thus can help us understand how controversial practices, e.g. surrogate motherhood, can be justified. Finally, norms evolve when the interpretations of the relevant values shift and cause a change in the presumptions implicit in the norms. Thus, norms are not a prerequisite of the ethical solution of practical dilemmas, but rather the outcome of the decision-making process itself. Struggling to reach the right decision in controversial clinical ethics situations indirectly causes social and moral values to change and principles to be understood differently.

  4. Norm and anti-norm inequalities for positive semi-definite matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Bourin, Jean-Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Some subadditivity results involving symmetric (unitarily invariant) norms are obtained. For instance, if $g(t)=\\sum_{k=0}^m a_kt^k$ is a polynomial of degree $m$ with non-negative coefficients, then, for all positive operators $A,\\,B$ and all symmetric norms, $\\|g(A+B)\\|^{1/m} \\le \\|g(A)\\|^{1/m} + \\|g(B)\\|^{1/m}$. To give parallel superadditivity results, we investigate anti-norms, a class of functionals containing the Schatten $q$-norms for $q\\in(0,1]$ and $q<0$. The results are extensions of the Minkowski determinantal inequality. A few estimates for block-matrices are derived. For instance, let $f:[0,\\infty) \\to [0,\\infty)$ be concave and $p\\in(1,\\infty)$. If $f^p(t)$ is superadditive, then $Tr f(A) \\ge (\\sum_{i=1}^m f^p(a_{ii}))^{1/p}$ for all positive $m\\times m$ matrix $A=[a_{ij}]$. Furthermore, for the normalized trace $\\tau$, we consider functions $\\phi(t)$ and $f(t)$ for which the functional $A\\mapsto\\phi\\circ\\tau\\circ f(A)$ is convex or concave, and obtain a simple analytic criterion.

  5. Thurston norm and cosmetic surgeries

    CERN Document Server

    Ni, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Two Dehn surgeries on a knot are called cosmetic if they yield homeomorphic manifolds. For a null-homologous knot with certain conditions on the Thurston norm of the ambient manifold, if the knot admits cosmetic surgeries, then the surgery coefficients are equal up to sign.

  6. Endogenous mobility-reducing norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, R.; Koning, N.B.J.

    2002-01-01

    We present a model where a mobility-reducing norm arises in response to adverse economic conditions. Our example is the classical farm problem of low returns. A temporary transition barrier induces cognitive dissonance in farm youths, which they try to reduce by developing a belief that revalues the

  7. Change IS the New Norm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Community colleges are undergoing an evolution that is unprecedented since they were created. State and federal mandates, greater calls for accountability, and a stronger push for student success are causing community colleges to review and retool their campuses and their focus. In other words, change IS the new norm. It is time for community…

  8. APPROACH TO SMALL FAMILY NORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonibala

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Idea of approach to maintain small family norm in the family and so to the society is the hope for almost all of the couples as the saying -"Small family is a happy family". And every couple always thinks and plan for a safer and better future.

  9. APPROACH TO SMALL FAMILY NORM

    OpenAIRE

    Nonibala

    2014-01-01

    The Idea of approach to maintain small family norm in the family and so to the society is the hope for almost all of the couples as the saying -"Small family is a happy family". And every couple always thinks and plan for a safer and better future.

  10. Endogenous mobility-reducing norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, R.; Koning, N.B.J.

    2002-01-01

    We present a model where a mobility-reducing norm arises in response to adverse economic conditions. Our example is the classical farm problem of low returns. A temporary transition barrier induces cognitive dissonance in farm youths, which they try to reduce by developing a belief that revalues

  11. A New Norm: Using Social Science to Create Disruptive Innovations for Broadening Participation in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jessi L.

    2016-03-01

    Norms often operate outside conscious awareness and limit broad participation in physics and STEM fields more generally. This presentation identifies several of these norms and provides empirically tested disruptions at three academic points: faculty, graduate, and undergraduate. First, is a focus on broadening the participation of women science faculty through an intervention aimed at supporting faculty search committees. Using a randomized control trail design, results show searches in the intervention were 6.3 times more likely to make an offer to a woman candidate, and these women were 5.8 times more likely to accept the offer from an intervention search. A diverse faculty can help disrupt the norms of their field's understanding about brilliance and effort, which can appeal to -or repel- potential graduate students. Using a randomized control trial design, recruitment materials for a science graduate program were manipulated to emphasize effort versus innate ability as the norm. Results show emphasizing effort as normal to achieve success in the male-dominated graduate program elevated women's motivation to purse and persist in graduate studies. Of course, before a student will consider graduate school, they must see themselves as a scientist. Data from a survey at three universities showed undergraduate women in physics lab classes were less likely to identify as a scientist when they were concerned about being stereotyped and could not see how physics was useful or helpful to society. Identifying and disrupting social norms can help create an inclusive learning and working context with far-reaching benefits. National Science Foundation Award HRD-1208831 and HRD-1036767.

  12. PERSONAL ATTITUDES, PERCEIVED SOCIAL NORMS, AND HEALTH RISK BEHAVIOR AMONG FEMALE ADOLESCENTS WITH CHRONIC MEDICAL CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Jennifer Hauser; Greenley, Rachel Neff; Mussatto, Kathleen A.; Roth-Wojcicki, Betsy; Miller, Tami; Freeman, Mary Ellen; Lerand, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether perceived peer/parent norms or personal beliefs about adolescent substance use influence substance use among female adolescents with chronic medical conditions. Methods 68 females reported on substance use, personal beliefs, and perceived peer/parent norms. Results Personal beliefs and perceived peer/parent norms were associated with adolescent’s current and future substance use. Although perceived peer norms accounted for variance in current substance use, only personal beliefs accounted for variance in future alcohol use. Conclusions Targeting perceived peer norms may be effective for intervention efforts among adolescents endorsing current substance use, whereas alcohol use prevention efforts should target personal beliefs. PMID:23524992

  13. Constrained multi-degree reduction with respect to Jacobi norms

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2015-12-31

    We show that a weighted least squares approximation of Bézier coefficients with factored Hahn weights provides the best constrained polynomial degree reduction with respect to the Jacobi L2L2-norm. This result affords generalizations to many previous findings in the field of polynomial degree reduction. A solution method to the constrained multi-degree reduction with respect to the Jacobi L2L2-norm is presented.

  14. Prosocial norms and degree heterogeneity in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovářík, Jaromír; Brañas-Garza, Pablo; Cobo-Reyes, Ramón; Espinosa, María Paz; Jiménez, Natalia; Ponti, Giovanni

    2012-02-01

    We provide empirical evidence to support the claims that social diversity promotes prosocial behavior. We elicit a real-life social network and its members' adherence to a social norm, namely inequity aversion. The data reveal a positive relationship between subjects' prosociality and several measures of centrality. This result is in line with the theoretical literature that relates the evolution of social norms to the structure of social interactions and argues that central individuals are crucial for the emergence of prosocial behavior.

  15. Young Children Understand the Role of Agreement in Establishing Arbitrary Norms-But Unanimity Is Key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Marco F H; Rakoczy, Hannes; Mietzsch, Teresa; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Human cultural groups value conformity to arbitrary norms (e.g., rituals, games) that are the result of collective "agreement." Ninety-six 3-year-olds had the opportunity to agree upon arbitrary norms with puppets. Results revealed that children normatively enforced these novel norms only on a deviator who had actually entered into the agreement (not on dissenting or ignorant individuals). Interestingly, any dissent during the norm-setting process (even if a majority of 90% preferred one course of action) prevented children from seeing a norm as established for anyone at all. These findings suggest that even young children understand something of the role of agreement in establishing mutually binding social norms, but that their notion of norm formation may be confined to conditions of unanimity. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  16. Disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns -- Legality, technical feasibility, economics, and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approaching cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  17. Normed Domains of Holomorphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven G. Krantz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We treat the classical concept of domain of holomorphy in ℂn when the holomorphic functions considered are restricted to lie in some Banach space. Positive and negative results are presented. A new view of the case n=1 is considered.

  18. BERGMAN TYPE OPERATOR ON MIXED NORM SPACES WITH APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RENGUANGBIN; SHIJIHUAI

    1997-01-01

    The authors investigate the conditions for the botmdedness of Bergman type operators Pa,t in mixed norm space Lp,q(μ) on the unit ball of Cn (n ≥ 1), and obtain a sufficient conditionand a necessary condition for general normal function μ, and a sufficient and necessary condition for μ(r)=(1-r2)α logβ(2(1-r)-1)(α>0,β≥0), This generalizes the result of Forelli-Rudin[3] on Bergman operator in Bergman space. As applications,a more natural method is given to compute the duality of the mixed norm space,solve the Gleason's problem for mixed norm space and obtain the characterization of mixed norm space in terms of partial derivatives.Moreover,it is proved that f∈L(0) ∞,q(μ) for holomorphic function f,1≤q≤∞.

  19. Multiscale flat norm signatures for shapes and images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandine, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morgan, Simon P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vixie, Kevin R [WASHINGTON STATE UNIV.; Clawson, Keth [WASHINGTON STATE UNIV.; Asaki, Thomas J [WASHINGTON STATE UNIV.; Price, Brandon [WALLA WALLA UNIV.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we begin to explore the application of the multiscale flat norm introduced in Morgan and Vixie to shape and image analysis. In particular, we look at the use of the multiscale flat norm signature for the identification of shapes. After briefly reviewing the multiscale flat norm, the L{sup 1}TV functional and the relation between these two, we introduce multiscale signatures that naturally follow from the multiscale flat norm and its components. A numerical method based on the min-cut, max-flow graph-cut is briefly recalled. We suggest using L{sup 2} minimization, rather than the usual Crofton's formula based approximation, for choosing the required weights. The resulting weights have the dual benefits of being analytically computable and of giving more accurate approximations to the anisotropic TV energy. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of the signatures on simple shape classification tasks.

  20. Professional norms, public service motivation and economic incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2007-01-01

    have, however, indicated that these factors interact. Using interviews, surveys and registers, the paper investigated how professional norms, economic incentives and sector affected the behaviour of Danish dentists and physicians. It was found that when strong professional norms existed, economic......The theories of professions, public service motivation, and economic incentives explain the behaviour of the producers of publicly financed services differently. They emphasize professional norms, sector, and economic incentives, respectively. The few existing attempts to integrate these theories...... incentives were unimportant for both public and private employees. In contrast, when no firm professional norm applied, economic incentives affected behaviour. Controlling for different economic incentives, sector does not seem to affect the behaviour much. The results imply that the economic...

  1. The Moderating Role of Close versus Distal Peer Injunctive Norms and Interdependent Self-Construal in the Effects of Descriptive Norms on College Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo

    2017-04-19

    Based on the theory of normative social behavior (Rimal & Real, 2005), this study examined the effects of descriptive norms, close versus distal peer injunctive norms, and interdependent self-construal on college students' intentions to consume alcohol. Results of a cross-sectional study conducted among U.S. college students (N = 581) found that descriptive norms, close, and distal peer injunctive norms had independent effects on college students' intentions to consume alcohol. Furthermore, close peer injunctive norms moderated the effects of descriptive norms on college students' intentions to consume alcohol and the interaction showed different patterns among students with a strong and weak interdependent self-construal. High levels of close peer injunctive norms weakened the relationship between descriptive norms and intentions to consume alcohol among students with a strong interdependent self-construal but strengthened the relationship between descriptive norms and intentions to consume alcohol among students with a weak interdependent self-construal. Implications of the findings for norms-based research and college drinking interventions are discussed.

  2. REACTIVATING NIGERIAN NORMS AND VALUES THROUGH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    religious education and Nigerian norms and values, which made society secured and safe. .... better, through the renewal of the inner most nature the norms and ... by sacred specialists and persons, sacred places and objects and religious ...

  3. Changing norms about gender inequality in education: Evidence from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels-Hugo Blunch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: While norms are important for educational attainment, especially in the developing world, there are relatively few studies on this topic. This paper, which explores attitudes toward gender equality in education among Bangladeshis, should therefore be of interest to both academics and policymakers. Objective: In this paper, we seek to identify which factors affect the norms regarding the education of girls and boys, as well as of women and men, across two cohorts of married women in Bangladesh. In particular, we look at the relative importance of an individual woman's own educational background and those of her spouse and other family members in shaping her attitudes toward gender equality in education. Methods: We analyze a rich household dataset for Bangladesh from the World Bank Survey on Gender Norms in Bangladesh, which was conducted in 2006. We use linear probability models to examine the determinants of gender education norms. We also decompose the intergenerational gender norms gap using the Oaxaca-Blinder composition (total and detailed, taking into account several technical issues related to the computation of standard errors and the use of dummy variables in detailed decompositions. Results: Education norms were found to differ substantially across cohorts, with women from the younger cohort expressing far more positive views than older female respondents regarding education for both girls and women. The effect of education on norms could be found among both the respondents and their husbands, as well as among the older women in the household. This suggests that educational norms are shared both within married couples and across generations. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the far-reaching changes in female education in Bangladesh have had equally far-reaching effects on the perceived value of education for girls relative to education for boys.

  4. Flat norm decomposition of integral currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif Ibrahim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Currents represent generalized surfaces studied in geometric measure theory. They range from relatively tame integral currents representing oriented compact manifolds with boundary and integer multiplicities, to arbitrary elements of the dual space of differential forms. The flat norm provides a natural distance in the space of currents, and works by decomposing a $d$-dimensional current into $d$- and (the boundary of $(d+1$-dimensional pieces in an optimal way.Given an integral current, can we expect its at norm decomposition to be integral as well? This is not known in general, except in the case of $d$-currents that are boundaries of $(d+1$-currents in $\\mathbb{R}^{d+1}$ (following results from a corresponding problem on the $L^1$ total variation ($L^1$TV of functionals. On the other hand, for a discretized at norm on a finite simplicial complex, the analogous statement holds even when the inputs are not boundaries. This simplicial version relies on the total unimodularity of the boundary matrix of the simplicial complex; a result distinct from the $L^1$TV approach.We develop an analysis framework that extends the result in the simplicial setting to one for $d$-currents in $\\mathbb{R}^{d+1}$, provided a suitable triangulation result holds. In $\\mathbb{R}^2$, we use a triangulation result of Shewchuk (bounding both the size and location of small angles, and apply the framework to show that the discrete result implies the continuous result for $1$-currents in $\\mathbb{R}^2$ .

  5. Peer punishment promotes enforcement of bad social norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbink, Klaus; Gangadharan, Lata; Handfield, Toby; Thrasher, John

    2017-09-20

    Social norms are an important element in explaining how humans achieve very high levels of cooperative activity. It is widely observed that, when norms can be enforced by peer punishment, groups are able to resolve social dilemmas in prosocial, cooperative ways. Here we show that punishment can also encourage participation in destructive behaviours that are harmful to group welfare, and that this phenomenon is mediated by a social norm. In a variation of a public goods game, in which the return to investment is negative for both group and individual, we find that the opportunity to punish led to higher levels of contribution, thereby harming collective payoffs. A second experiment confirmed that, independently of whether punishment is available, a majority of subjects regard the efficient behaviour of non-contribution as socially inappropriate. The results show that simply providing a punishment opportunity does not guarantee that punishment will be used for socially beneficial ends, because the social norms that influence punishment behaviour may themselves be destructive.Punishment by peers can enforce social norms, such as contributing to a public good. Here, Abbink and colleagues show that individuals will enforce norms even when contributions reduce the net benefit of the group, resulting in the maintenance of wasteful contributions.

  6. A case study on the formation and sharing process of science classroom norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jina; Song, Jinwoong

    2016-03-01

    The teaching and learning of science in school are influenced by various factors, including both individual factors, such as member beliefs, and social factors, such as the power structure of the class. To understand this complex context affected by various factors in schools, we investigated the formation and sharing process of science classroom norms in connection with these factors. By examining the developmental process of science classroom norms, we identified how the norms were realized, shared, and internalized among the members. We collected data through classroom observations and interviews focusing on two elementary science classrooms in Korea. From these data, factors influencing norm formation were extracted and developed as stories about norm establishment. The results indicate that every science classroom norm was established, shared, and internalized differently according to the values ingrained in the norms, the agent of norm formation, and the members' understanding about the norm itself. The desirable norms originating from values in science education, such as having an inquiring mind, were not established spontaneously by students, but were instead established through well-organized norm networks to encourage concrete practice. Educational implications were discussed in terms of the practice of school science inquiry, cultural studies, and value-oriented education.

  7. Cultural Norms and Nonverbal Communication: An Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yanrong

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal communication takes place in specific cultural contexts and is influenced by cultural norms. Cultural norms are "social rules for what certain types of people should and should not do" (Hall, 2005). Different cultures might have different norms for nonverbal behaviors in specific social, relational, and geographical contexts.…

  8. Expectancy and Professional Norms in Legal Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Dorrit; Hjort-Pedersen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    into expectancy and professional norms, the study leads us to set up two assumptions about the existence of norms at the macro-strategic level that may impact on attitudes across members of different discourse communities within the legal domain. These norms, we believe, may be useful in legal translation...

  9. Quality of decision making and group norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, T.; Spears, R.; Cihangir, S.

    2001-01-01

    Two studies investigated the impact of group norms for maintaining consensus versus norms for critical thought on group decisions in a modification of the biased sampling paradigm (G. Stasser & W. Titus, 1985). Both studies showed that critical norms improved the quality of decisions, whereas consen

  10. Organisational dynamics, social norms and information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamper, Ronald; Liu, Kecheng

    1994-01-01

    An organisation is defined as a system of social norms. The concept of a norm is the social analogue of the concept of an affordance which Gibson (1968) introduced to account for perception of the physical world. Their conjunction is a logic of Norms and Affordances, Norma, which serves as a meta-mo

  11. Norm Theory: Comparing Reality to Its Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahneman, Daniel; Miller, Dale T.

    1986-01-01

    A theory of norms and normality is applied to some phenomena of emotional responses, social judgment, and conversations about causes. Norm theory is applied in analyses of enhanced emotional response to events that have abnormal causes, of generation of prediction from observations of behavior, and of the role of norms. (Author/LMO)

  12. Cultural Norms and Nonverbal Communication: An Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yanrong

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal communication takes place in specific cultural contexts and is influenced by cultural norms. Cultural norms are "social rules for what certain types of people should and should not do" (Hall, 2005). Different cultures might have different norms for nonverbal behaviors in specific social, relational, and geographical contexts.…

  13. Endogenous Effort Norms in Hierarchical Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tichem (Jan)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper studies how a three-layer hierarchical firm (principal-supervisor-agent) optimally creates effort norms for its employees. The key assumption is that effort norms are affected by the example of superiors. In equilibrium, norms are eroded as one moves down

  14. Remarks on the Operator Norm Localization Property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianjin WANG

    2011-01-01

    The author studies the metric spaces with operator norm localization property. It is proved that the operator norm localization property is coarsely invariant and is preserved under certain infinite union. In the case of finitely generated groups, the operator norm localization property is also preserved under the direct limits.

  15. 'Global' norms and 'local' agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkdahl, Annika; Gusic, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how the 'liberal democratic peace package' is received in post-conflict spaces. As such, it is part of a critical peace research agenda that raises critical questions concerning the quality of peace in many post-conflict societies. A close reading of the peace-building process...... in post-conflict Kosovo provides the backdrop for the theoretical discussion that identifies friction in norm diffusion processes and the different agencies that are generated through encounters between global norms and local practices. We unpack the interplay between the 'global' and the 'local......' in peacebuilding and, through the lens of friction, we reveal the diverse and unequal encounters that produce new power relations. By foregrounding agency, we theorise different agentive subjects in the post-conflict setting, and map local agency from various segments of society that may localise, co-opt or reject...

  16. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    assessment of the taxonomy is carried out based of a survey of a random sample of Danish residents 18 years or older. A range of norm constructs were measured with regard to four environmentally relevant behaviours: buying organic milk, buying energy saving light bulbs, source-separating compostable kitchen...... waste, and using public transportation for work and shopping. The frequency of performing the four behaviours was measured as well. The revised taxonomy possesses content, predictive, and nomological validity and satisfactory test-retest reliability. The taxonomy's construct and discriminant validity...... is also supported, with the reservation that the different behavioural references are more than just different methods of measuring the same latent construct(s). People evidently hold different norms for different environmentally responsible behaviours....

  17. Principles and popularity: the interplay of moral norms and descriptive norms in the context of volunteerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Megan K; Masser, Barbara M

    2012-12-01

    Can a moral norm be manipulated and if so, how does a manipulated moral norm interact with a descriptive norm to impact on behavioural intentions? The present research addressed these questions in three studies. Study 1a and 1b demonstrated the validity of a manipulation designed to activate a moral norm for volunteer activity. In Study 2, activating a moral norm for volunteering strengthened intentions to volunteer and inhibited intentions to conform to a descriptive norm. Conceptual and applied implications of activating a moral norm are discussed. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Green technology foresight of products and materials - some reflections and results from an ongoing Danish project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Pedersen, Thomas Thoning; Falch, Morten

    2005-01-01

    The article presents some methodological and theoretical reflections and some preliminary results from a Danish Green Technology Foresight project about environmental friendly products and materials, where the environmental potentials and risks from three technology areas are analysed: nano- bio...

  19. STUDY OF TOURY'S THREE NORMS OF TRANSLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘星

    2008-01-01

    Norms can be expected to operate not only in transLation of all kinds,nut also at every stage in the translating event,and hence to be reflected on every level of its product.Gideon Toury's most famous research-Descriptive Translation Study introduces us three norms of translation-preliminary norms;initial norms;operational norms,which are of vital importance in the field of translation theory study.In this essay,the author illustrates them to Chinese readers.

  20. An abbreviated tool for assessing feminine norm conformity: psychometric properties of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Mike C; Moradi, Bonnie

    2011-12-01

    The Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45 (CFNI-45; Parent & Moradi, 2010) is an important tool for assessing level of conformity to feminine gender norms and for investigating the implications of such norms for women's functioning. The authors of the present study assessed the factor structure, measurement invariance, reliability, and validity of the CFNI-45 with data from 520 college women (55% White). Confirmatory factor analyses with data from this sample suggested acceptable fit for the posited 9-factor structure. Furthermore, analyses of measurement invariance indicated similar structural properties with members of socioculturally dominant (i.e., White) and nondominant (i.e., women of color) racial/ethnic status groups. Also, subscales of the CFNI-45 demonstrated acceptable internal consistency reliability coefficients, and correlations with convergent and discriminant validity indicators supported the validity of subscales scores. Overall, results offered support for the CFNI-45 as a multidimensional measure of women's conformity to feminine norms. The CFNI-45 can be used in research to facilitate evaluation of the theorized roles of conformity to feminine norms in women's mental health, vocational behavior, interpersonal relationships, and other domains. The CFNI-45 can be used in clinical practice to assess and attend to clients' conformity to feminine norms as is called for in the American Psychological Association's (2007) Guidelines for Psychological Practice with Girls and Women.

  1. Addressing Issues in the Development and Use of the Composite International Reference Values as Rorschach Norms for Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gregory J; Shaffer, Thomas W; Erdberg, Philip; Horn, Sandra L

    2015-01-01

    This article describes 3 studies evaluating normative reference data for the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 2003, 2007), with a particular focus on the viability of the Composite International Reference Values (CIRVs) that were compiled from 21 adult studies by Meyer, Erdberg, and Shaffer (2007). Study 1 documented how the CIRV norms are virtually identical when organized into 3 groups differentiated by the quality of their data collection effort, including an optimal group of 4 samples that relied on multiple experienced examiners and provided ongoing quality control over administration and coding. Analyses also showed that relative to the group of more optimal samples, the group of less optimal samples did not produce more variability in summary scores within or across samples or lower interrater reliability for coding. Study 2 used the existing CS reference norms to generate T scores for the CIRV means and documented how the CS norms make other samples of healthy nonpatients look psychologically impaired in multiple domains. Study 3 documented with examples from 4 different countries how 2 sets of within-country local norms produced notably different results on some variables, which compromises the ability of local norms to be used instead of the CIRVs. Taken together, the 3 studies provide support for the use of CIRVs in clinical practice as norms that are generalizable across samples, settings, languages, and cultures and that account for the natural variability that is present when clinicians and researchers contend with the ambiguity contained in the standard CS reference materials concerning the proper ways to administer and code. We conclude by urging CS users to rely on the CIRVs when making clinical inferences and to adopt alternative methods of ensuring they are following cohesively standardized administration and coding guidelines.

  2. Effect of Contact Time Between Silicone Impression Materials and Stone on Dimensional Stability of Resultant Cast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Numerous factors have an effect on the accuracy of an impression and resultant cast, and these include: impression material, impression technique, tray selection, impression disinfection, storage time of impression before pouring, stone type used for fabrication of cast. Up to now, there has been little research conducted on the effect of contact time of a cast with an impression, on the dimensional stability of a cast. Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the contact time of silicone impression materials with stone casts, on the dimensional stability of resultant casts. Materials and Methods A total of 44 impressions were made from a stainless steel master model, with each one of two silicone impression materials (Elite HD+ and Speedex, and poured with Elite Master Type IV. The thickness of the light-body material (1 mm was provided by using four copings. The resulting casts from each material were placed in four groups(n = 11 after each contact time with the impression (1 hour, 24 hours, 48 hours, 1 week. Distance between anterior and posterior abutments was measured for the casts and master model. Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and a Tukey test. Results The relationship between the dimensional stability of the casts and the simultaneous effect of the impression material and contact time of the cast with the impression was not statistically significant (P = 0.099. Type of impression material on the dimensional stability of the cast had no significant effect (P = 0.163. Increased contact time of the cast with the impression resulted in increased dimensional change (P < 0.001. Conclusions Dimensional stability of the casts after different contact time with the impression was acceptable. The best time to separate the cast from the impression was one hour after pouring the impression.

  3. Modeling the mobility of uranium from NORM-rich bedrock using multivariate statistical techniques - The mobility of uranium from U-containing bedrock materials as a function of pH: Implications for tunnel construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmers, Tari; Fjermestad, Halldis; Salbu, Brit; Skipperud, Lindis [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Aas (Norway); Meland, Sondre; Hagelia, Per [Norwegian Public Roads Administration, P.O. Box 8142, 0033 Oslo (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    According to amendments made to the Norwegian Pollution Control Act in 2011, naturally occurring radioactive material is now to be considered as an environmental contaminant, in addition to organic pollutants and trace metals. Environmental contamination is strongly correlated with the mobility and bioavailability of metals and radionuclides in natural systems. In order to determine the risk of environmental contamination from e.g. uranium (U) in alum shale areas, it is of particular importance to determine the mobility of U and trace metals found in the rock materials and their binding mechanisms. By determining the speciation and mobility of uranium and trace metals, better predictions can be made on the transport of contaminants in the environment from intervention like road and tunnel construction. The substrate media analyzed in this work was collected from a future tunnel construction site that is being built in the Gran municipality on National road Rv4 in Norway. The bedrock in the Gran municipality is rich in U-bearing minerals. Therefore, there is high potential for environmental contamination from the rock material removed for tunnel construction purposes. The present work focuses upon the effects of pH and the contact time (substrate media: solution) on the mobility of uranium. In order to identify the effects of pH and contact time on mobility, sample cores collected from an area rich in alum shale were subjected to an extended leaching experiment. In this experiment, the substrate materials were treated with five different pH solutions and were analyzed for different contact times. In addition, the results were compared to data from a sequential extraction experiment. In the leaching experiment, the mobilization of uranium in all of the substrate material was affected by the pH of solution. All of the samples were capable of quickly buffering pH solutions with a pH as low as 4 to neutral-alkaline conditions, attributed to the carbonate minerals

  4. Fractional norm regularization: learning with very few relevant features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaban, Ata

    2013-06-01

    Learning in the presence of a large number of irrelevant features is an important problem in high-dimensional tasks. Previous studies have shown that L1-norm regularization can be effective in such cases while L2-norm regularization is not. Furthermore, work in compressed sensing suggests that regularization by nonconvex (e.g., fractional) semi-norms may outperform L1-regularization. However, for classification it is largely unclear when this may or may not be the case. In addition, the nonconvex problem is harder to solve than the convex L1 problem. In this paper, we provide a more in-depth analysis to elucidate the potential advantages and pitfalls of nonconvex regularization in the context of logistic regression where the regularization term employs the family of Lq semi-norms. First, using results from the phenomenon of concentration of norms and distances in high dimensions, we gain intuition about the working of sparse estimation when the dimensionality is very high. Second, using the probably approximately correct (PAC)-Bayes methodology, we give a data-dependent bound on the generalization error of Lq-regularized logistic regression, which is applicable to any algorithm that implements this model, and may be used to predict its generalization behavior from the training set alone. Third, we demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by experiments and applications, where the PAC-Bayes bound is used to guide the choice of semi-norm in the regularization term. The results support the conclusion that the optimal choice of regularization depends on the relative fraction of relevant versus irrelevant features, and a fractional norm with a small exponent is most suitable when the fraction of relevant features is very small.

  5. Raw material consumption of the European Union--concept, calculation method, and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoer, Karl; Weinzettel, Jan; Kovanda, Jan; Giegrich, Jürgen; Lauwigi, Christoph

    2012-08-21

    This article presents the concept, calculation method, and first results of the "Raw Material Consumption" (RMC) economy-wide material flow indicator for the European Union (EU). The RMC measures the final domestic consumption of products in terms of raw material equivalents (RME), i.e. raw materials used in the complete production chain of consumed products. We employed the hybrid input-output life cycle assessment method to calculate RMC. We first developed a highly disaggregated environmentally extended mixed unit input output table and then applied life cycle inventory data for imported products without appropriate representation of production within the domestic economy. Lastly, we treated capital formation as intermediate consumption. Our results show that services, often considered as a solution for dematerialization, account for a significant part of EU raw material consumption, which emphasizes the need to focus on the full production chains and dematerialization of services. Comparison of the EU's RMC with its domestic extraction shows that the EU is nearly self-sufficient in biomass and nonmetallic minerals but extremely dependent on direct and indirect imports of fossil energy carriers and metal ores. This implies an export of environmental burden related to extraction and primary processing of these materials to the rest of the world. Our results demonstrate that internalizing capital formation has significant influence on the calculated RMC.

  6. The Fermat-Torricelli problem in normed planes and spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Martini, Horst; Weiss, Gunter

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the Fermat-Torricelli problem in d-dimensional real normed spaces or Minkowski spaces, mainly for d=2. Our approach is to study the Fermat-Torricelli locus in a geometric way. We present many new results, as well as give an exposition of known results that are scattered in various sources, with proofs for some of them. Together, these results can be considered to be a minitheory of the Fermat-Torricelli problem in Minkowski spaces and especially in Minkowski planes. This demonstrates that substantial results about locational problems valid for all norms can be found using a geometric approach.

  7. Boosting safety behaviour: Descriptive norms encourage child booster seat usage amongst low involvement parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Jennifer; Whelan, Jodie; Pirouz, Dante M; Snowdon, Anne W

    2016-07-01

    Campaigns advocating behavioural changes often employ social norms as a motivating technique, favouring injunctive norms (what is typically approved or disapproved) over descriptive norms (what is typically done). Here, we investigate an upside to including descriptive norms in health and safety appeals. Because descriptive norms are easy to process and understand, they should provide a heuristic to guide behaviour in those individuals who lack the interest or motivation to reflect on the advocated behaviour more deeply. When those descriptive norms are positive - suggesting that what is done is consistent with what ought to be done - including them in campaigns should be particularly beneficial at influencing this low-involvement segment. We test this proposition via research examining booster seat use amongst parents with children of booster seat age, and find that incorporating positive descriptive norms into a related campaign is particularly impactful for parents who report low involvement in the topic of booster seat safety. Descriptive norms are easy to state and easy to understand, and our research suggests that these norms resonate with low involvement individuals. As a result, we recommend incorporating descriptive norms when possible into health and safety campaigns.

  8. The results and analysis of irradiation experiments conducted on reactor vessel plate and weld materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biemiller, E.C. [Yankee Atomic Electric Co., Bolton, MA (United States); Carter, R.G.; Rosinski, S.T. [Electric Power Research Inst., Charlotte, NC (United States)

    1996-09-01

    This paper documents the extensive amount of experimental work on radiation damage to reactor vessel materials carried out by Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) and others in support of a licensing effort to restart the Yankee Rowe nuclear power plant. The effect of plate nickel content and microstructure on irradiation damage sensitivity was assessed. Typical reactor pressure vessel plate materials each containing 0.24% (by weight) copper, but different nickel contents at 0.19% and 0.63% were heat treated to produce different microstructures. A Linde 80 weld containing 0.30% copper and 1.00% nickel was produced and heat treated to test microstructure effects on the irradiation response of weld metal. Materials taken from plate surface locations (vs 1/4%) were included to test whether or not the improved toughness properties of the plate surface layer, resulting from a rapid quench, is maintained after irradiation. Irradiations were conducted at two irradiation temperatures, 500 F (260 C) and 550 F (288 C), to determine the effect of irradiation temperature on embrittlement. The results of this irradiation testing and additional data from a DOE/Sandia National Laboratories irradiation study show an irradiation temperature effect that is not consistent, but varies with the materials tested. The test results demonstrate that for nickel bearing steels, the superior toughness of plate surface material is maintained even after irradiation to high fluences, and for the copper content tested, nickel has little effect on irradiation response. A mixed effect of microstructure/heat treatment on the materials` irradiation response was noted. Phosphorus potentially played a role in the irradiation response of the low nickel material irradiated at 500 F (288 C) but did not show prominence in the irradiations for the same material conducted at 500 F (260 C).

  9. Subband Adaptive Filtering with l1-Norm Constraint for Sparse System Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Seok Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach of the normalized subband adaptive filter (NSAF which directly exploits the sparsity condition of an underlying system for sparse system identification. The proposed NSAF integrates a weighted l1-norm constraint into the cost function of the NSAF algorithm. To get the optimum solution of the weighted l1-norm regularized cost function, a subgradient calculus is employed, resulting in a stochastic gradient based update recursion of the weighted l1-norm regularized NSAF. The choice of distinct weighted l1-norm regularization leads to two versions of the l1-norm regularized NSAF. Numerical results clearly indicate the superior convergence of the l1-norm regularized NSAFs over the classical NSAF especially when identifying a sparse system.

  10. A Database for Storing the Results of Material Radio-purity Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Loach, J C; Cox, G A; Li, Z; Nguyen, K D; Poon, A W P

    2016-01-01

    Searches for rare nuclear processes, such as neutrinoless double beta-decay and the interactions of WIMP dark matter, are motivating experiments with ever-decreasing levels of radioactive backgrounds. These background reductions are achieved using various techniques, but amongst the most important is minimizing radioactive contamination in the materials from which the experiment is constructed. To this end there have been decades of advances in material sourcing, manufacture and certification, during which researchers have accumulated many thousands of measurements of material radio-purity. Some of these assays are described in publications, others are in databases, but many are still communicated informally. Until this work, there has been no standard format for encoding assay results and no effective, central location for storing them. The aim of this work is to address these long-standing problems by creating a concise and flexible material assay data format and powerful software application to manipulate ...

  11. How do social norms influence prosocial development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Bailey R

    2017-08-12

    Humans are both highly prosocial and extremely sensitive to social norms, and some theories suggest that norms are necessary to account for uniquely human forms of prosocial behavior and cooperation. Understanding how norms influence prosocial behavior is thus essential if we are to describe the psychology and development of prosocial behavior. In this article I review recent research from across the social sciences that provides (1) a theoretical model of how norms influence prosocial behavior, (2) empirical support for the model based on studies with adults and children, and (3) predictions about the psychological mechanisms through which norms shape prosocial behavior. I conclude by discussing the need for future studies into how prosocial behavior develops through emerging interactions between culturally varying norms, social cognition, emotions, and potentially genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Stability of Various Functional Equations in Non-Archimedean Intuitionistic Fuzzy Normed Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Abdul Mohiuddine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We define and study the concept of non-Archimedean intuitionistic fuzzy normed space by using the idea of t-norm and t-conorm. Furthermore, by using the non-Archimedean intuitionistic fuzzy normed space, we investigate the stability of various functional equations. That is, we determine some stability results concerning the Cauchy, Jensen and its Pexiderized functional equations in the framework of non-Archimedean IFN spaces.

  13. Collaborative Filtering in a Non-Uniform World: Learning with the Weighted Trace Norm

    CERN Document Server

    Salakhutdinov, Ruslan

    2010-01-01

    We show that matrix completion with trace-norm regularization can be significantly hurt when entries of the matrix are sampled non-uniformly. We introduce a weighted version of the trace-norm regularizer that works well also with non-uniform sampling. Our experimental results demonstrate that the weighted trace-norm regularization indeed yields significant gains on the (highly non-uniformly sampled) Netflix dataset.

