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Sample records for norepinephrine

  1. Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) Antidepressant SNRIs help relieve depression symptoms, such as irritability and sadness, ... effects they may cause. By Mayo Clinic Staff Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are a class ...

  2. Cardiac norepinephrine kinetics in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brush, J.E. Jr.; Eisenhofer, G.; Garty, M.; Stull, R.; Maron, B.J.; Cannon, R.O. III; Panza, J.A.; Epstein, S.E.; Goldstein, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    We examined the uptake and release of norepinephrine in the cardiac circulation and other regional vascular beds in 11 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and in 10 control subjects during simultaneous infusion of tracer-labeled norepinephrine and isoproterenol. Cardiac neuronal uptake of norepinephrine was assessed by comparing regional removal of tracer-labeled norepinephrine with that of tracer-labeled isoproterenol (which is not a substrate for neuronal uptake) and by the relation between production of dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG), an exclusively intraneuronal metabolite of norepinephrine, and regional spillover of norepinephrine. Cardiac extraction of norepinephrine averaged 59 +/- 17% in the patients with HCM, significantly less than in the control subjects (79 +/- 13%, p less than 0.05), whereas cardiac extraction of isoproterenol was similar in the two groups (13 +/- 23% versus 13 +/- 14%), indicating that neuronal uptake of norepinephrine was decreased in the patients with HCM. The cardiac arteriovenous difference in norepinephrine was significantly larger in the patients with HCM than in the control subjects (73 +/- 77 versus 13 +/- 50 pg/ml, p less than 0.05), as was the product of the arteriovenous difference in norepinephrine and coronary blood flow (7.3 +/- 7.3 versus 0.8 +/- 3.0 ng/min, p less than 0.05)

  3. DOPA, norepinephrine, and dopamine in rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, E; Richter, Erik; Christensen, N J

    1989-01-01

    We studied the effect of unilateral sympathectomy on rat quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscle concentrations of endogenous dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), dopamine (DA), and norepinephrine (NE) and assessed the relationships between these catecholamines in several rat tissues. Catecholamines were...

  4. Norepinephrine kinetics during insulin-induced hypoglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Christensen, N J; Larsen, S

    1985-01-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) kinetics (plasma appearance rate, clearance, and forearm extraction) were measured during insulin-induced hypoglycemia in six healthy subjects. NE clearance did not change during hypoglycemia, indicating that the increase in plasma NE during hypoglycemia is due to an increased...

  5. Interaction of antidepressants with the serotonin and norepinephrine transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lena; Andersen, Jacob; Thomsen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) and the norepinephrine transporter (NET) are sodium-dependent neurotransmitter transporters responsible for reuptake of released serotonin and norepinephrine, respectively, into nerve terminals in the brain. A wide range of inhibitors of SERT and NET are used...

  6. Relationships of Whole Blood Serotonin and Plasma Norepinephrine within Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Bennett L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This study of 47 families of autistic probands found that whole blood serotonin was positively correlated between autistic children and their mothers, fathers, and siblings, but plasma norepinephrine levels were not. (Author/JDD)

  7. Continuous infusion of tracer norepinephrine may miscalculate unidirectional nerve uptake of norepinephrine in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Christensen, N J; Ring-Larsen, H

    1989-01-01

    In order to evaluate uptake kinetics of norepinephrine (NE) in different tissues, a catheterization study was performed in control subjects (n = 6) and patients with enhanced sympathetic nervous activity (cirrhosis, n = 12) during constant intravenous infusion of L[3H]norepinephrine ([3H]NE) for 75...... minutes. In spite of a higher NE spillover from kidneys in patients compared with controls (82 vs. 49 ng/min, p less than 0.01), renal extraction ratios of [3H]NE were similar in the two groups (0.33 vs. 0.32, NS), and no significant change was observed during the time of infusion. In contrast, liver......-intestine extraction ratios of [3H]NE decreased significantly and equally with infusion time in patients (from 0.57 to 0.44, p less than 0.01) and controls (from 0.59 to 0.46, p less than 0.01). This was observed despite the fact that spillover of NE from this vascular bed was observed only in patients with cirrhosis...

  8. Norepinephrine release in arteries of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zsoter, T.T.; Wolchinsky, C.; Lawrin, M.; Sirko, S.

    1982-01-01

    The role of the sympathetic nervous system in arterial hypertension cannot be properly evaluated until it is known about the activity in the vessels themselves. In this study researchers investigated the effect of transmural stimulation on the tail artery - labelled in vitro with 3 H-norepinephrine - of 7-9 week old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto controls (WKR). Electrical stimulation using two frequencies (2 and 10 Hz) resulted in significantly more 3 H overflow in vessels from SHR than from WKR. With 10 Hz stimulation the fractional release was also greater. Column chromatographic analysis of 3 H overflow revealed that transmural stimulation in arteries of SHR enhanced mainly the release of norepinephrine and not of its metabolites. Significantly, an increased release of 3 H-norepinephrine on stimulation was observed in SHR before the full development of hypertension suggesting that it might be a cause rather than a consequence of high blood pressure

  9. Norepinephrine kinetics and dynamics in septic shock and trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloeil, H; Mazoit, J-X; Benhamou, D; Duranteau, J

    2005-12-01

    There is considerable variability in the inter-patient response to norepinephrine. Pharmacokinetic studies of dopamine infusion in volunteers and in patients have also shown large variability. The purpose of this study was to define the pharmacokinetics of norepinephrine in septic shock and trauma patients. After Ethical Committee approval and written informed family consent, 12 patients with septic shock and 11 trauma patients requiring norepinephrine infusion were studied. Norepinephrine dose was increased in three successive steps of 0.1 mg kg(-1) min(-1) at 15-min intervals (20% maximum allowed increase in arterial pressure). Arterial blood was sampled before and at 0.5, 13, and 15 min after each infusion rate change and 30 s, 1, 2, 5, 10, and 15 min after return to baseline dosing. Norepinephrine was assayed by HPLC. The pharmacokinetics were modelled using NONMEM (one-compartment model). The effects of group, body weight (BW), gender and SAPS II (Simplified Acute Physiology Score II) [Le Gall JR, Lemeshow S, Saulnier F. A new Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II) based on a European/North American multicenter study. J Am Med Assoc 1993; 270: 2957-63] patients score on clearance (CL) and volume of distribution (V) were tested. Group, gender, and BW did not influence CL or V. CL was negatively related to SAPS II. CL and T(1/2) varied from 3 litre min(-1) and 2 min, respectively, when SAPS II=20 to 0.9 litre min(-1) and 6.8 min when SAPS II=60. In trauma patients and in septic shock patients, norepinephrine clearance is negatively related to SAPS II.

  10. Discovery of a potent, dual serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfus, Nicolas; Myers, Jason K; Badescu, Valentina O; de Frutos, Oscar; de la Puente, Maria Luz; Ding, Chunjin; Filla, Sandra A; Fynboe, Karsten; Gernert, Douglas L; Heinz, Beverly A; Hemrick-Luecke, Susan K; Johnson, Kirk W; Johnson, Michael P; López, Pilar; Love, Patrick L; Martin, Laura J; Masquelin, Thierry; McCoy, Michael J; Mendiola, Javier; Morrow, Denise; Muhlhauser, Mark; Pascual, Gustavo; Perun, Thomas J; Pfeifer, Lance A; Phebus, Lee A; Richards, Simon J; Rincón, Juan Antonio; Seest, Eric P; Shah, Jikesh; Shaojuan, Jia; Simmons, Rosa Maria A; Stephenson, Gregory A; Tromiczak, Eric G; Thompson, Linda K; Walter, Magnus W; Weber, Wayne W; Zarrinmayeh, Hamideh; Thomas, Craig E; Joshi, Elizabeth; Iyengar, Smriti; Johansson, Anette M

    2013-06-13

    The objective of the described research effort was to identify a novel serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) with improved norepinephrine transporter activity and acceptable metabolic stability and exhibiting minimal drug-drug interaction. We describe herein the discovery of a series of 3-substituted pyrrolidines, exemplified by compound 1. Compound 1 is a selective SNRI in vitro and in vivo, has favorable ADME properties, and retains inhibitory activity in the formalin model of pain behavior. Compound 1 thus represents a potential new probe to explore utility of SNRIs in central nervous system disorders, including chronic pain conditions.

  11. Improved preclinical cardiovascular therapeutic indices with long-term inhibition of norepinephrine reuptake using reboxetine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fossa, Anthony A.; Wisialowski, Todd A.; Cremers, Thomas; van der Hart, Marieke; Tseng, Elaine; Deng, Shibing; Rollema, Hans; Wang, Ellen Q.

    2012-01-01

    Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (NRIs) acutely increase norepinephrine (NE) levels, but therapeutic antidepressant activity is only observed after weeks of treatment because central NE levels progressively increase during continued drug exposure. Similarly, while NRIs acutely increase blood

  12. Norepinephrine transporter blocker atomoxetine increases salivary alpha amylase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warren, C.M.; van den Brink, R.L.; Nieuwenhuis, S.; Bosch, J.A.

    It has been suggested that central norepinephrine (NE) activity may be inferred from increases in salivary alpha-amylase (SAA), but data in favor of this proposition are limited. We administered 40mg of atomoxetine, a selective NE transporter blocker that increases central NE levels, to 24 healthy

  13. Arousal, exploration and the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jepma, Marieke

    2011-01-01

    The studies described in this thesis address a range of topics related to arousal, exploration, temporal attention, and the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system. Chapters 2 and 3 report two studies that investigated a recent theory about the role of the LC-NE system in the regulation of the

  14. Radioenzymatic simultaneous determination of epinephrine and norepinephrine in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, T.

    1978-01-01

    The high-pressure liquid chromatography (= HPLC) was used in simultaneous determinations of a few pg epinephrine and norepinephrine. This separation procedure improves the efficiency when compared with the conventional thin-layer chromatographic methods (TLC) and allows routine assays in plasma. (orig.) [de

  15. Norepinephrine as a Potential Aggravator of Symptomatic Cerebral Vasospasm: Two Cases and Argument for Milrinone Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Zeiler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. During hypertensive therapy for post-subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH symptomatic vasospasm, norepinephrine is commonly used to reach target blood pressures. Concerns over aggravation of vasospasm with norepinephrine exist. Objective. To describe norepinephrine temporally related deterioration in neurological examination of two post-SAH patients in vasospasm. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed two charts of patients with delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI post-SAH who deteriorated with norepinephrine infusions. Results. We identified two patients with DCI post-SAH who deteriorated during hypertensive therapy with norepinephrine. The first, a 43-year-old male presented to hospital with DCI, failed MABP directed therapy with rapid deterioration in exam with high dose norepinephrine and MABP of 140–150 mm Hg. His exam improved on continuous milrinone and discontinuation of norepinephrine. The second, a 39-year-old female who developed DCI on postbleed day 8 responded to milrinone therapy upfront. During further deterioration and after angioplasty, norepinephrine was utilized to drive MABP to 130–140 mm Hg. Progressive deterioration in examination occurred after angioplasty as norepinephrine doses escalated. After discontinuation of norepinephrine and continuation of milrinone, function dramatically returned but not to baseline. Conclusions. The potential exists for worsening of DCI post-SAH with hypertensive therapy directed by norepinephrine. A potential role exists for vasodilation and inotropic directed therapy with milrinone in the setting of DCI post-SAH.

  16. Gold Nanoparticles-Based Barcode Analysis for Detection of Norepinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jeung Hee; Lee, Kwon-Jai; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2016-02-01

    Nanotechnology-based bio-barcode amplification analysis offers an innovative approach for detecting neurotransmitters. We evaluated the efficacy of this method for detecting norepinephrine in normal and oxidative-stress damaged dopaminergic cells. Our approach use a combination of DNA barcodes and bead-based immunoassays for detecting neurotransmitters with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and provides polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-like sensitivity. This method relies on magnetic Dynabeads containing antibodies and nanoparticles that are loaded both with DNA barcords and with antibodies that can sandwich the target protein captured by the Dynabead-bound antibodies. The aggregate sandwich structures are magnetically separated from the solution and treated to remove the conjugated barcode DNA. The DNA barcodes are then identified by SERS and PCR analysis. The concentration of norepinephrine in dopaminergic cells can be readily detected using the bio-barcode assay, which is a rapid, high-throughput screening tool for detecting neurotransmitters.

  17. Inhibition of the norepinephrine transporter by χ-conotoxin dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jingjing; Brust, Andreas; Bhola, Rebecca F; Jha, Prerna; Mobli, Mehdi; Lewis, Richard J; Christie, Macdonald J; Alewood, Paul F

    2016-05-01

    Peptide dendrimers are a novel class of macromolecules of emerging interest with the potential of delayed renal clearance due to their molecular size and enhanced activity due to the multivalency effect. In this work, an active analogue of the disulfide-rich χ-conotoxin χ-MrIA (χ-MrIA), a norepinephrine reuptake (norepinephrine transporter) inhibitor, was grafted onto a polylysine dendron. Dendron decoration was achieved by employing copper-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition with azido-PEG chain-modified χ-MrIA analogues, leading to homogenous 4-mer and 8-mer χ-MrIA dendrimers with molecular weights ranging from 8 to 22 kDa. These dendrimers were investigated for their impact on peptide secondary structure, in vitro functional activity, and potential anti-allodynia in vivo. NMR studies showed that the χ-MrIA tertiary structure was maintained in the χ-MrIA dendrimers. In a functional norepinephrine transporter reuptake assay, χ-MrIA dendrimers showed slightly increased potency relative to the azido-PEGylated χ-MrIA analogues with similar potency to the parent peptide. In contrast to χ-MrIA, no anti-allodynic action was observed when the χ-MrIA dendrimers were administered intrathecally in a rat model of neuropathic pain, suggesting that the larger dendrimer structures are unable to diffuse through the spinal column tissue and reach the norepinephrine transporter. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Influence of norepinephrine transporter inhibition on hemodynamic response to hypergravitation

    OpenAIRE

    Strempel, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sympathetically-mediated tachycardia and vasoconstriction maintain blood pressure during hypergravitational stress, thereby preventing gravitation-induced loss of consciousness (g-LOC). Norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibition prevents neurally-mediated (pre)syncope during gravitational stress imposed by head-up tilt testing. Thus, it seems reasonable that NET inhibition could increase tolerance to hypergravitational stress. Methods. We performed a double-blind, randomized...

  19. Mechanisms of immune regulation by norepinephrine and cholera toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    Norepinephrine has previously been demonstrated by this laboratory to potentiate the in vitro T-dependent antibody response through the stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors. The role of β-adrenergic receptor subtypes in norepinephrine-induced potentiation of the antibody responses was examined with selective β-adrenergic antagonists. The antagonists were metoprolol (β 1 -selective), ICI 118-551 (β 2 -selective), and propranolol (β-non-selective). Both propranolol and ICI 118-551 blocked norepinephrine-induced potentiation of the antibody response, but metoprolol was ineffective. Receptor binding competition of antagonists with the radioligant, [ 3 H]CGP-12177 was examined and results were analyzed with the computer program, LIGAND. Competition by ICI 118-551 identified 75% β 2 - and 25% β 1 -adrenergic receptors on splenic mononuclear cells. Enriched T lymphocytes exhibited 75% β 2 -adrenergic receptors, while enriched B lymphocytes contained 90% β 2 -adrenergic receptors as identified by ICI 118-551. Greater than twice as many total receptors were identified on B lymphocytes than T lymphocytes. A T cell lymphoma contained about 60% β 2 -receptors, while 100% were β 2 receptors on a B cell lymphoma, as assessed by ICI 118-551. Results support a heterogeneous β-adrenergic receptor population on T lymphocytes and a more homogeneous β 2 -population on B lymphocytes

  20. Mechanisms of immune regulation by norepinephrine and cholera toxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    Norepinephrine has previously been demonstrated by this laboratory to potentiate the in vitro T-dependent antibody response through the stimulation of {beta}-adrenergic receptors. The role of {beta}-adrenergic receptor subtypes in norepinephrine-induced potentiation of the antibody responses was examined with selective {beta}-adrenergic antagonists. The antagonists were metoprolol ({beta}{sub 1}-selective), ICI 118-551 ({beta}{sub 2}-selective), and propranolol ({beta}-non-selective). Both propranolol and ICI 118-551 blocked norepinephrine-induced potentiation of the antibody response, but metoprolol was ineffective. Receptor binding competition of antagonists with the radioligant, ({sup 3}H)CGP-12177 was examined and results were analyzed with the computer program, LIGAND. Competition by ICI 118-551 identified 75% {beta}{sub 2}- and 25% {beta}{sub 1}-adrenergic receptors on splenic mononuclear cells. Enriched T lymphocytes exhibited 75% {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptors, while enriched B lymphocytes contained 90% {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptors as identified by ICI 118-551. Greater than twice as many total receptors were identified on B lymphocytes than T lymphocytes. A T cell lymphoma contained about 60% {beta}{sub 2}-receptors, while 100% were {beta}{sub 2} receptors on a B cell lymphoma, as assessed by ICI 118-551. Results support a heterogeneous {beta}-adrenergic receptor population on T lymphocytes and a more homogeneous {beta}{sub 2}-population on B lymphocytes.

  1. Norepinephrine-evoked pain in fibromyalgia. A randomized pilot study [ISRCTN70707830

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casanova Jose-Miguel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibromyalgia syndrome displays sympathetically maintained pain features such as frequent post-traumatic onset and stimuli-independent pain accompanied by allodynia and paresthesias. Heart rate variability studies showed that fibromyalgia patients have changes consistent with ongoing sympathetic hyperactivity. Norepinephrine-evoked pain test is used to assess sympathetically maintained pain syndromes. Our objective was to define if fibromyalgia patients have norepinephrine-evoked pain. Methods Prospective double blind controlled study. Participants: Twenty FM patients, and two age/sex matched control groups; 20 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 20 healthy controls. Ten micrograms of norepinephrine diluted in 0.1 ml of saline solution were injected in a forearm. The contrasting substance, 0.1 ml of saline solution alone, was injected in the opposite forearm. Maximum local pain elicited during the 5 minutes post-injection was graded on a visual analog scale (VAS. Norepinephrine-evoked pain was diagnosed when norepinephrine injection induced greater pain than placebo injection. Intensity of norepinephrine-evoked pain was calculated as the difference between norepinephrine minus placebo-induced VAS scores. Results Norepinephrine-evoked pain was seen in 80 % of FM patients (95% confidence intervals 56.3 – 94.3%, in 30 % of rheumatoid arthritis patients and in 30 % of healthy controls (95% confidence intervals 11.9 – 54.3 (p Conclusions Fibromyalgia patients have norepinephrine-evoked pain. This finding supports the hypothesis that fibromyalgia may be a sympathetically maintained pain syndrome.

  2. Myocardial imaging with a radioiodinated norepinephrine storage analog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, D.M.; Brown, L.E.; Rogers, W.L.; Worthington, K.C.; Wu, J.L.; Clinthorne, N.H.; Otto, C.A.; Swanson, D.P.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    Meta-iodobenzylguanidine (M-IBG), an iodinated aromatic analog of the hypotensive drug guanethidine, localizes in the heart of the rat, dog, and rhesus monkey. A comparative study of tissue distribution in the dog has been performed with five myocardiophilic agents: thallium-201, I-125 16-iodohexadecanoic acid, H-3 norepinephrine, C-14 guanethidine and I-125 M-IBG. The last two compounds give heart concentrations and heart-to-blood concentration ratios similar to those of thallium-201. Planar and tomographic images of the hearts of the dog and rhesus monkey were obtained using I-131 or I-123 labeled M-IBG. Blocking studies with reserpine suggest that a major component of myocardial retention of M-IBG is sequestration within the norepinephrine storage vesicles of the adrenergic nerves. The localization of M-IBG in other organs with rich sympathetic innervation and the relative insensitivity of myocardial uptake to a wide range of loading doses lend additional support for a neuronal mode of retention

  3. KCl stimulation increases norepinephrine transporter function in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandela, Prashant; Ordway, Gregory A

    2006-09-01

    The norepinephrine transporter (NET) plays a pivotal role in terminating noradrenergic signaling and conserving norepinephrine (NE) through the process of re-uptake. Recent evidence suggests a close association between NE release and regulation of NET function. The present study evaluated the relationship between release and uptake, and the cellular mechanisms that govern these processes. KCl stimulation of PC12 cells robustly increased [3H]NE uptake via the NET and simultaneously increased [3H]NE release. KCl-stimulated increases in uptake and release were dependent on Ca2+. Treatment of cells with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) or okadaic acid decreased [3H]NE uptake but did not block KCl-stimulated increases in [3H]NE uptake. In contrast, PMA increased [3H]NE release and augmented KCl-stimulated release, while okadaic acid had no effects on release. Inhibition of Ca2+-activated signaling cascades with KN93 (a Ca2+ calmodulin-dependent kinase inhibitor), or ML7 and ML9 (myosin light chain kinase inhibitors), reduced [3H]NE uptake and blocked KCl-stimulated increases in uptake. In contrast, KN93, ML7 and ML9 had no effect on KCl-stimulated [3H]NE release. KCl-stimulated increases in [3H]NE uptake were independent of transporter trafficking to the plasma membrane. While increases in both NE release and uptake mediated by KCl stimulation require Ca2+, different intracellular mechanisms mediate these two events.

  4. Synthesis and structure-distribution study of radioiodinated norepinephrine storage analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieland, D.M.; Inbasekaran, M.; Brown, L.E.; Marsh, D.D.; Beierwaltes, W.H. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (USA). Medical Center)

    Unlabelled analogs of norepinephrine have been synthesised and then labelled with /sup 125/I in an attempt to find an agent with heart uptake and neuronal specificity greater than metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG). The analogs of norepinephrine were injected intravenously into dogs and showed a heart concentration similar to MIBG. Neuronal specificity of some analogs is being evaluated in rat heart.

  5. Synthesis and structure-distribution study of radioiodinated norepinephrine storage analogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, D.M.; Inbasekaran, M.; Brown, L.E.; Marsh, D.D.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    Unlabelled analogs of norepinephrine have been synthesised and then labelled with 125 I in an attempt to find an agent with heart uptake and neuronal specificity greater than metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG). The analogs of norepinephrine were injected intravenously into dogs and showed a heart concentration similar to MIBG. Neuronal specificity of some analogs is being evaluated in rat heart. (U.K.)

  6. Norepinephrine spillover from skeletal muscle during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savard, G K; Richter, Erik; Strange, S

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of increasing muscle mass involvement in dynamic exercise on both sympathetic nervous activation and local hemodynamic variables of individual active and inactive skeletal muscle groups. Six male subjects performed 15-min bouts of one...... legs, with a steeper rise occurring approximately 70% VO2max. These increases were not associated with any significant changes in leg blood flow or leg vascular conductance at the exercise intensities examined. These results suggest that, as the total active muscle mass increases, the rise...... in both legs. Arterial and venous plasma concentrations of norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine were analyzed, and the calculated NE spillover was used as an index of sympathetic nervous activity to the limb. NE spillover increased gradually both in the resting, and to a larger extent in the exercising...

  7. Depletion of rat cortical norepinephrine and the inhibition of [3H]norepinephrine uptake by xylamine does not require monoamine oxidase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudley, M.W.

    1988-01-01

    Inhibition of monoamine oxidase A through pretreatment of rats with clorgyline or the pro-drug MDL 72,394 did not block the amine-depleting action of xylamine. Xylamine treatment resulted in a loss of approximately 60% of the control level of norepinephrine in the cerebral cortex. A 1-hr pretreatment, but not a 24-hr pretreatment, with the monoamine oxidase B inhibitor, L-deprenyl, prevented the depletion of norepinephrine by xylamine. In addition, pretreatment with MDL 72,974, a monoamine oxidase B inhibitor without amine-releasing or uptake - inhibiting effects, did not prevent cortical norepinephrine levels. Inhibition of monoamine oxidase by either MDL 72,974 or MDL 72,394 did not prevent the inhibition of [ 3 H]norepinephrine uptake into rat cortical synaptosomes by xylamine. These data indicate that monoamine oxidase does not mediate the amine-releasing or uptake inhibiting properties of xylamine. The protection afforded by L-deprenyl following a 1-hr pretreatment most probably was due to accumulation of its metabolite, L-amphetamine, which would inhibit the uptake carrier. A functional carrier is required for depletion since desipramine administered 1 hr prior to xylamine, was also able to prevent depletion of norepinephrine

  8. Positron emission tomography shows high specific uptake of racemic carbon-11 labelled norepinephrine in the primate heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farde, L.; Halldin, C.; Naagren, K.; Suhara, Tetsuya; Karlsson, P.; Schoeps, K.O.; Swahn, C.G.; Bone, D.

    1994-01-01

    (-)-Norepinephrine is the predominant neurotransmitter of the sympathetic innervation of the heart. Racemic norepinephrine was labelled with carbon-11 and injected i.v. into Cynomolgus monkeys. Five minutes after injection there was a more than tenfold higher radioactivity in the heart than in adjacent tissue. Pretreatment with the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desipramine reduced the uptake by more than 80%. The high specific uptake of racemic [ 11 C]norepinephrine indicates that enatiomerically pure(-)-[ 11 C]norepinephrine has promising potential for detailed mapping of the sympathetic innervation of the human myocardium. (orig.)

  9. Positron emission tomography shows high specific uptake of racemic carbon-11 labelled norepinephrine in the primate heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farde, L [Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Halldin, C [Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Naagren, K [Turku Univ., Cyclotron/PET Center (Finland); Suhara, Tetsuya [Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Karlsson, P [Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Schoeps, K O [Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Swahn, C G [Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Bone, D [Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1994-04-01

    (-)-Norepinephrine is the predominant neurotransmitter of the sympathetic innervation of the heart. Racemic norepinephrine was labelled with carbon-11 and injected i.v. into Cynomolgus monkeys. Five minutes after injection there was a more than tenfold higher radioactivity in the heart than in adjacent tissue. Pretreatment with the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desipramine reduced the uptake by more than 80%. The high specific uptake of racemic [[sup 11]C]norepinephrine indicates that enatiomerically pure(-)-[[sup 11]C]norepinephrine has promising potential for detailed mapping of the sympathetic innervation of the human myocardium. (orig.)

  10. Norepinephrine storage, distribution, and release in diabetic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, P.K.; Beamish, R.E.; Dhalla, K.S.; Innes, J.R.; Dhalla, N.S.

    1987-01-01

    The ability of hearts to store, distribute, and release norepinephrine (NE) was investigated in rats 8 wk after the induction of diabetes by an injection of streptozotocin. Chronic diabetes was associated with increased content and concentration of NE in heart and in other tissues such as kidney, brain, and spleen. Reserpine or tyramine treatment resulted in depletion of endogenous cardiac NE in control and diabetic rats. The depletion of NE stores at different times after a dose of reserpine was greater in diabetic hearts. On the other hand, NE stores in diabetic hearts were less sensitive than control hearts to low doses of tyramine but were more sensitive to high doses. The uptake of [ 3 H]NE was greater in diabetic hearts in isolated perfused preparations. In comparison with the control values, diabetic hearts showed a decrease in [ 3 H]NE in the granular fraction and an increase in the supernatant fraction. Diabetic hearts also showed an accelerated spontaneous release of [ 3 H]NE. The increased cardiac NE and the uptake and release of NE in diabetic animals were reversible upon treatment with insulin. These results are consistent with the view that sympathetic activity is increased in diabetic cardiomyopathy and indicate that cardiac NE in diabetic rats is maintained at a higher level partly due to an increased uptake of released NE by adrenergic nerve terminals

  11. Beta blockers, norepinephrine, and cancer: an epidemiological viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzgerald PJ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Paul J FitzgeraldThe Zanvyl Krieger Mind/Brain Institute, Solomon H Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: There is growing evidence that the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE and its sister molecule epinephrine (EPI (adrenaline affect some types of cancer. Several recent epidemiological studies have shown that chronic use of beta blocking drugs (which antagonize NE/EPI receptors results in lower recurrence, progression, or mortality of breast cancer and malignant melanoma. Preclinical studies have shown that manipulation of the levels or receptors of NE and EPI with drugs affects experimentally induced cancers. Psychological stress may play an etiological role in some cases of cancer (which has been shown epidemiologically, and this could be partly mediated by NE and EPI released by the sympathetic nervous system as part of the body’s “fight or flight” response. A less well-appreciated phenomenon is that the genetic tone of NE/EPI may play a role in cancer. NE and EPI may affect cancer by interacting with molecular pathways already implicated in abnormal cellular replication, such as the P38/MAPK pathway, or via oxidative stress. NE/EPI-based drugs other than beta blockers also may prevent or treat various types of cancer, as may cholinesterase inhibitors that inhibit the sympathetic nervous system, which could be tested epidemiologically.Keywords: clonidine, guanfacine, aspirin, acetylcholine, epinephrine, adrenaline, sympathetic nervous system, parasympathetic nervous system, inflammation

  12. Angiotensin receptors and norepinephrine neuromodulation: implications of functional coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelband, C H; Sumners, C; Lu, D; Raizada, M K

    1998-02-27

    The objective of this review is to examine the role of neuronal angiotensin II (Ang II) receptors in vitro. Two types of G protein-coupled Ang II receptors have been identified in cardiovascularly relevant areas of the brain: the AT1 and the AT2. We have utilized neurons in culture to study the signaling mechanisms of AT1 and AT2 receptors. Neuronal AT1 receptors are involved in norepinephrine (NE) neuromodulation. NE neuromodulation can be either evoked or enhanced. Evoked NE neuromodulation involves AT1 receptor-mediated, losartan-dependent, rapid NE release, inhibition of K+ channels and stimulation of Ca2+ channels. AT1 receptor-mediated enhanced NE neuromodulation involves the Ras-Raf-MAP kinase cascade and ultimately leads to an increase in NE transporter, tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine beta-hydroxylase mRNA transcription. Neuronal AT2 receptors signal via a Gi protein and are coupled to activation of PP2A and PLA2 and stimulation of K+ channels. Finally, putative cross-talk pathways between AT1 and AT2 receptors will be discussed.

  13. Subcellular localization of the antidepressant-sensitive norepinephrine transporter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winder Danny G

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reuptake of synaptic norepinephrine (NE via the antidepressant-sensitive NE transporter (NET supports efficient noradrenergic signaling and presynaptic NE homeostasis. Limited, and somewhat contradictory, information currently describes the axonal transport and localization of NET in neurons. Results We elucidate NET localization in brain and superior cervical ganglion (SCG neurons, aided by a new NET monoclonal antibody, subcellular immunoisolation techniques and quantitative immunofluorescence approaches. We present evidence that axonal NET extensively colocalizes with syntaxin 1A, and to a limited degree with SCAMP2 and synaptophysin. Intracellular NET in SCG axons and boutons also quantitatively segregates from the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2, findings corroborated by organelle isolation studies. At the surface of SCG boutons, NET resides in both lipid raft and non-lipid raft subdomains and colocalizes with syntaxin 1A. Conclusion Our findings support the hypothesis that SCG NET is segregated prior to transport from the cell body from proteins comprising large dense core vesicles. Once localized to presynaptic boutons, NET does not recycle via VMAT2-positive, small dense core vesicles. Finally, once NET reaches presynaptic plasma membranes, the transporter localizes to syntaxin 1A-rich plasma membrane domains, with a portion found in cholera toxin-demarcated lipid rafts. Our findings indicate that activity-dependent insertion of NET into the SCG plasma membrane derives from vesicles distinct from those that deliver NE. Moreover, NET is localized in presynaptic membranes in a manner that can take advantage of regulatory processes targeting lipid raft subdomains.

  14. Norepinephrine metabolism in neuronal cultures is increased by angiotensin II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumners, C.; Shalit, S.L.; Kalberg, C.J.; Raizada, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    In this study the authors have examined the actions of angiotensin II (ANG II) on catecholamine metabolism in neuronal brain cell cultures prepared from the hypothalamus and brain stem. Neuronal cultures prepared from the brains of 1-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats exhibit specific neuronal uptake mechanisms for both norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA), and also monoamine oxidase (MAO) and catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity. Separate neuronal uptake sites for NE and DA were identified by using specific neuronal uptake inhibitors for each amine. In previous studies, they determined that ANG II (10 nM-1 μM) stimulates increased neuronal [ 3 H]NE uptake by acting as specific receptors. They have confirmed these results here and in addition have shown that ANG II has not significant effects on neuronal [ 3 H]DA uptake. These results suggest that the actions of ANG II are restricted to the NE transporter in neuronal cultures. It is possible that ANG II stimulates the intraneuronal metabolism of at least part of the NE that is taken up, because the peptide stimulates MAO activity, an effect mediated by specific ANG II receptors. ANG II had no effect on COMT activity in neuronal cultures. Therefore, the use of neuronal cultures of hypothalamus and brain stem they have determined that ANG II can specifically alter NE metabolism in these areas, while apparently not altering DA metabolism

  15. Orienting of attention, pupil size, and the norepinephrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Shai; Pertzov, Yoni; Henik, Avishai

    2011-01-01

    This research examined a novel suggestion regarding the involvement of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system in orienting reflexive (exogenous) attention. A common procedure for studying exogenous orienting of attention is Posner's cuing task. Importantly, one can manipulate the required level of target processing by changing task requirements, which, in turn, can elicit a different time course of inhibition of return (IOR). An easy task (responding to target location) produces earlier onset IOR, whereas a demanding task (responding to target identity) produces later onset IOR. Aston-Jones and Cohen (Annual Review of Neuroscience, 28, 403-450, 2005) presented a theory suggesting two different modes of LC activity: tonic and phasic. Accordingly, we suggest that in the more demanding task, the LC-NE system is activated in phasic mode, and in the easier task, it is activated in tonic mode. This, in turn, influences the appearance of IOR. We examined this suggestion by measuring participants' pupil size, which has been demonstrated to correlate with the LC-NE system, while they performed cuing tasks. We found a response-locked phasic dilation of the pupil in the discrimination task, as compared with the localization task, which may reflect different firing modes of the LC-NE system during the two tasks. We also demonstrated a correlation between pupil size at the time of cue presentation and magnitude of IOR.

  16. Epinephrine in the heart: uptake and release, but no facilitation of norepinephrine release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Th.W. Lameris (Thomas); P.A. de Zeeuw (Sandra); D.J.G.M. Duncker (Dirk); W. Tietge; G. Alberts; F. Boomsma (Frans); P.D. Verdouw (Pieter); A.H. van den Meiracker (Anton)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested that epinephrine augments the release of norepinephrine from sympathetic nerve terminals through stimulation of presynaptic receptors, but evidence pertaining to this mechanism in the heart is scarce and conflicting. Using

  17. Kinetics of the norepinephrine analog [76Br]-meta-bromobenzylguanidine in isolated working rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffel, David; Loc'h, Christian; Mardon, Karine; Maziere, Bernard; Syrota, Andre

    1998-01-01

    A related set of kinetic studies of the norepinephrine analog [ 76 Br]-meta-bromobenzylguanidine (MBBG) were performed with an isolated working rat heart preparation. A series of constant infusion studies over a wide range of MBBG concentrations allowed estimation of the Michaelis-Menten constants for transport by the neuronal norepinephrine transporter (uptake 1 ) and the extraneuronal uptake system (uptake 2 ). Pharmacological blocking studies with inhibitors of uptake 1 , uptake 2 and vesicular uptake were performed to delineate the relative importance of these norepinephrine handling mechanisms on the kinetics of MBBG in the rat heart. Bolus injection studies were done to assess the ability of compartmental modeling techniques to characterize the kinetics of MBBG. These studies demonstrate that MBBG shares many of the same uptake mechanisms as norepinephrine in the rat heart. PET imaging studies with MBBG would be useful for assessing sympathetic nerve status in the living human heart

  18. Effect of atropine, norepinephrine and phenylephrine on cerebral oxygenation and cardiac output during anesthesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmar, A.F.; Poterman, Marieke; Mooyaart, E.A.; Struys, Michel; Scheeren, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background:  Induction of general anesthesia often induces unwanted hypotension which is commonly treated with vasoactive medication to restore an appropriate blood pressure. Phenylephrine, norepinephrine and atropine are commonly used agents for this purpose with different physiological effects.

