Sample records for norian mockina bidentata


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    Full Text Available New taxonomic and biostratigraphic investigations on the late Carnian to Rhaetian (Upper Triassic platform conodonts from the Pizzo Mondello section (Western Sicily, Italy, Sicano basin are here presented. Pizzo Mondello is one of the two GSSP candidates for the Carnian/Norian boundary; the section is a 430 m thick continuous succession of upper Carnian to upper Norian marine limestones (Scillato Formation, characterized by uniform facies and high sedimentation rates, and ca. 20 m of Rhaetian white calcilutites (Portella Gebbia limestone. Pizzo Mondello offers one of the most complete conodont records for this time interval in the Tethys. The conodont faunas are characterized by a large variety of species, belonging to the genera Carnepigondolella, Epigondolella, Metapolygnathus, Misikella, Mockina, Neocavitella, Norigondolella, Paragondolella, and Parvigondolella. The richness of the populations allowed a detailed revision and description of all the Upper Triassic species and morphotypes recovered. The revision of the problematic species Carnepigondolella nodosa and "Metapolygnathus communisti B" was thus possible, leading to the establishment of two new species: Carnepigondolella tuvalica n.sp. and Carnepigondolella gulloae n.sp. The latter species would be a good proxy for the Carnian/Norian boundary in the case that the FAD of Halobia austriaca (sample FNP135a will be selected as the primary biomarker for the base of the Norian

  2. Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae improves learning and memory capabilities in ovariectomized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuefen Wang; Ya Xu; Yanshu Pan; Weihong Li; Wei Zhang; Yang Liu; Jing Jia; Pengtao Li


    Kidney-tonifying recipe can reduce the accumulation of advanced glycation end products, prevent neuronal degeneration and improve cognitive functions in ovariectomized rats. Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae alcohol extracts may dose-dependently inhibit non-enzymatic saccharification in vitro. This study aimed to examine the effect of Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae on advanced glycation end products and on learning and memory capabilities in ovariectomized rats. Ovariectomized rats were treated with Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae alcohol extracts (containing 1.5 g/kg crude drug) or 0.1% aminoguanidine for 12 weeks and behavioral testing was performed with the Y-electrical maze. This test revealed that Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae and aminoguanidine could improve the learning and memory capabilities of ovariectomized rats. Results of competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that treatment with Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae or aminoguanidine reduced the accumulation of advanced glycation end products in the frontal cortex of ovariectomized rats, while increasing content in the blood and urine. Biochemical tests showed that treatment with Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae or aminoguanidine decreased superoxide dismutase activity in the serum and frontal cortex, and increased serum levels of glutathione peroxidase in ovariectomized rats. In addition, there was no apparent effect on malondialdehyde levels. These experimental findings indicate that Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae inhibits production of advanced glycation end products and its accumulation in brain tissue, and improves learning and memory capabilities in ovariectomized rats. These effects may be associated with an anti-oxidative action of the extract.

  3. Epigondolella abneptis and E. spatulata in the Lower Norian in the central Kamnik Alps, Slovenia

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    Anton Ramovš


    Full Text Available Epigondolella abneptis (Huckriede, 1958 and E. spatulata (Hayashi, 1968from the Lower Norian (Upper Triassic deeper marine micritic limestones with chert nodules and lenses in the locality Sleme, central Kamnik Alps, are presented.

  4. In vitro clonal propagation of Achyranthes aspera L. and Achyranthes bidentata Blume using nodal explants. (United States)

    Gnanaraj, Wesely Edward; Antonisamy, Johnson Marimuthu; R B, Mohanamathi; Subramanian, Kavitha Marappampalyam


    To develop the reproducible in vitro propagation protocols for the medicinally important plants viz., Achyranthes aspera (A. aspera) L. and Achyranthes bidentata (A. bidentata) Blume using nodal segments as explants. Young shoots of A. aspera and A. bidentata were harvested and washed with running tap water and treated with 0.1% bavistin and rinsed twice with distilled water. Then the explants were surface sterilized with 0.1% (w/v) HgCl2 solutions for 1 min. After rinsing with sterile distilled water for 3-4 times, nodal segments were cut into smaller segments (1 cm) and used as the explants. The explants were placed horizontally as well as vertically on solid basal Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 3% sucrose, 0.6% (w/v) agar (Hi-Media, Mumbai) and different concentration and combination of 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP), kinetin (Kin), naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and indole acetic acid (IAA) for direct regeneration. Adventitious proliferation was obtained from A. aspera and A. bidentata nodal segments inoculated on MS basal medium with 3% sucrose and augmented with BAP and Kin with varied frequency. MS medium augmented with 3.0 mg/L of BAP showed the highest percentage (93.60±0.71) of shootlets formation for A. aspera and (94.70±0.53) percentages for A. bidentata. Maximum number of shoots/explants (10.60±0.36) for A. aspera and (9.50±0.56) for A. bidentata was observed in MS medium fortified with 5.0 mg/L of BAP. For A. aspera, maximum mean length (5.50±0.34) of shootlets was obtained in MS medium augmented with 3.0 mg/L of Kin and for A. bidentata (5.40±0.61) was observed in the very same concentration. The highest percentage, maximum number of rootlets/shootlet and mean length of rootlets were observed in 1/2 MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L of IBA. Seventy percentages of plants were successfully established in polycups. Sixty eight percentages of plants were well established in the green house condition. Sixty five percentages of

  5. A novel technology coupling extraction and foam fractionation for separating the total saponins from Achyranthes bidentata. (United States)

    Ding, Linlin; Wang, Yanji; Wu, Zhaoliang; Liu, Wei; Li, Rui; Wang, Yanyan


    A novel technology coupling extraction and foam fractionation was developed for separating the total saponins from Achyranthes bidentata. In the developed technology, the powder of A. bidentata was loaded in a nylon filter cloth pocket with bore diameter of 180 µm. The pocket was fixed in the bulk liquid phase for continuously releasing saponins. Under the optimal conditions, the concentration and the extraction rate of the total saponins in the foamate by the developed technology were 73.5% and 416.2% higher than those by the traditional technology, respectively. The foamates obtained by the traditional technology and the developed technology were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine their ingredients, and the results appeared that the developed technology exhibited a better performance for separating saponins than the traditional technology. The study is expected to develop a novel technology for cost effectively separating plant-derived materials with surface activity.

  6. Sr isotope variations in the Carnian-Norian succession at Pizzo Mondello, Sicani Mountains, Sicily (United States)

    Onoue, T.; Yamashita, K.; Rigo, M.; Abate, B.


    The Norian stage in the Late Triassic is exceptionally long (23 Myr) and was subdivided into three substages: the Lacian, Alaunian, and Sevatian. In order to infer the Norian environmental changes in the western Tethys Ocean, the stratigraphic variations of 87Sr/86Sr in the Upper Triassic limestone succession in Sicily were examined. The Pizzo Mondello section studied here mainly consists of a pelagic carbonate sequence of the Scillato Formation, and ranges in age from Tuvalian (late Carnian) to Rhaetian. The Scillato Formation represents a deep-water pelagic facies deposited along the Sicanian Basin in the western Tethys Ocean. We selected fine-grained limestone samples from both the microfacies of lime-mudstone and wackestone to approximate the primary 87Sr/86Sr signature of the limestone beds. The 87Sr/86Sr values are relatively constant in the Tuvalian and Lacian (early Norian). However, the remarkable rise in 87Sr/86Sr occurred across the Lacian-Alaunian (early-middle Norian) transition. Variations in 87Sr/86Sr values show an increasing trend in 87Sr/86Sr from 0.7077 at the base of Lacian to 0.7080 in the Sevatian (late Norian). In the Sevatian, the 87Sr/86Sr ratios display a sudden negative excursion toward lower values and show a relatively quick recovery to pre-excursion 87Sr/86Sr ratios. Korte et al. (2003) suggested that the rise in the 87Sr/86Sr values from the middle Carnian to the late Norian coincide with the Cimmerian orogeny. Our new 87Sr/86Sr data from the Pizzo Mondello section reveal a comparable trend, with a sharp increase in 87Sr/86Sr within the Alaunian, suggesting the rapid uplift and erosion in the Cimmerian Mountains at this time. The cause of the 87Sr/86Sr excursion in the Sevatian remains uncertain. However, the biostratigraphic record of conodonts suggests that a morphological evolution towards platform-less elements occurred with the beginning of the Sr-isotope excursion.

  7. Sevatian and Norian/Rhaetian boundary: time of environmental, climatic and biotic changes (United States)

    Rigo, M.; Onoue, T.


    Late Triassic is a period characterized by complex and extreme environmental, climatic and biotic changes, such as the break-up of the supercontinent Pangaea; the End-Triassic mass extinction; the emplacement of the Wrangellia and CAMP volcanisms. In particular, uppermost Norian (Sevatian) and Rhaetian seem to record significant δ13Corg excursions associated with an intense warming episodes (δ18O = 1.7‰, Trotter et al., 2015: EPSL, 415, 165-174) and important episodes of faunal turnovers. Three rapid oscillations of δ13Corg have been recognized in the Lagonegro Basin (southern Italy) during Sevatian (Zaffani et al., 2017), paired with a severe conodont turnover towards cavitate forms that are typical of stressing period. The obtained δ13Corg profiles show negative shifts correlatable with those of the North American record, suggesting a widespread occurrence. The last isotopic oscillation is characterized by a negative shift close to the first appearance of the conodont Misikella posthernsteini (=Norian/Rhaetian boundary), culminating with a positive δ13Corg excursion that corresponds to the extinction of the bivalve Monotis (Ward et al., 2004: EPSL, 224, 589-600). This δ13Corg perturbation is also associated with 87Sr/86Sr negative shift (Rigo et al., 2016: Lethaia, 49, 287- 306), indicating a possibly emplacement of a Large Igneous Province (LIP). This Norian magmatic activity may be ascribed to the Angayucham province (Alaska, North America) (Zaffani et al., 2017: Geosphere, 13/4, 1-16), an oceanic plateau active ca. 214±7 Ma, with an estimated volume of ca. 0.5-1x106 km3 (Prokoph et al., 2013: Geoscience Frontiers, 4, 263-276).


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    Full Text Available This paper describes several chambered hexactinellid sponges, including Casearia iranica n.sp., C. vezvanensis n. sp., C. delijanensis n. sp., Esfahanella magna gen. n. n. sp., and E. parva gen. n. n. sp. from reefs of the Upper Triassic (Norian-Rhaetian Nayband Formation exposed south of the town of Delijan in central Iran. The relative abundance of chambered and non-chambered hexactinellid sponges at this locality - as compared to hypercalcified representatives - highlight the importance of this group of sponges in reef and reefal limestones in central and east Tethys (China, Caucasia, Iran. 

  9. Holothurian sclerites and conodonts in the Upper Carnian (Tuvalian and Norian Limestones in the Central Kanmik Alps

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    Anton Ramovš


    Full Text Available Near Bivouac under the Skuta Mountain (locality 1 in the central Kamnik Alps Upper Carnian Limestones were determined with conodont Epigondolella nodosa Hayashi, holothurian sclerites Calclamnella consona Mostler and C. regularis Stefanov, ammonites and other fossils similar to deeper marine Hallstatt facies of Northern Limestone Alps.Conodonts Epigondolella abneptis (Huckriede and very rich holothurian fauna proved the Norian age for bedded limestones with very frequent large chert nodules on the south slope of the Skuta and on Sleme (loc. 2 and 3. They representdeeper marine facies and a distinct development of the Lower Norian

  10. Transcriptome Analysis to Identify the Putative Biosynthesis and Transport Genes Associated with the Medicinal Components of Achyranthes bidentata Bl.

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    Jinting Li


    Full Text Available Achyranthes bidentata is a popular perennial medicine herb used for thousands of years in China to treat various diseases. Although this herb has multiple pharmaceutical purposes in China, no transcriptomic information has been reported for this species. In addition, the understanding of several key pathways and enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of oleanolic acid and ecdysterone, two pharmacologically active classes of metabolites and major chemical constituents of A. bidentata root extracts, is limited. The aim of the present study was to characterize the transcriptome profile of the roots and leaves of A. bidentata to uncover the biosynthetic and transport mechanisms of the active components. In this study, we identified 100,987 transcripts, with an average length of 973.64 base pairs. A total of 31,634 (31.33% unigenes were annotated, and 12,762 unigenes were mapped to 303 pathways according to the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway database. Moreover, we identified a total of 260 oleanolic acid and ecdysterone genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes. Furthermore, the key enzymes involved in the oleanolic acid and ecdysterone synthesis pathways were analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, revealing that the roots expressed these enzymes to a greater extent than the leaves. In addition, we identified 85 ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters, some of which might be involved in the translocation of secondary metabolites.


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    Full Text Available In order to study the hypercalcified sponges in reefal deposits of the Nayband Formation in Lut Block, the Garm Ab section near the village of Mehran Kushk, located about 20 km northeast of Ferdows city, was sampled. Eight horizons of reefal limestone beds are exposed in this section. The most important reef builders are hypercalcified sponges with some representatives of hexactinellids, scleractinian corals and other reef organisms. The field and lab-observations on rock units, sedimentary facies and faunal assemblages indicate the middle Norian-Rhaetian as the age of the reef horizons. Twenty-three sponge taxa, including 15 of the chambered sphinctozoans, 2 of hexactinellids sponges and 8 non-chambered inozoan were identified. The majority of recognized sponges are reported from the Nayband Formation from the other localities in central Iran. One new species identified as Cryptocoelia maxima n. sp. was recovered and is described here.

  12. Paleoclimatology of Upper Triassic Playa Cycles. New Insights Into an Orbital Controlled Monsoon System (Norian, German Basin)


    Vollmer, Thorsten


    Paleoclimatology of Upper Triassic Playa Cycles: New Insights Into an Orbital Controlled Monsoon System (Norian, German Basin) Abstract The main purpose of the project was to study the rhythmic sediments of the Steinmergel Keuper playa system in the North and South German basin in order to test the hypothesis of possible climate control on sedimentation. Furthermore, in case of there being orbital control on sedimentation, the North/South correlation was tested based on high-resolution cyclos...


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    Full Text Available Some small-scaled Norian-Rhaetian reefs and reef mounds are imbedded within the shales, siltstones and siliciclastic-carbonate deposits of the Nayband Formation in central Iran. These deposits belong to the central Iranian plate as part of the Cimmerian Continent. Most of the biogenic rocks have a biostromal geometry, biohermal constructions are rare. Inozoid, sphinctozoid, and chaetetid sponges are, beside of corals and other reef builders, the most important reef organisms within these bioconstructions. In some reefs a variety of hexactinellid sponges also occur. The following inozoid sponges are described in this paper: Radiofibra norica n. sp., Permocorynella maxima n. sp., ?Sestrostomella robusta, Marawandia iranica, n. gen., n. sp. and Enaulofungia? triassica n. sp. The first four taxa are among the most abundant sponges within the Nayband Formation where it is exposed in several localities in central Iran. Enaulofungia? triassica, however, is not an abundant sponge there. These inozoid sponges have never been reported from the Triassic deposits of this region. Radiofibra, until now known only from the Upper Permian of Djebel Tebaga (Tunisia, is reported here for the first time from Triassic rocks. The stratigraphic as well as the paleogeographic distribution of all the genera are discussed.   

  14. Validation of Suitable Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Data in Achyranthes bidentata Blume under Different Experimental Conditions

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    Jinting Li


    Full Text Available Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is a sensitive technique for gene expression studies. However, choosing the appropriate reference gene is essential to obtain reliable results for RT-qPCR assays. In the present work, the expression of eight candidate reference genes, EF1-α (elongation factor 1-α, GAPDH (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, UBC (ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, UBQ (polyubiquitin, ACT (actin, β-TUB (β-tubulin, APT1 (adenine phosphoribosyltransferase 1, and 18S rRNA (18S ribosomal RNA, was evaluated in Achyranthes bidentata samples using two algorithms, geNorm and NormFinder. The samples were classified into groups according to developmental stages, various tissues, stresses (cold, heat, drought, NaCl, and hormone treatments (MeJA, IBA, SA. Suitable combination of reference genes for RT-qPCR normalization should be applied according to different experimental conditions. In this study, EF1-α, UBC, and ACT genes were verified as the suitable reference genes across all tested samples. To validate the suitability of the reference genes, we evaluated the relative expression of CAS, which is a gene that may be involved in phytosterol synthesis. Our results provide the foundation for gene expression analysis in A. bidentata and other species of Amaranthaceae.