  14. Calculation of the CIPW norm: New formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruseth, Kamal L.

    2009-02-01

    A completely new set of formulas, based on matrix algebra, has been suggested for the calculation of the CIPW norm for igneous rocks to achieve highly consistent and accurate norms. The suggested sequence of derivation of the normative minerals greatly deviates from the sequence followed in the classical scheme. The formulas are presented in a form convenient for error-free implementation in computer programs. Accurate formulas along with the use of variable molecular weights for CaO and FeO; corrected formula weights for apatite, pyrite and fluorite; and suggested measures to avoid significant rounding off errors to achieve absolute match between the sum of the input weights of the oxides and the sum of the weights of the estimated normative minerals. Using an analogous procedure for determining the oxidation ratios of igneous rocks as used in the SINCLAS system of Verma et al (2002, 2003), the suggested calculation scheme exactly reproduces their results except for apatite for reasons explained in the text, but with a superior match between the totals for about 11,200 analyses representing rocks of a wide range of composition

  15. Calculation of the CIPW norm: New formulas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kamal L Pruseth

    2009-02-01

    A completely new set of formulas,based on matrix algebra,has been suggested for the calculation of the CIPW norm for igneous rocks to achieve highly consistent and accurate norms.The suggested sequence of derivation of the normative minerals greatly deviates from the sequence followed in the classical scheme.The formulas are presented in a form convenient for error-free implementation in computer programs.Accurate formulas along with the use of variable molecular weights for CaO and FeO;corrected formula weights for apatite,pyrite and fluorite;and suggested measures to avoid significant rounding off errors to achieve absolute match between the sum of the input weights of the oxides and the sum of the weights of the estimated normative minerals.Using an analogous procedure for determining the oxidation ratios of igneous rocks as used in the SINCLAS system of Ver ma et al (2002,2003),the suggested calculation scheme exactly reproduces their results except for apatite for reasons explained in the text,but with a superior match between the totals for about 11,200 analyses representing rocks of a wide range of composition.

  16. How did Trade Norms Evolve in Scandinavia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2016-01-01

    As the saying goes, “it takes years to build up trust and only seconds to destroy it.” In this paper, we argue that this is indeed the case when explaining trust formation in Scandinavia. Hence, in an attempt to explain why the Scandinavian welfare states hold the highest social trust scores in t...... and social trust accumulation. This result points to the importance of free trade today, especially in poor countries with low levels of economic development and high rates of non-literacy....... in the world today, we argue that one possible historical root of social trust may be the long-distance trade practices of the Viking age. To manage the risk of being cheated, trade between strangers in an oral world required a strong informal institution of trust-based trade norms out of necessity to deal......-literate. If a trader did not keep his word, social sanctioning by word of mouth was most likely the only method to discipline the cheater and prevent future free-rider behavior. The early rise of trust-based trade norms in Scandinavia is an overlooked factor in the region’s long-term socio-economic development...

  17. How Did Trade Norms Evolve in Scandinavia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2016-01-01

    As the saying goes, “it takes years to build up trust and only seconds to destroy it.” In this paper, we argue that this is indeed the case when explaining trust formation in Scandinavia. Hence, in an attempt to explain why the Scandinavian welfare states hold the highest social trust scores in t...... trust accumulation. This result points to the importance of free trade today, especially in poor countries with low levels of economic development and high rates of non-literacy....... in the world today, we argue that one possible historical root of social trust may be long-distance trade practices of the Viking age. To manage the risk of being cheated, trade between strangers in an oral world required a strong informal institution of trust-based trade norms out of necessity to deal...... did not keep his word, social sanctioning by word of mouth was most likely the only method to discipline the cheater and prevent future free-rider behavior. The early rise of trust-based trade norms in Scandinavia is an overlooked factor in the region’s long-term socio-economic development and social...

  18. Mechanical test results from the EU testing program for potential ITER insulation material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadbent, A.J.; Butt, S.; Smith, K.D. [Oxford Instruments, Witney (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    Insulation systems will be a key element in the future construction and impregnation of the coils for the ITER device. Candidate materials must survive prolonged irradiation (2.5 x 10{sup 21} - 2.5 x 10{sup 22} neutrons/m{sup 2} - September 1994) simultaneous high compressive and shear stresses (up to 300 MPa and 50 MPa respectively), and have high electrical reliability (30 year service life). The materials chosen are intended to meet the demands of full scale coil manufacture. Mechanical properties, including shear / compression and compression at cryogenic temperatures of several different insulation systems are reported. The mechanically acceptable systems will be irradiation tested at a future date, although only materials believed to withstand high irradiation doses have been selected. The final results of this program are presented and compared with a pass / fail criterion based on results from a benchmark testing program (insulation system based on anhydride cured DGEBA resin and S2 glass).

  19. Attitude ambivalence, social norms, and behavioral intentions: Developing effective antitobacco persuasive communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, Zachary P; Crano, William D; Niedbala, Elizabeth M

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the moderating effects of attitude ambivalence on the relationship between social norms, attitudes, and behavioral intentions to use tobacco. It was predicted that people would use social norms to reduce attitude ambivalence, and that reduced ambivalence would lead to changes in attitudes and behavioral intentions. To test this hypothesis, participants (N = 152) were exposed to persuasive communications designed to influence attitude ambivalence and perceived social norms regarding tobacco use. Analysis indicated that providing a social norm antagonistic to tobacco use significantly reduced ambivalence among participants reading the ambivalence message (p attitudes from pre- to postpersuasive communications demonstrated a significant decrease in tobacco attitudes only for participants reading the ambivalence message who were provided with the antitobacco use norm (p attitudes toward tobacco. These results point to the important role of social norms in mediating the effects of attitude ambivalence on subsequent behavior in preventative programs targeting tobacco use.

  20. Longitudinal relationship between drinking with peers, descriptive norms, and adolescent alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Haynie, Denise; Farhat, Tilda; Wang, Jing

    2014-08-01

    Descriptive norms are consistently found to predict adolescent alcohol use but less is known about the factors that predict descriptive norms. The objective of this study is to test if drinking with peers predicts later alcohol consumption and if this relationship is mediated by a change in the descriptive norms of peer alcohol use. Data are from a nationally representative cohort of high school students surveyed in the 10th and 11th grade (N = 2,162). Structural equation modeling was used to test a mediation model of the relationship between drinking with peers (T1) on later alcohol use (T2) and mediation of the relationship by descriptive norms (T2). Descriptive norms significantly mediated the relationship between drinking with peers and alcohol use for both males and females with a somewhat larger effect for males compared to females. These results support a continued focus on the development and evaluation of interventions to alter descriptive norms of alcohol use.

  1. 环境治理的社会规范路径%On the social norm approach of environmental governance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张福德

    2016-01-01

    the basic idea of environmental governance.Environmental social norms having an important impact on environmental behavior are an important path of environmental governance.On the basis of describing the types of social norms and their mechanism of function, with reference to the environmental social norm activation theories, this study clarifies influential factors of activation of social norms and the basic mechanism how environmental social norms affect environmental behavior, and analyses existing obstacles of environmental social norms activation in China, and proposes some measures that the government should take in the course of environment management by promoting the activation of environmental social norms.The conclusion of this study showed that the activation level of the whole environmental social norms determines the influence which environmental social norms exert on environmental behaviors, and that the activation level of the whole environmental social norms depends on the mutual influence of the activation level of environmental descriptive norms, environmental injunctive norms and environmental personal norms and external constraint conditions.Due to the restriction of objective material conditions of social life, there are some obstacles for the activation of environmental social norms in China, resulting in the fact that the activation of environmental social norms stays at a lower level.Those main obstacles include the great reverse effect of environmental negative descriptive norms, the lower activation level of environmental personal norms and the bold external constraint factors such as the cost of behavior, technical barrier of behavior and the convenience of behavior.The proposal here is that relevant government departments can take positive measures to achieve the goal of environmental governance by improving the activation level of environmental social norms.The relevant government departments can improve the activation level of

  2. Unitarily invariant norms related to factors

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Junsheng

    2007-01-01

    Let $\\M$ be a semi-finite von Neumann algebra and $\\J(\\M)$ be the set of operators in $\\M$ with finite range projections. In this paper we obtain a representation theorem for unitarily invariant norms on $\\J(\\M)$ of semi-finite factors $\\M$ in terms of Ky Fan norms. As an application, we prove that the class of unitarily invariant norms on $\\J(\\M)$ of a type ${\\rm II}\\sb \\infty$ (or type ${\\rm I}\\sb \\infty$) factor $\\M$ coincides with the class of symmetric gauge norms on $\\J(L^\\infty[0,\\infty))$ (or $\\J(l^\\infty(\

  3. Norms of Random Submatrices and Sparse Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-28

    usual Hilbert space operator norm; the `1 to `2 operator norm ‖·‖1→2 computes the maximum `2 norm of a column; and ‖·‖max returns the maximum absolute...estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining...the spectral norm of a random column submatrix. Its proof is analogous with that of Theorem 3.2 but relies on a sharp noncommutative Khintchine

  4. A Characterization of Generalized Monotone Normed Cones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.ROMAGUERA; E.A.S(A)NCHEZ-P(E)REZ; O.VALERO

    2007-01-01

    Let C be a cone and consider a quasi-norm p defined on it. We study the structure of the couple (C, p) as a topological space in the case where the function p is also monotone. We characterize when the topology of a quasi-normed cone can be defined by means of a monotone norm. We also define and study the dual cone of a monotone normed cone and the monotone quotient of a general cone.We provide a decomposition theorem which allows us to write a cone as a direct sum of a monotone subcone that is isomorphic to the monotone quotient and other particular subcone.

  5. Impact of Electronic Teaching Materials on Process of Education--Results of an Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Záhorec, Ján; Hašková, Alena; Munk, Michal

    2010-01-01

    In their paper the authors deal with the vital issues of creation and application of electronic teaching materials for natural science subjects teaching. They describe an experimental examination of qualitative impact of these aids on education. The authors present a part of research results, which they obtained in a major research focused on…

  6. Modelling Inter-Particle Forces and Resulting Agglomerate Sizes in Cement-Based Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Ane Mette; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2005-01-01

    The theory of inter-particle forces versus external shear in cement-based materials is reviewed. On this basis, calculations on maximum agglomerate size present after the combined action of superplasticizers and shear are carried out. Qualitative experimental results indicate that external shear...... affects the particle size distribution of Mg(OH)2 (used as model material) as well as silica, whereas the addition of superplasticizers affects only the smallest particles in cement and thus primarily acts as water reducers and not dispersers....

  7. Perceived historical drinking norms and current drinking behavior: using the theory of normative social behavior as a framework for assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcioppolo, Nick; Jensen, Jakob D

    2012-01-01

    Social norms are sustained and disseminated, both implicitly and explicitly, through the act of communication. As a result, communication researchers have sought to classify and target normative perceptions to enact social change. In line with this research, the current study investigated whether perceptions of past normative behavior, referred to here as historical norms, were significantly related to current behavior. Using the theory of normative behavior as a guiding framework, two studies were conducted to assess whether college student drinking behavior was related to one of two perceived historical drinking norms measures: historical consumption norms (i.e., the perceived percentage of students who drank over time) and historical tradition norms (i.e., the perception of drinking as a university tradition). Study 1 revealed that although historical consumption norms was not directly related to drinking behavior, it moderated the effect of descriptive norms on drinking behavior (p = .03). A full assessment of the theory of normative social behavior was conducted in study 2 to determine whether perceived historical drinking norms influenced behavior above and beyond both descriptive and injunctive norms. Findings demonstrated that historical tradition norms were significantly related to drinking behavior (p = .001), and marginally moderated the relationship between descriptive norms and drinking behavior (p = .09). These findings offer preliminary evidence in support of measuring perceived historical drinking norms in future campaigns and interventions designed to reduce drinking behavior.

  8. Radon-222 exhalation from Danish building materials: H + H Industri A/S results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, C.E

    1999-08-01

    This report describes a closed-chamber method for laboratory measurements of the rate at which radon-222 degasses (exhales) from small building material samples. The chamber is 55 L in volume and the main sample geometry is a slab of dimensions 5x30x30 cm{sup 3} . Numerical modelling is used to assess (and partly remove) the bias of the method relative to an ideal measurement of the free exhalation rate. Experimental results obtained with the method are found to be in agreement with the results of an open-chamber method (which is subject to different sources of error). Results of radon-222 exhalation rate measurements for 10 samples of Danish building materials are reported. Samples include ordinary concrete, lightweight aggregate concrete, autoclaved aerated concrete, bricks, and gypsum board. The maximum mass-specific exhalation rate is about 20 mBq h{sup -1} kg{sup -1}. Under consideration of the specific applications of the investigated building materials, the contribution to the indoor radon-222 concentration in a single-family reference house is calculated. Numerical modelling is used to help extrapolate the laboratory measurements on small samples to full scale walls. Application of typical materials will increase the indoor concentration by less than 10 Bq m{sup -3}. (au) 6 tabs., 15 ills., 29 refs.

  9. An existence result for a model of complete damage in elastic materials with reversible evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Elena; Freddi, Francesco; Segatti, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we consider a model describing evolution of damage in elastic materials, in which stiffness completely degenerates once the material is fully damaged. The model is written by using a phase transition approach, with respect to the damage parameter. In particular, a source of damage is represented by a quadratic form involving deformations, which vanishes in the case of complete damage. Hence, an internal constraint is ensured by a maximal monotone operator. The evolution of damage is considered "reversible", in the sense that the material may repair itself. We can prove an existence result for a suitable weak formulation of the problem, rewritten in terms of a new variable (an internal stress). Some numerical simulations are presented in agreement with the mathematical analysis of the system.

  10. An existence result for a model of complete damage in elastic materials with reversible evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Elena; Freddi, Francesco; Segatti, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a model describing evolution of damage in elastic materials, in which stiffness completely degenerates once the material is fully damaged. The model is written by using a phase transition approach, with respect to the damage parameter. In particular, a source of damage is represented by a quadratic form involving deformations, which vanishes in the case of complete damage. Hence, an internal constraint is ensured by a maximal monotone operator. The evolution of damage is considered "reversible", in the sense that the material may repair itself. We can prove an existence result for a suitable weak formulation of the problem, rewritten in terms of a new variable (an internal stress). Some numerical simulations are presented in agreement with the mathematical analysis of the system.

  11. Influence of the extraction parameters on the cytotoxicity test results of Mg materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoli Liu; Tingfei Xi; Yudong Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Recently more and more researchers query the predictability of cytotoxicity results of biomedical Mg alloys obtained according to ISO 10993 due to significant difference between in vitro and in vivo corrosion. This study aimed to observe the influence of different extraction parameters (time, volume/surface ratio and medium composition) on cytotoxicity results and illustrate whether more predictable results could be obtained by adjusting the extraction parameters. The results showed that longer extraction time and smaller extraction volume/surface ratio improve the sensitivity of screening Mg materials by making inferior Mg materials release relatively more ions to the extract; and more predictable results could not be obtained by the way of simply adding bovine serum albumin (BSA) into the extraction medium to the same level in vivo or simply using fetal bovine serum (FBS) directly as extraction medium, since BSA and FBS accelerated the corrosion of Mg materials during extraction and they affected the cells' health states during the test. In order to get more predictable results, in our opinions, it is necessary to establish a database of primary cells' hazards (metal ions, pH and H2 gas) tolerance and a set of in vitro corrosion test with high similarity in vivo, which is very difficult to realize now however.

  12. Cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in animal feed and feed materials - trend analysis of monitoring results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamse, Paulien; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; de Jong, Jacob

    2017-03-02

    This study aimed to obtain insights into the presence of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in feed materials and feed over time, for the purpose of guiding national monitoring. Data from the Dutch feed monitoring program and from representatives of the feed industry in the period 2007-2013 were used. Data covered the concentrations of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in a variety of feed materials and compound feeds in The Netherlands. Trends in the percentage of samples that exceeded the maximum limit (ML), set by the European Commission, and trends in average, median and 90(th) percentile concentrations of each of these elements per feed material or compound feed were investigated. Based on the results, monitoring for cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic should focus on feed material of mineral origin, feed material of marine origin, especially fish meal, seaweed and algae as well as feed additives belonging to the functional groups of (i) trace elements (notably cupric sulphate, zinc oxide and manganese oxide for arsenic) and (ii) binders and anti-caking agents. Mycotoxin binders are a new group of feed additives that also need attention. For complementary feed it is important to make a proper distinction between mineral and non-mineral feed because the ML in the latter group is usually lower. In seaweed/algae products a relatively large number of samples contained arsenic concentrations that exceeded the ML. Forage crops in general do not need high priority in monitoring programs, although for arsenic grass meal still needs attention.

  13. Predicting naming latencies for action pictures: Dutch norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zeshu; Roelofs, Ardi; Meyer, Antje S

    2014-03-01

    The present study provides Dutch norms for age of acquisition, familiarity, imageability, image agreement, visual complexity, word frequency, and word length (in syllables) for 124 line drawings of actions. Ratings were obtained from 117 Dutch participants. Word frequency was determined on the basis of the SUBTLEX-NL corpus (Keuleers, Brysbaert, & New, Behavior Research Methods, 42, 643-650, 2010). For 104 of the pictures, naming latencies and name agreement were determined in a separate naming experiment with 74 native speakers of Dutch. The Dutch norms closely corresponded to the norms for British English. Multiple regression analysis showed that age of acquisition, imageability, image agreement, visual complexity, and name agreement were significant predictors of naming latencies, whereas word frequency and word length were not. Combined with the results of a principal-component analysis, these findings suggest that variables influencing the processes of conceptual preparation and lexical selection affect latencies more strongly than do variables influencing word-form encoding.

  14. Difference equations in normed spaces stability and oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Gil, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Difference equations appear as natural descriptions of observed evolution phenomena because most measurements of time evolving variables are discrete. They also appear in the applications of discretization methods for differential, integral and integro-differential equations. The application of the theory of difference equations is rapidly increasing to various fields, such as numerical analysis, control theory, finite mathematics, and computer sciences. This book is devoted to linear and nonlinear difference equations in a normed space. The main methodology presented in this book is based on a combined use of recent norm estimates for operator-valued functions with the following methods and results: The freezing methodThe Liapunov type equationThe method of majorantsThe multiplicative representation of solutionsDeals systematically with difference equations in normed spaces Considers new classes of equations that could not be studied in the frameworks of ordinary and partial difference equationsDevelops ...

  15. Regulation of naturally occurring radioactive materials in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Cameron; Akber, Riaz; Johnston, Andrew; Cassels, Brad

    2011-07-01

    In order to promote uniformity between jurisdictions, the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) has developed the National Directory for Radiation Protection, which is a regulatory framework that all Australian governments have agreed to adopt. There is a large and diverse range of industries involved in mining or mineral processing, and the production of fossil fuels in Australia. Enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides can be associated with mineral extraction and processing, other industries (e.g. metal recycling) and some products (e.g. plasterboard). ARPANSA, in conjunction with industry and State regulators, has undertaken a review and assessment of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) management in Australian industries. This review has resulted in guidance on the management of NORM that will be included in the National Directory for Radiation Protection. The first NORM safety guide provides the framework for NORM management and addresses specific NORM issues in oil and gas production, bauxite, aluminium and phosphate industries. Over time further guidance material for other NORM-related industries will be developed. This presentation will provide an overview of the regulatory approach to managing NORM industries in Australia.

  16. Discourses with potential to disrupt traditional nursing education: Nursing teachers' talk about norm-critical competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengelin, Ellinor; Dahlborg-Lyckhage, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the discourses underlying nursing teachers' talk about their own norm-critical competence. Norm criticism is an approach that promotes awareness and criticism of the norms and power structures that exert an excluding effect in society in general and in the healthcare encounter in particular. Given the unequal relationships that can exist in healthcare, for example relationships shaped by racism, sexism and classism, a norm-critical approach to nursing education would help illuminate these matters. The studied empirical material consisted of focus group interviews. Nursing teachers discussed their norm-critical competence based on the university course "Norm-Aware Caring" in which they had recently participated. Through a critical discourse analysis, three discourses were identified in their talk, all of which had the potential to disrupt traditional, normative nursing education. However, in all three discourses there was an underlying discourse of normality, clearly positioning the teachers as exemplifying the "normal." The binary constructed between normality and otherness contradicts a basic tenet of the norm-critical approach and may hamper the development of genuine norm-critical competence in nursing education.

  17. A remark on different norms and analyticity for many-particle interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Enter, A.C.D.; Fernandez, R. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (USA))

    1989-09-01

    The authors compare a recent result of Dobrushin and Martirosyan with previous results by Gallavotti and Miracle-Sole and by Israel and point out that the analytic behavior at high temperatures for many-particle interactions is different depending on whether the interactions are weighted with a lattice-gas or Ising norm or, on the other hand, with the supremum norm.

  18. Norm-Euclidean Galois fields and the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis

    CERN Document Server

    McGown, Kevin J

    2011-01-01

    Assuming the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis (GRH), we show that the norm-Euclidean Galois cubic fields are exactly those with discriminant $\\Delta=7^2,9^2,13^2,19^2,61^2,67^2,103^2,109^2,127^2,157^2$. A large part of the proof is in establishing the following more general result: Let $K$ be a Galois number field of odd prime degree $\\ell$ and conductor $f$. Assume the GRH for $\\zeta_K(s)$. If $38(\\ell-1)^2(\\log f)^6\\log\\log fnorm-Euclidean.

  19. Spectral reflectance and emittance of particulate materials. I - Theory. II - Application and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, A. G.; Aronson, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The sizes, shapes, and complex refractive indices of particles are calculated in a study of the IR spectral reflectance of a semiinfinite medium composed of irregular particles of different materials. Geometric optics techniques with corrections for additional absorption due to particle edges and asperities is used in scattering and absorption calculations for particles larger than the wavelength. A Lorentz-Lorenz model is used to derive the averaged complex index of the medium, assuming that its individual particles are ellipsoids. Experimental results obtained on a Michelson interferometer for the spectral emittance of particulate mineral materials are compared with theoretical results. Good agreement between the experimental and theoretical results suggests the applicability, in remote IR spectroscopy, of the theoretical concepts applied in this study.

  20. Radon-222 exhalation from Danish building materials: H + H Industri A/S results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Erik

    1999-01-01

    (and partly remove) the bias of the method relative to an ideal measurement of the free exhalation rate. Experimental results obtained with the method are found to be in agreement with the results of anopen-chamber method (which is subject to different sources of error). Results of radon-222 exhalation......This report describes a closed-chamber method for laboratory measurements of the rate at which radon-222 degasses (exhales) from small building material samples. The chamber is 55 L in volume and the main sample geometry is a slab of dimensions 5x30x30cm"3 . Numerical modelling is used to assess...... rate measurements for 10 samples of Danish building materials are reported. Samples include ordinary concrete, lightweight aggregate concrete,autoclaved aerated concrete, bricks, and gypsum board. The maximum mass-specific exhalation rate is about 20 m Bq h"-"1 kg "-"1. Under consideration...

  1. Remanence anisotropy effect on the palaeointensity results obtained from various archaeological materials, excluding pottery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacheva, M.; Chauvin, A.; Jordanova, N.; Lanos, P.; Karloukovski, V.

    2009-06-01

    The effect of magnetic anisotropy on the palaeointensity results has been evaluated in different materials, including samples from archaeological structures of various ages, such as baked clay from prehistoric domestic ovens or pottery kilns, burnt soil from ancient fires, and bricks and bricks or tiles used in the kiln's construction. The remanence anisotropy was estimated by the thermoremanent (TRM) anisotropy tensor and isothermal remanence (IRM) tensor methods. The small anisotropy effect (less than 5%) observed in the palaeointensity results of baked clay from the relatively thin prehistoric oven's floors estimated previously through IRM anisotropy was confirmed by TRM anisotropy of this material. The new results demonstrate the possibility of using IRM anisotropy evaluation to correct baked clay palaeointensity data instead of the more difficult to determine TRM anisotropy ellipsoid. This is not always the case for the palaeointensity results from bricks and tiles. The anisotropy correction to palaeointensity results seems negligible for materials other than pottery. It would therefore appear that the palaeointensity determination is more sensitive to the degree of remanence anisotropy P and the angle between the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) vector and the laboratory field direction, than to the angle between the NRM and the maximum axis of the remanence anisotropy ellipsoid (Kmax).

  2. Analysis of chromium and sulphate origins in construction recycled materials based on leaching test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rey, I; Ayuso, J; Galvín, A P; Jiménez, J R; López, M; García-Garrido, M L

    2015-12-01

    Twenty samples of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste (CDW) with different compositions collected at six recycling plants in the Andalusia region (south of Spain) were characterised according to the Landfill Directive criteria. Chromium and sulphate were identified as the most critical compounds in the leachates. To detect the sources of these two pollutant constituents in recycled aggregate, environmental assessments were performed on eight construction materials (five unused ceramic materials, two old crushed concretes and one new mortar manufactured in the laboratory). The results confirmed that leached sulphate and Cr were mainly released by the ceramic materials (bricks and tiles). To predict the toxicological consequences, the oxidation states of Cr (III) and Cr (VI) were measured in the leachates of recycled aggregates and ceramic materials classified as non-hazardous. The bricks and tiles mainly released total Cr as Cr (III). However, the recycled aggregates classified as non-hazardous according to the Landfill Directive criteria mainly released Cr (VI), which is highly leachable and extremely toxic. The obtained results highlight the need for legislation that distinguishes the oxidative state in which chromium is released into the environment. Leaching level regulations must not be based solely on total Cr, which can lead to inaccurate predictions.

  3. Minimal projections with respect to various norms

    CERN Document Server

    Aksoy, Asuman Guven

    2010-01-01

    We will show that a theorem of Rudin \\cite{wr1}, \\cite{wr}, permits us to determine minimal projections not only with respect to the operator norm but with respect to quasi-norms in operators ideals and numerical radius in many concrete cases.

  4. FUZZY ALGEBRA IN TRIANGULAR NORM SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓秋; 潘志

    1994-01-01

    Triangular norm is a powerful tool in the theory research and application development of fuzzy sets. In this paper, using the triangular norm, we introduce some concepts such as fuzzy algebra, fuzzy o algebra and fuzzy monotone class, and discuss the relations among them, obtaining the following main conclusions.

  5. Activation of social norms in social dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Anders; Thøgersen, John

    Taking rational choice theory for granted, cooperation in social dilemmas may be seen as mysterious. In one-shot dilemmas where subjects unknown to one another interact and make their decisions anonymously, cooperation could even be regarded as lunacy. Several authors have challenged this view...... that rarely has been recognised in the social dilemma literature. Social norms imply that people should manifest a prescribed behaviour or not manifest a proscribed behaviour. Furthermore, social norms are often guiding behaviour in specific contexts, and many times they need to be activated....... Such an activation process is often unconscious and once a norm has been activated, people tend to keep following the norm that has been primed. We wish to add to the social dilemma literature by suggesting what kinds of norms that are likely to be activated under different conditions such as oneshot vs. iterated...

  6. Topological Properties of Real Normed Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakasho Kazuhisa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we formalize topological properties of real normed spaces. In the first part, open and closed, density, separability and sequence and its convergence are discussed. Then we argue properties of real normed subspace. Then we discuss linear functions between real normed speces. Several kinds of subspaces induced by linear functions such as kernel, image and inverse image are considered here. The fact that Lipschitz continuity operators preserve convergence of sequences is also refered here. Then we argue the condition when real normed subspaces become Banach’s spaces. We also formalize quotient vector space. In the last session, we argue the properties of the closure of real normed space. These formalizations are based on [19](p.3-41, [2] and [34](p.3-67.

  7. Results of ASTM round robin testing for mode 1 interlaminar fracture toughness of composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, T. Kevin; Martin, Roderick H.

    1992-01-01

    The results are summarized of several interlaboratory 'round robin' test programs for measuring the mode 1 interlaminar fracture toughness of advanced fiber reinforced composite materials. Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) tests were conducted by participants in ASTM committee D30 on High Modulus Fibers and their Composites and by representatives of the European Group on Fracture (EGF) and the Japanese Industrial Standards Group (JIS). DCB tests were performed on three AS4 carbon fiber reinforced composite materials: AS4/3501-6 with a brittle epoxy matrix; AS4/BP907 with a tough epoxy matrix; and AS4/PEEK with a tough thermoplastic matrix. Difficulties encountered in manufacturing panels, as well as conducting the tests are discussed. Critical issues that developed during the course of the testing are highlighted. Results of the round robin testing used to determine the precision of the ASTM DCB test standard are summarized.

  8. Sample Size Requirements for Traditional and Regression-Based Norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, H.E.M.; van der Ark, L.A.; Sijtsma, K.

    2016-01-01

    Test norms enable determining the position of an individual test taker in the group. The most frequently used approach to obtain test norms is traditional norming. Regression-based norming may be more efficient than traditional norming and is rapidly growing in popularity, but little is known about

  9. Influence of Specimen Preparation and Test Methods on the Flexural Strength Results of Monolithic Zirconia Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Schatz; Monika Strickstrock; Malgorzata Roos; Daniel Edelhoff; Marlis Eichberger; Isabella-Maria Zylla; Bogna Stawarczyk

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of specimen preparation and test method on the flexural strength results of monolithic zirconia. Different monolithic zirconia materials (Ceramill Zolid (Amann Girrbach, Koblach, Austria), Zenostar ZrTranslucent (Wieland Dental, Pforzheim, Germany), and DD Bio zx2 (Dental Direkt, Spenge, Germany)) were tested with three different methods: 3-point, 4-point, and biaxial flexural strength. Additionally, different specimen preparation methods wer...

  10. Influence of specimen preparation and test methods on the flexural strength results of monolithic zirconia materials

    OpenAIRE

    Schatz, Christine; Strickstrock, Monika; Roos, Malgorzata; Edelhoff, Daniel; Eichberger, Marlis; Zylla, Isabella-Maria; Stawarczyk, Bogna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of specimen preparation and test method on the flexural strength results of monolithic zirconia. Different monolithic zirconia materials (Ceramill Zolid (Amann Girrbach, Koblach, Austria), Zenostar ZrTranslucent (Wieland Dental, Pforzheim, Germany), and DD Bio zx2 (Dental Direkt, Spenge, Germany)) were tested with three different methods: 3-point, 4-point, and biaxial flexural strength. Additionally, different specimen preparation methods wer...

  11. WATER RESISTANCE OF WOOD - PLASTIC COMPOSITES MADE FROM WASTE MATERIALS RESULTED IN THE FURNITURE MANUFACTURING PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia COŞEREANU; Dumitru LICA; Ioan CURTU; Mariana-Domnica STANCIU

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present innovative wood-plastic composites made from waste materials such as ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) and wood shavings resulted in the furniture manufacturing process. From previous investigations (with regard to physical integrity and compactness of the panels), only mixtures ranging from a ratio of 100% ABS: 0% shavings to 80% ABS: 20% shavings were selected for water resistance testing. Swelling in thickness and water absorption for...

  12. Extending immersion lithography with high-index materials: results of a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Harry; Mulkens, Jan; Graeupner, Paul; McCafferty, Diane; Markoya, Louis; Donders, Sjoerd; Samarakone, Nandasiri; Duesing, Rudiger

    2007-03-01

    In this paper we report the status of our feasibility work on high index immersion. The development of high index fluids (n>1.64) and high index glass materials (n>1.9) is reported. Questions answered are related to the design of a high NA optics immersion system for fluid containment and fluid handling, and to the compatibility of the fluid with ArF resist processes. Optical design and manufacturing challenges are related to the use of high index glass materials such as crystalline LuAG or ceramic Spinel. Progress on the material development will be reviewed. Progress on immersion fluids development has been sustained. Second-generation fluids are available from many suppliers. For the practical use of second-generation fluids in immersion scanners, we have evaluated and tested fluid recycling concepts in combination with ArF radiation of the fluids. Results on the stability of the fluid and the fluid glass interface will be reported. Fluid containment with immersion hood structures under the lens has been evaluated and tested for several scan speeds and various fluids. Experimental results on scan speed limitations will be presented. The application part of the feasibility study includes the imaging of 29nm L/S structures on a 2-beam interference printer, fluid/resist interaction testing with pre- and post-soak testing. Immersion defect testing using a fluid misting setup was also carried out. Results of these application-related experiments will be presented and discussed.

  13. The "Strength" of Cometary Surface Material: Relevance of Deep Impact Results for Future Comet Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biele, J.; Ulamec, S.; Richter, L.; Kührt, E.; Knollenberg, J.; Möhlmann, D.

    In the view of the ongoing Rosetta Mission which was launched in March 2004 and will arrive at the target comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014 where a Lander is going to be delivered the results of the Deep Impact Mission in particular regarding comet surface properties have been acknowledged with highest interest Analysis of the velocity of dust ejecta indicates very soft surface material of comet Tempel 1 with strength of only 65 Pa A Hearn M F et al Deep Impact Excavating Comet Tempel 1 Science 310 258-264 14 Oct 2005 It appears however necessary to discuss three principal issues in the interpretation of the data 1 By the impact shock itself the material is stressed fractured and its tensile strength is modified Thus the pristine material properties can most likely not be determined with the applied method 2 Due to the impact a non-negligible amount of gas has been released from an extended source modifying the velocity distribution of the ejected dust particles Thus the detection of a minimum velocity of dust grains cannot be directly related to the material strength 3 The definition of strength in A Hearn et al 2005 needs to be defined more clearly in order to draw conclusions on e g the penetration of a lander device with an impact speed of 1 m s Slow penetration into cometary material is depending primarily on the compressive strength which is typically at least one order of magnitude higher than the tensile strength We will discuss the three issues stated above and estimate the real compressive

  14. Society of the Alone: Freedom, Privacy, and Utilitarianism as Dominant Norms in the SRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Joyce

    1975-01-01

    The social world of the aged SRO tenant is described and analyzed. Characteristic features include an impoverishment of social roles and relationships which result in a "world of strangers." Dominant norms of SRO life which preclude the establishment of intimacy are examined; these include prescriptive norms of privacy, freedom, and…

  15. Society of the Alone: Freedom, Privacy, and Utilitarianism as Dominant Norms in the SRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Joyce

    1975-01-01

    The social world of the aged SRO tenant is described and analyzed. Characteristic features include an impoverishment of social roles and relationships which result in a "world of strangers." Dominant norms of SRO life which preclude the establishment of intimacy are examined; these include prescriptive norms of privacy, freedom, and…

  16. Robust Adaptive Beamforming Based on Worst-Case and Norm Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel robust adaptive beamforming based on worst-case and norm constraint (RAB-WC-NC is presented. The proposed beamforming possesses superior robustness against array steering vector (ASV error with finite snapshots by using the norm constraint and worst-case performance optimization (WCPO techniques. Simulation results demonstrate the validity and superiority of the proposed algorithm.

  17. Comparison of Native American Navajo Bender-Gestalt Performance with Koppitz and Sompa Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Clay L.; Zarske, John A.

    1984-01-01

    Compared Bender-Gestalt performance of 452 Navajo children with 1974 Koppitz and System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment norms (SOMPA), and investigated the use of the Bender-Gestalt for diagnosing learning disabilities. Results suggested the Koppitz and SOMPA White norms may be useful in psychological assessment of Navajo children. (JAC)

  18. A Dual Approach for Solving Nonlinear Infinite-Norm Minimization Problems with Applications in Separable Cases

    CERN Document Server

    Gharibi, Wajeb

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on nonlinear infinite-norm minimization problems that have many applications, especially in computer science and operations research. We set a reliable Lagrangian dual aproach for solving this kind of problems in general, and based on this method, we propose an algorithm for the mixed linear and nonlinear infinite-norm minimization cases with numerical results.

  19. Stress-strain characteristics of materials at high strain rates. Part II. Experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripperger, E. A. [Texas. Univ., Austin, TX (US). Structural Mechanics Research Lab.

    1958-08-29

    These two reports were issued separately, but are cataloged as a unit. A photoelectric method for measuring displacements during high-velocity impacts is described. The theory of the system is discussed in detail, and a prototype system which was built and tested is described. The performance of the prototype system is evaluated by comparing the results which it gives with results obtained by other methods of measurement. The system was found capable of a resolution of at least 0.01 inches. static and dynamic stress-strain characteristics of seven high polymers, polyethylene, teflon, nylon, tenite M, tenite H, polystyrene, and saran, plus three metals, lead, copper, and aluminum, are described and compared by means of stress-strain curves and photographs. Data are also presented which show qualitatively the effects produced on stress-strain characteristics by specimen configuration, temperature, and impact velocity. It is shown that there is a definite strain-rate effect for all these materials except polystyrene. The effect is one of an apparent stiffening of the material with increasing strain rate, which is similar to the effect produced by lowering the temperature. The stress-strain measurements are examined critically, inconsistencies are pointed out, and possible sources of error suggested. Values of yield stress, modulus of elasticity and energy absorption for all materials (except copper and aluminum), specimen configurations, temperatures, and impact velocities included in the investigation are tabulated.

  20. The Norm___ and the Pathological

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Gotkin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I read The Normal and the Pathological by French philosopher Georges Canguilhem for what it can offer disability theory. I examine how the field has already taken up the text but further, I argue for The Normal and the Pathological as a keystone of disability theory (currently taken up with curiously reserved energy. I start with a précis on the text before offering a condensed citation analysis of the book. In the latter part of the paper, I suggest how the monograph might inform current conversations and I offer possibilities for it to deepen and complicate core notions about disability, including the social model, norms, normalcy, and the normate. I conclude by suggesting that Canguilhem’s philosophical intervention can be understood as "propulsive atavism" – an excavation of medical epistemology in order to map and reconfigure its legacies – and I propose this as one methodological template for disability scholarship.