  19. Is cerebral oxygenation negatively affected by infusion of norepinephrine in healthy subjects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brassard, P.; Seifert, T.; Secher, Niels H.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vasopressor agents are commonly used to increase mean arterial pressure (MAP) in order to secure a pressure gradient to perfuse vital organs. The influence of norepinephrine on cerebral oxygenation is not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the infusion of norep......BACKGROUND: Vasopressor agents are commonly used to increase mean arterial pressure (MAP) in order to secure a pressure gradient to perfuse vital organs. The influence of norepinephrine on cerebral oxygenation is not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the infusion...... of norepinephrine on cerebral oxygenation in healthy subjects. METHODS: Three doses of norepinephrine (0.05, 0.1, and 0.15 microg kg(-1) min(-1) for 20 min each) were infused in nine healthy subjects [six males; 26 (6) yr, mean (SD)]. MAP, cerebral oxygenation characterized by frontal lobe oxygenation (Sc(O2...

  20. Reward dependence is related to norepinephrine transporter T-182C gene polymorphism in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Byung-Joo; Choi, Myoung-Jin; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Kang, Rhee-Hun; Lee, Min-Soo

    2005-06-01

    It is well established that approximately 50% of the variance in personality traits is genetic. The goal of this study was to investigate a relationship between personality traits and the T-182C polymorphism in the norepinephrine transporter gene. The participants included 115 healthy adults with no history of psychiatric disorders and other physical illness during the past 6 months. All participants were tested with the Temperament and Character Inventory and genotyped norepinephrine transporter gene polymorphism. Differences on the Temperament and Character Inventory dimensions among three groups were examined with one-way analysis of variance. Our study suggests that the norepinephrine transporter T-182C gene polymorphism is associated with reward dependence in Koreans, but the small number of study participants and their sex and age heterogeneity limits generalization of our results. Further studies are necessary with a larger number of homogeneous participants to confirm whether the norepinephrine transporter gene is related to personality traits.

  1. Why we forget our dreams: Acetylcholine and norepinephrine in wakefulness and REM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becchetti, Andrea; Amadeo, Alida

    2016-01-01

    The ascending fibers releasing norepinephrine and acetylcholine are highly active during wakefulness. In contrast, during rapid-eye-movement sleep, the neocortical tone is sustained mainly by acetylcholine. By comparing the different physiological features of the norepinephrine and acetylcholine systems in the light of the GANE (glutamate amplifies noradrenergic effects) model, we suggest how to interpret some functional differences between waking and rapid-eye-movement sleep.

  2. Fluid loading and norepinephrine infusion mask the left ventricular preload decrease induced by pleural effusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wemmelund, Kristian Borup; Ringgård, Viktor Kromann; Vistisen, Simon Tilma

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pleural effusion (PLE) may lead to low blood pressure and reduced cardiac output. Low blood pressure and reduced cardiac output are often treated with fluid loading and vasopressors. This study aimed to determine the impact of fluid loading and norepinephrine infusion on physiologic d...... global haemodynamic parameters. Inferior vena cava distensibility remained unchanged. The haemodynamic significance of PLE may be underestimated during fluid or norepinephrine administration, potentially masking the presence of PLE....

  3. Norepinephrine turnover in brown adipose tissue is stimulated by a single meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glick, Z.; Raum, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    A single meal stimulates brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis in rats. In the present study the role of norepinephrine in this thermogenic response was assessed from the rate of its turnover in BAT after a single test meal. For comparison, norepinephrine turnover was determined in the heart and spleen. A total of 48 male Wistar rats (200 g) were trained to eat during two feeding sessions per day. On the experimental day, one group (n = 24) was meal deprived and the other (n = 24) was given a low-protein high-carbohydrate test meal for 2 h. The synthesis inhibition method with α-methyl-p-tyrosine was employed to determine norepinephrine turnover from its concentration at four hourly time points after the meal. Tissue concentrations of norepinephrine were determined by radioimmunoassay. Norepinephrine concentration and turnover rate were increased more than threefold in BAT of the meal-fed compared with the meal-deprived rats. Neither were significantly altered by the meal in the heart or spleen. The data suggest that norepinephrine mediates a portion of the thermic effect of meals that originate in BAT

  4. Dopamine versus norepinephrine in the treatment of cardiogenic shock: A PRISMA-compliant meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Qing; Jiang, Yufeng; Chen, Min; Zhang, Nannan; Yang, Huajia; Zhou, Yafeng

    2017-10-01

    Guidelines recommend that norepinephrine (NA) should be used to reach the target mean arterial pressure (MAP) during cardiogenic shock (CS), rather than epinephrine and dopamine (DA). However, there has actually been few studies on comparing norepinephrine with dopamine and their results conflicts. These studies raise a heat discussion. This study aimed to validate the effectiveness of norepinephrine for treating CS in comparison with dopamine. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess pooled estimates of risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for 28-day mortality, incidence of arrhythmic events, gastrointestinal reaction, and some indexes after treatment. Compared with dopamine, patients receiving norepinephrine had a lower 28-day mortality (RR 1.611 [95% CI 1.219-2.129]; P dopamine in 2 subgroups. Our analysis revealed that norepinephrine was associated with a lower 28-day mortality, a lower risk of arrhythmic events, and gastrointestinal reaction. No matter whether CS is caused by coronary heart disease or not, norepinephrine is superior to dopamine for correcting CS on the 28-day mortality.

  5. Norepinephrine stimulates mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells after limb ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijun Jiang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: During several pathological processes such as cancer progression, thermal injury, wound healing and hindlimb ischemia, the mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs mobilization was enhanced with an increase of sympathetic nerve activity and norepinephrine (NE secretion, yet the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the effects of NE on EPCs has less been investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: EPCs from BMs, peripheral circulation and spleens, the VEGF concentration in BM, skeletal muscle, peripheral circulation and spleen and angiogenesis in ischemic gastrocnemius were quantified in mice with hindlimbs ischemia. Systemic treatment of NE significantly increased EPCs number in BM, peripheral circulation and spleen, VEGF concentration in BM and skeletal muscle and angiogenesis in ischemic gastrocnemius in mice with hind limb ischemia, but did not affair VEGF concentration in peripheral circulation and spleen. EPCs isolated from healthy adults were cultured with NE in vitro to evaluate proliferation potential, migration capacity and phosphorylations of Akt and eNOS signal moleculars. Treatment of NE induced a significant increase in number of EPCs in the S-phase in a dose-dependent manner, as well as migrative activity of EPCs in vitro (p<0.05. The co-treatment of Phentolamine, I127, LY294002 and L-NAME with NE blocked the effects of NE on EPCs proliferation and migration. Treatment with NE significantly increased phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS of EPCs. Addition of phentolamine and I127 attenuated the activation of Akt/eNOS pathway, but metoprolol could not. Pretreatment of mice with either Phentolamine or I127 significantly attenuated the effects of NE on EPCs in vivo, VEGF concentration in BM, skeletal muscle and angiogenesis in ischemic gastrocnemius, but Metoprolol did not. CONCLUSION: These results unravel that sympathetic nervous system regulate EPCs mobilization and their pro-angiogenic capacity via α adrenoceptor

  6. Norepinephrine metabolism in humans. Kinetic analysis and model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, O.A.; Jacquez, J.A.; Zech, L.A.; Smith, M.J.; Sanfield, J.A.; Morrow, L.A.; Rosen, S.G.; Halter, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to quantify more precisely and to begin to address the problem of heterogeneity of the kinetics of distribution and metabolism of norepinephrine (NE) in humans, by using compartmental analysis. Steady-state NE specific activity in arterialized plasma during [ 3 H]NE infusion and postinfusion plasma disappearance of [ 3 H]NE were measured in eight healthy subjects in the supine and upright positions. Two exponentials were clearly identified in the plasma [ 3 H]NE disappearance curves of each subject studied in the supine (r = 0.94-1.00, all P less than 0.01) and upright (r = 0.90-0.98, all P less than 0.01) positions. A two-compartment model was the minimal model necessary to simultaneously describe the kinetics of NE in the supine and upright positions. The NE input rate into the extravascular compartment 2, estimated with the minimal model, increased with upright posture (1.87 +/- 0.08 vs. 3.25 +/- 0.2 micrograms/min per m2, P less than 0.001). Upright posture was associated with a fall in the volume of distribution of NE in compartment 1 (7.5 +/- 0.6 vs. 4.7 +/- 0.3 liters, P less than 0.001), and as a result of that, there was a fall in the metabolic clearance rate of NE from compartment 1 (1.80 +/- 0.11 vs. 1.21 +/- 0.08 liters/min per m2, P less than 0.001). We conclude that a two-compartment model is the minimal model that can accurately describe the kinetics of distribution and metabolism of NE in humans

  7. Norepinephrine transporter inhibition alters the hemodynamic response to hypergravitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strempel, Sebastian; Schroeder, Christoph; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Boese, Andrea; Tank, Jens; Diedrich, André; Heer, Martina; Luft, Friedrich C; Jordan, Jens

    2008-03-01

    Sympathetically mediated tachycardia and vasoconstriction maintain blood pressure during hypergravitational stress, thereby preventing gravitation-induced loss of consciousness. Norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibition prevents neurally mediated (pre)syncope during gravitational stress imposed by head-up tilt testing. Thus it seems reasonable that NET inhibition could increase tolerance to hypergravitational stress. We performed a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study in 11 healthy men (26 +/- 1 yr, body mass index 24 +/- 1 kg/m2), who ingested the selective NET inhibitor reboxetine (4 mg) or matching placebo 25, 13, and 1 h before testing on separate days. We monitored heart rate, blood pressure, and thoracic impedance in three different body positions (supine, seated, standing) and during a graded centrifuge run (incremental steps of 0.5 g for 3 min each, up to a maximal vertical acceleration load of 3 g). NET inhibition increased supine blood pressure and heart rate. With placebo, blood pressure increased in the seated position and was well maintained during standing. However, with NET inhibition, blood pressure decreased in the seated and standing position. During hypergravitation, blood pressure increased in a graded fashion with placebo. With NET inhibition, the increase in blood pressure during hypergravitation was profoundly diminished. Conversely, the tachycardic responses to sitting, standing, and hypergravitation all were greatly increased with NET inhibition. In contrast to our expectation, short-term NET inhibition did not improve tolerance to hypergravitation. Redistribution of sympathetic activity to the heart or changes in baroreflex responses could explain the excessive tachycardia that we observed.

  8. Norepinephrine is coreleased with serotonin in mouse taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yijen A; Maruyama, Yutaka; Roper, Stephen D

    2008-12-03

    ATP and serotonin (5-HT) are neurotransmitters secreted from taste bud receptor (type II) and presynaptic (type III) cells, respectively. Norepinephrine (NE) has also been proposed to be a neurotransmitter or paracrine hormone in taste buds. Yet, to date, the specific stimulus for NE release in taste buds is not well understood, and the identity of the taste cells that secrete NE is not known. Chinese hamster ovary cells were transfected with alpha(1A) adrenoceptors and loaded with fura-2 ("biosensors") to detect NE secreted from isolated mouse taste buds and taste cells. Biosensors responded to low concentrations of NE (>or=10 nm) with a reliable fura-2 signal. NE biosensors did not respond to stimulation with KCl or taste compounds. However, we recorded robust responses from NE biosensors when they were positioned against mouse circumvallate taste buds and the taste buds were stimulated with KCl (50 mm) or a mixture of taste compounds (cycloheximide, 10 microm; saccharin, 2 mm; denatonium, 1 mm; SC45647, 100 microm). NE biosensor responses evoked by stimulating taste buds were reversibly blocked by prazosin, an alpha(1A) receptor antagonist. Together, these findings indicate that taste bud cells secrete NE when they are stimulated. We isolated individual taste bud cells to identify the origin of NE release. NE was secreted only from presynaptic (type III) taste cells and not receptor (type II) cells. Stimulus-evoked NE release depended on Ca(2+) in the bathing medium. Using dual biosensors (sensitive to 5-HT and NE), we found all presynaptic cells secrete 5-HT and 33% corelease NE with 5-HT.

  9. Chronic desipramine treatment alters tyrosine hydroxylase but not norepinephrine transporter immunoreactivity in norepinephrine axons in the rat prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Susan L.; Gandhi, Anjalika R.; Asafu-Adjei, Josephine K.; Sampson, Allan R.; Miner, LeeAnn; Blakely, Randy D.; Sesack, Susan R.

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacological blockade of norepinephrine (NE) reuptake is clinically effective in treating several mental disorders. Drugs that bind to the NE transporter (NET) alter both protein levels and activity of NET and also the catecholamine synthetic enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). We examined the rat prefrontal cortex (PFC) by electron microscopy to determine whether the density and subcellular distribution of immunolabeling for NET and colocalization of NET with TH within individual NE axons were altered by chronic treatment with the selective NE uptake inhibitor desipramine (DMI). Following DMI treatment (21 days, 15 mg/kg/day), NET-immunoreactive (-ir) axons were significantly less likely to colocalize TH. This finding is consistent with reports of reduced TH levels and activity in the locus coeruleus after chronic DMI and indicates a reduction of NE synthetic capacity in the PFC. Measures of NET expression and membrane localization, including the number of NET-ir profiles per tissue area sampled, the number of gold particles per NET-ir profile area, and the proportion of gold particles associated with the plasma membrane, were similar in DMI and vehicle treated rats. These findings were verified using two different antibodies directed against distinct epitopes of the NET protein. The results suggest that chronic DMI treatment does not reduce NET expression within individual NE axons in vivo or induce an overall translocation of NET protein away from the plasma membrane in the PFC as measured by ultrastructural immunogold labeling. Our findings encourage consideration of possible postranslational mechanisms for regulating NET activity in antidepressant-induced modulation of NE clearance. PMID:21208501

  10. Norepinephrine and Epinephrine Enhanced the Infectivity of Enterovirus 71.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Liao

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 infections may be associated with neurological complications, including brainstem encephalitis (BE. Severe EV71 BE may be complicated with autonomic nervous system (ANS dysregulation and/or pulmonary edema (PE. ANS dysregulation is related to the overactivation of the sympathetic nervous system, which results from catecholamine release.The aims of this study were to explore the effects of catecholamines on severe EV71 infection and to investigate the changes in the percentages of EV71-infected cells, virus titer, and cytokine production on the involvement of catecholamines.Plasma levels of norepinephrine (NE and epinephrine (EP in EV71-infected patients were measured using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. The expression of adrenergic receptors (ADRs on RD, A549, SK-N-SH, THP-1, Jurkat and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs were detected using flow cytometry. The percentages of EV71-infected cells, virus titer, and cytokine production were investigated after treatment with NE and EP.The plasma levels of NE and EP were significantly higher in EV71-infected patients with ANS dysregulation and PE than in controls. Both α1A- and β2-ADRs were expressed on A549, RD, SK-N-SH, HL-60, THP-1, Jurkat cells and hPBMCs. NE treatment elevated the percentages of EV71-infected cells to 62.9% and 22.7% in THP-1 and Jurkat cells, respectively. Via treatment with EP, the percentages of EV71-infected cells were increased to 64.6% and 26.9% in THP-1 and Jurkat cells. The percentage of EV71-infected cells increased upon NE or EP treatment while the α- and β-blockers reduced the percentages of EV71-infected cells with NE or EP treatment. At least two-fold increase in virus titer was observed in EV71-infected A549, SK-N-SH and hPBMCs after treatment with NE or EP. IL-6 production was enhanced in EV71-infected hPBMCs at a concentration of 102 pg/mL NE.The plasma levels of NE and EP elevated in EV71-infected patients with ANS

  11. Norepinephrine and Epinephrine Enhanced the Infectivity of Enterovirus 71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yu-Ting; Wang, Shih-Min; Wang, Jen-Ren; Yu, Chun-Keung; Liu, Ching-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections may be associated with neurological complications, including brainstem encephalitis (BE). Severe EV71 BE may be complicated with autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysregulation and/or pulmonary edema (PE). ANS dysregulation is related to the overactivation of the sympathetic nervous system, which results from catecholamine release. The aims of this study were to explore the effects of catecholamines on severe EV71 infection and to investigate the changes in the percentages of EV71-infected cells, virus titer, and cytokine production on the involvement of catecholamines. Plasma levels of norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EP) in EV71-infected patients were measured using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. The expression of adrenergic receptors (ADRs) on RD, A549, SK-N-SH, THP-1, Jurkat and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) were detected using flow cytometry. The percentages of EV71-infected cells, virus titer, and cytokine production were investigated after treatment with NE and EP. The plasma levels of NE and EP were significantly higher in EV71-infected patients with ANS dysregulation and PE than in controls. Both α1A- and β2-ADRs were expressed on A549, RD, SK-N-SH, HL-60, THP-1, Jurkat cells and hPBMCs. NE treatment elevated the percentages of EV71-infected cells to 62.9% and 22.7% in THP-1 and Jurkat cells, respectively. Via treatment with EP, the percentages of EV71-infected cells were increased to 64.6% and 26.9% in THP-1 and Jurkat cells. The percentage of EV71-infected cells increased upon NE or EP treatment while the α- and β-blockers reduced the percentages of EV71-infected cells with NE or EP treatment. At least two-fold increase in virus titer was observed in EV71-infected A549, SK-N-SH and hPBMCs after treatment with NE or EP. IL-6 production was enhanced in EV71-infected hPBMCs at a concentration of 102 pg/mL NE. The plasma levels of NE and EP elevated in EV71-infected patients with ANS dysregulation and

  12. Norepinephrine transporter function and desipramine: residual drug effects versus short-term regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, Gregory A; Jia, Weihong; Li, Jing; Zhu, Meng-Yang; Mandela, Prashant; Pan, Jun

    2005-04-30

    Previous research has shown that exposure of norepinephrine transporter (NET)-expressing cells to desipramine (DMI) downregulates the norepinephrine transporter, although changes in the several transporter parameters do not demonstrate the same time course. Exposures to desipramine for effects of residual desipramine on norepinephrine transporter binding and uptake were re-evaluated following exposures of PC12 cells to desipramine using different methods to remove residual drug. Using a method that minimizes residual drug, exposure of intact PC12 cells to desipramine for 4h had no effect on uptake capacity or [(3)H]nisoxetine binding to the norepinephrine transporter, while exposures for > or =16 h reduced uptake capacity. Desipramine-induced reductions in binding to the transporter required >24 h or greater periods of desipramine exposure. This study confirms that uptake capacity of the norepinephrine transporter is reduced earlier than changes in radioligand binding, but with a different time course than originally shown. Special pre-incubation procedures are required to abolish effects of residual transporter inhibitor when studying inhibitor-induced transporter regulation.

  13. Prejunctional inhibition of norepinephrine release caused by acetylcholine in the human saphenous vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rorie, D.K.; Rusch, N.J.; Shepherd, J.T.; Vanhoutte, P.M.; Tyce, G.M.

    1981-01-01

    We performed experiments to determine whether or not acetylcholine exerts a prejunctional inhibitory effect on adrenergic neurotransmission in the human blood vessel wall. Rings of human greater saphenous veins were prepared 2 to 15 hours after death and mounted for isometric tension recording in organ chambers filled with Krebs-Ringer solution. Acetylcholine depressed contractile responses to electric activation of the sympathetic nerve endings significantly more than those to exogenous norepinephrine; the relaxations caused by the cholinergic transmitter were antagonized by atropine. Helical strips were incubated with [/sub 3/H]norepinephrine and mounted for superfusion. Electric stimulation augmented the fractional release of labeled norepinephrine. Acetylcholine caused a depression of the evoked /sub 3/H release which was antagonized by atropine but not by hexamethonium. These experiments demonstrate that, as in animal cutaneous veins, there are prejunctional inhibitory muscarinic receptors on the adrenergic nerve endings in the human saphenous vein. By contrast, the human vein also contains postjunctional inhibitory muscarinic receptors

  14. Development of norepinephrine transporter reuptake inhibition assays using SK-N-BE(2C cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M. Decker

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This report describes efforts to develop and validate novel norepinephrine transporter reuptake inhibition assays using human neuroblastoma SK-N-BE(2C cells in 24-well format. Before conducting the assays, the SK-N-BE(2C cells were first evaluated for their ability to uptake [3H]norepinephrine and were shown to have a saturable uptake with a KM value of 416 nM. Using this determined KM value, reuptake inhibition assays were then conducted with a variety of ligands including antidepressants, as well as piperazine and phenyltropane derivatives. The results obtained with the SK-N-BE(2C cells indicate that this model system can detect a range of ligand potencies, which compare well with other established transporter assays. Our data suggest that SK-N-BE(2C cells have potential utility to serve as another model system to detect norepinephrine reuptake inhibition activity.

  15. Terlipressin versus norepinephrine in the treatment of hepatorenal syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Paulo Nassar Junior

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS is a severe and progressive functional renal failure occurring in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. Terlipressin is recognized as an effective treatment of HRS, but it is expensive and not widely available. Norepinephrine could be an effective alternative. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of norepinephrine compared to terlipressin in the management of HRS. METHODS: We searched the Medline, Embase, Scopus, CENTRAL, Lilacs and Scielo databases for randomized trials of norepinephrine and terlipressin in the treatment of HRS up to January 2014. Two reviewers collected data and assessed the outcomes and risk of bias. The primary outcome was the reversal of HRS. Secondary outcomes were mortality, recurrence of HRS and adverse events. RESULTS: Four studies comprising 154 patients were included. All trials were considered to be at overall high risk of bias. There was no difference in the reversal of HRS (RR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.76 to 1.23, mortality at 30 days (RR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.68 to 1.17 and recurrence of HRS (RR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.36 to 1.45 between norepinephrine and terlipressin. Adverse events were less common with norepinephrine (RR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.15 to 0.83. CONCLUSIONS: Norepinephrine seems to be an attractive alternative to terlipressin in the treatment of HRS and is associated with less adverse events. However, these findings are based on data extracted from only four small studies.

  16. Whole body clearance of norepinephrine. The significance of arterial sampling and of surgical stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Christensen, N J; Madsbad, S

    1983-01-01

    The whole body clearance of norepinephrine (NE) was measured in seven patients pre- and postoperatively. L[(3)H]NE was infused intravenously for 90 min and steady-state concentrations of L[(3)H]NE were measured at 75 and 90 min in both arterial and peripheral venous blood. Preoperatively, in the ......The whole body clearance of norepinephrine (NE) was measured in seven patients pre- and postoperatively. L[(3)H]NE was infused intravenously for 90 min and steady-state concentrations of L[(3)H]NE were measured at 75 and 90 min in both arterial and peripheral venous blood. Preoperatively...

  17. Time dependent changes in myocardial norepinephrine concentration and adrenergic receptor density following X-irradiation of the rat heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, N. A.; van der Laarse, A.; Bosker, F. J.; Reynart, I. W.; van Ravels, F. J.; Strootman, E.; Wondergem, J.

    1992-01-01

    The hearts of 9 to 12-weeks-old Sprague-Dawley rats were locally irradiated with a single dose of 20 Gy. The effects on myocardial norepinephrine concentrations and on alpha-adrenergic and beta-adrenergic receptor densities was examined up to 16 months post-treatment. Myocardial norepinephrine

  18. α2-Adrenergic regulation of galanin and norepinephrine release from canine pancreas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheurink, Anton J.W.; Mundinger, Thomas O.; Dunning, Beth E.; Veith, Richard C.; Taborsky, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    We found previously that electrical stimulation of the mixed autonomic pancreatic nerves (MPNS) in anesthesized dogs elicits marked and rapid increases of pancreatic output of both norepinephrine (NE) and galanin, and on that basis hypothesized a role for galanin as a sympathetic cotransmitter in

  19. The conversion of dopamine to epinephrine and nor-epinephrine is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tyrosine is a conditionally non-essential large neutral amino acid and the precursor of the neurotransmitters dopamine, nor-epinephrine and epinephrine. Ante-mortem stress experienced by an animal may be influenced by amino acids that provide substrates for neurotransmitter synthesis. The Nguni type cattle showed ...

  20. Effects of surgical stress and insulin on cardiovascular function and norepinephrine kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N J; Hilsted, J; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    1984-01-01

    In resting supine subjects the whole-body clearance of norepinephrine (NE) based on arterial and venous sampling averaged 1.4 and 2.5 liters/min, respectively (P less than 0.02). The difference in clearance values was due to a peripheral uptake of NE averaging 45%. The calculation of plasma NE...

  1. Fluctuating Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor Expression in Brainstem Norepinephrine Neurons through the Rat Estrous Cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haywood, S.A.; Simonian, S.X.; Beek, van der E.M.; Bicknell, R.J.; Herbison, A.E.

    1999-01-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) neurons within the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS; A2 neurons) and ventrolateral medulla (A1 neurons) represent gonadal steroid-dependent components of several neural networks regulating reproduction. Previous studies have shown that both A1 and A2 neurons express estrogen

  2. Effects of norepinephrine on tissue perfusion in a sheep model of intra-abdominal hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrara, Gonzalo; Kanoore Edul, Vanina S.; Caminos Eguillor, Juan F.; Martins, Enrique; Canullán, Carlos; Canales, Héctor S.; Ince, Can; Estenssoro, Elisa; Dubin, Arnaldo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the effects of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) on regional and microcirculatory intestinal blood flow, renal blood flow, and urine output, as well as their response to increases in blood pressure induced by norepinephrine. This was a pilot, controlled study,

  3. Increasing arterial blood pressure with norepinephrine does not improve microcirculatory blood flow: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubin, Arnaldo; Pozo, Mario O.; Casabella, Christian A.; Palizas, Fernando; Murias, Gaston; Moseinco, Miriam C.; Kanoore Edul, Vanina S.; Estenssoro, Elisa; Ince, Can

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Our goal was to assess the effects of titration of a norepinephrine infusion to increasing levels of mean arterial pressure (MAP) on sublingual microcirculation. Methods Twenty septic shock patients were prospectively studied in two teaching intensive care units. The patients were

  4. Is cerebral oxygenation negatively affected by infusion of norepinephrine in healthy subjects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brassard, P.; Seifert, T.; Secher, Niels H.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vasopressor agents are commonly used to increase mean arterial pressure (MAP) in order to secure a pressure gradient to perfuse vital organs. The influence of norepinephrine on cerebral oxygenation is not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the infusion of norep......BACKGROUND: Vasopressor agents are commonly used to increase mean arterial pressure (MAP) in order to secure a pressure gradient to perfuse vital organs. The influence of norepinephrine on cerebral oxygenation is not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the infusion...... of norepinephrine on cerebral oxygenation in healthy subjects. METHODS: Three doses of norepinephrine (0.05, 0.1, and 0.15 microg kg(-1) min(-1) for 20 min each) were infused in nine healthy subjects [six males; 26 (6) yr, mean (SD)]. MAP, cerebral oxygenation characterized by frontal lobe oxygenation (Sc(O2...... infused at 0.1 microg kg(-1) min(-1) [Sc(O2): 78 (75-94) to 69 (61-83)%; P

  5. Mechanism of palytoxin-induced [3H]norepinephrine release from a rat pheochromocytoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsumi, M.; Takahashi, M.; Ohizumi, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Palytoxin, isolated from the zoanthid Palytoha species, is one of the most potent marine toxins. Palytoxin caused a release of [ 3 H]norepinephrine from clonal rat pheochromocytoma cells in a concentration-dependent manner. This releasing action of palytoxin was markedly inhibited or abolished by Co 2+ or Ca 2+ -free medium, but was not modified by tetrodotoxin. The release of [ 3 H]norepinephrine induced by a low concentration of palytoxin was abolished in sodium-free medium and increased as the external Na+ concentrations were increased, but the release induced by a high concentration was unaffected by varying the concentration of external Na + . The release of [ 3 H]norepinephrine induced by both concentrations of palytoxin increased with increasing Ca 2+ concentrations. Palytoxin caused a concentration-dependent increase in 22 Na and 45 Ca influxes into pheochromocytoma cells. The palytoxin-induced 45 Ca influx was markedly inhibited by Co 2+ , whereas the palytoxin-induced 22 Na influx was not affected by tetrodotoxin. These results suggest that in pheochromocytoma cells the [ 3 H]norepinephrine release induced by lower concentrations of palytoxin is primarily brought about by increasing tetrodotoxin-insensitive Na + permeability across the cell membrane, whereas that induced by higher concentrations is mainly caused by a direct increase in Ca 2+ influx into them

  6. The norepinephrine transporter gene is a candidate gene for panic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttenschøn, Henriette Nørmølle; Kristensen, A S; Buch, H N

    2011-01-01

    Panic disorder (PD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent panic attacks with a lifetime prevalence of 4.7%. Genetic factors are known to contribute to the development of the disorder. Several lines of evidence point towards a major role of the norepinephrine system in the pathogenesis...

  7. Impaired glucose-induced thermogenesis and arterial norepinephrine response persist after weight reduction in obese humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Andersen, T; Christensen, N J

    1990-01-01

    A reduced thermic response and an impaired activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) has been reported after oral glucose in human obesity. It is, however, not known whether the reduced SNS activity returns to normal along with weight reduction. The thermic effect of glucose was lower...... in eight obese patients than in matched control subjects (1.7% vs 9.2%, p less than 0.002). The increase in arterial norepinephrine after glucose was also blunted in the obese patients. After a 30-kg weight loss their glucose and lipid profiles were markedly improved but the thermic effect of glucose...... was still lower than that of the control subjects (4.2%, p less than 0.001). The glucose-induced arterial norepinephrine response remained diminished in the reduced obese patients whereas the changes in plasma epinephrine were similar in all three groups. The results suggest that a defective SNS may...

  8. Analytical Strategies for the Determination of Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors in Pharmaceutical Formulations and Biological Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Cafer

    2016-01-01

    Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (NRIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs that act as reuptake inhibitors for the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and epinephrine. The present review provides an account of analytical methods published in recent years for the determination of NRI drugs. NRIs are atomoxetine, reboxetine, viloxazine and maprotiline. NRIs with less activity at other sites are mazindol, bupropion, tapentadol, and teniloxazine. This review focuses on the analytical methods including chromatographic, spectrophotometric, electroanalytical, and electrophoresis techniques for NRI analysis from pharmaceutical formulations and biological samples. Among all of the published methods, liquid chromatography with UV-vis or MS-MS detection is the most popular technique. The most the common sample preparation techniques in the analytical methods for NRIs include liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction. Besides the analytical methods for single components, some of the simultaneous determinations are also included in this review.

  9. Rapid adaptation of the stimulatory effect of CO2 on brain norepinephrine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, E A

    1983-12-01

    The present study examined the effects of exposure of rats to elevated environmental levels of CO2 on norepinephrine metabolism in the hypothalamus and other regions of the brain. In confirmation of previous findings by others CO2 at 10 or 15% was found to elevate both dopa accumulation after dopa decarboxylase inhibition and norepinephrine utilization after tyrosine hydroxylase inhibition. These effects however were found to be transient occurring only during the first 30 min of 2.5 h exposure. In this regard CO2 differs from another form of stress, restraint which produces a sustained 2.5 h increase of dopa accumulation and NE accumulation. Restraint was also more effective than CO2 in depleting endogenous stores of hypothalamic NE. The factor responsible for the adaptation of the catecholamine response to CO2 was not identified although it was shown not to be hypothermia and it was reversed by a 2 h CO2-free recovery period.

  10. Aggressive Behavior and Altered Amounts of Brain Serotonin and Norepinephrine in Mice Lacking MAOA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cases, Olivier; Grimsby, Joseph; Gaspar, Patricia; Chen, Kevin; Pournin, Sandrine; Müller, Ulrike; Aguet, Michel; Babinet, Charles; Shih, Jean Chen; De Maeyer, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Deficiency in monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), an enzyme that degrades serotonin and norepinephrine, has recently been shown to be associated with aggressive behavior in men of a Dutch family. A line of transgenic mice was isolated in which transgene integration caused a deletion in the gene encoding MAOA, providing an animal model of MAOA deficiency. In pup brains, serotonin concentrations were increased up to ninefold, and serotonin-like immunoreactivity was present in catecholaminergic neurons. In pup and adult brains, norepinephrine concentrations were increased up to twofold, and cytoarchitectural changes were observed in the somatosensory cortex. Pup behavioral alterations, including trembling, difficulty in righting, and fearfulness were reversed by the serotonin synthesis inhibitor parachlorophenylalanine. Adults manifested a distinct behavioral syndrome, including enhanced aggression in males. PMID:7792602

  11. Iatrogenic Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Secondary to Norepinephrine by Continuous Infusion for Shock

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Vieira; Bárbara Batista; Tiago Tribolet de Abreu

    2018-01-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a condition characterized by transient left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction, with a possible direct causal role of catecholamine in its pathophysiology. We present a case of a woman with shock and adrenal insufficiency in whom Takotsubo cardiomyopathy developed after treatment with norepinephrine. This case confirms the direct causal role of catecholamine in the pathophysiology of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. An 82-year-old woman presented with asthenia...

  12. Recent advances in the understanding of the interaction of antidepressant drugs with serotonin and norepinephrine transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Kristensen, Anders Skov; Bang-Andersen, Benny

    2009-01-01

    The biogenic monoamine transporters are integral membrane proteins that perform active transport of extracellular dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine into cells. These transporters are targets for therapeutic agents such as antidepressants, as well as addictive substances such as cocaine...... and amphetamine. Seminal advances in the understanding of the structure and function of this transporter family have recently been accomplished by structural studies of a bacterial transporter, as well as medicinal chemistry and pharmacological studies of mammalian transporters. This feature article focuses...

  13. Differential effects of phenylephrine and norepinephrine on peripheral tissue oxygenation during general anaesthesia : A randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poterman, Marieke; Vos, Jaap Jan; Vereecke, Hugo E. M.; Struys, Michel M. R. F.; Vanoverschelde, Henk; Scheeren, Thomas W. L.; Kalmar, Alain F.

    BACKGROUND Phenylephrine and norepinephrine are two vasopressors commonly used to counteract anaesthesia-induced hypotension. Their dissimilar working mechanisms may differentially affect the macro and microcirculation, and ultimately tissue oxygenation. OBJECTIVES We investigated the differential

  14. Endoluminal norepinephrine inhibits smooth muscle activity of the pig pyeloureter by stimulation of beta-adrenoceptors without side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jens; Holst, Uffe; Jacobsen, Jørn Skibsted

    2008-01-01

    of pyeloureter and to reveal possible side effects on cardiovascular and renal functions. Renal pelvis was perfused, while pelvic pressure, cardiovascular and renal functional parameters were recorded. In group A, a pelvic pressure increase was examined during pressure flow studies with norepinephrine solutions......It has been demonstrated in pigs that endoluminal administration of norepinephrine reduces the increase in renal pelvic pressure during perfusion. The purposes were to describe concentration-response relationship and receptor mechanism of the effect of norepinephrine on muscle function...... a renal pelvis pressure increase to perfusion in a dose-related way without side effects. Endoluminal norepinephrine is safe in pigs and may be useful under endoscopy of the pyeloureter....

  15. Norepinephrine remains increased in the six-minute walking test after heart transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Veiga Guimarães

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the neurohormonal activity in heart transplant recipients and compare it with that in heart failure patients and healthy subjects during rest and just after a 6-minute walking test. INTRODUCTION: Despite the improvements in quality of life and survival provided by heart transplantation, the neurohormonal profile is poorly described. METHODS: Twenty heart transplantation (18 men, 49±11 years and 8.5±3.3 years after transplantation, 11 heart failure (8 men, 43±10 years, and 7 healthy subjects (5 men 39±8 years were included in this study. Blood samples were collected immediately before and during the last minute of the exercise. RESULTS: During rest, patients' norepinephrine plasma level (659±225 pg/mL was higher in heart transplant recipients (463±167 pg/mL and heathy subjects (512±132, p<0.05. Heart transplant recipient's norepinephrine plasma level was not different than that of healthy subjects. Just after the 6-minute walking test, the heart transplant recipient's norepinephrine plasma level (1248±692 pg/mL was not different from that of heart failure patients (1174±653 pg/mL. Both these groups had a higher level than healthy subjects had (545±95 pg/mL, p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Neurohormonal activity remains increased after the 6-minute walking test after heart transplantation.