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    Full Text Available The Upper Triassic Calcari con Selce Formation, cropping out in the southern Apennines (S Italy, consists of 400 m of micritic limestones, often nodular, with chert beds and nodules, organized in dm to m beds intercalated with mm (rarely centimetric marly horizons. Three intervals characterized by higher siliciclastic content have been recognized within this formation, and stratigraphically ordered after an accurate conodont biostratigraphical investigation: 1 the green clay-radiolaritic horizon, previously named in literature with the informal expression of “livello argilloso ad Halobia superba”, Tuvalian (upper Carnian; 2 an interval of some tens of meters of limestones and brown shales with abundant chert beds, here informally termed the "brown member", Tuvalian/Lacian (upper Carnian/lower Norian; 3 the ca. 3 m thick red shale horizon, Sevatian (upper Norian in age. All these intervals are characterized by micritic limestones or marly limestones with bivalves, radiolarians and conodonts alternating with shales (green, brown or red having thicknesses of 50 cm or more. These intervals are also associated to an increase of calciturbidites, consisting of echinoderm fragments, isolated thin-shelled bivalves and reworked, partially lithified intraclasts of the Calcari con Selce Fm. The Carnian green clay-radiolaritic horizon and the Sevatian red siliciclastic interval are useful lithostratigraphic markers recognizable throughout the Lagonegro Basin and have been used as guide horizons to evaluate the lateral continuity of contiguous limestone beds. The green clay-radiolaritic horizon has been logged in 4 sections (Pignola 2, Mt. Armizzone, Pezza la Quagliara, San Michele. The sections are presently at approximately 50 km distance - but Tertiary thrusts occur between the sections, suggesting a larger separation at the time of the deposition of the Formation. Above the green clay-radiolaritic horizon, single carbonate beds or banks with the same


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    Full Text Available We present the magnetostratigraphy and conodont biostratigraphy across the Carnian-Norian boundary from a 70 m-thick limestone section located at Guri Zi in northern Albania. A total of 14 magnetozones were observed. The Carnian-Norian boundary is placed in a thin stratigraphic interval between the last occurrence of Paragondolella nodosa and the first occurrence of Epigondolella abneptis. Data from Guri Zi are in substantial agreement with already published data from Silicka Brezova in Slovakia and Pizzo Mondello in Sicily, which complessively indicate that the conodont Carnian-Norian boundary, when magnetostratigraphically traced onto the Newark astrochronological polarity time scale (APTS, has an age of ~228-227 Ma.


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    Full Text Available An association of thalamid sponges including Amblysiphonella, Nevadathalamia, Stylothalamia, and Neoguadalupia, with the hexactinellid Casearia is described from the Upper Triassic (Norian-Rhaetian Nayband Formation of Hambast-Mts. near the small town of Wali-Abad (Abadeh region, central Iran. These Norian-Rhaetian (Neoguadalupia, Amblysiphonella, Nevadathalamia and Liassic (Stylothalamia columnaris Le Maitre thalamid sponge assemblages are exceptional associations, not previously reported from Iran nor from other localities in the world. The microfacies and organism associations in the sponge-bearing carbonates is discussed. Differences of macro- and microfaunal composition, as well as flora, support the recognition of Kristan-Tollmann et al. to classify the Nayband Formation in the Abadeh region as of a distinct unit, termed the "Wali-Abad-Faziesregion". Following thalamid sponge species are described as new: Nevadathalamia waliabadensis n. sp. and Stylothalamia hambastensis n. sp. 

  18. Modulation of phenotypic and functional maturation of murine dendritic cells (DCs) by purified Achyranthes bidentata polysaccharide (ABP). (United States)

    Zou, Yaxuan; Meng, Jingjuan; Chen, Wenna; Liu, Jingling; Li, Xuan; Li, Weiwei; Lu, Changlong; Shan, Fengping


    There are a large number of interactions at molecular and cellular levels between the plant polysaccharides and immune system. Plant polysaccharides present an interesting effects as immunomodulators, particularly in the induction of the cells both in innate and adaptive immune systems. Activation of DCs could improve antitumoral responses usually diminished in cancer patients, and natural adjuvants provide a possibility of inducing this activation. ABP is a purified polysaccharide isolated from Achyranthes bidentata, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The aim of this study is to investigate modulation of phenotypic and functional maturation of murine DCs by ABP. Both phenotypic and functional activities were assessed with use of conventional scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) for the morphology of the DC, transmitted electron microscopy (TEM) for intracellular lysosomes inside the DC, cellular immunohistochemistry for phagocytosis by the DCs, flow cytometry (FCM) for the changes in key surface molecules, bio-assay for the activity of acidic phosphatases (ACP), and ELISA for the production of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12. In fact, we found that purified ABP induced phenotypic maturation revealed by increased expression of CD86, CD40, and MHC II. Functional experiments showed the down-regulation of ACP inside DCs (which occurs when phagocytosis of DCs is decreased, and antigen presentation increased with maturation). Finally, ABP increased the production of IL-12. These data reveal that ABP promotes effective activation of murine DCs. This adjuvant-like activity may have therapeutic applications in clinical settings where immune responses need boosting. It is therefore concluded that ABP can exert positive modulation to murine DCs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Tabasosphaera pustulosa nov. gen., nov. sp., a microproblematicum (foraminifer? from the Upper Triassic (Norian-Rhaetian reef limestone of Nayban Formation (NE Iran

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    Baba Senowbari-Daryan


    Full Text Available A microproblematicum with calcaerous test, Tabasosphaera pustulosa nov. gen., nov. sp., a hollow spherical microfossil with pustule-like elements on the outer surface, is described from Upper Triassic (Norian-Rhaetian reef limestones exposed near the town of Ali-Abad, south of Tabas (northeast Iran. Tabasosphaera is an endobiotic organism living within the cavities of other organisms, such as brachiopods, worm tubes, or in sponge spongocoels. The systematic position of Tabasosphaera, its interspecific association and the fossil assemblage of which it makes part is discussed. Most probably Tabasosphaera represents a foraminifer belonging to the group Lagenina.

  20. A new rauisuchid (Archosauria, Pseudosuchia from the Upper Triassic (Norian of New Mexico increases the diversity and temporal range of the clade

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    Emily J. Lessner


    Full Text Available Rauisuchids are large (2–6 m in length, carnivorous, and quadrupedal pseudosuchian archosaurs closely related to crocodylomorphs. Though geographically widespread, fossils of this clade are relatively rare in Late Triassic assemblages. The middle Norian (∼212 Ma Hayden Quarry of northern New Mexico, USA, in the Petrified Forest Member of the Chinle Formation, has yielded isolated postcranial elements and associated skull elements of a new species of rauisuchid. Vivaron haydeni gen. et. sp. nov. is diagnosed by the presence of two posteriorly directed prongs at the posterior end of the maxilla for articulation with the jugal. The holotype maxilla and referred elements are similar to those of the rauisuchid Postosuchus kirkpatricki from the southwestern United States, but V. haydeni shares several maxillary apomorphies (e.g., a distinct dropoff to the antorbital fossa that is not a ridge, a straight ventral margin, and a well defined dental groove with the rauisuchid Teratosaurus suevicus from the Norian of Germany. Despite their geographic separation, this morphological evidence implies a close phylogenetic relationship between V. haydeni and T. suevicus. The morphology preserved in the new Hayden Quarry rauisuchid V. haydeni supports previously proposed and new synapomorphies for nodes within Rauisuchidae. The discovery of Vivaron haydeni reveals an increased range of morphological disparity for rauisuchids from the low-paleolatitude Chinle Formation and a clear biogeographic connection with high paleolatitude Pangea.


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    Full Text Available Two hypercalcified sphinctozoan sponges are described from several localities of dolomitic Norian reefs of northern Calabria (southern Italy. Solenolmia? parva n. sp. occurs as an extremely abundant, albeit local, component in peculiar bioconstructions dominated by serpulids and microbialitic crusts. Discosiphonella minima Senowbari-Daryan & Link, previously recognized only in the type locality of Turkey, has been now found also as a minor component in association with other typical "Dachstein" reef biota, such as corals, sponges, microbial crusts and fragments of "microproblematica". Solenolmia? parva assemblage represents the primary framebuilder of small build-ups which developed on the margins of restricted intraplatform basins. The Discosiphonella minima assemblages were found as resedimented blocks along the slope of intraplatform anoxic basins. The distribution of the different reefal assemblages of Northern Calabria can be related to the paleogeographic position of northern Calabria with respect to the evolution of Triassic crustal extension in western Mediterranean. 

  2. Inhibiting Effects of Achyranthes Bidentata Polysaccharide and Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharide on Nonenzyme Glycation in D-galactose Induced Mouse Aging Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    To investigate the inhibiting effects and mechanism of achyranthes bidentata polysaccharide (ABP) and lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) on nonenzyme glycation in D-galactose induced mouse aging model. Methods Serum AGE levels were determined by AGE-ELISA, MTT method was used to determine lymphocyte proliferation, IL-2 activity was determined by a bioassay method. Spontaneous motor activity was used to detect mouse's neuromuscular movement, latency of step-through method was used to examine learning and memory abilities of mouse, colormetric assay was used to determine hydroxyproline concentration in mouse skin, pyrogallol autoxidation method was used to determine superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of erythrocytes. Results Decreased levels of serum AGE, hydroxyproline concentration in mouse skin and spontaneous motor activity in D-galactose mouse aging model were detected after treated with ABP or LBP, while lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 activity, learning and memory abilities,SOD activity of erythrocytes, were enhanced. Conclusions ABP and LBP could inhibit nonenzyme glycation in D-galactose induced mouse aging model in vivo and ABP has a better inhibiting effect than LBP.

  3. UHPLC-MS/MS Quantification Combined with Chemometrics for Comparative Analysis of Different Batches of Raw, Wine-Processed, and Salt-Processed Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae

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    Liu Yang


    Full Text Available An accurate and reliable method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography combined with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS/MS was established for simultaneous quantification of five major bioactive analytes in raw, wine-processed, and salt-processed Radix Achyranthis bidentatae (RAB. The results showed that this method exhibited desirable sensitivity, precision, stability, and repeatability. The overall intra-day and inter-day variations (RSD were in the range of 1.57–2.46 and 1.51–3.00%, respectively. The overall recoveries were 98.58–101.48% with a relative standard deviation (RSD of 0.01–1.86%. In addition, the developed approach was applied to 21 batches of raw, wine-processed, and salt-processed samples of RAB. Hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA, principal component analysis (PCA, heat map, and boxplot analysis were performed to evaluate the quality of raw, wine-processed, and salt-processed RAB collected from different regions. The chemometrics combined with the quantitative analysis based on UHPLC–MS/MS results indicated that the content of five analytes increased significantly in processed RAB compared to raw RAB.

  4. Effect of Achyranthes bidentata polysaccharides on the expression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABPS) on the expression of bcl-2 and bax in hepatic tissues after exhaustive exercise in order to provide theoretical support for the application of ABPS in the field of sports nutrition. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three ...

  5. Effect of Achyranthes bidentata Blume extract on carrageenan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    muscle cell in the human prostate [18]. In addition, other evidence suggests that pro-fibrotic effects of TGF-β may be partly mediated by. CTGF [19]. As another potent profibrotic factor,. CTGF is implicated in fibroblast proliferation, cellular adhesion, angiogenesis, and extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis [20]. Previous studies.

  6. First record of the synaptid holothurian Protankyrian protankyra Bidentata (Woodward and Barrett, 1858) from the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukh, A.; Ingole, B.S.; Mukharjee, I.; Sivadas, S.K.

    Sea cucumbers (holothurians) are marine invertebrates that are harvested worldwide, mostly for human consumption in Asian countries To date, only eight species of synaptid holothurians of the genus Protankyra have been reported from the Indian Ocean...

  7. Environ: E00693 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00693 Achyranthes aspera, Achyranthes longifolia, Achyranthes bidentata root Crude drug ... Achyranthes asper...thes [TAX:169205] ... Amaranthaceae (amaranth family) Achyranthes aspera, Achyranthes longifolia, Achyranthes bidentata root (dried) ...

  8. Variability in biological responses influenced by upwelling events in the Eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Habeebrehman, H.; Prabhakaran, M.P.; Jacob, J.; Sabu, P.; Jayalakshmi, K.J.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Revichandran, C.

    : Thalassiosiraceae Family: Amphisolenaceae Cyclotella meneghiniana Amphisolenia bidentata Grammatophora marina Cyclotella sp. Amphosolenia bifurcata Grammatophora undulata Lauderia annulata Amphisolenia thrinax Planktoniella muriformis Amphisolenia sp...

  9. Cinq espèces nouvelles de Coléoptères exotiques appartenant au Musée de Leyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansberge, van J.W.


    Maximus, niger, nitidus, elytris basi opacis, capite thoraceque granulatis, elytris subtiliter striatis, subtus rufopilosus. Mas: capite cornu valido obliquo, thorace medio elevato transversimque carinato, carina sinuata, utrinque bidentata, dente externa valida, horizontaliter retro ducto. Fem.:

  10. Estudo taxonômico de Sapotaceae Juss. do litoral Paraense The taxonomic study of the Sapotaceae Juss. on the coast of Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyvid Marques Valente


    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste no tratamento taxonômico de Sapotaceae Juss. nas restingas do litoral paraense. Com auxilio de estereomicroscópio foram feitas as descrições morfológicas das partes vegetativas e reprodutivas. Utilizou-se literatura especializada, coleções identificadas por especialistas para confirmar as características diferenciais dos táxons e montada uma chave de identificação para as espécies. Foram descritas cinco espécies e quatro subespécies, distribuídas em quatro gêneros: Manilkara bidentata subsp. bidentata, M. bidentata subsp. surinamensis, M. triflora, M. paraensis; Micropholisvenulosa, M. gnaphaloclados; Pouteria ramiflora, P. reticulata subsp. reticulata and Pradosia schomburgkiana subsp. schomburgkiana. O gênero Manilkara Adans.foi o mais representativo com duas espécies e duas subespécies. A formação floresta de restinga foi o ecossistema que apresentou o maior número de táxons.This study deals with the taxonomic treatment of Sapotaceae Juss. on the coastal sandbanks of Pará State. With the aid of a stereomicroscopy, there were made morphological descriptions of reproductive and vegetative parts. We used literature and collections identified by specialists to confirm the different characteristics of the taxa. We also constructed an identification key for species. We described five species and four subspecies, distributed into four genera: Manilkara bidentata subsp. bidentata, M. bidentata subsp. surinamensis, M. triflora, M. paraensis; Micropholisvenulosa, M. gnaphaloclados; Pouteria ramiflora, P. reticulata subsp. reticulata and Pradosia schomburgkiana subsp. schomburgkiana. The genus Manilkara Adans. was the most representative with two species and two subspecies. The sandbank forest formation was the ecosystem with the largest number of taxa.

  11. Nagylengyel: an interesting reservoir. [Yugoslovia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedinszky, J


    The Nagylengyel oil field, discovered in 1951, has oil-producing formations mostly in the Upper-Triassic dolomites, in the Norian-Ractian transition formations, in the Upper-Cretaceous limestones and shales, and in the Miocene. The formation of the reservoir space occurred in many stages. A porous, cavernous fractured reservoir is developed in the Norian principal dolomite. A cavernous fractured reservoir exists in the Cretaceous limestone and in the Cretaceous shale and porous fractured reservoir is developed in the Miocene. The derivation of the model of the reservoir, and the conservative evaluation of the volume of the reservoir made it possible to use secondary recovery.

  12. Fruit availability, frugivore satiation and seed removal in 2 primate-dispersed tree species. (United States)

    Ratiarison, Sandra; Forget, Pierre-Michel


    During a mast-fruiting event we investigated spatial variability in fruit availability, consumption, and seed removal at two sympatric tree species, Manilkara bidentata and M. huberi (Sapotaceae) at Nouragues Natural Reserve, French Guiana. We addressed the question of how Manilkara density and fruits at the community level might be major causes of variability in feeding assemblages between tree species. We thus explored how the frugivore assemblages differed between forest patches with contrasting relative Manilkara density and fruiting context. During the daytime, Alouatta seniculus was more often observed in M. huberi crowns at Petit Plateau (PP) with the greatest density of Manilkara spp. and the lowest fruit diversity and availability, whereas Cebus apella and Saguinus midas were more often observed in M. bidentata crowns at both Grand Plateau (GP), with a lowest density of M. bidentata and overall greater fruit supply, and PP. Overall, nearly 53% and 15% of the M. bidentata seed crop at GP and PP, respectively, and about 47% of the M. huberi seed crop were removed, otherwise either spit out or defecated beneath trees, or dropped in fruits. Small-bodied primates concentrated fallen seeds beneath parent trees while large-bodied primate species removed and dispersed more seeds away from parents. However, among the latter, satiated A. seniculus wasted seeds under conspecific trees at PP. Variations in feeding assemblages, seed removal rates and fates possibly reflected interactions with extra-generic fruit species at the community level, according to feeding choice, habitat preferences and ranging patterns of primate species. © 2011 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  13. Tissue-based metabolite profiling and qualitative comparison of two species of Achyranthes roots by use of UHPLC-QTOF MS and laser micro-dissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yogini Jaiswal; Zhitao Liang; Alan Ho; Hubiao Chen; Leonard Williams; Zhongzhen Zhao


    Achyranthes bidentata and Achyranthes aspera are saponin and steroid rich medicinal plants, used extensively for therapeutic treatments in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda. A. bidentata is reported to be one of the rare and extensively exploited medicinal plant species that face the issue of being endangered. Finding qualitative substitute with identical phyto-constituents contributing to similar composition and pharmacological benefits wil help in reducing the burden of exploitation of the natural habitats of such plants. In the present study, a comparative metabolite analysis of the whole drug and specific tissues isolated by laser micro-dissection (LMD) was carried out for both the selected species, by use of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS). The results of the study indicate that the cortex and the medullary ray tissues are rich in their content of steroidal and saponin con-stituents such as (25S)-inokosterone-20,22-acetonide, ginsenoside Ro, bidentatoside II and achyranthoside B. Metabolite profiling of the whole tissues of both the species indicates presence of identical constituents. Thus, it is inferred that A. bidentata and A. aspera can be used as qualitative substitutes for each other.