  1. First Results of an Experiment on Advanced Collimator Materials at CERN HiRadMat Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Bertarelli, A; Assmann, R; Berthome, E; Boccone, V; Carra, F; Cerutti, F; Charrondiere, C; Dallocchio, A; Donzé, M; Francon, P; Garlasché, M; Gentini, L; Guinchard, M; Mariani, N; Masi, A; Moyret, P; Redaelli, S; Rossi, A; Peroni, L; Scapin, M; Calderon, M; Charitonidis, N

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive, first-of-its-kind experiment (HRMT-14) has been recently carried out at CERN HiRadMat facility on six different materials of interest for Beam Intercepting Devices (collimators, targets, dumps). Both traditional materials (Mo, W and Cu alloys) as well as advanced metal/diamond and metal/graphite composites were tested under extreme conditions as to pressure, density and temperature, leading to the development of highly dynamic phenomena as shock-waves, spallation, explosions. Experimental data were acquired, mostly in real time, relying on extensive integrated instrumentation (strain gauges, temperature and vacuum sensors) and on remote acquisition devices (laser Doppler vibrometer and high-speed camera). The experiment was a success under all points of view in spite of the technological challenges and harsh environment. First measurements are in good agreement with results of complex simulations, confirming the effectiveness of the acquisition system and the reliability of advanced numerical...

  2. Intergroup norms and intergroup discrimination: distinctive self-categorization and social identity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetten, J; Spears, R; Manstead, A S

    1996-12-01

    Manipulation of in-group and out-group norms of discrimination and fairness allowed for the operation of competing social identity principles concerning in-group bias, conformity, and group distinctiveness. The combined effects of these principles on in-group bias were first examined in a modified minimal-group setting (Study 1). Results demonstrated that participants' allocation strategies were in accord with the in-group norm. Furthermore, dissimilar norms resulted in greater use of positive differentiation allocation strategies. However, in natural groups (Study 2), more in-group bias was found when both group norms were similar and discriminatory. The results confirm the importance of in-group norms and demonstrate differences between experimental and natural groups in the applicability of competing social identity and self-categorization principles.

  3. UAV AND GIS BASED TOOL FOR COLLECTION AND PROPAGATION OF SEEDS MATERIAL – FIRST RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Stereńczak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed management carried out by The State Forests National Forest Holding is an integral part of rational forest management. Seed collection takes place mainly from stands belonging to first category of forest reproductive material, which is the largest seed base in Poland. In smaller amount, seeds are collected in selective objects of highest forest reproductive material category (selected seed stands, seed orchards. The previous estimation methods of seed crop were based on visual assessment of cones in the stands for their harvest. Following the rules of FRM transfer is additional difficulty of rational seed management which limits the possibility of the use of planting material in Poland. Statements concerning forecast of seed crop and monitoring of seed quality is based on annual reports from the State Forest Service. Forest Research Institute is responsible for preparing and publishing above-mentioned statements. A small extent of its automatization and optimization is a large disadvantage of this procedure. In order to make this process more effective web-based GIS application was designed. Its main performance will give a possibility to upload present-day information on seed efficiency, their spatial pattern and availability. Currently this system is under preparation. As a result, the project team will get a possibility to increase participation of seed material collected from selected seed base and to share good practices on this issue in more efficient way. In the future this will make it possible to obtain greater genetic gain of selection strategy. Additionally, first results presented in literature showed possible use of unmanned aerial system/vehicle (UAS/V for supporting of seed crop forecast procedure.

  4. Uav and GIS Based Tool for Collection and Propagation of Seeds Material - First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stereńczak, K.; Mroczek, P.; Jastrzębowski, S.; Krok, G.; Lisańczuk, M.; Klisz, M.; Kantorowicz, W.

    2016-06-01

    Seed management carried out by The State Forests National Forest Holding is an integral part of rational forest management. Seed collection takes place mainly from stands belonging to first category of forest reproductive material, which is the largest seed base in Poland. In smaller amount, seeds are collected in selective objects of highest forest reproductive material category (selected seed stands, seed orchards). The previous estimation methods of seed crop were based on visual assessment of cones in the stands for their harvest. Following the rules of FRM transfer is additional difficulty of rational seed management which limits the possibility of the use of planting material in Poland. Statements concerning forecast of seed crop and monitoring of seed quality is based on annual reports from the State Forest Service. Forest Research Institute is responsible for preparing and publishing above-mentioned statements. A small extent of its automatization and optimization is a large disadvantage of this procedure. In order to make this process more effective web-based GIS application was designed. Its main performance will give a possibility to upload present-day information on seed efficiency, their spatial pattern and availability. Currently this system is under preparation. As a result, the project team will get a possibility to increase participation of seed material collected from selected seed base and to share good practices on this issue in more efficient way. In the future this will make it possible to obtain greater genetic gain of selection strategy. Additionally, first results presented in literature showed possible use of unmanned aerial system/vehicle (UAS/V) for supporting of seed crop forecast procedure.

  5. THE CORRELATION OF EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS OF THE COMPOSITE MATERIALS HARDNESS WITH THEORETICAL RESULTS OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minodora Maria PASARE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is about of the Hays-Kendall theoretical model of testing the microhardness of the composites materials of NiP/SiC type. We used an indenter to establish the microhardness of the composite and different types of loads. The microhardness can be interpreted using a theoretical model Hays-Kendall and the Kick model.

  6. Norm theory and the action-effect: The role of social norms in regret following action and inaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feldman, Gilad; Albarracín, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    The action-effect (Kahneman & Tversky, 1982) is one of the most widely cited and replicated effects in the regret literature, showing that negative outcomes are regretted more when they are a result of action compared to inaction. Building on theoretical arguments by norm theory (Kahneman & Miller,

  7. -Boundedness and -Compactness in Finite Dimensional Probabilistic Normed Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Reza Saadati; Massoud Amini

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, we prove that in a finite dimensional probabilistic normed space, every two probabilistic norms are equivalent and we study the notion of -compactness and -boundedness in probabilistic normed spaces.

  8. Descriptive drinking norms in Native American and non-Hispanic White college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, Kylee J; Pearson, Matthew R; Venner, Kamilla L; Greenfield, Brenna L

    2017-09-01

    College students tend to overestimate how much their peers drink, which is associated with higher personal alcohol use. However, research has not yet examined if this phenomenon holds true among Native American (NA) college students. This study examined associations between descriptive norms and alcohol use/consequences in a sample of NA and non-Hispanic White (NHW) college students. NA (n=147, 78.6% female) and NHW (n=246, 67.8% female) undergraduates completed an online survey. NAs NHWs showed similar descriptive norms such that the "typical college student," "typical NA student," and "typical NHW student" were perceived to drink more than "best friends." "Best friends" descriptive norms (i.e., estimations of how many drinks per week were consumed by participants' best friends) were the most robust predictors of alcohol use/consequences. Effect size estimates of the associations between drinking norms and participants' alcohol use were consistently positive and ranged from r=0.25 to r=0.51 across the four reference groups. Negative binomial hurdle models revealed that all descriptive norms tended to predict drinking, and "best friends" drinking norms predicted alcohol consequences. Apart from one interaction effect, likely due to familywise error rate, these associations were not qualified by interactions with racial/ethnic group. We found similar patterns between NAs and NHWs both in the pattern of descriptive norms across reference groups and in the strength of associations between descriptive norms and alcohol use/consequences. Although these results suggest that descriptive norms operate similarly among NAs as other college students, additional research is needed to identify whether other norms (e.g., injunctive norms) operate similarly across NA and NHW students. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Cleaning and materials compatibility test results for elimination of flammable solvents in wipe applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Edwin Paul

    2005-06-01

    In recent years, efforts have been made within the nuclear weapons complex (National Nuclear Security Administration) of the Department of Energy (DOE) to replace Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulated solvents (i.e., flammable, toxic, corrosive, and reactive) and ozone-depleting chemicals (ODC) with more benign alternatives. Within the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) sectors, these solvents are used for cleaning hardware during routine maintenance operations. A primary goal of this study is to replace flammable solvents used in wiping applications. Two cleaners, including a hydrofluoroether (HFE) and an azeotrope of the HFE and isopropyl alcohol (IPA), have been studied as potential replacements for flammable solvents. Cleaning efficacy, short-term and long-term materials compatibility, corrosion, drying times, flammability, environment, safety and health (ES&H) and accelerated aging issues were among the experiments used to screen candidate solvents by the interagency team performing this work. This report presents cleaning efficacy results as determined by the contact angle Goniometer as well as materials compatibility results of various metal alloys and polymers. The results indicate that IPA (baseline cleaner) and the HFE/IPA azeotrope are roughly equivalent in their ability to remove fluorinated grease, silicone grease, and a simulated finger print contaminant from various metal alloys. All of the ASTM sandwich and immersion corrosion tests with IPA, HFE or the HFE/IPA azeotrope on metal alloys showed no signs of corrosion. Furthermore, no deleterious effects were noted for polymeric materials immersed in IPA, HFE, or the HFE/IPA azeotrope.

  10. Is healthy behavior contagious: associations of social norms with physical activity and healthy eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNaughton Sarah A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social norms are theoretically hypothesized to influence health-related behaviors such as physical activity and eating behaviors. However, empirical evidence relating social norms to these behaviors, independently of other more commonly-investigated social constructs such as social support, is scarce and findings equivocal, perhaps due to limitations in the ways in which social norms have been conceptualized and assessed. This study investigated associations between clearly-defined social norms and a range of physical activity and eating behaviors amongst women, adjusting for the effects of social support. Methods Self-report survey data about particular physical activity (leisure-time moderate-vigorous activity; volitional walking; cycling for transport and eating behaviors (fast food, soft drink and fruit and vegetable consumption, and social norms and support for these, were provided by 3,610 women aged 18-46 years living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods in Victoria, Australia. Results Results of regression analyses showed that social norms for physical activity and eating behaviors predicted these respective behaviors relatively consistently; these associations generally remained significant after adjustment for social support. Conclusions Acknowledging the cross-sectional study design, these data confirm theoretical accounts of the importance of social norms for physical activity and eating behaviors, and suggest that this is independent from social support. Intervention strategies aimed at promoting physical activity and healthy eating could incorporate strategies aimed at modifying social norms relating to these behaviors.

  11. Tracial gauge norms on finite von Neumann algebras satisfying the weak Dixmier property

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Junsheng; Nordgren, Eric; Shen, Junhao

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we set up a representation theorem for tracial gauge norms on finite von Neumann algebras satisfying the weak Dixmier property in terms of Ky Fan norms. Examples of tracial gauge norms on finite von Neumann algebras satisfying the weak Dixmier property include unitarily invariant norms on finite factors (type ${\\rm II}\\sb 1$ factors and $M_n(\\cc)$) and symmetric gauge norms on $L^\\infty[0,1]$ and $\\cc^n$. As the first application, we obtain that the class of unitarily invariant norms on a type ${\\rm II}\\sb 1$ factor coincides with the class of symmetric gauge norms on $L^\\infty[0,1]$ and von Neumann's classical result \\cite{vN} on unitarily invariant norms on $M_n(\\cc)$. As the second application, Ky Fan's dominance theorem \\cite{Fan} is obtained for finite von Neumann algebras satisfying the weak Dixmier property. As the third application, some classical results in non-commutative $L^p$-theory (e.g., non-commutative H$\\ddot{\\text{o}}$lder's inequality, duality and reflexivity of non-commutative...

  12. NORM in the East Midlands' oil and gas producing region of the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Joel; Cairns, James; Read, David

    2015-12-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is a common feature in North Sea oil and gas production offshore but, to date, has been reported from only one production site onshore in the United Kingdom. The latter, Wytch Farm on the Dorset coast, revealed high activity concentrations of (210)Pb in metallic form but little evidence of radium accumulation. NORM has now been discovered at two further onshore sites in the East Midlands region of the UK. The material has been characterized in terms of its mineralogy, bulk composition and disequilibrium in the natural uranium and thorium series decay chains. In contrast to Wytch Farm, scale and sludge samples from the East Midlands were found to contain elevated levels of radium and radioactive progeny associated with crystalline strontiobarite. The highest (226)Ra and (228)Ra activity concentrations found in scale samples were 132 and 60 Bq/g, with mean values of 86 and 40 Bq/g respectively; somewhat higher than the mean for the North Sea and well above national exemption levels for landfill disposal. The two East Midlands sites exhibited similar levels of radioactivity. Scanning electron microscope imaging shows the presence of tabular, idiomorphic and acicular strontiobarite crystals with elemental mapping confirming that barium and strontium are co-located throughout the scale. Bulk compositional data show a corresponding correlation between barium-strontium concentrations and radium activity. Scales and sludge were dated using the (226)Ra/(210)Pb method giving mean ages of 2.2 and 3.7 years, respectively. The results demonstrate clearly that these NORM deposits, with significant radium activity, can form over a very short period of time. Although the production sites studied here are involved in conventional oil recovery, the findings have direct relevance should hydraulic fracturing for shale gas be pursued in the East Midlands oilfield.

  13. Norm in soil and sludge samples in Dukhan oil Field, Qatar state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kinani, A.T.; Hushari, M.; Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Alsadig, I.A., E-mail: mmhushari@moe.gov.qa [Radiation and Chemical Protection Department, Ministry of Environment, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to measure the activity concentrations of Naturally Occurring radioactive Materials (NORM) produced as a buy products in oil production. The analyses of NORM give available information for guidelines concerning radiation protection. Recently NORM subjected to restricted regulation issued by high legal authority at Qatar state. Twenty five samples of soil from Dukhan onshore oil field and 10 sludge samples collected from 2 offshore fields at Qatar state. High resolution low-level gamma-ray spectrometry used to measure gamma emitters of NORM. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclide in 22 samples from Dukhan oil field, were with average worldwide values . Only three soil samples have high activity concentration of Ra-226 which is more than 185 Bq/kg the exempted level for NORM in the Quatrain regulation. The natural radionuclide activity concentrations of 10 sludge samples from offshore oil fields was greater than 1100Bq/kg the exempted values of NORM set by Quatrain regulation so the sludge need special treatments. The average hazards indices (H{sub ex} , D , and Ra{sub eq}), for the 22 samples were below the word permissible values .This means that the human exposure to such material not impose any radiation risk. The average hazards indices (H{sub ex} , D , and Ra{sub eq}), for 3 soil samples and sludge samples are higher than the published maximal permissible. Thus human exposure to such material impose radiation risk. (author)

  14. WOOD - PLASTIC COMPOSITES FROM WASTE MATERIALS RESULTED IN THE FURNITURE MANUFACTURING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia COŞEREANU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the application of waste materials resulted in the furniture manufacturing process as components for wood-plastic composites. The composites are produced from industrial byproducts, such as shavings and ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, without coupling agent. The two components are derived from industrial processes of furniture manufacturing: the first one consists of wood residues resulted from planing machine as planer shavings, and the second one from ABS edge banding operation. A wide array of mixtures varying from 100% ABS to 50% ABS: 50% shavings were used to produce eight variants of boards. Density was determined for each board and the method for the determination of ABS particle size distribution by oscillating screen method using sieve apertures up to 4mm was also applied, in order to establish the particle fractions and the distribution of their sizes. Based on ABS properties, several technologies of manufacturing wood-plastic composites from the waste materials were tested and one of them was selected. The results of the first stage analysis, when the physical integrity and the compactness of the panels’ structures were tested, have shown that a maximum proportion of 30% of wood shavings is accepted in the mixture. On the other hand, the low density of the boards and their porous structure recommend further investigations for thermal and sound insulation applications

  15. Transvision: A light transmission measurement system for greenhouse covering materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, G.L.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: For determining the optical performance of greenhouse covering materials other than standard float glass the current Dutch NEN 2675 norm is no longer appropriate. The emergence of a new generation of materials (diffuse, layered) resulted in a new measuring protocol developed by TNO and Wag

  16. Cooperation, norms, and revolutions: a unified game-theoretical approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Helbing

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cooperation is of utmost importance to society as a whole, but is often challenged by individual self-interests. While game theory has studied this problem extensively, there is little work on interactions within and across groups with different preferences or beliefs. Yet, people from different social or cultural backgrounds often meet and interact. This can yield conflict, since behavior that is considered cooperative by one population might be perceived as non-cooperative from the viewpoint of another. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To understand the dynamics and outcome of the competitive interactions within and between groups, we study game-dynamical replicator equations for multiple populations with incompatible interests and different power (be this due to different population sizes, material resources, social capital, or other factors. These equations allow us to address various important questions: For example, can cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma be promoted, when two interacting groups have different preferences? Under what conditions can costly punishment, or other mechanisms, foster the evolution of norms? When does cooperation fail, leading to antagonistic behavior, conflict, or even revolutions? And what incentives are needed to reach peaceful agreements between groups with conflicting interests? CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our detailed quantitative analysis reveals a large variety of interesting results, which are relevant for society, law and economics, and have implications for the evolution of language and culture as well.

  17. Linking accelerated laboratory and outdoor exposure results for PV polymeric materials: a mechanistic study of EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaohong; Pang, Yongyan; Lin, Chiao-Chi; Liu, Kaipeng; Nguyen, Tinh; Chin, Jaonnie W.

    2013-09-01

    Linking accelerated laboratory test to field performance for predicting the service life of polymeric materials are being investigated at NIST using the reliability-based methodology. Based on this methodology, a successful linkage between the laboratory and field exposure data for a model polymeric material has been made. Recently, this methodology, for the first time, was introduced to the lifetime assessment of PV polymeric materials. In this paper, a mechanistic study of the degradation of three unstabilized model ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) systems---uncured EVA, cured EVA and laminated EVA---was carried out under accelerated laboratory exposure and outdoor exposure. The NIST SPHERE (Simulated Photodegradation via High Energy Radiant Exposure) was used for the accelerated laboratory tests, and the outdoor exposure was conducted in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Simultaneous multiple stresses, including temperature, relative humidity and UV radiation, were applied individually or in combination during SPHERE exposure. The effects of the environmental factors on the main degradation mechanisms of different EVA systems were investigated. The results showed that the UV radiation was the most important factor for the degradation of EVA and a synergistic effect occurred between UV radiation and relative humidity. A slower degradation rate was observed for the laminated system as a result of limited diffusion of O2 and H2O into EVA. It was also found that the substantial chemical changes of the uncured EVA system did not yield yellowing, which was dramatically different from the peroxide cured EVA system. Additionally, the chemical degradation modes of the three EVA systems exposed outdoors appeared to be similar to those exposed to the SPHERE. The implication of this work to the current test standards was discussed.

  18. Strain Localization of Elastic-Damaging Frictional-Cohesive Materials: Analytical Results and Numerical Verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Ying; Cervera, Miguel

    2017-04-20

    Damage-induced strain softening is of vital importance for the modeling of localized failure in frictional-cohesive materials. This paper addresses strain localization of damaging solids and the resulting consistent frictional-cohesive crack models. As a supplement to the framework recently established for stress-based continuum material models in rate form (Wu and Cervera 2015, 2016), several classical strain-based damage models, expressed usually in total and secant format, are considered. Upon strain localization of such damaging solids, Maxwell's kinematics of a strong (or regularized) discontinuity has to be reproduced by the inelastic damage strains, which are defined by a bounded characteristic tensor and an unbounded scalar related to the damage variable. This kinematic constraint yields a set of nonlinear equations from which the discontinuity orientation and damage-type localized cohesive relations can be derived. It is found that for the "Simó and Ju 1987" isotropic damage model, the localization angles and the resulting cohesive model heavily depend on lateral deformations usually ignored in classical crack models for quasi-brittle solids. To remedy this inconsistency, a modified damage model is proposed. Its strain localization analysis naturally results in a consistent frictional-cohesive crack model of damage type, which can be regularized as a classical smeared crack model. The analytical results are numerically verified by the recently-proposed mixed stabilized finite element method, regarding a singly-perforated plate under uniaxial tension. Remarkably, for all of the damage models discussed in this work, the numerically-obtained localization angles agree almost exactly with the closed-form results. This agreement, on the one hand, consolidates the strain localization analysis based on Maxwell's kinematics and, on the other hand, illustrates versatility of the mixed stabilized finite element method.

  19. Enhancing activated-peroxide formulations for porous materials: Test methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauter, Paula [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tucker, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tezak, Matthew S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boucher, Raymond [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-12-01

    During an urban wide-area incident involving the release of a biological warfare agent, the recovery/restoration effort will require extensive resources and will tax the current capabilities of the government and private contractors. In fact, resources may be so limited that decontamination by facility owners/occupants may become necessary and a simple decontamination process and material should be available for this use. One potential process for use by facility owners/occupants would be a liquid sporicidal decontaminant, such as pHamended bleach or activated-peroxide, and simple application devices. While pH-amended bleach is currently the recommended low-tech decontamination solution, a less corrosive and toxic decontaminant is desirable. The objective of this project is to provide an operational assessment of an alternative to chlorine bleach for low-tech decontamination applications activated hydrogen peroxide. This report provides the methods and results for activatedperoxide evaluation experiments. The results suggest that the efficacy of an activated-peroxide decontaminant is similar to pH-amended bleach on many common materials.

  20. The consequences of the heterosexual norm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Johansson

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Librarians may exclude people accidentally. This is so because there is a widespread use of classifications and subject headings reflecting the heterosexual norm. Critical classification theory tackles this norm for the reason that it affects the retrieval of gay literature. In order to allow a reconsideration of this exclusive practice in the LIS community I challenge two main questions: Firstly, how does the heterosexual norm appear in classification systems and subject headings lists? And secondly, what are the consequences of that practice for the retrieval of gay literature?This paper focuses on the professional practise in Swedish public libraries. If subject cataloguing prevents Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals and Transgender (LGBT finding their literatures, then Swedish public libraries are upholders of the exclusive heterosexual norm in society.

  1. Norm stability in Jirisan National Park: effects of time, existing conditions, and background characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Oh; Shelby, Bo

    2008-04-01

    Norm stability is an important issue to consider in using the normative approach as a component of resource management decision making. This study examines three major questions related to norm stability: (1) Do norms change over time? (2) Do existing conditions affect norms? (3) Do background characteristics and visitation patterns affect norms? Data used in this study were collected at a campground in the Jirisan National Park (JNP) of Korea in 1993, 1994, and 2003. A total of 396 subjects were used for the study (120 for 1993, 106 for 1994, and 170 for 2003). Changes in the standards for "quiet time" and "seeing others littering" were statistically significant, but there was no change in the standard for "number of other tents." There was little change in norm agreement or norm prevalence. Existing conditions were strongly correlated with standards for number of other tents but results were mixed for the other two indicators. Users' demographic characteristics and visitation patterns were not generally related to norms. Findings of the study are discussed.

  2. The role of issue familiarity and social norms: findings on new college students’ alcohol use intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv N. Rimal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Scholars in a variety of disciplines are interested in understanding the conditions under which social norms affect human behavior. Following the distinction made between descriptive and injunctive norms by the focus theory of normative conduct, the theory of normative social behavior predicts that the influence of descriptive norms on behavior is moderated by injunctive norms, outcome expectations, and group identity. We extended the theory by testing the proposition that the influence of descriptive norms on behavior would be greater under conditions of greater issue familiarity, defined as the ease with which one can cognitively access the behavior or behavioral issue. Design and Methods. The model was tested in the domain of alcohol consumption intentions by conducting a survey among incoming students (n=719 to a large university in the United States. Data indicated that students in the sample were well representative of the university population. Results. The influence of descriptive norms on behavioral intentions was moderated by issue familiarity, as predicted. Familiarity was a facilitator of behavior: the influence of descriptive norms on behavioral intentions was greater under conditions of high, rather than low, familiarity. The overall model explained 53% of the variance in alcohol consumption intentions. Conclusions. Public health interventions promoting health behaviors need to take into account the extent to which the behaviors are familiar to the target audience. The influence of norms appears to be weaker when the behavior is unfamiliar or novel. Implications for theory and interventions for reducing alcohol consumption are discussed.

  3. Men's adjustment to spinal cord injury: the unique contributions of conformity to masculine gender norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Shaun Michael; Hough, Sigmund; Boyd, Briana L; Hill, Justin

    2010-06-01

    Men constitute 82% of the approximately 250,000 people in the United States living with a spinal cord injury. Unfortunately, however, little is known about the impact of men's adherence to gender norms on their adjustment to such injuries. The present investigation examined the utility of masculine norms in explaining variance in depression beyond that accounted for by commonly identified predictors of men's adjustment following spinal cord injury. As hypothesized, results suggested that men's adherence to masculine norms accounted for unique variance in their depression scores beyond that contributed by social support, environmental barriers/access, and erectile functioning. Respondents who adhered to norms stressing the primacy of men's work demonstrated lower rates of depression, whereas those who conformed to norms for self-reliance demonstrated higher depression scores. The authors discuss future research directions and potential psychotherapeutic strategies for working with men with spinal cord injuries.

  4. A room with a viewpoint revisited: descriptive norms and hotel guests' towel reuse behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohner, Gerd; Schlüter, Lena E

    2014-01-01

    Field experiments on descriptive norms as a means to increase hotel guests' towel reuse [1] were replicated and extended. In two hotels in Germany (Study 1: N = 724; Study 2: N = 204), descriptive norm messages suggesting that 75% of guests had reused their towels, or a standard message appealing to environmental concerns, were placed in guests' bathrooms. Descriptive norm messages varied in terms of proximity of the reference group ("hotel guests" vs. "guests in this room") and temporal proximity (currently vs. two years previous). Reuse of towels was unobtrusively recorded. Results showed that reuse rates were high overall and that both standard and descriptive norm messages increased reuse rates compared to a no-message baseline. However, descriptive norm messages were not more effective than the standard message, and effects of proximity were inconsistent across studies. Discussion addresses cultural and conceptual issues in comparing the present findings with previous ones.

  5. An Assessment of the Disposal of Petroleum Industry NORM in Nonhazardous Landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnish, John J.; Blunt, Deborah, L.; Haffenden, Rebecca A.; Herbert, Jennifer; Pfingston, Manjula; Smith, Karen P.; Williams, Gustavious P.

    1999-10-12

    In this study, the disposal of radium-bearing NORM wastes in nonhazardous landfills in accordance with the MDEQ guidelines was modeled to evaluate potential radiological doses and resultant health risks to workers and the general public. In addition, the study included an evaluation of the potential doses and health risks associated with disposing of a separate NORM waste stream generated by the petroleum industry--wastes containing lead-210 (Pb-210) and its progeny. Both NORM waste streams are characterized in Section 3 of this report. The study also included reviews of (1) the regulatory constraints applicable to the disposal of NORM in nonhazardous landfills in several major oil and gas producing states (Section 2) and (2) the typical costs associated with disposing of NORM, covering disposal options currently permitted by most state regulations as well as the nonhazardous landfill option (Section 4).

  6. Sparse Signal Reconstruction Based on Multiparameter Approximation Function with Smoothed l0 Norm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Feng Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The smoothed l0 norm algorithm is a reconstruction algorithm in compressive sensing based on approximate smoothed l0 norm. It introduces a sequence of smoothed functions to approximate the l0 norm and approaches the solution using the specific iteration process with the steepest method. In order to choose an appropriate sequence of smoothed function and solve the optimization problem effectively, we employ approximate hyperbolic tangent multiparameter function as the approximation to the big “steep nature” in l0 norm. Simultaneously, we propose an algorithm based on minimizing a reweighted approximate l0 norm in the null space of the measurement matrix. The unconstrained optimization involved is performed by using a modified quasi-Newton algorithm. The numerical simulation results show that the proposed algorithms yield improved signal reconstruction quality and performance.

  7. The relationship between faculty characteristics and the use of norm- and criteria-based grading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Robst

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Norm-based grading has been associated with a reduction in student incentives to learn. Thus, it is important to understand faculty incentives for using norm-based grading. This paper used two waves of the National Study of Postsecondary Faculty to examine faculty characteristics related to the use of norm-based grading. Results suggest that norm-based grading is more likely when faculty and departments are more research oriented. Faculty who are at lower rank, male, younger, in science and social science departments are more likely to use norm-based grading, while faculty who feel that teaching should be the primary promotion criterion use criteria-based grading.

  8. WATER RESISTANCE OF WOOD - PLASTIC COMPOSITES MADE FROM WASTE MATERIALS RESULTED IN THE FURNITURE MANUFACTURING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia COŞEREANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present innovative wood-plastic composites made from waste materials such as ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and wood shavings resulted in the furniture manufacturing process. From previous investigations (with regard to physical integrity and compactness of the panels, only mixtures ranging from a ratio of 100% ABS: 0% shavings to 80% ABS: 20% shavings were selected for water resistance testing. Swelling in thickness and water absorption for 2h and 24h were determined for the proposed wood-plastic composites. The results have shown that only a participation of up to 10% of wood shavings in the tested panels conducted to a good performance

  9. Compilation of Pilot Cognitive Ability Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    has amassed a body of knowledge about many topics .87 Comprehension (Comp) Measures “ social acculturation ,” “ social intelligence,” and the...AFRL-SA-WP-TR-2012-0001 COMPILATION OF PILOT COGNITIVE ABILITY NORMS Raymond E. King U.S Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine...2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Compilation of Pilot Cognitive Ability Norms 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  10. L1-norm minimization for quaternion signals

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiasong; Wang, Xiaoqing; Senhadji, Lotfi; Shu, Huazhong

    2012-01-01

    The l1-norm minimization problem plays an important role in the compressed sensing (CS) theory. We present in this letter an algorithm for solving the problem of l1-norm minimization for quaternion signals by converting it to second-order cone programming. An application example of the proposed algorithm is also given for practical guidelines of perfect recovery of quaternion signals. The proposed algorithm may find its potential application when CS theory meets the quaternion signal processing.

  11. How prescriptive norms influence causal inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samland, Jana; Waldmann, Michael R

    2016-11-01

    Recent experimental findings suggest that prescriptive norms influence causal inferences. The cognitive mechanism underlying this finding is still under debate. We compare three competing theories: The culpable control model of blame argues that reasoners tend to exaggerate the causal influence of norm-violating agents, which should lead to relatively higher causal strength estimates for these agents. By contrast, the counterfactual reasoning account of causal selection assumes that norms do not alter the representation of the causal model, but rather later causal selection stages. According to this view, reasoners tend to preferentially consider counterfactual states of abnormal rather than normal factors, which leads to the choice of the abnormal factor in a causal selection task. A third view, the accountability hypothesis, claims that the effects of prescriptive norms are generated by the ambiguity of the causal test question. Asking whether an agent is a cause can be understood as a request to assess her causal contribution but also her moral accountability. According to this theory norm effects on causal selection are mediated by accountability judgments that are not only sensitive to the abnormality of behavior but also to mitigating factors, such as intentionality and knowledge of norms. Five experiments are presented that favor the accountability account over the two alternative theories.

  12. Application of results of geological exploration of deposits of solid mineral raw materials in mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Miloje M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Important application in mining have the results of geological exploration of the deposits of solid mineral raw materials, before all geological data obtained (including their interpretations regarding basic properties of the deposts and their changeability, and regarding quantity and quality (i.e. resources and reserves of the belonging mineral raw material which have an essential significance for mineral projects. The geological data, together with the other relevant data (in the first place technical and economic ones are applied as basic parameters in documentation of mineral projects. Since the successfulness of the projects is dependent upon the confidence of the data, a special attention is dedicated to the acts that contribute to attaining of an adequate level of confidence of the data, as follows: a a gradual realization of the projects through two phases (geological and mining ones having seven development stages (reconnaissance, prospecting, preliminary exploration and detailed exploration stages of the geological phase and mine design, mine construction and mine production stages of the mining phase; b finding out optimal solutions in drawing up a plan of exploratory workings and its carrying out in accordance with basic properties of a deposit and their changeability; c a realistic estimation of mineral resources/reserves as a predominantly geological task (not 'calculation' of the resources/reserves as a mathematical task; d an objective evaluation of the successfulness of a project at the end of every geological stage ‒ presented in corresponding geological analyses and technical-economic studies.

  13. The primary circuit materials properties results analysis performed on archive material used in NPP V-1 and Kola NPP Units 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupca, L.; Beno, P. [Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute Inc., Trnava (Slovakia)

    1997-04-01

    A very brief summary is provided of a primary circuit piping material properties analysis. The analysis was performed for the Bohunice V-1 reactor and the Kola-1 and -2 reactors. Assessment was performed on Bohunice V-1 archive materials and primary piping material cut from the Kola units after 100,000 hours of operation. Main research program tasks included analysis of mechanical properties, corrosion stability, and microstructural properties. Analysis results are not provided.

  14. Existence result for a class of generalized standard materials with thermomechanical coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Paoli, Laetitia

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of a three-dimensional model of thermomechanical coupling for viscous solids exhibiting hysteresis effects. This model is written in accordance with the formalism of generalized standard materials and it is composed of the momentum equilibrium equation combined with the flow rule, which describes some stress-strain dependance, coupled to the heat-transfer equation. More precisely, the coupling terms are linear with respect to the temperature and the displacement and non linear with respect to the internal variable. The main mathematical difficulty lies in the fact that the natural framework for the right-hand side of the heat equation is the space of L1 functions. A local existence result for this thermodynamically consistent problem is obtained by using a fixed-point argument. Then the solutions are proved to be physically admissible and global existence is discussed under some additional assumptions on the data.

  15. Results of regulatory impact survey of industrial and medical materials licensees of the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lach, D.; Melber, B.; Brichoux, J. [Battelle Human Affairs Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Hattrup, M.; Conger, R.; Hughes, K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This report presents the findings of a regulatory impact survey of nuclear materials licensees of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Commissioners of the NRC directed staff to provide the Commission with first hand information from licensees that could be used to improve the overall regulatory program. A self-administered, mail-out survey questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of licensees who had interaction with the NRC during the previous 12 months. A total of 371 respondents of the 589 who were sent questionnaires returned completed surveys, for a response rate of 63%. The body of the report presents the findings of the survey including a brief introduction to the approach used, followed by survey findings regarding regulations, policies and regulatory guidance; experience with licensing applications, renewals and amendments; inspections; reporting requirements; and enforcement actions. The appendices of the report include a copy of the survey as administered to licensees, a fuller description of the survey design and data collection methods, and detailed graphic material describing survey responses.

  16. [On the Way to Culture-Sensitive Patient Information Materials: Results of a Focus Group Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Zivile; Frank, Fabian; Bermejo, Isaac; Kalaitsidou, Chariklia; Zill, Jördis; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Bengel, Jürgen; Hölzel, Lars

    2017-09-28

    Aim This study was part of a double-blind randomised controlled trial aimed to evaluate the effects of culture-sensitive patient information materials (PIM) compared with standard translated material. The study aimed to obtain the data for the development of culture sensitive PIM about unipolar depression for the 4 largest migrant groups in Germany (Turkish, Polish, Russian and Italian migration background). Method A qualitative study using 4 manual-based focus groups (FG), one for each migrant group, with 29 participants (9 with a Turkish (TüG), 8 with a Polish (PoG), 5 with a Russian (RuG) and 7 with an Italian (ItG) migration background) was conducted. The discussions were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results 7 categories were identified. For the (1.) development of a good culture-sensitive PIM an easy language, a clear structure, an assessable extent of information and the avoidance of stereotypes were highlighted cross-culturally in all four FG. RuG and PoG had the largest (2.) lack of information about the German health care system. Concerning the (3.) illness perception RuG named problems with recognizing and understanding depression. PoG, RuG and TüG thematized (4.) feared consequences of the illness and of professional helpseeking. ItG, PoG, RuG had fears concerning (5.) psychotropic drugs as a result from insufficient knowledge about medication. For (6.) doctor-patient relationship cultural specifics were identified in RuG and TüG and for (7.) migration or culture specific reasons for depression in RuG, ItG and TüG. Conclusion Although the identified categories were relevant for all or for the majority of migrant groups, for most categories specific cultural aspects were discovered. These findings show the importance of a culture sensitive adaptation of PIM. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Social norms and its correlates as a pathway to smoking among young Latino adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría, Sandra E; Gundersen, Daniel A; Manderski, Michelle T B; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2015-01-01

    Socially and culturally embedded norms regarding smoking may be one pathway by which individuals adopt smoking behaviors. However, few studies have examined if social norms operate in young adults, a population at high risk of becoming regular smokers. There is also little research examining correlates of social norms in populations with a large immigrant segment, where social norms are likely to differ from the receiving country and could contribute to a better understanding of previously reported acculturation-health associations. Using data from a nationally representative sample of young adults in the United States reached via a novel cell-phone sampling design, we explored the relationships between acculturation proxies (nativity, language spoken and generational status), socioeconomic position (SEP), smoking social norms and current smoking status among Latinos 18-34 years of age (n = 873). Specifically, we examined if a measure of injunctive norms assessed by asking participants about the acceptability of smoking among Latino co-ethnic peers was associated with acculturation proxies and SEP. Results showed a strong gradient in smoking social norms by acculturation proxies, with significantly less acceptance of smoking reported among the foreign-born and increasing acceptance among those speaking only/mostly English at home and third-generation individuals. No consistent and significant pattern in smoking social norms was observed by education, income or employment status, possibly due to the age of the study population. Lastly, those who reported that their Latino peers do not find smoking acceptable were significantly less likely to be current smokers compared to those who said their Latino peers were ambivalent about smoking (do not care either way) in crude models, and in models that adjusted for age, sex, generational status, language spoken, and SEP. This study provides new evidence regarding the role of social norms in shaping smoking behaviors among

  18. Materialism, status consumption, and consumer independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Ronald Earl; Clark, Ronald A

    2012-01-01

    Materialism influences many people. We focus on two aspects of this influence: reactions to prestige products and to the influence of others. A study of 187 U.S. student consumers shows that materialism is positively related to buying products that confer status. In contrast, materialism is negatively related to consumer independence, an enduring tendency to pay minimal attention to the prescribed norms of other consumers and to make product and brand decisions according to personal preferences. Consuming products for status is also negatively related to consumer independence. Moreover, the association between materialism and consumer independence is completely mediated by consuming for status. Materialism urges consumers to be status conscious so that they follow social norms in purchasing, but seeking status through goods is avoided by less materialistic, independent consumers. A second study (n = 258) also using student consumers confirmed these results.