  16. Stimulatory effects of neuronally released norepinephrine on renin release in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Yasuo; Kawazoe, Shinka; Ichihara, Toshio; Shinyama, Hiroshi; Kageyama, Masaaki; Morimoto, Shiro (Osaka Univ. of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Japan))

    1988-10-01

    Extracellular high potassium inhibits renin release in vitro by increasing calcium concentrations in the juxtaglomerular cells. The authors found that the decreased response of renin release from rat kidney cortical slices in high potassium solution changed to a strikingly increased one in the presence of nifedipine at doses over 10{sup {minus}6} M. They then examined the stimulatory effect of extracellular high potassium in the presence of nifedipine on renin release. The enhancement of release was significantly suppressed either by propranolol or by metoprolol but not by prazosin. High potassium plus nifedipine-induced increase in renin release was markedly attenuated by renal denervation. The enhancing effect was not observed when the slices were incubated in calcium-free medium. Divalent cations such as Cd{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, and Mn{sup 2+} blocked this enhancement in a concentration-dependent manner. High potassium elicited an increase in {sup 3}H efflux from the slices preloaded with ({sup 3}H)-norepinephrine. The increasing effect was not influenced by nifedipine but was abolished by the removal of extracellular calcium or by the addition of divalent cations. These observations suggest to us that the high potassium plus nifedipine-induced increase in renin release from the slices is mediated by norepinephrine derived from renal sympathetic nerves and that this neuronally released norepinephrine stimulates renin release via activation of {beta}-adrenoceptors.

  17. Pulmonary circulatory effects of norepinephrine in newborn infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourneux, Pierre; Rakza, Thameur; Bouissou, Antoine; Krim, Gérard; Storme, Laurent

    2008-09-01

    To evaluate the respiratory and the pulmonary circulatory effects of norepinephrine in newborn infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN)-induced cardiac dysfunction. Inclusion criteria were: 1) Newborn infants >35 weeks gestational age; 2) PPHN treated with inhaled nitric oxide; and 3) symptoms of circulatory failure despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Lung function and pulmonary hemodynamic variables assessed with Doppler echocardiography were recorded prospectively before and after starting norepinephrine. Eighteen newborns were included (gestational age: 37 +/- 3 weeks; birth weight: 2800 +/- 700 g). After starting norepinephrine, systemic pressure and left ventricular output increased respectively from 33 +/- 4 mm Hg to 49 +/- 4 mm Hg and from 172 +/- 79 mL/kg/min to 209+/-90 mL/kg/min (P ventilatory variables have not been changed, the post-ductal transcutaneous arterial oxygen saturation increased from 89% +/- 1% to 95% +/- 4%, whereas the oxygen need decreased from 51% +/- 24% to 41% +/- 20% (P newborn infants with PPHN through a decrease in pulmonary/systemic artery pressure ratio and improved cardiac performance.

  18. The Design, Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationship of Mixed Serotonin, Norepinephrine and Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhengming; Yang, Ji; Skolnick, Phil

    The evolution of antidepressants over the past four decades has involved the replacement of drugs with a multiplicity of effects (e.g., TCAs) by those with selective actions (i.e., SSRIs). This strategy was employed to reduce the adverse effects of TCAs, largely by eliminating interactions with certain neurotransmitters or receptors. Although these more selective compounds may be better tolerated by patients, selective drugs, specifically SSRIs, are not superior to older drugs in treating depressed patients as measured by response and remission rates. It may be an advantage to increase synaptic levels of both serotonin and norepinephrine, as in the case of dual uptake inhibitors like duloxetine and venlafaxine. An important recent development has been the emergence of the triple-uptake inhibitors (TUIs/SNDRIs), which inhibit the uptake of the three neurotransmitters most closely linked to depression: serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. Preclinical studies and clinical trials indicate that a drug inhibiting the reuptake of all three of these neurotransmitters could produce more rapid onset of action and greater efficacy than traditional antidepressants. This review will detail the medicinal chemistry involved in the design, synthesis and discovery of mixed serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine transporter uptake inhibitors.

  19. Poly(norepinephrine)-coated open tubular column for the separation of proteins and recombination human erythropoietin by capillary electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xue; Zhang, Yamin; Wu, Jia; Jia, Li

    2017-12-01

    Recombinant human erythropoietin is an important therapeutic protein with high economic interest due to the benefits provided by its clinical use for the treatment of anemias associated with chronic renal failure and chemotherapy. In this work, a poly(norepinephrine)-coated open tubular column was successfully prepared based on the self-polymerization of norepinephrine under mild alkaline condition, the favorable film forming and easy adhesive properties of poly(norepinephrine). The poly(norepinephrine) coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and measurement of the electro-osmotic flow. The thickness of the coating was about 431 nm. The electrochromatographic performance of the poly(norepinephrine)-coated open tubular column was evaluated by separation of proteins. Some basic and acidic proteins including two variants of bovine serum albumin and two variants of β-lactoglobulin achieved separation in the poly(norepinephrine)-coated open tubular column. More importantly, the column demonstrated separation ability for the glycoforms of recombinant human erythropoietin. In addition, the column demonstrated good repeatability with the run-to-run, day-to-day, and column-to-column relative standard deviations of migration times of proteins less than 3.40%. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Fluid loading and norepinephrine infusion mask the left ventricular preload decrease induced by pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemmelund, Kristian Borup; Ringgård, Viktor Kromann; Vistisen, Simon Tilma; Hyldebrandt, Janus Adler; Sloth, Erik; Juhl-Olsen, Peter

    2017-09-11

    Pleural effusion (PLE) may lead to low blood pressure and reduced cardiac output. Low blood pressure and reduced cardiac output are often treated with fluid loading and vasopressors. This study aimed to determine the impact of fluid loading and norepinephrine infusion on physiologic determinants of cardiac function obtained by ultrasonography during PLE. In this randomised, blinded, controlled laboratory study, 30 piglets (21.9 ± 1.3 kg) had bilateral PLE (75 mL/kg) induced. Subsequently, the piglets were randomised to intervention as follows: fluid loading (80 mL/kg/h for 1.5 h, n = 12), norepinephrine infusion (0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 μg/kg/min (15 min each, n = 12)) or control (n = 6). Main outcome was left ventricular preload measured as left ventricular end-diastolic area. Secondary endpoints included contractility and afterload as well as global measures of circulation. All endpoints were assessed with echocardiography and invasive pressure-flow measurements. PLE decreased left ventricular end-diastolic area, mean arterial pressure and cardiac output (p values  0.05) to baseline. Left ventricular contractility increased with norepinephrine infusion (p = 0.002), but was not affected by fluid loading (p = 0.903). Afterload increased in both active groups (p values > 0.001). Overall, inferior vena cava distensibility remained unchanged during intervention (p values ≥ 0.085). Evacuation of PLE caused numerical increases in left ventricular end-diastolic area, but only significantly so in controls (p = 0.006). PLE significantly reduced left ventricular preload. Both fluid and norepinephrine treatment reverted this effect and normalised global haemodynamic parameters. Inferior vena cava distensibility remained unchanged. The haemodynamic significance of PLE may be underestimated during fluid or norepinephrine administration, potentially masking the presence of PLE.

  1. Negative feedback regulation of Homer 1a on norepinephrine-dependent cardiac hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarello, Carmelina; Bortoloso, Elena; Carpi, Andrea; Furlan, Sandra; Volpe, Pompeo, E-mail: pompeo.volpe@unipd.it

    2013-07-15

    Homers are scaffolding proteins that modulate diverse cell functions being able to assemble signalling complexes. In this study, the presence, sub-cellular distribution and function of Homer 1 was investigated. Homer 1a and Homer 1b/c are constitutively expressed in cardiac muscle of both mouse and rat and in HL-1 cells, a cardiac cell line. As judged by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, Homer 1a displays sarcomeric and peri-nuclear localization. In cardiomyocytes and cultured HL-1 cells, the hypertrophic agonist norepinephrine (NE) induces α{sub 1}-adrenergic specific Homer 1a over-expression, with a two-to-three-fold increase within 1 h, and no up-regulation of Homer 1b/c, as judged by Western blot and qPCR. In HL-1 cells, plasmid-driven over-expression of Homer 1a partially antagonizes activation of ERK phosphorylation and ANF up-regulation, two well-established, early markers of hypertrophy. At the morphometric level, NE-induced increase of cell size is likewise and partially counteracted by exogenous Homer 1a. Under the same experimental conditions, Homer 1b/c does not have any effect on ANF up-regulation nor on cell hypertrophy. Thus, Homer 1a up-regulation is associated to early stages of cardiac hypertrophy and appears to play a negative feedback regulation on molecular transducers of hypertrophy. -- Highlights: • Homer 1a is constitutively expressed in cardiac tissue. • In HL-1 cells, norepinephrine activates signaling pathways leading to hypertrophy. • Homer 1a up-regulation is an early event of norepinephrine-induced hypertrophy. • Homer 1a plays a negative feedback regulation modulating pathological hypertrophy. • Over-expression of Homer 1a per se does not induce hypertrophy.

  2. Negative feedback regulation of Homer 1a on norepinephrine-dependent cardiac hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarello, Carmelina; Bortoloso, Elena; Carpi, Andrea; Furlan, Sandra; Volpe, Pompeo

    2013-01-01

    Homers are scaffolding proteins that modulate diverse cell functions being able to assemble signalling complexes. In this study, the presence, sub-cellular distribution and function of Homer 1 was investigated. Homer 1a and Homer 1b/c are constitutively expressed in cardiac muscle of both mouse and rat and in HL-1 cells, a cardiac cell line. As judged by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, Homer 1a displays sarcomeric and peri-nuclear localization. In cardiomyocytes and cultured HL-1 cells, the hypertrophic agonist norepinephrine (NE) induces α 1 -adrenergic specific Homer 1a over-expression, with a two-to-three-fold increase within 1 h, and no up-regulation of Homer 1b/c, as judged by Western blot and qPCR. In HL-1 cells, plasmid-driven over-expression of Homer 1a partially antagonizes activation of ERK phosphorylation and ANF up-regulation, two well-established, early markers of hypertrophy. At the morphometric level, NE-induced increase of cell size is likewise and partially counteracted by exogenous Homer 1a. Under the same experimental conditions, Homer 1b/c does not have any effect on ANF up-regulation nor on cell hypertrophy. Thus, Homer 1a up-regulation is associated to early stages of cardiac hypertrophy and appears to play a negative feedback regulation on molecular transducers of hypertrophy. -- Highlights: • Homer 1a is constitutively expressed in cardiac tissue. • In HL-1 cells, norepinephrine activates signaling pathways leading to hypertrophy. • Homer 1a up-regulation is an early event of norepinephrine-induced hypertrophy. • Homer 1a plays a negative feedback regulation modulating pathological hypertrophy. • Over-expression of Homer 1a per se does not induce hypertrophy

  3. Combined Norepinephrine / Serotonergic Reuptake Inhibition: Effects on Maternal Behavior, Aggression and Oxytocin in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Thomas Cox

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few systematic studies exist on the effects of chronic reuptake of monoamine neurotransmitter systems during pregnancy on the regulation of maternal behavior, although many drugs act primarily through one or more of these systems. Previous studies examining fluoxetine and amfonelic acid treatment during gestation on subsequent maternal behavior in rodents indicated significant alterations in postpartum maternal care, aggression and oxytocin levels. In this study, we extended our studies to include chronic gestational treatment with desipramine or amitriptyline to examine differential effects of reuptake inhibition of norepinephrine and combined noradrenergic and serotonergic systems on maternal behavior, aggression, and oxytocin system changes. METHODS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated throughout gestation with saline or one of three doses of either desipramine, which has a high affinity for the norepinephrine monoamine transporter, or amitriptyline, an agent with high affinity for both the norepinephrine and serotonin monoamine transporters. Maternal behavior and postpartum aggression were assessed on postpartum days one and six respectively. Oxytocin levels were measured in relevant brain regions on postpartum day seven. Predictions were that amitriptyline would decrease maternal behavior and increase aggression relative to desipramine, particularly at higher doses. Amygdaloidal oxytocin was expected to decrease with increased aggression. RESULTS: Amitriptyline and desiprimine differentially reduced maternal behavior, and at higher doses reduced aggressive behavior. Hippocampal oxytocin levels were lower after treatment with either drug but were not correlated with specific behavioral effects. These results, in combination with previous findings following gestational treatment with other selective neurotransmitter reuptake inhibitors, highlight the diverse effects of multiple monoamine systems thought to be involved in

  4. Muscle interstitial ATP and norepinephrine concentrations in the human leg during exercise and ATP infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan P.; Gonzalez-Alonso, Jose; Nielsen, Jens Jung

    2009-01-01

    ATP and NE concentrations to gain insight into the interstitial and intravascular mechanisms by which ATP causes muscle vasodilation and sympatholysis. Leg hemodynamics and muscle interstitial nucleotide and norepinephrine (NE) concentrations were measured during: 1) femoral arterial ATP infusion (0......, respectively (Pcontracting muscle (Pmuscle, whereas interstitial NE concentrations increased similarly in both active...... and inactive muscles. These results suggest that the vasodilatory and sympatholytic effects of intraluminal ATP are mainly mediated via endothelial prinergic receptors. Intraluminal ATP and muscle contractions appear to modulate sympathetic nerve activity by inhibiting the effect of NE rather than blunting its...

  5. Reserpine-induced Reduction in Norepinephrine Transporter Function Requires Catecholamine Storage Vesicles

    OpenAIRE

    Mandela, Prashant; Chandley, Michelle; Xu, Yao-Yu; Zhu, Meng-Yang; Ordway, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of rats with reserpine, an inhibitor of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT), depletes norepinephrine (NE) and regulates NE transporter (NET) expression. The present study examined the molecular mechanisms involved in regulation of the NET by reserpine using cultured cells. Exposure of rat PC12 cells to reserpine for a period as short as 5 min decreased [3H]NE uptake capacity, an effect characterized by a robust decrease in the Vmax of the transport of [3H]NE. As expected, res...

  6. Synthesis and biological evaluation of trans-3-phenyl-1-indanamines as potential norepinephrine transporter imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConathy, Jonathan; Owens, Michael J.; Kilts, Clinton D.; Malveaux, Eugene J.; Votaw, John R.; Nemeroff, Charles B.; Goodman, Mark M.

    2005-01-01

    The development of radioligands suitable for studying the central nervous system (CNS) norepinephrine transporter (NET) in vivo will provide important new tools for examining the pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders including major depression. Towards this end, a series of trans-3-phenyl-1-indanamine derivatives were prepared and evaluated in vitro. The biological properties of the most promising compound, [ 11 C]3-BrPA, were investigated in rat biodistribution and nonhuman primate PET studies. Despite high in vitro affinity for the human NET, the uptake of [ 11 C]3-BrPA in the brain and the heart was not displaceable with pharmacological doses of NET antagonists

  7. Consensus statement and research needs: the role of dopamine and norepinephrine in depression and antidepressant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David J; Baldwin, David S; Clayton, Anita H; Elgie, Rodney; Lecrubier, Yves; Montejo, Angel L; Papakostas, George I; Souery, Daniel; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Tylee, Andre

    2006-01-01

    During a special session, the faculty identified several specific areas related to the role of dopamine and norepinephrine in depression and antidepressant treatment that either warrant the clinician's attention or are in need of more research. Areas of interest include fatigue and lethargy in depression, treatment strategies for treatment-resistant depression, the somatic presentation of depression, neurobiology of fatigue and its role in determining treatment, symptom rating scales, and sexual side effects. In addition, the faculty discussed the importance of patient psychoeducation and self-management as well as the ways in which disease models of depression affect treatment.

  8. Lidocaine attenuates anisomycin-induced amnesia and release of norepinephrine in the amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Renee N.; Canal, Clint E.; Gold, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    When administered near the time of training, protein synthesis inhibitors such as anisomycin impair later memory. A common interpretation of these findings is that memory consolidation requires new protein synthesis initiated by training. However, recent findings support an alternative interpretation that abnormally large increases in neurotransmitter release after injections of anisomycin may be responsible for producing amnesia. In the present study, a local anesthetic was administered prior to anisomycin injections in an attempt to mitigate neurotransmitter actions and thereby attenuate the resulting amnesia. Rats received lidocaine and anisomycin injections into the amygdala 130 and 120 min, respectively, prior to inhibitory avoidance training. Memory tests 48 hr later revealed that lidocaine attenuated anisomycin-induced amnesia. In other rats, in vivo microdialysis was performed at the site of amygdala infusion of lidocaine and anisomycin. As seen previously, anisomycin injections produced large increases in release of norepinephrine in the amygdala. Lidocaine attenuated the anisomycin-induced increase in release of norepinephrine but did not reverse anisomycin inhibition of protein synthesis, as assessed by c-Fos immunohistochemistry. These findings are consistent with past evidence suggesting that anisomycin causes amnesia by initiating abnormal release of neurotransmitters in response to the inhibition of protein synthesis. PMID:21453778

  9. Increased norepinephrine release from dog pulmonary artery caused by nitrous oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rorie, D.K.; Tyce, G.M.; Sill, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of nitrous oxide on the release and metabolism of norepinephrine (NE) at neuroeffector junctions in dog pulmonary artery were examined. Helical strips of artery were incubated in Krebs-Ringer solution containing L-( 3 H)NE and mounted for superfusion. The arterial strips were studied in the presence of 95% oxygen-5% carbon dioxide, 70% nitrogen-30% oxygen, or 70% nitrous oxide-30% oxygen. During the 60 min of each experiment, five samples of superfusion fluid were collected for analysis and the effluxes of ( 3 H)NE and its radiolabeled metabolites were measured before and during electrical stimulation and during recovery from stimulation. ( 3 H)Norepinephrine was separated from its metabolites in the superfusate and in extracts of artery by column chromatography and quantitated by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Nitrous oxide significantly increased the fractional loss of total radioactivity and the amount of NE in the superfusate both during resting conditions and during stimulation. Nitrous oxide had no effect on the proportions of radioactivity among metabolites of NE in the superfusate or on the profile of NE metabolites remaining in the tissue after experimentation. These findings are consistent with increased NE release as a direct effect of nitrous oxide on nerve endings

  10. Atomoxetine, a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, reduces seizure-induced respiratory arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honghai; Zhao, Haiting; Feng, Hua-Jun

    2017-08-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a devastating epilepsy complication, and no effective preventive strategies are currently available for this fatal disorder. Clinical and animal studies of SUDEP demonstrate that seizure-induced respiratory arrest (S-IRA) is the primary event leading to death after generalized seizures in many cases. Enhancing brain levels of serotonin reduces S-IRA in animal models relevant to SUDEP, including the DBA/1 mouse. Given that serotonin in the brain plays an important role in modulating respiration and arousal, these findings suggest that deficits in respiration and/or arousal may contribute to S-IRA. It is well known that norepinephrine is an important neurotransmitter that modulates respiration and arousal in the brain as well. Therefore, we hypothesized that enhancing noradrenergic neurotransmission suppresses S-IRA. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of atomoxetine, a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI), on S-IRA evoked by either acoustic stimulation or pentylenetetrazole in DBA/1 mice. We report the original observation that atomoxetine specifically suppresses S-IRA without altering the susceptibility to seizures evoked by acoustic stimulation, and atomoxetine also reduces S-IRA evoked by pentylenetetrazole in DBA/1 mice. Our data suggest that the noradrenergic signaling is importantly involved in S-IRA, and that atomoxetine, a medication widely used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is potentially useful to prevent SUDEP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibition of K+ permeability diminishes alpha 2-adrenoceptor mediated effects on norepinephrine release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimanyi, I.; Folly, G.; Vizi, E.S.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of two different potassium channel blockers, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and quinine, on the alpha 2-adrenoceptor mediated modulation of norepinephrine (NE) release was investigated. Pairs of mouse vasa deferentia were loaded with 3 H-norepinephrine ( 3 H-NE), superfused continuously, and stimulated electrically. 4-AP (5.3 x 10(-4) M), and quinine (10(-5) M) enhanced the stimulation-evoked release of tritium significantly. The electrically induced release of radioactivity was reduced by alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists (1-NE and xylazine) and enhanced by the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine. Both effects were affected markedly by 4-AP or quinine: the depressant action of 1-NA and xylazine was partially antagonized and the facilitatory effect of yohimbine was completely abolished during the blockade of the potassium channels. It is suggested that the blockade of the potassium permeability counteracts negative feedback modulation; therefore, it seems likely that the stimulation of alpha 2-adrenoceptors leads to an enhanced potassium permeability and hyperpolarization of varicose axon terminals

  12. Spatiotemporal norepinephrine mapping using a high-density CMOS microelectrode array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wydallis, John B; Feeny, Rachel M; Wilson, William; Kern, Tucker; Chen, Tom; Tobet, Stuart; Reynolds, Melissa M; Henry, Charles S

    2015-10-21

    A high-density amperometric electrode array containing 8192 individually addressable platinum working electrodes with an integrated potentiostat fabricated using Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) processes is reported. The array was designed to enable electrochemical imaging of chemical gradients with high spatiotemporal resolution. Electrodes are arranged over a 2 mm × 2 mm surface area into 64 subarrays consisting of 128 individual Pt working electrodes as well as Pt pseudo-reference and auxiliary electrodes. Amperometric measurements of norepinephrine in tissue culture media were used to demonstrate the ability of the array to measure concentration gradients in complex media. Poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidics were incorporated to control the chemical concentrations in time and space, and the electrochemical response at each electrode was monitored to generate electrochemical heat maps, demonstrating the array's imaging capabilities. A temporal resolution of 10 ms can be achieved by simultaneously monitoring a single subarray of 128 electrodes. The entire 2 mm × 2 mm area can be electrochemically imaged in 64 seconds by cycling through all subarrays at a rate of 1 Hz per subarray. Monitoring diffusional transport of norepinephrine is used to demonstrate the spatiotemporal resolution capabilities of the system.

  13. Anxiety-induced plasma norepinephrine augmentation increases reactive oxygen species formation by monocytes in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, Kenichi; Matsui, Tokuzo; Maeda, Kensaku; Nakamura, Munehiro; Watanabe, Takanori; Kiriike, Nobuo

    2006-06-01

    An association between anxiety and depression and increased blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular disease risk has not been firmly established. We examined the hypothesis that anxiety and depression lead to increased plasma catecholamines and to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by mononuclear cells (MNC) in hypertensive individuals. We also studied the role of BP in this effect. In Protocol 1, a cross-sectional study was performed in 146 hypertensive patients to evaluate whether anxiety and depression affect BP and ROS formation by MNC through increasing plasma catecholamines. In Protocol 2, a 6-month randomized controlled trial using a subtherapeutic dose of the alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist doxazosin (1 mg/day) versus placebo in 86 patients with essential hypertension was performed to determine whether the increase in ROS formation by MNC was independent of BP. In Protocol 1, a significant relationship was observed between the following: trait anxiety and plasma norepinephrine (r = 0.32, P anxiety may increase plasma norepinephrine and increase ROS formation by MNC independent of BP in hypertensive patients.

  14. Stress hormone epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) effects on the anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanova, Lyudmila

    2017-04-01

    Microbial endocrinology is a relatively new research area that already encompasses the anaerobes. Stress hormones, epinephrine and norepinephrine, can affect the growth of anaerobic bacteria such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella spp., Porhyromonas spp., Tanerella forsythia and Propionibacterium acnes and can increase virulence gene expression, iron acquisition and many virulence factors of some anaerobic species such as Clostridium perfringens, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Brachyspira pilosicoli. Epinephrine and norepinephrine effects can lead to a growth increase or decrease, or no effect on the growth of the anaerobes. The effects are species-specific and perhaps strain-specific. Discrepancies in the results of some studies can be due to the different methods and media used, catecholamine concentrations, measurement techniques and the low number of strains tested. Biological effects of the stress hormones on the anaerobes may range from halitosis and a worsening of periodontal diseases to tissue damages and atherosclerotic plaque ruptures. Optimizations of the research methods and a detailed assessment of the catecholamine effects in conditions mimicking those in affected organs and tissues, as well as the effects on the quorum sensing and virulence of the anaerobes and the full spectrum of biological consequences of the effects are interesting topics for further evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Aerobic glycolysis during brain activation: adrenergic regulation and influence of norepinephrine on astrocytic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienel, Gerald A; Cruz, Nancy F

    2016-07-01

    Aerobic glycolysis occurs during brain activation and is characterized by preferential up-regulation of glucose utilization compared with oxygen consumption even though oxygen level and delivery are adequate. Aerobic glycolysis is a widespread phenomenon that underlies energetics of diverse brain activities, such as alerting, sensory processing, cognition, memory, and pathophysiological conditions, but specific cellular functions fulfilled by aerobic glycolysis are poorly understood. Evaluation of evidence derived from different disciplines reveals that aerobic glycolysis is a complex, regulated phenomenon that is prevented by propranolol, a non-specific β-adrenoceptor antagonist. The metabolic pathways that contribute to excess utilization of glucose compared with oxygen include glycolysis, the pentose phosphate shunt pathway, the malate-aspartate shuttle, and astrocytic glycogen turnover. Increased lactate production by unidentified cells, and lactate dispersal from activated cells and lactate release from the brain, both facilitated by astrocytes, are major factors underlying aerobic glycolysis in subjects with low blood lactate levels. Astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttling with local oxidation is minor. Blockade of aerobic glycolysis by propranolol implicates adrenergic regulatory processes including adrenal release of epinephrine, signaling to brain via the vagus nerve, and increased norepinephrine release from the locus coeruleus. Norepinephrine has a powerful influence on astrocytic metabolism and glycogen turnover that can stimulate carbohydrate utilization more than oxygen consumption, whereas β-receptor blockade 're-balances' the stoichiometry of oxygen-glucose or -carbohydrate metabolism by suppressing glucose and glycogen utilization more than oxygen consumption. This conceptual framework may be helpful for design of future studies to elucidate functional roles of preferential non-oxidative glucose utilization and glycogen turnover during brain

  16. Mass spectrometric measurements of norepinephrine synthesis in man from infusion of stable isotope-labelled L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Sakoda, S.; Ueji, M.; Kishimoto, S.

    1985-01-01

    The kinetics of stable isotope-labelled L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine (L-threo-DOPS), an immediate precursor of (-)-norepinephrine, was studied to investigate the pharmacologic mechanism of its therapeutic effect on orthostatic hypotension in familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) and on akinesia and freezing in parkinsonism. [ 13 C,D]-L-threo-DOPS was synthesized, and 100 mg of the compound was infused for 2 h into two normal subjects, two FAP patients and two patients with the degenerative diseases of the central nervous system. Labelled and endogenous norepinephrine in urine and plasma was assayed simultaneously by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The results indicate that the increase in norepinephrine in biological fluids after administration of L-threo-DOPS is attributable mostly to norepinephrine derived from L-threo-DOPS, not to pre-formed endogenous norepinephrine released by L-threo-DOPS

  17. Noise stimulation decreases the concentration of norepinephrine in the rat cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Torres, M A; Gil-Loyzaga, P

    1999-05-14

    The present study was designed to analyze, by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the effect of acoustic stimulation on the cochlear concentration of norepinephrine (NE). Independently of the rat strain (Long-Evans or Wistar strains), NE concentration decreased about 18% when animals were exposed to white noise (90 dB SPL for 1 h). The same decrease was observed in animals perfused by aortic pathway to remove the blood, indicating that this decrease corresponds exclusively to a neurophysiological process. In fact, these findings could indicate that noise stimulation is involved in the NE release from sympathetic fibers innervating the cochlea. This likely release of NE supports that sympathetic fibers play a functional role in cochleae exposed to noisy situations.

  18. Blood ketone response to norepinephrine-induced free fatty acid in diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackard, W G; Omori, Yoshiaki

    1963-04-18

    During 90-minute norepinephrine infusions, blood free fatty acid and ketone responses of Japanese nondiabetic and diabetic subjects were determined. Nonobese diabetic subjects with and without fasting hyperglycemia demonstrated significantly greater blood ketone elevations than nondiabetics. An inverse correlation between obesity and blood ketone response to nonrepinephrine was observed in diabetics. This correlation could not be attributed to varying degrees of fasting hyperglycemia or free fatty acid elevation. Nonobese diabetics with mild fasting hyperglycemia (90 to 150 mg%) exhibited an unexpected greater increase in blood ketones than nonobese diabetics with moderate fasting hyperglycemia (150 to 250 mg%). Differences in free fatty acid elevations were not responsible for this apparent paradox. The magnitude of the hyperketonemic response, though dependent on free fatty elevation, seemed more sensitive to the degree of obesity and the fasting blood glucose level. Fractional ketone body measurements attributed the blood ketone elevations predominantly to ..beta..-hydroxybutyric acid increases. 43 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  19. Norepinephrine is required to promote wakefulness and for hypocretin-induced arousal in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chanpreet; Oikonomou, Grigorios; Prober, David A

    2015-09-16

    Pharmacological studies in mammals suggest that norepinephrine (NE) plays an important role in promoting arousal. However, the role of endogenous NE is unclear, with contradicting reports concerning the sleep phenotypes of mice lacking NE due to mutation of dopamine β-hydroxylase (dbh). To investigate NE function in an alternative vertebrate model, we generated dbh mutant zebrafish. In contrast to mice, these animals exhibit dramatically increased sleep. Surprisingly, despite an increase in sleep, dbh mutant zebrafish have a reduced arousal threshold. These phenotypes are also observed in zebrafish treated with small molecules that inhibit NE signaling, suggesting that they are caused by the lack of NE. Using genetic overexpression of hypocretin (Hcrt) and optogenetic activation of hcrt-expressing neurons, we also find that NE is important for Hcrt-induced arousal. These results establish a role for endogenous NE in promoting arousal and indicate that NE is a critical downstream effector of Hcrt neurons.

  20. Effects of Aroclor 1254 on dopamine and norepinephrine concentrations in pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seegal, R.F.; Brosch, K.; Bush, B.; Ritz, M.; Shain, W.

    1990-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells synthesize, store, release and metabolize dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in a manner analogous to that observed in the mammalian central nervous system. These cells were used to develop and validate an alternate method to animal testing to assess the effects of a complex environmental mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1254) on cellular catecholamine function. Aroclor 1254, at concentrations of 1 to 100 ppm, significantly decreased cellular catecholamine concentrations after 6 hrs. Exposure at 100 ppm for periods of less than an hr increased cellular catecholamine concentrations while longer exposure times (i.e., 1 to 24 hr) decreased cellular catecholamine concentrations. This in vitro depletion of catecholamines is similar to that seen in vivo. Thus, PC-12 cells may be useful for neurochemical evaluation of neurotoxicants with particular reference to effects on catecholaminergic systems

  1. Effect of tyrosine kinase blockade on norepinephrine-induced cytosolic calcium response in rat afferent arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsson, Max; Arendshorst, William J

    2004-01-01

    We used genistein (Gen) and tyrphostin 23 (Tyr-23) to evaluate the importance of tyrosine phosphorylation in norepinephrine (NE)-induced changes in intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in rat afferent arterioles. [Ca(2+)](i) was measured in microdissected arterioles using...... ratiometric photometry of fura 2 fluorescence. The control [Ca(2+)](i) response to NE (1 microM) consisted of a rapid initial peak followed by a plateau phase sustained above baseline. Pretreatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor Tyr-23 (50 microM, 10 min) caused a slow 40% increase in baseline [Ca(2+)](i...... of nifedipine and Tyr-23 were not additive. Nifedipine had no inhibitory effect after Tyr-23 pretreatment, indicating Tyr-23 inhibition of Ca(2+) entry. Another tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Gen (5 and 50 microM), did not affect baseline [Ca(2+)](i). High-dose Gen inhibited the peak and plateau response to NE...

  2. Effects of cadmium on the uptake of dopamine and norepinephrine in rat brain synaptosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) a known environmental contaminant is neurotoxic. Kinetics of cadmium inhibition indicate that the metal may compete with ATP and Na + sites on Na + -K + ATPase in rat brain synaptosomes. Uptake and release processes of catecholamines into the central nervous system are dependent on membrane bound Na + -K + ATPase. It is suggested that the uptake and release processes of dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in neurons are energy utilizing and hence are dependent on active ion transport. If the two aforementioned mechanisms are truly interdependent, then any alteration caused by a toxin to either of the above two mechanisms should also cause a parallel change in the other. The purpose of this study was to examine in vitro effects of cadmium chloride on the uptake of DA and NE and the activity of ATPase in the rat brain synaptosome

  3. Lack of effect of norepinephrine on cranial haemodynamics and headache in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, M; Petersen, K A; Tvedskov, J F

    2009-01-01

    Stress is a provoking factor for both tension-type headache and migraine attacks. In the present single-blind study, we investigated if stress induced by norepinephrine (NE) could elicit delayed headache in 10 healthy subjects and recorded the cranial arterial responses. NE at a dose of 0...... no changes in these arterial parameters after NE. In both treatment groups three subjects developed delayed headaches. Thus, stress by NE infusion did not result in delayed headache........025 microg kg(-1) min(-1) or placebo was infused for 90 min and the headache was followed for 14 h. Blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (measured with transcranial Doppler) and diameters of the temporal artery and the radial artery (measured with ultrasound) were followed for 2 h. There were...

  4. The role of dopamine and norepinephrine in depression and antidepressant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David J

    2006-01-01

    Most antidepressants in use today are descendants of the monoamine oxidase inhibitor iproniazid and the tricyclic agent imipramine. These agents were both originally developed for other indications but then were serendipitously determined to have antidepressant effects. Elucidation of the mechanisms of action of these first antidepressants, along with those of reserpine and amphetamine, led to the monoamine theories of depression. Through the past several decades, approaches undertaken to clarify the roles of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin in depression have included animal studies, human biological and postmortem studies, inferences drawn from antidepressant drug actions, and challenge or depletion studies; most recently, brain imaging studies have proved to be especially informative. This research has identified novel potential targets, with the goal of developing new antidepressant drugs with better efficacy and faster onset of action than current "gold-standard" treatments.

  5. Cerebellar Norepinephrine Modulates Learning of Delay Classical Eyeblink Conditioning: Evidence for Post-Synaptic Signaling via PKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fister, Mathew; Bickford, Paula C.; Cartford, M. Claire; Samec, Amy

    2004-01-01

    The neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) has been shown to modulate cerebellar-dependent learning and memory. Lesions of the nucleus locus coeruleus or systemic blockade of noradrenergic receptors has been shown to delay the acquisition of several cerebellar-dependent learning tasks. To date, no studies have shown a direct involvement of…

  6. Mood is indirectly related to serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine levels in humans: a meta-analysis of monoamine depletion studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruhe, H. G.; Mason, N. S.; Schene, A. H.