  14. The Potential Research of Catch Crop in Decrease Soil Nitrate Under Greenhouse Vegetable Production

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    YIN Xing


    Full Text Available In order to clarify the impact of catch crops on greenhouse vegetable soil nitrate, explore the mechanism of barrier and controll soil nitrogen leaching losses in greenhouse, and provide a theoretical basis for control nitrogen leaching and prevention of groundwater pollution, this study selected the traditional greenhouse vegetable rotation system in North China plain as research subjects, using field situ remediation technologies on deep-root planting catch crops in the vegetable fallow period by sweet corn, Achyranthes bidentata and white Chrysanthemum. The results showed that: nitrogen content and nitrogen uptake of sweet corn and sweet corn with Achyranthes bidentata intercropping were the highest, respectively 20.11 t·hm-2, 19.62 t·hm-2 and 240.34 kg·hm-2, 287.56 kg·hm-2, significantly higher than white Chrysanthemum. The density of root length and root dry weight decreased with soil depth in the profiles, root length density was demonstrated in order as: intercropping sweet corn> sweet corn> white Chrysanthemum> intercropping Achyranthes bidentata blume. The reduction of NO3--N of sweet corn reached 907.87 kg·hm-2 in soil profile 0~200 cm, significantly higher than sweet corn and hyssop intercropping and white Chrysanthemums. In the interim period of vegetable crop rotation, planting catch crops could effectively reduce nitrate accumulation in the soil, control the soil profile nitrate leaching down.

  15. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... tetrapod taxa do not support the recently proposed successive Otischalkian, Adamanian, Revueltian, and Apachean biochrons within the Dockum Group. Instead, a few index fossils provide a broad framework for correlation of Late Triassic nonmarine strata of the Dockum with the Carnian and Norian Alpine marine stages ...

  16. A comparison of resistance to fracture among four commercially available forms of hydroxyapatite cement. (United States)

    Miller, Lee; Guerra, Aldo Benjamin; Bidros, Rafi Sirop; Trahan, Christopher; Baratta, Richard; Metzinger, Stephen Eric


    Hydroxyapatite cement is a relatively new biomaterial that has found widespread use in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Despite its common usage, complication rates as high as 32% have been reported. When failed implants are removed, implant fracture has been cited as a potential cause of failure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate resistance to fracture among 4 commercially available hydroxyapatite cement formulations. The materials tested included Norian Craniofacial Repair System (carbonated apatite cement) (AO North America, Devon, PA), Norian CRS Fast Set Putty (carbonated apatite cement) (AO North America), BoneSource (hydroxyapatite cement) (Stryker Leibinger, Portage, MI), and Mimix (hydroxyapatite cement) (Walter Lorenz Surgical, Inc, Jacksonville, FL). To ensure consistency, all materials were embedded in acrylic wells. Each material was placed into a well 2.54 cm in diameter and 0.953 cm in thickness. The materials were prepared per manufacturer specifications. All materials were incubated at 37.0 degrees C, in 6% CO2, 100% humidity for 36 hours. Using the Bionix MTS Test System, a 12-mm-diameter probe applied incremental force to the center of the disk at a rate of 0.1 mm per second. The transmitted force was measured using a Bionix MTS Axial-Torsional Load Transducer for each disk. The force which resulted in fracture was recorded for each material. Ten disks of each material were processed by this method, for a total of 40 disks. The significance of resistance to fracture for the 4 compounds was analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance with post hoc Scheffe method. Mean fracture force with related P values was plotted for direct comparison of group outcomes. Material type contributed significantly to variance in fracture force for the biomaterials studied. Norian CRS required the greatest mean fracture force (1385 N, SD+/-292 N), followed by Norian CRS Fast Set Putty (1143 N, SD+/-193 N). Mimix required a mean fracture force of 740 N, SD+/-79 N

  17. Effects of insect and decapod exclusion and leaf litter species identity on breakdown rates in a tropical headwater stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rincón


    Full Text Available La gran variedad de especies vegetales junto a los ríos tropicales afecta la diversidad de detritos orgánicos que llegan a los arroyos, creando variaciones temporales en cantidad y calidad de hojarasca. Examinamos la influencia de las especies vegetales y de la exclusión de macroinvertebrados sobre la descomposición de hojarasca en la parte alta de un arroyo en las montañas Luquillo de Puerto Rico. Incubamos hojarasca de Dacryodes excelsa (Burseraceae, Guarea guidonia (Meliaceae, Cecropia scheberiana (Moraceae, Manilkara bidentata (Sapotaceae y Prestoea acuminata (Palmae en bolsas descomposición que colocamos en una poza de Quebrada Prieta. Usamos bolsas de malla fina para excluir los macroinvertebrados y de malla gruesa para permitir la entrada a crustáceos decápodos (camarones y cangrejos jóvenes e insectos acuáticos (principalmente efemerópteros, quironómidos y tricópteros. D. excelsa y G. guidonia (en ambos tipos de malla tuvieron tasas de descomposición más altas que C. scheberiana, M. bidentata y P. acuminata. La descomposición fue más rápida para todas las especies de hoja con la malla gruesa, resaltando el papel de los descomponedores en este hábitat. Tras 42 días de esta incubación, las densidades totales de invertebrados, efemerópteros y tricópteros fueron mayores en las bolsas con hojas de D. excelsa y G. guidonia, e inferiores en P. acuminata, C. scheberiana y M. bidentata. A mayor densidad de insectos hubo mayor tasa de descomposición. Nuestros resultados indican la importancia de la especie de las hojas y de la presencia de macroinvertebrados en el proceso de descomposición de hojarasca en partes altas de arroyos tropicales.

  18. Depositional environments of Late Triassic lake, east-central New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hester, P.M. (Bureau of Land Management, Albuquerque, NM (USA))


    The Redonda Member of the Chinle Formation represents deposition in a large, polymictic lake during the Late Triassic (Norian) in east-central New Mexico. This study documents and defines an extensive lacustrine system situated in western Pangaea which was influenced by both tectonic and climatic events. Areal extent of the lake may have been as much as 5,000 km{sup 2}.


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    Full Text Available Vallesaurus cenensis, a small drepanosaurid reptile from the Norian (Late Triassic beds of the Calcare di Zorzino (Zorzino Limestone is described. The holotype and only known specimen represents the first drepanosaurid in which the skull is preserved articulated with the postcranial skeleton. The study of Vallesaurus anatomy confirms previous data about arboreal adaptation in all known drepanosaurids and permits more firm hypotheses about the phylogenetic relationships of the Drepanosauridae to be proposed.

  20. The girdles of the oldest fossil turtle, Proterochersis robusta, and the age of the turtle crown


    Joyce, Walter G; Schoch, Rainer R; Lyson, Tyler R


    Background: Proterochersis robusta from the Late Triassic (Middle Norian) of Germany is the oldest known fossil turtle (i.e. amniote with a fully formed turtle shell), but little is known about its anatomy. A newly prepared, historic specimen provides novel insights into the morphology of the girdles and vertebral column of this taxon and the opportunity to reassess its phylogenetic position.Results: The anatomy of the pectoral girdle of P. robusta is similar to that of other primitive turtle...

  1. Age constraints on the dispersal of dinosaurs in the Late Triassic from magnetochronology of the Los Colorados Formation (Argentina). (United States)

    Kent, Dennis V; Santi Malnis, Paula; Colombi, Carina E; Alcober, Oscar A; Martínez, Ricardo N


    A measured magnetozone sequence defined by 24 sampling sites with normal polarity and 28 sites with reverse polarity characteristic magnetizations was established for the heretofore poorly age-constrained Los Colorados Formation and its dinosaur-bearing vertebrate fauna in the Ischigualasto-Villa Union continental rift basin of Argentina. The polarity pattern in this ∼600-m-thick red-bed section can be correlated to Chrons E7r to E15n of the Newark astrochronological polarity time scale. This represents a time interval from 227 to 213 Ma, indicating that the Los Colorados Formation is predominantly Norian in age, ending more than 11 My before the onset of the Jurassic. The magnetochronology confirms that the underlying Ischigualasto Formation and its vertebrate assemblages including some of the earliest known dinosaurs are of Carnian age. The oldest dated occurrences of vertebrate assemblages with dinosaurs in North America (Chinle Formation) are younger (Norian), and thus the rise of dinosaurs was diachronous across the Americas. Paleogeography of the Ischigualasto and Los Colorados Formations indicates prolonged residence in the austral temperate humid belt where a provincial vertebrate fauna with early dinosaurs may have incubated. Faunal dispersal across the Pangean supercontinent in the development of more cosmopolitan vertebrate assemblages later in the Norian may have been in response to reduced contrasts between climate zones and lowered barriers resulting from decreasing atmospheric pCO2 levels.

  2. Spermatogenesis and spermatozoa ultrastructure of two Dipolydora species (Annelida: Spionidae) from the Sea of Japan. (United States)

    Radashevsky, Vasily I; Yurchenko, Olga V; Tyurin, Sergey A; Alexandrova, Yana N


    Spermatogenesis and the structure of the spermatozoa of two spionid polychaetes Dipolydora bidentata and Dipolydora carunculata are described by light and transmission electron microscopy. Both species are gonochoristic borers in shells of various molluscs. Proliferation of spermatogonia occurs in paired testes regularly arranged in fertile segments, and the rest of spermatogenesis occurs in the coelomic cavity. Early spermatogenesis occurs quite similarly in the two species but results in formation of tetrads of interconnected spermatids in D. bidentata and octads of spermatids in D. carunculata. Three consecutive stages of spermiogenesis are recognized according to the condensation of chromatin in nucleus: (1) early spermatids with heterogeneous, partly clumped chromatin, (2) middle spermatids with homogeneous, coarsely granular chromatin, and (3) late spermatids with homogeneous fibrillar chromatin. Moreover, late stage of spermatids is further classified into two stages, I and II, according to the position of the acrosome and shape of the nucleus. In late spermatids I, the acrosome is situated in the anterior invagination of the funnel-shaped to oval nucleus, whereas in late spermatids II the acrosome is situated on top of the elongated nucleus. Ultrastructural composition of cells at each stage of spermatogenesis is described and illustrated. The possible process of morphogenesis of organelles during spermato- and spermiogenesis is reconstructed for both species. The proacrosomal vesicle first appears in early spermatids near the Golgi complex and then migrates anteriorly; in the middle spermatids, the acrosome comes to lie in a deep anterior nuclear fossa. In late spermatids I, this fossa evaginates and a posterior fossa develops in the nucleus housing basal body and the anterior part of the axoneme. In late spermatids II, the mitochondria elongate and probably reduce in number due to fusion of some of them. The mature spermatozoa in both species are

  3. Atmospheric pollution and melanic moths in Manchester and its environs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askew, R R; Cook, L M; Bishop, J A


    Samples of moths have been taken in the Manchester area at sites in localities with moderate to extreme atmospheric pollution. The majority of species collected are dark in color, many typically pale species being represented by dark variants. Four species polymorphic for melanic and non-melanic morphs have been examined in more detail. In Biston betularia the melanic frequency is over 93% at all stations, but the frequency of typicals appears to have increased over the past 15 years. This coincides with a period of extensive smoke control zonation. Gondontis bidentata has a higher frequency of melanics than has been recorded elsewhere in the country. There is significant variation between sites, the higher frequencies occurring in the more polluted localities. Non-melanics segregate into a pale and a dark category. In reared samples males exhibit a greater frequency of melanics than females.

  4. Spiders (Araneae of stony debris in North Bohemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Růžička, Vlastimil


    Full Text Available The arachnofauna was studied at five stony debris sites in northern Bohemia. In Central Europe, the northern and montane species inhabiting cold places live not only on mountain tops and peat bogs but also on the lower edges of boulder debris, where air streaming through the system of inner compartments gives rise to an exceedingly cold microclimate. At such cold sites, spiders can live either on bare stones (Bathyphantes simillimus, Wubanoides uralensis, or in the rich layers of moss and lichen (Diplocentria bidentata. Kratochviliella bicapitata exhibits a diplostenoecious occurence in stony debris and on the tree bark. Latithorax faustus and Theonoe minutissima display diplostenoecious occurence in stony debris and on peat bogs. The occurence of the species Scotina celans in the Czech Republic was documented for the first time.

  5. Espécies novas de Trigonisca Moure (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apinae New species of Trigonisca Moure (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apinae

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    Patrícia Maia Correia de Albuquerque


    Full Text Available Algumas espécies novas de Meliponini do gênero Trigonisca Moure, 1950 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apinae do Brasil e Panamá são descritas: T. roubiki sp. nov. (Panamá, T. variegatifrons sp. nov. (Brasil: RO, PA, MT, T. vitrifrons sp. nov. (Brasil: AM, PA, T. unidentata sp. nov. (Brasil: AM, T. meridionalis sp. nov. (Brasil: PA, MA, MT, MG, SP, T. bidentata sp. nov. (Brasil: RO, T. extrema sp. nov. (Brasil: AM e T. hirticornis sp. nov. (Brasil: RO, PA; e são apresentados novos registros geográficos de T. flavicans (Moure, 1950, T. intermedia Moure, 1989, T. dobzhanskyi (Moure, 1950, T. ceophloei (Schwarz, 1938, T. nataliae (Moure, 1950 e T. pediculana (Fabricius, 1804 e uma chave para identificação das espécies.Some new Meliponini species of the genus Trigonisca Moure, 1950 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apinae from Brazil and Panamá are described: T. roubiki sp. nov. (Panamá, T. variegatifrons sp. nov. (Brazil: RO, PA, MT, T. vitrifrons sp. nov. (Brazil: AM, PA, T. unidentata sp. nov. (Brazil: AM, T. meridionalis sp. nov. (Brazil: PA, MA, MT, MG, SP, T. bidentata sp. nov. (Brazil: RO, T. extrema sp. nov. (Brazil: AM and T. hirticornis sp. nov. (Brazil: RO, PA; additional geographic records from T. flavicans (Moure, 1950, T. intermedia Moure, 1989, T. dobzhanskyi (Moure, 1950, T. ceophloei (Schwarz, 1938, T. nataliae (Moure, 1950 and T. pediculana (Fabricius, 1804 and an identification key for species are presented.

  6. Ichthyosaurs from the French Rhaetian indicate a severe turnover across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary (United States)

    Fischer, Valentin; Cappetta, Henri; Vincent, Peggy; Garcia, Géraldine; Goolaerts, Stijn; Martin, Jeremy E.; Roggero, Daniel; Valentin, Xavier


    Mesozoic marine reptiles went through a severe turnover near the end of the Triassic. Notably, an important extinction event affected ichthyosaurs, sweeping a large part of the group. This crisis is, however, obscured by an extremely poor fossil record and is regarded as protracted over the entire Norian-earliest Jurassic interval, for the lack of a more precise scenario. The iconic whale-sized shastasaurid ichthyosaurs are regarded as early victims of this turnover, disappearing by the middle Norian. Here we evaluate the pattern of this turnover among ichthyosaurs by analysing the faunal record of two Rhaetian localities. One locality is Autun, eastern France; we rediscovered in this material the holotypes or partial `type' series of Rachitrema pellati, Actiosaurus gaudryi, Ichthyosaurus rheticus, Ichthyosaurus carinatus and Plesiosaurus bibractensis; a revised taxonomic scheme is proposed. The second assemblage comes from a new locality: Cuers, southeastern France. Both these assemblages provide several lines of evidence for the presence of shastasaurid-like ichthyosaurs in the Rhaetian of Europe. These occurrences suggest that both the demise of shastasaurids and the sudden radiation of neoichthyosaurians occurred within a short time window; this turnover appears not only more abrupt but also more complex than previously postulated and adds a new facet of the end-Triassic mass extinction.