  19. Automatically stable discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin methods for stationary transport problems: Quasi-optimal test space norm

    KAUST Repository

    Niemi, Antti H.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the application of the discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin (DPG) finite element framework to stationary convection-diffusion problems. In particular, we demonstrate how the quasi-optimal test space norm improves the robustness of the DPG method with respect to vanishing diffusion. We numerically compare coarse-mesh accuracy of the approximation when using the quasi-optimal norm, the standard norm, and the weighted norm. Our results show that the quasi-optimal norm leads to more accurate results on three benchmark problems in two spatial dimensions. We address the problems associated to the resolution of the optimal test functions with respect to the quasi-optimal norm by studying their convergence numerically. In order to facilitate understanding of the method, we also include a detailed explanation of the methodology from the algorithmic point of view. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Robustness of life cycle assessment results : influence of data variation and modelling choices on results for beverage packaging materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harst-Wintraecken, van der E.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a well-established method to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of product and service systems throughout their life cycles. However, it can happen that LCAs for the same product have different and even conflicting outcomes. LCA results need to be robust and

  1. Eating by the Norm : The Influence of Social Norms on Young People's Eating Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok, F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans are social beings. Our identities are, for an important part, shaped by the different groups we belong to. Each social group has its own standards or norms for behavior, based upon what is considered good or correct behavior within that social group. Such socially shared norms are usually not

  2. Eating by the Norm : The Influence of Social Norms on Young People's Eating Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok, F.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/318869705

    2014-01-01

    Humans are social beings. Our identities are, for an important part, shaped by the different groups we belong to. Each social group has its own standards or norms for behavior, based upon what is considered good or correct behavior within that social group. Such socially shared norms are usually not

  3. Global Norms: Towards Some Guidelines for Aggregating Personality Norms across Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, Dave

    2008-01-01

    The article discusses issues relating to the international use of personality inventories, especially those in which organizations make comparisons between people from differing cultures or countries or those with different languages. The focus is on the issue of norming and the use of national versus multinational norms. It is noted that…

  4. Social norm perception in groups with outliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannals, Jennifer E; Miller, Dale T

    2017-09-01

    Social outliers draw a lot of attention from those inside and outside their group and yet little is known about their impact on perceptions of their group as a whole. The present studies examine how outliers influence observers' summary perceptions of a group's behavior and inferences about the group's descriptive and prescriptive norms. Across 4 studies (N = 1,718) we examine how observers perceive descriptive and prescriptive social norms in groups containing outliers of varying degrees. We find consistent evidence that observers overweight outlying behavior when judging the descriptive and prescriptive norms, but overweight outliers less as they become more extreme, especially in perceptions of the prescriptive norm. We find this pattern across norms pertaining to punctuality (Studies 1-2 and 4) and clothing formality (Study 3) and for outliers who are both prescriptively and descriptively deviant (e.g., late arrivers), as well as for outliers who are only descriptive deviants (e.g., early arrivers). We further demonstrate that observers' perceptions of the group shift in the direction of moderate outliers. This occurs because observers anchor on the outlier's behavior and adjust their recollections of nonoutlying individuals, making their inferences about the group's average behavior more extreme. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Skewed norms under peer pressure: Formation and collapse

    OpenAIRE

    Michaeli, Moti; Spiro, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows that peer pressure may lead to dynamic convergence to a norm that is skewed with respect to preferences in society, yet is endogenously upheld by the population. Moreover, a skewed norm will often be more sustainable than a representative norm. This may explain the skewness of various social and religious norms. By furthermore interpreting a norm as a political regime, we show that biased regimes can be sustained even without the existence of a powerful group with coherent in...

  6. Notes on the Norm Estimates for the Sum of Two Matrices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Man Duen CHOI

    2003-01-01

    This is a lecture note of my joint work with Chi-Kwong Li concerning various results on thenorm structure of n x n matrices (as Hilbert-space operators). The main result says that the triangleinequality serves as the ultimate norm estimate for the upper bounds of summation of two matrices.In the case of summation of two normal matrices, the result turns out to be a norm estimate in termsof the spectral variation for normal matrices.

  7. Effects of watching eyes and norm cues on charitable giving in a surreptitious behavioral experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Moe; Bateson, Melissa; Nettle, Daniel

    2014-10-20

    A series of experimental studies by multiple groups of researchers have found that displaying images of watching eyes causes people to behave more prosocially. It is not yet clear whether watching eyes increase prosocial motivation per se, or whether they simply make people's behavior more normative. Here, we report results from a surreptitious behavioral experiment examining the impacts of watching eye images and cues to local norms on charitable donations in a controlled setting. Eye images significantly increased average donations. Eye images did not make people conform more closely to the apparent norm overall. Instead, there were different patterns according to the apparent norm. For an apparent norm of small donations, eye images made many participants more generous than the norm. For an apparent norm of large donations, there was an excess of participants giving zero in the no-eyes treatment, which was abolished in the eyes treatment. Our results can be explained by a combination of watching eyes increasing prosocial motivation and reluctance to leave a donation visibly less generous than the norm.

  8. Do local tobacco regulations influence perceived smoking norms? Evidence from adult and youth surveys in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, William L; Biener, Lois; Brennan, Robert T

    2008-08-01

    Smoking behavior has been shown to be influenced by individuals' perceptions of social norms about smoking. This study examines whether local regulations regarding clean indoor air and youth access to tobacco are associated with residents' subsequent perceptions of smoking norms. Data came from Massachusetts surveys of adults and youths and from records of local tobacco control policies. Indices of perceived smoking norms were based on perceived smoking prevalence and perceived community acceptance of smoking. Multilevel models tested the association between perceived norms and the presence of strong local regulations in four policy domains (restaurant smoking bans, smoking restrictions in other venues, enforcement of laws prohibiting sales to youths and youth-oriented marketing restrictions). The model controlled for town voting results on a tobacco tax referendum, which served as a measure of antismoking sentiment pre-dating the regulations. Results showed that youths perceived community norms to be significantly more 'antismoking' if they lived in a town that had strong regulations in at least three of the four domains. For adults, having strong regulations in as few as one to two domains was associated with perceiving community norms to be significantly more antismoking. Implementing and publicizing local regulations may help shape perceptions of community smoking norms.

  9. Personal Moral Norms and Attitudes Toward Endangered Species Policies on Private Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research across multiple disciplines has shown that personal moral norms can play an important role in shaping individuals′ attitudes and behaviour. Despite this, we know relatively little about patterns of support among landowners for either a personal moral norm favouring a strong, ′intrinsic′ right of private ownership, or a moral duty to prevent extinction. In addition, we know even less about the ability of such norms to predict attitudes toward species protection on private lands, especially for non-charismatic species with few qualities that typically generate positive attitudes for conservation. Results from a mail survey of central Indiana landowners suggest broad support for a personal moral norm favouring a strong, ′intrinsic′ right of ownership as well as a personal moral norm to prevent extinction, and that these norms are better predictors of attitudes toward endangered species policies than partisan identification, identification as an environmentalist, strong religious beliefs, or several other demographic factors. The results suggest that those seeking to influence landowner attitudes toward species protection policies should pay closer attention to the influence of these personal moral norms.

  10. An exploratory cluster randomised trial of a university halls of residence based social norms marketing campaign to reduce alcohol consumption among 1st year students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Aims This exploratory trial examines the feasibility of implementing a social norms marketing campaign to reduce student drinking in universities in Wales, and evaluating it using cluster randomised trial methodology. Methods Fifty residence halls in 4 universities in Wales were randomly assigned to intervention or control arms. Web and paper surveys were distributed to students within these halls (n = 3800), assessing exposure/contamination, recall of and evaluative responses to intervention messages, perceived drinking norms and personal drinking behaviour. Measures included the Drinking Norms Rating Form, the Daily Drinking Questionnaire and AUDIT-C. Results A response rate of 15% (n = 554) was achieved, varying substantially between sites. Intervention posters were seen by 80% and 43% of students in intervention and control halls respectively, with most remaining materials seen by a minority in both groups. Intervention messages were rated as credible and relevant by little more than half of students, though fewer felt they would influence their behaviour, with lighter drinkers more likely to perceive messages as credible. No differences in perceived norms were observed between intervention and control groups. Students reporting having seen intervention materials reported lower descriptive and injunctive norms than those who did not. Conclusions Attention is needed to enhancing exposure, credibility and perceived relevance of intervention messages, particularly among heavier drinkers, before definitive evaluation can be recommended. A definitive evaluation would need to consider how it would achieve sufficient response rates, whilst hall-level cluster randomisation appears subject to a significant degree of contamination. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN48556384 PMID:23594918

  11. Using Facebook to deliver a social norm intervention to reduce problem drinking at university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridout, Brad; Campbell, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    University students usually overestimate peer alcohol use, resulting in them 'drinking up' to perceived norms. Social norms theory suggests correcting these inflated perceptions can reduce alcohol consumption. Recent findings by the current authors show portraying oneself as 'a drinker' is considered by many students to be a socially desirable component of their Facebook identity, perpetuating an online culture that normalises binge drinking. However, social networking sites have yet to be utilised in social norms interventions. Actual and perceived descriptive and injunctive drinking norms were collected from 244 university students. Ninety-five students screened positive for hazardous drinking and were randomly allocated to a control group or intervention group that received social norms feedback via personalised Facebook private messages over three sessions. At 1 month post-intervention, the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumed by intervention group during the previous month had significantly reduced compared with baseline and controls. Reductions were maintained 3 months post-intervention. Intervention group perceived drinking norms were significantly more accurate post-intervention. This is the first study to test the feasibility of using Facebook to deliver social norms interventions. Correcting misperceptions of peer drinking norms resulted in clinically significant reductions in alcohol use. Facebook has many advantages over traditional social norms delivery, providing an innovative method for tackling problem drinking at university. These results have implications for the use of Facebook to deliver positive messages about safe alcohol use to students, which may counter the negative messages regarding alcohol normally seen on Facebook. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  12. Evaluation of NORM residues in the Morro Redondo waterworks, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Michele C.F. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: michelecristinafp@yahoo.com.br; Rocha, Zildete [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Quimica e Radioquimica]. E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br

    2007-07-01

    Most mineral resources present naturally occurring radioactive material known by the acronym NORM. Some of them, specially those geological material originated from igneous rock present elevated radionuclides concentration. The exploration of these materials may elevate human exposure to the natural ionizing radiation, by removing them from the natural compartment or by increasing the radionuclides concentration in products, by products and more frequently in the industrial residues, these are referred as TENORM Technologically Enhanced NORM. The residues of the waterworks, especially those of the iron and manganese remotion are expected to contain radioactivity concentration due to geological reasons. The paper evaluates the natural radionuclide concentration in the waste water sludge of the iron removing process carried out by the Water Treatment Plant (WTP) - Morro Redondo waterwork operated by Companhia de Saneamento de Minas Gerais - COPASA. Such waterwork supplies drink water for more than 200.000 people, inhabitants of the south part of Belo Horizonte and Nova Lima. The water is extracted from three rock source formations in the iron quadrangle of Minas Gerais, namely Cercadinho, Fechos and Mutuca. The sludges samples analysed have shown values around 300 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, in radiological point of view, the most important radionuclide. Values taken from literature were considered - 10.000 Bq kg{sup -1} are not rare, and the ones around 300 Bq kg{sup -1} are normal. (author)

  13. The uniqueness-of-norm problem for Calkin algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Skillicorn, Richard

    2015-01-01

    We examine the question of whether the Calkin algebra of a Banach space must have a unique complete algebra norm. We present a survey of known results, and make the observation that a recent Banach space construction of Argyros and Motakis (preprint, 2015) provides the first negative answer. The parallel question for the weak Calkin algebra also has a negative answer; we demonstrate this using a Banach space of Read (J. London Math. Soc. 1989).

  14. True gender ratios and stereotype rating norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eGarnham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a study comparing, in English, perceived distributions of men and women in 422 named occupations with actual real world distributions. The first set of data was obtained from previous a large-scale norming study, whereas the second set was mostly drawn from UK governmental sources. In total, real world ratios for 290 occupations were obtained for our perceive vs. real world comparison, of which 205 were deemed to be unproblematic. The means for the two sources were similar and the correlation between them was high, suggesting that people are generally accurate at judging real gender ratios, though there were some notable exceptions. Beside this correlation, some interesting patterns emerged from the two sources, suggesting some response strategies when people complete norming studies. We discuss these patterns in terms of the way real world data might complement norming studies in determining gender stereotypicality.

  15. Activation of social norms in social dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Anders; Thøgersen, John

    2007-01-01

    Taking rational choice theory for granted, cooperation in social dilemmas may be seen as mysterious. In one-shot dilemmas where subjects unknown to one another interact and make their decisions anonymously, cooperation could even be regarded as lunacy. Several authors have challenged this view...... that rarely has been recognised in the social dilemma literature. Social norms imply that people should manifest a prescribed behaviour or not manifest a proscribed behaviour. Furthermore, social norms are often guiding behaviour in speciWc contexts, and many times they need to be activated......, though. Research has also identiWed various factors that imply why people cooperate or defect in social dilemmas and what motivations that might guide the decision in one way or the other. Here, a closer look will be taken at social norms as a reason for departure from rational choice, a factor...

  16. Face recognition with L1-norm subspaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritato, Federica; Liu, Ying; Colonnese, Stefania; Pados, Dimitris A.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the problem of representing individual faces by maximum L1-norm projection subspaces calculated from available face-image ensembles. In contrast to conventional L2-norm subspaces, L1-norm subspaces are seen to offer significant robustness to image variations, disturbances, and rank selection. Face recognition becomes then the problem of associating a new unknown face image to the "closest," in some sense, L1 subspace in the database. In this work, we also introduce the concept of adaptively allocating the available number of principal components to different face image classes, subject to a given total number/budget of principal components. Experimental studies included in this paper illustrate and support the theoretical developments.

  17. Results of {sup 14}C analysis on low-level reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, S.J.; Kotzer, T.G

    2000-04-01

    An invitation from the University of Glasgow to participate in an international intercomparison of {sup 14}C analysis and the increased need for quality assurance for measurements performed at the Low-Level Laboratory by AECL's Environmental Technologies Branch (ETB), Chalk River Laboratories, prompted the initiation of this work. Standard {sup 14}C samples from the IAEA and from the ETB were analyzed and compared to their reference values. All analyses agreed well with reported values and confirmed that the ETB can reliably measure {sup 14}C between 50 and 500 Bq/kg C. Samples from the University of Glasgow, Scotland, were also analyzed and reported. The results of counting various CO{sub 2} blank materials (dry ice from a CO{sub 2}-siphon and limestone) showed that the source of CO{sub 2} does not have an effect on background count rate or counter efficiency. The ETB's lower limit of detection (LLD) has been calculated to be 10 -20 Bq/kg C and the determination limit (L{sub Q}) for samples during the ETB's routine operations has been documented to be 44 Bq/kg C. (author)

  18. Organic luminescent materials. First results on synthesis and characterization of Alq{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldacchini, G.; Gagliardi, S.; Montereali, R.M.; Pace, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy). Div. Fisica Applicata; Balaji Pode, R. [Nagpur University, Nagpur (India). Dept. of Physics

    2000-07-01

    Inorganic semiconductor diodes brought a technological revolution in the field of efficient light and laser sources in the last 20 years. New development in this field are expected from organic compounds, thanks to their low cost of synthesis and the relative easiness of growth as thin films. In particular, electrically pumped luminescent devices based on organic thin layers are among the most promising systems for next generation flat panel displays and semiconductor lasers. The tris - (8-hydroxy quinoline)-aluminium complex-Alq{sub 3} - is one of the most studied electro luminescent materials. In this paper, after a short introduction regarding historical development in the field, are reported preliminary results on the growth of Alq{sub 3} films and on their optical and spectroscopic characterization. [Italian] Negli ultimi 20 anni i diodi semiconduttori hanno portato una rivoluzione tecnologica nel campo delle sorgenti luminose e laser. Un nuovo sviluppo possibile in questo campo sono i composti organici, grazie al basso costo di sintesi e la relativa facilita' di crescerli in forma di film sottile. In particolare, dispositivi luminescenti pompati elettricamente basati su film sottili di materiali organici sono promettenti per una nuova generazione di display per schermi piatti e laser a Alq{sub 3} e' uno dei materiali elettroluminescenti piu' studiati. In questo rapporto, dopo una breve introduzione sullo sviluppo storico in questo campo, presentiamo i nostri primi risultati sulla crescita e caratterizzazione ottica di film di Alq{sub 3}.

  19. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) Material Test Results for the Capillary Flow Experiments (CFE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Bradley A.; Thesken, John C.; Bunnell, Charles T.

    2007-01-01

    In support of the Capillary Flow Experiments (CFE) program, several polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) flight vessels were constructed. Some vessels used a multipiece design, which was chemically welded together. Due to questions regarding the effects of the experiment fluid (silicone oil) on the weld integrity, a series of tests were conducted to provide evidence of the adequacy of the current vessel design. Tensile tests were conducted on PMMA samples that were both in the as-received condition, and also aged in air or oil for up to 8 weeks. Both welded and unwelded samples were examined. Fracture of the joints was studied using notched tensile specimens and Brazilian disk tests. Results showed that aging had no effect on tensile properties. While the welded samples were weaker than the base parent material, the weld strength was found to be further degraded by bubbles in the weld zone. Finally a fracture analysis using the worst-case fracture conditions of the vessel was performed, and the vessel design was found to have a factor of three safety margin.

  20. The use of EMDR in positive verbal material: results from a patient study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthijssen, Suzy Johanna Martina Adriana; van den Hout, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Background According to the working memory (WM) theory of eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR), dual tasks that tax WM during memory recall reduce image vividness and emotionality of memory during future recalls when no dual task is carried out. There is some evidence that WM taxing also reduces vividness and emotionality of auditory or verbal imagery. Objective The present study tests the effect of eye movements (EM) on positive verbal material (verbal imagery), which is used in different parts of the EMDR protocol. In the Dutch version of the standard EMDR protocol, a procedure “Positive Closure” (PC) is performed, which uses verbal imagery under dual task condition (EM). The value of EM in this procedure has not been established and according to the WM account would be counterproductive. Two earlier studies with undergraduates, with a set-up comparable to the present one, showed no additive value of the EM in the procedure, but no counterproductive effect either. Method Thirty-six patients rated the belief in possessing two positive personality traits and emotionality of the traits. They then had an EMDR session targeting a negative memory and recalled and re-rated the belief and emotionality of the traits afterward. Subsequently, they recalled one trait while dual tasking (EM) and the other trait without dual tasking. Afterward, they re-rated the belief and emotionality. Results EM did not affect the belief in possessing the trait or the emotionality. Secondary analysis shows an effective EMDR session itself enhances the belief in the traits, compared to a less or non-effective EMDR session. Conclusions EM are not effective in enhancing the belief in possessing a personality trait or the emotionality. If replicated by other patient studies, this suggests elimination of the PC procedure. Highlights of the article In this study the additive value of EM on verbal material (in the procedure Positive Closure) is not found. No effect of the

  1. Maximum-entropy probability distributions under Lp-norm constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinar, S.

    1991-01-01

    Continuous probability density functions and discrete probability mass functions are tabulated which maximize the differential entropy or absolute entropy, respectively, among all probability distributions with a given L sub p norm (i.e., a given pth absolute moment when p is a finite integer) and unconstrained or constrained value set. Expressions for the maximum entropy are evaluated as functions of the L sub p norm. The most interesting results are obtained and plotted for unconstrained (real valued) continuous random variables and for integer valued discrete random variables. The maximum entropy expressions are obtained in closed form for unconstrained continuous random variables, and in this case there is a simple straight line relationship between the maximum differential entropy and the logarithm of the L sub p norm. Corresponding expressions for arbitrary discrete and constrained continuous random variables are given parametrically; closed form expressions are available only for special cases. However, simpler alternative bounds on the maximum entropy of integer valued discrete random variables are obtained by applying the differential entropy results to continuous random variables which approximate the integer valued random variables in a natural manner. All the results are presented in an integrated framework that includes continuous and discrete random variables, constraints on the permissible value set, and all possible values of p. Understanding such as this is useful in evaluating the performance of data compression schemes.

  2. In Search of Ecological Norms in Brand Personality Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Gorbaniuk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine a structure of brand personality at an ecological level and to develop norms for positioning a particular brand in relation to other brands by means of brand personality scales. Methodology: We present the results of a study in which 1,642 participants aged 15 to 82 (mean 35.3; 51.9% females were involved. Each respondent marked three to four brands from different categories of goods and services on a 20-item adjectival list for measuring brand personality. As a result, 6,548 descriptions of 224 brands from 46 categories were collected. Findings: Our analyses show that the structure of the differences among brand personalities on the Polish market can be described in terms of four dimensions: competence, spontaneity, subtlety, and egoism. The established dimensions explain 85% of the variance. A distribution of the results within the scales applied served as a basis for establishing specifc norms for each of the four scales. Limitations: The norms established have a country-level character and are inclusively adequate and reliable for companies that purchase products and services on the Polish market. Originality: Our study presents a new, ecological approach to thinking about brands. Namely, it enables a more precise determination of the position of a certain brand in relation to many other competing brands and allows for a more effcient use of the potential for constructing brand personality.

  3. A New Replication Norm for Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne P LeBel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a growing concern regarding the replicability of findings in psychology, including a mounting number of prominent findings that have failed to replicate via high-powered independent replication attempts. In the face of this replicability “crisis of confidence”, several initiatives have been implemented to increase the reliability of empirical findings. In the current article, I propose a new replication norm that aims to further boost the dependability of findings in psychology. Paralleling the extant social norm that researchers should peer review about three times as many articles that they themselves publish per year, the new replication norm states that researchers should aim to independently replicate important findings in their own research areas in proportion to the number of original studies they themselves publish per year (e.g., a 4:1 original-to-replication studies ratio. I argue this simple approach could significantly advance our science by increasing the reliability and cumulative nature of our empirical knowledge base, accelerating our theoretical understanding of psychological phenomena, instilling a focus on quality rather than quantity, and by facilitating our transformation toward a research culture where executing and reporting independent direct replications is viewed as an ordinary part of the research process. To help promote the new norm, I delineate (1 how each of the major constituencies of the research process (i.e., funders, journals, professional societies, departments, and individual researchers can incentivize replications and promote the new norm and (2 any obstacles each constituency faces in supporting the new norm.

  4. DERIVATIVES OF HARMONIC MIXED NORM AND BLOCH-TYPE SPACES IN THE UNIT BALL OF Rn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Xiaomin; Hu Zhangjian; Lu Xiaofen

    2011-01-01

    Let H(B) be the set of all harmonic functions f on the unit ball B of Rn.For 0 < p,q ≤ ∞ and a normal weight φ, the mixed norm space Hp,q,φ(B) consists of all functions f in H(B) for which the mixed norm ||·||p,q,φ < ∞. In this article, we obtain some characterizations in terms of radial, tangential, and partial derivative norms in Hp,q,φ(B).The parallel results for the Bloch-type space are also obtained. As an application, the analogous problems for polyharmonic functions are discussed.

  5. Experimental Results on Performance Improvement of Doped Carbon-base Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUZengyu; JointResearchGroup

    2001-01-01

    Carbon-base materials is one of candidate plasma facing materials and have been widely used in current tokamak facilities in the world. But some defect properties are presented on high yield of chemical sputtering, high yield of radiation enhancement sublimate (RES), cracking after heat flux in divertor and so on. These characteris are related to the interstitial carbon atom producing and mobile, so it can be improved by doped some little other elements into the carbon-base materials, such as boron, silicon, titanium and so on.

  6. Gender, male-typicality, and social norms predicting adolescent alcohol intoxication and marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalik, James R; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Sims, Jacqueline; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lynch, Alicia Doyle

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the direct and interactive effects of gender, male-typicality, and social norms in predicting the initiation and longitudinal patterns of alcohol intoxication and marijuana use in U.S. youth. Data were drawn from a longitudinal survey of 10,588 youth who participated in the in-home survey of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Multilevel growth modeling used data from three time points to assess trajectories of substance use from adolescence to young adulthood. Analyses indicated that gender, male-typicality, as well as home availability, friend social norms, and schoolmate social norms predicted initial levels of intoxication and marijuana use, with gender, friend norms, and schoolmate norms also predicting differential rates of growth over time in intoxication and marijuana use. Interaction results indicated that gender moderated male-typicality's relationship to both substance use variables, and home availability's relationship to alcohol intoxication. These findings extend the literatures regarding interrelations among gender, gender roles, social norms, and health risk behaviors by (a) locating the genesis of those effects in adolescence, (b) identifying gender and social norms to be salient in terms of both initiation and growth of substance use over time, (c) suggesting that gender differences should be understood as moderated by other social-contextual variables, and (d) arguing that prevention efforts should address gender and gender roles more explicitly in programming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Driving Force to Socialize the International Norms of Human Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU BO

    2011-01-01

    Human rights,as a great term and lofty goal,have unquestionably become a topic of mainstream talk in the present-day world.2 Such mainstream talk has been internalized into part of the social structure.The current international society is experiencing a profound reorganization and transition in values.All kinds of new interactions under the context of globalization have resulted in the development of the current norms of international human rights,which are constructed on the basis of law and ethics.Therefore,analyzing the dynamic factors of socialization that support the operation of human rights norms in international society has become increasingly important in today's mutually dependent society.

  8. Study on Support Vector Machine Based on 1-Norm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Mei-qin; HE Guo-ping; HAN Cong-ying; XUE Xin; SHI You-qun

    2006-01-01

    The model of optimization problem for Support Vector Machine(SVM) is provided, which based on the definitions of the dual norm and the distance between a point and its projection onto a given plane. The model of improved Support Vector Machine based on 1-norm (1 - SVM) is provided from the optimization problem, yet it is a discrete programming. With the smoothing technique and optimality knowledge, the discrete programming is changed into a continuous programming. Experimental results show that the algorithm is easy to implement and this method can select and suppress the problem features more efficiently.Illustrative examples show that the 1 - SVM deal with the linear or nonlinear classification well.

  9. The development of protocols and norms for sports vision evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. C. Buys

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find the most appropriate protocol to establish norms for the most important visual skills required by elite athletes in sports performance. One hundred and fifty eight elite athletes were tested and their visual skills categorized as being: superior, above average, average, ineffective or needs immediate attention. Two methods namely, the percentage method and the mean and standard deviation method were employed to find the most applicable way to establish these categories.  The results indicate that elite athletes perform very well for all the visual skills tested and that the norms thus established suggest the importance of these visual skills in sports performance.

  10. Digital Social Norm Enforcement: Online Firestorms in Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Katja; Stahel, Lea; Frey, Bruno S

    2016-01-01

    Actors of public interest today have to fear the adverse impact that stems from social media platforms. Any controversial behavior may promptly trigger temporal, but potentially devastating storms of emotional and aggressive outrage, so called online firestorms. Popular targets of online firestorms are companies, politicians, celebrities, media, academics and many more. This article introduces social norm theory to understand online aggression in a social-political online setting, challenging the popular assumption that online anonymity is one of the principle factors that promotes aggression. We underpin this social norm view by analyzing a major social media platform concerned with public affairs over a period of three years entailing 532,197 comments on 1,612 online petitions. Results show that in the context of online firestorms, non-anonymous individuals are more aggressive compared to anonymous individuals. This effect is reinforced if selective incentives are present and if aggressors are intrinsically motivated.

  11. Characterization of the TE-NORM waste associated with oil and natural gas production in Abu Rudeis, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Afifi, E.M. [Analytical Chemistry Department, Hot Laboratories Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Post Office No. 13759, Cairo (Egypt)]. E-mail: eel_afifi@hotmail.com; Awwad, N.S. [Analytical Chemistry Department, Hot Laboratories Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Post Office No. 13759, Cairo (Egypt)

    2005-07-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize the Technically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TE-NORM) waste generated from oil and gas production. The waste was characterized by means of dry screening solid fractionation, X-ray analysis (XRF and XRD) and {gamma}-ray spectrometry. Sediment of the TE-NORM waste was fractionated into ten fractions with particle sizes varying from less than 100 {mu}m to more than 3 mm. The results showed that the TE-NORM waste contains mainly radionuclides of the {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 232}Th series. The mean activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra (of U-series), {sup 228}Ra (of Th-series) and {sup 40}K in the waste samples before fractionation (i.e. 3 mm) were found to amount to 68.9, 24 and 1.3 Bq/g (dry weight), respectively. After dry fractionation, the activity concentrations were widely distributed and enriched in certain fractions. This represented a 1.48 and 1.82-fold enrichment of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra, respectively, in fraction F8 (2.0-2.5 mm) over those in bulk TE-NORM waste samples. The activity ratios of {sup 238}U/{sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb/{sup 226}Ra, {sup 223}Ra/{sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra/{sup 224}Ra were calculated and evaluated. Activity of the most hazardous radionuclide {sup 226}Ra was found to be higher than the exemption levels established by IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1994. International Basic Safety Standards for the Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. GOV/2715/94, Vienna]. The radium equivalent activity (Ra-eq), radon ({sup 222}Rn) emanation coefficient (EC) and absorbed dose rate (D {sub {gamma}}{sub r}) were estimated and these are further discussed.

  12. Lisbon Emoji and Emoticon Database (LEED): Norms for emoji and emoticons in seven evaluative dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, David; Prada, Marília; Gaspar, Rui; Garrido, Margarida V; Lopes, Diniz

    2017-03-31

    The use of emoticons and emoji is increasingly popular across a variety of new platforms of online communication. They have also become popular as stimulus materials in scientific research. However, the assumption that emoji/emoticon users' interpretations always correspond to the developers'/researchers' intended meanings might be misleading. This article presents subjective norms of emoji and emoticons provided by everyday users. The Lisbon Emoji and Emoticon Database (LEED) comprises 238 stimuli: 85 emoticons and 153 emoji (collected from iOS, Android, Facebook, and Emojipedia). The sample included 505 Portuguese participants recruited online. Each participant evaluated a random subset of 20 stimuli for seven dimensions: aesthetic appeal, familiarity, visual complexity, concreteness, valence, arousal, and meaningfulness. Participants were additionally asked to attribute a meaning to each stimulus. The norms obtained include quantitative descriptive results (means, standard deviations, and confidence intervals) and a meaning analysis for each stimulus. We also examined the correlations between the dimensions and tested for differences between emoticons and emoji, as well as between the two major operating systems-Android and iOS. The LEED constitutes a readily available normative database (available at www.osf.io/nua4x ) with potential applications to different research domains.

  13. Objective age of acquisition norms for a set of 328 words in Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Bernardo; Cuetos, Fernando

    2007-08-01

    Age of acquisition is one of the most important variables in picture naming. For this reason, a large number of findings concerning age-of-acquisition data have been published in recent years in a number of different languages. In this article, objective age-of-acquisition data in Spanish for 328 pictures were collected from a pool of 760 children, half of whom were boys and the other half girls. A total of 246 pictures were selected from the Snodgrass and Vanderwart (1980) set, and 82 were new pictures. Like the results of other studies, we found that objective age of acquisition correlates less than rated age of acquisition with familiarity and frequency, which indicates that the objective measure is less contaminated by other variables than are rated estimates. A very high correlation was obtained between the norms from this study and those published in English, French, Icelandic, and Italian. These norms will be very useful to Spanish psycholinguists and clinicians. Related materials may be downloaded from the Psychonomic Society Web archive at www.psychonomic.org/archive/.

  14. The power of talk: developing discriminatory group norms through discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laura G E; Postmes, Tom

    2011-06-01

    Research has shown that group discussion can increase intergroup prejudice and discrimination. However, we know little about the process by which discussion has this effect. Therefore, four studies were conducted in a real-world context to investigate this process. Results suggest that discussing a negative societal stereotype (relative to individual rumination in Studies 1 and 3 and alternative discussions in Studies 2 and 3) increases intentions to engage in discrimination against the out-group target of the stereotype. This is mediated by the formation of an in-group norm which supports discrimination (Study 1) and the extent to which the discussion validates the stereotype (Study 2). A fourth study manipulated the extent to which consensus on the negative stereotype was reached through discussion. When the discussion ended in consensus, participants have greater intention to undertake collective action against the stereotyped out-group, mediated by a congruent in-group norm. These results provide evidence that the process by which discussion increases intergroup discrimination is via the formation of discriminatory local group norms. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Swedish women's perceptions of and conformity to feminine norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Johanna; Holmqvist Gattario, Kristina; Frisén, Ann

    2017-06-01

    The relatively high gender equality in the Swedish society is likely to exert an influence on gender role construction. Hence, the present research aimed to investigate Swedish women's perceptions of and conformity to feminine norms. A mixed methods approach with two studies was used. In Study 1, young Swedish women's gender role conformity, as measured by the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory 45 (CFNI-45), was compared to the results from previously published studies in Canada, the United States, and Slovakia. Overall, Swedish women displayed less conformity than their foreign counterparts, with the largest difference on the subscale Sexual fidelity. In Study 2, focus group interviews with young Swedish women added a more complex picture of feminine norms in the Swedish society. For instance the results indicated that Swedish women, while living in a society with a strong gender equality discourse, are torn between the perceived need to invest in their appearances and the risk of being viewed as non-equal when doing so. In sum, despite the fact that traditional gender roles are less pronounced in Sweden, gender role conformity is still a pressing issue. Since attending to the potential roles of feminine norms in women's lives previously has been proposed to be useful in counseling and therapeutic work, the present research also offers valuable information for both researchers and practitioners. [Correction added on 5 May 2017, after first online publication in April 2017: An incorrect Abstract was inadvertently captured in the published article and has been corrected in this current version.]. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Social influence on temptation: perceived descriptive norms, temptation and restraint, and problem drinking among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Neighbors, Clayton

    2013-12-01

    Temptation and restraint have long been associated with problematic drinking. Among college students, social norms are one of the strongest predictors of problematic drinking. To date, no studies have examined the association between temptation and restraint and perceived descriptive norms on drinking and alcohol-related problems among college students. The purpose of this study was to examine whether perceived descriptive norms moderated the relationship between temptation and restraint and drinking outcomes among college students. Participants were 1095 college students from a large, public, culturally-diverse, southern university who completed an online survey about drinking behaviors and related attitudes. Drinks per week and alcohol-related problems were examined as a function of perceived descriptive norms, Cognitive Emotional Preoccupation (CEP) (temptation), and Cognitive Behavioral Control (CBC) (restraint). Additionally, drinking outcomes were examined as a function of the two-way interactions between CEP and perceived descriptive norms and CBC and perceived descriptive norms. Results indicated that CEP and perceived descriptive norms were associated with drinking outcomes. CBC was not associated with drinking outcomes. Additionally, perceived descriptive norms moderated the association between CEP and drinks per week and CEP and alcohol-related problems. There was a positive association between CEP and drinks per week and CEP and alcohol-related problems, especially for those higher on perceived descriptive norms. College students who are very tempted to drink may drink more heavily and experience alcohol-related problems more frequently if they have greater perceptions that the typical student at their university/college drinks a lot.

  17. The use of EMDR in positive verbal material: results from a patient study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzy Johanna Martina Adriana Matthijssen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the working memory (WM theory of eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR, dual tasks that tax WM during memory recall reduce image vividness and emotionality of memory during future recalls when no dual task is carried out. There is some evidence that WM taxing also reduces vividness and emotionality of auditory or verbal imagery. Objective: The present study tests the effect of eye movements (EM on positive verbal material (verbal imagery, which is used in different parts of the EMDR protocol. In the Dutch version of the standard EMDR protocol, a procedure “Positive Closure” (PC is performed, which uses verbal imagery under dual task condition (EM. The value of EM in this procedure has not been established and according to the WM account would be counterproductive. Two earlier studies with undergraduates, with a set-up comparable to the present one, showed no additive value of the EM in the procedure, but no counterproductive effect either. Method: Thirty-six patients rated the belief in possessing two positive personality traits and emotionality of the traits. They then had an EMDR session targeting a negative memory and recalled and re-rated the belief and emotionality of the traits afterward. Subsequently, they recalled one trait while dual tasking (EM and the other trait without dual tasking. Afterward, they re-rated the belief and emotionality. Results: EM did not affect the belief in possessing the trait or the emotionality. Secondary analysis shows an effective EMDR session itself enhances the belief in the traits, compared to a less or non-effective EMDR session. Conclusions: EM are not effective in enhancing the belief in possessing a personality trait or the emotionality. If replicated by other patient studies, this suggests elimination of the PC procedure.