    2007-01-01

    Dysfunction in the monoamine systems of serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) may causally be related to major depressive disorder (MDD). Monoamine depletion studies investigate the direct effects of monoamines on mood. Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) or para-chlorophenylalanine

  7. Poincaré plot width, morning urine norepinephrine levels, and autonomic imbalance in children with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaidas, Konstantinos; Tsaoussoglou, Marina; Theodorou, Emmanouel; Lianou, Loukia; Chrousos, George; Kaditis, Athanasios G

    2014-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in childhood is accompanied by sympathetic overflow unopposed by the parasympathetic tone. Complex methods like power spectral analysis of heart rate variability have been applied to study this imbalance. In this report, width of Poincaré scattergram of the R-R interval (parasympathetic tone) and morning urine norepinephrine concentration (sympathetic activity) were used to assess autonomic imbalance. Poincaré plot was obtained from the electrocardiographic channel of nocturnal polysomnography and its width was measured, and norepinephrine-to-creatinine concentration ratio was calculated in morning urine specimen. Twenty children with obstructive sleep apnea and moderate-to-severe nocturnal hypoxemia (oxygen saturation of hemoglobin [SpO(2)] nadir plot width (318.7 ± 139.3 ms) and higher ln-transformed urine norepinephrine-to-creatinine ratio (4.5 ± 0.6) than control subjects (484.2 ± 104.4 ms and 3.8 ± 0.4, respectively; P plot width (P = 0.02). Subjects with obstructive sleep apnea and moderate-to-severe nocturnal hypoxemia have enhanced sympathetic activity and reduced parasympathetic drive. Poincaré plot width and urine norepinephrine levels are simple measures of autonomic imbalance in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of serotonin and norepinephrine in sleep-waking activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgane, P J; Stern, W C

    1975-11-01

    A critical review of the evidences relating the biogenic amines serotonin and norepinephrine to the states of slow-wave and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is presented. Various alternative explanations for specific chemical regulation of the individual sleep states, including the phasic events of REM sleep, are evaluated within the overall framework of the monoamine theory of sleep. Several critical neuropsychopharmacological studies relating to metabolsim of the amines in relation to sleep-waking behavior are presented. Models of the chemical neuronal circuitry involved in sleep-waking activity are derived and interactions between several brainstem nuclei, particularly the raphé complex and locus coeruleus, are discussed. Activity in these aminergic systems in relation to oscillations in the sleep-waking cycles is evaluated. In particular, the assessment of single cell activity in specific chemical systems in relations to chemical models of sleep is reviewed. Overall, it appears that the biogenic amines, especially serotonin and norepinephrine, play key roles in the generation and maintenance of the sleep states. These neurotransmitters participate in some manner in the "triggering" processes necessary for actuating each sleep phase and in regulating the transitions from sleep to waking activity. The biogenic amines are, however, probably not "sleep factors" or direct inducers of the sleep states. Rather, they appear to be components of a multiplicity of interacting chemical circuitry in the brain whose activity maintains various chemical balances in different brain regions. Shifts in these balances appear to be involved in the triggering and maintenance of the various states comprising the vigilance continuum.

  9. Stress-related hormone norepinephrine induces interleukin-6 expression in GES-1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, R.; Lin, Q.; Gao, H.B.; Zhang, P.

    2014-01-01

    In the current literature, there is evidence that psychological factors can affect the incidence and progression of some cancers. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is known to be elevated in individuals experiencing chronic stress and is also involved in oncogenesis and cancer progression. However, the precise mechanism of IL-6 induction by the stress-related hormone norepinephrine (NE) is not clear, and, furthermore, there are no reports about the effect of NE on IL-6 expression in gastric epithelial cells. In this study, we examined the effect of NE on IL-6 expression in immortalized human gastric epithelial cells (GES-1 cells). Using real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunoassay, we demonstrated that NE can induce IL-6 mRNA and protein expression in GES-1 cells. The induction is through the β-adrenergic receptor-cAMP-protein kinase A pathway and mainly at the transcriptional level. Progressive 5′-deletions and site-directed mutagenesis of the parental construct show that, although activating-protein-1 (AP-1), cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-β (C/EBP-β), and nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) binding sites are all required in the basal transcription of IL-6, only AP-1 and CREB binding sites in the IL-6 promoter are required in NE-induced IL-6 expression. The results suggest that chronic stress may increase IL-6 secretion of human gastric epithelial cells, at least in part, by the stress-associated hormone norepinephrine, and provides basic data on stress and gastric cancer progression

  10. Stress-related hormone norepinephrine induces interleukin-6 expression in GES-1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, R.; Lin, Q.; Gao, H.B.; Zhang, P. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2014-02-17

    In the current literature, there is evidence that psychological factors can affect the incidence and progression of some cancers. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is known to be elevated in individuals experiencing chronic stress and is also involved in oncogenesis and cancer progression. However, the precise mechanism of IL-6 induction by the stress-related hormone norepinephrine (NE) is not clear, and, furthermore, there are no reports about the effect of NE on IL-6 expression in gastric epithelial cells. In this study, we examined the effect of NE on IL-6 expression in immortalized human gastric epithelial cells (GES-1 cells). Using real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunoassay, we demonstrated that NE can induce IL-6 mRNA and protein expression in GES-1 cells. The induction is through the β-adrenergic receptor-cAMP-protein kinase A pathway and mainly at the transcriptional level. Progressive 5′-deletions and site-directed mutagenesis of the parental construct show that, although activating-protein-1 (AP-1), cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-β (C/EBP-β), and nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) binding sites are all required in the basal transcription of IL-6, only AP-1 and CREB binding sites in the IL-6 promoter are required in NE-induced IL-6 expression. The results suggest that chronic stress may increase IL-6 secretion of human gastric epithelial cells, at least in part, by the stress-associated hormone norepinephrine, and provides basic data on stress and gastric cancer progression.

  11. Benzodiazepines: rat pinealocyte binding sites and augmentation of norepinephrine-stimulated N-acetyltransferase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew, E.; Parfitt, A.G.; Sugden, D.; Engelhardt, D.L.; Zimmerman, E.A.; Klein, D.C.

    1984-02-01

    Studies of (/sup 3/H)diazepam binding to intact rat pineal cells were carried out in tissue culture preparations. The binding was saturable, reversible and proportional to the number of cells used. Scatchard analysis resulted in a linear plot (Kd . 23 nM, maximum binding sites (Bmax) . 1.56 pmol/mg of protein for cells in monolayer culture; Kd . 7 nM, Bmax . 1.3 pmol/mg of protein for cells in suspension culture). Inhibition constants (Ki) for clonazepam (500 nM), flunitrazepam (38 nM) and Ro-5-4864 (5 nM) indicated that the binding sites were probably of the ''peripheral'' type. In addition, the effects of diazepam on norepinephrine-stimulated N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity were studied in organ culture and dissociated cell culture. Diazepam (10-50 microM) both prolonged and increased the magnitude of the norepinephrine-induced increase in NAT activity but did not affect the initial rate of rise of enzyme activity. The effect was dose-dependent and was also seen with clonazepam, flunitrazepam and Ro-5-4864, but not with Ro-15-1788. Diazepam, by itself, at these concentrations, had no effect on NAT, but enzyme activity was increased by higher concentrations (0.1-1 mM). Although a relationship between the (/sup 3/H)diazepam binding sites described here and the effect of benzodiazepines on NAT cannot be established from these studies, the data suggest that the benzodiazepines may alter melatonin levels through their action on NAT.

  12. Improved preclinical cardiovascular therapeutic indices with long-term inhibition of norepinephrine reuptake using reboxetine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossa, Anthony A.; Wisialowski, Todd A.; Cremers, Thomas; Hart, Marieke van der; Tseng, Elaine; Deng, Shibing; Rollema, Hans; Wang, Ellen Q.

    2012-01-01

    Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (NRIs) acutely increase norepinephrine (NE) levels, but therapeutic antidepressant activity is only observed after weeks of treatment because central NE levels progressively increase during continued drug exposure. Similarly, while NRIs acutely increase blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) due to enhanced sympathetic neurotransmission, chronic treatment changes the responsiveness of the central noradrenergic system and suppresses these effects via autonomic regulation. To better understand the relationship between NE increases and cardiovascular safety, we investigated acute and chronic effects of the NRI reboxetine on central NE release and on BP and HR and electrical alternans, a measure of arrhythmia liability, in guinea pigs. NE release was assessed by microdialysis in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN); BP and HR were measured by telemetry. Animals were treated for 28 days with 15 mg/kg/day of reboxetine or vehicle via an osmotic minipump and then challenged with acute intravenous doses of reboxetine. Animals chronically treated with reboxetine had 2-fold higher extracellular basal NE levels in mPFC and PVN compared to basal levels after chronic vehicle treatment. BP was significantly increased after the first day of treatment, and gradually returned to vehicle levels by day 21. These data indicate that chronic NRI treatment may lead to an increase in central NE levels and a concomitant reduction in BP based on exposure–response curves compared to vehicle treatment, suggesting a larger separation between preclinical estimates of efficacy vs. safety compared to acute NRI treatment. -- Highlights: ► Acute RBX produces blood pressure increases acutely that decrease with chronic RBX ► Chronic RBX increases brain NE levels, a preclinical surrogate of improved efficacy ► Short-term screening of NRI often underestimates the chronic therapeutic index ► Chronic cardiovascular

  13. Norepinephrine and dopamine increase motility, biofilm formation and virulence of Vibrio harveyi

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    Qian eYang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio harveyi is one of the major pathogens of aquatic organisms, affecting both vertebrates and invertebrates, and causes important losses in the aquaculture industry. In order to develop novel methods to control disease caused by this pathogen, we need to obtain a better understanding of pathogenicity mechanisms. Sensing of catecholamines increases both growth and production of virulence-related factors in pathogens of terrestrial animals and humans. However, at this moment, knowledge on the impact of catecholamines on the virulence of pathogens of aquatic organisms is lacking. In the present study, we report that in V. harveyi, norepinephrine and dopamine increased growth in serum-supplemented medium, siderophore production, swimming motility and expression of genes involved in flagellar motility, biofilm formation, and exopolysaccharide production. Consistent with this, pretreatment of V. harveyi with catecholamines prior to inoculation into the rearing water resulted in significantly decreased survival of gnotobiotic brine shrimp larvae, when compared to larvae challenged with untreated V. harveyi. Further, norepinephrine-induced effects could be neutralized by α-adrenergic antagonists or by the bacterial catecholamine receptor antagonist LED209, but not by β-adrenergic or dopaminergic antagonists. Dopamine-induced effects could be neutralized by dopaminergic antagonists or LED209, but not by adrenergic antagonists. Together, our results indicate that catecholamine sensing increases the success of transmission of V. harveyi and that interfering with catecholamine sensing might be an interesting strategy to control vibriosis in aquaculture. We hypothesise that upon tissue and/or hemocyte damage during infection, pathogens come into contact with elevated catecholamine levels, and that this stimulates the expression of virulence factors that are required to colonize a new host.

  14. Isolating the Norepinephrine Pathway Comparing Lithium in Bipolar Patients to SSRIs in Depressive Patients

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    Andy R. Eugene

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this investigatory neuroimaging analysis was done to better understand the pharmacodynamics of Lithium by isolating the norepinephrine pathway in the brain. To accomplish this, we compared patients with Bipolar Disorder treated with Lithium to patients diagnosed with Major Depression or Depressive Disorder who are treated with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs.Methodology: We used Standardized Low Resolution Brain Electrotomography to calculate the whole brain, voxel-by-voxel, unpaired t-tests Statistical non-Parametric Maps. For our first electrophysiological neuroimaging investigation, we compared 46 patients (average age = 34 ± 16.5 diagnosed with Bipolar Affective Disorder to three patient groups all diagnosed with Major Depression or Depressive Episode. The first is with 48 patients diagnosed with Major Depression or Depressive Episode (average age = 49 ± 12.9, the second to 16 male depressive patients (average age = 45 ± 15.1, and the final comparison to 32 depressive females (average age = 50 ± 11.7.Results: The results of sLORETA three-dimensional statistical non-parametric maps illustrated that Lithium influenced an increase in neurotransmission in the right Superior TemporalGyrus (t=1.403, p=0.00780, Fusiform Gyrus (t=1.26, and Parahippocampal Gyrus (t=1.29.Moreover, an increased in neuronal function was found was also identified at the Cingulate Gyrus(t=1.06, p=0.01200.Conclusion: We are proposing a translational clinical biological marker for patients diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder to guide physicians during the course of Lithium therapy and have identified neuroanatomical structures influenced by norepinephrine.

  15. Improved preclinical cardiovascular therapeutic indices with long-term inhibition of norepinephrine reuptake using reboxetine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossa, Anthony A., E-mail: anthony.fossa@icardiac.com [Department of Global Safety Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacokinetics, Dynamics and Metabolism, and Neuroscience, Pfizer Global Research and Development Eastern Point Road, Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Wisialowski, Todd A. [Department of Global Safety Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacokinetics, Dynamics and Metabolism, and Neuroscience, Pfizer Global Research and Development Eastern Point Road, Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Cremers, Thomas; Hart, Marieke van der [Brains On-Line B.V., University of Groningen, Antonius Deusinglaan 1, 9713 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Tseng, Elaine; Deng, Shibing; Rollema, Hans; Wang, Ellen Q. [Department of Global Safety Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacokinetics, Dynamics and Metabolism, and Neuroscience, Pfizer Global Research and Development Eastern Point Road, Groton, CT 06340 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (NRIs) acutely increase norepinephrine (NE) levels, but therapeutic antidepressant activity is only observed after weeks of treatment because central NE levels progressively increase during continued drug exposure. Similarly, while NRIs acutely increase blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) due to enhanced sympathetic neurotransmission, chronic treatment changes the responsiveness of the central noradrenergic system and suppresses these effects via autonomic regulation. To better understand the relationship between NE increases and cardiovascular safety, we investigated acute and chronic effects of the NRI reboxetine on central NE release and on BP and HR and electrical alternans, a measure of arrhythmia liability, in guinea pigs. NE release was assessed by microdialysis in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN); BP and HR were measured by telemetry. Animals were treated for 28 days with 15 mg/kg/day of reboxetine or vehicle via an osmotic minipump and then challenged with acute intravenous doses of reboxetine. Animals chronically treated with reboxetine had 2-fold higher extracellular basal NE levels in mPFC and PVN compared to basal levels after chronic vehicle treatment. BP was significantly increased after the first day of treatment, and gradually returned to vehicle levels by day 21. These data indicate that chronic NRI treatment may lead to an increase in central NE levels and a concomitant reduction in BP based on exposure–response curves compared to vehicle treatment, suggesting a larger separation between preclinical estimates of efficacy vs. safety compared to acute NRI treatment. -- Highlights: ► Acute RBX produces blood pressure increases acutely that decrease with chronic RBX ► Chronic RBX increases brain NE levels, a preclinical surrogate of improved efficacy ► Short-term screening of NRI often underestimates the chronic therapeutic index ► Chronic cardiovascular

  16. Divergent effects of norepinephrine, dopamine and substance P on the activation, differentiation and effector functions of human cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niggemann Bernd

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurotransmitters are important regulators of the immune system, with very distinct and varying effects on different leukocyte subsets. So far little is known about the impact of signals mediated by neurotransmitters on the function of CD8+ T lymphocytes. Therefore, we investigated the influence of norepinephrine, dopamine and substance P on the key tasks of CD8+ T lymphocytes: activation, migration, extravasation and cytotoxicity. Results The activation of naïve CD8+ T lymphocytes by CD3/CD28 cross-linking was inhibited by norepinephrine and dopamine, which was caused by a downregulation of interleukin (IL-2 expression via Erk1/2 and NF-κB inhibition. Furthermore, all of the investigated neurotransmitters increased the spontaneous migratory activity of naïve CD8+ T lymphocytes with dopamine being the strongest inducer. In contrast, activated CD8+ T lymphocytes showed a reduced migratory activity in the presence of norepinephrine and substance P. With regard to extravasation we found norepinephrine to induce adhesion of activated CD8+ T cells: norepinephrine increased the interleukin-8 release from endothelium, which in turn had effect on the activated CXCR1+ CD8+ T cells. At last, release of cytotoxic granules from activated cells in response to CD3 cross-linking was not influenced by any of the investigated neurotransmitters, as we have analyzed by measuring the β-hexosamidase release. Conclusion Neurotransmitters are specific modulators of CD8+ T lymphocytes not by inducing any new functions, but by fine-tuning their key tasks. The effect can be either stimulatory or suppressive depending on the activation status of the cells.

  17. Reference intervals and variation for urinary epinephrine, norepinephrine and cortisol in healthy men and women in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Garde, A H; Christensen, J M

    2001-01-01

    Reference intervals for urinary epinephrine, norepinephrine and cortisol in 120 healthy individuals performing their routine work were established according to the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory...... Medicine (IFCC) for use in the risk assessment of exposure to occupational stress. Reference intervals were established for three different times of the day: in morning samples (05.45-07.15) the limit of detection (LOD) was 2.10 micromol epinephrine/mol creatinine (82 women) and 2.86 micromol epinephrine....../mol creatinine (37 men), and the reference interval was 3.6-29.1 micromol norepinephrine/mol creatinine and 2.3-52.8 micromol cortisol/mol creatinine (119 women and men); in afternoon samples (15.30-18.30) the reference interval was 0.64-10.8 micromol epinephrine/mol creatinine (82 women), 1.20-11.2 micromol...

  18. Increased release of norepinephrine and dopamine from canine kidney during bilateral carotid occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, T.; Hjemdahl, P.; DiBona, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    The renal overflow of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) to plasma from the innervated kidney was studied at rest and during sympathetic nervous system activation by bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCO) in vagotomized dogs under barbiturate or barbiturate/nitrous oxide anesthesia. BCO elevated arterial pressure and the arterial plasma concentration of NE, DA, and epinephrine (Epi). Renal vascular resistance (renal arterial pressure kept constant) increased by 15 +/- 7% and the net renal venous outflows (renal veno-arterial concentration difference x renal plasma flow) of NE and DA were enhanced. To obtain more correct estimates of the renal contribution to the renal venous catecholamine outflow, they corrected for the renal extraction of arterial catecholamines, assessed as the extractions of [ 3 H]NE, [ 3 H]DA, or endogenous Epi. The [ 3 H]NE corrected renal NE overflow to plasma increased from 144 +/- 40 to 243 +/- 64 pmol-min -1 during BCO, which, when compared with a previous study of the [ 3 H]NE corrected renal NE overflow to plasma evoked by electrical renal nerve stimulation, corresponds to a 40% increase in nerve impulse frequency from ∼ 0.6 Hz. If the renal catecholamine extraction was not taken into account the effect of BCO was underestimated. The renal DA overflow to plasma was about one-fifth of the NE overflow both at rest and during BCO, indicating that there was no preferential activation of noradrenergic or putative dopaminergic nerves by BCO

  19. Abnormal norepinephrine clearance and adrenergic receptor sensitivity in idiopathic orthostatic intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, G.; Shannon, J. R.; Costa, F.; Furlan, R.; Biaggioni, I.; Mosqueda-Garcia, R.; Robertson, R. M.; Robertson, D.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic orthostatic intolerance (OI) is characterized by symptoms of inadequate cerebral perfusion with standing, in the absence of significant orthostatic hypotension. A heart rate increase of >/=30 bpm is typical. Possible underlying pathophysiologies include hypovolemia, partial dysautonomia, or a primary hyperadrenergic state. We tested the hypothesis that patients with OI have functional abnormalities in autonomic neurons regulating cardiovascular responses. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirteen patients with chronic OI and 10 control subjects underwent a battery of autonomic tests. Systemic norepinephrine (NE) kinetics were determined with the patients supine and standing before and after tyramine administration. In addition, baroreflex sensitivity, hemodynamic responses to bolus injections of adrenergic agonists, and intrinsic heart rate were determined. Resting supine NE spillover and clearance were similar in both groups. With standing, patients had a greater decrease in NE clearance than control subjects (55+/-5% versus 30+/-7%, Pheart rate 25 bpm was lower in patients than in control subjects (0.5+/-0.05 versus 1.0+/-0.1 microg, Pheart rate was similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The decreased NE clearance with standing, resistance to the NE-releasing effect of tyramine, and increased sensitivity to adrenergic agonists demonstrate dramatically disordered sympathetic cardiovascular regulation in patients with chronic OI.

  20. Modulation of attentional inhibition by norepinephrine and cortisol after psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skosnik, P D; Chatterton, R T; Swisher, T; Park, S

    2000-04-01

    Two of the most salient physiological responses to stress are increased norepinephrine (NE) and cortisol (CORT) activities. However, it is unclear how these neurochemical events affect cognition, especially attention. We examined the effects of mild psychological stress on selective attention, as assessed by the negative priming (NP) paradigm. Salivary measures of the stress hormone CORT and alpha-amylase (a correlate of NE) were assayed to probe the relationship between the stress response and attentional inhibition. Healthy subjects (N = 20) engaged in the attention task, which was then followed by 15 min of a stressful video game before a return to the attentional task. Baseline saliva samples were obtained before the experiment began, 1 min after the video-game stressor, and 20 min post-stress. Subjects showed a significant reduction in NP and a decrease in reaction time (RT) after the video game. Moreover, alpha-amylase levels increased significantly after the stressor, indicating the role of NE in the acute stress response. While CORT levels remained unchanged after stress, CORT correlated significantly with both NP scores and RT after the stressor. These results imply that mild psychological stress can significantly alter attentional processes. Given the increase in alpha-amylase and the correlation between attention and CORT after stress, it seems likely that attentional processes are under tight control by brain systems which mediate the fight-or-flight response.

  1. Norepinephrine induces pathway-specific long-lasting potentiation and depression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, D; Sarvey, J M

    1989-01-01

    The study presented here indicates that norepinephrine (NE) selectively induces long-lasting modifications of synaptically mediated responses in the dentate gyrus of the rat hippocampal slice. A low concentration of NE (1.0 microM; in the presence of 50 microM phentolamine, an alpha-adrenergic antagonist) or a 1.0 microM concentration of the specific beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol induced long-lasting pathway-specific alterations of granule cell electrophysiological responses. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials and population spikes evoked by stimulation of the medial perforant pathway (PP) were potentiated for more than 45 min. In contrast, responses to lateral PP stimulation were depressed for the same period. Both potentiation and depression were blocked by the beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol (1.0 microM). These results indicate that NE can act differentially on projections to the dentate gyrus arising in the entorhinal cortex. Such selective persistent modifications of cortical circuits may be involved in processes in the mammalian brain underlying attention, learning, and memory. PMID:2734319

  2. The Role of L-type Calcium Channels in Olfactory Learning and Its Modulation by Norepinephrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinaba Ghosh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available L type calcium channels (LTCCs are prevalent in different systems and hold immense importance for maintaining/performing selective functions. In the nervous system, CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 are emerging as critical modulators of neuronal functions. Although the general role of these calcium channels in modulating synaptic plasticity and memory has been explored, their role in olfactory learning is not well understood. In this review article we first discuss the role of LTCCs in olfactory learning especially focusing on early odor preference learning in neonate rodents, presenting evidence that while NMDARs initiate stimulus-specific learning, LTCCs promote protein-synthesis dependent long-term memory (LTM. Norepinephrine (NE release from the locus coeruleus (LC is essential for early olfactory learning, thus noradrenergic modulation of LTCC function and its implication in olfactory learning is discussed here. We then address the differential roles of LTCCs in adult learning and learning in aged animals.

  3. Norepinephrine regulates cocaine-primed reinstatement via α1-adrenergic receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Karl T; Schroeder, Jason P; Foster, Stephanie L; Squires, Katherine; Smith, Brilee M; Pitts, Elizabeth G; Epstein, Michael P; Weinshenker, David

    2017-06-01

    Drug-primed reinstatement of cocaine seeking in rats is thought to reflect relapse-like behavior and is mediated by the integration of signals from mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic projections and corticostriatal glutamatergic innervation. Cocaine-primed reinstatement can also be attenuated by systemic administration of dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) inhibitors, which prevent norepinephrine (NE) synthesis, or by α1-adrenergic receptor (α1AR) antagonists, indicating functional modulation by the noradrenergic system. In the present study, we sought to further discern the role of NE in cocaine-seeking behavior by determining whether α1AR activation can induce reinstatement on its own or is sufficient to permit cocaine-primed reinstatement in the absence of all other AR signaling, and identifying the neuroanatomical substrate within the mesocorticolimbic reward system harboring the critical α1ARs. We found that while intracerebroventricular infusion of the α1AR agonist phenylephrine did not induce reinstatement on its own, it did overcome the blockade of cocaine-primed reinstatement by the DBH inhibitor nepicastat. Furthermore, administration of the α1AR antagonist terazosin in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), but not the ventral tegmental area (VTA) or nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell, attenuated cocaine-primed reinstatement. Combined, these data indicate that α1AR activation in the mPFC is required for cocaine-primed reinstatement, and suggest that α1AR antagonists merit further investigation as pharmacotherapies for cocaine dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Norepinephrine metabolism in man using deuterium labeling: turnover 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardh, G.; Sjoequist, B.; Anggard, E.

    1982-06-01

    4-Hydroxy-3-methoxymandelic acid (HMMA; VMA) labeled with three deuterium atoms was used to study the turnover and fate of HMMA following intravenous injection. Five healthy men were given a pulse dose of 5.0 mumol of labeled HMMA. Plasma and urinary levels of both endogenous and labeled HMMA were subsequently followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using selected ion detection. The kinetic parameters were determined both with and without compensation for the pool expansion caused by the injection of labeled HMMA. The urinary recovery of labeled HMMA was 85 +/- 10% (mean +/- SD). No conversion of HMMA to 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl glycol (HMPG) occurred. The biological half-life of HMMA was 0.54 +/- 0.22 h. The apparent volume of distribution was 0.36 +/- 0.11 L/kg. The production rate or body turnover was 1.27 +/- 0.51 mumol HMMA/h and urinary excretion rate was 0.82 +/- 0.22 mumol/h. These results show that HMMA is turnover over rapidly in a relatively small volume of distribution and that, unlike HMPG, it is an end metabolite of norepinephrine in man.

  5. A locus coeruleus-norepinephrine account of individual differences in working memory capacity and attention control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; Robison, Matthew K

    2017-08-01

    Studies examining individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) have suggested that low WMC individuals have particular deficits in attention control processes compared to high WMC individuals. In the current article we suggest that part of the WMC-attention control relation is due to variation in the functioning of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system (LC-NE). Specifically, we suggest that because of dysregulation of LC-NE functioning, the fronto-parietal control network for low WMC individuals is only weakly activated, resulting in greater default-mode network activity (and greater mind-wandering) for low WMC individuals compared to high WMC individuals. This results in disrupted attention control and overall more erratic performance (more lapses of attention) for low WMC individuals than for high WMC individuals. This framework is used to examine previous studies of individual differences in WMC and attention control, and new evidence is examined on the basis of predictions of the framework to pupillary responses as an indirect marker of LC-NE functioning.

  6. Effects of estradiol on norepinephrine and prostaglandin efflux in medial basal hypothalamus of ovariectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinali, D.P.; Fernandez Pardal, J.; Gimeno, M.F.; Gimeno, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    The spontaneous and K + -stimulated efflux of norepinephrine (NE) and the release of PGE 2 and PGF 2 α were examined in medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) of ovariectomized rats killed before and during the LH release that follows estradiol treatment. As compared to vehicle-treated, ovariectomized rats, estradiol-primed rats exhibited a 60% more increase in K + -stimulated 3 H-overflow of MBH slices preloaded with 3 H-NE at morning hours (1000 hours). Estradiol treatment did not result in further increase of K + -induced 3 H release from MBH slices at the time of LH release (1700 hours), nor affected labelled NE release in occipital cortex slices. A significant difference between K + -stimulated NE release of vehicle-treated spayed rats killed at 1000 and 1700 hours was observed, the latter showing 54% more release upon stimulus. PGE 2 efflux was time-dependent being highest at the evening in both vehicle- and estradiol-treated animals. The MBH of estrogenized rats released significantly more PGE 2 at the evening as compared to the controls. The release of PGF 2 α remained essentially unchanged regardless of estradiol treatment or time of day. The present results offer additional support to the involvement of MBH catecholamines and prostaglandins in the mechanism of LH secretion in the rat. (author)

  7. Sex differences in the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system and its regulation by stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangasser, Debra A; Wiersielis, Kimberly R; Khantsis, Sabina

    2016-06-15

    Women are more likely than men to suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. In addition to their sex bias, these disorders share stress as an etiological factor and hyperarousal as a symptom. Thus, sex differences in brain arousal systems and their regulation by stress could help explain increased vulnerability to these disorders in women. Here we review preclinical studies that have identified sex differences in the locus coeruleus (LC)-norepinephrine (NE) arousal system. First, we detail how structural sex differences in the LC can bias females towards increased arousal in response to emotional events. Second, we highlight studies demonstrating that estrogen can increase NE in LC target regions by enhancing the capacity for NE synthesis, while reducing NE degradation, potentially increasing arousal in females. Third, we review data revealing how sex differences in the stress receptor, corticotropin releasing factor 1 (CRF1), can increase LC neuronal sensitivity to CRF in females compared to males. This effect could translate into hyperarousal in women under conditions of CRF hypersecretion that occur in PTSD and depression. The implications of these sex differences for the treatment of stress-related psychiatric disorders are discussed. Moreover, the value of using information regarding biological sex differences to aid in the development of novel pharmacotherapies to better treat men and women with PTSD and depression is also highlighted. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Noradrenergic System. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Plasma levels of norepinephrine during the periovulatory period in normal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badano, A.R.; Nagle, C.A.; Casas, P.R.F.; Miechi, H.; Mirkin, A.; Turner, D.E.; Aparicio, N.; Rosner, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Eleven normally cycling women in whom laparotomy was indicated for benign gynecologic pathology were studied. Surgery was performed on day 0 (expected day of ovulation). Blood samples were drawn daily from day -8 to day -4, and every 8 hours from day -3 to day +2; estradiol (E 2 ), progesterone (P), norepinephrine (NE), and LH were determined by RIA. Ovulation was certified by ovarian visualization and biopsy during laparotomy. In nine ovulatory patients mean E 2 peak was found 48 hours before LH peak. Mean NE levels showed minimal variations until 48 hours before LH peak; 8 hours after E 2 peak mean NE values increased significantly, fell 8 hours later, and rose immediately again, reaching maximal levels 24 hours after E 2 peak. These values remained high until 16 hours before the LH peak and decreased gradully, thereafter reaching basal levels 32 hours after LH peak. Two anovulatory patients showed an atypical pattern of ovarian steroids and LH secretion and NE showed large variations without any correlation with estradiol or LH levels. This study confirms previous findings in women and experimental work in animals regarding the existence of a noradrenergic trigger mechanism to the LH ovulatory discharge

  9. A microelectrode array electrodeposited with reduced graphene oxide and Pt nanoparticles for norepinephrine and electrophysiological recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Song, Yilin; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Shengwei; Xu, Huiren; Wang, Mixia; Wang, Yang; Cai, Xinxia

    2017-11-01

    Norepinephrine (NE), a common neurotransmitter released by locus coeruleus neurons, plays an essential role in the communication mechanism of the mammalian nervous system. In this work, a microelectrode array (MEA) was fabricated by micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) technology to provide a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for the direct determination in NE dynamic secretion. To improve the electrical performance, the MEA was electrodeposited with the reduced graphene oxide and Pt nanoparticles (rGOPNps). rGOPNps-MEA was investigated using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, differential pulse voltammetry exhibited remarkably electrocatalytic properties towards NE. Calibration results showed a sensitivity of 1.03 nA µM-1 to NE with a detection limit of 0.08 µM. In Particular, the MEA was successfully used for measuring dynamic extracellular NE secretion from the locus coeruleus brain slice, as well as monitoring spike firing from the hippocampal brain slice. This fabricated device has potential in studies of spatially resolved delivery of trace neurochemicals and electrophysiological activities of a variety of biological tissues in vitro.

  10. Recurrent hypoglycemia increases anxiety and amygdala norepinephrine release during subsequent hypoglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewan eMcNay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent hypoglycemia (RH is a common and debilitating side effect of therapy in patients with both type 1 and, increasingly, type 2 diabetes. Previous studies in rats have shown marked effects of RH on subsequent hippocampal behavioral, metabolic, and synaptic processes. In addition to impaired memory, patients experiencing RH report alterations in cognitive processes that include mood and anxiety, suggesting that RH may also affect amygdala function. We tested the impact of RH on amygdala function using an elevated plus-maze test of anxiety together with in vivo amygdala microdialysis for norepinephrine (NEp, a widely used marker of basolateral amygdala cognitive processes. In contrast to findings in the hippocampus and pre-frontal cortex, neither RH nor acute hypoglycemia alone significantly affected plus-maze performance or NEp release. However, animals tested when hypoglycemic who had previously experienced RH had elevated amygdala NEp during plus-maze testing, accompanied by increased anxiety (i.e. less time spent in the open arms of the plus-maze. The results show that RH has widespread effects on subsequent brain function, which vary by neural system.

  11. Perinatal methadone exposure affects dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin in the weanling rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, S E; Maher, J R; Wallace, M J; Kunko, P M

    1997-01-01

    On gestational day 7 pregnant rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps containing either methadone hydrochloride (initial dose, 9 mg/kg/day) or sterile water. Their offspring were cross-fostered so that they were exposed to methadone prenatally and/or postnatally. On postnatal day 21, dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT), and their metabolites were analyzed. Perinatal methadone exposure disrupted dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and serotonergic activity in a brain region- and gender-specific fashion. The ratio of the DA metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) to DA was reduced in the frontal cortex of males exposed to methadone postnatally. No effects of perinatal methadone exposure were observed on DA and DOPAC in the striatum. The ratio of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MOPEG) to NE in the hippocampus was increased significantly in males exposed to methadone prenatally. Striatal and parietal cortical 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), but not its ratio to 5-HT, was increased slightly in rats exposed to methadone postnatally. Although parietal cortical 5-HT, 5-HIAA, and 5-hydroxytryptophan were all affected by perinatal methadone exposure, the ratios of metabolite and precursor to 5-HT were not affected. Effects of methadone exposure appeared to depend upon the developmental stage at which exposure occurred and did not appear to result from the phenomenon of neonatal withdrawal. Changes in activity of these three neurotransmitter systems may contribute to the effect of perinatal methadone on the activity of other neurons, such as cholinergic neurons.

  12. Norepinephrine versus dopamine and their interaction in modulating synaptic function in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Bo; Li, Yan-Chun; Gao, Wen-Jun

    2016-06-15

    Among the neuromodulators that regulate prefrontal cortical circuit function, the catecholamine transmitters norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) stand out as powerful players in working memory and attention. Perturbation of either NE or DA signaling is implicated in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), schizophrenia, and drug addiction. Although the precise mechanisms employed by NE and DA to cooperatively control prefrontal functions are not fully understood, emerging research indicates that both transmitters regulate electrical and biochemical aspects of neuronal function by modulating convergent ionic and synaptic signaling in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). This review summarizes previous studies that investigated the effects of both NE and DA on excitatory and inhibitory transmissions in the prefrontal cortical circuitry. Specifically, we focus on the functional interaction between NE and DA in prefrontal cortical local circuitry, synaptic integration, signaling pathways, and receptor properties. Although it is clear that both NE and DA innervate the PFC extensively and modulate synaptic function by activating distinctly different receptor subtypes and signaling pathways, it remains unclear how these two systems coordinate their actions to optimize PFC function for appropriate behavior. Throughout this review, we provide perspectives and highlight several critical topics for future studies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Noradrenergic System. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The emerging role of norepinephrine in cognitive dysfunctions of Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eVazey

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, affecting 1% of the population over age 60. In those patients cognitive dysfunction is a persistent issue that impairs quality of life and productivity. Neuropathological studies demonstrate significant damage in brain regions outside the nigral dopamine (DA system, including early degeneration of locus coeruleus norepinephrine (LC-NE neurons, yet discussion of PD and treatment focus has remained dopaminergic-based. Motor symptoms benefit from DA replacement for many years, but other symptoms including several cognitive deficits continue unabated. Recent interest in non-DA substrates of PD highlights early involvement of LC-NE neurons and provides evidence for a prodromal phase, with cognitive disturbance, even in sporadic PD. We outline insights from basic research in LC-NE function to clinical and pathological evidence highlighting a role for NE in PD cognitive dysfunction. We propose that loss of LC-NE regulation, particularly in higher cortical regions, critically underlies certain cognitive dysfunctions in early PD. As a major unmet need for patients, research and use of NE drugs in PD may provide significant benefits for cognitive processing.