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    Full Text Available The Fraele Formation crops out in the Ortles Nappe (upper Valtellina, Northern Italy, structurally part of the Central Austroalpine Domain. It consists of fine siliciclastics alternating with carbonates, mostly limestones,rare dolostones and marls. The formation differs lithologically from the underlying Norian Dolomia del Cristallo because of different paleonvironmental evolution.The change in environmental parameters was controlled mainly by a climatic change to more humid conditions.This favoured on one hand the mobilisation and trasport by rivers of siliciclastic material from the continent to the Tethys gulf,and on the other influenced the sea-water chemistry.Freshwater influxes lowered salinity and inhibited early dolomitisation. Input of low density freshwater resulted in the astablishment of a permanent water mass stratification which influenced the benthic life. This paleoenvironmental reconstruction fits with the sudden clastic input which occurred in several palaeogeographic domains of the western Tethys realm (Austroalpine, Southalpine, Apennine, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia during the Late Norian.  

  8. Paleomagnetism of the Chinle and Kayenta Formations, New Mexico and Arizona (United States)

    Bazard, David R.; Butler, Robert F.


    Paleomagnetic data were obtained from 22 sites (6-10 samples/site) in the Upper Shale Member of the Chinle Formation, 43 sites in the Owl Rock Member of the Chinle Formation, and 35 sites in the Kayenta Formation. Thermal demagnetization and data analyses indicate that within-site dispersion is an important criterion for selecting sites which retain a high unblocking temperature characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM). Site-mean directions define at least four antipodal polarity zones within each member/formation, suggesting the ChRM was acquired soon after deposition. Fifteen site-mean virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) from the Upper Shale Member of the Chinle Formation yield an early Norian paleomagnetic pole position of 57.4°N, 87.8°E (K = 60, A95 = 5.0°). Eighteen site-mean VGPs from the Owl Rock Member of the Chinle Formation yield a middle Norian paleomagnetic pole position of 56.5°N, 66.4°E (K = 183, A95 = 2.6°). Twenty-three site-mean VGPs from the Kayenta Formation yield a Pliensbachian pole position of 59.0°N, 66.6°E (K = 155, A95 = 2.4°). Combined with paleomagnetic poles from the Moenave Formation and the Shinarump Member of the Chinle Formation, these data record ˜30 m.y. of North American apparent polar wander (APW) within a regional stratigraphic succession. During the Camian and Norian stages of the Late Triassic, Chinle poles progress westward. During the Hettangian through Pliensbachian stages of the Early Jurassic, the pattern of APW changed to an eastward progression. Even after correction for 4° clockwise rotation of the Colorado Plateau, a sharp comer in the APW path (J1 cusp) is resolved near the pole from the Hettangian/Sinemurian (˜200 Ma) Moenave Formation (59.4°N, 59.2°E). Amongst other implications, the sharp change in the APW path at the J1 cusp implies an abrupt change from counterclockwise rotation of Pangea prior to 200 Ma to clockwise rotation thereafter.

  9. Sedimentology of the Essaouira Basin (Meskala Field) in context of regional sediment distribution patterns during upper Triassic pluvial events (United States)

    Mader, Nadine K.; Redfern, Jonathan; El Ouataoui, Majid


    Upper Triassic continental clastics (TAGI: Trias Argilo-Greseux Inferieur) in the Essaouira Basin are largely restricted to the subsurface, which has limited analysis of the depositional environments and led to speculation on potential provenance of the fluvial systems. Facies analysis of core from the Meskala Field onshore Essaouira Basin is compared with tentatively time-equivalent deposits exposed in extensive outcrops in the Argana Valley, to propose a process orientated model for local versus regional sediment distribution patterns in the continuously evolving Moroccan Atlantic rift during Carnian to Norian times. The study aims to unravel the climatic overprint and improve the understanding of paleo-climatic variations along the Moroccan Atlantic margin to previously recognised Upper Triassic pluvial events. In the Essaouira Basin, four facies associations representing a progressive evolution from proximal to distal facies belts in a continental rift were established. Early ephemeral braided river systems are succeeded by a wet aeolian sandflat environment with a strong arid climatic overprint (FA1). This is followed by the onset of perennial fluvial deposits with extensive floodplain fines (FA2), accompanied by a distinct shift in fluvial style, suggesting increase in discharge and related humidity, either locally or in the catchment area. The fluvial facies transitions to a shallow lacustrine or playa lake delta environment (FA3), which exhibits cyclical abandonment. The delta is progressively overlain by a terminal playa with extensive, mottled mudstones (FA4), interpreted to present a return from cyclical humid-arid conditions to prevailing aridity in the basin. In terms of regional distribution and sediment source provenance, paleocurrent data from Carnian to Norian deposits (T5 to T8 member) in the Argana Valley suggest paleoflow focused towards the S and SW, not directed towards the Meskala area in the NW as previously suggested. A major depo

  10. Basin geodynamics and sequence stratigraphy of Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic deposits of Southern Tunisia (United States)

    Carpentier, Cédric; Hadouth, Suhail; Bouaziz, Samir; Lathuilière, Bernard; Rubino, Jean-Loup


    Aims of this paper are to propose a geodynamic and sequential framework for the late Triassic and early Jurassic of and south Tunisia and to evidence the impact of local tectonics on the stratigraphic architecture. Facies of the Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic of Southern Tunisia have been interpreted in terms of depositional environments. A sequential framework and correlation schemes are proposed for outcrops and subsurface transects. Nineteen middle frequency sequences inserted in three and a half low frequency transgression/regression cycles were evidenced. Despite some datation uncertainties and the unknown durations of Lower Jurassic cycles, middle frequency sequences appear to be controlled by eustasy. In contrast the tectonics acted as an important control on low frequency cycles. The Carnian flooding was certainly favored by the last stages of a rifting episode which started during the Permian. The regression accompanied by the formation of stacked angular unconformities and the deposition of lowstand deposits during the late Carnian and Norian occured during the uplift and tilting of the northern basin margins. The transpressional activity of the Jeffara fault system generated the uplift of the Tebaga of Medenine high from the late Carnian and led to the Rhaetian regional angular Sidi Stout Unconformity. Facies analysis and well-log correlations permitted to evidence that Rhaetian to Lower Jurassic Messaoudi dolomites correspond to brecciated dolomites present on the Sidi Stout unconformity in the North Dahar area. The Early-cimmerian compressional event is a possible origin for the global uplift of the northern African margin and Western Europe during the late Carnian and the Norian. During the Rhaetian and the early Jurassic a new episode of normal faulting occured during the third low frequency flooding. This tectonosedimentary evolution ranges within the general geodynamic framework of the north Gondwana margin controlled by the opening of both

  11. Therapeutic effects of Qian-Yu decoction and its three extracts on carrageenan-induced chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome in rats. (United States)

    Zhang, Keda; Zeng, Xiaobin; Chen, Yonggang; Zhao, Rong; Wang, Hui; Wu, Jinhu


    Qian-Yu decoction (QYD) is a traditional Chinese medicinal recipe composed of Radix astragali (Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge var. mongholicus (Bunge) P.K. Hsiao, Fabaceae ), Herba epimedii (Epimedium brevicornum Maxim., Berberidaceae), Herba leonuri (Leonurus japonicus Houtt., Lamiaceae), Cortex phellodendri (Phellodendron chinense Schneid., Rutaceae) and Radix achyranthis bidentatae (Achyranthes bidentata Bl., Amaranthaceae). This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic activity of QYD against carrageenan-induced chronic prostatic/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) in rats and further elucidate its effective components. Three types of components, total polysaccharides, total flavonoids and total saponins were separately extracted from QYD. Carrageenan-induced CP/CPPS rats were intragastrically administered with lyophilized product of QYD, individual extracts and all the combined forms of extracts for three weeks. Prostatic index (PI) was determined and histopathological analysis was performed. The levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E2 (PEG2) in rat prostate tissues were measured using ELISA. The production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was evaluated by an enzymatic activity assay, and the release of nitric oxide (NO) was determined by a nitrate/nitrite assay. Treatment with QYD significantly ameliorated the histological changes of CP/CPPS rats and reduced the PI by 44.3%, with a marked downregulation of TNF-α (42.8% reduction), IL-1β (45.3%), COX-2 (36.6%), PGE2 (44.2%), iNOS (54.1%) and NO (46.0%). Each of three extracts attenuated the symptom of CP/CPPS, but much more weakly than QYD. The combined administration of three extracts showed efficacy comparable to that of QYD while better than that of any combination of two extracts. A principal component analysis of the six inflammatory mediators as variables indicated that the effects of TS on CP

  12. Chinese vegetative materia medica in a venereological treatise by Jean Astruc from 1740. (United States)

    Drobnik, Jacek


    Historical medical sources can be still queried for forgotten cures and remedies. Traditional Chinese medicine has dealt with lues venerea (syphilis) since the Five Dynasties period (10th century). Chinese indigenous materia medica and remedies recorded, studied or imported by the Europeans can reveal known or quite unknown medicinal plants. The studied Jean Astruc's work is a published ethnopharmacological survey carried out in Beijing in the 1730s and it deserves a modern interpretation. This is the first proposal to identify historical Chinese medicinal plants listed in a scarcely known medical treatise De Morbis venereis… ('On venereal diseases…') by Jean Astruc from 1740. I searched for the current uses and position of the taxonomically identified herbal stock in both traditional Chinese and official medical knowledge, with special attention to syphilis. Chinese names of drugs and their botanical identities (originally expressed by means of pre-Linnaean polynomials, and now interpreted as accepted binomials) were independently cross-checked with younger till most recent taxonomical and ethnopharmacological sources. Plants and drugs identified this way were queried for their modern applications in traditional Chinese and official medicine with special attention to sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and other uses which are similar to the 18th-century understanding of venereology. For 24 items of medicinal stock, 34 medicinal plants have been identified or suspected: Acacia catechu, Achyranthes bidentata, Akebia quinata, Angelica dahurica, A. sinensis, Aquilaria sinensis, Aralia cordata, Aristolochia fangchi, Chaenomeles sinensis, Ch. speciosa, Clematis vitalba, Coix lacryma-jobi, Commiphora myrrha, Cydonia oblonga, Daemonorops draco, D. jenkinsiana, Dictamnus dasycarpus, Dryobalanops sumatrensis, Forsythia suspensa, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Lonicera confusa, L. hypoglauca, L. japonica, Ligusticum striatum (=L. chuanxiong), Piper kadsura, Pterocarpus

  13. Repulsive guidance molecule a blockade exerts the immunoregulatory function in DCs stimulated with ABP and LPS. (United States)

    Xu, Xuxu; Gao, Yan; Zhai, Zhiyong; Zhang, Shuo; Shan, Fengping; Feng, Juan


    Repulsive guidance molecule a (RGMa) is an axonal guidance molecule that has recently found to exert function in immune system. This study evaluated the function of RGMa in modulation of dendritic cells (DCs) function stimulated with Achyranthes bidentata polysaccharide (ABP) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using a RGMa-neutralizing antibody. Compared with the Control-IgG/ABP and Control-IgG/LPS groups, DCs in the Anti-RGMa/ABP and Anti-RGMa/LPS groups 1) showed small, round cells with a few cell processes and organelles, and many pinocytotic vesicles; 2) had decreased MHC II, CD86, CD80, and CD40 expression; 3) displayed the decreased IL-12p70, IL-1β and TNF-α levels and increased IL-10 secretion; 4) had a high percentage of FITC-dextran uptake; and 5) displayed a reduced ability to drive T cell proliferation and reinforced T cell polarization toward a Th2 cytokine pattern. We conclude that DCs treated with RGMa-neutralizing antibodies present with tolerogenic and immunoregulatory characteristics, which provides new insights into further understanding of the function of RGMa.

  14. Additions to the knowledge of the land snails of Sabah (Malaysia, Borneo), including 48 new species (United States)

    Vermeulen, Jaap J.; Liew, Thor-Seng; Schilthuizen, Menno


    Abstract We present reviews of the Sabah (Malaysia, on the island of Borneo) species of the following problematical genera of land snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda): Acmella and Anaglyphula (Caenogastropoda: Assimineidae); Ditropopsis (Caenogastropoda: Cyclophoridae); Microcystina (Pulmonata: Ariophantidae); Philalanka and Thysanota (Pulmonata: Endodontidae); Kaliella, Rahula, (Pulmonata: Euconulidae); Trochomorpha and Geotrochus (Pulmonata: Trochomorphidae). Next to this, we describe new species in previously revised genera, such as Diplommatina (Diplommatinidae); Georissa (Hydrocenidae); as well as some new species of genera not revised previously, such as Japonia (Cyclophoridae); Durgella and Dyakia (Ariophantidae); Amphidromus, and Trachia (Camaenidae); Paralaoma (Punctidae); Curvella (Subulinidae). All descriptions are based on the morphology of the shells. We distinguish the following 48 new species: Acmella cyrtoglyphe, Acmella umbilicata, Acmella ovoidea, Acmella nana, Acmella subcancellata, Acmella striata, and Anaglyphula sauroderma (Assimineidae); Ditropopsis davisoni, Ditropopsis trachychilus, Ditropopsis constricta, Ditropopsis tyloacron, Ditropopsis cincta, and Japonia anceps (Cyclophoridae); Diplommatina bidentata and Diplommatina tylocheilos (Diplommatinidae); Georissa leucococca and Georissa nephrostoma (Hydrocenidae); Durgella densestriata, Dyakia chlorosoma, Microcystina microrhynchus, Microcystina callifera, Microcystina striatula, Microcystina planiuscula, and Microcystina physotrochus (Ariophantidae); Amphidromus psephos and Trachia serpentinitica (Camaenidae); Philalanka tambunanensis, Philalanka obscura, Philalanka anomphala, Philalanka rugulosa, and Philalanka malimgunung (Endodontidae); Kaliella eurytrochus, Kaliella sublaxa, Kaliella phacomorpha, Kaliella punctata, Kaliella microsoma, Rahula delopleura, (Euconulidae); Paralaoma angusta (Punctidae); Curvella hadrotes (Subulinidae); Trochomorpha trachus, Trochomorpha haptoderma, Trochomorpha

  15. New paleomagnetic results from the Permian and Mesozoic rocks in central and northeast Thailand: their implications for the construction of the Indochina block in Pangea (United States)

    Zhang, D.; Yan, Y.; Huang, B.; Zhao, J.


    Paleomagnetic studies of the Indochina block, aiming to reconstruct the paleogeography, have been undertaken for several decades. Since the Indochina block is lack of reliable paleomagnetic data to constraint its paleo-positions during the Middle Permian to Upper Triassic, the paleogeography reconstruction is still in debate between different models reported. Here we present new paleomagnetic data of Middle Permian to Upper Triassic sediment rocks from the Indochina block in Thailand, and recalculate paleomagnetic data reported by different authors. We collected the Permian samples in 20 sites distributed in the central Thailand, and Triassic samples from the Huai Hin Lat and Nam Phong formations in 13 sites in the northern Thailand.The magnetic directions of the 11 sites of Permian limestones are not significantly clustered after tilt correction which implying a remagnetized result. Remarkably, in geographic coordinate, the 11 sites were distributed along a circle showing a similar inclination which is 22.9° implying the paleolatitude to be about 12°. Totally, 13 sites from the Huai Hin Lat formation are included in the calculation of the formation mean direction Dg/Ig = 21.4°/38.1°, kg = 19.5, α95 = 9.6° before and Ds/Is = 43.0°/48.0°, ks = 47.4, α95 = 6.1°, N = 13 after bedding correction. A pre-folding characteristic magnetization is suggested by the positive fold test result derived from the Huai Hin Lat formation, and thus implies a primary remanence of the Norian Stage Upper Triassic rocks. A new Nam Phong formation mean direction derived from 11 sites is Dg/Ig = 36.5°/31.3°, kg = 14.7, α95 = 12.3°before and Ds/Is = 36.4°/37.8°, ks = 68.5, α95 = 5.6°, N = 11 after bedding correction. The two formation mean directions correspond to the magnetic pole positions , Plat./Plon=48.7°N/165.9°E, A95=7.2° and Plat./Plon=55.2°N/178.0°E, A95=5.9°, respectively. A remarkable tectonic movement (~8° southward) of the Indochina block from the age of

  16. Geochemical and palynological records for the end-Triassic Mass-Extinction Event in the NE Paris Basin (Luxemburg) (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Natascha; van de Schootbrugge, Bas; Thein, Jean; Fiebig, Jens; Franz, Sven-Oliver; Hanzo, Micheline; Colbach, Robert; Faber, Alain