  18. Estimation of vulnerable zones due to accidental release of toxic materials resulting in dense gas clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M P; Mohan, M; Panwar, T S; Chopra, H V

    1991-09-01

    Heavy gas dispersion models have been developed at IIT (hereinafter referred as IIT heavy gas models I and II) with a view to estimate vulnerable zones due to accidental (both instantaneous and continuous, respectively) release of dense toxic material in the atmosphere. The results obtained from IIT heavy gas models have been compared with those obtained from the DEGADIS model [Dense Gas Dispersion Model, developed by Havens and Spicer (1985) for the U.S. Coast Guard] as well as with the observed data collected during the Burro Series, Maplin Sands, and Thorney Island field trials. Both of these models include relevant features of dense gas dispersion, viz., gravity slumping, air entrainment, cloud heating, and transition to the passive phase, etc. The DEGADIS model has been considered for comparing the performance of IIT heavy gas models in this study because it incorporates most of the physical processes of dense gas dispersion in an elaborate manner, and has also been satisfactorily tested against field observations. The predictions from IIT heavy gas models indicate a fairly similar trend to the observed values from Thorney Island, Burro Series, and Maplin experiments with a tendency toward overprediction. There is a good agreement between the prediction of IIT Heavy Gas models I and II with those from DEGADIS, except for the simulations of IIT heavy gas model-I pertaining to very large release quantities under highly stable atmospheric conditions. In summary, the performance of IIT heavy gas models have been found to be reasonably good both with respect to the limited field data available and various simulations (selected on the basis of relevant storages in the industries and prevalent meteorological conditions performed with DEGADIS). However, there is a scope of improvement in the IIT heavy gas models (viz., better formulation for entrainment, modification of coefficients, transition criteria, etc.). Further, isotons (nomograms) have been prepared by using

  19. THE USE OF UPPERCASE AND LOWERCASE LETTERS: ACADEMIC NORM, CORPORATE NORM, USAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. T. Valeeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses one of the relevant problems of modern Russian orthography, namely the use of uppercase and lowercase letters. It analyses main criteria, on which the rules of the selection of an uppercase or lowercase letter listed in modern spelling reference books and practical manuals (syntactic, morphological, word-formational, semantic, stylis tic are based. It is evident that, in spite of the availability of specialized dictionaries and reference literature, the requirement for information on this subject is apparently not entirely satisfied. The proof, besides a large number of mistakes, as well as questions from native speakers, is the appearance of local instructions, aimed at the full description of all the instances of an uppercase letter use in texts of certain genres and themes. These instructions suggest the co-existence of the academic standard and local or corporate norms of modern Russian spelling, with the second ones not only supplementing the first one, but sometimes coming into conflict with it. The analysis of the linguistic material reveals rivalry between the academic standard and corporate standards of an uppercase or a lowercase letter use.

  20. Preliminary Results of a Microgravity Investigation to Measure Net Charge on Granular Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Myers, Jerry G.; Hansen, Bonnie L.

    2003-01-01

    Accurate characterization of the electrostatic charge on granular materials has typically been limited to materials with diameters on the order of 10 microns and below due to high settling velocities of larger particles. High settling velocities limit both the time and the acceptable uncertainty with which a measurement can be made. A prototype device has been developed at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to measure coulombic charge on individual particles of granular materials that are 50 to 500 microns in diameter. This device, a novel extension of Millikan's classic oil drop experiment, utilizes the NASA GRC 2.2 second drop tower to extend the range of electrostatic charge measurements to accommodate moderate size granular materials. A dielectric material with a nominal grain diameter between 1.06 and 250 microns was tribocharged using a dry gas jet, suspended in a 5x10x10 cm enclosure during a 2.2 second period of microgravity and exposed to a known electric field. The response was recorded on video and post processed to allow tracking of individual particles. By determining the particle trajectory and velocity, estimates of the coulombic charge were made. Over 30 drops were performed using this technique and the analysis showed that first order approximations of coulombic charge could successfully be obtained, with the mean charge of 3.4E-14 coulombs measured for F-75 Ottawa quartz sand. Additionally, the measured charge showed a near-Gaussian distribution, with a standard deviation of 2.14E -14 coulombs.

  1. Entropy, Weil-Petersson norm and Gromov norm for surface automorphisms

    CERN Document Server

    Kojima, Sadayoshi

    2010-01-01

    Thanks to a theorem of Brock on comparison of Weil-Petersson norms and hyperbolic volumes of mapping tori for pseudo-Anosovs, we prove that the entropy of a surface automorphism in general has linear bounds in terms of Gromov norm of its mapping torus from below and in bounded geometry case from above. We also prove that the Weil-Petersson norm does the same from both sides in general. The proofs are in fact immediately derived from the theorem of Brock together with some other strong theorems and small observations.

  2. Activation of social norms in social dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Anders; Thøgersen, John

    2007-01-01

    , though. Research has also identiWed various factors that imply why people cooperate or defect in social dilemmas and what motivations that might guide the decision in one way or the other. Here, a closer look will be taken at social norms as a reason for departure from rational choice, a factor...

  3. Mixed ultrasoft/norm-conserved pseudopotential scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokbro, Kurt

    1996-01-01

    A variant of the Vanderbilt ultrasoft pseudopotential scheme, where the norm conservation is released for only one or a few angular channels, is presented. Within this scheme some difficulties of the truly ultrasoft pseudopotentials are overcome without sacrificing the pseudopotential softness. (...

  4. Income, Cultural Norms and Purchases of Counterfeits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); M. Lede (Madesta)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe conjecture that individual purchases of counterfeit products could be motivated by income and prices, but that another driver is cultural norms. To put the latter conjecture to an empirical test we make use of the unique situation of Surinamese people who live in Suriname and in the

  5. Junior High Norms for the Bender Gestalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grow, Richard T.

    1980-01-01

    Junior high students were tested to supply normative data supporting the Bender Gestalt. Subject's performance was not significantly related to sex or occupation of the family bread winner. These variables do not have to be controlled for in norming visual motor tests at the junior high level. (Author)

  6. Norming plans for the NIH Toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Jennifer L; Havlik, Richard; Cook, Karon F; Hays, Ron D; Wallner-Allen, Kathleen; Korper, Samuel P; Lai, Jin-Shei; Nord, Christine; Zill, Nicholas; Choi, Seung; Yost, Kathleen J; Ustsinovich, Vitali; Brouwers, Pim; Hoffman, Howard J; Gershon, Richard

    2013-03-12

    The NIH Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function (NIH Toolbox) is a comprehensive battery of brief assessment tools. The purpose of this article is to describe plans to establish normative reference values for the NIH Toolbox measures. A large sample will be obtained from the US population for the purpose of calculating normative values. The sample will be stratified by age (ages 3-85 years), sex, and language preference (English or Spanish) and have a total sample size of at least 4,205. The sample will include a minimum of 25-100 individuals in each targeted demographic and language subgroup. Norming methods will include poststratification adjustment calculated using iterative proportional fitting, also known as raking, so that the weighted sample will have the same distribution on key demographic variables as the US population described in the 2010 Census. As with any set of norms, users should be mindful of the reference population and make conclusions consistent with the limitations of normative sampling, since it is not a probability-based sample. However, the NIH Toolbox norming study has been designed to minimize bias and maximize representativeness and precision of estimates. The availability of a "toolbox" of normed measures will be an important foundation for addressing critical research questions in neurologic and behavioral health.

  7. Academic Dishonesty, Ethical Norms and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colnerud, Gunnel; Rosander, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This study is aimed to deduce which ethical norms and considerations are implicitly present in the students' answers when they are asked to define to what degree the presented actions in a questionnaire are acts of cheating. Data are analysed by factor analysis as well as qualitative analysis. The questions asked are: What characterises the items…

  8. Academic Dishonesty, Ethical Norms and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colnerud, Gunnel; Rosander, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This study is aimed to deduce which ethical norms and considerations are implicitly present in the students' answers when they are asked to define to what degree the presented actions in a questionnaire are acts of cheating. Data are analysed by factor analysis as well as qualitative analysis. The questions asked are: What characterises the items…

  9. Computing the Matrix p-norm

    CERN Document Server

    Bhaskara, Aditya

    2010-01-01

    A matrix is said to be positive if all its entries are >0. We consider n x n positive matrices where the ratio of the largest to smallest entry is at most N, for some parameter N. We show that for any p>1, the p-norm of the matrix, which is defined to be |A|_p = Max_x ||Ax||_p, where ||x||_p=1 can be computed to a factor of (1+$\\delta$) in time polynomial in $\\log(1/\\delta)$, N and the dimension of the matrix n. However, in the case of general $n$-dimensional matrices, for p>1, p != 2, we show that it is NP-hard to approximate the p-norm to within a factor if (1+n^{-c}), for any constant c>0. This implies, for instance, that it is hard to obtain a $(1+\\delta)$ approximation in time polynomial in n, $1/\\delta$. Finally, we observe that the p-norm is multiplicative under tensor products, and thus if we can approximate the $p$-norm to some constant in polynomial time, we can also approximate it to an arbitrarily small constant. Recently, Englert and Racke [ER] showed the existence of an O(log n)-competitive obli...

  10. Toleration and the Design of Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floridi, Luciano

    2015-10-01

    One of the pressing challenges we face today-in a post-Westphalian order (emergence of the state as the modern, political information agent) and post-Bretton Woods world (emergence of non-state multiagent systems or MASs as "hyperhistorical" players in the global economy and politics)-is how to design the right kind of MAS that can take full advantage of the socio-economic and political progress made so far, while dealing successfully with the new global challenges that are undermining the best legacy of that very progress. This is the topic of the article. In it, I argue that (i) in order to design the right kind of MAS, we need to design the right kind of norms that constitute them; (ii) in order to design the right kind of constitutive norms, we need to identify and adopt the right kind of principles of normative design; (iii) toleration is one of those principles; (iv) unfortunately, its role as a foundation for the design of norms has been undermined by the "paradox of toleration"; (v) however, the paradox can be solved; (vi) so toleration can be re-instated as the right kind of foundational principle for the design of the right kind of norms that can constitute the right kind of MAS that can operate across cultures, societies and states, to help us to tackle the new global challenges facing us.

  11. Myth and Other Norms in World Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    This article uses the Thule Case at the Danish Supreme Court as an example of normativity in world society. Here norms, which may turn out to be important in world society could be myths of several kinds such as 'narrative normativity'. One myth may be that of (exclusive) sovereignty...

  12. Social influence in the theory of planned behaviour: the role of descriptive, injunctive, and in-group norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine M; Smith, Joanne R; Terry, Deborah J; Greenslade, Jaimi H; McKimmie, Blake M

    2009-03-01

    The present research investigated three approaches to the role of norms in the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Two studies examined the proposed predictors of intentions to engage in household recycling (Studies 1 and 2) and reported recycling behaviour (Study 1). Study 1 tested the impact of descriptive and injunctive norms (personal and social) and the moderating role of self-monitoring on norm-intention relations. Study 2 examined the role of group norms and group identification and the moderating role of collective self on norm-intention relations. Both studies demonstrated support for the TPB and the inclusion of additional normative variables: attitudes; perceived behavioural control; descriptive; and personal injunctive norms (but not social injunctive norm) emerged as significant independent predictors of intentions. There was no evidence that the impact of norms on intentions varied as a function of the dispositional variables of self-monitoring (Study 1) or the collective self (Study 2). There was support, however, for the social identity approach to attitude-behaviour relations in that group norms predicted recycling intentions, particularly for individuals who identified strongly with the group. The results of these two studies highlight the critical role of social influence processes within the TPB and the attitude-behaviour context.

  13. The Role of Indian Caste Identity and Caste Inconsistent Norms on Status Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Sindhuja; Sekerdej, Maciek; von Hecker, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    The Indian caste system is a complex social structure wherein social roles like one's profession became 'hereditary,' resulting in restricted social mobility and fixed status hierarchies. Furthermore, we argue that the inherent property of caste heightens group identification with one's caste. Highly identified group members would protect the identity of the group in situations when group norms are violated. In this paper, we were interested in examining the consequence of caste norm violation and how an individual's status is mentally represented. High caste norms are associated with moral values while the lower caste norms are associated with immorality. We predicted a 'black sheep effect,' that is, when high caste individuals' group identity (caste norm violation condition) is threatened their salient high caste identity would increase, thereby resulting in devaluing the status of their fellow in-group member if the latter is perceived as perpetrator. We presented participants with a social conflict situation of a victim and a perpetrator that is 'Caste norm consistent' (Lower caste individual as a perpetrator and higher caste individual as a victim) and vice versa 'Caste norm inconsistent' condition (higher caste individual as perpetrator and lower caste individual as a victim). Then, participants had to choose from nine pictorial depictions representing the protagonists in the story on a vertical line, with varying degrees of status distance. Results showed evidence for the black sheep effect and, furthermore, revealed that no other identity (religious, national, and regional) resulted in devaluing the status of fellow in-group member. These results help us understand the 'black sheep' effect in the context of moral norms and status representation and are discussed in the framework of the Indian society.

  14. Experience on tangent delta norms adopted for repaired generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, N.N.; Sood, D.K. [National Thermal Power Corp. (India)

    2005-07-01

    The repair techniques of the generators are very crucial for avoiding prolonged forced outages. The crucial decisions based on sound knowledge and judgement becomes essential in many cases. The unit under discussions had failed on account of flash over in the Exciter end overhang windings. The failure resulted in damaged to the stator bars as well as generator core. The damaged end packets of the stator core were replaced at site. The total winding bars were removed from stator core and damaged bars were replaced with new bars. The rest of the bars were tested for tangent delta tests for reuse. Acceptance norms of 0.6% tip up from 0.2pu to 0.6pu of rated stator voltage were adopted. Some of the bars outside the acceptable limits of tangent delta were shifted close to neutral so that the standard norms of tan delta are met. This was felt necessary because lead-time for procurement of new bars was more than six months. The above-adopted norms for tangent delta will be of much use for the operating utilities. The unit under discussions was of 67.5 MW operating at 50 Hz, 0.85 pf lag and had logged 66160.46 operating hours before failure. (author)

  15. Resin Matrix/Fiber Reinforced Composite Material,Ⅲ:Simulating Results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chensha(李辰砂); Jiao Caishan; Liu Ying; Wang Zhengping; Wang Hongjie; Cao Maosheng

    2004-01-01

    According to the mathematical model which describes the curing process of composites constructed from continuous fiber-reinforced, thermosetting resin matrix prepreg materials, and the consolidation of the composite, the computer code calculates the data of the process variables of the flat-plate composites cured by a specified cure cycle, provides the variation of temperature distribution, the cure degree process, the resin variation and fibers stress inside the composite, the void variation and the residual stress distribution. The mechanism of curing process is illustrated and the cure cycle of composite material is optimized.

  16. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour: An extended taxonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2006-01-01

    and shopping. Also the frequency of the four behaviours was measured. The revised taxonomy has content, discriminant, predictive, and nomological validity and satisfactory test-retest reliability. The most internalized of the new norm constructs, integrated norms, is most strongly correlated with conventional......  The concept of personal or moral norms is ambiguous with regard to its motivational content. An extension and a refinement of the norm taxonomy are therefore suggested, distinguishing between two types of personal norms: introjected and integrated norms. A preliminary assessment of the taxonomy...

  17. The motivational roots of norms for environmentally responsible behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates whether norms guiding environmentally desirable behaviour are genuinely internalized and integrated into the person's cognitive and goal structures or just shallowly "introjected" social norms. Internet-based questionnaires were administered to a stratified sample of Danish...... to the studied behaviour differ significantly depending on the strength of their norms and the two types of norms differ in their embeddedness in the person's cognitive structures. The behavioural influence of subjective social norms and expressed reasons and motives is mediated through personal norms...

  18. Radiological dose assessment related to management of naturally occurring radioactive materials generated by the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.P.; Blunt, D.L.; Williams, G.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.; Tebes, C.L. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1996-09-01

    A preliminary radiological dose assessment of equipment decontamination, subsurface disposal, landspreading, equipment smelting, and equipment burial was conducted to address concerns regarding the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in production waste streams. The assessment estimated maximum individual dose equivalents for workers and the general public. Sensitivity analyses of certain input parameters also were conducted. On the basis of this assessment, it is concluded that (1) regulations requiring workers to wear respiratory protection during equipment cleaning operations are likely to result in lower worker doses, (2) underground injection and downhole encapsulation of NORM wastes present a negligible risk to the general public, and (3) potential doses to workers and the general public related to smelting NORM-contaminated equipment can be controlled by limiting the contamination level of the initial feed. It is recommended that (1) NORM wastes be further characterized to improve studies of potential radiological doses; (2) states be encouraged to permit subsurface disposal of NORM more readily, provided further assessments support this study; results; (3) further assessment of landspreading NORM wastes be conducted; and (4) the political, economic, sociological, and nonradiological issues related to smelting NORM-contaminated equipment be studied to fully examine the feasibility of this disposal option.

  19. Recall and response time norms for English-Swahili word pairs and facts about Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangert, Ashley S; Heydarian, Nazanin M

    2017-02-01

    In the vast literature exploring learning, many studies have used paired-associate stimuli, despite the fact that real-world learning involves many different types of information. One of the most popular materials used in studies of learning has been a set of Swahili-English word pairs for which Nelson and Dunlosky (Memory 2; 325-335, 1994) published recall norms two decades ago. These norms involved use of the Swahili words as cues to facilitate recall of the English translation. It is unclear whether cueing in the opposite direction (from English to Swahili) would lead to symmetric recall performance. Bilingual research has suggested that translation in these two different directions involves asymmetric links that may differentially impact recall performance, depending on which language is used as the cue (Kroll & Stewart, Journal of Memory and Language 33; 149-174,1994). Moreover, the norms for these and many other learning stimuli have typically been gathered from college students. In the present study, we report recall accuracy and response time norms for Swahili words when they are cued by their English translations. We also report norms for a companion set of fact stimuli that may be used along with the Swahili-English word pairs to assess learning on a broader scale across different stimulus materials. Data were collected using Amazon's Mechanical Turk to establish a sample that was diverse in both age and ethnicity. These different, but related, stimulus sets will be applicable to studies of learning, metacognition, and memory in diverse samples.

  20. Keying Results on the CELT-Structure Test to U.S. Grade Level Instructional Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Ross T.

    1978-01-01

    It would be beneficial for ESL instructors to know the U.S. grade equivalent English ability of their students for placement purposes, especially if their instructional materials are keyed for U.S. classrooms. For this purpose, the Stanford Intermediate Level I Reading Comprehension Test was compared with the CELT-Structure Test. (Author/RM)

  1. Industrial benefits and future expectations in materials and processes resulting from space technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Space technology transfer is discussed as applied to the field of materials science. Advances made in processing include improved computer techniques, and structural analysis. Technology transfer is shown to have an important impact potential in the overall productivity of the United States.

  2. Wear Test Results of Candidate Materials for the OK-542 Towed Array Handling Machine Level Winder

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-29

    while extremely resistant to corrosion , is very strong mechanically and is readily available in bar form from local suppliers. Figure 32...Stainless Steel, Inconel 625, Nickel-Aluminum-Bronze, and Titanium. The specialty materials: Inconel 625, Monel, Stainless and Stellite , were clad-welded...C71500 Cu-Ni Wheel/Clad Stainless ............................................ 14 13. Clad Stellite

  3. Evaluation of the Ballistic Resistance of Composite Materials Under FSP Impact: Experimental Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    program, the universities suggested testing different materials and threats. 2.2.1 Target panels Carleton University delivered aramid fibre reinforced plastic (KFRP...with a thickness of 10 mm and UBC delivered glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP) of two thicknesses, namely 12.7 mm and 19.0 mm. In

  4. Optimum iodine concentration of contrast material through microcatheters: hydrodynamic analysis of experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Teiyu; Furui, Shigeru; Harasawa, Arimi; Ishimura, Makoto; Imai, Tatsuhiko; Hayashi, Toshimitsu

    2002-07-01

    It is important to increase the iodine delivery rate (I), that is the iodine concentration of the contrast material (C) × the flow rate of the contrast material (Q), through a catheter to obtain high quality arteriograms. The iodine delivery rate varies depending on the iodine concentration of the contrast material. The purpose of this study is to estimate the optimum iodine concentration (Copt) of contrast material (i.e. the iodine concentration at which I becomes maximum) through a microcatheter of a given length (L), inner diameter (D) and injection pressure (P). Iohexol, ioversol and iopamidol of 11-12 iodine concentrations (140-350, 160-350 or 160-370 mg cm-3) at 37 °C are used. I and Reynolds number (Re) of the flow of each contrast material through four microcatheters (0.49-0.68 mm in inner diameter, 1000-1500 mm in length) at injection pressures of 1.38, 2.76, 4.14 and 5.52 × 106 Pa (200, 400, 600 and 800 pounds per square inch) are obtained experimentally. The relationships between I and C and between I and Re are examined for each catheter and injection pressure. Copt is 160-280 mg cm-3 for iohexol, 180-280 mg cm-3 for ioversol and 200-300 mg cm-3 for iopamidol. I becomes maximum when Re approximates the critical Reynolds number (Re ≃ 2300). Utilizing this principle, we can estimate Copt and its flow rate through a microcatheter of a given L, D and P.

  5. Feasibility of Pb phytoextraction using nano-materials assisted ryegrass: Results of a one-year field-scale experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shu-Xuan; Jin, Yu; Liu, Wei; Li, Xiliang; Shen, Shi-Gang; Ding, Ling

    2017-04-01

    The effect of the combined application of nano-hydroxyapatite (NHAP) or nano-carbon black (NCB) on the phytoextraction of Pb by ryegrass was investigated as an enhanced remediation technique for soils by field-scale experiment. After the addition of 0.2% NHAP or NCB to the soil, temporal variation of the uptake of Pb in aboveground parts and roots were observed. Ryegrass shoot concentrations of Pb were lower with nano-materials application than without nano-materials for the first month. However, the shoot concentrations of Pb were significantly increased with nano-materials application, in particular NHAP groups. The ryegrass root concentrations of Pb were lower with nano-materials application for the first month. These results indicated that nano-materials had significant effects on stabilization of lead, especially at the beginning of the experiment. Along with the experimental proceeding, phytotoxicity was alleviated after the incorporation of nano-materials. The ryegrass biomass was significantly higher with nano-materials application. Consequently, the Pb phytoextraction potential of ryegrass significantly increased with nano-materials application compared to the gounps without nano-materials application. The total removal rates of soil Pb were higher after combined application of NHAP than NCB. NHAP is more suitable than NCB for in-situ remediation of Pb-contaminated soils. The ryegrass translocation factor exhibited a marked increase with time. It was thought that the major role of NHP and NBA might be to alleviate the Pb phytotoxicity and increase biomass of plants.

  6. Eating by the Norm : The Influence of Social Norms on Young People's Eating Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Stok, F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans are social beings. Our identities are, for an important part, shaped by the different groups we belong to. Each social group has its own standards or norms for behavior, based upon what is considered good or correct behavior within that social group. Such socially shared norms are usually not made explicit, but become apparent through observing the behavior of group members and through understanding the expectations they have for how others in their social group should behave. The infl...

  7. Normes techniques, normes sociales, l'Internet sous contrôle chinois

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Technical norms, social norms, the chinese internet under contrololivier arifon 1, * 1 : resic (resic)* : auteur correspondantWith internet, the Chinese's government is coherent with its global project for the country. Since 1995, it has recommended a use of internet for the society and developed several forms of control. actually, four registers co exists: a technical control, a legal regulation, human measures on civil society and, more complex, a Chinese entrepreneu...

  8. Social norms and efficacy beliefs drive the Alarmed segment’s public-sphere climate actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Kathryn L.; Webler, Thomas N.

    2016-09-01

    Surprisingly few individuals who are highly concerned about climate change take action to influence public policies. To assess social-psychological and cognitive drivers of public-sphere climate actions of Global Warming’s Six Americas `Alarmed’ segment, we developed a behaviour model and tested it using structural equation modelling of survey data from Vermont, USA (N = 702). Our model, which integrates social cognitive theory, social norms research, and value belief norm theory, explains 36-64% of the variance in five behaviours. Here we show descriptive social norms, self-efficacy, personal response efficacy, and collective response efficacy as strong driving forces of: voting, donating, volunteering, contacting government officials, and protesting about climate change. The belief that similar others took action increased behaviour and strengthened efficacy beliefs, which also led to greater action. Our results imply that communication efforts targeting Alarmed individuals and their public actions should include strategies that foster beliefs about positive descriptive social norms and efficacy.

  9. Predictors of intentions to perform six cancer-related behaviours: roles for injunctive and descriptive norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-McLallen, Aaron; Fishbein, Martin

    2008-08-01

    This study reports an application of the integrative model to the prediction of intentions to engage in three cancer screening behaviours (mammogram, colonoscopy and PSA test) and three healthy lifestyle behaviours (exercising, eating fruits and vegetables, and controlling ones diet to lose weight). We examined the roles of attitudes, perceived behavioural control, injunctive norms (what important others think one should do), and descriptive norms (perceptions of what others do) as predictors of participant's intentions to engage in each behaviour. Results indicated that injunctive norms were the strongest predictors of prostate and colon cancer screening intentions and contributed significantly to the prediction of intentions to get a mammogram. In contrast, injunctive norms contributed relatively little to the prediction of lifestyle behaviours, but were strongly predictive of intentions to eat fruits and vegetables. Implications for designing behaviour-specific communications and interventions are discussed.

  10. Using the RxNorm web services API for quality assurance purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Lee; Bodenreider, Olivier

    2008-11-06

    Auditing large, rapidly evolving terminological systems is still a challenge. In the case of RxNorm, a standardized nomenclature for clinical drugs, we argue that quality assurance processes can benefit from the recently released application programming interface (API) provided by RxNav. We demonstrate the usefulness of the API by performing a systematic comparison of alternative paths in the RxNorm graph, over several thousands of drug entities. This study revealed potential errors in RxNorm, currently under review. The results also prompted us to modify the implementation of RxNav to navigate the RxNorm graph more accurately. The RxNav web services API used in this experiment is robust and fast.

  11. Youth crowds and substance use: the impact of perceived group norm and multiple group identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkooijen, Kirsten T; de Vries, Nanne K; Nielsen, Gert A

    2007-03-01

    The impact of group identity on adolescent tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use was examined through a postal survey. The study included adolescents who identified with 1 subgroup (n = 1425) as well as adolescents who identified with 2 (n = 895) or 3 (n = 339) subgroups. The results showed that identification with the pop, skate/hip-hop, techno, and hippie subgroups was associated with higher risks of substance use, whereas identification with the sporty, quiet, computer nerd, and religious subgroups was associated with lower risks. Perceived group norm mediated the group identity-substance use relationship. Furthermore, identification with multiple groups with corresponding norm increased norm-consistent substance use, whereas identification with multiple groups with opposing norms reduced normative behavior. Implications for health promotion are discussed. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Performance Evaluation Management and Meta-norm Execution Cost of Major Science and Technology Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianghua; HU

    2013-01-01

    Major science and technology project generally got high social expectations as a result of harge investment.To ensure that the science and technology teams follow the norms of S&T research and make full use of the investment,the effective norms maintenance mechanism must be established which includes punishment for violators and burnout of teams of supervisors,namely setting up the meta-norm execution mechanism.It is very important to establish the effective major science and technology project evaluation system to reduce the norm and metanorm execution cost.In this paper,the principles,methods and implementation system guarantee of evaluation system building are studied as well.

  13. Materials of large wind turbine blades: Recent results in testing and modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Brøndsted, Povl; Nijssen, Rogier

    2012-01-01

    for the experimental determination of reliable material properties used in the design of wind turbine blades and experimental validation of design models, (ii) development of predictive models for the life prediction, prediction of residual strength and failure probability of the blades and (iii) analysis......The reliability of rotor blades is the pre-condition for the development and wide use of large wind turbines. In order to accurately predict and improve the wind turbine blade behavior, three main aspects of the reliability and strength of rotor blades were considered: (i) development of methods...... of the effect of the microstructure of wind turbine blade composites on their strength and ways of microstructural optimization of the materials. By testing reference coupons, the effect of testing parameters (temperature and frequency) on the lifetime of blade composites was investigated, and the input data...

  14. An analysis of results of measuring the speed passing through a material in a technological process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Benková

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The process approach requires a smoothness and continuity for each individual technological /production process. From the viewpoint of ownership of each process a required input into the process technical and operation parameters for a required output of the process is important. From the viewpoint of monitoring a concrete process, the material entering the process having a temperature required by technological instruction is important.The speed of transition of a material through the technological mechanism should be constant and a product from the process should have required internal and external parameters. The speed is critical for the technological process. When using a measurement, values of speed are obtained, can be analysed from the point of view of variation in time and normality. For a comparison of real and required values, the box plot was prepared. The capability indexes were counted and the „overlaps” of tolerance interval for the required value of speed were compared.

  15. Preliminary Results from Duplex Procedure for Obtain of Fe Based Materials for Automotive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crăciun, R. C.; Stanciu, S.; Geantă, V.; Voiculescu, I.; Manole, V.; Gârneţ, I. A.; Alexandru, A.; Cimpoesu, N.; Săndulache, F.

    2017-06-01

    Abstract Iron based materials still represent a high percentage from metallic materials used in industry, in general, and in automotive industry, in particular. In this case we used a duplex process in order to obtain the FeMnSiAl experimental alloy for a more efficient use of various units. In the first stage iron, manganese, silicon and aluminum were melted and mixed together using arc melting technology and for the second stage the alloy was re-melt for homogeneity in an induction furnace. Chemical composition, after each melting step, was analyzed using EDS Bruker detector for various areas and microstructural characterization using SEM, VegaTescan LMH II with SE detector, equipment. This alloy is proposed as a metallic approach of mechanical dumpers used in automotive industry for low and medium impact contacts.

  16. Results of a Saxitoxin Proficiency Test Including Characterization of Reference Material and Stability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Harju

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A saxitoxin (STX proficiency test (PT was organized as part of the Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk (EQuATox project. The aim of this PT was to provide an evaluation of existing methods and the European laboratories’ capabilities for the analysis of STX and some of its analogues in real samples. Homogenized mussel material and algal cell materials containing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP toxins were produced as reference sample matrices. The reference material was characterized using various analytical methods. Acidified algal extract samples at two concentration levels were prepared from a bulk culture of PSP toxins producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii. The homogeneity and stability of the prepared PT samples were studied and found to be fit-for-purpose. Thereafter, eight STX PT samples were sent to ten participating laboratories from eight countries. The PT offered the participating laboratories the possibility to assess their performance regarding the qualitative and quantitative detection of PSP toxins. Various techniques such as official Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC methods, immunoassays, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for sample analyses.

  17. Subjective Norms as a Driver of Mass Communication Students' Intentions to Adopt New Media Production Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Toby M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the impact of subjective norms on mass communication students' intentions to adopt new media production technologies was explored. The results indicated that subjective norms play an instrumental role in explaining behavioral intentions to adopt new media technologies. Moreover, the data indicated that public relations students…

  18. Subjective Norms as a Driver of Mass Communication Students' Intentions to Adopt New Media Production Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Toby M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the impact of subjective norms on mass communication students' intentions to adopt new media production technologies was explored. The results indicated that subjective norms play an instrumental role in explaining behavioral intentions to adopt new media technologies. Moreover, the data indicated that public relations students…

  19. The Explicit Identities for Spectral Norms of Circulant-Type Matrices Involving Binomial Coefficients and Harmonic Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The explicit formulae of spectral norms for circulant-type matrices are investigated; the matrices are circulant matrix, skew-circulant matrix, and g-circulant matrix, respectively. The entries are products of binomial coefficients with harmonic numbers. Explicit identities for these spectral norms are obtained. Employing these approaches, some numerical tests are listed to verify the results.

  20. Forfaitaire norm fosforgehalte in opfokzeug te laag : in het kort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed, A.W.

    2010-01-01

    De forfaitaire norm voor het fosforgehalte in opfokzeugen, zoals gehanteerd door de Dienst Regelingen, is te laag voor de huidige zeugen en zou verhoogd moeten worden. De huidige norm is gebaseerd op gedateerd onderzoek.

  1. A review of norms and normative multiagent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Moamin A; Ahmad, Mohd Sharifuddin; Yusoff, Mohd Zaliman Mohd; Mustapha, Aida

    2014-01-01

    Norms and normative multiagent systems have become the subjects of interest for many researchers. Such interest is caused by the need for agents to exploit the norms in enhancing their performance in a community. The term norm is used to characterize the behaviours of community members. The concept of normative multiagent systems is used to facilitate collaboration and coordination among social groups of agents. Many researches have been conducted on norms that investigate the fundamental concepts, definitions, classification, and types of norms and normative multiagent systems including normative architectures and normative processes. However, very few researches have been found to comprehensively study and analyze the literature in advancing the current state of norms and normative multiagent systems. Consequently, this paper attempts to present the current state of research on norms and normative multiagent systems and propose a norm's life cycle model based on the review of the literature. Subsequently, this paper highlights the significant areas for future work.

  2. Flexible copyright: the law and economics of introducing an open norm in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Noll, R.; van Gompel, S.; Guibault, L.; Weda, J.; Poort, J.; Akker, I.; Breemen, K.

    2012-01-01

     This study analyses the law and economics of introducing flexibility in the system of exceptions and limitations in Dutch copyright law. Such flexibility would exist in an open norm, on the basis of which the courts can decide whether certain uses of copyrighted material are permissible or not, in

  3. Flexible copyright: the law and economics of introducing an open norm in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Noll, R.; van Gompel, S.; Guibault, L.; Weda, J.; Poort, J.; Akker, I.; Breemen, K.

    2012-01-01

     This study analyses the law and economics of introducing flexibility in the system of exceptions and limitations in Dutch copyright law. Such flexibility would exist in an open norm, on the basis of which the courts can decide whether certain uses of copyrighted material are permissible or not,

  4. Effects of perceived descriptive norms on corrupt intention: The mediating role of moral disengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huanhuan; Zhang, Heyun; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-31

    The present study attempts to examine the effect of perceived descriptive norms on corrupt intention (e.g., bribe-taking intention) and then further explore the psychological mechanism underlying this effect. Based on social cognitive theory, we established a mediation model in which moral disengagement partially mediated the link between perceived descriptive norms and corrupt intention. In Study 1, participants (N = 690) completed a series of questionnaires, and the results demonstrated that, while perceived descriptive norms were positively associated with corrupt intention, it was partially mediated by moral disengagement. In Study 2, we conducted a priming experiment (N = 161) to test the causal relationship and psychological mechanism between perceived descriptive norms and corrupt intention. The results revealed that perceived descriptive norms triggered the propensity of individuals to morally disengage, which in turn, partially increased their corrupt intention. This study not only extends previous research by providing evidence that moral disengagement may be one of the reasons why perceived descriptive norms facilitate corrupt intention, but also suggests that reshaping normative beliefs and preventing the moral disengagement of individuals may be the effective ways to curb corrupt behaviours.

  5. Self-consciousness moderates the relationship between perceived norms and drinking in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, Joseph W; Hummer, Justin F; Neighbors, Clayton

    2008-12-01

    The current research examines whether self-consciousness subscales have prognostic value in the relationship between perceived norms and drinking and if that differs among college men and women. Results indicate that self-consciousness moderates gender differences in the relationship between perceived social norms and drinking. A strong positive relationship was found between perceived norms (descriptive and injunctive) and drinking for men relative to women and this was more pronounced among individuals who were lower in public self-consciousness. Similarly, the relationship between perceived injunctive norms and drinking was significantly stronger among men than women and this was more pronounced among individuals who were higher in private self-consciousness or social anxiety. These results highlight the important influence of social factors in salient peer reference groups. This is promising information for future research attempting to identify useful indicators of candidates who would most benefit from social norms interventions. This also underscores the relevance of future norms based interventions using self-consciousness as a potential moderator of intervention efficacy.

  6. Adolescent Substance Use, Aggressive Behaviors, and Peer Context Behavioral Norms

    OpenAIRE

    Gommans, R.; Stevens, G.W.J.M.; ter Bogt, T.F.M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine behavioral norm effects in 2 peer contexts (classroom, school) on adolescent substance use (tobacco, alcohol, cannabis) and aggressive behaviors (bullying, physical fighting). Participants were 5,642 adolescents (Mage = 14.29 years, SD = 1.26; 49% boys). There were 3 hypotheses. First, behavioral norms in both contexts affect individual behavior. Second, classroom norms have stronger effects on individual behavior than school norms. Third, classroom and s...

  7. Norms and Team Formation: Evidence from Research Partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Garcia; Joshua Serman

    2015-01-01

    Scientific, artistic, and professional work is increasingly performed in groups. In this study, we seek to understand the extent to which norms influence the composition of such groups. In particular, we analyze the effect of the alphabetical norm in academic citations on the composition of research teams in economics. First, we present a model of endogenous team formation given the alphabetical norm and analyze the effect of the norm on the desirability of any two individuals to conduct a jo...