  14. Improved radioenzymatic assay for plasma norepinephrine using purified phenylethanolamine n-methyltransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowsher, R.R.; Henry, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    Radioenzymatic assays have been developed for catecholamines using either catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) or phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT). Assays using PNMT are specific for norepinephrine (NE) and require minimal manipulative effort but until now have been less sensitive than the more complex procedures using COMT. The authors report an improved purification scheme for bovine PNMT which has permitted development of an NE assay with dramatically improved sensitivity (0.5 pg), specificity and reproducibility (C.V. < 5%). PNMT was purified by sequential pH 5.0 treatment and dialysis and by column chromatographic procedures using DEAE-Sephacel, Sepharcryl S-200 and Phenyl-Boronate Agarose. Recovery of PNMT through the purification scheme was 50%, while blank recovery was <.001%. NE can be directly quantified in 25 ul of human plasma and an 80 tube assay can be completed within 4 h. The capillary to venous plasma NE gradient was examined in 8 normotensive male subjects. Capillary plasma (NE (211.2 +/- 61.3 pg/ml)) was lower than venous plasma NE (366.6 +/- 92.5 pg/ml) in all subjects (p < 0.005). This difference suggests that capillary (NE) may be a unique indicator of sympathetic nervous system activity in vivo. In conclusion, purification of PNMT has facilitated development of an improved radioenzymatic for NE with significantly improved sensitivity

  15. Norepinephrine signaling through β-adrenergic receptors is critical for expression of cocaine-induced anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schank, Jesse R.; Liles, L. Cameron; Weinshenker, David

    2008-01-01

    Background Cocaine is a widely abused psychostimulant that has both rewarding and aversive properties. While the mechanisms underlying cocaine’s rewarding effects have been studied extensively, less attention has been paid to the unpleasant behavioral states induced by cocaine, such as anxiety. Methods In this study we evaluated the performance of dopamine β-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh −/−) mice, which lack norepinephrine (NE), in the elevated plus maze (EPM) to examine the contribution of noradrenergic signaling to cocaine-induced anxiety. Results We found that cocaine dose-dependently increased anxiety-like behavior in control (Dbh +/−) mice, as measured by a decrease in open arm exploration. Dbh −/− mice had normal baseline performance in the EPM, but were completely resistant to the anxiogenic effects of cocaine. Cocaine-induced anxiety was also attenuated in Dbh +/− mice following administration of disulfiram, a DBH inhibitor. In experiments using specific adrenergic antagonists, we found that pretreatment with the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol blocked cocaine-induced anxiety-like behavior in Dbh +/− and wild-type C57BL6/J mice, while the α1 antagonist prazosin and the α2 antagonist yohimbine had no effect. Conclusions These results indicate that noradrenergic signaling via β-adrenergic receptors is required for cocaine-induced anxiety in mice. PMID:18083142

  16. Norepinephrine signaling through beta-adrenergic receptors is critical for expression of cocaine-induced anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schank, Jesse R; Liles, L Cameron; Weinshenker, David

    2008-06-01

    Cocaine is a widely abused psychostimulant that has both rewarding and aversive properties. While the mechanisms underlying cocaine's rewarding effects have been studied extensively, less attention has been paid to the unpleasant behavioral states induced by cocaine, such as anxiety. In this study, we evaluated the performance of dopamine beta-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh -/-) mice, which lack norepinephrine (NE), in the elevated plus maze (EPM) to examine the contribution of noradrenergic signaling to cocaine-induced anxiety. We found that cocaine dose-dependently increased anxiety-like behavior in control (Dbh +/-) mice, as measured by a decrease in open arm exploration. The Dbh -/- mice had normal baseline performance in the EPM but were completely resistant to the anxiogenic effects of cocaine. Cocaine-induced anxiety was also attenuated in Dbh +/- mice following administration of disulfiram, a dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) inhibitor. In experiments using specific adrenergic antagonists, we found that pretreatment with the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol blocked cocaine-induced anxiety-like behavior in Dbh +/- and wild-type C57BL6/J mice, while the alpha(1) antagonist prazosin and the alpha(2) antagonist yohimbine had no effect. These results indicate that noradrenergic signaling via beta-adrenergic receptors is required for cocaine-induced anxiety in mice.

  17. Meningeal norepinephrine produces headache behaviors in rats via actions both on dural afferents and fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaomei; Yan, Jin; Tillu, Dipti; Asiedu, Marina; Weinstein, Nicole; Melemedjian, Ohannes; Price, Theodore; Dussor, Gregory

    2015-10-01

    Stress is commonly reported to contribute to migraine although mechanisms by which this may occur are not fully known. The purpose of these studies was to examine whether norepinephrine (NE), the primary sympathetic efferent transmitter, acts on processes in the meninges that may contribute to the pain of migraine. NE was applied to rat dura using a behavioral model of headache. Primary cultures of rat trigeminal ganglia retrogradely labeled from the dura mater and of rat dural fibroblasts were prepared. Patch-clamp electrophysiology, Western blot, and ELISA were performed to examine the effects of NE. Conditioned media from NE-treated fibroblast cultures was applied to the dura using the behavioral headache model. Dural injection both of NE and media from NE-stimulated fibroblasts caused cutaneous facial and hindpaw allodynia in awake rats. NE application to cultured dural afferents increased action potential firing in response to current injections. Application of NE to dural fibroblasts increased phosphorylation of ERK and caused the release of interleukin-6 (IL-6). These data demonstrate that NE can contribute to pro-nociceptive signaling from the meninges via actions on dural afferents and dural fibroblasts. Together, these actions of NE may contribute to the headache phase of migraine. © International Headache Society 2015.

  18. Norepinephrine accumulation by the rat caudal artery in the presence of hypertensive plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freas, W.; Thompson, D.A.; Hart, J.L.; Muldoon, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    We have partially isolated endogenous factors from canine plasma which inhibit 3 H-norepinephrine (NE) accumulation by the canine saphenous vein. The purpose of this study is to determine if these circulating factors may account for the observed differences in 3 H-NE uptake by hypertensive and normotensive blood vessels. Three models of hypertension were examined in this study. Blood vessels were compared from SHR and WKY rats, deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) and control rats, and reduced renal mass (RRM) and control rats. There was no significant difference in 3 H-NE accumulation between blood vessels obtained from RRM and paired control rats. However, both the SHR and DOCA hypertensive caudal arteries and aorta accumulated significantly more 3 H-NE than their corresponding control tissues. There was not a significant change in 3 H-NE accumulation between hypertensive and control vena cava and mesenteric arteries. Normotensive and hypertensive plasma inhibited 3 H-NE accumulation by the rat caudal artery. However, there was not a correlation between blood pressure of plasma donor rats and accumulation of 3 H-NE. Therefore, although there are differences in 3 H-NE accumulation between hypertensive and normotensive blood vessels, plasma does not contain a factor responsible for this observed difference

  19. Expression of the capacity to release [3H]norepinephrine by neural crest cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, G.D.; Sietz, P.D.

    1983-01-01

    Cultures of trunk neural crest cells from quail embryos were tested for their ability to release [ 3 H]norepinephrine [( 3 H]NE) in response to depolarization. After 7 days in vitro, exposure of the cultures to either the alkaloid veratridine or 40 mM K+ results in the evoked release of [ 3 H]NE. The release evoked by veratridine is blocked in the presence of tetrodotoxin. The release evoked by increased K+ is blocked by the calcium antagonist cobalt. Release in response to the nicotinic cholinergic agonist 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazine was also observed. The amount of evoked release is highly correlated with the number of histochemically demonstrable catecholamine-containing cells in a given culture. Autoradiography reveals that the radioactivity taken up by these cultures is located in a subpopulation of cells whose morphology resembles that of the histochemically detectable catecholamine-containing cell population. Whereas capacity for the release of [ 3 H] NE is readily detectable after 7 days in vitro, it is detectable only with difficulty after 4 days in vitro. There is a greater than 6-fold increase in uptake capacity over the period of 4 to 7 days in vitro. These results demonstrate that neural crest cultures grown without their normal synaptic inputs or targets can exhibit the capacity for stimulus secretion coupling characteristic of synaptic neurotransmitter release

  20. External and internal standards in the single-isotope derivative (radioenzymatic) measurement of plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.D.; Clutter, W.E.; Cryer, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    In plasma from normal humans (n = 9, 35 samples) and from patients with diabetes mellitus (n = 12, 24 samples) single-isotope derivative (radioenzymatic) plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations calculated from external standard curves constructed in a normal plasma pool were identical to those calculated from internal standards added to an aliquot of each plasma sample. In plasma from patients with end-stage renal failure receiving long-term dialysis (n = 34, 109 samples), competitive catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitory activity resulted in a systematic error when external standards in a normal plasma pool were used, as reported previously; values so calculated averaged 21% (+/- 12%, SD) lower than those calculated from internal standards. However, when external standard curves were constructed in plasma from a given patient with renal failure and used to calculate that patient's values, or in a renal failure plasma pool and used to calculate all renal failure values, norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations were not significantly different from those calculated from internal standards. We conclude: (1) External standard curves constructed in plasma from a given patient with renal failure can be used to measure norepinephrine and epinephrine in plasma from that patient; further, external standards in a renal failure plasma pool can be used for assays in patients with end-stage renal failure receiving long-term dialysis. (2) Major COMT inhibitory activity is not present commonly if samples from patients with renal failure are excluded. Thus, it would appear that external standard curves constructed in normal plasma can be used to measure norepinephrine and epinephrine precisely in samples from persons who do not have renal failure

  1. Influence of chronic captopril treatment on norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction in SHR and WKY : In vivo study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pintérová, Mária; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Dobešová, Zdenka; Zicha, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 26, Suppl.1 (2008), S174-S174 ISSN 0263-6352. [Scientific Meeting International Society of Hypertension /22./ , Scientific Meeting European Society of Hypertension /18./. 14.06.2008-19.06.2008, Berlin] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpo1 * captopril teratment * norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction * SHR and WKY Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  2. Voltammetric determination of norepinephrine in the presence of acetaminophen using a novel ionic liquid/multiwall carbon nanotubes paste electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmanpour, Sadegh; Tavana, Toktam; Pahlavan, Ali; Khalilzadeh, Mohammad A.; Ensafi, Ali A.; Karimi-Maleh, Hassan; Beitollahi, Hadi; Kowsari, Elaheh; Zareyee, Daryoush

    2012-01-01

    A novel multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) modified carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE) was fabricated and used to investigate the electrochemical behavior of norepinephrine (NP). MWCNTs/CILE was prepared by mixing hydrophilic ionic liquid, 1-methyl-3-butylimidazolium bromide (MBIDZBr), with graphite powder, MWCNTs, and liquid paraffin. The fabricated MWCNTs/CILE showed great electrocatalytic ability to the oxidation of NE. The electron transfer coefficient, diffusion coefficient, and charge transfer resistant (R ct ) of NE at the modified electrode were calculated. Differential pulse voltammetry of NE at the modified electrode exhibited two linear dynamic ranges with slopes of 0.0841 and 0.0231 μA/μM in the concentration ranges of 0.3 to 30.0 μM and 30.0 to 450.0 μM, respectively. The detection limit (3σ) of 0.09 μM NP was achieved. This modified electrode exhibited a good ability for well separated oxidation peaks of NE and acetaminophen (AC) in a buffer solution, pH 7.0. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for the determination of NE in human urine, pharmaceutical, and serum samples. Highlights: ► Electrochemical behavior of norepinephrine study using carbon ionic liquid electrode ► This sensor resolved the overlap response of norepinephrine and acetaminophen. ► This sensor is also used for the determination of above compounds in real samples.

  3. Influence of allelic variations in relation to norepinephrine and mineralocorticoid receptors on psychopathic traits: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Durand

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Past findings support a relationship between abnormalities in the amygdala and the presence of psychopathic traits. Among other genes and biomarkers relevant to the amygdala, norepinephrine and mineralocorticoid receptors might both play a role in psychopathy due to their association with traits peripheral to psychopathy. The purpose is to examine if allelic variations in single nucleotide polymorphisms related to norepinephrine and mineralocorticoid receptors play a role in the display of psychopathic traits and executive functions. Methods Fifty-seven healthy participants from the community provided a saliva sample for SNP sampling of rs5522 and rs5569. Participants then completed the Psychopathic Personality Inventory–Short Form (PPI-SF and the Tower of Hanoi. Results Allelic variations of both rs5522 and rs5569 were significant when compared to PPI-SF total score and the fearless dominance component of the PPI-SF. A significant result was also obtained between rs5522 and the number of moves needed to complete the 5-disk Tower of Hanoi. Conclusion This pilot study offers preliminary results regarding the effect of allelic variations in SNPs related to norepinephrine and mineralocorticoid receptors on the presence of psychopathic traits. Suggestions are provided to enhance the reliability and validity of a larger-scale study.

  4. Clonidine reduces norepinephrine and improves bone marrow function in a rodent model of lung contusion, hemorrhagic shock, and chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamo, Ines G; Kannan, Kolenkode B; Ramos, Harry; Loftus, Tyler J; Efron, Philip A; Mohr, Alicia M

    2017-03-01

    Propranolol has been shown previously to restore bone marrow function and improve anemia after lung contusion/hemorrhagic shock. We hypothesized that daily clonidine administration would inhibit central sympathetic outflow and restore bone marrow function in our rodent model of lung contusion/hemorrhagic shock with chronic stress. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 6 days of restraint stress after lung contusion/hemorrhagic shock during which the animals received clonidine (75 μg/kg) after the restraint stress. On postinjury day 7, we assessed urine norepinephrine, blood hemoglobin, plasma granulocyte colony stimulating factor, and peripheral blood mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells, as well as bone marrow cellularity and erythroid progenitor cell growth. The addition of clonidine to lung contusion/hemorrhagic shock with chronic restraint stress significantly decreased urine norepinephrine levels, improved bone marrow cellularity, restored erythroid progenitor colony growth, and improved hemoglobin (14.1 ± 0.6 vs 10.8 ± 0.6 g/dL). The addition of clonidine to lung contusion/hemorrhagic shock with chronic restraint stress significantly decreased hematopoietic progenitor cells mobilization and restored granulocyte colony stimulating factor levels. After lung contusion/hemorrhagic shock with chronic restraint stress, daily administration of clonidine restored bone marrow function and improved anemia. Alleviating chronic stress and decreasing norepinephrine is a key therapeutic target to improve bone marrow function after severe injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Relative contributions of norepinephrine and serotonin transporters to antinociceptive synergy between monoamine reuptake inhibitors and morphine in the rat formalin model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Shen

    Full Text Available Multimodal analgesia is designed to optimize pain relief by coadministering drugs with distinct mechanisms of action or by combining multiple pharmacologies within a single molecule. In clinical settings, combinations of monoamine reuptake inhibitors and opioid receptor agonists have been explored and one currently available analgesic, tapentadol, functions as both a µ-opioid receptor agonist and a norepinephrine transporter inhibitor. However, it is unclear whether the combination of selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibition and µ-receptor agonism achieves an optimal antinociceptive synergy. In this study, we assessed the pharmacodynamic interactions between morphine and monoamine reuptake inhibitors that possess different affinities and selectivities for norepinephrine and serotonin transporters. Using the rat formalin model, in conjunction with measurements of ex vivo transporter occupancy, we show that neither the norepinephrine-selective inhibitor, esreboxetine, nor the serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, produce antinociceptive synergy with morphine. Atomoxetine, a monoamine reuptake inhibitor that achieves higher levels of norepinephrine than serotonin transporter occupancy, exhibited robust antinociceptive synergy with morphine. Similarly, a fixed-dose combination of esreboxetine and fluoxetine which achieves comparable levels of transporter occupancy potentiated the antinociceptive response to morphine. By contrast, duloxetine, a monoamine reuptake inhibitor that achieves higher serotonin than norepinephrine transporter occupancy, failed to potentiate the antinociceptive response to morphine. However, when duloxetine was coadministered with the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron, potentiation of the antinociceptive response to morphine was revealed. These results support the notion that inhibition of both serotonin and norepinephrine transporters is required for monoamine reuptake inhibitor and opioid

  6. Modeling and analysis of PET studies with norepinephrine transporter ligands: the search for a reference region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Jean [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)]. E-mail: logan@bnl.gov; Ding, Y.-S. [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Lin, K.-S. [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Pareto, Deborah [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Functional Imaging, Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Fowler, Joanna [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Biegon, Anat [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The development of positron emission tomography (PET) ligands for the norepinephrine transporter (NET) has been slow compared to the development of radiotracers for others systems, such as the dopamine (DAT) or the serotonin transporters (SERT). The main reason for this appears to be the high nonspecific (non-NET) binding exhibited by many of these tracers, which makes the identification of a reference region difficult. With other PET ligands the use of a reference region increases the reproducibility of the outcome measure in test/retest studies. The focus of this work is to identify a suitable reference region or means of normalizing data for the NET ligands investigated. Methods: We have analyzed the results of PET studies in the baboon brain with labeled reboxetine derivatives (S,S)-[{sup 11}C]O-methyl reboxetine (SS-MRB), (S,S)-[{sup 18}F]fluororeboxetine (SS-FRB) as well as O-[{sup 11}C]nisoxetine and N-[{sup 11}C]nisoxetine (NIS), and, for comparison, the less active (R,R) enantiomers (RR-MRB, RR-FRB) in terms of the distribution volume (DV) using measured arterial input functions. Results: (1) For a given subject, a large variation in DV for successive baseline studies was observed in regions with both high and low NET density. (2) The occipital cortex and the basal ganglia were found to be the regions with the smallest change between baseline (SS-MRB) and pretreatment with cocaine, and were therefore used as a composite reference region for calculation of a distribution volume ratio (DVR). (3) The variability [as measured by the coefficient of variation (CV)=standard deviation/mean] in the distribution volume ratio (DVR) of thalamus (to reference region) was considerably reduced over that of the DV using this composite reference region. (4) Pretreatment with nisoxetine (1.0 mg/kg 10 min prior to tracer) in one study produced (in decreasing order) reductions in thalamus, cerebellum, cingulate and frontal cortex consistent with known NET densities. (5) [{sup

  7. Modeling and analysis of PET studies with norepinephrine transporter ligands: the search for a reference region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jean; Ding, Yu-Shin; Lin, Kuo-Shyan; Pareto, Deborah; Fowler, Joanna; Biegon, Anat

    2005-07-01

    The development of positron emission tomography (PET) ligands for the norepinephrine transporter (NET) has been slow compared to the development of radiotracers for others systems, such as the dopamine (DAT) or the serotonin transporters (SERT). The main reason for this appears to be the high nonspecific (non-NET) binding exhibited by many of these tracers, which makes the identification of a reference region difficult. With other PET ligands the use of a reference region increases the reproducibility of the outcome measure in test/retest studies. The focus of this work is to identify a suitable reference region or means of normalizing data for the NET ligands investigated. We have analyzed the results of PET studies in the baboon brain with labeled reboxetine derivatives (S,S)-[(11)C]O-methyl reboxetine (SS-MRB), (S,S)-[(18)F]fluororeboxetine (SS-FRB) as well as O-[(11)C]nisoxetine and N-[(11)C]nisoxetine (NIS), and, for comparison, the less active (R,R) enantiomers (RR-MRB, RR-FRB) in terms of the distribution volume (DV) using measured arterial input functions. (1) For a given subject, a large variation in DV for successive baseline studies was observed in regions with both high and low NET density. (2) The occipital cortex and the basal ganglia were found to be the regions with the smallest change between baseline (SS-MRB) and pretreatment with cocaine, and were therefore used as a composite reference region for calculation of a distribution volume ratio (DVR). (3) The variability [as measured by the coefficient of variation (CV) = standard deviation/mean] in the distribution volume ratio (DVR) of thalamus (to reference region) was considerably reduced over that of the DV using this composite reference region. (4) Pretreatment with nisoxetine (1.0 mg/kg 10 min prior to tracer) in one study produced (in decreasing order) reductions in thalamus, cerebellum, cingulate and frontal cortex consistent with known NET densities. (5) [(11)C]Nisoxetine had a higher

  8. Modeling and analysis of PET studies with norepinephrine transporter ligands: the search for a reference region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, Jean; Ding, Y.-S.; Lin, K.-S.; Pareto, Deborah; Fowler, Joanna; Biegon, Anat

    2005-01-01

    The development of positron emission tomography (PET) ligands for the norepinephrine transporter (NET) has been slow compared to the development of radiotracers for others systems, such as the dopamine (DAT) or the serotonin transporters (SERT). The main reason for this appears to be the high nonspecific (non-NET) binding exhibited by many of these tracers, which makes the identification of a reference region difficult. With other PET ligands the use of a reference region increases the reproducibility of the outcome measure in test/retest studies. The focus of this work is to identify a suitable reference region or means of normalizing data for the NET ligands investigated. Methods: We have analyzed the results of PET studies in the baboon brain with labeled reboxetine derivatives (S,S)-[ 11 C]O-methyl reboxetine (SS-MRB), (S,S)-[ 18 F]fluororeboxetine (SS-FRB) as well as O-[ 11 C]nisoxetine and N-[ 11 C]nisoxetine (NIS), and, for comparison, the less active (R,R) enantiomers (RR-MRB, RR-FRB) in terms of the distribution volume (DV) using measured arterial input functions. Results: (1) For a given subject, a large variation in DV for successive baseline studies was observed in regions with both high and low NET density. (2) The occipital cortex and the basal ganglia were found to be the regions with the smallest change between baseline (SS-MRB) and pretreatment with cocaine, and were therefore used as a composite reference region for calculation of a distribution volume ratio (DVR). (3) The variability [as measured by the coefficient of variation (CV)=standard deviation/mean] in the distribution volume ratio (DVR) of thalamus (to reference region) was considerably reduced over that of the DV using this composite reference region. (4) Pretreatment with nisoxetine (1.0 mg/kg 10 min prior to tracer) in one study produced (in decreasing order) reductions in thalamus, cerebellum, cingulate and frontal cortex consistent with known NET densities. (5) [ 11 C]Nisoxetine had

  9. Association of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder With Reduced In Vivo Norepinephrine Availability in the Locus Coeruleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Robert H.; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Ding, Yu-Shin; Henry, Shannan; Potenza, Marc N.; Southwick, Steven M.; Krystal, John H.; Carson, Richard E.; Neumeister, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Animal data suggest that chronic stress is associated with a reduction in norepinephrine transporter (NET) availability in the locus coeruleus. However, it is unclear whether such models are relevant to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which has been linked to noradrenergic dysfunction in humans. OBJECTIVES To use positron emission tomography and the radioligand [11C]methylreboxetine to examine in vivo NET availability in the locus coeruleus in the following 3 groups of individuals: healthy adults (HC group), adults exposed to trauma who did not develop PTSD (TC group), and adults exposed to trauma who developed PTSD (PTSD group) and to evaluate the relationship between NET availability in the locus coeruleus and a contemporary phenotypic model of PTSD symptoms. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Cross-sectional positron emission tomography study under resting conditions at academic and Veterans Affairs medical centers among 56 individuals in the following 3 study groups: HC (n = 18), TC (n = 16), and PTSD (n = 22). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The [11C]methylreboxetine-binding potential of NET availability in the locus coeruleus and the severity of PTSD symptoms assessed using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. RESULTS The PTSD group had significantly lower NET availability than the HC group (41% lower, Cohen d = 1.07). NET availability did not differ significantly between the TC and HC groups (31% difference, Cohen d = 0.79) or between the TC and PTSD groups (15% difference, Cohen d = 0.28). In the PTSD group, NET availability in the locus coeruleus was independently positively associated with the severity of anxious arousal (ie, hypervigilance) symptoms (r = 0.52) but not with any of the other PTSD symptom clusters. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE These results suggest that PTSD is associated with significantly reduced NET availability in the locus coeruleus and that greater NET availability in this brain region is associated with increased severity

  10. Optogenetic release of norepinephrine from cardiac sympathetic neurons alters mechanical and electrical function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengrowski, Anastasia M; Wang, Xin; Tapa, Srinivas; Posnack, Nikki Gillum; Mendelowitz, David; Kay, Matthew W

    2015-02-01

    Release of norepinephrine (NE) from sympathetic neurons enhances heart rate (HR) and developed force through activation of β-adrenergic receptors, and this sympathoexcitation is a key risk for the generation of cardiac arrhythmias. Studies of β-adrenergic modulation of cardiac function typically involve the administration of exogenous β-adrenergic receptor agonists to directly elicit global β-adrenergic receptor activation by bypassing the involvement of sympathetic nerve terminals. In this work, we use a novel method to activate sympathetic fibres within the myocardium of Langendorff-perfused hearts while measuring changes in electrical and mechanical function. The light-activated optogenetic protein channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) was expressed in murine catecholaminergic sympathetic neurons. Sympathetic fibres were then photoactivated to examine changes in contractile force, HR, and cardiac electrical activity. Incidence of arrhythmia was measured with and without exposure to photoactivation of sympathetic fibres, and hearts were optically mapped to detect changes in action potential durations and conduction velocities. Results demonstrate facilitation of both developed force and HR after photostimulated release of NE, with increases in contractile force and HR of 34.5 ± 5.5 and 25.0 ± 9.3%, respectively. Photostimulation of sympathetic fibres also made hearts more susceptible to arrhythmia, with greater incidence and severity. In addition, optically mapped action potentials displayed a small but significant shortening of the plateau phase (-5.5 ± 1.0 ms) after photostimulation. This study characterizes a powerful and clinically relevant new model for studies of cardiac arrhythmias generated by increasing the activity of sympathetic nerve terminals and the resulting activation of myocyte β-adrenergic receptors. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Reserpine-induced reduction in norepinephrine transporter function requires catecholamine storage vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandela, Prashant; Chandley, Michelle; Xu, Yao-Yu; Zhu, Meng-Yang; Ordway, Gregory A

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of rats with reserpine, an inhibitor of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT), depletes norepinephrine (NE) and regulates NE transporter (NET) expression. The present study examined the molecular mechanisms involved in regulation of the NET by reserpine using cultured cells. Exposure of rat PC12 cells to reserpine for a period as short as 5min decreased [(3)H]NE uptake capacity, an effect characterized by a robust decrease in the V(max) of the transport of [(3)H]NE. As expected, reserpine did not displace the binding of [(3)H]nisoxetine from the NET in membrane homogenates. The potency of reserpine for reducing [(3)H]NE uptake was dramatically lower in SK-N-SH cells that have reduced storage capacity for catecholamines. Reserpine had no effect on [(3)H]NE uptake in HEK-293 cells transfected with the rat NET (293-hNET), cells that lack catecholamine storage vesicles. NET regulation by reserpine was independent of trafficking of the NET from the cell surface. Pre-exposure of cells to inhibitors of several intracellular signaling cascades known to regulate the NET, including Ca(2+)/Ca(2+)-calmodulin dependent kinase and protein kinases A, C and G, did not affect the ability of reserpine to reduce [(3)H]NE uptake. Treatment of PC12 cells with the catecholamine depleting agent, alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine, increased [(3)H]NE uptake and eliminated the inhibitory effects of reserpine on [(3)H]NE uptake. Reserpine non-competitively inhibits NET activity through a Ca(2+)-independent process that requires catecholamine storage vesicles, revealing a novel pharmacological method to modify NET function. Further characterization of the molecular nature of reserpine's action could lead to the development of alternative therapeutic strategies for treating disorders known to be benefitted by treatment with traditional competitive NET inhibitors. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of cocaine on norepinephrine stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis and locomotor activity in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosaddeghi, M.

    1989-01-01

    The function of α 1 -adrenoceptors was determined by stimulating cortical tissue slices, which were pre-labeled with [ 3 H]inositol, with norepinephrine (NE) in the presence of 8 mM LiCl. Results of in vitro studies showed that cocaine 10 μM potentiated maximal NE-stimulated PI hydrolysis by 30%. In addition, the EC 50 was decreased from 3.93 ± 0.42 to 1.91 ± 0.31 μM NE. Concentrations of 0.1-100 μM and 0.1-10 μM cocaine enhanced PI hydrolysis stimulated by 0.3 and 3 μM NE, respectively. The concentration-effect curves for NE-stimulated PI hydrolysis were shifted to the right 100-fold in the presence of 0.1 μM prazosin. Cocaine (10 μM) did not potentiate NE-stimulated PI hydrolysis in the presence of 0.1 μM prazosin. [ 3 H]Prazosin saturation and NE [ 3 H]prazosin competition binding studies using crude membrane preparations showed that 10 μM cocaine did not alter binding parameters B max , K d , Hill slope, and IC 50 . Together, these results implied that cocaine in vitro potentiated NE-stimulated PI hydrolysis by blocking NE reuptake. For in vivo studies, the locomotor activity was determined after an acute or chronic injections of either cocaine or saline. Cocaine or saline-treated rats were killed after measurement of the locomotor activity, and NE-stimulated PI hydrolysis was measured. Acute administration of cocaine 3.2-42 mg/kg (i.p.) produced an inverted U shaped dose-response curve on locomotor activity. The peak increase in locomotor activity was at 32 mg/kg cocaine. A dose of 42 mg/kg cocaine produced a significant depression of maximal NE-stimulated PI hydrolysis

  13. Norepinephrine inhibition of mesenchymal stem cell and chondrogenic progenitor cell chondrogenesis and acceleration of chondrogenic hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenei-Lanzl, Zsuzsa; Grässel, Susanne; Pongratz, Georg; Kees, Frieder; Miosge, Nicolai; Angele, Peter; Straub, Rainer H

    2014-09-01

    Mesenchymal progenitor cell chondrogenesis is the biologic platform for the generation or regeneration of cartilage, but the external influence of the sympathetic nervous system on this process is not yet known. Sympathetic nerve fibers are present in articular tissue, and the sympathetic nervous system influences the musculoskeletal system by, for example, increasing osteoclastogenesis. This study was initiated to explore the role of the sympathetic neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-dependent and cartilage progenitor cell (CPC)-dependent chondrogenesis. Using human MSCs or CPCs, chondrogenic differentiation was induced in the presence of NE, the specific β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) agonist isoproterenol, and the specific β-AR antagonist nadolol. We studied sympathetic nerve fibers, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression, catecholamine biosynthesis, and synovial fluid levels in human joints, as well as cartilage-specific matrix deposition during differentiation. TH+ sympathetic nerve fibers were present in the synovial tissue, meniscus, and subchondral bone marrow. In addition, synovial fluid from patients with knee trauma demonstrated high concentrations of NE. During MSC or CPC chondrogenesis, β-AR were expressed. Chondrogenic aggregates treated with NE or isoproterenol synthesized lower amounts of type II collagen and glycosaminoglycans. NE and isoproterenol treatment dose-dependently increased the levels of cartilage hypertrophy markers (type X collagen and matrix metalloproteinase 13). Nadolol reversed the inhibition of chondrogenesis and the up-regulation of cartilage hypertrophy. Our findings demonstrate NE-dependent inhibition of chondrogenesis and acceleration of hypertrophic differentiation. By inhibiting cartilage repair, these sympathetic influences can be important after joint trauma. These findings may be a basis for novel neurochondrogenic therapeutic options. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of

  14. Norepinephrine ignites local hotspots of neuronal excitation: How arousal amplifies selectivity in perception and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Mara; Clewett, David; Sakaki, Michiko; Harley, Carolyn W

    2016-01-01

    Emotional arousal enhances perception and memory of high-priority information but impairs processing of other information. Here, we propose that, under arousal, local glutamate levels signal the current strength of a representation and interact with norepinephrine (NE) to enhance high priority representations and out-compete or suppress lower priority representations. In our "glutamate amplifies noradrenergic effects" (GANE) model, high glutamate at the site of prioritized representations increases local NE release from the locus coeruleus (LC) to generate "NE hotspots." At these NE hotspots, local glutamate and NE release are mutually enhancing and amplify activation of prioritized representations. In contrast, arousal-induced LC activity inhibits less active representations via two mechanisms: 1) Where there are hotspots, lateral inhibition is amplified; 2) Where no hotspots emerge, NE levels are only high enough to activate low-threshold inhibitory adrenoreceptors. Thus, LC activation promotes a few hotspots of excitation in the context of widespread suppression, enhancing high priority representations while suppressing the rest. Hotspots also help synchronize oscillations across neural ensembles transmitting high-priority information. Furthermore, brain structures that detect stimulus priority interact with phasic NE release to preferentially route such information through large-scale functional brain networks. A surge of NE before, during, or after encoding enhances synaptic plasticity at NE hotspots, triggering local protein synthesis processes that enhance selective memory consolidation. Together, these noradrenergic mechanisms promote selective attention and memory under arousal. GANE not only reconciles apparently contradictory findings in the emotion-cognition literature but also extends previous influential theories of LC neuromodulation by proposing specific mechanisms for how LC-NE activity increases neural gain.

  15. Immunomodulation Mechanism of Antidepressants: Interactions between Serotonin/Norepinephrine Balance and Th1/Th2 Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Matteo; Rocchi, Giulio; Escelsior, Andrea; Fornaro, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Neurotransmitters and hormones regulate major immune functions, including the selection of T helper (Th)1 or Th2 cytokine responses, related to cell-mediated and humoral immunity, respectively. A role of imbalance and dynamic switching of Th1/Th2 system has been proposed, with relative displacement of the immune reserve in relation to complex interaction between Th1/Th2 and neuro-hormonal balance fluctuations, in the pathogenesis of various chronic human diseases, probably also including psychiatric disorders. Components of the stress system such as norepinephrine (NE) and glucocorticoids appear to mediate a Th2 shift, while serotonin (5-HT) and melatonin might mediate a Th1 shift. Some antidepressants would occur affecting these systems, acting on neurotransmitter balance (especially the 5-HT/NE balance) and expression levels of receptor subtypes, which in turn affect cytokine production and relative Th1/Th2 balance. It could be therefore hypothesized that the antidepressant-related increase in NE tone enhances the Th2 response, while the decrease in NE tone or the increase in 5-HT tone enhances the Th1 response. However, the neurotransmitter and Th1/Th2 balance modulation could be relative, aiming to restore physiological levels a previous imbalance in receptor sensitivity and cytokine production. The considerations on neuro-immunomodulation could represent an additional aid in the study of pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders and in the choice of specific antidepressants in specific clusters of symptoms, especially in comorbidity with internal pathologies. Furthermore limited data, reviewed here, have shown the effectiveness of some antidepressants as pure immunomodulators. However, these considerations are tentative and require experimental confirmation or refutation by future studies. PMID:23204981

  16. Selective binding of 2-[125I]iodo-nisoxetine to norepinephrine transporters in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, M.-P.; Choi, Seok-Rye; Hou, Catherine; Zhuang, Z.-P.; Foulon, Catherine; Kung, Hank F.