    The End-Triassic mass-extinction event is one of the "big five" mass extinctions in Earth's history. Large scale flood basalt volcanism associated with the break-up of Pangaea, which resulted in the opening of the central Atlantic Ocean, is considered as the leading cause. In addition, an asteroid impact in Rochechouart (France; 201 ± 2 Ma) may have had a local influence on ecosystems and sedimentary settings. The Luxembourg Embayment, in the NE Paris Basin, offers a rare chance to study both effects in a range of settings from deltaic to lagoonal. A multidisciplinary study (sedimentology, geochemistry, palynology) has been carried out on a number of outcrops and cores that span from the Norian to lower Hettangian. Combined geochemical and palynological records from the Boust core drilled in the NE Paris Basin, provide evidence for paleoenvironmental changes associated with the end-Triassic mass-extinction event. The Triassic-Jurassic stratigraphy of the Boust core is well constrained by palynomorphs showing the disappaerance of typical Triassic pollen taxa (e.g. Ricciisporites tuberculates) and the occurrence of the marker species Polypodiisporites polymicroforatus within the uppermost Rhaetian, prior to the Hettangian dominance of Classopollis pollen. The organic carbon stable isotope record (δ13Corg) spanning the Norian to Hettangian, shows a series of prominent negative excursions within the middle Rhaetian, followed by a trend towards more positive values (approx -24 per mille) within the uppermost Rhaetian Argiles de Levallois Member. The lowermost Hettangian is characterized by a major negative excursion, reaching - 30 per mille that occurs in organic-rich sediments. This so-called "main negative excursion" is well-known from other locations, for example from Mariental in Northern Germany and from St Audrie's Bay in England, and Stenlille in Denmark. Based on redox-sensitive trace element records (V, Cr, Ni, Co, Th, U) the lowermost Hettangian in most of

  17. End-Triassic nonmarine biotic events

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    Spencer G. Lucas


    Full Text Available The Late Triassic was a prolonged interval of elevated extinction rates and low origination rates that manifested themselves in a series of extinctions during Carnian, Norian and Rhaetian time. Most of these extinctions took place in the marine realm, particularly affecting radiolarians, conodonts, bivalves, ammonoids and reef-building organisms. On land, the case for a Late Triassic mass extinction is much more tenuous and has largely focused on tetrapod vertebrates (amphibians and reptiles, though some workers advocate a sudden end-Triassic (TJB extinction of land plants. Nevertheless, an extensive literature does not identify a major extinction of land plants at the TJB, and a comprehensive review of palynological records concluded that TJB vegetation changes were non-uniform (different changes in different places, not synchronous and not indicative of a mass extinction of land plants. Claims of a substantial perturbation of plant ecology and diversity at the TJB in East Greenland are indicative of a local change in the paleoflora largely driven by lithofacies changes resulting in changing taphonomic filters. Plant extinctions at the TJB were palaeogeographically localized events, not global in extent. With new and more detailed stratigraphic data, the perceived TJB tetrapod extinction is mostly an artifact of coarse temporal resolution, the compiled correlation effect. The amphibian, archosaur and synapsid extinctions of the Late Triassic are not concentrated at the TJB, but instead occur stepwise, beginning in the Norian and extending into the Hettangian. There was a disruption of the terrestrial ecosystem across the TJB, but it was more modest than generally claimed. The ecological severity of the end-Triassic nonmarine biotic events are relatively low on the global scale. Biotic turnover at the end of the Triassic was likely driven by the CAMP (Central Atlantic Magmatic Province eruptions, which caused significant environmental

  18. Some shallow-water hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from the central east coast of Florida, USA. (United States)

    Calder, Dale R


    This paper gives a systematic account of 67 species, referable to 22 families and 40 genera, identified in a small collection of hydroids from the central Atlantic coast of Florida between Melbourne and Palm Beach. The fauna mostly comprises an assemblage of tropical western Atlantic species ranging northwards along the southeastern coast of the United States. One new species, Lafoea intorta, is described. Applying Reversal of Precedence provisions in zoological nomenclature, the widely-used generic name Halopteris Allman, 1877 is designated as valid and as a nomen protectum, while its virtually unused senior synonym Halicornaria Hincks, 1865 (not Halicornaria Allman, 1874) is reduced to a nomen oblitum. The genus Pasya Stechow, 1922 is resurrected for the hydroid generally known as Dynamena quadridentata (Ellis & Solander, 1786). Laomedea tottoni Leloup, 1935 is shown to be a junior objective synonym of Clytia fragilis Congdon, 1907, which in turn is a junior subjective synonym of Clytia linearis (Thornely, 1900). Obelia oxydentata Stechow, 1914 is recognized as distinct from O. bidentata Clark, 1875. Hincksella brevitheca Galea, 2009, first described from Cuba, is reported for only the second time; records of the species are added here from Grand Cayman Island and the Caribbean coast of Panama as well as from the Atlantic coast of Florida. Also reported for the second time is Antennella incerta Galea, 2010, previ-ously known only from Guadeloupe in the Caribbean Sea. The true Halopteris diaphana (Heller, 1868), known from the Mediterranean Sea and from Brazil, is reported for the first time from the western North Atlantic. Earlier records of the species in the region are based on misidentifications of H. alternata (Nutting, 1900). Male gonothecae of Halecium calderi Galea, 2010 are reported and illustrated for the first time.

  19. A thin-shelled reptile from the Late Triassic of North America and the origin of the turtle shell. (United States)

    Joyce, Walter G; Lucas, Spencer G; Scheyer, Torsten M; Heckert, Andrew B; Hunt, Adrian P


    A new, thin-shelled fossil from the Upper Triassic (Revueltian: Norian) Chinle Group of New Mexico, Chinlechelys tenertesta, is one of the most primitive known unambiguous members of the turtle stem lineage. The thin-shelled nature of the new turtle combined with its likely terrestrial habitat preference hint at taphonomic filters that basal turtles had to overcome before entering the fossil record. Chinlechelys tenertesta possesses neck spines formed by multiple osteoderms, indicating that the earliest known turtles were covered with rows of dermal armour. More importantly, the primitive, vertically oriented dorsal ribs of the new turtle are only poorly associated with the overlying costal bones, indicating that these two structures are independent ossifications in basal turtles. These novel observations lend support to the hypothesis that the turtle shell was originally a complex composite in which dermal armour fused with the endoskeletal ribs and vertebrae of an ancestral lineage instead of forming de novo. The critical shell elements (i.e. costals and neurals) are thus not simple outgrowths of the bone of the endoskeletal elements as has been hypothesized from some embryological observations.


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    Full Text Available Two new Megalancosaurus specimens collected from the Norian (Late Triassic Calcare di Zorzino (Zorzino Limestone Formation (Bergamo, Lombardy, Northern Italy, and from the coeval Dolomia di Forni (Forni Dolostone Formation (Udine, Friuli, North-eastern Italy improve our knowledge of skeletal anatomy and mode of life of this genus. Morphology of observable skull elements and cervical vertebrae in one of the new specimens shows some resemblance to the possible Triassic bird Protoavis, while the postcranial skeleton of Megalancosaurus is completely non-avian. This may suggest that either Megalancosaurus and Protoavis developed a similar neck structure as a response to the same functional requirement, or that part of the disarticulated material ascribed to Protoavis may indeed belong to a Megalancosaurus-like reptile. Megalancosaurus shows a very high adaptation to arboreal life and a peculiar feeding strategy. Recent suggestions that Megalancosaurus may have been a glider and a possible model for bird ancestry are discussed. Some skeletal features of Megalancosaurus may indeed be interpreted as gliding adaptation, but evidence is weak, and if this reptile was a glider, however, its gliding bauplan should have been completely different from the one usually accepted for bird ancestors, showing instead more morphological similarities with gliding squirrels, phalangeriids and putative ancestors of bats and pterosaurs (according to a non cursorial model for these latter. 

  1. Location of quarries of magnesian lime used as raw material of Roman plasters in western Lombardy (Italy

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    Roberto Bugini


    Full Text Available Lime as building material was widely diffused in Roman architecture of western Lombardy. The presence of magnesite (magnesium carbonate was detected in painted plasters coming from roman sites of Milano: magnesite indicates the use of dolomite to make the lime. Dolomite rocks widely outcrop in the Lombard Prealps: light grey dolomites and dolomitic limestones (Dolomia del Salvatore, Ladinian-Anisian; grey dolomites, sometimes with cyclothemes (Dolomia Principale, Norian. There is no evidence of Roman lime quarries or kilns in this area; the Romans probably exploited the same dolomite outcrops, located along the eastern shore of lake Maggiore, where lime was produced from the Middle Ages onwards. The glacio-fluvial deposits of the middle course of the river Adda (cobbles, pebbles of siliceous limestone together with limestone and dolomite outcropping in the river basin were another medieval and modern source of raw material, mainly to make a moderately hydraulic lime (called “calce forte”, but this kind of lime is lacking in Roman plasters.

  2. Anatomy of the Enigmatic Reptile Elachistosuchus huenei Janensch, 1949 (Reptilia: Diapsida) from the Upper Triassic of Germany and Its Relevance for the Origin of Sauria. (United States)

    Sobral, Gabriela; Sues, Hans-Dieter; Müller, Johannes


    The holotype and only known specimen of the enigmatic small reptile Elachistosuchus huenei Janensch, 1949 from the Upper Triassic (Norian) Arnstadt Formation of Saxony-Anhalt (Germany) is redescribed using μCT scans of the material. This re-examination revealed new information on the morphology of this taxon, including previously unknown parts of the skeleton such as the palate, braincase, and shoulder girdle. Elachistosuchus is diagnosed especially by the presence of the posterolateral process of the frontal, the extension of the maxillary tooth row to the posterior margin of the orbit, the free posterior process of the jugal, and the notched anterior margin of the interclavicle. Phylogenetic analyses using two recently published character-taxon matrices recovered conflicting results for the phylogenetic position of Elachistosuchus-either as an archosauromorph, as a lepidosauromorph or as a more basal, non-saurian diapsid. These different placements highlight the need of a thorough revision of critical taxa and new character sets used for inferring neodiapsid relationships.

  3. Continental Environment of Triassic Alluvial Beds in the Northern North Sea Area: Core Examples from the Lunde Formation, Snorre Field

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    Nystuen, Johan Petter; Bergan, Morten


    Alluvial processes transport and deposit gravel, sand and mud in a series of depositional systems such as alluvial fans, fluvial channels, floodplain and lacustrine basins. In the northernmost part of the North Sea alluvial sandstones form major reservoir rocks in several oil fields in the Tampen Spur area. In the Snorre Field, the Norian- Early Rhaetian Lunde Formation has given a great database from exploration and production wells, seismic studies, reservoir modelling, production experience and comparative analogue studies on facies distribution, alluvial architecture, heterogeneities and reservoir properties of alluvial successions. The Lunde Formation is subdivided in three members, the lower, middle and upper Lunde members, with the upper member being the main part of the Lunde reservoir rocks. The scope of presenting core samples from the upper Lunde member is to demonstrate main alluvial facies and facies associations, how facies analysis proceeds into construction of conceptual fluvial models that in turn are fundamental in evaluation of reservoir heterogeneities and reservoir modelling. The upper Lunde member consists of repeated units of red and grey sandstone and mudstone. Sandstones are dominantly medium-grained with common range from coarse- to very fine-grained. A basic building stone of the alluvial succession consists of a thick single- or multi-storey sandstone body overlain by a thick mudstone unit. Such couplets form allostratigraphic units and define the main reservoir zones.

  4. Anatomy of the Enigmatic Reptile Elachistosuchus huenei Janensch, 1949 (Reptilia: Diapsida from the Upper Triassic of Germany and Its Relevance for the Origin of Sauria.

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    Gabriela Sobral

    Full Text Available The holotype and only known specimen of the enigmatic small reptile Elachistosuchus huenei Janensch, 1949 from the Upper Triassic (Norian Arnstadt Formation of Saxony-Anhalt (Germany is redescribed using μCT scans of the material. This re-examination revealed new information on the morphology of this taxon, including previously unknown parts of the skeleton such as the palate, braincase, and shoulder girdle. Elachistosuchus is diagnosed especially by the presence of the posterolateral process of the frontal, the extension of the maxillary tooth row to the posterior margin of the orbit, the free posterior process of the jugal, and the notched anterior margin of the interclavicle. Phylogenetic analyses using two recently published character-taxon matrices recovered conflicting results for the phylogenetic position of Elachistosuchus-either as an archosauromorph, as a lepidosauromorph or as a more basal, non-saurian diapsid. These different placements highlight the need of a thorough revision of critical taxa and new character sets used for inferring neodiapsid relationships.

  5. Origin and tectonic evolution of upper Triassic Turbidites in the Indo-Burman ranges, West Myanmar (United States)

    Yao, Wei; Ding, Lin; Cai, Fulong; Wang, Houqi; Xu, Qiang; Zaw, Than


    The Pane Chaung Formation is exposed in the Indo-Burman Ranges, and has been involved in collision between the Indian Plate and West Burma Block. However, controversies exist over the provenance and paleogeographic reconstruction of the Pane Chaung Formation. This study presents new petrographical and detrital zircon Usbnd Pb ages and Hf isotopic data from the Pane Chaung Formation in Rakhine Yoma and Chin Hills, west Myanmar. The depositional age of the Pane Chaung Formation is Late Triassic, indicated by the Carnian-Norian Halobia fossils and maximum depositional ages between 233.0 ± 2.5 Ma and 206.2 ± 1.8 Ma. Upper Triassic sandstones contain 290-200 Ma detrital zircons, εHf(t) values of - 6 to 11 and TDMC of 1.6 to 0.6 Ga, interpreted to be derived from West Papua region. The most abundant zircon age population of 750-450 Ma is derived from Pan-African orogenic belts in Australia. Zircons of 1250-900 Ma age were derived from the Grenvillian orogen in Australia. Archean zircons are interpreted to be derived from the Yilgarn and Pilbara cratons in Western Australia. Detrital zircon ages of the Pane Chaung Formation are distinct from similar aged strata in Indochina and Sibumasu, but comparable to NW Australia (Carnarvon Basin) and Greater India (Langjiexue Formation). It is suggested that the Pane Chaung Formation was deposited in a Late Triassic submarine fan along the northern margin of Australia.

  6. Isotopic evidence bearing on Late Triassic extinction events, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, and implications for the duration and cause of the Triassic/Jurassic mass extinction (United States)

    Ward, P.D.; Garrison, G.H.; Haggart, J.W.; Kring, D.A.; Beattie, M.J.


    Stable isotope analyses of Late Triassic to earliest Jurassic strata from Kennecott Point in the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada shows the presence of two distinct and different organic carbon isotope anomalies at the Norian/Rhaetian and Rhaetian/Hettangian (=Triassic/Jurassic) stage boundaries. At the older of these boundaries, which is marked by the disappearance of the bivalve Monotis, the isotope record shows a series of short-lived positive excursions toward heavier values. Strata approaching this boundary show evidence of increasing anoxia. At the higher boundary, marked by the disappearance of the last remaining Triassic ammonites and over 50 species of radiolarians, the isotopic pattern consists of a series of short duration negative anomalies. The two events, separated by the duration of the Rhaetian age, comprise the end-Triassic mass extinction. While there is no definitive evidence as to cause, the isotopic record does not appear similar to that of the impact-caused Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary extinction. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Triassic-Jurassic pteridosperms of Australasia: speciation, diversity and decline

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    Pattemore, G. A.; Rigby, J. F.; Playford, G.


    Pteridosperms are preserved abundantly in the Gondwanan Triassic, with many species exhibiting consider- able morphological variation that has been attributed to a hybridization model of speciation. This is an improbable explanation given that hybridization is very rare in gymnosperms. Allopatric speciation resulting from geographic and climatic provincialism is a more likely explanation for the morphological diversity which is well represented in Anisian Norian (Middle and Upper Triassic) floras of Australasia and elsewhere in Gondwana. Most specimens are distributed among three families: Umkomasiaceae, Peltaspermaceae and Matatiellaceae. These families, together with other possibly pteridospermous genera, are reviewed herein. Diversity in these families apparently declined by the Rhaetian and they did not persist into the Gondwanan post-Triassic. Australasian post-Triassic strata contain remarkably different floral assemblages to those of the Triassic. No fructifications are clearly pteridospermous and no remains show any obvious relationship with pteridosperms of the Gondwanan Triassic. Caytonialean fructifications are not known in Australasian strata; however, associated foliage has been reported from the Eastern Gondwanan Upper Triassic through Middle Jurassic including Australia. Much fern-like foliage, claimed to be pteridospermous from the Lower Jurassic through Eocene of Eastern Gondwana, lacks supporting evidence of such affiliation. (Author)

  8. The first juvenile specimens of Plateosaurus engelhardti from Frick, Switzerland: isolated neural arches and their implications for developmental plasticity in a basal sauropodomorph

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    Rebecca Hofmann


    Full Text Available The dinosaur Plateosaurus engelhardti is the most abundant dinosaur in the Late Triassic of Europe and the best known basal sauropodomorph. Plateosaurus engelhardti was one of the first sauropodomorph dinosaurs to display a large body size. Remains can be found in the Norian stage of the Late Triassic in over 40 localities in Central Europe (France, Germany, and Switzerland and in Greenland. Since the first discovery of P. engelhardti no juvenile specimens of this species had been described in detail. Here we describe the first remains of juvenile individuals, isolated cervical and dorsal neural arches from Switzerland. These were separated postmortem from their respective centra because of unfused neurocentral sutures. However the specimens share the same neural arch morphology found in adults. Morphometric analysis suggests body lengths of the juvenile individuals that is greater than those of most adult specimens. This supports the hypothesis of developmental plasticity in Plateosaurus engelhardti that previously had been based on histological data only. Alternative hypotheses for explaining the poor correlation between ontogenetic stage and size in this taxon are multiple species or sexual morphs with little morphological variance or time-averaging of individuals from populations differing in body size.