  8. State-of-the-art of NORM nuclide determination in samples from oil and gas production : Validation of potential standardization methods through an interlaboratory test programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaepen, WAI; Bergwerf, W; Lancee, PJF; vanDijk, W; Jansen, JFW; Janssen, RGC; Kiezenberg, WHT; vanSluijs, R; Tijsmans, MH; Voors, PI

    1995-01-01

    Gas and oil companies frequently encounter build-up of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) in their production and processing facilities. In the Netherlands NORM is subject to strict national regulations and, consequently, installations have to be screened on a regular basis. The availab

  9. Assessment for the management of NORM wastes in conventional hazardous and nonhazardous waste landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, Juan C., E-mail: jc.mora@ciemat.es [Unit for Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (PRPYMA), CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Energy Engineering Department, Power Engineering, Nuclear Area, ETSII, UNED (Spain); Baeza, Antonio [LARUEX, Dpt. Applied Physics, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Extremadura, Avda. Universidad, s/n, 10071 Cáceres (Spain); Robles, Beatriz [Unit for Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (PRPYMA), CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanz, Javier [Energy Engineering Department, Power Engineering, Nuclear Area, ETSII, UNED (Spain)

    2016-06-05

    Highlights: • Before 2010 NORM waste is managed as non-radioactive, disposed in landfills. • After 2010 radiological impact of the management of NORM wastes must be assessed. • Quantities that can be disposed in hazardous or non-hazardous landfills are given. • Uncertainty analysis is included to provide consistency to the calculations. - Abstract: Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) wastes are generated in huge quantities in several industries and their management has been carried out under considerations of industrial non-radioactive wastes, before the concern on the radioactivity content was included in the legislation. Therefore these wastes were conditioned using conventional methods and the waste disposals were designed to isolate toxic elements from the environment for long periods of time. Spanish regulation for these conventional toxic waste disposals includes conditions that assure adequate isolation to minimize the impact of the wastes to the environment in present and future conditions. After 1996 the radiological impact of the management of NORM wastes is considered and all the aspects related with natural radiations and the radiological control regarding the management of residues from NORM industries were developed in the new regulation. One option to be assessed is the disposal of NORM wastes in hazardous and non-hazardous waste disposals, as was done before this new regulation. This work analyses the management of NORM wastes in these landfills to derive the masses that can be disposed without considerable radiological impact. Generic dose assessments were carried out under highly conservative hypothesis and a discussion on the uncertainty and variability sources was included to provide consistency to the calculations.

  10. Evaluation of patients with oral lichenoid lesions by dental patch testing and results of removal of the dental restoration material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Buket Şahin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Oral lichenoid lesions (OLL are contact stomatitis characterized by white reticular or erosive patches, plaque-like lesions that are clinically and histopathologically indistinguishable from oral lichen planus (OLP. Amalgam dental fillings and dental restoration materials are among the etiologic agents. In the present study, it was aimed to evaluate the standard and dental series patch tests in patients with OLL in comparison to a control group and evaluate our results. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three patients with OLL or OLP and 30 healthy control subjects, who had at least one dental restoration material and/or dental filling, were included in the study. Both groups received standard series and dental patch test and the results were evaluated simultaneously. Results: The most frequent allergens in the dental series patch test in the patient group were palladium chloride (n=4; 12.12% and benzoyl peroxide (n=2, 6.06%. Of the 33 patients with OLL; 8 had positive reaction to allergents in the standard patch test series and 8 had positive reaction in the dental patch test series. There was no significant difference in the rate of patch test reaction to the dental and standard series between the groups. Ten patients were advised to have the dental restoration material removed according to the results of the patch tests. The lesions improved in three patients [removal of all amalgam dental fillings (n=1, replacement of all amalgam dental fillings with an alternative filling material (n=1 and replacement of the dental prosthesis (n=1] following the removal or replacement of the dental restoration material. Conclusion: Dental patch test should be performed in patients with OLL and dental restoration material. Dental filling and/or prosthesis should be removed/replaced if there is a reaction against a dental restoration material-related allergen.

  11. Tutorial: Calculating Percentile Rank and Percentile Norms Using SPSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Ted A.

    2009-01-01

    Practitioners can benefit from using norms, but they often have to develop their own percentile rank and percentile norms. This article is a tutorial on how to quickly and easily calculate percentile rank and percentile norms using SPSS, and this information is presented for a data set. Some issues in calculating percentile rank and percentile…

  12. Tutorial: Calculating Percentile Rank and Percentile Norms Using SPSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Ted A.

    2009-01-01

    Practitioners can benefit from using norms, but they often have to develop their own percentile rank and percentile norms. This article is a tutorial on how to quickly and easily calculate percentile rank and percentile norms using SPSS, and this information is presented for a data set. Some issues in calculating percentile rank and percentile…

  13. The norm implementation problem in normative multi-agent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossi, D.; Gabbay, D.; van der Torre, L.; Dastani, M.; Hindriks, K.V.; Meyer, J-J.C.

    2010-01-01

    The norm implementation problem consists in how to see to it that the agents in a system comply with the norms specified for that system by the system designer. It is part of the more general problem of how to synthesize or create norms for multi-agent systems, by, for example, highlighting the choi

  14. Extradyadic sex : The role of descriptive and injunctive norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, BP; Bakker, AB

    1995-01-01

    The willingness to engage in extradyadic sexual behavior was examined in relation to attitudes, descriptive norms (what others do or are willing to do), and injunctive norms (what others think one should do). Although in research on attitude-behavior relationships injunctive norms are usually assess

  15. The motivational roots of norms for environmentally responsible behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2009-01-01

    How internalized and integrated into the person's cognitive and goal structures are norms guiding environmentally desirable behavior? In two surveys (N = 206 and N = 200), subjective social norms and personal norms for a specific behavior (the purchase of organic food or recycling) as well as self...

  16. Practical Run-Time Norm Enforcement with Bounded Lookahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alechina, Natasha; Bulling, Nils; Dastani, Mehdi; Logan, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Norms have been widely proposed as a means of coordinating and controlling the behaviour of agents in a multi-agent system. A key challenge in normative MAS is norm enforcement: how and when to restrict the agents’ behaviour in order to obtain a desirable outcome? Even if a norm can be enforced

  17. Growth, financial development, societal norms and legal institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garretsen, Harry; Lensink, Robert; Sterken, Elmer

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses whether societal norms help to explain cross-country differences in financial development. We analyze whether societal norms in addition to legal institutions have an impact on financial development. We address the implications of the inclusion of societal norms for the analysis

  18. An efficient algorithm for computing the H-infinity norm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belur, Madhu N.; Praagman, C.

    2011-01-01

    This technical note addresses the computation of the H-infinity norm by directly computing the isolated common zeros of two bivariate polynomials, unlike the iteration algorithm that is currently used to find the H-infinity norm. The proposed method to H-infinity norm calculation is compared with th

  19. Growth, financial development, societal norms and legal institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garretsen, Harry; Lensink, Robert; Sterken, Elmer

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses whether societal norms help to explain cross-country differences in financial development. We analyze whether societal norms in addition to legal institutions have an impact on financial development. We address the implications of the inclusion of societal norms for the analysis

  20. A Study on Adhesive Properties of Materials Based on Biomimetic Results of Gecko's Feet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Zhang; Zhendong Dai; Stanislav Gorb

    2004-01-01

    Many animals have a magic ability to move or hold on ceilings and walls because of the design of their adhesive pads.The experiments were carried out to study the effects of material properties (elastic modulus EM and chemical components CC) and contact geometry (surface roughness, connecting stiffness) on their adhesive properties. The adhesion of the lowest EM samples is the highest ( 15 kPa) and the surface roughness has strong effects on adhesion and the adhesion decreases to 1.5 kPa for the highest EM samples. The adhesive forces are heavily influenced by CC of polyurethane. Surface roughness heavily influences the adhesion and when the roughness is higher than Ra 0.3 μm, the obtained adhesion of the samples is the same. The adhesion does not change with the normal forces when a sphere is used to contact with flat PU samples. But when the two matually contact surfaces are flat, the adhesion of a material increases with the normal load at first and then turns to slightly raise. The adhesion of them is the same for the contact angles from 1 to 3 degree when the samples are softly connected. But when they are adhesive hardly to each other the adhesion decreases with increase of the contact angle.

  1. Dissemination of CPR video self-instruction materials to secondary trainees: results from a hospital-based CPR education trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Daniel J.; Buckler, David G.; Li, Jiaqi; Agarwal, Amit K.; Di Taranti, Laura J.; Kurtz, James; dos Reis, Ryan; Leary, Marion; Abella, Benjamin S.; Blewer, Audrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) video self-instruction (VSI) materials have been promoted as a scalable approach to increase the prevalence of CPR skills among the lay public, in part due to the opportunity for secondary training (i.e., sharing of training materials). However, the motivations for, and barriers to, disseminating VSI materials to secondary trainees is poorly understood. Methods This work represents an ancillary investigation of a prospective hospital-based CPR education trial in which family members of cardiac patients were trained using VSI. Mixed-methods surveys were administered to primary trainees six months after initial enrollment. Surveys were designed to capture motivations for, and barriers to, sharing VSI materials, the number of secondary trainees with whom materials were shared, and the settings, timing, and recipients of trainings. Results Between 07/2012–05/2015, 653 study participants completed a six-month follow-up interview. Of those, 345 reported sharing VSI materials with 1455 secondary trainees. Materials were shared most commonly with family members. In a logistic regression analysis, participants in the oldest quartile (age > 63 years) were less likely to share materials compared to those in the youngest quartile (age ≤ 44 years, OR 0.58, CI 0.37–0.90, p=0.02). Among the 308 participants who did not share their materials, time constraints was the most commonly cited barrier for not sharing. Conclusions VSI materials represent a strategy for secondary dissemination of CPR training, yet older individuals have a lower likelihood of sharing relative to younger individuals. Further work is warranted to remedy perceived barriers to CPR dissemination among the lay public using VSI approaches. PMID:26776900

  2. Academic Entrepreneurship and Exchange of Scientific Resources: Material Transfer in Life and Materials Sciences in Japanese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayama, Sotaro; Walsh, John P.; Baba, Yasunori

    2012-01-01

    This study uses a sample of Japanese university scientists in life and materials sciences to examine how academic entrepreneurship has affected the norms and behaviors of academic scientists regarding sharing scientific resources. Results indicate that high levels of academic entrepreneurship in a scientific field are associated with less reliance…

  3. Norms of certain Jordan elementary operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Ji, Guoxing

    2008-10-01

    Let be a complex Hilbert space and let denote the algebra of all bounded linear operators on . For , the Jordan elementary operator UA,B is defined by UA,B(X)=AXB+BXA, . In this short note, we discuss the norm of UA,B. We show that if and ||UA,B||=||A||||B||, then either AB* or B*A is 0. We give some examples of Jordan elementary operators UA,B such that ||UA,B||=||A||||B|| but AB*[not equal to]0 and B*A[not equal to]0, which answer negatively a question posed by M. Boumazgour in [M. Boumazgour, Norm inequalities for sums of two basic elementary operators, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 342 (2008) 386-393].

  4. Property (T) and exotic quantum group norms

    CERN Document Server

    Kyed, David

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing the notion of property (T) we construct new examples of quantum group norms on the polynomial algebra of a compact quantum group, and provide criteria ensuring that these are not equal to neither the minimal nor the maximal norm. Along the way we generalize several classical operator algebraic characterizations of property (T) to the quantum group setting which unify recent approaches to property (T) for quantum groups with previous ones. The techniques developed furthermore provide tools to answer two open problems; firstly a question by B\\'edos, Murphy and Tuset about automatic continuity of the comultiplication and secondly a problem left open by Woronowicz regarding the structure of elements whose coproduct is a finite sum of simple tensors.

  5. Esquisse d’une philosophie des normes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Ruby

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available La demande vient de l’éditeur et il a eu raison de solliciter la remise en public des cinq articles rédigés, par Pierre Macherey, ce vieux dinosaure de la philosophie (cf. Macherey, 1998, sur Georges Canguilhem et Michel Foucault. Car la question brassée autant par ces auteurs que par les textes de Macherey ici présentés demeure actuelle 1  : qu’est-ce que vivre et vivre en société, sous des normes ? Pourquoi l’existence humaine est-elle confrontée à des normes ? D’où ...

  6. Development of NORM determination Algorithm for Radiation Portal Monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hwan; Kim, Ye Won; Yoo, Hyun Jun; Kim, Chan Kyu; Lee, Sang Heon; Cho, Gyu Seong [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, probability of distinguishing nuclide analysis is proposed by measuring compton energy spectrum of gamma ray with large-area PVT scintillator to solve fundamental problem. US coast guard (USCG) suggested the methods for which terrorism could be prevented to international maritime organization (IMO) and the bill in which container safety was assured was suggested by U.S customs officials. However, radiation portal monitors (RPMs) running at the airport and the harbor cannot distinguish special cargo material (SNM) from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NOMR) containing a small dose of radioisotope from nature. Consequently, cargo sorted out by RPM using polyvinyl-toluene (PVT) scintillator contains approximately 99% of NORM (such as cat litter, potash, tableware and etc.) Many research institutes are under way to reduce such a nuisance alarm. Tom Burr conducted pattern recognition methods with extracted 184 features (46 features from each of four panels) from 235 profiles out of 406 profiles representing gamma alarm. But this method is more like statistical analysis using the data of low and high gamma than practical nuclide analysis. So it has limitation to reduce nuisance alarm. Regarding to the experimental result for difference distances between the source and the scintillator using large-area PVT based plastic scintillator, the linearity was not secured when the distance is from 0cm to 20cm. It is expected that, for these cases, the scintillation areas in which photon is emitted were small. The distance between PMTs and these areas was too far to detect every emitted photon because the photons were attenuated by plastic scintillator. Because of this reason, energy spectra were shifted to relatively lower channel. While, no more spectrum shifting occurred for 50cm and 100cm. It is considered that the increase of the gamma source solid angle makes scintillation area larger and no more spectrum shifting occur. With this experiment, it was

  7. Gaskell’s Characters Challenging Gender Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alban Gillian M. E.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates women characters of Elizabeth Gaskell0’s social novels set in England’s industrial era. While in some ways a traditional woman of her age, Gaskell assumes responsibility and nurture as a duty of men as well as women, and shows her powerful women escaping gender norms, making her worthy of more notice as a social critic than she often gains.

  8. "Who Doesn't?"--The Impact of Descriptive Norms on Corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbis, Nils C; van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Righetti, Francesca; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    Corruption poses one of the major societal challenges of our time. Considerable advances have been made in understanding corruption on a macro level, yet the psychological antecedents of corrupt behavior remain largely unknown. In order to explain why some people engage in corruption while others do not, we explored the impact of descriptive social norms on corrupt behavior by using a novel behavioral measure of corruption. We conducted three studies to test whether perceived descriptive norms of corruption (i.e. the belief about the prevalence of corruption in a specific context) influence corrupt behavior. The results indicated that descriptive norms highly correlate with corrupt behavior--both when measured before (Study 1) or after (Study 2) the behavioral measure of corruption. Finally, we adopted an experimental design to investigate the causal effect of descriptive norms on corruption (Study 3). Corrupt behavior in the corruption game significantly drops when participants receive short anti-corruption descriptive norm primes prior to the game. These findings indicate that perceived descriptive norms can impact corrupt behavior and, possibly, could offer an explanation for inter-personal and inter-cultural variation in corrupt behavior in the real world. We discuss implications of these findings and draw avenues for future research.

  9. “Who Doesn’t?”—The Impact of Descriptive Norms on Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbis, Nils C.; van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Righetti, Francesca; Van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Corruption poses one of the major societal challenges of our time. Considerable advances have been made in understanding corruption on a macro level, yet the psychological antecedents of corrupt behavior remain largely unknown. In order to explain why some people engage in corruption while others do not, we explored the impact of descriptive social norms on corrupt behavior by using a novel behavioral measure of corruption. We conducted three studies to test whether perceived descriptive norms of corruption (i.e. the belief about the prevalence of corruption in a specific context) influence corrupt behavior. The results indicated that descriptive norms highly correlate with corrupt behavior—both when measured before (Study 1) or after (Study 2) the behavioral measure of corruption. Finally, we adopted an experimental design to investigate the causal effect of descriptive norms on corruption (Study 3). Corrupt behavior in the corruption game significantly drops when participants receive short anti-corruption descriptive norm primes prior to the game. These findings indicate that perceived descriptive norms can impact corrupt behavior and, possibly, could offer an explanation for inter-personal and inter-cultural variation in corrupt behavior in the real world. We discuss implications of these findings and draw avenues for future research. PMID:26121127

  10. Effectiveness of social norms media marketing in reducing drinking and driving: A statewide campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, H Wesley; Linkenbach, Jeffrey W; Lewis, Melissa A; Neighbors, Clayton

    2010-10-01

    This research evaluated the efficacy of a high-intensity social norms media marketing campaign aimed at correcting normative misperceptions and reducing the prevalence of drinking and driving among 21-to-34-year-olds in Montana. A quasi-experimental design was used, such that regions of Montana were assigned to one of three experimental groups: social norms media marketing campaign, buffer, and control. Four random samples of Montanans between the ages of 21 and 34 were assessed at four time points over 18 months via phone surveys. Findings suggest that the social norms media campaign was successful at exposing the targeted population to social norms messages in the counties within the intervention region. Moreover, results demonstrate the campaign reduced normative misperceptions, increased use of designated drivers, and decreased drinking and driving among those young adults in counties within the intervention region. Social norms media marketing can be effective at changing drinking-related behaviors at the population level. This research provides a model for utilizing social norms media marketing to address other behaviors related to public health.

  11. Annotations on the use of the Mexican norms for the WAIS-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Pedro Sanchez; Hollingworth, Liz

    2009-07-01

    This article provides crucial information to judge the appropriateness of the Mexican version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition and recognizes some limitations in both the process of its adaptation to the Mexican population and the norm development process. This is an effort to contribute to the debate initiated by Suen and Greenspan (2008), who argued in court against the use of Mexican norms in a death penalty case, which depended upon establishing the diagnosis of mental retardation. As a part of the defense team, these scholars argued a number of points against the use of the Mexican norms. With input from the lead researcher on the Mexican standardization process, some of the criticisms are addressed, and further information about the norm development process for this test in Mexico is provided in an attempt to be critical about the strengths and weaknesses of the use of existing Mexican norms. Finally, we argue that results from a single test must not be used to make life and death decisions and that test development is a continuous process influenced by culture, language, and indeed by norm-developing procedures and debates.

  12. Effectiveness of social norms media marketing in reducing drinking and driving: A statewide campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkenbach, Jeffrey W.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated the efficacy of a high-intensity social norms media marketing campaign aimed at correcting normative misperceptions and reducing the prevalence of drinking and driving among 21-to-34-year-olds in Montana. A quasi-experimental design was used, such that regions of Montana were assigned to one of three experimental groups: social norms media marketing campaign, buffer, and control. Four random samples of Montanans between the ages of 21 and 34 were assessed at four time points over 18 months via phone surveys. Findings suggest that the social norms media campaign was successful at exposing the targeted population to social norms messages in the counties within the intervention region. Moreover, results demonstrate the campaign reduced normative misperceptions, increased use of designated drivers, and decreased drinking and driving among those young adults in counties within the intervention region. Social norms media marketing can be effective at changing drinking-related behaviors at the population level. This research provides a model for utilizing social norms media marketing to address other behaviors related to public health. PMID:20619177

  13. "Who Doesn't?"--The Impact of Descriptive Norms on Corruption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils C Köbis

    Full Text Available Corruption poses one of the major societal challenges of our time. Considerable advances have been made in understanding corruption on a macro level, yet the psychological antecedents of corrupt behavior remain largely unknown. In order to explain why some people engage in corruption while others do not, we explored the impact of descriptive social norms on corrupt behavior by using a novel behavioral measure of corruption. We conducted three studies to test whether perceived descriptive norms of corruption (i.e. the belief about the prevalence of corruption in a specific context influence corrupt behavior. The results indicated that descriptive norms highly correlate with corrupt behavior--both when measured before (Study 1 or after (Study 2 the behavioral measure of corruption. Finally, we adopted an experimental design to investigate the causal effect of descriptive norms on corruption (Study 3. Corrupt behavior in the corruption game significantly drops when participants receive short anti-corruption descriptive norm primes prior to the game. These findings indicate that perceived descriptive norms can impact corrupt behavior and, possibly, could offer an explanation for inter-personal and inter-cultural variation in corrupt behavior in the real world. We discuss implications of these findings and draw avenues for future research.

  14. Climate and habitat interact to shape the thermal reaction norms of breeding phenology across lizard populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutschmann, Alexis; Miles, Donald B; Le Galliard, Jean-François; Richard, Murielle; Moulherat, Sylvain; Sinervo, Barry; Clobert, Jean

    2016-03-01

    Substantial plastic variation in phenology in response to environmental heterogeneity through time in the same population has been uncovered in many species. However, our understanding of differences in reaction norms of phenology among populations from a given species remains limited. As the plasticity of phenological traits is often influenced by local thermal conditions, we expect local temperature to generate variation in the reaction norms between populations. Here, we explored temporal variation in parturition date across 11 populations of the common lizard (Zootoca vivipara) from four mountain chains as a function of air temperatures during mid-gestation. We characterized among-population variation to assess how local weather conditions (mean and variance of ambient temperatures during mid-gestation) and habitat openness (an index of anthropogenic disturbance) influence the thermal reaction norms of the parturition date. Our results provide evidence of interactive effects of anthropogenic disturbance and thermal conditions, with earlier parturition dates in warmer years on average especially in closed habitats. Variation in the reaction norms for parturition date was correlated with mean local thermal conditions at a broad geographical scale. However, populations exposed to variable thermal conditions had flatter thermal reaction norms. Assessing whether environmental heterogeneity drives differentiation among reaction norms is crucial to estimate the capacity of different populations to contend with projected climatic and anthropogenic challenges.

  15. Collective learning for the emergence of social norms in networked multiagent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chao; Zhang, Minjie; Ren, Fenghui

    2014-12-01

    Social norms such as social rules and conventions play a pivotal role in sustaining system order by regulating and controlling individual behaviors toward a global consensus in large-scale distributed systems. Systematic studies of efficient mechanisms that can facilitate the emergence of social norms enable us to build and design robust distributed systems, such as electronic institutions and norm-governed sensor networks. This paper studies the emergence of social norms via learning from repeated local interactions in networked multiagent systems. A collective learning framework, which imitates the opinion aggregation process in human decision making, is proposed to study the impact of agent local collective behaviors on the emergence of social norms in a number of different situations. In the framework, each agent interacts repeatedly with all of its neighbors. At each step, an agent first takes a best-response action toward each of its neighbors and then combines all of these actions into a final action using ensemble learning methods. Extensive experiments are carried out to evaluate the framework with respect to different network topologies, learning strategies, numbers of actions, influences of nonlearning agents, and so on. Experimental results reveal some significant insights into the manipulation and control of norm emergence in networked multiagent systems achieved through local collective behaviors.

  16. CEM V based special cementitious materials investigated by means of SANS method. Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragolici, A. C.; Balasoiu, M.; Orelovich, O. L.; Ionascu, L.; Nicu, M.; Soloviov, D. V.; Kuklin, A. I.; Lizunov, E. I.; Dragolici, F.

    2017-05-01

    The management of the radioactive waste assume the conditioning in a cement matrix as an embedding, stable, disposal material. Cement matrix is the first and most important engineering barrier against the migration in the environment of the radionuclides contained in the waste packages. Knowing how the microstructure develops is therefore desirable in order to assess the compatibility of radioactive streams with cement and predict waste form performance during storage and disposal. For conditioning wastes containing radioactive aluminum new formulas of low basicity cements, using coatings as a barrier between the metal and the conditioning environment or introducing a corrosion inhibitor in the matrix system are required. Preliminary microstructure investigation of such improved CEM V based cement matrix is reported.

  17. Evaluation of benefits resulting from innovation of input raw materials dosing process in sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Besta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Production of blast furnace sinter is among the processes with the highest energy and material requirements. Fuel consumption is especially significant cost item here. The presence of grate sintered in charge, i.e. return sinter from 12 to 22 mm in size, can have fundamental impact on the technical and economic indicators of the sintering process. Grate sinter can be used as a foundation layer under the sintering mixture, to increase air permeability of charge and to improve the gas-dynamic conditions. The article analyzes the impact of grate sinter on the sintering process, based on an analysis of the acquired production indicators within the scope of the research in question.

  18. Preliminary result on the enhancement of Ufer electrodes using recycle additives materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Muhammad Haziq Aniq Bin; Ahmad, Hussein Bin

    2016-11-01

    Ground building pillars is to be used as ground rod. The pillars are design, fabricated, and formulated with new ground fillers. The additives will be used from recycle waste materials mainly from the palm oil plant process. Micro scale building pillars will be fabricated and install in the test ground at all of the location. Earth tester meter are used to measure and collect the data of the soil resistivity when the research is conducted. In collecting these data, 3-terminal methods are used to carry the measurements. This experiment will be conducted for 30 weeks and regular measurements at the test ground copper grids will be conducted to measure the ground electrode resistance. The study will mainly base on IEC 62503-3. The used of reinforcing rods and mixture of recycle additives could produce a better grounding system that are suitable and can be used in all kind of soil condition and large industries.

  19. Solid Silicone Elastomer Material(DC745U)-Historical Overview and New Experimental Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-Acosta, Denisse [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-08

    DC745U is a silicone elastomer used in several weapon systems. DC745U is manufactured by Dow Corning and its formulation is proprietary. Risk changes without notification to the customer. {sup 1}H and {sup 29}Si{l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace} NMR have previously determined that DC745U contains {approx} 98.5% dimethyl siloxane, {approx}1.5% methyl-phenyl siloxane, and a small amount (<1%) of vinyl siloxane repeat units that are converted to crosslinking sites. The polymer is filled with {approx} 38 wt.% of a mixture of fumed silica and quartz. Some conclusions are: (1) DMA shows that crystallization does have an effect on the mechanical properties of DC745U; (2) DMA shows that the crystallization is time and temperature dependent; (3) Mechanical tests show that DC745U undergo a crystalline transition at temperatures below -50 C; (4) Rate and temperature does not have an effect above crystalline transition; (5) Crystalline transition occurs faster at colder temperatures; (6) The material remains responsive and recovers after warming it to temperature above -40 C; (7) We were able to review all previous historical data on DC745U; (8) Identified specific gaps in materials understanding; (9) Developed design of experiments and testing methods to address gaps associated with post-curing and low temperature mechanical behavior; (10) Resolved questions of post-cure and alleviated concerns associated with low temperature mechanical behavior with soak time and temperature; and (11) This work is relevant to mission-critical programs and for supporting programmatic work for weapon research.

  20. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  1. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  2. The standards and norms for the Slovenian academic libraries between theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Dolgan-Petrič

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on statistical data, contemporary trends within academic libraries in the Republic of Slovenia are presented. The substantially slow increase of library materials, along with lesser increase of staff, contradicts the growing number of library visits and circulation. The paper elaborates on outstanding differences regarding personnel, financial, and spatial issues of the libraries concerned. The comparison between the professional and govemmental standards and norms is presented. At a time when academic libraries are faced with the dilemma of growing demand from users at the same time as budgetary constraint there is an urgent need to develop a list of performance indicators and to modernize professional standards and norms for academic libraries.The elaboration of new standards must be based on empirical studies. Only realistic and clearly defined norms would enable the implementation of standards and improve the quality and efficiency of academic libraries.

  3. Setting radon-specific release criteria and demonstrating compliance for land affected by NORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Talavera, M. [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN), Justo Dorado 11, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: mgtm@csn.es; Martinez, M.; Matarranz, J.L.M.; Ramos, L. [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN), Justo Dorado 11, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    Residues from industrial activities involving naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) may cause radiation exposures to members of the public, particularly when NORM-affected land is brought into residential use. To provide an adequate protection against radiation in such situations, the following limiting criteria are currently required in Spain for releasing NORM-affected land: (i) no more than a 300 {mu}Sv yr{sup -1} increase (excluding radon doses) over the natural background; (ii) {sup 222}Rn concentrations in hypothetical future dwellings lower than 200 Bq m{sup -3}; and (iii) reduction of all radiation exposures to as low as reasonable achievable. This paper addresses some of the problems encountered in translating the {sup 222}Rn criterion into site-specific release limits and in demonstrating compliance with them.

  4. Monitoring of NORM in the offshore production of oil and gas; Monitoramento de NORM na producao offshore de oleo e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Joao Mario Fernandes de, E-mail: jmfjesus@petrobras.com.br [Petroleo Brasileiro S. A. (UO-ES/PETROBRAS), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Unidade de Operacoes de Exploracao e Producao do Espirito Santo

    2013-07-01

    This paper evaluates the levels of radioactivity (dose rates of gamma radiation) in the elements of the production unit FPSO (floating production, storage and offloading) process that show the presence of fouling and / or radioactive waste and its evolution over time, comparing with previous reviews. The radioactivity is detected due to the presence of NORM - Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, consisting predominantly of BaSO4, containing radio, radioactive natural element, which presents itself as the Ra-226 and Ra-228 isotopes. The detection of radioactivity in equipment/piping indicates the presence of scaling and/or sludge containing naturally radioactive material (NORM), but the absence of radioactivity does not exclude the presence of scale or sludge, as this may consist of non-radioactive material, as CaCO3. Gamma radiation has the property to pass through the construction element (steel) of the lines and equipment, allowing detection of radioactive material within them without the need of opening. This monitoring was implemented due to the history of radioactive inlays in the Espirito Santo basin. These data contribute to decision-making on strategy of dosage of anti-fouling applied in the production system, enable the classification of areas according to the norm CNEN-NN-3.01, as well as guide to the occupational safety and hygiene procedures during interventions (openings, entrances and cleaning) on the elements of process.

  5. An Abbreviated Tool for Assessing Feminine Norm Conformity: Psychometric Properties of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Mike C.; Moradi, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    The Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45 (CFNI-45; Parent & Moradi, 2010) is an important tool for assessing level of conformity to feminine gender norms and for investigating the implications of such norms for women's functioning. The authors of the present study assessed the factor structure, measurement invariance, reliability, and…

  6. Norm assessment in water treatment systems/Pocos de Caldas-BR case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, A.M. [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), MG (Brazil); Villegas, R.A.S.; Fukuma, H.T. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    NORM is the acronym used to refer to naturally occurring radioactive materials. Besides being objects of study and monitoring such materials can be used as raw material or as by-products or waste of industrial activities. Oil and gas, mining and water treatment are examples of facilities that can handle NORM. In such cases, their concentration at significant levels from the perspective of environmental and occupational radiation protection may occur. This study aims to evaluate the presence of the natural radioactive {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series in the treatment of city water elements Pocos de Caldas - MG (water, materials and waste). The study can serve as an indication of the necessity of a more detailed review in the locally and in the country on this radiological issue. (author)

  7. Donald Trump as a Cultural Revolt Against Perceived Communication Restriction: Priming Political Correctness Norms Causes More Trump Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Gideon Conway

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Donald Trump has consistently performed better politically than his negative polling indicators suggested he would. Although there is a tendency to think of Trump support as reflecting ideological conservatism, we argue that part of his support during the election came from a non-ideological source: The preponderant salience of norms restricting communication (Political Correctness – or PC – norms. This perspective suggests that these norms, while successfully reducing the amount of negative communication in the short term, may produce more support for negative communication in the long term. In this framework, support for Donald Trump was in part the result of over-exposure to PC norms. Consistent with this, on a sample of largely politically moderate Americans taken during the General Election in the Fall of 2016, we show that temporarily priming PC norms significantly increased support for Donald Trump (but not Hillary Clinton. We further show that chronic emotional reactance towards restrictive communication norms positively predicted support for Trump (but not Clinton, and that this effect remains significant even when controlling for political ideology. In total, this work provides evidence that norms that are designed to increase the overall amount of positive communication can actually backfire by increasing support for a politician who uses extremely negative language that explicitly violates the norm.

  8. Do different types of social identity moderate the association between perceived descriptive norms and drinking among college students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Neighbors, Clayton

    2014-09-01

    Perceived descriptive norms are one of the strongest predictors of college drinking. Social Identity Theory posits that much of our identity is based on groups with which we affiliate. Prior research suggests that there is an association between perceived descriptive norms and drinking among those who identify more strongly with the normative referent group. However, no studies to date have examined how different facets of social identity affect the relationship between perceived descriptive norms and drinking. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the interaction between perceived descriptive norms and social identity on drinking varied as a function of different dimensions of social identity among college students. Participants were 1095 college students from a large, public, southern university who completed an online survey about drinking behaviors and related attitudes. Drinks per week was examined as a function of norms, the Importance, Commitment, Deference, and Superiority subscales of the Measure of Identification with Groups, as well as the two-way interactions between each dimension of social identity and norms. Results indicated that norms were associated with drinking, but that this relationship varied as a function of identity dimension. The association between norms and drinking was stronger among those who viewed the university's student body as part of their own identity and were more committed to their fellow students, but weaker among those who reported greater deference to student leaders. This research suggests the importance of examining multiple dimensions of social identity in considering social influences on drinking. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Measurement of volume change in cementitious materials at early ages - Review of testing protocols and interpretation of results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sant, Gaurav; Lura, Pietro; Weiss, Jason

    2006-01-01

    Early-age cracking in concrete bridge decks, pavements, and superstructure elements has served as the impetus for substantial research on early-age shrinkage in cementitious materials. Much of this research has indicated how mixture proportions, constituent materials, and construction operations...... measurement in a rigid mold, and the ASTM C 157 standard. The results of the autogenous and chemical shrinkage tests are compared with one another to describe fully early-age length change. It is shown that through careful experimentation and interpretation, the results of these tests can be completely...

  10. Verbal Venting in the Social Web: Effects of Anonymity and Group Norms on Aggressive Language Use in Online Comments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Rösner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Scholars often blame the occurrence of aggressive behavior in online discussions on the anonymity of the Internet; however, even on today’s less anonymous platforms, such as social networking sites, users write plenty of aggressive comments, which can elicit a whole wave of negative remarks. Drawing on the social identity and deindividuation effects (SIDE model, this research conducts a laboratory experiment with a 2 (anonymity vs. no anonymity × 2 (aggressive norm vs. non-aggressive norm between-subjects design in order to disentangle the effects of anonymity, social group norms, and their interactions on aggressive language use in online comments. Results reveal that participants used more aggressive expressions in their comments when peer comments on a blog included aggressive wording (i.e., the social group norm was aggressive. Anonymity had no direct effect; however, we found a tendency that users’ conformity to an aggressive social norm of commenting is stronger in an anonymous environment.

  11. Social norms and cooperation in real-life social dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2008-01-01

    types of normative beliefs make it difficult to test the interaction hypothesis. By using structural equation modelling with residual centering these problems are overcome and the interaction hypothesis is confirmed. The result is stable across three replications spanning a two-year period.......The hypothesis that injunctive and descriptive norms interact positively or synergistically to promote cooperation in social dilemmas is tested in the context of a survey study focusing on environmentally responsible behaviour. Measurement error and strong and positive correlations between the two...

  12. p-Norm SDD tensors and eigenvalue localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qilong Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a new class of nonsingular tensors (p-norm strictly diagonally dominant tensors, which is a subclass of strong H $\\mathcal{H}$ -tensors. As applications of the results, we give a new eigenvalue inclusion set, which is tighter than those provided by Li et al. (Linear Multilinear Algebra 64:727-736, 2016 in some case. Based on this set, we give a checkable sufficient condition for the positive (semidefiniteness of an even-order symmetric tensor.

  13. Dictator Game Giving: The Importance of Descriptive versus Injunctive Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raihani, Nichola J; McAuliffe, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Human behaviour is influenced by social norms but norms can entail two types of information. Descriptive norms refer to what others do in this context, while injunctive norms refer to what ought to be done to ensure social approval. In many real-world situations these norms are often presented concurrently meaning that their independent effects on behaviour are difficult to establish. Here we used an online Dictator Game to test how descriptive and injunctive norms would influence dictator donations when presented independently of one another. In addition, we varied the cost of complying with the norm: By stating that $0.20 or $0.50 cent donations from a $1 stake were normal or suggested, respectively. Specifying a higher target amount was associated with increased mean donation size. In contrast to previous studies, descriptive norms did not seem to influence giving behaviour in this context, whereas injunctive norms were associated with increased likelihood to give at least the target amount to the partner. This raises the question of whether injunctive norms might be more effective than descriptive norms at promoting prosocial behaviour in other settings.

  14. Bundles of Norms About Teen Sex and Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Sennott, Christie

    2015-09-01

    Teen pregnancy is a cultural battleground in struggles over morality, education, and family. At its heart are norms about teen sex, contraception, pregnancy, and abortion. Analyzing 57 interviews with college students, we found that "bundles" of related norms shaped the messages teens hear. Teens did not think their communities encouraged teen sex or pregnancy, but normative messages differed greatly, with either moral or practical rationalizations. Teens readily identified multiple norms intended to regulate teen sex, contraception, abortion, childbearing, and the sanctioning of teen parents. Beyond influencing teens' behavior, norms shaped teenagers' public portrayals and post hoc justifications of their behavior. Although norm bundles are complex to measure, participants could summarize them succinctly. These bundles and their conflicting behavioral prescriptions create space for human agency in negotiating normative pressures. The norm bundles concept has implications for teen pregnancy prevention policies and can help revitalize social norms for understanding health behaviors.

  15. The motivational roots of norms for environmentally responsible behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    consumers (N = 206). Each questionnaire contained standard items measuring subjective social and personal norms for the purchase of organic food, self-reported buying behaviour, and a "hard laddering" instrument probing reasons and motives for doing so. As expected, participants' means-end associations......This paper investigates whether norms guiding environmentally desirable behaviour are genuinely internalized and integrated into the person's cognitive and goal structures or just shallowly "introjected" social norms. Internet-based questionnaires were administered to a stratified sample of Danish...... to the studied behaviour differ significantly depending on the strength of their norms and the two types of norms differ in their embeddedness in the person's cognitive structures. The behavioural influence of subjective social norms and expressed reasons and motives is mediated through personal norms...