    2004-01-01

    A radioiodinated ligand, (R)-N-methyl-(2-[ 125 I]iodo-phenoxy)-3-phenylpropylamine, [ 125 I]2-INXT, targeting norepinephrine transporters (NET), was successfully prepared. A no-carrier-added product, [ 125 I]2-INXT, displayed a saturable binding with a high affinity (K d =0.06 nM) in the homogenates prepared from rat cortical tissues as well as from LLC-PK 1 cells expressing NET. A relatively low number of binding sties (B max =55 fmol/mg protein) measured with [ 125 I]2-INXT in rat cortical homogenates is consistent with the value reported for a known NET ligand, [ 3 H]nisoxetine. Competition studies with various compounds on [ 125 I]2-INXT binding clearly confirmed the pharmacological specificity and selectivity for NET binding sites. Following a tail-vein injection of [ 125 I]2-INXT in rats, a good initial brain uptake was observed (0.56% dose at 2 min) followed by a slow washout from the brain (0.2% remained at 3 hours post-injection). The hypothalamus (a NET-rich region) to striatum (a region devoid of NET) ratio was 1.5 at 3 hours post-i.v. injection. Pretreatment of rats with nisoxetine significantly inhibited the uptake of [ 125 I]2-INXT (70-100% inhibition) in locus coeruleus, hypothalamus and raphe nuclei, regions known to have a high density of NET; whereas escitalopram, a serotonin transporter ligand, did not show a similar effect. Ex vivo autoradiography of rat brain sections of [ 125 I]2-INXT (at 3 hours after an i.v. injection) displayed an excellent regional brain localization pattern corroborated to the specific NET distribution in the brain. The specific brain localization was significantly reduced by a dose of nisoxetine pretreatment. Taken together, the data suggest that [ 123 I]2-INXT may be useful for mapping NET binding sites in the brain

  17. Evidence that two stereochemically different alpha-2 adrenoceptors modulate norepinephrine release in rat cerebral cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harsing, L.G. Jr.; Vizi, E.S. (Institute of Experimental Medicine, Budapest (Hungary))

    1991-01-01

    Cerebral cortex slices from the rat were loaded with (3H)norepinephrine ((3H)NE) and superfused in order to measure the release of radioactivity at rest and in response to electrical stimulation. The (-)-isomer and the (+)-isomer of CH-38083 (7,8-(methylenedioxy)-14- alpha-hydroxyalloberbane HCl), a selective alpha-2-adrenoceptor antagonist with an alloberbane skeleton, increased the electrically induced release of (3H)NE in a concentration-dependent manner, and a similar effect was observed with racemic CH-38083 and idazoxan. The stereoisomers of CH-38083 applied in a concentration range of 10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/l were equipotent in facilitating stimulation-evoked (3H)NE release: concentrations needed to enhance tritium outflow by 50% were 1.3 X 10(-7) mol/l for (-)-CH-38083 and 1.4 X 10(-7) mol/l for (+)-CH-38083. Exogenous NE decreased the electrically stimulated release of (3H)NE, and the stereoisomers of CH-38083 antagonized this inhibition with different potencies: the dissociation constant (KB) values for (-)-isomer and for (+)-isomer of CH-38083 were 14.29 and 97.18 nmol/l. These data indicate that presynaptic alpha-2 adrenoceptors that are available for NE released from axon terminals do not show stereospecificity toward enantiomers of CH-38083, whereas those that are occupied by exogenous NE are much more sensitive toward (-)-CH-38083. The alpha-1 adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin also differentiated between the alpha-2 adrenoceptor subtypes: prazosin (10(-6) mol/l) did not alter the increase of electrically induced (3H)NE release evoked by (-)- and (+)-CH-38083; however, in its presence, the stereoisomers of CH-38083 failed to antagonize the inhibitory effect of exogenous NE on its own release.

  18. Napping reverses the salivary interleukin-6 and urinary norepinephrine changes induced by sleep restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraut, Brice; Nakib, Samir; Drogou, Catherine; Elbaz, Maxime; Sauvet, Fabien; De Bandt, Jean-Pascal; Léger, Damien

    2015-03-01

    Neuroendocrine and immune stresses imposed by chronic sleep restriction are known to be involved in the harmful cardiovascular effects associated with poor sleep. Despite a well-known beneficial effect of napping on alertness, its effects on neuroendocrine stress and immune responses after sleep restriction are largely unknown. This study was a strictly controlled (sleep-wake status, light environment, caloric intake), crossover, randomized design in continuously polysomnography-monitored subjects. The study was conducted in a laboratory-based study. The subjects were 11 healthy young men. We investigated the effects on neuroendocrine and immune biomarkers of a night of sleep restricted to 2 h followed by a day without naps or with 30 minute morning and afternoon naps, both conditions followed by an ad libitum recovery night starting at 20:00. Salivary interleukin-6 and urinary catecholamines were assessed throughout the daytime study periods. The increase in norepinephrine values seen at the end of the afternoon after the sleep-restricted night was not present when the subjects had the opportunity to take naps. Interleukin-6 changes observed after sleep deprivation were also normalized after napping. During the recovery day in the no-nap condition, there were increased levels of afternoon epinephrine and dopamine, which was not the case in the nap condition. A recovery night after napping was associated with a reduced amount of slow-wave sleep compared to after the no-nap condition. Our data suggest that napping has stress-releasing and immune effects. Napping could be easily applied in real settings as a countermeasure to the detrimental health consequences of sleep debt.

  19. Neurotensin releases norepinephrine differentially from perfused hypothalamus of sated and fasted rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.F.; Rezvani, A.H.; Hepler, J.R.; Myers, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The central injection of neurotensin (NT) has been reported to attenuate the intake of food in the fasted animal. To determine whether endogenous norepinephrine (NE) is involved in the satiating effect of NT, the in vivo activity of NE in circumscribed sites in the hypothalamus of the unanesthetized rat was examined. Bilateral guide tubes for push-pull perfusion were implanted stereotaxically to rest permanently above one of several intended sites of perfusion, which included the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), ventromedial nucleus (VMN), and the lateral hypothalamic (LH) area. After endogenous stores of NE at a specific hypothalamic locus were radiolabeled by microinjection of 0.02-0.5 μCi of [ 3 H]NE, an artificial cerebrospinal fluid was perfused at the site at a rate of 20 μl/min over successive intervals of 5.0 min. When 0.05 or 0.1 μg/μl NT was added to the perfusate, the peptide served either to enhance or educe the local release of NE at 50% of the sites of perfusion. In these experiments, the circumscribed effect of NT on the characteristics of catecholamine efflux depended entirely on the state of hunger or satiety of the rat. That is, when NT was perfused in the fully satiated rat, NE release was augmented within the PVn or VMN; conversely, NE release was inhibited in the LH. in the animal fasted for 18-22 h, NT exerted an opposite effect on the activity of NE within the same anatomical loci in that the efflux of NE was enhanced in the LH but attenuated or unaffected in the PVN or VMN. Taken together, these observations provide experimental support for the view-point that NT could act as a neuromodulator of the activity of hypothalamic noradrenergic neurons that are thought to play a functional role in the regulation of food intake

  20. Hunger and disinhibition but not cognitive restraint are associated with central norepinephrine transporter availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresch, A; Rullmann, M; Luthardt, J; Becker, G A; Patt, M; Ding, Y-S; Hilbert, A; Sabri, O; Hesse, S

    2017-10-01

    The relationship between food-intake related behaviours measured by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and in vivo norepinephrine transporter (NET) availability has not been explored yet. We investigated ten obese individuals (body mass index (BMI) 42.4 ± 3.7 kg/m 2 ) and ten normal-weight healthy controls (HC, BMI 23.9 ± 2.5 kg/m 2 ) with (S,S)-[ 11 C]-O-methylreboxetine ([ 11 C]MRB) positron emission tomography (PET). All participants completed the TFEQ, which measures cognitive restraint, disinhibition and hunger. Image analysis required magnetic resonance imaging data sets onto which volumes-of-interests were drawn. Tissue time activity curves (TACs) were obtained from the dynamic PET data followed by kinetic modeling of these regional brain TACs applying the multilinear reference tissue model (2 parameters) with the occipital cortex as reference region. Obese individuals scored significantly higher on the hunger subscale of the TFEQ. Correlative data analysis showed that a higher degree of hunger correlated negatively with the NET availability of the insular cortex in both obese individuals and HC; however, this finding was more pronounced in obesity. Further, for obese individuals, a negative correlation between disinhibition and NET BP ND of the locus coeruleus was detected. In conclusion, these initial data provide in vivo imaging support for the involvement of the central NE system in maladaptive eating behaviors such as susceptibility to hunger. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Norepinephrine-modified glassy carbon electrode for the simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid and uric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, H.R.; Memarzadeh, F.; Ardakani, M. Mazloum; Namazian, M.; Golabi, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    The oxidation of norepinephrine (NE) on a preactivated glassy carbon electrode leads to the formation of a deposited layer of about 4.2 x 10 -10 mol cm -2 at the surface of the electrode. The electron transfer rate constant, k s , and charge transfer coefficient, α, for electron transfer between the electrode and immobilized NE film were calculated as 44 s -1 and 0.46, respectively. The NE-modified glassy carbon electrode exhibited good electrocatalytic properties towards ascorbic acid (AA) oxidation in phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) with an overpotential of about 475 mV lower than that of the bare electrode. The electrocatalytic response was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, amperometry and rotating disk voltammetry. The overall number of electrons involved in the catalytic oxidation of AA and the number of electrons involved in the rate-determining step are 2 and 1, respectively. The rate constant for the catalytic oxidation of AA was evaluated by RDE voltammetry and an average value of k h was found to be 8.42 x 10 3 M -1 s -1 . Amperometric determination of AA in stirred solution exhibits a linear range of 2.0-1300.0 μM (correlation coefficient 0.9999) and a detection limit of 0.076 μM. The precision of amperometry was found to be 1.9% for replicate determination of a 49.0 μM solution of AA (n = 6). In differential pulse voltammetric measurements, the NE-modified glassy carbon electrode can separate the AA and uric acid (UA) signals. Ascorbic acid oxidizes at more negative potential than UA. Also, the simultaneous determination of UA and AA is achieved at the NE-modified electrode

  2. Norepinephrine and dopamine increase motility, biofilm formation, and virulence of Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Anh, Nguyen D Q; Bossier, Peter; Defoirdt, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi is one of the major pathogens of aquatic organisms, affecting both vertebrates and invertebrates, and causes important losses in the aquaculture industry. In order to develop novel methods to control disease caused by this pathogen, we need to obtain a better understanding of pathogenicity mechanisms. Sensing of catecholamines increases both growth and production of virulence-related factors in pathogens of terrestrial animals and humans. However, at this moment, knowledge on the impact of catecholamines on the virulence of pathogens of aquatic organisms is lacking. In the present study, we report that in V. harveyi, norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (Dopa) increased growth in serum-supplemented medium, siderophore production, swimming motility, and expression of genes involved in flagellar motility, biofilm formation, and exopolysaccharide production. Consistent with this, pretreatment of V. harveyi with catecholamines prior to inoculation into the rearing water resulted in significantly decreased survival of gnotobiotic brine shrimp larvae, when compared to larvae challenged with untreated V. harveyi. Further, NE-induced effects could be neutralized by α-adrenergic antagonists or by the bacterial catecholamine receptor antagonist LED209, but not by β-adrenergic or dopaminergic antagonists. Dopa-induced effects could be neutralized by dopaminergic antagonists or LED209, but not by adrenergic antagonists. Together, our results indicate that catecholamine sensing increases the success of transmission of V. harveyi and that interfering with catecholamine sensing might be an interesting strategy to control vibriosis in aquaculture. We hypothesize that upon tissue and/or hemocyte damage during infection, pathogens come into contact with elevated catecholamine levels, and that this stimulates the expression of virulence factors that are required to colonize a new host.

  3. Selective oxidation of serotonin and norepinephrine over eriochrome cyanine R film modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Hong; Li Shaoguang [Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350004 (China); Tang Yuhai [Institute of Analytical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710061 (China); Chen Yan [Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350004 (China); Chen Yuanzhong [Fujian Institute of Hematology, The Affiliated Union Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350001 (China)], E-Mail: chenyz@pub3.fz.fj.cn; Lin Xinhua [Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350004 (China)], E-mail: xhlin1963@sin.com

    2009-08-01

    A novel ECR-modified electrode is fabricated by electrodeposition of Eriochrome Cyanine R (ECR) at a glassy carbon (GC) electrode by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in double-distilled water. The characterization of the ECR film modified electrode is carried out by atomic force microscopy (AFM), infrared spectra (IR), spectroelectrochemistry and cyclic voltammetry. The results show that a slightly heterogeneous film formed on the surface of the modified electrode, and the calculated surface concentration of ECR is 2 x 10{sup -10} mol/cm{sup -2}. The ECR film modified GC electrode shows excellent electrocatalytic activities toward the oxidation of serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE). Furthermore, the modified electrode can separately detect 5-HT and NE, even in the presence of 200-fold concentration of ascorbic acid (AA) and 25-fold concentration of uric acid (UA). Using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), the peak currents of 5-HT and NE recorded in pH 7 solution are linearly dependent on their concentrations in the range of 0.05-5 {mu}M and 2-50 {mu}M, respectively. The limits of detection are 0.05 and 1.5 {mu}M for 5-HT and NE, respectively. The ECR film modified electrode can be stored stable for at least 1 week in 0.05 M PBS (pH 7) at 4 {sup o}C in a refrigerator. Owing to its excellent selectivity and sensitivity, the modified electrode could provide a promising tool for the simultaneous determination of 5-HT and NE in complex biosamples.

  4. Effects of a selective iNOS inhibitor versus norepinephrine in the treatment of septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fuhong; Huang, Hongchuan; Akieda, Kazuki; Occhipinti, Giovanna; Donadello, Katia; Piagnerelli, Michael; De Backer, Daniel; Vincent, Jean-Louis

    2010-09-01

    Inhibition of NOS is not beneficial in septic shock; selective inhibition of the inducible form (iNOS) may represent a better option. We compared the effects of the selective iNOS inhibitor BYK191023 with those of norepinephrine (NE) in a sheep model of septic shock. Twenty-four anesthetized, mechanically ventilated ewes received 1.5 g/kg body weight of feces into the abdominal cavity to induce sepsis. Animals were randomized into three groups (each n = 8): NE-only, BYK-only, and NE + BYK. The sublingual microcirculation was evaluated with sidestream dark-field videomicroscopy. MAP was higher in the NE + BYK group than in the other groups, but there were no significant differences in cardiac index or systemic vascular resistance. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure was lower in BYK-treated animals than in the NE-only group. PaO2/FiO2 was higher and lactate concentration lower in the BYK groups than in the NE-only group. Mesenteric blood flow was higher in BYK groups than in the NE-only group. Renal blood flow was higher in the NE + BYK group than in the other groups. Functional capillary density and proportion of perfused vessels were higher in the BYK groups than in the NE-only group 18 h after induction of peritonitis. Survival times were similar in the three groups. In this model of peritonitis, selective iNOS inhibition had more beneficial effects than NE on pulmonary artery pressures, gas exchange, mesenteric blood flow, microcirculation, and lactate concentration. Combination of this selective iNOS inhibitor with NE allowed a higher arterial pressure and renal blood flow to be maintained.

  5. Vorinostat increases expression of functional norepinephrine transporter in neuroblastoma in vitro and in vivo model systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Swati S.; Itsara, Melissa; Yang, Xiaodong; Geier, Ethan G.; Tadano, Michelle K.; Seo, Youngho; VanBrocklin, Henry F.; Weiss, William A.; Mueller, Sabine; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A.; DuBois, Steven G.; Matthay, Katherine K.; Giacomini, Kathleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition causes transcriptional activation or repression of several genes that in turn can influence the biodistribution of other chemotherapeutic agents. Here, we hypothesize that the combination of vorinostat, a HDAC inhibitor, with 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) would lead to preferential accumulation of the latter in neuroblastoma (NB) tumors via increased expression of the human norepinephrine transporter (NET). Experimental Design In vitro and in vivo experiments examined the effect of vorinostat on the expression of NET, an uptake transporter for 131I-MIBG. Human NB cell lines (Kelly and SH-SY-5Y) and NB1691luc mouse xenografts were employed. The upregulated NET protein was characterized for its effect on 123I-MIBG biodistribution. Results Preincubation of NB cell lines, Kelly and SH-SY-5Y, with vorinostat caused dose-dependent increases in NET mRNA and protein levels. Accompanying this was a corresponding dose-dependent increase in MIBG uptake in NB cell lines. Four-fold and 2.5 fold increases were observed in Kelly and SH-SY-5Y cells, respectively, pre-treated with vorinostat in comparison to untreated cells. Similarly, NB xenografts, created by intravenous tail vein injection of NB1691-luc, and harvested from nude mice livers treated with vorinostat (150 mg/kg i.p.) showed substantial increases in NET protein expression. Maximal effect of vorinostat pretreatment in NB xenografts on 123I-MIBG biodistribution was observed in tumors that exhibited enhanced uptake in vorinostat treated (0.062 ± 0.011 μCi/(mg tissue-dose injected)) versus untreated mice (0.022 ± 0.003 μCi/(mg tissue-dose injected); p vorinostat treatment can enhance NB therapy with 131I-MIBG. PMID:21421857

  6. Treatment with clozapine and its effect on plasma homovanillic acid and norepinephrine concentrations in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, M; Kahn, R S; Stern, R G; Hirschowitz, J; Apter, S; Knott, P; Davis, K L

    1993-02-01

    Measurement of plasma concentrations of the dopamine metabolite, homovanillic acid (pHVA), is an indirect tool to assess changes in dopamine turnover. Levels of pHVA have been reported to decrease during treatment with conventional antidopaminergic, neuroleptics, with the decrement correlating with symptomatic improvement in schizophrenic symptoms. Clozapine, an atypical neuroleptic, is the only drug proved to be effective in treatment-refractory patients. However, the mechanism mediating this unique efficacy has not been fully elucidated. This study examined the effect of clozapine on pHVA concentrations in schizophrenic patients. Since clozapine potently binds to alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, plasma norepinephrine (pNE) concentrations were also measured. Twenty-eight treatment-refractory schizophrenic patients (24 men, 4 women) were treated with clozapine (up to 600 mg/day) for 5 weeks, after a minimum 1-week drug-free period. Symptomatology and pHVA and pNE concentrations were measured at the last drug-free day and weekly for 5 weeks. Fourteen patients responded to clozapine treatment, while an equal number did not. Mean pHVA concentrations did not significantly change during treatment with clozapine. Although clozapine tended to lower pHVA concentrations in treatment responders, the effect was small and not significant. Clozapine treatment significantly raised pNE concentrations, but this did not differentiate responders from nonresponders to clozapine. These findings suggest that clozapine's effect on DA turnover is small and that clozapine may be effective in treatment-refractory schizophrenia by mechanisms other than, or in addition to, dopamine receptor blockade. However, since about one-third of NE is metabolized into HVA, the clozapine-induced increase in pNE may have overshadowed a possible lowering effect of clozapine on pHVA.

  7. Selective binding of 2-[{sup 125}I]iodo-nisoxetine to norepinephrine transporters in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, M.-P.; Choi, Seok-Rye; Hou, Catherine; Zhuang, Z.-P.; Foulon, Catherine; Kung, Hank F. E-mail: kunghf@sunmac.spect.upenn.edu

    2004-07-01

    A radioiodinated ligand, (R)-N-methyl-(2-[{sup 125}I]iodo-phenoxy)-3-phenylpropylamine, [{sup 125}I]2-INXT, targeting norepinephrine transporters (NET), was successfully prepared. A no-carrier-added product, [{sup 125}I]2-INXT, displayed a saturable binding with a high affinity (K{sub d}=0.06 nM) in the homogenates prepared from rat cortical tissues as well as from LLC-PK{sub 1} cells expressing NET. A relatively low number of binding sties (B{sub max}=55 fmol/mg protein) measured with [{sup 125}I]2-INXT in rat cortical homogenates is consistent with the value reported for a known NET ligand, [{sup 3}H]nisoxetine. Competition studies with various compounds on [{sup 125}I]2-INXT binding clearly confirmed the pharmacological specificity and selectivity for NET binding sites. Following a tail-vein injection of [{sup 125}I]2-INXT in rats, a good initial brain uptake was observed (0.56% dose at 2 min) followed by a slow washout from the brain (0.2% remained at 3 hours post-injection). The hypothalamus (a NET-rich region) to striatum (a region devoid of NET) ratio was 1.5 at 3 hours post-i.v. injection. Pretreatment of rats with nisoxetine significantly inhibited the uptake of [{sup 125}I]2-INXT (70-100% inhibition) in locus coeruleus, hypothalamus and raphe nuclei, regions known to have a high density of NET; whereas escitalopram, a serotonin transporter ligand, did not show a similar effect. Ex vivo autoradiography of rat brain sections of [{sup 125}I]2-INXT (at 3 hours after an i.v. injection) displayed an excellent regional brain localization pattern corroborated to the specific NET distribution in the brain. The specific brain localization was significantly reduced by a dose of nisoxetine pretreatment. Taken together, the data suggest that [{sup 123}I]2-INXT may be useful for mapping NET binding sites in the brain.

  8. Age-related differences in norepinephrine kinetics: Effect of posture and sodium-restricted diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supiano, M.A.; Linares, O.A.; Smith, M.J.; Halter, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    We used compartmental analysis to study the influence of age on the kinetics of norepinephrine (NE) distribution and metabolism. Plasma NE and [3H]NE levels were measured in 10 young (age 19-33 yr) and 13 elderly (age 62-73 yr) subjects in the basal supine position, during upright posture, and after 1 wk of a sodium-restricted diet. We found that the basal supine release rate of NE into the extravascular compartment, which is the site of endogenous NE release (NE2), was significantly increased in the elderly group (young, 9.6 +/- 0.5; elderly, 12.3 +/- 0.8 nmol.min-1.m-2; means +/- SE; P = 0.016), providing direct evidence for an age-related increase in sympathetic nervous system (SNS) tone. Although upright posture led to a greater increase in plasma NE in the young (0.90 +/- 0.07 to 2.36 +/- 0.16 nM) than in the elderly (1.31 +/- 0.11 to 2.56 +/- 0.31 nM; age group-posture interaction, P = 0.02), the increase in NE2 was similar between the young (9.6 +/- 0.6 to 16.2 +/- 1.5 nmol.min-1.m-2) and the elderly (11.6 +/- 1.4 to 16.1 +/- 2.4 nmol.min-1.m-2; posture effect, P = 0.001; age group-posture interaction, P = 0.15). Thus the increase in SNS tone resulting from upright posture was similar in young and elderly subjects. Plasma NE levels increased similarly in both groups after a sodium-restricted diet (diet effect, P = 0.001; age group-diet interaction, P = 0.23). However, NE2 did not increase significantly in either group (diet effect, P = 0.26), suggesting that SNS tone did not increase after a sodium-restricted diet. Compartmental analysis provides a description of age-related differences in NE kinetics, including an age-related increase in the extravascular NE release rate

  9. The norepinephrine transporter in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder investigated with positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanicek, Thomas; Spies, Marie; Rami-Mark, Christina; Savli, Markus; Höflich, Anna; Kranz, Georg S; Hahn, Andreas; Kutzelnigg, Alexandra; Traub-Weidinger, Tatjana; Mitterhauser, Markus; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Hacker, Marcus; Volkow, Nora D; Kasper, Siegfried; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2014-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) research has long focused on the dopaminergic system's contribution to pathogenesis, although the results have been inconclusive. However, a case has been made for the involvement of the noradrenergic system, which modulates cognitive processes, such as arousal, working memory, and response inhibition, all of which are typically affected in ADHD. Furthermore, the norepinephrine transporter (NET) is an important target for frequently prescribed medication in ADHD. Therefore, the NET is suggested to play a critical role in ADHD. To explore the differences in NET nondisplaceable binding potential (NET BPND) using positron emission tomography and the highly selective radioligand (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2 [(S,S)-2-(α-(2-[18F]fluoro[2H2]methoxyphenoxy)benzyl)morpholine] between adults with ADHD and healthy volunteers serving as controls. Twenty-two medication-free patients with ADHD (mean [SD] age, 30.7 [10.4] years; 15 [68%] men) without psychiatric comorbidities and 22 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (30.9 [10.6] years; 15 [68%] men) underwent positron emission tomography once. A linear mixed model was used to compare NET BPND between groups. The NET BPND in selected regions of interest relevant for ADHD, including the hippocampus, putamen, pallidum, thalamus, midbrain with pons (comprising a region of interest that includes the locus coeruleus), and cerebellum. In addition, the NET BPND was evaluated in thalamic subnuclei (13 atlas-based regions of interest). We found no significant differences in NET availability or regional distribution between patients with ADHD and healthy controls in all investigated brain regions (F1,41sex nor smoking status influenced NET availability. We determined a significant negative correlation between age and NET availability in the thalamus (R2=0.29; P<.01 corrected) and midbrain with pons, including the locus coeruleus (R2=0.18; P<.01 corrected), which corroborates prior findings of a

  10. The Norepinephrine Transporter in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Investigated With Positron Emission Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rami-Mark, Christina; Savli, Markus; Höflich, Anna; Kranz, Georg S.; Hahn, Andreas; Kutzelnigg, Alexandra; Traub-Weidinger, Tatjana; Mitterhauser, Markus; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Hacker, Marcus; Volkow, Nora D.; Kasper, Siegfried; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) research has long focused on the dopaminergic system’s contribution to pathogenesis, although the results have been inconclusive. However, a case has been made for the involvement of the noradrenergic system, which modulates cognitive processes, such as arousal, working memory, and response inhibition, all of which are typically affected in ADHD. Furthermore, the norepinephrine transporter (NET) is an important target for frequently prescribed medication in ADHD. Therefore, the NET is suggested to play a critical role in ADHD. OBJECTIVE To explore the differences in NET nondisplaceable binding potential (NET BPND) using positron emission tomography and the highly selective radioligand (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2 [(S,S)-2-(α-(2-[18F]fluoro[2H2]methoxyphenoxy)benzyl)morpholine] between adults with ADHD and healthy volunteers serving as controls. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Twenty-two medication-free patients with ADHD (mean [SD] age, 30.7 [10.4] years; 15 [68%] men) without psychiatric comorbidities and 22 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (30.9 [10.6] years; 15 [68%] men) underwent positron emission tomography once. A linear mixed model was used to compare NET BPND between groups. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The NET BPND in selected regions of interest relevant for ADHD, including the hippocampus, putamen, pallidum, thalamus, midbrain with pons (comprising a region of interest that includes the locus coeruleus), and cerebellum. In addition, the NET BPND was evaluated in thalamic subnuclei (13 atlas-based regions of interest). RESULTS We found no significant differences in NET availability or regional distribution between patients with ADHD and healthy controls in all investigated brain regions (F1,41 < 0.01; P = .96). Furthermore, we identified no significant association between ADHD symptom severity and regional NET availability. Neither sex nor smoking status influenced NET availability. We determined

  11. Sympathetic nervous activity and renal and systemic hemodynamics in cirrhosis: plasma norepinephrine concentration, hepatic extraction, and renal release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring-Larsen, H; Hesse, B; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1982-01-01

    as previously reported in healthy controls. The right kidney released NE into the systemic circulation. Renal venous plasma NE exceeded arterial concentration by 34% (p less than 0.01). It is concluded that sympathetic nervous activity is enhanced in patients with cirrhosis, and that this hyperactivity may...... in patients than controls (82 vs. 95 mm Hg, p less than 0.05) but did not change during the tilt. Plasma norepinephrine (NE) concentration was significantly higher in another eight patients with cirrhosis than in eight healthy controls (mean: 0.45 vs. 0.21 ng per ml in recumbency, p less than 0.02). Following...

  12. In vivo assessment of [11C]MRB as a prospective PET ligand for imaging the norepinephrine transporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severance, Alin J.; Milak, Matthew S.; Dileep Kumar, J.S.; Arango, Victoria; Parsey, Ramin V.; Prabhakaran, Jaya; Majo, Vattoly J.; Simpson, Norman R.; Van Heertum, Ronald L.; Mann, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Antagonism of norepinephrine reuptake is now an important pharmacological strategy in the treatment of anxiety and depressive disorders, and many antidepressants have substantial potential occupancy of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) at recommended dosages. Despite the importance of understanding this transporter's role in psychiatric disease and treatment, a suitable radioligand for studying NET has been slow to emerge. (S,S)-Methylreboxetine (MRB) is among the more promising ligands recently adapted for positron emission tomography (PET), and the present study aimed to evaluate its potential for use in higher primates. Affinities for various brain targets were determined in vitro. PET studies were conducted in baboon under both test-retest and blocking conditions using 1 mg/kg nisoxetine. MRB has sixfold higher affinity for NET than the serotonin transporter, and negligible affinity for other sites. PET studies in baboons showed little regional heterogeneity in binding and were minimally affected by pretreatment with the NET antagonist nisoxetine. Despite improvement over previous ligands for imaging NET in vivo, the low signal to noise ratio indicates [ 11 C]MRB lacks sensitivity and reliability as a PET radiotracer in humans. (orig.)

  13. Hypersensitivity to norepinephrine in vasa deferentia from diabetic rats. Possible participation of metabolic products of arachidonic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peredo, H; Agostini, M D; Gimeno, M F; Borda, E S

    1984-08-01

    Contractile responses to norepinephrine of the vas deferens isolated from normal and diabetic rats as well as tissue radio-conversion of exogenous arachidonic acid, were studied. Vasa deferentia from rats with acute streptozotocin-induced diabetes showed hypersensitivity to exogenous norepinephrine (NE). This increased contractile response was associated with the interaction of the agonist with alpha adrenoceptors. Inhibitors of cyclooxygenase increased and inhibitors of lipoxygenase(s) abolished the enhanced response to NE of diabetic vas deferens. Vasa deferentia from both normal and diabetic rats, converted (1-/sup 14/C)-arachidonic acid (AA) into PGF, PGE, PGD and thromboxane (TX) B2, but the % of AA metabolites formed was significantly higher in the diabetic than in the normal condition. Moreover, the predominant prostanoid generated by tissue preparations from diabetic animals was PGD2. Taken together the present experimental findings indicate that preparations from rats with acute streptozotocin-induced diabetes have an augmented reactivity towards NE, which appeared associated with changes in metabolites of AA generated via cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase catalized pathways.

  14. Association between norepinephrine transporter gene (SLC6A2) polymorphisms and suicide in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Ku; Hwang, Jung-A; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Ko, Young-Hoon; Lee, Bun-Hee; Jung, Han-Yong; Hahn, Sang-Woo; Na, Kyoung-Sae

    2014-04-01

    Although several studies have investigated possible associations between norepinephrine neurotransmitter transporter gene (SLC6A2) polymorphisms and depression, few studies have examined associations between SLC6A2 polymorphisms and suicide. Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs2242446, rs28386840, and rs5569) were measured in 550 patients: 201 with major depressive disorder (MDD) and suicide attempt/s, 160 with MDD without suicide attempts, and 189 healthy controls. Analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotype was conducted for the three groups. Subsequently, multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for age and gender was conducted to identify independent influences of each SNP. A possible association between suicide lethality and SLC6A2 polymorphisms was also investigated. In the genotype and allele frequency analysis, there were significant differences in rs28386840 between suicidal MDD patients and healthy controls. In the haplotype analysis, TAA (rs2242446-rs28386840-rs5569, from left to right) was associated with suicide attempts in MDD, although the significance (p=0.043) disappeared after Bonferroni correction. There were no relationships between lethality scores and SLC6A2 polymorphisms in suicidal MDD. Modest sample size and a single type of neurotransmitter analyzed (norepinephrine) are the primary limitations. Our results suggest that SLC6A2 polymorphisms were associated with suicide risk in patients with MDD. Future studies are warranted to elucidate possible mechanisms by which SLC6A2 polymorphisms influence suicide risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of cocaine on [11C]norepinephrine and [11C]β-CIT uptake in the primate peripheral organs measured by PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhara, Tetsuya; Farde, L.; Halldin, C.; Karlsson, P.; Nagren, K.

    1996-01-01

    The toxic properties of cocaine are related to both the central and peripheral effects. To identify possible lethal mechanisms and the accumulation of cocaine in various organs, the effects of cocaine on [ 11 C] norepinephrine and cocaine congener [ 11 C]β-CIT uptake in Cynomolgus monkeys were measured by positron emission tomography (PET). Cocaine (5 mg/kg) noticeably inhibited [ 11 C] norepinephrine uptake in the heart. The uptake of [ 11 C]β-CIT in the heart and lung was reduced by pretreatment with cocaine. There was a significant uptake in the liver which was increased following cocaine pretreatment. The results of this study confirm that cocaine blocks the neuronal uptake of norepinephrine in sympathetic nerve terminals in the myocardium. The effect of cocaine on [ 11 C]β-CIT uptake indicates that the binding sites in the heart and lung are saturable, while the uptake mechanism in the liver is different from those of the heart and lung. (author)

  16. Modulation of the release of norepinephrine by gamma-aminobutyric acid and morphine in the frontal cerebral cortex of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peoples, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Agents that enhance gamma-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, neurotransmission modulate certain effects of opioids, such as analgesia. Opioid analgesia is mediated in part by norepinephrine in the forebrain. In this study, the interactions between morphine and GABAergic agents on release of [ 3 H] norepinephrine from rat frontal cerebral cortical slices were examined. GABA, 5 x 10 -5 -10 -3 M, enhanced potassium stimulated [ 3 H] norepinephrine release and reversed the inhibitory effect of morphine in a noncompetitive manner. GABA did not enhance release of [ 3 H] norepinephrine stimulated by the calcium ionophore A23187. The effect of GABA was reduced by the GABA A receptor antagonists bicuculline methiodide or picrotoxin, and by the selective inhibitor of GABA uptake SKF 89976A, but was blocked completely only when bicuculline methiodide and SKF 89976A were used in combination. The GABA A agonist muscimol, 10 -4 M, mimicked the effect of GABA, but the GABA B agonist (±)baclofen, 10 -4 M, did not affect the release of [ 3 H] norepinephrine in the absence or the presence of morphine. Thus GABA appears to produce this effect by stimulating GABA uptake and GABA A , but not GABA B , receptors. In contrast to the results that would be predicted for an event involving GABA A receptors, however, the effect of GABA did not desensitize, and benzodiazepine agonists did not enhance the effect of GABA at any concentration tested between 10 -8 and 10 -4 M. Thus these receptors may constitute a subclass of GABA A receptors. These results support a role of GABA uptake and GABA A receptors in enhancing the release of norepinephrine and modulating its inhibition by opioids in the frontal cortex of the rat

  17. Modulation of the release of norepinephrine by gamma-aminobutyric acid and morphine in the frontal cerebral cortex of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peoples, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Agents that enhance gamma-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, neurotransmission modulate certain effects of opioids, such as analgesia. Opioid analgesia is mediated in part by norepinephrine in the forebrain. In this study, the interactions between morphine and GABAergic agents on release of ({sup 3}H) norepinephrine from rat frontal cerebral cortical slices were examined. GABA, 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}-10{sup {minus}3} M, enhanced potassium stimulated ({sup 3}H) norepinephrine release and reversed the inhibitory effect of morphine in a noncompetitive manner. GABA did not enhance release of ({sup 3}H) norepinephrine stimulated by the calcium ionophore A23187. The effect of GABA was reduced by the GABA{sub A} receptor antagonists bicuculline methiodide or picrotoxin, and by the selective inhibitor of GABA uptake SKF 89976A, but was blocked completely only when bicuculline methiodide and SKF 89976A were used in combination. The GABA{sub A} agonist muscimol, 10{sup {minus}4} M, mimicked the effect of GABA, but the GABA{sub B} agonist ({plus minus})baclofen, 10{sup {minus}4} M, did not affect the release of ({sup 3}H) norepinephrine in the absence or the presence of morphine. Thus GABA appears to produce this effect by stimulating GABA uptake and GABA{sub A}, but not GABA{sub B}, receptors. In contrast to the results that would be predicted for an event involving GABA{sub A} receptors, however, the effect of GABA did not desensitize, and benzodiazepine agonists did not enhance the effect of GABA at any concentration tested between 10{sup {minus}8} and 10{sup {minus}4} M. Thus these receptors may constitute a subclass of GABA{sub A} receptors. These results support a role of GABA uptake and GABA{sub A} receptors in enhancing the release of norepinephrine and modulating its inhibition by opioids in the frontal cortex of the rat.

  18. A comparison of N-methyl-D-aspartate-evoked release of adenosine and [3H]norepinephrine from rat cortical slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehn, K.; Craig, C.G.; White, T.D.