  9. The first 50Myr of dinosaur evolution: macroevolutionary pattern and morphological disparity. (United States)

    Brusatte, Stephen L; Benton, Michael J; Ruta, Marcello; Lloyd, Graeme T


    The evolutionary radiation of dinosaurs in the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic was a pivotal event in the Earth's history but is poorly understood, as previous studies have focused on vague driving mechanisms and have not untangled different macroevolutionary components (origination, diversity, abundance and disparity). We calculate the morphological disparity (morphospace occupation) of dinosaurs throughout the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic and present new measures of taxonomic diversity. Crurotarsan archosaurs, the primary dinosaur 'competitors', were significantly more disparate than dinosaurs throughout the Triassic, but underwent a devastating extinction at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. However, dinosaur disparity showed only a slight non-significant increase after this event, arguing against the hypothesis of ecological release-driven morphospace expansion in the Early Jurassic. Instead, the main jump in dinosaur disparity occurred between the Carnian and Norian stages of the Triassic. Conversely, dinosaur diversity shows a steady increase over this time, and measures of diversification and faunal abundance indicate that the Early Jurassic was a key episode in dinosaur evolution. Thus, different aspects of the dinosaur radiation (diversity, disparity and abundance) were decoupled, and the overall macroevolutionary pattern of the first 50Myr of dinosaur evolution is more complex than often considered.

  10. A Unique Late Triassic Dinosauromorph Assemblage Reveals Dinosaur Ancestral Anatomy and Diet. (United States)

    Cabreira, Sergio Furtado; Kellner, Alexander Wilhelm Armin; Dias-da-Silva, Sérgio; Roberto da Silva, Lúcio; Bronzati, Mario; Marsola, Júlio Cesar de Almeida; Müller, Rodrigo Temp; Bittencourt, Jonathas de Souza; Batista, Brunna Jul'Armando; Raugust, Tiago; Carrilho, Rodrigo; Brodt, André; Langer, Max Cardoso


    Dinosauromorpha includes dinosaurs and other much less diverse dinosaur precursors of Triassic age, such as lagerpetids [1]. Joint occurrences of these taxa with dinosaurs are rare but more common during the latest part of that period (Norian-Rhaetian, 228-201 million years ago [mya]) [2, 3]. In contrast, the new lagerpetid and saurischian dinosaur described here were unearthed from one of the oldest rock units with dinosaur fossils worldwide, the Carnian (237-228 mya) Santa Maria Formation of south Brazil [4], a record only matched in age by much more fragmentary remains from Argentina [5]. This is the first time nearly complete dinosaur and non-dinosaur dinosauromorph remains are found together in the same excavation, clearly showing that these animals were contemporaries since the first stages of dinosaur evolution. The new lagerpetid preserves the first skull, scapular and forelimb elements, plus associated vertebrae, known for the group, revealing how dinosaurs acquired several of their typical anatomical traits. Furthermore, a novel phylogenetic analysis shows the new dinosaur as the most basal Sauropodomorpha. Its plesiomorphic teeth, strictly adapted to faunivory, provide crucial data to infer the feeding behavior of the first dinosaurs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Upper Triassic mafic dykes of Lake Nyos, Cameroon (West Africa) I: K-Ar age evidence within the context of Cameroon Line magmatism, and the tectonic significance (United States)

    Aka, Festus Tongwa; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Nche, Linus Anye; Asaah, Asobo Nkengmatia Elvis; Mimba, Mumbfu Ernestine; Teitchou, Isidore; Ngwa, Caroline; Miyabuchi, Yasuo; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Kankeu, Boniface; Yokoyama, Tetsuya; Tanyileke, Gregory; Ohba, Takeshi; Hell, Joseph Victor; Kusakabe, Minoru


    The hydrodynamic fragmentation that formed Lake Nyos in northwest Cameroon did not only make it the most unpopular lake in the world from a gas disaster perspective, it also opened a rare and formidable window through which much of the geology of Cameroon can be studied in a single locality. The Cambrian quartz monzonite cliff excavated by the maar-forming explosion and exposed in its northeastern shore is intruded by mafic dykes, two of which we dated. Even though close to one another, the dykes are different in composition. The alkaline dyke yields a slightly older (Carnian) K-Ar fedspar age of 231.1 ± 4.8 Ma, while the sub alkaline dyke yields an age of 224.8 ± 4.7 Ma (Norian). Based on radioisotopic age data available over the last 48 years (347 data) for the Cameroon Line magmatism comprising eruptives and volcano-plutonic complexes, the Nyos dykes are way older than the Cameroon Line, and even pre-date the Lower Cretaceous initiation of west Gondwana fragmentation in Equatorial Atlantic domain. They would therefore not have been directly linked to the formation of the Cameroon Line. Alternatively, they might be associated with the development of intra-continental rift systems in West Central Africa that pre-dated west Gondwana breakup to form the Atlantic Ocean.

  12. The girdles of the oldest fossil turtle, Proterochersis robusta, and the age of the turtle crown. (United States)

    Joyce, Walter G; Schoch, Rainer R; Lyson, Tyler R


    Proterochersis robusta from the Late Triassic (Middle Norian) of Germany is the oldest known fossil turtle (i.e. amniote with a fully formed turtle shell), but little is known about its anatomy. A newly prepared, historic specimen provides novel insights into the morphology of the girdles and vertebral column of this taxon and the opportunity to reassess its phylogenetic position. The anatomy of the pectoral girdle of P. robusta is similar to that of other primitive turtles, including the Late Triassic (Carnian) Proganochelys quenstedti, in having a vertically oriented scapula, a large coracoid foramen, a short acromion process, and bony ridges that connect the acromion process with the dorsal process, glenoid, and coracoid, and by being able to rotate along a vertical axis. The pelvic elements are expanded distally and suturally attached to the shell, but in contrast to modern pleurodiran turtles the pelvis is associated with the sacral ribs. The primary homology of the character "sutured pelvis" is unproblematic between P. robusta and extant pleurodires. However, integration of all new observations into the most complete phylogenetic analysis that support the pleurodiran nature of P. robusta reveals that this taxon is more parsimoniously placed along the phylogenetic stem of crown Testudines. All current phylogenetic hypotheses therefore support the basal placement of this taxon, imply that the sutured pelvis of this taxon developed independently from that of pleurodires, and conclude that the age of the turtle crown is Middle Jurassic.

  13. The origin and early evolution of dinosaurs. (United States)

    Langer, Max C; Ezcurra, Martin D; Bittencourt, Jonathas S; Novas, Fernando E


    Spondylosoma absconditum. The identification of dinosaur apomorphies is jeopardized by the incompleteness of skeletal remains attributed to most basal dinosauromorphs, the skulls and forelimbs of which are particularly poorly known. Nonetheless, Dinosauria can be diagnosed by a suite of derived traits, most of which are related to the anatomy of the pelvic girdle and limb. Some of these are connected to the acquisition of a fully erect bipedal gait, which has been traditionally suggested to represent a key adaptation that allowed, or even promoted, dinosaur radiation during Late Triassic times. Yet, contrary to the classical "competitive" models, dinosaurs did not gradually replace other terrestrial tetrapods over the Late Triassic. In fact, the radiation of the group comprises at least three landmark moments, separated by controversial (Carnian-Norian, Triassic-Jurassic) extinction events. These are mainly characterized by early diversification in Carnian times, a Norian increase in diversity and (especially) abundance, and the occupation of new niches from the Early Jurassic onwards. Dinosaurs arose from fully bipedal ancestors, the diet of which may have been carnivorous or omnivorous. Whereas the oldest dinosaurs were geographically restricted to south Pangea, including rare ornithischians and more abundant basal members of the saurischian lineage, the group achieved a nearly global distribution by the latest Triassic, especially with the radiation of saurischian groups such as "prosauropods" and coelophysoids.

  14. Understanding Late Triassic low latitude terrestrial ecosystems: new insights from the Colorado Plateau Coring Project (CPCP) (United States)

    Irmis, R. B.; Olsen, P. E.; Parker, W.; Rasmussen, C.; Mundil, R.; Whiteside, J. H.


    The Chinle Formation of southwestern North America is a key paleontological archive of low paleolatitude non-marine ecosystems that existed during the Late Triassic hothouse world. These strata were deposited at 5-15°N latitude, and preserve extensive plant, invertebrate, and vertebrate fossil assemblages, including early dinosaurs; these organisms lived in an unpredictably fluctuating semi-arid to arid environment with very high atmospheric pCO2. Despite this well-studied fossil record, a full understanding of these ecosystems and their integration with other fossil assemblages globally has been hindered by a poor understanding of the Chinle Formation's age, duration, and sedimentation rates. Recently, the CPCP recovered a 520m continuous core through this formation from the northern portion of Petrified Forest National Park (PEFO) in northern Arizona, USA. This core has provided a plethora of new radioisotopic and magnetostratigraphic data from fresh, unweathered samples in unambiguous stratigraphic superposition. These constraints confirm that virtually all fossil-bearing horizons in Chinle outcrops in the vicinity of PEFO are Norian in age. Furthermore, they indicate that the palynomorph zone II and Adamanian vertebrate biozone are at least six million years long, whereas the overlying palynomorph zone III and Revueltian vertebrate biozone persisted for at least five million years, with the boundary between 216-214 Ma. This confirms that the rich late Adamanian-early Revueltian vertebrate fossil assemblages, where dinosaurs are exclusively rare, small-bodied carnivorous theropods, are contemporaneous with higher latitude assemblages in Europe, South America, and Africa where large-bodied herbivorous sauropodomorph dinosaurs are common. The age constraints also confirm that several palynomorph biostratigraphic ranges in the Chinle Formation differ from those of the same taxa in eastern North American (Newark Supergroup) and Europe. These data are consistent

  15. Paleomagnetic Constraints on the Tectonic History of the Mesozoic Ophiolite and Arc Terranes of Western Mexico (United States)

    Boschman, L.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Langereis, C. G.; Molina-Garza, R. S.; Kimbrough, D. L.


    The North American Cordillera has been shaped by a long history of accretion of arcs and other buoyant crustal fragments to the western margin of the North American Plate since the Early Mesozoic. Accretion of these terranes resulted from a complex tectonic history interpreted to include episodes of both intra-oceanic subduction within the Panthalassa/Pacific Ocean, as well as continental margin subduction along the western margin of North America. Western Mexico, at the southern end of the Cordillera, contains a Late Cretaceous-present day long-lived continental margin arc, as well as Mesozoic arc and SSZ ophiolite assemblages of which the origin is under debate. Interpretations of the origin of these subduction-related rock assemblages vary from far-travelled exotic intra-oceanic island arc character to autochthonous or parautochthonous extended continental margin origin. We present new paleomagnetic data from four localities: (1) the Norian SSZ Vizcaíno peninsula Ophiolite; (2) its Lower Jurassic sedimentary cover; and (3) Barremian and (4) Aptian sediments derived from the Guerrero arc. The data show that the Mexican ophiolite and arc terranes have a paleolatitudinal plate motion history that is equal to that of the North American continent. This suggests that these rock assemblages were part of the overriding plate and were perhaps only separated from the North American continent by temporal fore- or back-arc spreading. These spreading phases resulted in the temporal existence of tectonic plates between the North American and Farallon Plates, and upon closure of the basins, in the growth of the North American continent without addition of any far-travelled exotic terranes.

  16. U-Pb Detrital Zircon Ages from Sarawak: Changes in Provenance Reflecting the Tectonic Evolution of Southeast Asia (United States)

    Breitfeld, H. T.; Galin, T.; Hall, R.


    Sarawak is located on the northern edge of Sundaland in NW Borneo. Five sedimentary basins are distinguished with ages from Triassic to Cenozoic. New light mineral, heavy mineral and U-Pb detrital zircon ages show differences in provenance reflecting the tectonic evolution of the region. The oldest clastic sediments are Triassic of the Sadong-Kuching Basin and were sourced by a Carnian to Norian volcanic arc and erosion of Cathaysian rocks containing zircons of Paleoproterozoic age. Sandstones of the Upper Jurassic to Cretaceous Bau-Pedawan Basin have distinctive zircon populations indicating a major change of tectonic setting, including initiation of subduction below present-day West Sarawak in the Late Jurassic. A wide range of inherited zircon ages indicates various Cathaysian fragments as major source areas and the arrival of the SW Borneo Block following subduction beneath the Schwaner Mountains in the early Late Cretaceous. After collision of the SW Borneo Block and the microcontinental fragments with Sundaland in the early Late Cretaceous, deep marine sedimentation (Pedawan Formation) ceased, and there was uplift forming the regional Pedawan-Kayan unconformity. Two episodes of extension were responsible for basin development on land from the latest Cretaceous onwards, probably in a strike-slip setting. The first episode formed the Kayan Basin in the Latest Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) to Early Paleocene, and the second formed the Ketungau Basin and the Penrissen Sandstone in the Middle to Late Eocene. Zircons indicate nearby volcanic activity throughout the Early Cenozoic in NW Borneo. Inherited zircon ages indicate an alternation between Borneo and Tin Belt source rocks. A large deep marine basin, the Rajang Basin, formed north of the Lupar Line fault. Zircons from sediments of the Rajang Basin indicate they are of similar age and provenance as the contemporaneous terrestrial sediments to the south suggesting a narrow steep continental Sundaland margin at the

  17. The inner structure of landslides and landslide-prone slopes in south German cuesta landscapes assessed by geophysical, geomorphological and sedimentological approaches (United States)

    Schwindt, Daniel; Sandmeier, Christine; Büdel, Christian; Jäger, Daniel; Wilde, Martina; Terhorst, Birgit


    Investigations on landslide activity in the cuesta landscape of Germany, usually characterized by an interbedding of morphologically hard (e.g. sand-/limestones) and soft (clay) sedimentary rocks are relatively sparse. However, spring 2013 has once again revealed a high susceptibility of the slopes in the Franconian and Swabian Alb to mass movements, when enduring rainfalls initiated numerous landslides causing considerable damage to settlements and infrastructure. Many aspects like the spatial distribution of landslides, triggering factors, and process dynamics - especially with view on the reactivation of landslides - require intensive investigations to allow for assessment of the landslide vulnerability and the development of reliable early-warning systems. Aim of the study is to achieve a deeper insight into the triggering factors and the process dynamics of landslides in the cuesta landscape with special regard on landslide proneness of slopes and the potential reactivation of old landslides. A multi-methodological approach was conducted based on geophysical investigations (seismic refraction tomography - SRT, electrical resistivity tomography - ERT), geomorphological mapping, morphometric GIS-based analysis, core soundings and substrate mapping. Study sites are located in the Swabian Alb (southwestern Germany) in the Jurassic escarpment where where Oxfordian marls and limestones superimpose Callovian clays, as well as in the northeastern Franconian Alb, within the escarpment of the so called Rhätolias with with red claystones of the late Norian (Feuerletten formation) below interbedding layers of sand- and claystones of the Rhaetian (Upper Triassic) and Hettangian ( Lower Jurassic). The investigated landslides strongly differ with respect to their age, from young landslides originated in spring 2013 to ancient landslides. Investigations reveal a distinct diversity of landslide types composed of a complex combination of processes. The applied methods allow

  18. An early bird from Gondwana: Paleomagnetism of Lower Permian lavas from northern Qiangtang (Tibet) and the geography of the Paleo-Tethys (United States)

    Song, Peiping; Ding, Lin; Li, Zhenyu; Lippert, Peter C.; Yue, Yahui


    The origin of the northern Qiangtang block and its Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic drift history remain controversial, largely because paleomagnetic constraints from pre-Mesozoic units are sparse and of poor quality. In this paper, we provide a robust and well-dated paleomagnetic pole from the Lower Permian Kaixinling Group lavas on the northern Qiangtang block. This pole suggests that the northern Qiangtang block had a paleolatitude of 21.9 ± 4.7 °S at ca. 296.9 ± 1.9 Ma. These are the first volcanic-based paleomagnetic results from pre-Mesozoic rocks of the Qiangtang block that appear to average secular variation accurately enough to yield a well-determined paleolatitude estimate. This new pole corroborates the hypothesis, first noted on the basis of less rigorous paleomagnetic data, the presence of diamictites, detrital zircon provenance records, and faunal assemblages, that the northern Qiangtang block rifted away from Gondwana prior to the Permian. Previous studies have documented that the northern Qiangtang block accreted to the Tarim-North China continent by Norian time. We calculate a total northward drift of ca. 7000 km over ca. 100 myr, which corresponds to an average south-north plate velocities of ∼7.0 cm/yr. Our results do not support the conclusion that northern Qiangtang has a Laurasian affinity, nor that the central Qiangtang metamorphic belt is an in situ Paleo-Tethys suture. Our analysis, however, does not preclude paleogeographies that interpret the central Qiangtang metamorphic belt as an intra-Qiangtang suture that developed at southernly latitudes outboard of the Gondwanan margin. We emphasize that rigorous paleomagnetic data from Carboniferous units of northern Qiangtang and especially upper Paleozoic units from southern Qiangtang can test and further refine these paleogeographic interpretations.