  16. The motivational roots of norms for environmentally responsible behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2007-01-01

    consumers (N = 206). Each questionnaire contained standard items measuring subjective social and personal norms for the purchase of organic food, self-reported buying behaviour, and a "hard laddering" instrument probing reasons and motives for doing so. As expected, participants' means-end associations......This paper investigates whether norms guiding environmentally desirable behaviour are genuinely internalized and integrated into the person's cognitive and goal structures or just shallowly "introjected" social norms. Internet-based questionnaires were administered to a stratified sample of Danish...... to the studied behaviour differ significantly depending on the strength of their norms and the two types of norms differ in their embeddedness in the person's cognitive structures. The behavioural influence of subjective social norms and expressed reasons and motives is mediated through personal norms...

  17. Influence of the extraction parameters on the cytotoxicity test results of Mg materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xiaoli Liu Tingfei Xi Yudong Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Recently more and more researchers query the predictability of cytotoxicity results of biomedical Mg alloys obtained according to ISO 10993 due to significant difference between in vitro and in vivo corrosion...

  18. Preparation and characterisation of in-house reference material of tylosin in honey and results of a proficiency test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm, Detlef A; Stachel, Carolin S; Hackenberg, Rudolf; Gowik, Petra

    2011-08-26

    The analysis of incurred material from animals treated with pharmacologically active substances is an efficient way to check the accuracy of a method. Tylosin A was chosen for the preparation of that material because it is highly effective in controlling active infections of American Foulbrood (AFB), a global threat to apiculture, but residues in honey are not allowed according to European legislation. For this reason an in-house reference material of honey containing the macrolide tylosin A and its degradation product desmycosin (tylosin B) was prepared. After the treatment of a beehive with the appropriate macrolide tylosin A, the honey samples were collected. The incurred honey material was diluted by mixing with blank honey. Concentrations of 25.81 μg kg(-1) for tylosin A and of 19.28 μg kg(-1) for its degradation product desmycosin (tylosin B) were reached. The homogeneity was checked by analysing 12 bottles in duplicate. The stability was tested at different defined temperatures and storage conditions. The reference material described above was homogeneous and stable. Samples of this in-house reference material were used for the realisation of a proficiency test with international participation. All participants accomplished satisfying results with the exception of one laboratory. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Natural radioactivity in aerosols of two industries in the industrial NORM Huelva; Radiactividad natural en aerosoles de dos industrial NORM en el polo industrial de Huelva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, R. L.; Miguel, E. G.; Bolivar, J. P.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.

    2011-07-01

    The industrial hub of Huelva has several industries that qualify as NORM industries. in this context, between 2006 and 2008 has developed a detailed study of the concentrations of various radionuclides present in the atmospheric particulate material present inside the premises of two of these industries, one dedicated to the production dioxide titanium from ilmenite ore and slag, and another dedicated to the production of fertilizer from phosphate rock. (Author)

  20. Ceramic material life prediction: A program to translate ANSYS results to CARES/LIFE reliability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonhermann, Pieter; Pintz, Adam

    1994-01-01

    This manual describes the use of the ANSCARES program to prepare a neutral file of FEM stress results taken from ANSYS Release 5.0, in the format needed by CARES/LIFE ceramics reliability program. It is intended for use by experienced users of ANSYS and CARES. Knowledge of compiling and linking FORTRAN programs is also required. Maximum use is made of existing routines (from other CARES interface programs and ANSYS routines) to extract the finite element results and prepare the neutral file for input to the reliability analysis. FORTRAN and machine language routines as described are used to read the ANSYS results file. Sub-element stresses are computed and written to a neutral file using FORTRAN subroutines which are nearly identical to those used in the NASCARES (MSC/NASTRAN to CARES) interface.

  1. The Effects of Liking Norms and Descriptive Norms on Vegetable Consumption: A Randomized Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jason M; Liu, Jinyu; Robinson, Eric L; Aveyard, Paul; Herman, C Peter; Higgs, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that social norm messages can be used to promote the selection of fruit and vegetables in low habitual consumers of these foods but it is unclear whether this effect is sustained over time. It is also unclear whether information about others' liking for a food (liking norm) could have the same effect. Using a 2 × 5 × 2 experimental design we investigated the effects of exposure to various messages on later intake from a food buffet and whether any effects were sustained 24 h after exposure in both low and high consumers of vegetables. There were three factors: delay (immediate food selection vs. food selection 24 h after exposure), message type (liking norm, descriptive norm, health message, vegetable variety condition, and neutral control message), and habitual consumption (low vs. high). The buffet consisted of three raw vegetables, three energy-dense foods, and two dips. For vegetables and non-vegetables there were no main effects of message type, nor any main effect of delay. There was a significant message × habitual vegetable consumption interaction for vegetable consumption; however, follow up tests did not yield any significant effects. Examining each food individually, there were no main effects of message type, nor any main effect of delay, for any of the foods; however, there was a message × habitual vegetable consumption interaction for broccoli. Consumption of broccoli in the health message and descriptive norm conditions did not differ from the control neutral condition. However, habitually low consumers of vegetables increased their consumption of broccoli in the vegetable variety and liking norm conditions relative to habitual low vegetable consumers in the neutral control condition (p vegetable variety condition on vegetable intake is warranted. This trial is listed as NCT02618174 at clinicaltrials.gov.

  2. Analysis of Particulate and Chemical Residue Resulting from Exposure to Burning and Abrading Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    glass-graphite, and boron -graphite hybrid composites due to combinations of burning and impact. The results were inconclusive regarding threats to...particulates produced in the fire. Physiologic tests were not performed as part of this study, so it cannot be confirmed that the rod-shaped

  3. Finding approximately rank-one submatrices with the nuclear norm and l1 norm

    CERN Document Server

    Doan, Xuan Vinh

    2010-01-01

    We propose a convex optimization formulation with the nuclear norm and $\\ell_1$-norm to find a large approximately rank-one submatrix of a given nonnegative matrix. We develop optimality conditions for the formulation and characterize the properties of the optimal solutions. We establish conditions under which the optimal solution of the convex formulation has a specific sparse structure. Finally, we show that, under certain hypotheses, with high probability, the approach can recover the rank-one submatrix even when it is corrupted with random noise and inserted as a submatrix into a much larger random noise matrix.

  4. Materials and Coatings Damage Resulting from Environmental Degradation Aboard Naval Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Lemieux

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance and preservation of seawater and fuel, ballast tanks and voids resulting from the environmental degradation of coatings present a unique and costly problem for the United States Naval Fleet. Present methods of inspection require human entry into the tanks only after a series of measurements have been taken to ensure safety. With the advent of remotely operated vehicles and cameras having a high level of accuracy and functionality, it has now become economically feasible to employ these instruments for the inspection of tanks and voids of the United States Naval Fleet. This paper presents two unique remotely operated inspections systems, which allow for unmanned inspection of tanks and voids along with quantitative results of the damaged coating areas.

  5. Comparative results of end colostomy for low rectal cancer using alloplastic material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Gataullin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of research on the causes affecting in the development of para-colostomy complications after abdomino-perineal extirpation of the rectum for cancer patients, who were treated by us from 2005 to 2012 found that the development of complications para-colostomy affects in the age of patient, comorbidity, severity of anemia, and obesity. Allocation of risk and patient groups at increased risk for complications allows differentiated approach to their prevention.

  6. Localized Electron Trap Modification as a Result of Space Weather Exposure in Highly Disordered Insulating Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-06

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2017-0064 TR-2017-0064 LOCALIZED ELECTRON TRAP MODIFICATION AS A RESULT OF SPACE WEATHER EXPOSURE IN HIGHLY DISORDERED... foreign nationals. Copies may be obtained from the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) (http://www.dtic.mil). AFRL-RV-PS-TR-2017-0064 HAS...AFRL Battlespace Environment Division This report is published in the interest of scientific and technical information exchange , and its

  7. [The estimation of penetrating of microbes by the protective clothing and textile medical devices, according to obligatory norms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareba, Tomasz; Zych, Magdalena; Kruszewska, Hanna; Mrówka, Agnieszka; Wasińska, Ewa; Tyski, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Textile medical products can be widely used as barrier materials and individual protection against biological threats. Rules of introducing such products to market are regulated by the Directive 93/42/ EEC. Detailed requirements and testing methods of textile medical products are presented in obligatory norms. The required level of protection of these products against the penetration of microbes depends on the risk connected with planned type surgical procedure, the duration of the surgical intervention, risks of bleeding or presences of other body liquids of the patient and susceptibilities of the patient to infection. The aim of the study was to establish resistance of medical textiles to wet bacterial penetration. Materials were examined by the apparatus dedicated to this type of testing and obtained results were rated with reference to obligatory contracted requirements. assured Textiles laminated with foils possessed best protective proprieties, whereas medical products made from the cotton do not provide the sufficient level of the protection against microbes.

  8. Possible landscapes in norms: how are they designed and communicated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Marques Zyngier

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban landscapes are the result of transformations which occur in different time and space scales. When considering a wider time scale, landscapes are the result of applying norms of land use and occupancy, configuring punctual volumes which form, when added together, a complex whole. In a shorter time scale, urban interventions are transformations as precise as surgeries, stirred by entrepreneurism. Considering these observations about how formally planned landscapes are formed, a few questions are raised, motivating this investigation: can a community – which inhabits, observes and constructs in any given landscape – understand, accompany and approve a new spatial configuration, transformed by interventions and controls? Is it possible to contribute, in any way, towards urban managements, promoting the science behind proposals and possibilities within the norms which model a landscape? What is the state-of-the-art of these transformations, especially in the changes promoted by urban management resulting from legislations? From these initial inquiries, a main question sums up the aim of this paper: How the possibilities which involve a designed urban landscape are communicated? Therefore, it’s interesting to analyze case studies in order to elucidate this guiding question. Two territorial realities, as pilot areas, are going to aid this investigation, regarding their similarities and differences.

  9. Representation of WBR0-algebras by Pt-norms and Ps-norms%WBR0-代数的Pt-模和Ps-模表示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娜; 吴洪博

    2014-01-01

    Triangular norms and implication operators are interdependent and basic operators in logic algebras, but WBR0-algebras are logic algebras that are defined on general set only using implication operators. The WBR0-algebras have been studied in depth. The form of Pt-norm(t-norms on posets)on WBR0-algebras is given;the equivalence repre-sentation of WBR0-algebras has been obtained on posets through Pt-norms and implication operators;it is proved that the binary operation Å in the original definition of the WBR0-algebras is the Ps-norm(s-norm on posets)of WBR0-algebras. The results of this paper have positive reference value to the further study of WBR0-algebras and the relevant logic algebras.%三角模和蕴涵算子是逻辑代数中的一对相互关联的基本算子,而WBR0-代数是仅以蕴涵算子为基本算子定义于一般集合上的逻辑代数。对WBR0-代数进行了再研究。给出了WBR0-代数的Pt-模(偏序集上的t-模)的表现形式;在偏序集上通过 Pt-模结合蕴涵算子给出了WBR0-代数的表示形式;证明了WBR0-代数原始定义中的二元运算Å是WBR0-代数的Ps-模(偏序集上的s-模)。结果对进一步探讨WBR0-代数及其相关的逻辑代数有积极的参考价值。

  10. Macro-level Age Norms for the Timing of Sexual Initiation and Adolescents’ Early Sexual Initiation in 17 European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; de Looze, Margaretha; Ma, Ping; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Farhat, Tilda; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Ehlinger, Virginie; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Currie, Candace; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between country-level age norms for sexual initiation timing and early sexual initiation (ESI) among adolescent boys and girls. Methods Nationally-representative data from 17 countries that participated in the 2006/07 European Social Survey (ESS-3, n=33,092) and the 2005/06 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC, n=27,702) were analyzed. Age norms were measured as the average country-level response to an item asking the age at which ESS respondents believed someone is too young to have sexual intercourse. HBSC respondents (aged 14-16) self-reported age at sexual initiation which we defined as early (<15 years) or not (≥15 years or no initiation). Control variables included age, family affluence, perceived socioeconomic status, family living arrangement, substance use, school attachment, and country-level legal age of consent. Multivariable three-level logistic models with random intercepts were run separately by sex. Results In multivariable analyses, higher overall age norms were associated with reduced likelihood of ESI among girls (AOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.45-0.79); associations with ESI were stronger for parent cohort (ages 31-65) norms (AOR 0.37, 95% CI 0.23-0.58) than for peer cohort (ages 15-20) norms (AOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.49-0.74). For boys, overall norms were also significantly negatively associated with ESI (AOR 0.68, 95% CI 0.46-0.99), as were parent cohort norms (AOR 0.66, 95% CI 0.45-0.96). Peer cohort norms were not significantly related to boys’ ESI. Conclusion Macro-level cultural norms may impact adolescents’ sexual initiation timing. Research exploring the sexual health outcomes of early initiators in countries with contrasting age norms is warranted. PMID:24508092

  11. UK population norms for EQ-5D

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Kind; Geoffrey Hardman; Susan Macran

    1999-01-01

    This discussion paper presents data from the Department of Health funded Measurement and Valuation of Health survey conducted at the Centre for Health Economics in 1993. This was a nationally representative interview survey of 3395 men and women aged 18 or over living in the UK. Amongst other things, the survey collected information on health status using the EuroQol (EQ-5D) descriptive system. The data is presented as a series of tables of age/sex population norms for the EQ-5D, for both sel...

  12. CORPEX{reg_sign} NORM decontamination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azrak, R.G.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes a commecial process which has been developed for application to the remediation of NORM deposits on metal parts or embedded in scales on such parts. The process employs a registered chemical process, involving non-RCRA regulated chemicals, which can remove fixed {sup 226,228}Radium, {sup 210}Lead, and {sup 210}Polonium. The author describes the capabilities of the chemical process which has been developed, the way it is offered to potential customers as a practical process, and numerous examples of its application in the field.

  13. Making Norms to Tackle Global Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that Intergovernmental Organisations (IGOs) can play a significant role in the processes of system transformation required by Grand Challenges. The reason is their potential to influence socio-technical regimes connected to policy areas in which they have authority. Supported...... public and private actors, IGOs implement and protect novel practices that reinforce the new norms, from legally binding agreements to the creation of new spaces for international collaboration. These processes are examined here in the field of global health, where outside pressure directed...

  14. Influence of Thomson effect on the resultant local Seebeck coefficient in thermoelectric composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Osamu; Odahara, Hirotaka; Ochi, Takahiro; Satou, Kouji

    2009-01-01

    The resultant local Seebeck coefficient α R (= α S- α T) at the interface of a thermoelement has not yet been measured, although it is an important factor governing the thermoelectric efficiency, where α S is the local Seebeck coefficient and α T is the one caused by the Thomson effect. It is shown in this paper that α S, α T, and α R of the p- and n-type Cu/Bi Te/Cu composites are obtained analytically and experimentally on the assumption that the local temperature of the composite on which the temperature difference Δ T is imposed varies linearly with changes in position along the composite. They were indeed estimated as a function of position from the local experimental data of R,Δ I,Δ T, and V generated by applying an additional current of ± I to the composite, where R is the electrical resistance and Δ I is a current generated by the composite. As a result, it was found that the absolute values of α S at the hot interface of the p- and n-type composites are approximately 1.5 and 1.4 times higher than their lowest values in the middle region of the composite, respectively, while those of α T are less than 8% of α S all over the composite and are so small that the relation α R≈ α S can be held. We thus succeeded in measuring α R at the interfaces of the composite.

  15. Risk of false decision on conformity of a multicomponent material when test results of the components' content are correlated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuselman, Ilya; Pennecchi, Francesca R; da Silva, Ricardo J N B; Hibbert, D Brynn

    2017-11-01

    The probability of a false decision on conformity of a multicomponent material due to measurement uncertainty is discussed when test results are correlated. Specification limits of the components' content of such a material generate a multivariate specification interval/domain. When true values of components' content and corresponding test results are modelled by multivariate distributions (e.g. by multivariate normal distributions), a total global risk of a false decision on the material conformity can be evaluated based on calculation of integrals of their joint probability density function. No transformation of the raw data is required for that. A total specific risk can be evaluated as the joint posterior cumulative function of true values of a specific batch or lot lying outside the multivariate specification domain, when the vector of test results, obtained for the lot, is inside this domain. It was shown, using a case study of four components under control in a drug, that the correlation influence on the risk value is not easily predictable. To assess this influence, the evaluated total risk values were compared with those calculated for independent test results and also with those assuming much stronger correlation than that observed. While the observed statistically significant correlation did not lead to a visible difference in the total risk values in comparison to the independent test results, the stronger correlation among the variables caused either the total risk decreasing or its increasing, depending on the actual values of the test results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sample Size Requirements for Traditional and Regression-Based Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhuis, Hannah E M; van der Ark, L Andries; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2016-04-01

    Test norms enable determining the position of an individual test taker in the group. The most frequently used approach to obtain test norms is traditional norming. Regression-based norming may be more efficient than traditional norming and is rapidly growing in popularity, but little is known about its technical properties. A simulation study was conducted to compare the sample size requirements for traditional and regression-based norming by examining the 95% interpercentile ranges for percentile estimates as a function of sample size, norming method, size of covariate effects on the test score, test length, and number of answer categories in an item. Provided the assumptions of the linear regression model hold in the data, for a subdivision of the total group into eight equal-size subgroups, we found that regression-based norming requires samples 2.5 to 5.5 times smaller than traditional norming. Sample size requirements are presented for each norming method, test length, and number of answer categories. We emphasize that additional research is needed to establish sample size requirements when the assumptions of the linear regression model are violated.

  17. High Temperature Steam Electrolysis Materials Degradation: Preliminary Results of Corrosion Tests on Ceramatec Electrolysis Cell Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Demkowicz; Prateek Sachdev; Kevin DeWall; Pavel Medvedev

    2007-06-01

    Corrosion tests were performed on stainless steel and nickel alloy coupons in H2O/H2 mixtures and dry air to simulate conditions experienced in high temperature steam electrolysis systems. The stainless steel coupons were tested bare and with one of three different proprietary coatings applied. Specimens were corroded at 850°C for 500 h with weight gain data recorded at periodic intervals. Post-test characterization of the samples included surface and cross-section scanning electron microscopy, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and area-specific resistance measurements. The uncoated nickel alloy outperformed the ferritic stainless steel under all test conditions based on weight gain data. Parabolic rate constants for corrosion of these two uncoated alloys were consistent with values presented in the literature under similar conditions. The steel coatings reduced corrosion rates in H2O/H2 mixtures by as much as 50% compared to the untreated steel, but in most cases showed negligible corrosion improvement in air. The use of a rare-earth-based coating on stainless steel did not result in a significantly different area specific resistance values after corrosion compared to the untreated alloy. Characterization of the samples is still in progress and the findings will be revised when the complete data set is available.

  18. Four-dimensional inversion of resistivity monitoring data through Lp norm minimizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Ho; Supper, Robert; Tsourlos, Panagiotis; Yi, Myeong-Jong

    2013-12-01

    A new 4-D inversion algorithm is developed so that any data misfits and model roughness in the space and time domains can be selectively minimized, in terms of either the L1 norm or the L2 norm. This study is motivated by the experience that a 4-D inversion adopting full L2 norm minimization may sometimes result in a model that is too smoothly varying with time. It is further encouraged by the realization that a particular criterion of either L1 or L2 norm cannot be universally optimal for accurately reconstructing the subsurface condition. In addition, we try to overcome difficulties of jointly choosing two optimal regularization parameters in space and time domains. To achieve this, we devise automatic determination methods, not only of the Lagrangian multipliers for the space-domain smoothness constraint, but also of the regularization parameter for penalizing the model roughness along the time axis. Both kinds of regularization parameters are actively updated at each iteration, according to variations in data misfit and model roughness. We conducted inversion experiments using synthetic and field monitoring data to test the proposed algorithms, and further to compare the performance of L1 and L2 norm minimizations. Both the synthetic and field data experiments demonstrated that the proposed automatic determination method produced ground changes that were more similar to the true changes than those of approaches using pre-determined parameter values. Inversion experiments showed that L1 norm minimization of the time-domain roughness could reduce the problem of overly smooth model changes when the subsurface changes are locally confined, but that the L2 norm approach would be more reasonable when the changes are expected to be widespread.

  19. Role of gender norms and group identification on hypothetical and experimental pain tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Gregory J; Schwegler, Andria F; Theodore, Brian R; Fuchs, Perry N

    2007-05-01

    Previous research indicates that men typically tolerate more pain in experimental settings than women. One likely explanation for these group differences in pain tolerance is conformity to traditional, gender group social norms (i.e., the ideal man is masculine and tolerates more pain; the ideal woman is feminine and tolerates less pain). According to self-categorization theory, norms guide behavior to the degree that group members adopt the group identity. Therefore, high-identifying men are expected to conform to gender norms and tolerate more pain than high-identifying women who conform to different gender norms as a guide for their behavior. We conducted two studies to investigate whether gender group identification moderates individuals' conformity to pain tolerance and reporting norms. In the first study, participants indicated their gender identification and expected tolerance of a hypothetical painful stimulus. As anticipated, high-identifying men reported significantly greater pain tolerance than high-identifying women. No differences existed between low-identifying men and women. To determine if self-reported pain tolerance in a role-playing scenario corresponds to actual pain tolerance in an experimental setting, the second study examined pain tolerance to a noxious stimulus induced by electrical stimulation of the index finger. The experimental outcome revealed that high-identifying men tolerated more painful stimulation than high-identifying women. Further, high-identifying men tolerated more pain than low-identifying men. These results highlight the influence of social norms on behavior and suggest the need to further explore the role of norms in pain reporting behaviors.

  20. Weight bias internalization scale: psychometric properties and population norms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Hilbert

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Internalizing the pervasive weight bias commonly directed towards individuals with overweight and obesity, co-occurs with increased psychopathology and impaired quality of life. This study sought to establish population norms and psychometric properties of the most widely used self-report questionnaire, the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS, in a representative community sample. DESIGN AND METHODS: In a survey of the German population, N = 1158 individuals with overweight and obesity were assessed with the WBIS and self-report measures for convergent validation. RESULTS: Item analysis revealed favorable item-total correlation of all but one WBIS item. With this item removed, item homogeneity and internal consistency were excellent. The one-factor structure of the WBIS was confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis. Convergent validity was shown through significant associations with measures of depressive and somatoform symptoms. The WBIS contributed to the explanation of variance in depressive and somatoform symptoms over and above body mass index. Higher WBIS scores were found in women than in men, in individuals with obesity than in individuals with overweight, and in those with lower education or income than those with higher education or income. Sex-specific norms were provided. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed good psychometric properties of the WBIS after removal of one item. Future research is warranted on further indicators of reliability and validity, for example, retest reliability, sensitivity to change, and prognostic validity.

  1. Genetics of Growth Reaction Norms in Farmed Rainbow Trout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panya Sae-Lim

    Full Text Available Rainbow trout is farmed globally under diverse uncontrollable environments. Fish with low macroenvironmental sensitivity (ES of growth is important to thrive and grow under these uncontrollable environments. The ES may evolve as a correlated response to selection for growth in one environment when the genetic correlation between ES and growth is nonzero. The aims of this study were to quantify additive genetic variance for ES of body weight (BW, defined as the slope of reaction norm across breeding environment (BE and production environment (PE, and to estimate the genetic correlation (rg(int, sl between BW and ES. To estimate heritable variance of ES, the coheritability of ES was derived using selection index theory. The BW records from 43,040 rainbow trout performing either in freshwater or seawater were analysed using a reaction norm model. High additive genetic variance for ES (9584 was observed, inferring that genetic changes in ES can be expected. The coheritability for ES was either -0.06 (intercept at PE or -0.08 (intercept at BE, suggesting that BW observation in either PE or BE results in low accuracy of selection for ES. Yet, the rg(int, sl was negative (-0.41 to -0.33 indicating that selection for BW in one environment is expected to result in more sensitive fish. To avoid an increase of ES while selecting for BW, it is possible to have equal genetic gain in BW in both environments so that ES is maintained stable.

  2. Genetics of Growth Reaction Norms in Farmed Rainbow Trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sae-Lim, Panya; Mulder, Han; Gjerde, Bjarne; Koskinen, Heikki; Lillehammer, Marie; Kause, Antti

    2015-01-01

    Rainbow trout is farmed globally under diverse uncontrollable environments. Fish with low macroenvironmental sensitivity (ES) of growth is important to thrive and grow under these uncontrollable environments. The ES may evolve as a correlated response to selection for growth in one environment when the genetic correlation between ES and growth is nonzero. The aims of this study were to quantify additive genetic variance for ES of body weight (BW), defined as the slope of reaction norm across breeding environment (BE) and production environment (PE), and to estimate the genetic correlation (rg(int, sl)) between BW and ES. To estimate heritable variance of ES, the coheritability of ES was derived using selection index theory. The BW records from 43,040 rainbow trout performing either in freshwater or seawater were analysed using a reaction norm model. High additive genetic variance for ES (9584) was observed, inferring that genetic changes in ES can be expected. The coheritability for ES was either -0.06 (intercept at PE) or -0.08 (intercept at BE), suggesting that BW observation in either PE or BE results in low accuracy of selection for ES. Yet, the rg(int, sl) was negative (-0.41 to -0.33) indicating that selection for BW in one environment is expected to result in more sensitive fish. To avoid an increase of ES while selecting for BW, it is possible to have equal genetic gain in BW in both environments so that ES is maintained stable. PMID:26267268

  3. Future Educators’ Gender Norms, Sexuality, and Reproductive Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leodoro J. Labrague

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation explored gender-related norms, sexuality, and reproductive health among education students in a government university in Samar, Philippines. A descriptive-analytical design of study was adopted for this investigation and data were collected over a period of five months. Five hundred fifty (550 education students who were enrolled in the different year level completed the modified John Clelands’ Illustrative Questionnaire for Young People. Results indicated that 14.73% of the students reported having had early sexual experience where in 69.14 % had it unplanned. Among sexually active students, only 17.28% used contraception, with condoms and withdrawal as the most popular choices. Respondents were also found to have some misconceptions regarding HIV/AIDS and STI’s. Result also showed that dating was still acceptable, however, the idea of abortion and sexual coercion were considered wrong. No significant differences in the knowledge about HIV/AIDS and STI’s and gender norms were found across year level. Findings suggest a greater need for education, support and advocacy relative to sexuality so as to create a more positive school environment conducive for holistic growth and development of all students. Thus, school administrators should improve/enhance existing policies and programs relative to reproductive health among college students of the University such as health promotion activities, sexuality education, counseling and alike.

  4. Chinese translation norms for 1,429 English words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yun; van Heuven, Walter J B

    2016-06-20

    We present Chinese translation norms for 1,429 English words. Chinese-English bilinguals (N = 28) were asked to provide the first Chinese translation that came to mind for 1,429 English words. The results revealed that 71 % of the English words received more than one correct translation indicating the large amount of translation ambiguity when translating from English to Chinese. The relationship between translation ambiguity and word frequency, concreteness and language proficiency was investigated. Although the significant correlations were not strong, results revealed that English word frequency was positively correlated with the number of alternative translations, whereas English word concreteness was negatively correlated with the number of translations. Importantly, regression analyses showed that the number of Chinese translations was predicted by word frequency and concreteness. Furthermore, an interaction between these predictors revealed that the number of translations was more affected by word frequency for more concrete words than for less concrete words. In addition, mixed-effects modelling showed that word frequency, concreteness and English language proficiency were all significant predictors of whether or not a dominant translation was provided. Finally, correlations between the word frequencies of English words and their Chinese dominant translations were higher for translation-unambiguous pairs than for translation-ambiguous pairs. The translation norms are made available in a database together with lexical information about the words, which will be a useful resource for researchers investigating Chinese-English bilingual language processing.

  5. Morality and Prosocial Behavior : The Role of Awareness, Responsibility, and Norms in the Norm Activation Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Judith I. M.; Steg, Linda

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships between variables included in the Norm Activation Model (NAM; S. H. Schwartz, 1977) of prosocial behavior. Specifically, they evaluated the strength of 2 commonly used interpretations of this model: the NAM as a mediator model and the NAM as a moderator model.

  6. Morality and Prosocial Behavior : The Role of Awareness, Responsibility, and Norms in the Norm Activation Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Judith I. M.; Steg, Linda

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships between variables included in the Norm Activation Model (NAM; S. H. Schwartz, 1977) of prosocial behavior. Specifically, they evaluated the strength of 2 commonly used interpretations of this model: the NAM as a mediator model and the NAM as a moderator model.

  7. Perceptual dehumanization of faces is activated by norm violations and facilitates norm enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, Katrina M; Tetlock, Philip E

    2016-02-01

    This article uses methods drawn from perceptual psychology to answer a basic social psychological question: Do people process the faces of norm violators differently from those of others--and, if so, what is the functional significance? Seven studies suggest that people process these faces different and the differential processing makes it easier to punish norm violators. Studies 1 and 2 use a recognition-recall paradigm that manipulated facial-inversion and spatial frequency to show that people rely upon face-typical processing less when they perceive norm violators' faces. Study 3 uses a facial composite task to demonstrate that the effect is actor dependent, not action dependent, and to suggest that configural processing is the mechanism of perceptual change. Studies 4 and 5 use offset faces to show that configural processing is only attenuated when they belong to perpetrators who are culpable. Studies 6 and 7 show that people find it easier to punish inverted faces and harder to punish faces displayed in low spatial frequency. Taken together, these data suggest a bidirectional flow of causality between lower-order perceptual and higher-order cognitive processes in norm enforcement.

  8. Analysis of Photoablation Products Resulting from Polymer Materials by Supersonic Beam/Multiphoton Ionization/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C H; Murata, Y; Imasaka, T

    1996-04-01

    Photoablation products arising from polymer materials were examined by supersonic beam spectrometry, and the results are compared with those obtained by thermal decomposition. The high selectivity provided by supersonic beam spectrometry allows detection of minor species, e.g., styrene occurred from poly(α-methylstyrene) by cleavage of a methyl group and by proton rearrangement. Because ablation techniques involve high temperatures, thermally stable materials such as poly(p-methylstyrene) can be examined. The latter material is difficult to examine by thermal decomposition, even at 350 °C. It is also possible to differentiate between isomer ablation products, e.g., α-methylstyrene and p-methylstyrene. The instrumental setup described herein was used to examine several authentic samples, such as ABS resin (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) and O-ring (SBR, styrene-butadiene rubber), as well as polystyrene foam. As a result, a styrene segment could be confirmed to be present in these materials. However, no evidence was found for its presence in a glue sample that was suspected to contain styrene on the basis of conventional mass spectrometry. The latter finding confirms the high degree of selectivity of the technique.

  9. Wavefield separation by energy norm Born scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Bingbing

    2017-08-17

    In Reflection Based Waveform Inversion, the gradient is computed by cross-correlating the direct and Born scattered wavefield with their adjoints applied to the data residuals. In this case, the transmitted part of the Born scattered wavefield produces high wavenumber artifacts, which would harm the convergence of the inversion process. We propose an efficient Energy Norm Born Scattering (ENBS) to attenuate the transmission components of the Born modeling, and allow it to produce only reflections. ENBS is derived from the adjoint of the Energy Norm (inverse scattering) imaging condition and in order to get deeper insights of how this method works, we show analytically that given an image, in which reflectivity is represented by a Dirac delta function, ENBS attenuates transmission energy perfectly. We use numerical examples to demonstrate that ENBS works in both the time and the frequency domain. We also show that in reflection waveform inversion (RWI) the wave path constructed by ENBS would be cleaner and free of high wavenumber artifacts associated with conventional Born scattering.

  10. Mini Mental State Examination and the Addenbrooke′s Cognitive Examination: Effect of education and norms for a multicultural population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathuranath P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To derive population norms on the Malayalam adaptation of Addenbrooke′s Cognitive Examination (M-ACE and the inclusive Malayalam mini mental state examination (M-MMSE. Materials and Methods: Education-stratified norms were obtained on randomly selected cognitively unimpaired community elders (n = 519. Results: Valid data on norms was available on 488 subjects (age 68.5 ± 7.1 and education 7.9 ± 5.4. Education and age, but not gender had a significant effect on both M-ACE and M-MMSE. When compared to the effect of age, the effect of education was sevenfold more on the M-ACE and ninefold more on the M-MMSE. The mean composite score on the M-ACE (and the M-MMSE was 42.8 ± 9.8 (14.9 ± 3.1 for those with 0 (n = 72, 55.9 ± 12.5 (19.7 ± 4.1 with 1-4 (n = 96, 62.6 ± 11.4 (21.9 ± 3.7 with 5-8 (n = 81, 77 ± 10.2 (25.7 ± 2.4 with 9-12 (n = 136 and 83.4 ± 7.2 (26.7 ± 1.6 with> 12 (n = 103 years of formal education. Conclusions: Education has the most potent effect on performance on both M-ACE and M-MMSE in the Indian cohort. Education-stratified scores on the M-ACE and the M-MMSE, will provide a more appropriate means of establishing the cognitive status of patients. It is also our feeling that these cut-off scores will be useful across India.

  11. Stuck in the 70s: the role of social norms in distracted driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchley, Paul; Hadlock, Chelsie; Lane, Sean

    2012-09-01

    Successful campaigns to end distracted driving must understand prevailing social norms for behaviors such as texting and phoning while driving. The current work examined this issue by asking younger drivers to read car crash scenarios and rate the responsibility of the driver for the crash, and to levy fines and assign jail time, as a function of whether the driver was attentive, had been drinking, or was distracted by phoning or texting. In the first experiment, ratings were performed in the absence of injunctive norm information (laws against drunk and distracted driving). In the second experiment, injunctive norm information was included. Impaired drivers were viewed as more responsible in both experiments, with texting drivers viewed as the most responsible. However, drunk drivers received the most fines and jail time. When compared to data from the 1970s, the results show that anti-drunk driving campaigns have changed how younger drivers view drunk driving, but that norms have not yet changed for distracted driving, despite consistent results showing they know the risk of driving distracted. Implications for social norm distracted driving campaigns are discussed.

  12. Relationship between Norm-internalization and Cooperation in N-person Prisoners' Dilemma Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mitsutaka

    In this paper, I discuss the problems of ``order in social situations'' using a computer simulation of iterated N-person prisoners' dilemma game. It has been claimed that, in the case of the 2-person prisoners' dilemma, repetition of games and the reciprocal use of the ``tit-for-tat'' strategy promote the possibility of cooperation. However, in cases of N-person prisoners' dilemma where N is greater than 2, the logic does not work effectively. The most essential problem is so called ``sanctioning problems''. In this paper, firstly, I discuss the ``sanctioning problems'' which were introduced by Axelrod and Keohane in 1986. Based on the model formalized by Axelrod, I propose a new model, in which I added a mechanism of players' payoff changes in the Axelrod's model. I call this mechanism norm-internalization and call our model ``norm-internalization game''. Second, by using the model, I investigated the relationship between agents' norm-internalization (payoff-alternation) and the possibilities of cooperation. The results of computer simulation indicated that unequal distribution of cooperating norm and uniform distribution of sanctioning norm are more effective in establishing cooperation. I discuss the mathematical features and the implications of the results on social science.

  13. Power to punish norm violations affects the neural processes of fairness-related decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei eCheng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Punishing norm violations is considered an important motive during rejection of unfair offers in the Ultimatum Game (UG. The present study investigates the impact of the power to punish norm violations on people’s responses to unfairness and associated neural correlates. In the UG condition participants had the power to punish norm violations, while an alternate condition, the Impunity Game (IG, was presented where participants had no power to punish norm violations since rejection only reduced the responder’s income to zero. Results showed that unfair offers were rejected more often in UG compared to IG. At the neural level, anterior insula and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex were more active when participants received and rejected unfair offers in both UG and IG. Moreover, greater dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity was observed when participants rejected than accepted unfair offers in UG but not in IG. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex activation was higher in UG than IG when unfair offers were accepted as well as when rejecting unfair offers in IG as opposed to UG. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the power to punish norm violations affects not only people’s behavioral responses to unfairness but also the neural correlates of the fairness-related social decision-making process.

  14. Power to Punish Norm Violations Affects the Neural Processes of Fairness-Related Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xuemei; Zheng, Li; Li, Lin; Guo, Xiuyan; Wang, Qianfeng; Lord, Anton; Hu, Zengxi; Yang, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Punishing norm violations is considered an important motive during rejection of unfair offers in the ultimatum game (UG). The present study investigates the impact of the power to punish norm violations on people's responses to unfairness and associated neural correlates. In the UG condition participants had the power to punish norm violations, while an alternate condition, the impunity game (IG), was presented where participants had no power to punish norm violations since rejection only reduced the responder's income to zero. Results showed that unfair offers were rejected more often in UG compared to IG. At the neural level, anterior insula and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex were more active when participants received and rejected unfair offers in both UG and IG. Moreover, greater dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity was observed when participants rejected than accepted unfair offers in UG but not in IG. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex activation was higher in UG than IG when unfair offers were accepted as well as when rejecting unfair offers in IG as opposed to UG. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the power to punish norm violations affects not only people's behavioral responses to unfairness but also the neural correlates of the fairness-related social decision-making process.