    1990-01-01

    Tetrodotoxin reduced N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-evoked release of adenosine by 35% but virtually abolished [3H]norepinephrine release. Although [3H]norepinephrine release from rat cortical slices evoked by 500 microM NMDA was abolished by 1.2 mM Mg++, which produces a voltage-sensitive, uncompetitive block of NMDA-channels, adenosine release was increased in the presence of Mg++. Partial depolarization with 12 mM K+ relieved the Mg++ block of 500 microM NMDA-evoked [3H]norepinephrine release but did not affect adenosine release, indicating that a Mg++ requirement for the adenosine release process per se cannot account for this discrepancy. NMDA was 33 times more potent in releasing adenosine than [3H]norepinephrine. At submaximal concentrations of NMDA (10 and 20 microM), adenosine release was augmented in Mg+(+)-free medium. Although a high concentration of the uncompetitive NMDA antagonist MK-801 [(+)-5-methyl-10,11,dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5-10-imine maleate] (3 microM) blocked NMDA-evoked release of [3H]norepinephrine and adenosine, a lower concentration (300 nM) decreased NMDA-evoked [3H]norepinephrine release by 66% without affecting adenosine release. These findings suggest that maximal adenosine release occurs when relatively few NMDA receptors are activated, raising the possibility that spare receptors exist for NMDA-evoked adenosine release. Rather than acting as a protectant against excessive NMDA excitation, released adenosine might provide an inhibitory threshold which must be overcome for NMDA-mediated neurotransmission to proceed

  19. Dietary supplement increases plasma norepinephrine, lipolysis, and metabolic rate in resistance trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schilling Brian K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary supplements targeting fat loss and increased thermogenesis are prevalent within the sport nutrition/weight loss market. While some isolated ingredients have been reported to be efficacious when used at high dosages, in particular in animal models and/or via intravenous delivery, little objective evidence is available pertaining to the efficacy of a finished product taken by human subjects in oral form. Moreover, many ingredients function as stimulants, leading to increased hemodynamic responses. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a finished dietary supplement on plasma catecholamine concentration, markers of lipolysis, metabolic rate, and hemodynamics. Methods Ten resistance trained men (age = 27 ± 4 yrs; BMI = 25 ± 3 kg· m-2; body fat = 9 ± 3%; mean ± SD ingested a dietary supplement (Meltdown®, Vital Pharmaceuticals or a placebo, in a random order, double blind cross-over design, with one week separating conditions. Fasting blood samples were collected before, and at 30, 60, and 90 minutes post ingestion and were assayed for epinephrine (EPI, norepinephrine (NE, glycerol, and free fatty acids (FFA. Area under the curve (AUC was calculated for all variables. Gas samples were collected from 30–60 minutes post ingestion for measurement of metabolic rate. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded at all blood collection times. Results AUC was greater for the dietary supplement compared to the placebo for NE (1332 ± 128 pg·mL-1·90 min-1 vs. 1003 ± 133 pg·mL-1·90 min-1; p = 0.03, glycerol (44 ± 3 μg·mL-1·90 min-1 vs. 26 ± 2 μg·mL-1·90 min-1; p -1·90 min-1 vs. 0.88 ± 0.12 mmol·L-1·90 min-1; p = 0.0003. No difference between conditions was noted for EPI AUC (p > 0.05. For all variables, values were highest at 90 minutes post ingestion. Total kilocalorie expenditure during the 30 minute collection period was 29.6% greater (p = 0.02 for the dietary supplement (35 ± 3

  20. Evidence for altered brain reactivity to norepinephrine in Veterans with a history of traumatic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C. Hendrickson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increases in the quantity or impact of noradrenergic signaling have been implicated in the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. This increased signaling may result from increased norepinephrine (NE release, from altered brain responses to NE, or from a combination of both factors. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Veterans reporting a history of trauma exposure would show an increased association between brain NE and mental health symptoms commonly observed after trauma, as compared to Veterans who did not report a history of trauma exposure, consistent with the possibility of increased brain reactivity to NE after traumatic stress. Methods: Using a convenience sample of 69 male Veterans with a history of combat-theater deployment, we examined the relationship between trauma-related mental health symptoms and the concentration of NE in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. CSF NE levels were measured by HPLC in CSF from morning lumbar puncture. Behavioral symptoms associated with diagnoses of PTSD, depression, insomnia, or post-concussive syndrome (PCS, which together cover a wide variety of symptoms associated with alterations in arousal systems, such as sleep, mood, concentration, and anxiety, were assessed via self-report (PTSD Checklist [PCL] for PTSD, Patient Health Questionnaire 9 [PHQ9] for depression, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI] for sleep problems including insomnia, and Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory [NSI] for PCS and structured clinical interview (Clinician-Administered PSTD Scale [CAPS]. Individuals meeting criterion A of the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for PTSD were considered trauma-exposed. Linear regression models were used to quantify the association between CSF NE and symptom intensity in participants with and without a history of trauma exposure, as well as in participants with a history of trauma exposure who were currently taking the noradrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin. Results: Fifty

  1. Cocaine inhibits extraneuronal O-methylation of exogenous norepinephrine in nasal and oral tissues of the rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de la Lande, I.S.; Parker, D.A.S.; Proctor, C.H.; Marino, V.; Mackay-Sim, A.

    1987-01-01

    Nasal mucosa (respirator and olfactory) and lingual gingiva of the rabbit were depleted of their sympathetic nerves by superior cervical ganglionectomy. In the innervated nasal mucosa, exogenous tritiated norepinephrine ( 3 H-NE) was metabolized mainly to tritiated 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylene glycol ( 3 HDOPEG) and 3,4-dihydroxy mandelic acid ( 3 HDOMA), whereas after denervation it was metabolized mainly to tritiated normetanephrine ( 3 HNMN). In the denervated mucosa, cocaine(30umol/l) inhibited 3 HNMN formation by 50-60%. Cocaine also inhibited 3 HNMN formation by 60% in the denervated lingual gingiva. It is concluded that the tissues metabolize 3 H-NE via a cocaine-sensitive extraneuronal uptake and O-methylating system similar to that which has been shown to be present in dental pulp. 17 references, 1 table

  2. Influence of calcium-dependent potassium channel blockade and nitric oxide inhibition on norepinephrine-induced contractions in two forms of genetic hypertension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Líšková, Silvia; Petrová, M.; Karen, Petr; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Zicha, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 3 (2010), s. 128-134 ISSN 1933-1711 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : potassium channels * nitric oxide * norepinephrine Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.931, year: 2010

  3. The effect of pertussis toxin (PTX) treatment on blood pressure (BP), norepinephrine pressor responsiveness and BP response to acute nifedipine administration in genetic hypertension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zicha, Josef; Pintérová, Mária; Dobešová, Zdenka; Líšková, Silvia; Kuneš, Jaroslav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 4 (2006), s. 773-774 ISSN 0194-911X. [Annual Meeting of the European Council for Cardiovascular Research (ECCR) /11./. 29.09.2006-01.10.2006, La Colle sur Loup] R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR7786 Keywords : pertussis toxin * blood pressure * norepinephrine * nifedipine Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  4. Dextroamphetamine (but Not Atomoxetine) Induces Reanimation from General Anesthesia: Implications for the Roles of Dopamine and Norepinephrine in Active Emergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Jonathan D.; Taylor, Norman E.; Brown, Emery N.; Solt, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate induces reanimation (active emergence) from general anesthesia in rodents, and recent evidence suggests that dopaminergic neurotransmission is important in producing this effect. Dextroamphetamine causes the direct release of dopamine and norepinephrine, whereas atomoxetine is a selective reuptake inhibitor for norepinephrine. Like methylphenidate, both drugs are prescribed to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. In this study, we tested the efficacy of dextroamphetamine and atomoxetine for inducing reanimation from general anesthesia in rats. Emergence from general anesthesia was defined by return of righting. During continuous sevoflurane anesthesia, dextroamphetamine dose-dependently induced behavioral arousal and restored righting, but atomoxetine did not (n = 6 each). When the D1 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH-23390 was administered prior to dextroamphetamine under the same conditions, righting was not restored (n = 6). After a single dose of propofol (8 mg/kg IV), the mean emergence times for rats that received normal saline (vehicle) and dextroamphetamine (1 mg/kg IV) were 641 sec and 404 sec, respectively (n = 8 each). The difference was statistically significant. Although atomoxetine reduced mean emergence time to 566 sec (n = 8), this decrease was not statistically significant. Spectral analysis of electroencephalogram recordings revealed that dextroamphetamine and atomoxetine both induced a shift in peak power from δ (0.1–4 Hz) to θ (4–8 Hz) during continuous sevoflurane general anesthesia, which was not observed when animals were pre-treated with SCH-23390. In summary, dextroamphetamine induces reanimation from general anesthesia in rodents, but atomoxetine does not induce an arousal response under the same experimental conditions. This supports the hypothesis that dopaminergic stimulation during general anesthesia produces a robust behavioral arousal response. In contrast, selective noradrenergic stimulation causes

  5. Possible association of norepinephrine transporter -3081(A/T polymorphism with methylphenidate response in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Min-Sup

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a heritable disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. Methylphenidate (MPH has been shown to block the norepinephrine transporter (NET, and genetic investigations have demonstrated that the norepinephrine transporter gene (SLC6A2 is associated with ADHD. The aims of this study were to examine the association of the SLC6A2 -3081(A/T and G1287A polymorphisms with MPH response in ADHD. Methods This study enrolled 112 children and adolescents with ADHD. A response criterion was defined based on the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I score, and the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ARS score was also assessed at baseline and 8 weeks after MPH treatment. Results We found that the subjects who had the T allele as one of the alleles (A/T or T/T genotypes at the -3081(A/T polymorphism showed a better response to MPH treatment than those with the A/A genotype as measured by the CGI-I. We also found a trend towards a difference in the change of the total ARS scores and hyperactivity/impulsivity subscores between subjects with and without the T allele. No significant association was found between the genotypes of the SLC6A2 G1287A polymorphism and response to ADHD treatment. Conclusion Our findings provide evidence for the involvement of the -3081(A/T polymorphism of SLC6A2 in the modulation of the effectiveness of MPH treatment in ADHD.

  6. Inhibition of serotonin but not norepinephrine transport during development produces delayed, persistent perturbations of emotional behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansorge, Mark S; Morelli, Emanuela; Gingrich, Jay A

    2008-01-02

    Serotonin (5-HT) acts as a neurotransmitter, but also modulates brain maturation during early development. The demonstrated influence of genetic variants on brain function, personality traits, and susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders suggests a critical importance of developmental mechanisms. However, little is known about how and when developmentally perturbed 5-HT signaling affects circuitry and resulting behavior. The 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) is a key regulator of extracellular 5-HT levels and we used pharmacologic strategies to manipulate 5-HTT function during development and determine behavioral consequences. Transient exposure to the 5-HTT inhibitors fluoxetine, clomipramine, and citalopram from postnatal day 4 (P4) to P21 produced abnormal emotional behaviors in adult mice. Similar treatment with the norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitor, desipramine, did not adversely affect adult behavior, suggesting that 5-HT and norepinephrine (NE) do not share the same effects on brain development. Shifting our period of treatment/testing to P90/P185 failed to mimic the effect of earlier exposure, demonstrating that 5-HT effects on adult behavior are developmentally specific. We have hypothesized that early-life perturbations of 5-HT signaling affect corticolimbic circuits that do not reach maturity until the peri-adolescent period. In support of this idea, we found that abnormal behaviors resulting from postnatal fluoxetine exposure have a post-pubescent onset and persist long after reaching adult age. A better understanding of the underlying 5-HT sensitive circuits and how they are perturbed should lead to new insights into how various genetic polymorphisms confer their risk to carriers. Furthermore, these studies should help determine whether in utero exposure to 5-HTT blocking drugs poses a risk for behavioral abnormalities in later life.

  7. Synthesis and in vivo evaluation of novel radiotracers for the in vivo imaging of the norepinephrine transporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Alan A.; Patrick Johnson, David; Mozley, David; Hussey, Doug; Ginovart, Nathalie; Nobrega, Jose; Garcia, Armando; Meyer, Jeffery; Houle, Sylvain

    2003-01-01

    The (R,R) and (S,S) enantiomers of 2-[(2-methoxyphenoxy)phenylmethyl]morpholine (MeNER) have been radiolabelled with carbon-11 in good yield and at high specific activity. These radiotracers are close analogues of reboxetine, a potent and selective ligand for the norepinephrine transporter (NET). They were examined as potential ligands for imaging NET in vivo by positron emission tomography (PET). The in vivo brain distribution of both [ 11 C]-labeled enantiomers were evaluated in rats. Following tail-vein injection of the (R,R)-enantiomer regional brain uptake and washout of radioactivity was homogeneous at all time points examined (5-60 min). In contrast, administration of the (S,S)-enantiomer produced a heterogeneous distribution of radioactivity in brain with highest uptake in the hypothalamus, a NET rich region, and lowest uptake in the striatum, a brain region devoid of NET. Hypothalamus to striatum ratios of 2.5 to one were achieved at 60 min post injection of (S,S)-[ 11 C]-MeNER. Pre-injection of the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, reboxetine or desipramine, reduced hypothalamus to striatum ratios to near unity while reuptake inhibitors of dopamine and serotonin had no significant effect on binding. In vitro autoradiography studies (rat brain slices) with (S,S)-[ 11 C]-MeNER produced a regional distribution pattern that was consistent with the reported distribution of NET. (S,S)-[ 11 C]-MeNER has the potential to be the first successful PET ligand to image NET

  8. Dextroamphetamine (but Not Atomoxetine Induces Reanimation from General Anesthesia: Implications for the Roles of Dopamine and Norepinephrine in Active Emergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Kenny

    Full Text Available Methylphenidate induces reanimation (active emergence from general anesthesia in rodents, and recent evidence suggests that dopaminergic neurotransmission is important in producing this effect. Dextroamphetamine causes the direct release of dopamine and norepinephrine, whereas atomoxetine is a selective reuptake inhibitor for norepinephrine. Like methylphenidate, both drugs are prescribed to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. In this study, we tested the efficacy of dextroamphetamine and atomoxetine for inducing reanimation from general anesthesia in rats. Emergence from general anesthesia was defined by return of righting. During continuous sevoflurane anesthesia, dextroamphetamine dose-dependently induced behavioral arousal and restored righting, but atomoxetine did not (n = 6 each. When the D1 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH-23390 was administered prior to dextroamphetamine under the same conditions, righting was not restored (n = 6. After a single dose of propofol (8 mg/kg i.v., the mean emergence times for rats that received normal saline (vehicle and dextroamphetamine (1 mg/kg i.v. were 641 sec and 404 sec, respectively (n = 8 each. The difference was statistically significant. Although atomoxetine reduced mean emergence time to 566 sec (n = 8, this decrease was not statistically significant. Spectral analysis of electroencephalogram recordings revealed that dextroamphetamine and atomoxetine both induced a shift in peak power from δ (0.1-4 Hz to θ (4-8 Hz during continuous sevoflurane general anesthesia, which was not observed when animals were pre-treated with SCH-23390. In summary, dextroamphetamine induces reanimation from general anesthesia in rodents, but atomoxetine does not induce an arousal response under the same experimental conditions. This supports the hypothesis that dopaminergic stimulation during general anesthesia produces a robust behavioral arousal response. In contrast, selective noradrenergic stimulation

  9. Dextroamphetamine (but Not Atomoxetine) Induces Reanimation from General Anesthesia: Implications for the Roles of Dopamine and Norepinephrine in Active Emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Jonathan D; Taylor, Norman E; Brown, Emery N; Solt, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate induces reanimation (active emergence) from general anesthesia in rodents, and recent evidence suggests that dopaminergic neurotransmission is important in producing this effect. Dextroamphetamine causes the direct release of dopamine and norepinephrine, whereas atomoxetine is a selective reuptake inhibitor for norepinephrine. Like methylphenidate, both drugs are prescribed to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. In this study, we tested the efficacy of dextroamphetamine and atomoxetine for inducing reanimation from general anesthesia in rats. Emergence from general anesthesia was defined by return of righting. During continuous sevoflurane anesthesia, dextroamphetamine dose-dependently induced behavioral arousal and restored righting, but atomoxetine did not (n = 6 each). When the D1 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH-23390 was administered prior to dextroamphetamine under the same conditions, righting was not restored (n = 6). After a single dose of propofol (8 mg/kg i.v.), the mean emergence times for rats that received normal saline (vehicle) and dextroamphetamine (1 mg/kg i.v.) were 641 sec and 404 sec, respectively (n = 8 each). The difference was statistically significant. Although atomoxetine reduced mean emergence time to 566 sec (n = 8), this decrease was not statistically significant. Spectral analysis of electroencephalogram recordings revealed that dextroamphetamine and atomoxetine both induced a shift in peak power from δ (0.1-4 Hz) to θ (4-8 Hz) during continuous sevoflurane general anesthesia, which was not observed when animals were pre-treated with SCH-23390. In summary, dextroamphetamine induces reanimation from general anesthesia in rodents, but atomoxetine does not induce an arousal response under the same experimental conditions. This supports the hypothesis that dopaminergic stimulation during general anesthesia produces a robust behavioral arousal response. In contrast, selective noradrenergic stimulation causes

  10. Mechanism of norepinephrine release elicited by renal nerve stimulation, veratridine and potassium chloride in the isolated rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    el-Din, M.M.; Malik, K.U.

    1987-01-01

    We have investigated the mechanism by which renal nerve stimulation (RNS), veratridine (Vt) and KCl promote release of norepinephrine in the isolated rat kidney perfused with Tyrode's solution and prelabeled with [ 3 H]norepinephrine by examining the overflow of tritium elicited by these stimuli during 1) extracellular Ca++ depletion, 2) alterations in extracellular Na+ concentration and 3) administration of tetrodotoxin, amiloride, LiCl and calcium channel blockers. RNS (1-4 Hz), Vt (15-90 nmol) and KCl (150-500 mumol) produced renal vasoconstriction and enhanced the tritium overflow in a frequency- and concentration-dependent manner, respectively. Omission of Ca++ (1.8 mM) from the perfusion fluid abolished the renal vasoconstriction and the increase in tritium overflow elicited by RNA and KCl and substantially reduced that caused by Vt. Lowering the Na+ concentration in the perfusion medium (from 150 to 25 mM) reduced the overflow of tritium and the renal vasoconstriction caused by RNS (2 Hz) or Vt (45 nmol); the increase in tritium overflow in response to these stimuli was positively correlated with extracellular Na+ (25-150 mM). In contrast, KCl-induced tritium overflow was negatively correlated with extracellular Na+ concentration. Tetrodotoxin (0.3 microM) abolished the effect of RNS and Vt, but not that of KCl, to increase overflow of tritium and to produce renal vasoconstriction. Administration of amiloride (180 microM) enhanced the overflow of tritium but attenuated the associated renal vasoconstriction produced by RNS, Vt and KCl. Replacement of NaCl (75 mM) with equimolar concentration of LiCl enhanced the overflow of tritium elicited by RNS, Vt and KCl; the associated renal vasoconstriction remained unaltered

  11. Synthesis and in vivo evaluation of novel radiotracers for the in vivo imaging of the norepinephrine transporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Alan A. E-mail: aaw@camhpet.on.ca; Patrick Johnson, David; Mozley, David; Hussey, Doug; Ginovart, Nathalie; Nobrega, Jose; Garcia, Armando; Meyer, Jeffery; Houle, Sylvain

    2003-02-01

    The (R,R) and (S,S) enantiomers of 2-[(2-methoxyphenoxy)phenylmethyl]morpholine (MeNER) have been radiolabelled with carbon-11 in good yield and at high specific activity. These radiotracers are close analogues of reboxetine, a potent and selective ligand for the norepinephrine transporter (NET). They were examined as potential ligands for imaging NET in vivo by positron emission tomography (PET). The in vivo brain distribution of both [{sup 11}C]-labeled enantiomers were evaluated in rats. Following tail-vein injection of the (R,R)-enantiomer regional brain uptake and washout of radioactivity was homogeneous at all time points examined (5-60 min). In contrast, administration of the (S,S)-enantiomer produced a heterogeneous distribution of radioactivity in brain with highest uptake in the hypothalamus, a NET rich region, and lowest uptake in the striatum, a brain region devoid of NET. Hypothalamus to striatum ratios of 2.5 to one were achieved at 60 min post injection of (S,S)-[{sup 11}C]-MeNER. Pre-injection of the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, reboxetine or desipramine, reduced hypothalamus to striatum ratios to near unity while reuptake inhibitors of dopamine and serotonin had no significant effect on binding. In vitro autoradiography studies (rat brain slices) with (S,S)-[{sup 11}C]-MeNER produced a regional distribution pattern that was consistent with the reported distribution of NET. (S,S)-[{sup 11}C]-MeNER has the potential to be the first successful PET ligand to image NET.

  12. Role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in angiotensin II regulation of norepinephrine neuromodulation in brain neurons of the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Raizada, M K

    1999-04-01

    Chronic stimulation of norepinephrine (NE) neuromodulation by angiotensin II (Ang II) involves activation of the Ras-Raf-MAP kinase signal transduction pathway in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat brain neurons. This pathway is only partially responsible for this heightened action of Ang II in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) brain neurons. In this study, we demonstrate that the MAP kinase-independent signaling pathway in the SHR neuron involves activation of PI3-kinase and protein kinase B (PKB/Akt). Ang II stimulated PI3-kinase activity in both WKY and SHR brain neurons and was accompanied by its translocation from the cytoplasmic to the nuclear compartment. Although the magnitude of stimulation by Ang II was comparable, the stimulation was more persistent in the SHR neuron compared with the WKY rat neuron. Inhibition of PI3-kinase had no significant effect in the WKY rat neuron. However, it caused a 40-50% attenuation of the Ang II-induced increase in norepinephrine transporter (NET) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNAs and [3H]-NE uptake in the SHR neuron. In contrast, inhibition of MAP kinase completely attenuated Ang II stimulation of NET and TH mRNA levels in the WKY rat neuron, whereas it caused only a 45% decrease in the SHR neuron. However, an additive attenuation was observed when both kinases of the SHR neurons were inhibited. Ang II also stimulated PKB/Akt activity in both WKY and SHR neurons. This stimulation was 30% higher and lasted longer in the SHR neuron compared with the WKY rat neuron. In conclusion, these observations demonstrate an exclusive involvement of PI3-kinase-PKB-dependent signaling pathway in a heightened NE neuromodulatory action of Ang II in the SHR neuron. Thus, this study offers an excellent potential for the development of new therapies for the treatment of centrally mediated hypertension.

  13. Fear extinction can be made state-dependent on peripheral epinephrine: role of norepinephrine in the nucleus tractus solitarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Jessica; Myskiw, Jociane C; Furini, Cristiane R G; Sapiras, Gerson G; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2014-09-01

    We investigate whether the extinction of inhibitory avoidance (IA) learning can be subjected to endogenous state-dependence with systemic injections of epinephrine (E), and whether endogenous norepinephrine (NE) and the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS)→locus coeruleus→hippocampus/amygdala (HIPP/BLA) pathway participate in this. Rats trained in IA were submitted to two sessions of extinction 24 h apart: In the first, the animals were submitted to a training session of extinction, and in the second they were tested for the retention of extinction. Saline or E were given i.p. immediately after the extinction training (post-extinction training injections) and/or 6 min before the extinction test (pre-extinction test). Post-extinction training E (50 or 100 μg/kg) induced a poor retrieval of extinction in the test session of this task unless an additional E injection (50 μg/kg) was given prior to the extinction test. This suggested state-dependence. Muscimol (0.01 μg/side) microinfused into the NTS prior to the extinction test session blocked E-induced state-dependence. Norepinephrine (NE, 1 μg/side) infused bilaterally into NTS restores the extinction impairment caused by post-extinction training i.p. E. In animals with bilateral NTS blockade induced by muscimol, NE (1 μg/side) given prior to the extinction test into the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus or into the basolateral amygdala restored the normal extinction levels that had been impaired by muscimol. These results suggest a role for the NTS→locus coeruleus→HIPP/BLA pathway in the retrieval of extinction, as it has been shown to have in the consolidation of inhibitory avoidance and of object recognition learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Norepinephrine genes predict response time variability and methylphenidate-induced changes in neuropsychological function in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bung-Nyun; Kim, Jae-Won; Cummins, Tarrant D R; Bellgrove, Mark A; Hawi, Ziarih; Hong, Soon-Beom; Yang, Young-Hui; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Shin, Min-Sup; Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Son, Jung-Woo; Shin, Yun-Mi; Chung, Un-Sun; Han, Doug-Hyun

    2013-06-01

    Noradrenergic dysfunction may be associated with cognitive impairments in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), including increased response time variability, which has been proposed as a leading endophenotype for ADHD. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between polymorphisms in the α-2A-adrenergic receptor (ADRA2A) and norepinephrine transporter (SLC6A2) genes and attentional performance in ADHD children before and after pharmacological treatment.One hundred one medication-naive ADHD children were included. All subjects were administered methylphenidate (MPH)-OROS for 12 weeks. The subjects underwent a computerized comprehensive attention test to measure the response time variability at baseline before MPH treatment and after 12 weeks. Additive regression analyses controlling for ADHD symptom severity, age, sex, IQ, and final dose of MPH examined the association between response time variability on the comprehensive attention test measures and allelic variations in single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the ADRA2A and SLC6A2 before and after MPH treatment.Increasing possession of an A allele at the G1287A polymorphism of SLC6A2 was significantly related to heightened response time variability at baseline in the sustained (P = 2.0 × 10) and auditory selective attention (P = 1.0 × 10) tasks. Response time variability at baseline increased additively with possession of the T allele at the DraI polymorphism of the ADRA2A gene in the auditory selective attention task (P = 2.0 × 10). After medication, increasing possession of a G allele at the MspI polymorphism of the ADRA2A gene was associated with increased MPH-related change in response time variability in the flanker task (P = 1.0 × 10).Our study suggested an association between norepinephrine gene variants and response time variability measured at baseline and after MPH treatment in children with ADHD. Our results add to a growing body of evidence, suggesting that response time

  15. Influence of neonatal and adult hyperthyroidism on behavior and biosynthetic capacity for norepinephrine, dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, R B; Singhal, R L

    1976-09-01

    In neonatal rats, administration of l-triiodothyronine (10 mug/100 g/day) for 30 days presented signs of hyperthyroidism which included accelerated development of a variety of physical and behavioral characteristics accompanying maturation. The spontaneous motor activity was increased by 69%. Exposure of developing rats to thyroid hormone significantly increased the endogenous concentration of striatal tyrosine and the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase as well as the levels of dopamine in several brain regions. The concentration of striatal homovanillic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, the chief metabolites of dopamine, was also increased and the magnitude of change was greater than the rise in dopamine. Despite increases in the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase and the availability of the substrate tyrosine, the steady-state levels of norepinephrine remained unaltered in various regions of brain except in cerebellum. Futhermore, neonatal hyperthyroidism significantly increased the levels of midbrain tryptophan and tryptophan hydroxylase activity but produced no change in 5-hydroxytryptamine levels of several discrete brain regions, except hypothalamus and cerebellum where its concentration was slightly decreased. However, the 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels were enhanced in hypothalamus, ponsmedulla, midbrain, striatum and hippocampus. The elevated levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid did not seem to be due to increased intraneuronal deamination of 5-hydroxytryptamine since monoamine oxidase activity was not affected in cerebral cortex and midbrain of hyperthyroid rats. The data demonstrate that hyperthyroidism significantly increased the synthesis as well as the utilization of catecholamines and 5-hydroxytryptamine in maturing brain. Since the mature brain is known to respond differently to thyroid hormone action than does the developing brain, the effect of L-triiodothyronine treatment on various putative neurohumors also was examined in adult rats

  16. [The predictive value of dynamic arterial elastance in arterial pressure response after norepinephrine dosage reduction in patients with septic shock].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, F M; Yang, T; Dong, L; Hui, J J; Yan, J

    2017-05-01

    Objective: To assess whether dynamic arterial elastance(Ea(dyn))can be used to predict the reduction of arterial pressure after decreasing norepinephrine (NE) dosage in patients with septic shock. Methods: A prospective observational cohort study was conducted. Thirty-two patients with septic shock and mechanical ventilationwere enrolledfrom January 2014 to December 2015 in ICU of Wuxi People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University. Hemodynamic parameters were recorded by pulse contour cardiac output(PiCCO)monitoring technology before and after decreasing norepinephrine dosage. Ea(dyn) was defined as the ratio of pulse pressure variation (PPV) to stroke volume variation (SVV). Mean arterial pressure(MAP) variation was calculated after decreasing the dose of NE. Response was defined as a ≥15% decrease of MAP. AUC was plotted to assess the value of Ea(dyn) in predicting MAP response. Results: A total of 32 patients were enrolled in our study, with 13 responding to NE dose decrease where as the other 19 did not. Ea(dyn) was lower in responders than in nonresponders (0.77±0.13 vs 1.09±0.31, P blood pressure variation, diastolic blood pressure variation, systemic vascular resistance variation and MAP variation( r =0.621, P =0.000; r =0.735, P =0.000; r =0.756, P =0.000; r =0.568, P =0.000 respectively). However, stoke volume variation, baseline level of systemic vascular resistance and NE baseline dose were not correlated with Ea(dyn) baseline value( r =0.264, P =0.076; r =0.078, P =0.545; r =0.002, P =0.987 respectively). Ea(dyn)≤0.97 predicted a decrease of MAP when decreasing NE dose, with an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of 0.85.The sensitivity was 100.0% and specificity was 73.7%. Conclusions: In septic shock patients treated with NE, Ea(dyn) is an index to predict the decrease of arterial pressure in response to NE dose reduction.

  17. The influence of norepinephrine and phenylephrine on cerebral perfusion and oxygenation during propofol-remifentanil and propofol-remifentanil-dexmedetomidine anaesthesia in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mai Louise Grandsgaard; Ambrus, Rikard; Rasmussen, Rune

    2018-01-01

    of dexmedetomidine. Cerebral perfusion measured by laser speckle contrast imaging was related to cerebral oxygenation as measured by an intracerebral Licox probe (partial pressure of oxygen) and transcranial near infrared spectroscopy technology (NIRS) (cerebral oxygen saturation). Results During propofol......–remifentanil anaesthesia, increases in blood pressure by norepinephrine and phenylephrine did not change cerebral perfusion significantly, but cerebral partial pressure of oxygen (Licox) increased following vasopressors in both groups and increases following norepinephrine were significant (NBP: P = 0.04, LBP: P = 0......–remifentanil–dexmedetomidine anaesthesia was not followed by significant changes in cerebral perfusion. Licox measures increased significantly following both vasopressors in both groups, whereas the decreases in NIRS measures were only significant in the NBP group. Conclusions Cerebral partial pressure of oxygen measured by Licox...

  18. Pavlovian autoshaping procedures increase plasma corticosterone and levels of norepinephrine and serotonin in prefrontal cortex in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; Tirado, Aidaluz D; Yu, Lung; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2004-08-12

    Pavlovian autoshaping procedures provide for pairings of a small object conditioned stimulus (CS) with a rewarding substance unconditioned stimulus (US), resulting in the acquisition of complex sequences of CS-directed skeletal-motor responses or autoshaping conditioned responses (CRs). Autoshaping procedures induce higher post-session levels of corticosterone than in controls receiving CS and US randomly, and the enhanced post-session corticosterone levels have been attributed to the appetitive or arousal-inducing effects of autoshaping procedures. Enhanced corticosterone release can be induced by aversive stimulation or stressful situations, where it is often accompanied by higher levels of norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) in prefrontal cortex (PFC) but not in striatum (ST). Effects of autoshaping procedures on post-session corticosterone levels, NE contents in PFC, and 5-HT contents in PFC and ST were investigated in male Long-Evans rats. Post-session blood samples revealed higher corticosterone levels in the CS-US Paired group (n = 46) than in the CS-US Random control group (n = 21), and brain samples revealed higher levels of PFC NE and 5-HT in CS-US Paired group. Striatal 5-HT levels were unaltered by the autoshaping procedures. Autoshaping procedures provide for appetitive stimulation and induce an arousal-like state, as well as simultaneous stress-like changes in plasma corticosterone and monoamine levels in PFC. Autoshaping, therefore, may be useful for the study of endocrine and central processes associated with appetitive conditions.

  19. Role of calcium in phosphoinositide metabolism and inhibition of norepinephrine transport into synaptic vesicles by amphetamine analogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knepper, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Norepinephrine-(NE) and calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated phosphoinositide (PIn) metabolism in rat brain slices was studied under varying calcium conditions. Tissue was labelled with 3 H-myo-inositol and 3 H-inositol phosphates (IPn), products of PIn metabolism were measured. In the absence of media calcium the response to NE was decreased while that to A23187 was little affected A23187 can release calcium from intracellular stores. Basal and stimulated accumulation of 3 H-IPn was reversibly antagonized with EGTA by addition of calcium. Using calcium buffers, approximately 10 -7 M free calcium was required to support hydrolysis. Free intracellular calcium is maintained at approximately this level. Thus calcium is required for PIn hydrolysis but appears to play a permissive role, basal levels being sufficient to support metabolism. Conformationally-defined (rigid) and -restricted (semi-rigid) analogs of the most stable conformations of amphetamine, antiperiplanar (exo) and gauche (endo), were utilized to probe the conformational requirements of vesicular NE transport. Analogs tested were 2-aminotetralin (2AT), 3-methyltetrahydroisoquinoline, anti- and syn-9-aminobenzobicyclo[2.2.1]heptene, and endo and exo conformers of 2-aminobenzobicyclo[2.2.1]heptene and 2-aminobenzobicyclo[2.2.2]octene

  20. Effect of the alkaloid (-)cathinone on the release of radioactivity from rabbit atria prelabelled with 3H-norepinephrine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalix, P.

    1983-01-01

    In certain countries of East Africa and the Arab Peninsula, fresh leaves of the khat shrub are used as a stimulant. The effect of the plant material can be explained by the presence of the phenylalklamine alkaloid (-)cathinone in the leaves, since this substance has been shown to have an amphetamine-like releasing effect on CNS tissue prelabelled with 3 H-dopamine. Characteristically, the chewing of khat is accompanied by sympathomimetic effects, especially at the cardiovascular level. To test whether these might be due to release of neurotransmitter from adrenergic nerve endings, the effect of (-)cathinone on the efflux of radioactivity from isolated rabbit atrium tissue prelabelled with 3 H-norepinephrine was investigated. It was found that, at concentrations below 1 μM, (-)cathinone caused an immediate increase of efflux. The effect was dose-dependent and was potentiated by pretreatment of the rabbits with reserpine. Preincubation of the tissue with desipramine and cocaine prevented the induction of release by (-)cathinone. The results indicate that the alkaloid (-)cathinone has an amphetamine-like releasing effect on noradrenergic nerve endings and they suggest that the cardiovascular symptoms observed during khat consumption are due to release of neurotransmitter from physiologicl storage sites

  1. Social stress engages opioid regulation of locus coeruleus norepinephrine neurons and induces a state of cellular and physical opiate dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaijale, Nayla N; Curtis, Andre L; Wood, Susan K; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Bhatnagar, Seema; Reyes, Beverly As; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J; Valentino, Rita J

    2013-09-01

    Stress is implicated in diverse psychiatric disorders including substance abuse. The locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system is a major stress response system that is also a point of intersection between stress neuromediators and endogenous opioids and so may be a site at which stress can influence drug-taking behaviors. As social stress is a common stressor for humans, this study characterized the enduring impact of repeated social stress on LC neuronal activity. Rats were exposed to five daily consecutive sessions of social stress using the resident-intruder model or control manipulation. LC discharge rate recorded 2 days after the last manipulation was decreased in stressed rats compared with controls. By 10 days after the last manipulation, LC rates were comparable between groups. Systemic administration of the opiate antagonist, naloxone, robustly increased LC discharge rate in a manner suggestive of opiate withdrawal, selectively in stressed rats when administered 2 or 10 days after the last manipulation. This was accompanied by behavioral signs of mild opiate withdrawal. Western blot and electron microscopic studies indicated that repeated social stress decreased corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 receptor and increased μ-opioid receptor levels in the LC. Together, the results suggest that repeated social stress engages endogenous opioid modulation of LC activity and induces signs of cellular and physical opiate dependence that endure after the stress. These cellular effects may predispose individuals with a history of repeated social stress to substance abuse behaviors.