  19. Archosauriform remains from the Late Triassic of San Luis province, Argentina, Quebrada del Barro Formation, Marayes-El Carrizal Basin (United States)

    Gianechini, Federico A.; Codorniú, Laura; Arcucci, Andrea B.; Castillo Elías, Gabriela; Rivarola, David


    Here we present archosauriform remains from 'Abra de los Colorados', a fossiliferous locality at Sierra de Guayaguas, NW San Luis Province. Two fossiliferous levels were identified in outcrops of the Quebrada del Barro Formation (Norian), which represent the southernmost outcrops of the Marayes-El Carrizal Basin. These levels are composed by massive muddy lithofacies, interpreted as floodplain deposits. The specimens consist of one incomplete maxilla (MIC-V718), one caudal vertebra (MIC-V719), one metatarsal (MIC-V720) and one indeterminate appendicular bone (MIC-V721). The materials can be assigned to Archosauriformes but the fragmentary nature and lack of unambiguous synapomorphies preclude a more precise taxomic assignment. The maxilla is remarkably large and robust and represents the posterior process. It preserved one partially erupted tooth with ziphodont morphology. This bone shows some anatomical traits and size match with 'rauisuchians' and theropods. MIC-V719 corresponds to a proximal caudal vertebra. It has a high centrum, a ventral longitudinal furrow, expanded articular processes for the chevrons, a posteriorly displaced diapophysis located below the level of the prezygapophyses, and short prezygapophyses. This vertebra would be from an indeterminate archosauriform. MIC-V720 presents a cylindrical diaphysis, with a well-developed distal trochlea, which present resemblances with metatarsals of theropods, pseudosuchians, and silesaurids, although the size matches better with theropods. MIC-V721 has a slender diaphysis and a convex triangular articular surface, and corresponds to an indeterminate archosauriform. Despite being fragmentary, these materials indicate the presence of a diverse archosauriforms association from Late Triassic beds of San Luis. Thus, they add to the faunal assemblage recently reported from this basin at San Juan Province, which is much rich and diverse than the coeval paleofauna well known from Los Colorados Formation in the

  20. Testing the limits in a greenhouse ocean: Did low nitrogen availability limit marine productivity during the end-Triassic mass extinction? (United States)

    Schoepfer, Shane D.; Algeo, Thomas J.; Ward, Peter D.; Williford, Kenneth H.; Haggart, James W.


    The end-Triassic mass extinction has been characterized as a 'greenhouse extinction', related to rapid atmospheric warming and associated changes in ocean circulation and oxygenation. The response of the marine nitrogen cycle to these oceanographic changes, and the extent to which mass extinction intervals represent a deviation in nitrogen cycling from other ice-free 'greenhouse' periods of Earth history, remain poorly understood. The well-studied Kennecott Point section in Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, Canada, was deposited in the open Panthalassic Ocean, and is used here as a test case to better understand changes in the nitrogen cycle and marine productivity from the pre-crisis greenhouse of the Rhaetian to the latest-Rhaetian crisis interval. We estimated marine productivity from the late Norian to the early Hettangian using TOC- and P-based paleoproductivity transform equations, and then compared these estimates to records of sedimentary nitrogen isotopes, redox-sensitive trace elements, and biomarker data. Major negative excursions in δ15N (to ≤ 0 ‰) correspond to periods of depressed marine productivity. During these episodes, the development of a stable pycnocline below the base of the photic zone suppressed vertical mixing and limited N availability in surface waters, leading to low productivity and increased nitrogen fixation, as well as ecological stresses in the photic zone. The subsequent shoaling of euxinic waters into the ocean surface layer was fatal for most Triassic marine fauna, although the introduction of regenerated NH4+ into the photic zone may have allowed phytoplankton productivity to recover. These results indicate that the open-ocean nitrogen cycle was influenced by climatic changes during the latest Triassic, despite having existed in a greenhouse state for over 50 million years previously, and that low N availability limited marine productivity for hundreds of thousands of years during the end-Triassic crisis.

  1. Biological responses of brushite-forming Zn- and ZnSr- substituted beta-tricalcium phosphate bone cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Pina


    Full Text Available The core aim of this study was to investigate zinc (Zn- and zinc and strontium (ZnSr-containing brushite-forming beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP cements for their effects on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic-like cells (MC3T3-E1 cell line as well as for their in vivo behaviour in trabecular bone cylindrical defects in a pilot study. In vitro proliferation and maturation responses of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic-like cells to bone cements were studied at the cellular and molecular levels. The Zn- and Sr-containing brushite cements were found to stimulate pre-osteoblastic proliferation and osteoblastic maturation. Indeed, MC3T3-E1 cells exposed to the powdered cements had increased proliferative rates and higher adhesiveness capacity, in comparison to control cells. Furthermore, they exhibited higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and increased Type-I collagen secretion and fibre deposition into the extracellular matrix. Proliferative and collagen deposition properties were more evident for cells grown in cements doped with Sr. The in vivo osteoconductive propertiesof the ZnCPC and ZnSrCPC cements were also pursued. Histological and histomorphometric analyses were performed at 1 and 2 months after implantation, using carbonated apatite cement (Norian SRS® as control. There was no evidence of cement-induced adverse foreign body reactions, and furthermore ZnCPC and ZnSrCPC cements revealed better in vivo performance in comparison to the control apatite cement. Additionally, the presence of both zinc and strontium resulted in the highest rate of new bone formation. These novel results indicate that the investigated ZnCPC and ZnSrCPC cements are both biocompatible and osteoconductive, being good candidate materials to use as bone substitutes.

  2. Astronomical tuning and magnetostratigraphy of the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation of South China and Newark Supergroup of North America: Implications for the Late Triassic time scale (United States)

    Li, Mingsong; Zhang, Yang; Huang, Chunju; Ogg, James; Hinnov, Linda; Wang, Yongdong; Zou, Zhuoyan; Li, Liqin


    The time scale of the Late Triassic Epoch has a divergence of age models, especially for the durations of competing definitions for its Rhaetian Stage (uppermost Triassic). The astrochronology derived from relative depth of lacustrine-bearing clastic successions and astronomically tuned geomagnetic polarity time scale (APTS) of the Newark Supergroup of eastern North America provides a basis for the Late Triassic time scale. However, the Newark APTS has been challenged regarding its age scale and completeness; therefore an independent astronomical-tuned magnetic polarity zonation is required to verify the upper Newark APTS reference scale. We compiled a 6.5 million year (myr) APTS with magnetic stratigraphy from four sections of the lacustrine-fluvial, dinosaur-track-bearing Xujiahe Formation in the Sichuan Basin of South China that also has dating from detrital zircons and regional biostratigraphy. Variations in natural gamma-ray and magnetic susceptibility that reflect variable continental weathering in the source regions of the Xujiahe Formation are paced by Milankovitch cycles, especially the 100-kyr short eccentricity and 405-kyr long eccentricity. The cycle-tuned magnetostratigraphy of the Xujiahe Formation is compared directly via the magnetic-polarity zones to the depth ranks of the Newark Supergroup that are indicative of relative depths of lacustrine facies. The Sichuan APTS indicates that there is no significant hiatus between the sedimentary succession and the basalt flows at the top of the Newark Supergroup. The Sichuan APTS is compatible with the magnetostratigraphy from the candidate Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the Norian-Rhaetian boundary interval at the Pignola-Abriola of South Italy, but does not extend downward to the proposed GSSP in Austria associated with the longer Rhaetian option. The earliest dinosaur tracks in China are from the middle of this Xujiahe Formation, therefore are implied to be middle Rhaetian in age

  3. Astrochronology and magnetostratigraphy of the Xujiahe Formation of South China and Newark Supergroup of North America: implications for the Late Triassic time scale (United States)

    Li, M.; Zhang, Y.; Huang, C.; Ogg, J. G.; Hinnov, L.; Wang, Y.; Zou, Z.; Li, L.; Grasby, S. E.; Zhong, Y.; Huang, K.


    The astrochronology derived from lacustrine clastic successions tied to the geomagnetic polarity time scale of the Newark Supergroup of eastern North America, known as the Newark APTS provides a basis for the Late Triassic time scale. However, the Newark APTS has been challenged regarding its age scale and completeness; therefore an independent astronomically tuned magnetic polarity zonation is required to verify the upper Newark APTS reference scale. We have compiled a 6.5 million year (myr) APTS with magnetic stratigraphy from four sections of the lacustrine-fluvial, dinosaur-track-bearing Xujiahe Formation in the Sichuan Basin of South China that has dating from detrital zircons and regional biostratigraphy. Variations in natural gamma-ray and magnetic susceptibility that reflect variable continental weathering in the source regions of the Xujiahe Formation are paced by Milankovitch cycles, especially the 100-kyr short eccentricity and 405-kyr long eccentricity. The cycle-tuned magnetostratigraphy of the Xujiahe Formation is compared directly via the magnetic-polarity zones to the depth ranks of the Newark Supergroup that are indicative of relative depositional depths of lacustrine facies. The Sichuan APTS indicates that there is no significant hiatus between the sedimentary succession and the basalt flows at the top of the Newark Supergroup. The Sichuan APTS is compatible with the magnetostratigraphy from the candidate Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the Norian-Rhaetian boundary interval at the Pignola-Abriola section of South Italy, but does not extend downward to the proposed GSSP in Austria associated with the longer Rhaetian option. The earliest dinosaur tracks in China are from the middle of the Xujiahe Formation, therefore are implied to be middle Rhaetian in age. The Sichuan APTS helps to resolve the controversy about the completeness and reliability of the Newark APTS, and can be used in the future to verify if isotopic

  4. Permian and Triassic microfloral assemblages from the Blue Nile Basin, central Ethiopia (United States)

    Dawit, Enkurie L.


    Palynological investigation was carried out on surface samples from up to 400 m thick continental siliciclastic sediments, here referred to as “Fincha Sandstone”, in the Blue Nile Basin, central Ethiopia. One hundred sixty species were identified from 15 productive samples collected along a continuous road-cut exposure. Six informal palynological assemblage zones have been identified. These assemblage zones, in ascending order, are: “Central Ethiopian Permian Assemblage Zone - CEPAZ I”, earliest Permian (Asselian-Sakmarian); “CEPAZ II”, late Early Permian (Artinskian-Kungurian); CEPAZ III - Late Permian (Kazanian-Tatarian); “CETAZ IV”, Lower Triassic (Olenekian Induan); “CETAZ V”, Middle Triassic (Anisian Ladinian); “CETAZ VI”, Late Triassic (Carnian Norian). Tentative age ranges proposed herein are compared with faunally calibrated palynological zones in Gondwana. The overall composition and vertical distribution of miospores throughout the studied section reveals a wide variation both qualitatively and quantitatively. The high frequency of monosaccate pollen in CEPAZ I may reflect a Glossopterid-dominated upland flora in the earliest Permian. The succeeding zone is dominated by straite/taeniate disaccate pollen and polyplicates, suggesting a notable increase in diversity of glossopterids. The decline in the diversity of taeniate disaccate pollen and the concomitant rise in abundance of non-taeniate disaccates in CEPAZ III may suggest the decline in Glossopteris diversity, though no additional evidence is available to equate this change with End-Permian extinction. More diverse and dominant non-taeniate, disaccate, seed fern pollen assignable to FalcisporitesAlisporites in CETAZ IV may represent an earliest Triassic recovery flora. The introduction of new disaccate forms with thick, rigid sacci, such as Staurosaccites and Cuneatisporites, in CETAZ V and VI may indicate the emergence of new gymnospermous plants that might have favourably

  5. Two-Phase Reactive Transport Model CO2-Brine at Hontomín Technological Development Plant (Burgos)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo-Naharro, J.; Recreo-Jiménez, F.


    The option of storing CO2 in carbonate formations is a minority in the literature on CO2 Deep Geological Storage (CO2-DGS). However, there is sufficient bibliography on systems where CO2 natural accumulations have remained for centuries in carbonate formations (e.g. McElmo Dome, USA), as well as projects related to the enhanced oil recovery (Weyburn Project, Canada). Both cases can represent natural or industrial analogues of a CO2-DGS. The Technological Development Plant (TDP) at Hontomín (Burgos) was initially designed to inject supercritical CO2 or dissolved CO2 in a Lower Jurassic limestone-dolomite formation of the Burgos Platform, at 1500 m depth approximately. The Dogger Aquifer in the Paris Basin, together with the overlying Albian aquifer, is one of these potential analogues of the Underground Structure of Hontomín due to their stratigraphic, lithological and hydrogeological similarities. However, the drilling of the wells HI (injection) and HA (auscultation) in the TDP at Hontomín in 2014, which have allowed to access to the storage and seal formations, as well as the petrophysical measurements performed by CIUDEN and Fundación Instituto Petrofísico on core samples from both wells, and the hydraulic tests for the dynamic reservoir characterisation, have advised to include the more permeable formation levels of the Norian-Rhaetian “carniolas” in the initially selected storage formation. This formation is located at the bottom of the Sopeña dolomitic Fm., at a depth of 1595-1605 m in the well HI. The existence of sulphates (anhydrite and gypsum) in these levels introduces lithological and geochemical features not present in the Dogger aquifer of the Paris Basin which, in turn, advises to consider the lessons learned from the Weyburn Project. In this report a study of the system CO2–brine–storage rock, close to the well HI, is presented, where the deep aquifer of the Underground Structure of Hontomín could be affected in the chemical

  6. Two-Phase Reactive Transport Model CO2-Brine at Hontomín Technological Development Plant (Burgos); Modelo de Transporte Reactivo Bifásico CO –Salmuera en el Emplazamiento de la Planta de Desarrollo Tecnológico de Hontomín (Burgos)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigo-Naharro, J.; Recreo-Jiménez, F.