  15. Appraisal of the cephalometric norms for the upper and lower lips of the South Indian ethnic population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetika Mukhija Prabu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The guidelines for planning an improvement in the facial appearance till recently existed in the form of evaluation of linear and angular parameters and ratios related to the hard tissues in the various cephalometric analyses. The present study aimed at establishing Arnett et al.′s norms of the upper and lower lip for the local population and assessing the extent by which these differ from the original norms proposed by Arnett et al. Materials and Methods: Forty pretreatment lateral cephalograms (20 males and 20 females with normal occlusion and well-balanced face were chosen for this study. Upper and lower lip lengths, thicknesses, and chin thickness were all measured according to soft tissue cephalometric analysis by Arnett et al. Results: The obtained data were statistically analyzed and compared with other studies. Conclusion: Males had thicker and longer upper and lower lips when compared to females, but they were comparatively thinner than the results of Arnett et al. Females had more interlabial gap than males. The difference in soft tissue parameters in different ethnic groups shows the importance of defining what is optimal for a particular group.

  16. A STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP OF GEOLOGICAL FORMATION TO THE NORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derald Chriss; Talmage P. Bursh

    2002-11-26

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are everywhere and we are constantly exposed to it. Natural radiation has been around since the beginning of the Earth and is found in our bodies, our food, and in the products we use. This study investigates the presence and activity of naturally occurring radioactive materials contained in produced water which is associated with oil and gas exploration. Specifically the principal radionuclide used to measure NORM was radium. We also measured , where possible, other parameters which may have had an effect on the NORM activity. Produced water samples from two different oil field sites, Fausse Pointe and North Broussard, have been used as test sites for this water analysis study. The overall purpose was to determine the specific, selected parameters associated with the produced waters, which are defined as the waters which are brought to the surface along with oil and natural gas. This study is also a precursor in an attempt to predict the activity of naturally occurring radioactive materials and the other factors which may affect the activity and/or occurrence of NORM in produced water samples. A control site used for comparison, was Lake Kernan on the Southern University Campus. The average reading for the first site, Fausse Point, was pH 6.39, with the total dissolved solids, and conductivity readings off scale for our system. The radium analysis of the Fausse Point site (avg value of 0.5291 pCi/mL) indicates a relatively ''hot'' NORM area of activity. This activity indicates a potential, future NORM regulatory problem for this site. The average reading for the second site, North Broussard, was pH 7.39, with the total dissolved solids, and conductivity readings again being very high. The radium analysis of the North Broussard site (avg. of 0.4697 pCi/mL) also indicates a relatively ''hot'' NORM area of activity. The average readings for our control site, Lake Kernan, were p

  17. Mortality salience increases personal relevance of the norm of reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Simon; Reinhard, Marc-André; Stahlberg, Dagmar

    2012-10-01

    Research on terror management theory found evidence that people under mortality salience strive to live up to salient cultural norms and values, like egalitarianism, pacifism, or helpfulness. A basic, strongly internalized norm in most human societies is the norm of reciprocity: people should support those who supported them (i.e., positive reciprocity), and people should injure those who injured them (i.e., negative reciprocity), respectively. In an experiment (N = 98; 47 women, 51 men), mortality salience overall significantly increased personal relevance of the norm of reciprocity (M = 4.45, SD = 0.65) compared to a control condition (M = 4.19, SD = 0.59). Specifically, under mortality salience there was higher motivation to punish those who treated them unfavourably (negative norm of reciprocity). Unexpectedly, relevance of the norm of positive reciprocity remained unaffected by mortality salience. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  18. Changing and Changed Stance toward Norm Selection in Philippine Universities: Its Pedagogical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Alejandro S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey which involved College English teachers from three leading universities in the Philippines. The results point to one conclusion--College English teachers now have a changing and changed stance toward norm selection in Philippine Universities. The results give the impression that a good number of College…

  19. Dynamic Networks of Human Homeostatic Control in Norm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica A. Sherman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The research has been undertaken to study the regional and common relationships between hemodynamic and metabolic parameters of human body functioning in individuals without clinical signs of pathology (in "norm". Indicators of hemodynamics and metabolism were obtained by catheterization in a variety of areas: LV, RV, RA, CS, Ao, fixed SS, IJV, SVC, right VH, renal vena, and PA. Correlation and factor analyses were conducted for the study of: 1 the relationship between biochemical parameters in the blood stream, 2 the relationship between hemodynamic parameters, 3 relationship between the hemodynamic and biochemical parameters. Due to the nature of the correlation analysis, the significant (p<0.05 relation signs (+, 0, - without regard to their power were considered. The obtained results in the study of brain blood flow, heart, liver, lungs, kidneys suggested the existence of the primary homeostatic control of the factors determining rheological and thrombogenic properties of blood; the regulation of brain gas exchange and intracranial venous pressure by the minimum level of pressure in the cerebral outflow pathway—the pressure in RA; the regulating relationships between blood flow in CS with blood flow in HV, RA, SS, and LV; and the existence of a synergistic complex of the relationships between the studied biochemical and hemodynamic characteristics that form the human homeostasis control matrix in norm.

  20. A Generalized Mazur-Ulam Theorem for Fuzzy Normed Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Font

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce fuzzy norm-preserving maps, which generalize the concept of fuzzy isometry. Based on the ideas from Vogt, 1973, and Väisälä, 2003, we provide the following generalized version of the Mazur-Ulam theorem in the fuzzy context: let X, Y be fuzzy normed spaces and let f:X→Y be a fuzzy norm-preserving surjection satisfying f(0=0. Then f is additive.

  1. Mathematical methods linear algebra normed spaces distributions integration

    CERN Document Server

    Korevaar, Jacob

    1968-01-01

    Mathematical Methods, Volume I: Linear Algebra, Normed Spaces, Distributions, Integration focuses on advanced mathematical tools used in applications and the basic concepts of algebra, normed spaces, integration, and distributions.The publication first offers information on algebraic theory of vector spaces and introduction to functional analysis. Discussions focus on linear transformations and functionals, rectangular matrices, systems of linear equations, eigenvalue problems, use of eigenvectors and generalized eigenvectors in the representation of linear operators, metric and normed vector

  2. On the p-norm joint spectral radius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周佳立

    2003-01-01

    The p-norm joint spectral radius is defined by a bounded collection of square matrices with complex entries and of the same size. In the present paper the author investigates the p-norm joint spectral radius for integers. The method introduced in this paper yields some basic formulas for these spectral radii. The approach used in this paper provides a simple proof of Berger-Wang's relation concerning the ∞-norm joint spectral radius.

  3. On the p-norm joint spectral radius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周佳立

    2003-01-01

    The p-norm joint spectral radius is defined by a bounded collection of square matrices with complex entries and of the same size. In the present paper the author investigates the p-norm joint spectral radius for integers. The method introduced in this paper yields some basic formulas for these spectral radii. The approach used in this paper provides a simple proof of Berger-Wang' s relation concerning the ∞-norm joint spectral radius.

  4. A common fixed point for operators in probabilistic normed spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaemi, M.B. [Faculty of Mathematics, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mghaemi@iust.ac.ir; Lafuerza-Guillen, Bernardo [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Almeria, Almeria (Spain)], E-mail: blafuerz@ual.es; Razani, A. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, I. Kh. International University, P.O. Box 34194-288, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: razani@ikiu.ac.ir

    2009-05-15

    Probabilistic Metric spaces was introduced by Karl Menger. Alsina, Schweizer and Sklar gave a general definition of probabilistic normed space based on the definition of Menger [Alsina C, Schweizer B, Sklar A. On the definition of a probabilistic normed spaces. Aequationes Math 1993;46:91-8]. Here, we consider the equicontinuity of a class of linear operators in probabilistic normed spaces and finally, a common fixed point theorem is proved. Application to quantum Mechanic is considered.0.

  5. Closed Graph and Open Mapping Theorems for Normed Cones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Oscar Valero

    2008-05-01

    A quasi-normed cone is a pair (, ) such that is a (not necessarily cancellative) cone and is a quasi-norm on . The aim of this paper is to prove a closed graph and an open mapping type theorem for quasi-normed cones. This is done with the help of appropriate notions of completeness, continuity and openness that arise in a natural way from the setting of bitopological spaces.

  6. Muslim Legal Norms and the Integration of European Muslims

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Maleiha

    2009-01-01

    MUSMINE - Muslim Minorities in Europe This paper examines the potential for accommodating Muslim legal and ethical norms within European liberal democracies. It focuses on areas of personal life such as family norms and ethics. The main argument of the paper is that in some areas - such as divorce or contract law - there is potential for accommodating Muslim legal and ethical norms within mainstream political and legal institutions. The advantage of this strategy is that it can encourage M...

  7. Evaluation of patients with oral lichenoid lesions by dental patch testing and results of removal of the dental restoration material

    OpenAIRE

    Emine Buket Şahin; Fatma Çetinözman; Nihal Avcu; Ayşen Karaduman

    2016-01-01

    Background and Design: Oral lichenoid lesions (OLL) are contact stomatitis characterized by white reticular or erosive patches, plaque-like lesions that are clinically and histopathologically indistinguishable from oral lichen planus (OLP). Amalgam dental fillings and dental restoration materials are among the etiologic agents. In the present study, it was aimed to evaluate the standard and dental series patch tests in patients with OLL in comparison to a control group and evaluate our result...

  8. Adolescent alcohol-related risk cognitions: the roles of social norms and social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Dana M; Stock, Michelle L

    2011-12-01

    The present study examined the impact of socially based descriptive norms on willingness to drink alcohol, drinker prototype favorability, affective alcohol attitudes, and perceived vulnerability for alcohol-related consequences within the Prototype Willingness model. Descriptive norms were manipulated by having 189 young adolescents view experimenter-created profile pages from the social networking site Facebook, which either showed older peers drinking or not. The results provided evidence that descriptive norms for alcohol use, as portrayed by Facebook profiles, significantly impact willingness to use, prototypes, attitudes toward use, and perceived vulnerability. A multiple mediation analysis indicated that prototypes, attitudes, and perceptions of use mediated the relationship between the content of the Facebook profile and willingness. These results indicate that adolescents who perceive that alcohol use is normative, as evidenced by Facebook profiles, are at higher risk for cognitions shown to predict alcohol use than adolescents who do not see alcohol use portrayed as frequently on Facebook.

  9. Human rights – local value or universal norm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigory Gutner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article argues for the universal character of human rights. It is demonstrated that they are not of specific value of Western culture but are a universal norm. This norm is valid not only for political practices but, first of all, for the morality and practice of argumentation. Human rights are strictly correlated with Kantian Categorical Imperative and can be substantiated by means of transcendental­pragmatic argument (K.­O. Apel. The difference between values and norms are also considered. It is demonstrated that values are always subjective and arbitrary meanwhile final justification is possible for norms.  

  10. Norms and customs: causally important or causally impotent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Todd

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I argue that norms and customs, despite frequently being described as being causes of behavior in the social sciences and ordinary conversation, cannot really cause behavior. Terms like "norms" and the like seem to refer to philosophically disreputable disjunctive properties. More problematically, even if they do not, or even if there can be disjunctive properties after all, I argue that norms and customs still cannot cause behavior. The social sciences would be better off without referring to properties like norms and customs as if they could be causal.

  11. CLEX: A cross-linguistic lexical norms database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rune Nørgaard; Dale, Philip; Bleses, Dorthe;

    2009-01-01

    Parent report has proven a valid and cost-effective means of evaluating early child language. Norming datasets for these instruments, which provide the basis for standardized comparisons of individual children to a population, can also be used to derive norms for the acquisition of individual words...... in production and comprehension and also early gestures and symbolic actions. These lexical norms have a wide range of uses in basic research, assessment and intervention. In addition, crosslinguistic comparisons of lexical development are greatly facilitated by the availability of norms from diverse languages...

  12. Globalization and eating disorder risk: Peer influence, perceived social norms, and adolescent disordered eating in Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbasi, Margaret E.; Richards, Lauren K.; Thomas, Jennifer J.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica C.; Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Gilman, Stephen E.; Becker, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The increasing global health burden imposed by eating disorders warrants close examination of social exposures associated with globalization that potentially elevate risk during the critical developmental period of adolescence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The study aim was to investigate the association of peer influence and perceived social norms with adolescent eating pathology in Fiji, a LMIC undergoing rapid social change. Method We measured peer influence on eating concerns (with the Inventory of Peer Influence on Eating Concerns; IPIEC), perceived peer norms associated with disordered eating and body concerns, perceived community cultural norms, and individual cultural orientations in a representative sample of school-going ethnic Fijian adolescent girls (n=523). We then developed a multivariable linear regression model to examine their relation to eating pathology (measured by the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire; EDE-Q). Results We found independent and statistically significant associations between both IPIEC scores and our proxy for perceived social norms specific to disordered eating (both p <.001) and EDE-Q global scores in a fully adjusted linear regression model. Discussion Study findings support the possibility that peer influence as well as perceived social norms relevant to disordered eating may elevate risk for disordered eating in Fiji, during the critical developmental period of adolescence. Replication and extension of these research findings in other populations undergoing rapid social transition—and where globalization is also influencing local social norms—may enrich etiologic models and inform strategies to mitigate risk. PMID:25139374

  13. [Radioprotection norms and the use of individual protection equipments from the view of surgeon-dentists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ricardo Andrade; Miranda, Antônio Carlos de; Silva, Edna da Costa

    2010-10-01

    Although the odontology professional recognizes the existence of norms most of them had not demonstrated to perceive the fair and precise need of clarification. The perception lack displays to some problems as: lack of information on the necessity of accomplishment of periodic medical examinations of the professionals, lack of knowledge in the correct use of the equipment of x-rays, unfamiliarity of the necessity of periodic calibration of the device of x-rays, the inefficiency in the fulfillment of the radiation protection norms, the inadequate use of the equipment of individual protection (EPI) and absence of a manual of norms of the professional activities. Based in these results it can be concluded that the surgeon-dentists do not withhold the necessary knowledge on the norms of radiation protection and the correct use of the equipment of individual protection. Thus the implementation of a continued education program based on the reality of the dentist professional will be able to solve chronic problems identified in this study in the fulfillment of the requirements of the similar norms of radiation protection, and providing safe manuscript of the equipment of x-rays in the dentistry offices.

  14. A dangerous boomerang: Injunctive norms, hostile sexist attitudes, and male-to-female sexual aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Jennifer K; Parrott, Dominic J; Swan, Suzanne C; Kuchynka, Sophie L; Schramm, Andrew T

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the interactive effects of injunctive norm exposure and hostile and benevolent sexist attitudes on men's sexually aggressive responses during a behavioral analogue paradigm in which they interacted online with a bogus female partner. Heterosexual adult men (n = 201), recruited from an online sample, read fictional information regarding other men's approval of misogynistic, paternalistic, or egalitarian treatment of women, or non-gender-relevant control information. Through a media preference survey, men then learned that their female partner disliked sexual content in films, after which they had an opportunity to send her up to 120 sec' worth of either a sexually explicit or nonsexual film clip. Validating the online sexual aggression paradigm, men with a 1-year history of sexual assault exhibited more sexually aggressive responding during the film selection paradigm. Moreover, exposure to injunctive norm information produced a boomerang effect, such that men high in hostile sexist attitudes showed an increase in sexual aggression when confronted with paternalism and gender equality norms. Conversely, exposure to paternalism and gender equality norms suppressed the otherwise protective function of high benevolent sexism in reducing men's sexually aggressive tendencies. The implications of these results for social norms interventions are discussed.

  15. A cross-cultural study on emotion expression and the learning of social norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomo eHareli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When we do not know how to correctly behave in a new context, the emotions that people familiar with the context show in response to the behaviors of others, can help us understand what to do or not to do. The present study examined cross-cultural differences in how group emotional expressions (anger, sadness, neutral can be used to deduce a norm violation in four cultures (Germany, Israel, Greece and the US, which differ in terms of decoding rules for negative emotions. As expected, in all four countries, anger was a stronger norm violation signal than sadness or neutral expressions. However, angry and sad expressions were perceived as more intense and the relevant norm was learned better in Germany and Israel than in Greece and the US. Participants in Greece were relatively better at using sadness as a sign of a likely norm violation. The results demonstrate both cultural universality and cultural differences in the use of group emotion expressions in norm learning. In terms of cultural differences they underscore that the social signal value of emotional expressions may vary with culture as a function of cultural differences, both in emotion perception, and as a function of a differential use of emotions.

  16. A cross-cultural study on emotion expression and the learning of social norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hareli, Shlomo; Kafetsios, Konstantinos; Hess, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    When we do not know how to correctly behave in a new context, the emotions that people familiar with the context show in response to the behaviors of others, can help us understand what to do or not to do. The present study examined cross-cultural differences in how group emotional expressions (anger, sadness, neutral) can be used to deduce a norm violation in four cultures (Germany, Israel, Greece, and the US), which differ in terms of decoding rules for negative emotions. As expected, in all four countries, anger was a stronger norm violation signal than sadness or neutral expressions. However, angry and sad expressions were perceived as more intense and the relevant norm was learned better in Germany and Israel than in Greece and the US. Participants in Greece were relatively better at using sadness as a sign of a likely norm violation. The results demonstrate both cultural universality and cultural differences in the use of group emotion expressions in norm learning. In terms of cultural differences they underscore that the social signal value of emotional expressions may vary with culture as a function of cultural differences, both in emotion perception, and as a function of a differential use of emotions.

  17. RESULTS OF THE FOSFOMYCIN APPLICATION FOR THE IMPREGNATION OF BONE REPLACEMENT MATERIALS IN THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC OSTEOMYELITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Konev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim – to evaluate in the experimental study in vitro the duration of antimicrobial activity of fosfomycin-impregnated bone cement and to study the dynamics of radiological and morphological changes depending on the local antibiotic therapy in two-stage treatment of chronic osteomyelitis in rabbits.Materials and methods. Duration of antimicrobial activity of bone cement (depuy cmw1 gentamicin with fosfomycin in vitro was studied in comparison to cements with vancomycin and controls without additional antibiotics. Presence of the lysis zone of bacterial cultures was evaluated (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538 and ATCC33591, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC33495 and Escherichia coli ATCC25922 after application of 10 μl of the solution, collected from the cement samples after incubation for 24 hours. For the in vivo experiment, Chinchilla rabbits (n = 20 with local osteomyelitis of the tibia underwent two-stage treatment where substitution of the bone defect at stage I was performed with PMMA and stage II – with the bioresorbable material based on hydroxyapatite and triclacium phosphate (ReproBone. In an experience group (n = 10 before setting osteoreplacement materials with fosfomycin (group FOSFO, and by control (n = 10 – vancomycin (group VANCO. X-ray imaging was performed on the 1st and 21st day after installation of the cement spacer, and 45th day after substitution of the spacer with the bioresorbable material. Microbiological analysis of the samples was performed intraoperatively and on the 7th, 14th day after each stage. Histological study was conducted in both groups on the 14th, 21th day after stage I and 45th day after stage II of the treatment.Results. Maximal duration of antimicrobial activity in vitro was observed in samples of PMMA with fosfomycin whereas minimal – in control samples of gentamicin-based bone cement. Relief of the infection was attained in all animals while application of fosfomycin resulted in a more

  18. [Emotional and instrumental orientations in interpersonal attraction and their relationship to group norms in a group-work setting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, J

    1996-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between group norms and interpersonal attraction in group work setting. It may be assumed that interpersonal attraction, like group functions, has two conflictive orientations: instrumentality and emotionality. Relationship of the two orientations in interpersonal attraction to group norms was examined in two experiments. Results of Experiment 1, with 66 female university students, suggested that specific contents of group norms influenced both instrumental and emotional attraction. Experiment 2, with 60 female university students, indicated that emotional attraction had normative influence on task selection and goal setting. Conflicting dynamics of the two orientations in group-work setting are discussed.

  19. Aggression Norms in the Classroom Social Network: Contexts of Aggressive Behavior and Social Preference in Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Daisy R; Cappella, Elise; Neal, Jennifer Watling

    2015-12-01

    In a cross-sectional sample of African-American 2nd-4th grade students (N = 681), we examine the moderating effects of classroom overt and relational aggression norms on peers' social acceptance of classmates who exhibit overt and relational aggression in urban schools. Extending theory and research on classroom norms, we integrate social network data to adjust aggression norms based on children's direct and indirect connections in the classroom. Results of multilevel models indicate that network-based classroom aggression norms moderated relations between children's aggressive behavior and their social preference. Specifically, children benefited socially when their form of aggressive behavior fit with what was normative in the classroom social context. The moderating effect of classroom aggression norms was stronger for the association between overt aggression and social preference than relational aggression and social preference. Relationally aggressive youth were socially preferred by peers regardless of the classroom norm, although this positive association was magnified in classrooms with higher levels of relational aggression. Future research focused on aggression norms within classroom social networks are discussed and implications for school prevention efforts are considered.

  20. Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Schoeppner, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has successfully developed an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process, a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF3 process can be used to build a complex, unitized part in a layer-additive fashion, although the more immediate payoff is for use as a manufacturing process for adding details to components fabricated from simplified castings and forgings or plate products. The EBF3 process produces structural metallic parts with strengths comparable to that of wrought product forms and has been demonstrated on aluminum, titanium, and nickel-based alloys to date. The EBF3 process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Operation in a vacuum ensures a clean process environment and eliminates the need for a consumable shield gas. Advanced metal manufacturing methods such as EBF3 are being explored for fabrication and repair of aerospace structures, offering potential for improvements in cost, weight, and performance to enhance mission success for aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Near-term applications of the EBF3 process are most likely to be implemented for cost reduction and lead time reduction through addition of details onto simplified preforms (casting or forging). This is particularly attractive for components with protruding details that would require a significantly large volume of material to be machined away from an oversized forging, offering significant reductions to the buy-to-fly ratio. Future far-term applications promise improved structural efficiency through reduced weight and improved performance by exploiting the layer-additive nature of the EBF3 process to fabricate tailored unitized structures with functionally graded microstructures and compositions.

  1. Conceptual model for decision support in mining industry NORM - aspects of environmental radiation protection; Modelo conceitual para auxilio a decisao na industria de mineracao NORM - aspectos de radioprotecao ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Rocio Gloria dos

    2012-07-01

    Mining like many other industries can cause environmental impact. One of aspects that is in focus in many countries concerns to quantify the impact and establish requirements or improve the existing regulation about naturally occurring radioactive material - NORM. By a suitable management of the activities in these industries, there is an effort to minimize the waste production, minimize the environmental impacts and, consequently, the exposure of members of the public and workers. This study developed a conceptual model, a tool to assist in the decision making process for managers of mining and industrial facilities that deal with NORM. To develop this model, the Brazilian regulations were confronted with the regulations of countries where the NORM subject is important and with those that are being established by the principal institutions of radioprotection. The need of updating the Brazilian regulations was observed. Some recurring themes that are relevant to the management of NORM industries were surveyed, which resulted in the insertion of non-human biota risk assessment and the participation of stakeholders in the proposed model. The model was applied to a real case, the phosphoric acid and uranium plant of Santa Quiteria, in the Ceara state, with the aim of identifying the main critical points of the facility from the perspective of the environmental radiological impact and evaluating the adequacy of model, in addition to providing subsidies for its improvement. By the assessment of the process, it was found that the main source would be the phosphogypsum stack, which {sup 226}Ra activity concentration might exceed the level established for its use in agriculture and cement industry. The impact assessment was carried out in three different scenarios: 1) the critical group located in the facility borders, 2) the critical group located on the stack, after the closure of the area and 3) workers. In all cases, the exercise pointed out the exceeding of the

  2. Investigating deviations from norms in court interpreting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil

    , in some cases, all - professional users involved (judges, lawyers, prosecutors). As far as the non-Danish speaking users are concerned, it has, with one notable exception, unfortunately not been possible to obtain data from this group via questionnaires. As this type of data, however, is important...... behaviour, explore why the deviations in question occur, find out what happens if deviations are perceived as such by the other participants involved in the interpreted event. We will reconstruct the norms in question by examining interpreters' and (mainly) professional users' behaviour in the course...... deviations and sanctions in every case. By way of example: Several judges, who had given their consent to recordings of authentic data in connection with the research project, reported that they had experienced problems with insufficient language proficiency on the part of untrained interpreters speaking...

  3. Preliminary Results on the Surface of a New Fe-Based Metallic Material after “In Vivo” Maintaining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Săndulache, F.; Stanciu, S.; Cimpoeşu, N.; Stanciu, T.; Cimpoeșu, R.; Enache, A.; Baciu, R.

    2017-06-01

    Abstract A new Fe-based alloy was obtained using UltraCast melting equipment. The alloy, after mechanical processing, was implanted in five rabbit specimens (with respect for the “in-bone” procedure). After 30 days of implantation the samples were recovered and analyzed by weight and surface state meanings. Scanning electron microscopy technique was used to determine the new compounds morphology from the metallic surface and X-ray dispersive energy spectroscopy for chemical analyze results. A bond between the metallic material and biological material of the bone was observed through increasing of sample weight and by SEM images. After the first set of tests, as the samples were extracted and biologically cleaned, the samples were ultrasonically cleaned and re-analyzed in order to establish the stability of the chemical compounds.

  4. Automated ambiguity estimation for VLBI Intensive sessions using L1-norm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareinen, Niko; Hobiger, Thomas; Haas, Rüdiger

    2016-12-01

    Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is a space-geodetic technique that is uniquely capable of direct observation of the angle of the Earth's rotation about the Celestial Intermediate Pole (CIP) axis, namely UT1. The daily estimates of the difference between UT1 and Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) provided by the 1-h long VLBI Intensive sessions are essential in providing timely UT1 estimates for satellite navigation systems and orbit determination. In order to produce timely UT1 estimates, efforts have been made to completely automate the analysis of VLBI Intensive sessions. This involves the automatic processing of X- and S-band group delays. These data contain an unknown number of integer ambiguities in the observed group delays. They are introduced as a side-effect of the bandwidth synthesis technique, which is used to combine correlator results from the narrow channels that span the individual bands. In an automated analysis with the c5++ software the standard approach in resolving the ambiguities is to perform a simplified parameter estimation using a least-squares adjustment (L2-norm minimisation). We implement L1-norm as an alternative estimation method in c5++. The implemented method is used to automatically estimate the ambiguities in VLBI Intensive sessions on the Kokee-Wettzell baseline. The results are compared to an analysis set-up where the ambiguity estimation is computed using the L2-norm. For both methods three different weighting strategies for the ambiguity estimation are assessed. The results show that the L1-norm is better at automatically resolving the ambiguities than the L2-norm. The use of the L1-norm leads to a significantly higher number of good quality UT1-UTC estimates with each of the three weighting strategies. The increase in the number of sessions is approximately 5% for each weighting strategy. This is accompanied by smaller post-fit residuals in the final UT1-UTC estimation step.

  5. The worldwide NORM production and a fully automated gamma-ray spectrometer for their characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Xhixha, G; Broggini, C; Buso, GP; Caciolli, A; Callegari, I; De Bianchi, S; Fiorentini, G; Guastaldi, E; Xhixha, M Kaçeli; Mantovani, F; Massa, G; Menegazzo, R; Mou, L; Pasquini, A; Alvarez, C Rossi; Shyti, M

    2012-01-01

    Materials containing radionuclides of natural origin, which is modified by human made processes and being subject to regulation because of their radioactivity are known as NORM. We present a brief review of the main categories of non-nuclear industries together with the levels of activity concentration in feed raw materials, products and waste, including mechanisms of radioisotope enrichments. The global management of NORM shows a high level of complexity, mainly due to different degrees of radioactivity enhancement and the huge amount of worldwide waste production. The future tendency of guidelines concerning environmental protection will require both a systematic monitoring based on the ever-increasing sampling and high performance of gamma ray spectroscopy. On the ground of these requirements a new low background fully automated high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer MCA_Rad has been developed. The design of Pb and Cu shielding allowed to reach a background reduction of two order of magnitude with respect ...

  6. ℓ(p)-Norm multikernel learning approach for stock market price forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xigao; Wu, Kun; Liao, Bifeng

    2012-01-01

    Linear multiple kernel learning model has been used for predicting financial time series. However, ℓ(1)-norm multiple support vector regression is rarely observed to outperform trivial baselines in practical applications. To allow for robust kernel mixtures that generalize well, we adopt ℓ(p)-norm multiple kernel support vector regression (1 ≤ p < ∞) as a stock price prediction model. The optimization problem is decomposed into smaller subproblems, and the interleaved optimization strategy is employed to solve the regression model. The model is evaluated on forecasting the daily stock closing prices of Shanghai Stock Index in China. Experimental results show that our proposed model performs better than ℓ(1)-norm multiple support vector regression model.

  7. ℓ p-Norm Multikernel Learning Approach for Stock Market Price Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xigao; Wu, Kun; Liao, Bifeng

    2012-01-01

    Linear multiple kernel learning model has been used for predicting financial time series. However, ℓ1-norm multiple support vector regression is rarely observed to outperform trivial baselines in practical applications. To allow for robust kernel mixtures that generalize well, we adopt ℓp-norm multiple kernel support vector regression (1 ≤ p < ∞) as a stock price prediction model. The optimization problem is decomposed into smaller subproblems, and the interleaved optimization strategy is employed to solve the regression model. The model is evaluated on forecasting the daily stock closing prices of Shanghai Stock Index in China. Experimental results show that our proposed model performs better than ℓ1-norm multiple support vector regression model. PMID:23365561

  8. Reproducing affective norms with lexical co-occurrence statistics: Predicting valence, arousal, and dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Gabriel; Louwerse, Max M

    2015-01-01

    Human ratings of valence, arousal, and dominance are frequently used to study the cognitive mechanisms of emotional attention, word recognition, and numerous other phenomena in which emotions are hypothesized to play an important role. Collecting such norms from human raters is expensive and time consuming. As a result, affective norms are available for only a small number of English words, are not available for proper nouns in English, and are sparse in other languages. This paper investigated whether affective ratings can be predicted from length, contextual diversity, co-occurrences with words of known valence, and orthographic similarity to words of known valence, providing an algorithm for estimating affective ratings for larger and different datasets. Our bootstrapped ratings achieved correlations with human ratings on valence, arousal, and dominance that are on par with previously reported correlations across gender, age, education and language boundaries. We release these bootstrapped norms for 23,495 English words.

  9. Social networks and the communication of norms about prenatal care in rural Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Anderson, Jenn; Cruz, Shannon; Lapine, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Many normative beliefs are shared and learned through interpersonal communication, yet research on norms typically focuses on their effects rather than the communication that shapes them. This study focused on interpersonal communication during pregnancy to uncover (a) the nature of pregnancy-related communication and (b) normative information transmitted through such communication. Results from interviews with pregnant women living in rural Mexico revealed limited social networks; often, only a woman's mother or the baby's father were consulted about prenatal care decisions. However, women also indicated that communication with others during pregnancy provided important normative information regarding prenatal care. First, most referents believed that women should receive prenatal care (injunctive norm), which was conceptualized by participants as biomedical, nonmedical, or a blend of both. Second, family members often received prenatal care, whereas friends did not (descriptive norms). These findings highlight the key role of personal and social networks in shaping personal pregnancy-related beliefs and behaviors.

  10. Italian norms for the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascalis, V; Bellusci, A; Russo, P M

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents norms for an Italian translation of the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (SHSS:C; Weitzenhoffer & Hilgard, 1962). Archival data on hypnosis research subjects recruited over a 10-year period of research on hypnosis were pooled, resulting in an aggregate sample of 356 participants (263 female and 93 male). Score distribution, item difficulty levels, and reliability of the SHSS:C were computed. Of this group, 218 subjects were administered the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility approximately 3 weeks prior to administration of the SHSS:C. The remaining 138 subjects received only the SHSS:C. Results suggest that the Italian version of the SHSS:C is a reliable and valid measure.

  11. Fabrication of highly porous scaffold materials based on functionalized oligolactides and preliminary results on their use in bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogt S.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering offers a promising new approach to repair bone defects. Its practical realisation is connected with the development of suitable scaffold materials. In the present work, functionalized oligolactides have been prepared and used as macromers for the scaffold fabrication The developed fabrication process leads to highly porous scaffolds, available in various shapes and sizes, with an open inter-connective pore structure and porosities up to 90 %. Degradable or even osteoconductive components as well as biocompatible co-monomers can be used as additives to modulate the scaffold properties. Under in vitro conditions, the scaffolds exhibit a continuous degradation with varying degradation rates depending on their material composition. In vitro studies on the cultivation of osteoblasts on the scaffolds were performed and revealed their excellent biocompatibility. Cell growth on the scaffold surfaces and inside the scaffolds, formation of extracellular matrix and starting mineralization were detected by microscopical and histological analyses. Based on these results the developed materials are well-suited candidates for the design of tailor-made matrices in bone tissue engineering

  12. How School Norms, Peer Norms, and Discrimination Predict Interethnic Experiences among Ethnic Minority and Majority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropp, Linda R.; O'Brien, Thomas C.; González Gutierrez, Roberto; Valdenegro, Daniel; Migacheva, Katya; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo; Berger, Christian; Cayul, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    This research tests how perceived school and peer norms predict interethnic experiences among ethnic minority and majority youth. With studies in Chile (654 nonindigenous and 244 Mapuche students, M = 11.20 and 11.31 years) and the United States (468 non-Hispanic White and 126 Latino students, M = 11.66 and 11.68 years), cross-sectional results…

  13. Space Junk Norms: US Advantages in Creating a Debris Reducing Outer Space Norm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    represented by the debate over space weaponization. Stephen Krasner defines norms as “standards of behavior defined in terms of rights and...designer of the 20 Stephen Clark, “Air Force Spaceplane is an Odd Bird with a Twisted Path...the Sea. New., rev. ed. Manchester: University Press, 1988. Clark, Stephen . “Air Force Spaceplane is an Odd Bird with a Twisted Path,” Space.com, 2

  14. CLEX: A Cross-Linguistic Lexical Norms Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Rune Norgaard; Dale, Philip S.; Bleses, Dorthe; Fenson, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Parent report has proven a valid and cost-effective means of evaluating early child language. Norming datasets for these instruments, which provide the basis for standardized comparisons of individual children to a population, can also be used to derive norms for the acquisition of individual words in production and comprehension and also early…

  15. easyCBM Norms. 2014 Edition. Technical Report #1409

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saven, Jessica L.; Tindal, Gerald; Irvin, P. Shawn; Farley, Dan; Alonzo, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Previous norms for the easyCBM assessment system were computed using scores from all students who took each measure for every grade and benchmark season (fall, winter, and spring). During the 2013-­14 school year, new national norms were developed to more accurately (proportionately) represent reading and mathematics performance by two variables:…

  16. The best simultaneous approximation in linear 2-normed spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Acikgoz, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we shall investigate and analyse a new study on the best simultaneous approximation in the context of linear 2-normed spaces inspired by Elumalai and his coworkers in Elumalai. The basis of this investigation is to extend and refinement the definition of the classical aproximation, best approximation and some related concepts to linear 2-normed spaces.

  17. Grip and Pinch Strength Norms for Michigan Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M. Phillips M.S., OTRL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to create a norm reference of current grip and pinch strength norms for working-age Michigan adults. This normative study included a convenience sample of 179 volunteers who were employees at car plants in South East Michigan or hospital sites in West Michigan. Participants’ ages ranged from between 20 and 62 years of age with a mean age of 49.15 years. There were 78 females (44% and 101 males (56%. Subjects were classified by gender and in the age categories of ages 20 to 49 years and ages 50-62 years. Grip and pinch strength norms were collected following the American Society of Hand Therapy protocol. The norms from these working adults were calculated with descriptive statistics for males and females in two age classifications: ages 20 to 49 and ages 50 to 62 years. Standard Errors (SE are better than the 1985 norms for both males and females ages 20 to 49 years. SEs are higher than the ages 20 to 49 years’ norms for the ages 50 to 62 years age categories in both males and females. These norms offer a point of comparison for clinicians to use for clients in Michigan who are ages 20 to 62 years and who have a goal to improve their grip strength. Clients’ grip and pinch strength could be compared to their age level or gender norms using the comparison for one standard deviation above, below, or at the means.

  18. Creation of Norms for the Purpose of Global Talent Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedricks, Cynthia A.; Robie, Chet; Harnisher, John V.

    2008-01-01

    Personality scores were used to construct three databases of global norms. The composition of the three databases varied according to percentage of cases by global region, occupational group, applicant status, and gender of the job candidate. Comparison of personality scores across the three norms databases revealed that the magnitude of the…

  19. Teaching the Sociocultural Norms of an Undergraduate Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couper, Graeme; Denny, Heather; Watkins, Annette

    2016-01-01

    The importance of teaching second language learners the pragmatic norms of relevant communities of practice is widely recognised. Familiarisation with these norms is also an important aspect of socialisation for native speakers entering a new community of practice. This study focuses on pragmatic instruction of English as an additional language…

  20. The Subjectivity of the Translator and Socio-Cultural Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Denghua

    2010-01-01

    This thesis attempts to probe into the dialectical relationship between the subjectivity of the translator and socio-cultural norms. The socio-cultural norms inevitably regulate the translator's translating activity, as acceptability of the translated text is the primary concern of most translators. However, this does not mean that the…