    The option of storing CO2 in carbonate formations is a minority in the literature on CO2 Deep Geological Storage (CO2-DGS). However, there is sufficient bibliography on systems where CO2 natural accumulations have remained for centuries in carbonate formations (e.g. McElmo Dome, USA), as well as projects related to the enhanced oil recovery (Weyburn Project, Canada). Both cases can represent natural or industrial analogues of a CO2-DGS. The Technological Development Plant (TDP) at Hontomín (Burgos) was initially designed to inject supercritical CO2 or dissolved CO2 in a Lower Jurassic limestone-dolomite formation of the Burgos Platform, at 1500 m depth approximately. The Dogger Aquifer in the Paris Basin, together with the overlying Albian aquifer, is one of these potential analogues of the Underground Structure of Hontomín due to their stratigraphic, lithological and hydrogeological similarities. However, the drilling of the wells HI (injection) and HA (auscultation) in the TDP at Hontomín in 2014, which have allowed to access to the storage and seal formations, as well as the petrophysical measurements performed by CIUDEN and Fundación Instituto Petrofísico on core samples from both wells, and the hydraulic tests for the dynamic reservoir characterisation, have advised to include the more permeable formation levels of the Norian-Rhaetian “carniolas” in the initially selected storage formation. This formation is located at the bottom of the Sopeña dolomitic Fm., at a depth of 1595-1605 m in the well HI. The existence of sulphates (anhydrite and gypsum) in these levels introduces lithological and geochemical features not present in the Dogger aquifer of the Paris Basin which, in turn, advises to consider the lessons learned from the Weyburn Project. In this report a study of the system CO2–brine–storage rock, close to the well HI, is presented, where the deep aquifer of the Underground Structure of Hontomín could be affected in the chemical

  7. Age and provenance of Triassic to Cenozoic sediments of West and Central Sarawak, Malaysia (United States)

    Breitfeld, H. Tim; Galin, Thomson; Hall, Robert


    Sarawak is located on the northern edge of Sundaland in NW Borneo. West and Central Sarawak include parts of the Kuching and Sibu Zones. These contain remnants of several sedimentary basins with ages from Triassic to Cenozoic. New light mineral, heavy mineral and U-Pb detrital zircon ages show differences in provenance reflecting the tectonic evolution of the region. The oldest clastic sediments are Triassic (Sadong Formation and its deep marine equivalent Kuching Formation). They were sourced by a Triassic (Carnian to Norian) volcanic arc and reworked Paleoproterozoic detritus derived from Cathaysialand. The Upper Jurassic to Cretaceous Pedawan Formation is interpreted as forearc basin fill with distinctive zircon populations indicating subduction beneath present-day West Sarawak which initiated in the Late Jurassic. Subsequent subduction until the early Late Cretaceous formed the Schwaner Mountains magmatic arc. After collision of SW Borneo and other microcontinental fragments with Sundaland in the early Late Cretaceous, deep marine sedimentation (Pedawan Formation) ceased, and there was uplift forming the regional Pedawan-Kayan unconformity. Two episodes of extension followed and were responsible for basin development on land in West Sarawak from the latest Cretaceous onwards, probably in a pull-apart setting. The first episode is associated with sediments of the Kayan Group, deposited in the Latest Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) to Eocene, and the second episode with Upper Eocene sediments of the Ketungau Basin. Zircon ages indicate volcanic activity throughout the Early Cenozoic in NW Borneo, and inherited zircon ages indicate reworking of Triassic and Cretaceous rocks. A large deep marine basin, the Rajang Basin, was north of the Lupar Line Fault in Central Sarawak (Sibu Zone) from the Late Cretaceous to the Late Eocene. Zircons from sediments of the Rajang Basin indicate they have similar ages and provenance to contemporaneous terrestrial sediments of the Kayan

  8. Testing the effect of the rock record on diversity: a multidisciplinary approach to elucidating the generic richness of sauropodomorph dinosaurs through time. (United States)

    Mannion, Philip D; Upchurch, Paul; Carrano, Matthew T; Barrett, Paul M


    The accurate reconstruction of palaeobiodiversity patterns is central to a detailed understanding of the macroevolutionary history of a group of organisms. However, there is increasing evidence that diversity patterns observed directly from the fossil record are strongly influenced by fluctuations in the quality of our sampling of the rock record; thus, any patterns we see may reflect sampling biases, rather than genuine biological signals. Previous dinosaur diversity studies have suggested that fluctuations in sauropodomorph palaeobiodiversity reflect genuine biological signals, in comparison to theropods and ornithischians whose diversity seems to be largely controlled by the rock record. Most previous diversity analyses that have attempted to take into account the effects of sampling biases have used only a single method or proxy: here we use a number of techniques in order to elucidate diversity. A global database of all known sauropodomorph body fossil occurrences (2024) was constructed. A taxic diversity curve for all valid sauropodomorph genera was extracted from this database and compared statistically with several sampling proxies (rock outcrop area and dinosaur-bearing formations and collections), each of which captures a different aspect of fossil record sampling. Phylogenetic diversity estimates, residuals and sample-based rarefaction (including the first attempt to capture 'cryptic' diversity in dinosaurs) were implemented to investigate further the effects of sampling. After 'removal' of biases, sauropodomorph diversity appears to be genuinely high in the Norian, Pliensbachian-Toarcian, Bathonian-Callovian and Kimmeridgian-Tithonian (with a small peak in the Aptian), whereas low diversity levels are recorded for the Oxfordian and Berriasian-Barremian, with the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary seemingly representing a real diversity trough. Observed diversity in the remaining Triassic-Jurassic stages appears to be largely driven by sampling effort. Late

  9. Lithofacies, age, depositional setting, and geochemistry of the Otuk Formation in the Red Dog District, northwestern Alaska (United States)

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Burruss, Robert A.; Blome, Charles D.


    Complete penetration of the Otuk Formation in a continuous drill core (diamond-drill hole, DDH 927) from the Red Dog District illuminates the facies, age, depositional environment, source rock potential, and isotope stratigraphy of this unit in northwestern Alaska. The section, in the Wolverine Creek plate of the Endicott Mountains Allochthon (EMA), is ~82 meters (m) thick and appears structurally uncomplicated. Bedding dips are generally low and thicknesses recorded are close to true thicknesses. Preliminary synthesis of sedimentologic, paleontologic, and isotopic data suggests that the Otuk succession in DDH 927 is a largely complete, albeit condensed, marine Triassic section in conformable contact with marine Permian and Jurassic strata. The Otuk Formation in DDH 927 gradationally overlies gray siliceous mudstone of the Siksikpuk Formation (Permian, based on regional correlations) and underlies black organic-rich mudstone of the Kingak(?) Shale (Jurassic?, based on regional correlations). The informal shale, chert, and limestone members of the Otuk are recognized in DDH 927, but the Jurassic Blankenship Member is absent. The lower (shale) member consists of 28 m of black to light gray, silty shale with as much as 6.9 weight percent total organic carbon (TOC). Thin limy layers near the base of this member contain bivalve fragments (Claraia sp.?) consistent with an Early Triassic (Griesbachian-early Smithian) age. Gray radiolarian chert dominates the middle member (25 m thick) and yields radiolarians of Middle Triassic (Anisian and Ladinian) and Late Triassic (Carnian-late middle Norian) ages. Black to light gray silty shale, like that in the lower member, forms interbeds that range from a few millimeters to 7 centimeters in thickness through much of the middle member. A distinctive, 2.4-m-thick interval of black shale and calcareous radiolarite ~17 m above the base of the member has as much as 9.8 weight percent TOC, and a 1.9-m-thick interval of limy to cherty

  10. Sedimentary facies and depositional environments of early Mesozoic Newark Supergroup basins, eastern North America (United States)

    Smoot, J.P.


    south where coal beds are preserved, and more arid in the north where evaporites and eolian deposits are common. Fluctuations in paleoclimate that caused lake levels to rise and fall in hydrologically closed basins are preserved as lacustrine cycles of various scales, including major shifts in the Late Triassic from a wet Carnian to an arid Norian. In contrast, fluvial deposits were mainly formed in response to the tectonic evolution of the basins, but to some extent also reflect climatic changes. The Newark Supergroup illustrates the complexity of rift-basin sedimentation and the problems that may arise from using a single modern analog for sedimentary deposition spanning millions of years. It also shows that a tremendous wealth of depositional, climatic, and tectonic information is preserved in ancient rift-basin deposits which can be recovered if the depositional processes of modern rift-basin deposits are understood. ?? 1991.

  11. Trias de Tripolitaine (Libye. Nouvelles données biostratigraphiques et palynologiques Trias of Tripolitania (Libya. New Biostratigraphic and Palynological Data (Part Two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massa D.


    results with these Units, it is possible to propose a satisfactory Triassic biostratigraphy. The middle to upper Permian is dated by a classic microflora. The transgressive upper Scythian has a characterised microfauna, including Meandrospira pusilla. The middle Trias (Anisian and Ladinian is palynologically dated. The Camian contains a rich assemblage of Spores, Pollens, Foraminifera, Algae and Coprolites. These appears to be a well represented Norian between the upper Camian and the Infra-Lias, although the palynological assemblage is not very significant. It seems likely that the Trias is complete, for there is no evidence for gaps. Reconstitution of the successive environments of deposition has been attempted. The affinities and differences between the tripolitanian Trias and those of the German, Alpine and Mesogean areas are discussed.

  12. Magnetostratigraphy of a Marine Triassic-Jurassic Boundary Section, Kennecott Point, Queen Charlotte Islands: Implications for the Temporal Correlation of a 'Big Five' Mass Extinction Event. (United States)

    Hilburn, I. A.; Kirschvink, J. L.; Ward, P. D.; Haggart, J. W.; Raub, T. D.


    Several causes have been proposed for Triassic-Jurassic (T-J) boundary extinctions, including global ocean anoxia/euxinia, an impact event, and/or eruption of the massive Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), but poor intercontinental correlation makes testing these difficult. Sections at Kennecott Point, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia span the late Norian through Rhaetian (Triassic) and into the earliest Hettangian (Jurassic) and provide the best integrated magneto- and chemostratigraphic framework for placing necessary temporal constraints upon the T-J mass extinctions. At Kennecott Point, turnover of radiolaria and ammonoids define the T-J boundary marine extinction and are coincident with a 2 ‰ negative excursion in δ13Corg similar in magnitude to that observed at Ferguson Hill (Muller Canyon), Nevada (1, 2). With Conodont Alteration Index values in the 1-2 range, Kennecott Point provides the ideal setting for use of magnetostratigraphy to tie the marine isotope excursion into the chronostratigraphic framework of the Newark, Hartford, and Fundy Basins. In the summer of 2005, we collected a ~1m resolution magnetostratigraphic section from 105 m of deep marine, silt- and sandstone turbidites and interbedded mudstones, spanning the T-J boundary at Kennecott Point. Hybrid progressive demagnetization - including zero-field, low-temperature cycling; low-field AF cleaning; and thermal demagnetization in ~25°C steps to 445°C under flowing N2 gas (3) - first removed a Northerly, steeply inclined component interpreted to be a Tertiary overprint, revealing an underlying dual-polarity component of moderate inclination. Five major polarity zones extend through our section, with several short, one-sample reversals interspersed amongst them. Comparison of this pattern with other T-J boundary sections (4-6) argues for a Northern hemisphere origin of our site, albeit with large vertical-axis rotations. A long normal chron bounds the T-J boundary punctuated

  13. Stratigraphy of Karaburun Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhan Erdoğan


    Full Text Available In the Karaburun peninsula, a tectonic bell with a thick Mesozoic succession is located bordering the Izmir-Ankara zone on its western side. In the stratigraphic column of the Karaburun belt, the oldest unit is the Lower and Middle Carboniferous Alandere formation consisting dominantly of fossiliferous limestones. Lower Triassic rocks rest directly above this unit and Upper Carboniferous and Permian sections are missing. The Lower Triassic is represented by rock units showing facies changes in short distances along vertical and horizontal directions. In this part of the section, the Karareis and Gerence formations are differentiated which are collectively named as the Denizgiren group. The Karareis formation is composed of intercalations of sandstones, bedded-black cherts, pelagic limestones and mafic volcanics, whereas the Gerence formation composed dominantly of ammonitic red limestones, thinly-bedded gray limestones, and cherty limestones. The Karareis and Gerence formations grade laterally into each other and range in age from Scythian to Late Anisian. The Camiboğazı formation resting with a gradational contact on each of these units consists of massive limestones with reefal facies in places and yields an age of Ladinian-Camian. The Güvercinlik formation lies conformably above the Camiboğazı formation and consists of algal stromatolites, megalodon-bearing limestones, and quartzitic sandstone intervals. This unit ranges in age from Norian-Rheatian. The Nohutalan formation which is dominantly represented by thick-bedded neritic limestones overlies the Güvercinlik formation gradationally and yields an age ranging from Liassic to Albian. This unit appears to be lithologically continuous in the field without any indications of a break in the stratigraphic or structural record, however, the Dogger age has not been determined which may probably indicate a presence of a hiatus. Above this Mesozoic comprehensive succession with an age

  14. The metallogeny of Late Triassic rifting of the Alexander terrane in southeastern Alaska and northwestern British Columbia (United States)

    Taylor, C.D.; Premo, W.R.; Meier, A.L.; Taggart, J.E.


    A belt of unusual volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) occurrences is located along the eastern margin of the Alexander terrane throughout southeastern Alaska and northwestern British Columbia and exhibits a range of characteristics consistent with a variety of syngenetic to epigenetic deposit types. Deposits within this belt include Greens Creek and Windy Craggy, the economically most significant VMS deposit in Alaska and the largest in North America, respectively. The occurrences are hosted by a discontinuously exposed, 800-km-long belt of rocks that consist of a 200- to 800-m-thick sequence of conglomerate, limestone, marine elastic sedimentary rocks, and tuff intercalated with and overlain by a distinctive unit of mafic pyroclastic rocks and pillowed flows. Faunal data bracket the age of the host rocks between Anisian (Middle Triassic) and late Norian (late Late Triassic). This metallogenic belt is herein referred to as the Alexander Triassic metallogenic belt. The VMS occurrences show systematic differences in degree of structural control, chemistry, and stratigraphic setting along the Alexander Triassic metallogenic belt that suggest important spatial or temporal changes in the tectonic environment of formation. At the southern end of the belt, felsic volcanic rocks overlain by shallow-water limestones characterize the lower part of the sequence. In the southern and middle portion of the belt, a distinctive pebble conglomerate marks the base of the section and is indicative of high-energy deposition in a near slope or basin margin setting. At the northern end of the belt the conglomerates, limestones, and felsic volcanic rocks are absent and the belt is composed of deep-water sedimentary and mafic volcanic rocks. This northward change in depositional environment and lithofacies is accompanied by a northward transition from epithermal-like structurally controlled, discontinuous, vein- and pod-shaped, Pb-Zn-Ag-Ba-(Cu) occurrences with relatively simple mineralogy

  15. Biological soil crusts are the main contributor to winter soil respiration in a temperate desert ecosystem of China (United States)

    He, M. Z.


    distribute with cover about 1% of the entire study area. Prior to revegetation, straw-checkerboards approximately 1×1 m2 in area were constructed using wheat or rice straw to stabilize the dune surface and allow time for the planted xerophytic shrubs to adapt to the new environment. In 1956, the following 2-year-old xerophytic shrub seedlings were planted within the checkerboard at a density of 16 individuals per 100 m2 and grown without irrigation: Artemisia ordosica Krasch, H. scoparium Fisch, Calligonum mongolicum Turc'z, Caragana microphylla Lam., Caragana korshinskii Kom, Salix gordejevii and Atraphaxis bracteata A.Los. The stabilized area was then expanded to parallel areas in 1964 and 1982 using the same method and species. As a result, the initial stages of change that have occurred at these sites were similar. After more than fifties years succession, the predominant plants are semi-shrubs, shrubs, forbs, and grasses at present and BSCs formed. The common BSCs in the region may be dominated by cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and mosses, or any combination of these organisms. Cyanobacteria species include Microcolous vaginatus Gom., Hydrocoleus violacens Gom., Lyngbya crytoraginatus Schk., Phormidium amblgum Gom., P. autumnale (Ag.) Gom., P. foveolarum (Mont.) Gom. and Phormidium luridum (Kutz) Gom. etc; algal species mainly include Anabaena azotica Ley, Euglena sp., Hantzschia amphioxys var capitata Grum, Oscillatoria obscura Gom., O. pseudogeminate G. Schm. And Scytonema javanicum (Kutz) Bornet Flash etc; lichen species include Collema tenax (Sw.) Ach., Endocarpon pusillum Hedw.; and moss species are dominated by Bryum argenteum Hedw., Didymodon constrictus (Mitt.) Saito., Tortula bidentata Bai Xue Liang and T. desertorum Broth.. Experimental Design and Rs measurements On October 2010, We selected the moss-dominated BSCs at four revegetation sites and natural vegetation sites, in which 3 replicated plots were selected randomly. In each plot, olyvinyl chloride (PVC

  16. [Long-term results of calcaneal fracture treatment by open reduction and internal fixation using a calcaneal locking compression plate from an extended lateral approach]. (United States)

    Zeman, P; Zeman, J; Matejka, J; Koudela, K


    To report on the surgical treatment of intra-articular calcaneal fractures by open reduction and internal fixation with a calcaneal locking compression plate (LCP) from an extended lateral approach, and to retrospectively analyze the mid-term results in a group of patients treated by this technique. In the period from August 2005 till March 2007, a total of 49 patients with 61 calcaneal fractures were treated. Of these, 11 (18 %) were treated conservatively. Reduction combined with Kirschner-wire fixation was used in four fractures (6.6 %). Open reduction with internal calcaneal LCP fixation (ORIF- calcaneal LCP) from an extended lateral approach was carried out to treat 46 fractures (75.4 %) in 38 patients. The group evaluated here comprised 29 patients with 33 calcaneal fractures treated by ORIF-calcaneal LCP at a follow-up longer than 6 months. The fractures were classified on the basis of computer tomography (CT) findings as Sanders types I to IV. The group had two woman (6.9 %) and 27 men (93.1 %) with an average age of 34.2 years (range, 19-55 years). In 11 fractures (33.3 %), the primary treatment included filling a central cancellous bone defect area. Calcium phosphate bone substitute material (resorbable ChronOS) was used in nine cases (27.3 %), a self-solidifying hydroxyapatite implant was injected in two (6.1 %) cases (X3 Wright and Norian SRS, respectively), and a bone allograft was implanted in one case (3 %). Indicated for surgery were patients with an intra-articular calcaneal fracture, Sanders type II or type III, with articular surface displacement by more than 1 mm. Contraindications included age over sixty years, poor cooperation, smoking habits, peripheral vascular disease or skin infection. Surgery was performed only after oedema had resolved. The aim of our treatment was to achieve anatomical reconstruction of all articular surfaces, to restore the height, length, width and axis of the heel bone, to carry out primary stable osteosynthesis, and