  2. Norepinephrine, {beta}-adrenoceptor and {sup 123}I-MIBG myocardial scintigram in patients with congestive heart failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Kenichi; Miyajima, Seiichi; Kusano, Yoriko; Tanabe, Naohito [Tsubame Rosai Hospital, Niigata (Japan); Nagatomo, Takafumi

    1997-06-01

    Authors studied the relationships of norepinephrine (NE), {beta}-adrenoceptor and {sup 123}I-MIBG (meta-iodo-benzylguanidine) uptake in 26 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy or valvulitis. Blood NE concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography in those patients and 10 healthy volunteers, and myocardial NE, in 7 patients and 5 cases without the congestive heart failure. The amounts of beta-receptors in lymphocytes of 21 patients and 7 volunteers and in myocardium obtained at autopsy of 3 patients and 3 other cases were estimated by the radioligand binding assay. Planar and SPECT images were taken at 15 min and 3 hr post intravenous administration of 111 MBq of {sup 123}I-MIBG. In the planar and SPECT images, the ratio heart/mediastinum (H/M) and MIBG uptake were computed respectively. Blood flow was evaluated by {sup 201}Tl scintigraphy. In patients with congestive heart failure, blood NE concentration was elevated and the number of lymphocytic and myocardial receptors was decreased. The H/M ratio was low. Low MIBG uptake was seen at the posterior to lateral wall. (K.H.)

  3. Radioenzymatic paper-chromatographic assay for dopamine and norepinephrine in cerebroventricular cisternal perfusate of cat following administration of cocaine or d-amphetamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiueh, C C; Kopin, I J [National Inst. of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD (USA)

    1978-08-01

    A sensitive radioenzymatic paper chromatographic method was used to measure the endogenous dopamine and norepinephrine content of cerebroventricular cisternal perfusate from cats to provide direct evidence for the catecholamine releasing action of cocaine from brain in vivo. Although relatively less potent than d-emphetamine, cocaine was shown to release endogenous catechloramines, mainly dopamine from the brain. This similarity may be the neurochemical basis for their similar behavioral effects.

  4. Radioenzymatic paper-chromatographic assay for dopamine and norepinephrine in cerebroventricular cisternal perfusate of cat following administration of cocaine or d-amphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiueh, C.C.; Kopin, I.J.

    1978-01-01

    A sensitive radioenzymatic paper chromatographic method was used to measure the endogenous dopamine and norepinephrine content of cerebroventricular cisternal perfusate from cats to provide direct evidence for the catecholamine releasing action of cocaine from brain in vivo. Although relatively less potent than d-emphetamine, cocaine was shown to release endogenous catechloramines, mainly dopamine from the brain. This similarity may be the neurochemical basis for their similar behavioral effects. (U.K.)

  5. Effects of aging and hypertension on the participation of endothelium-derived constricting factor (EDCF) in norepinephrine-induced contraction of rat femoral artery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Líšková, Silvia; Petrová, M.; Karen, Petr; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Zicha, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 667, 1-3 (2011), s. 265-270 ISSN 0014-2999 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0336; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : EDCF * SHR * norepinephrine * L-NNA * indomethacin Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.516, year: 2011

  6. Effect of pinacidil on norepinephrine- and potassium-induced contractions and membrane potential in rat and human resistance vessels and in rat aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Videbaek, L.M.; Aalkjaer, C.; Mulvany, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of pinacidil on contractile responses to norepinephrine, potassium, and membrane potential was examined in rat and human resistance vessels. In some experiments rat aorta was also used. Pinacidil (0.1-30 microM) caused a concentration-dependent relaxation of norepinephrine-induced contractions in all vessels studied. In the same concentration range, pinacidil had only little effect on potassium (125 mM) activated rat mesenteric and femoral resistance vessels. In denervated rat mesenteric resistance vessels, a depolarization with potassium (125 mM) before superimposing a norepinephrine tone markedly diminished the effect of pinacidil. In resting rat mesenteric resistance vessels, pinacidil (1-10 microM) caused a hyperpolarization of 10-15 mV. In rat aorta, pinacidil (10 microM) caused a significant (p less than 0.001) increase in 86 Rb+ efflux rate constant whereas 1 microM had no effect. The results of these experiments indicate that the vasodilating effect may be caused by a hyperpolarization of the vascular smooth muscle cell membrane

  7. Elevated blood plasma levels of epinephrine, norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase, TGFβ1, and TNFα associated with high-altitude pulmonary edema in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey P

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Priyanka Pandey,1,2 Zahara Ali,1,2 Ghulam Mohammad,3 MA Qadar Pasha1,2 1Functional Genomics Unit, CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Delhi, 2Department of Biotechnology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, 3Department of Medicine, SNM Hospital, Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, India Abstract: Biomarkers are essential to unravel the locked pathophysiology of any disease. This study investigated the role of biomarkers and their interactions with each other and with the clinical parameters to study the physiology of high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE in HAPE-patients (HAPE-p against adapted highlanders (HLs and healthy sojourners, HAPE-controls (HAPE-c. For this, seven circulatory biomarkers, namely, epinephrine, norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase, transforming growth factor beta 1, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, platelet-derived growth factor beta beta, and C-reactive protein (CRP, were measured in blood plasma of the three study groups. All the subjects were recruited at ~3,500 m, and clinical features such as arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2, body mass index, and mean arterial pressure were measured. Increased levels of epinephrine, norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase, transforming growth factor-beta 1, and TNFα were observed in HAPE-p against the healthy groups, HAPE-c, and HLs (P<0.0001. CRP levels were decreased in HAPE-p against HAPE-c and HLs (P<0.0001. There was no significant difference or very marginal difference in the levels of these biomarkers in HAPE-c and HLs (P>0.01. Correlation analysis revealed a negative correlation between epinephrine and norepinephrine (P=4.6E-06 in HAPE-p and positive correlation in HAPE-c (P=0.004 and HLs (P=9.78E-07. A positive correlation was observed between TNFα and CRP (P=0.004 in HAPE-p and a negative correlation in HAPE-c (P=4.6E-06. SaO2 correlated negatively with platelet-derived growth factor beta beta (HAPE-p; P=0.05, norepinephrine (P=0.01, and TNFα (P=0.005 and

  8. Cardiac retention of PET neuronal imaging agent LMI1195 in different species: Impact of norepinephrine uptake-1 and -2 transporters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Ming; Bozek, Jody; Kagan, Mikhail; Guaraldi, Mary; Silva, Paula; Azure, Michael; Onthank, David; Robinson, Simon P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Released sympathetic neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) in the heart is cleared by neuronal uptake-1 and extraneuronal uptake-2 transporters. Cardiac uptake-1 and -2 expression varies among species, but the uptake-1 is the primary transporter in humans. LMI1195 is an NE analog labeled with 18 F for PET evaluation of cardiac neuronal function. This study investigated the impact of cardiac neuronal uptake-1 associated with different species on LMI1195 heart uptake. Methods: Cardiac uptake-1 was blocked by desipramine, a selective uptake-1 inhibitor, and sympathetic neuronal denervation was induced by 6-hydroxydopamine, a neurotoxin, in rats, rabbits and nonhuman primates (NHP). Tissue biodistribution and cardiac imaging of LMI1195 and 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) were performed. Results: In rats, uptake-1 blockade did not alter LMI1195 heart uptake compared to the control at 60-min post injection [1.41 ± 0.07 vs. 1.47 ± 0.23 % injected dose per gram tissue (%ID/g)]. In contrast, LMI1195 heart uptake was reduced by 80% in uptake-1 blocked rabbits. In sympathetically denervated rats, LMI1195 heart uptake was similar to the control (2.18 ± 0.40 vs. 2.58 ± 0.76 %ID/g). However, the uptake decreased by 79% in denervated rabbits. Similar results were found in MIBG heart uptake in rats and rabbits with uptake-1 blockade. Consistently, LMI1195 cardiac imaging showed comparable myocardial activity in uptake-1 blocked or sympathetically denervated rats to the control, but marked activity reduction in uptake-1 blocked or denervated rabbits and NHPs. Conclusions: LMI1195 is retained in the heart of rabbits and NHPs primarily via the neuronal uptake-1 with high selectivity and can be used for evaluation of cardiac sympathetic denervation. Similar to the human, the neuronal uptake-1 is the dominant transporter for cardiac retention of NE analogs in rabbits and NHPs, but not in rats

  9. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of edivoxetine (LY2216684), a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, in pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielbasa, William; Quinlan, Tonya; Jin, Ling; Xu, Wen; Lachno, D Richard; Dean, Robert A; Allen, Albert J

    2012-08-01

    Edivoxetine (LY2216684) is a selective and potent norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NERI). The pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of edivoxetine were assessed in children and adolescent patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) following single and once-daily oral doses of edivoxetine. During a phase 1 open-label safety, tolerability, and PK study, pediatric patients were administered edivoxetine at target doses of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mg/kg, and blood samples were collected to determine plasma concentrations of edivoxetine for PK assessments and plasma 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG) concentrations for PD assessments. Edivoxetine plasma concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection, and DHPG was measured using liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Edivoxetine PK was comparable between children and adolescents. The time to maximum concentration (t(max)) of edivoxetine was ∼2 hours, which was followed by a mono-exponential decline in plasma concentrations with a terminal elimination half-life (t(1/2)) of ∼6 hours. Dose-dependent increases in area under the edivoxetine plasma concentration versus time curve from zero to infinity (AUC(0-∞)) and maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) were observed, and there was no discernable difference in the apparent clearance (CL/F) or the apparent volume of distribution at steady state (V(ss)/F) across the dose range. In adolescents, edivoxetine caused a maximum decrease in plasma DHPG concentrations from baseline of ∼28%, most notably within 8 hours of edivoxetine administration. This initial study in pediatric patients with ADHD provides new information on the PK profile of edivoxetine, and exposures that decrease plasma DHPG consistent with the mechanism of action of a NERI. The PK and PD data inform edivoxetine pharmacology and can be used to develop comprehensive population PK and/or PK-PD models to guide dosing

  10. Hindbrain medulla catecholamine cell group involvement in lactate-sensitive hypoglycemia-associated patterns of hypothalamic norepinephrine and epinephrine activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, P K; Tamrakar, P; Ibrahim, B A; Briski, K P

    2014-10-10

    Cell-type compartmentation of glucose metabolism in the brain involves trafficking of the oxidizable glycolytic end product, l-lactate, by astrocytes to fuel neuronal mitochondrial aerobic respiration. Lactate availability within the hindbrain medulla is a monitored function that regulates systemic glucostasis as insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH) is exacerbated by lactate repletion of that brain region. A2 noradrenergic neurons are a plausible source of lactoprivic input to the neural gluco-regulatory circuit as caudal fourth ventricular (CV4) lactate infusion normalizes IIH-associated activation, e.g. phosphorylation of the high-sensitivity energy sensor, adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), in these cells. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that A2 neurons are unique among medullary catecholamine cells in directly screening lactate-derived energy. Adult male rats were injected with insulin or vehicle following initiation of continuous l-lactate infusion into the CV4. Two hours after injections, A1, C1, A2, and C2 neurons were collected by laser-microdissection for Western blot analysis of AMPKα1/2 and phosphoAMPKα1/2 proteins. Results show that AMPK is expressed in each cell group, but only a subset, e.g. A1, C1, and A2 neurons, exhibit increased sensor activity in response to IIH. Moreover, hindbrain lactate repletion reversed hypoglycemic augmentation of pAMPKα1/2 content in A2 and C1 but not A1 cells, and normalized hypothalamic norepinephrine and epinephrine content in a site-specific manner. The present evidence for discriminative reactivity of AMPK-expressing medullary catecholamine neurons to the screened energy substrate lactate implies that that lactoprivation is selectively signaled to the hypothalamus by A2 noradrenergic and C1 adrenergic cells. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [18F]FMeNER-D2: Reliable fully-automated synthesis for visualization of the norepinephrine transporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rami-Mark, Christina; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Mitterhauser, Markus; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Hacker, Marcus; Wadsak, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In neurodegenerative diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders dysregulation of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) has been reported. For visualization of NET availability and occupancy in the human brain PET imaging can be used. Therefore, selective NET-PET tracers with high affinity are required. Amongst these, [ 18 F]FMeNER-D2 is showing the best results so far. Furthermore, a reliable fully automated radiosynthesis is a prerequisite for successful application of PET-tracers. The aim of this work was the automation of [ 18 F]FMeNER-D2 radiolabelling for subsequent clinical use. The presented study comprises 25 automated large-scale syntheses, which were directly applied to healthy volunteers and adult patients suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Procedures: Synthesis of [ 18 F]FMeNER-D2 was automated within a Nuclear Interface Module. Starting from 20–30 GBq [ 18 F]fluoride, azeotropic drying, reaction with Br 2 CD 2 , distillation of 1-bromo-2-[ 18 F]fluoromethane-D2 ([ 18 F]BFM) and reaction of the pure [ 18 F]BFM with unprotected precursor NER were optimized and completely automated. HPLC purification and SPE procedure were completed, formulation and sterile filtration were achieved on-line and full quality control was performed. Results: Purified product was obtained in a fully automated synthesis in clinical scale allowing maximum radiation safety and routine production under GMP-like manner. So far, more than 25 fully automated syntheses were successfully performed, yielding 1.0–2.5 GBq of formulated [ 18 F]FMeNER-D2 with specific activities between 430 and 1707 GBq/μmol within 95 min total preparation time. Conclusions: A first fully automated [ 18 F]FMeNER-D2 synthesis was established, allowing routine production of this NET-PET tracer under maximum radiation safety and standardization

  12. Ex Vivo and In Vivo Evaluation of the Norepinephrine Transporter Ligand [11C]MRB for Brown Adipose Tissue Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Shufei; Fan Xiaoning; Yeckel, Catherine Weikart; Weinzimmer, David; Mulnix, Tim; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Carson, Richard E.; Sherwin, Robert S.; Ding Yushin

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: It has been suggested that brown adipose tissue (BAT) in humans may play a role in energy balance and obesity. We conducted ex vivo and in vivo evaluation using [ 11 C]MRB, a highly selective NET (norepinephrine transporter) ligand for BAT imaging at room temperature, which is not achievable with [ 18 F]FDG. Methods: PET images of male Sprague–Dawley rats with [ 18 F]FDG and [ 11 C]MRB were compared. Relative [ 18 F]FDG or [ 11 C]MRB retention at 20, 40 and 60 min post-injection was quantified on awake rats after exposing to cold (4 °C for 4 h) or remaining at room temperature. Rats pretreated with unlabeled MRB or nisoxetine 30 min before [ 11 C]MRB injection were also assessed. The [ 11 C]MRB metabolite profile in BAT was evaluated. Results: PET imaging demonstrated intense [ 11 C]MRB uptake (SUV of 2.9 to 3.3) in the interscapular BAT of both room temperature and cold-exposed rats and this uptake was significantly diminished by pretreatment with unlabeled MRB; in contrast, [ 18 F]FDG in BAT was only detected in rats treated with cold. Ex vivo results were concordant with the imaging findings; i.e. the uptake of [ 11 C]MRB in BAT was 3 times higher than that of [ 18 F]FDG at room temperature (P = 0.009), and the significant cold-stimulated uptake in BAT with [ 18 F]FDG (10-fold, P = 0.001) was not observed with [ 11 C]MRB (P = 0.082). HPLC analysis revealed 94%–99% of total radioactivity in BAT represented unchanged [ 11 C]MRB. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that BAT could be specifically labeled with [ 11 C]MRB at room temperature and under cold conditions, supporting a NET-PET strategy for imaging BAT in humans under basal conditions.

  13. [{sup 18}F]FMeNER-D2: Reliable fully-automated synthesis for visualization of the norepinephrine transporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rami-Mark, Christina [Radiochemistry and Biomarker Development Unit, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Vienna (Austria); Zhang, Ming-Rong [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Mitterhauser, Markus [Radiochemistry and Biomarker Development Unit, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Hospital Pharmacy of the General Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Lanzenberger, Rupert [Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Hacker, Marcus [Radiochemistry and Biomarker Development Unit, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Wadsak, Wolfgang [Radiochemistry and Biomarker Development Unit, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Vienna (Austria)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: In neurodegenerative diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders dysregulation of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) has been reported. For visualization of NET availability and occupancy in the human brain PET imaging can be used. Therefore, selective NET-PET tracers with high affinity are required. Amongst these, [{sup 18}F]FMeNER-D2 is showing the best results so far. Furthermore, a reliable fully automated radiosynthesis is a prerequisite for successful application of PET-tracers. The aim of this work was the automation of [{sup 18}F]FMeNER-D2 radiolabelling for subsequent clinical use. The presented study comprises 25 automated large-scale syntheses, which were directly applied to healthy volunteers and adult patients suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Procedures: Synthesis of [{sup 18}F]FMeNER-D2 was automated within a Nuclear Interface Module. Starting from 20–30 GBq [{sup 18}F]fluoride, azeotropic drying, reaction with Br{sub 2}CD{sub 2}, distillation of 1-bromo-2-[{sup 18}F]fluoromethane-D2 ([{sup 18}F]BFM) and reaction of the pure [{sup 18}F]BFM with unprotected precursor NER were optimized and completely automated. HPLC purification and SPE procedure were completed, formulation and sterile filtration were achieved on-line and full quality control was performed. Results: Purified product was obtained in a fully automated synthesis in clinical scale allowing maximum radiation safety and routine production under GMP-like manner. So far, more than 25 fully automated syntheses were successfully performed, yielding 1.0–2.5 GBq of formulated [{sup 18}F]FMeNER-D2 with specific activities between 430 and 1707 GBq/μmol within 95 min total preparation time. Conclusions: A first fully automated [{sup 18}F]FMeNER-D2 synthesis was established, allowing routine production of this NET-PET tracer under maximum radiation safety and standardization.

  14. Influence of the polyol pathway on norepinephrine transporter reduction in diabetic cardiac sympathetic nerves: implications for heterogeneous accumulation of MIBG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyono, Yasushi; Kajiyama, Satomi; Fujiwara, Hiromi; Kanegawa, Naoki; Saji, Hideo

    2005-01-01

    Cardiac scintigraphic studies using 123 I-labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine ([ 123 I]MIBG) have demonstrated heterogeneous myocardial accumulation of MIBG in diabetes. The accumulation has been found to correlate with a heterogeneous decrease in the expression of norepinephrine transporter (NET). In diabetic peripheral nerve tissue, polyol pathways are activated and cause nerve dysfunction and degeneration. However, there has been little research on the polyol pathway and cardiac sympathetic nerves. Therefore, to assess the influence of the polyol pathway on cardiac sympathetic nervous function, we investigated the regional accumulation of MIBG and NET protein expression in diabetic model rats treated with aldose reductase inhibitor (ARI) for the blockade of polyol pathways. Rats were given a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (n=76, STZ-D rats). Starting the day after STZ injection, ARI was administered daily to 42 of the rats for 4 weeks (ARI-D rats). To assess the cardiac sympathetic nervous function, [ 125 I]MIBG autoradiographic experiments were carried out. Finally, NET protein expression was assessed with a saturation binding assay. The myocardial sorbitol concentration was significantly higher in STZ-D rats than in ARI-D rats. There was no heterogeneous accumulation of MIBG in ARI-D rats. There was a heterogeneous decrease of NET expression in STZ-D rats, but not in ARI-D or control rats. The gathered data indicate that the enhanced polyol pathway correlates with the decrease in regional cardiac sympathetic nervous function, and this impairment may lead to the reduction of NET protein in cardiac sympathetic nerves of the diabetic inferior wall. (orig.)

  15. Norepinephrine stimulates progesterone production in highly estrogenic bovine granulosa cells cultured under serum-free, chemically defined conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccinato Carla A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since noradrenergic innervation was described in the ovarian follicle, the actions of the intraovarian catecholaminergic system have been the focus of a variety of studies. We aimed to determine the gonadotropin-independent effects of the catecholamine norepinephrine (NE in the steroid hormone profile of a serum-free granulosa cell (GC culture system in the context of follicular development and dominance. Methods Primary bovine GCs were cultivated in a serum-free, chemically defined culture system supplemented with 0.1% polyvinyl alcohol. The culture features were assessed by hormone measurements and ultrastructural characteristics of GCs. Results GCs produced increasing amounts of estradiol and pregnenolone for 144h and maintained ultrastructural features of healthy steroidogenic cells. Progesterone production was also detected, although it significantly increased only after 96h of culture. There was a highly significant positive correlation between estradiol and pregnenolone production in high E2-producing cultures. The effects of NE were further evaluated in a dose–response study. The highest tested concentration of NE (10 (−7 M resulted in a significant increase in progesterone production, but not in estradiol or pregnenolone production. The specificity of NE effects on progesterone productio n was further investigated by incubating GCs with propranolol (10 (−8 M, a non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Conclusions The present culture system represents a robust model to study the impact of intrafollicular factors, such as catecholamines, in ovarian steroidogenesis and follicular development. The results of noradrenergic effects in the steroidogenesis of GC have implications on physiological follicular fate and on certain pathological ovarian conditions such as cyst formation and anovulation.

  16. Norepinephrine stimulates progesterone production in highly estrogenic bovine granulosa cells cultured under serum-free, chemically defined conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinato, Carla A; Montrezor, Luis H; Collares, Cristhianna A V; Vireque, Alessandra A; Rosa e Silva, Alzira A M

    2012-11-22

    Since noradrenergic innervation was described in the ovarian follicle, the actions of the intraovarian catecholaminergic system have been the focus of a variety of studies. We aimed to determine the gonadotropin-independent effects of the catecholamine norepinephrine (NE) in the steroid hormone profile of a serum-free granulosa cell (GC) culture system in the context of follicular development and dominance. Primary bovine GCs were cultivated in a serum-free, chemically defined culture system supplemented with 0.1% polyvinyl alcohol. The culture features were assessed by hormone measurements and ultrastructural characteristics of GCs. GCs produced increasing amounts of estradiol and pregnenolone for 144h and maintained ultrastructural features of healthy steroidogenic cells. Progesterone production was also detected, although it significantly increased only after 96h of culture. There was a highly significant positive correlation between estradiol and pregnenolone production in high E2-producing cultures. The effects of NE were further evaluated in a dose-response study. The highest tested concentration of NE (10 (-7) M) resulted in a significant increase in progesterone production, but not in estradiol or pregnenolone production. The specificity of NE effects on progesterone production was further investigated by incubating GCs with propranolol (10 (-8) M), a non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist. The present culture system represents a robust model to study the impact of intrafollicular factors, such as catecholamines, in ovarian steroidogenesis and follicular development. The results of noradrenergic effects in the steroidogenesis of GC have implications on physiological follicular fate and on certain pathological ovarian conditions such as cyst formation and anovulation.

  17. Norepinephrine transporter: a candidate gene for initial ethanol sensitivity in inbred long-sleep and short-sleep mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughey, Heather M; Kaiser, Alan L; Johnson, Thomas E; Bennett, Beth; Sikela, James M; Zahniser, Nancy R

    2005-10-01

    Altered noradrenergic neurotransmission is associated with depression and may contribute to drug abuse and alcoholism. Differential initial sensitivity to ethanol is an important predictor of risk for future alcoholism, making the inbred long-sleep (ILS) and inbred short-sleep (ISS) mice a useful model for identifying genes that may contribute to alcoholism. In this study, molecular biological, neurochemical, and behavioral approaches were used to test the hypothesis that the norepinephrine transporter (NET) contributes to the differences in ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR) in ILS and ISS mice. We used these mice to investigate the NET as a candidate gene contributing to this phenotype. The ILS and ISS mice carry different DNA haplotypes for NET, showing eight silent differences between allelic coding regions. Only the ILS haplotype is found in other mouse strains thus far sequenced. Brain regional analyses revealed that ILS mice have 30 to 50% lower [3H]NE uptake, NET binding, and NET mRNA levels than ISS mice. Maximal [3H]NE uptake and NET number were reduced, with no change in affinity, in the ILS mice. These neurobiological changes were associated with significant influences on the behavioral phenotype of these mice, as demonstrated by (1) a differential response in the duration of ethanol-induced LORR in ILS and ISS mice pretreated with a NET inhibitor and (2) increased ethanol-induced LORR in LXS recombinant inbred (RI) strains, homozygous for ILS in the NET chromosomal region (44-47 cM), compared with ISS homozygous strains. This is the first report to suggest that the NET gene is one of many possible genetic factors influencing ethanol sensitivity in ILS, ISS, and LXS RI mouse strains.

  18. Inhibition of G-Protein-Activated Inwardly Rectifying K+ Channels by the Selective Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors Atomoxetine and Reboxetine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toru; Washiyama, Kazuo; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2010-01-01

    Atomoxetine and reboxetine are commonly used as selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (NRIs) for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and depression, respectively. Furthermore, recent studies have suggested that NRIs may be useful for the treatment of several other psychiatric disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the various effects of NRIs have not yet been sufficiently clarified. G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying K+ (GIRK or Kir3) channels have an important function in regulating neuronal excitability and heart rate, and GIRK channel modulation has been suggested to be a potential treatment for several neuropsychiatric disorders and cardiac arrhythmias. In this study, we investigated the effects of atomoxetine and reboxetine on GIRK channels using the Xenopus oocyte expression assay. In oocytes injected with mRNA for GIRK1/GIRK2, GIRK2, or GIRK1/GIRK4 subunits, extracellular application of atomoxetine or reboxetine reversibly reduced GIRK currents. The inhibitory effects were concentration-dependent, but voltage-independent, and time-independent during each voltage pulse. However, Kir1.1 and Kir2.1 channels were insensitive to atomoxetine and reboxetine. Atomoxetine and reboxetine also inhibited GIRK currents induced by activation of cloned A1 adenosine receptors or by intracellularly applied GTPγS, a nonhydrolyzable GTP analogue. Furthermore, the GIRK currents induced by ethanol were concentration-dependently inhibited by extracellularly applied atomoxetine but not by intracellularly applied atomoxetine. The present results suggest that atomoxetine and reboxetine inhibit brain- and cardiac-type GIRK channels, revealing a novel characteristic of clinically used NRIs. GIRK channel inhibition may contribute to some of the therapeutic effects of NRIs and adverse side effects related to nervous system and heart function. PMID:20393461

  19. Postoperative serum levels of Endocan are associated with the duration of norepinephrine support after coronary artery bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouglé, Adrien; Allain, Pierre-Antoine; Favard, Séverine; Ait Hamou, Nora; Carillion, Aude; Leprince, Pascal; Granger, Benjamin; Amour, Julien

    2018-02-21

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is associated with a systemic inflammatory response and an endothelial dysfunction, whose qualitative assessment appears to be a major issue. Endocan (ESM-1, endothelial cell specific molecule-1) is a protein preferentially expressed by the endothelium and previously associated with prognosis of septic shock or acute respiratory distress syndrome. In this pilot study, we investigated the kinetic of Endocan in planned coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery with CPB. We conducted an observational, prospective, mono centre study. All adult patients with left systolic ejection fraction>50%, undergoing planned on-pump CABG, were screened for inclusion. A written informed consent was obtained. Measurements and main results Serum Endocan concentrations were respectively 2.4 [2.1-3.0] ng. mL -1 , 10.4 [7.4-13.9] ng.mL -1 , 5.7 [4.4-8.2] ng.mL -1 , and 5.4 [4.1-7.5] ng.mL -1 at day 0, day 1, day 3 and day 5. Endocan concentrations increased at day 1, day 3, and day 5 in comparison with preoperative concentration (P<0.001). In the multivariate analysis, age (P=0.002), history of acute coronary syndrome (P=0.024) and the catecholamine-free days at day 28 (P=0.007) were associated to the increase of perioperative Endocan concentrations. Serum Endocan concentration increases after CABG surgery with CPB until day 1. The norepinephrine support increases the risk of Endocan release, suggesting a relationship between the kinetic of Endocan and the vasoplegic syndrome. At day 3, Endocan concentration decreases slowly but is not normalised at day 5. Further studies should investigate the prognostic value of the magnitude of postoperative Endocan concentration after cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2018 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis and evaluation of radioiodinated (S,S)-2-({alpha}-(2-iodophenoxy)benzyl)morpholine for imaging brain norepinephrine transporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanegawa, Naoki; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Sugita, Taku; Kajiyama, Satomi; Kuge, Yuji; Saji, Hideo [Kyoto University, Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto (Japan); Kiyono, Yasushi [Kyoto University, Radioisotopes Research Laboratory, Kyoto University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto (Japan); Kawashima, Hidekazu [Kyoto University, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging, Graduate School of Medicine, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto (Japan); Ueda, Masashi [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Radioisotope Laboratory, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto (Japan)

    2006-06-15

    Abnormality of the brain norepinephrine transporter (NET) has been reported in several psychiatric and neuronal disorders. Since NET is an important target for the diagnosis of these diseases, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for imaging of brain NET has been eagerly awaited. In this study, we synthesized (S,S)-2-({alpha}-(2-iodophenoxy)benzyl)morpholine [(S,S)-IPBM], a derivative of reboxetine iodinated at position 2 of the phenoxy ring, and evaluated its potential as a radiopharmaceutical for imaging brain NET using SPECT. (S,S)-{sup 123/125}I-IPBM was synthesized in a halogen exchange reaction. The affinity and selectivity of (S,S)-IPBM for NET was measured by assaying the displacement of {sup 3}H-nisoxetine and (S,S)-{sup 125}I-IPBM from the binding site in rat brain membrane, respectively. The biodistribution of (S,S)-{sup 125}I-IPBM was also determined in rats. Furthermore, SPECT studies with (S,S)-{sup 123}I-IPBM were carried out in the common marmoset. (S,S)-{sup 125}I-IPBM was prepared with high radiochemical yields (65%) and high radiochemical purity (>98%). (S,S)-IPBM showed high affinity and selectivity for NET in the binding assay experiments. In biodistribution experiments, (S,S)-{sup 125}I-IPBM showed rapid uptake in the brain, and the regional cerebral distribution was consistent with the density of NET. The administration of nisoxetine, a selective NET-binding agent, decreased the accumulation of (S,S)-{sup 125}I-IPBM in the brain, but the administration of selective serotonin transporter and dopamine transporter binding agents caused no significant changes in the accumulation. Moreover, (S,S)-{sup 123}I-IPBM allowed brain NET imaging in the common marmoset with SPECT. These results suggest that (S,S)-{sup 123}I-IPBM is a potential SPECT radiopharmaceutical for imaging brain NET. (orig.)

  1. Alterations of neurotransmitter norepinephrine and gamma-aminobutyric acid correlate with murine behavioral perturbations related to bisphenol A exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogi, Hiroshi; Itoh, Kyoko; Ikegaya, Hiroshi; Fushiki, Shinji

    2015-09-01

    Humans are commonly exposed to endocrine-disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA), giving rise to concern over the psychobehavioral effects of BPA. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal and lactational BPA exposure on neurotransmitters, including norepinephrine (NE), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate (Glu), and to assess the association with behavioral phenotypes. C57BL/6J mice were orally administered with BPA (500 μg/bwkg/day) or vehicle daily from embryonic day 0 to postnatal week 3 (P3W), through their dams. The IntelliCage behavioral experiments were conducted from P11W to P15W. At around P14-16W, NE, GABA and Glu levels in nine brain regions were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Furthermore, the associations between the neurotransmitter levels and the behavioral indices were statistically analyzed. In females exposed to BPA, the GABA and Glu levels in almost all regions, and the NE levels in the cortex, hypothalamus and thalamus were higher than those in the controls. In males exposed to BPA, the GABA levels in the amygdala and hippocampus showed lower values, while Glu levels were higher in some regions, compared with the controls. In regard to the associations, the number of "diurnal corner visits without drinking" was correlated with the NE levels in the cortex and thalamus in females. The "nocturnal corner visit duration without drinking" was correlated with the GABA level in the hippocampus in males. These results suggest that prenatal and lactational exposure to low doses of BPA might modulate the NE, GABA and Glu systems, resulting in behavioral alterations. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [18F]FMeNER-D2: reliable fully-automated synthesis for visualization of the norepinephrine transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rami-Mark, Christina; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Mitterhauser, Markus; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Hacker, Marcus; Wadsak, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    In neurodegenerative diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders dysregulation of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) has been reported. For visualization of NET availability and occupancy in the human brain PET imaging can be used. Therefore, selective NET-PET tracers with high affinity are required. Amongst these, [(18)F]FMeNER-D2 is showing the best results so far. Furthermore, a reliable fully automated radiosynthesis is a prerequisite for successful application of PET-tracers. The aim of this work was the automation of [(18)F]FMeNER-D2 radiolabelling for subsequent clinical use. The presented study comprises 25 automated large-scale syntheses, which were directly applied to healthy volunteers and adult patients suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Synthesis of [(18)F]FMeNER-D2 was automated within a Nuclear Interface Module. Starting from 20-30 GBq [(18)F]fluoride, azeotropic drying, reaction with Br2CD2, distillation of 1-bromo-2-[(18)F]fluoromethane-D2 ([(18)F]BFM) and reaction of the pure [(18)F]BFM with unprotected precursor NER were optimized and completely automated. HPLC purification and SPE procedure were completed, formulation and sterile filtration were achieved on-line and full quality control was performed. Purified product was obtained in a fully automated synthesis in clinical scale allowing maximum radiation safety and routine production under GMP-like manner. So far, more than 25 fully automated syntheses were successfully performed, yielding 1.0-2.5 GBq of formulated [(18)F]FMeNER-D2 with specific activities between 430 and 1707 GBq/μmol within 95 min total preparation time. A first fully automated [(18)F]FMeNER-D2 synthesis was established, allowing routine production of this NET-PET tracer under maximum radiation safety and standardization. © 2013.

  3. Norepinephrine-evoked salt-sensitive hypertension requires impaired renal sodium chloride cotransporter activity in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kathryn R; Kuwabara, Jill T; Shim, Joon W; Wainford, Richard D

    2016-01-15

    Recent studies have implicated a role of norepinephrine (NE) in the activation of the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) to drive the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. However, the interaction between NE and increased salt intake on blood pressure remains to be fully elucidated. This study examined the impact of a continuous NE infusion on sodium homeostasis and blood pressure in conscious Sprague-Dawley rats challenged with a normal (NS; 0.6% NaCl) or high-salt (HS; 8% NaCl) diet for 14 days. Naïve and saline-infused Sprague-Dawley rats remained normotensive when placed on HS and exhibited dietary sodium-evoked suppression of peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide. NE infusion resulted in the development of hypertension, which was exacerbated by HS, demonstrating the development of the salt sensitivity of blood pressure [MAP (mmHg) NE+NS: 151 ± 3 vs. NE+HS: 172 ± 4; P salt-sensitive animals, increased NE prevented dietary sodium-evoked suppression of peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide, suggesting impaired NCC activity contributes to the development of salt sensitivity [peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide (μeq/min) Naïve+NS: 9.4 ± 0.2 vs. Naïve+HS: 7 ± 0.1; P salt-sensitive component of NE-mediated hypertension, while chronic ANG II type 1 receptor antagonism significantly attenuated NE-evoked hypertension without restoring NCC function. These data demonstrate that increased levels of NE prevent dietary sodium-evoked suppression of the NCC, via an ANG II-independent mechanism, to stimulate the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Possible effect of norepinephrine transporter polymorphisms on methylphenidate-induced changes in neuropsychological function in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

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    Park Subin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysregulation of noradrenergic system may play important roles in pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. We examined the relationship between polymorphisms in the norepinephrine transporter SLC6A2 gene and attentional performance before and after medication in children with ADHD. Methods Fifty-three medication-naïve children with ADHD were genotyped and evaluated using the continuous performance test (CPT. After 8-weeks of methylphenidate treatment, these children were evaluated by CPT again. We compared the baseline CPT measures and the post-treatment changes in the CPT measures based on the G1287A and the A-3081T polymorphisms of SLC6A2. Results There was no significant difference in the baseline CPT measures associated with the G1287A or A-3081T polymorphisms. After medication, however, ADHD subjects with the G/G genotype at the G1287A polymorphism showed a greater decrease in the mean omission error scores (p = 0.006 than subjects with the G/A or A/A genotypes, and subjects with the T allele at the A-3081T polymorphism (T/T or A/T showed a greater decrease in the mean commission error scores (p = 0.003 than those with the A/A genotypes. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for the possible role of the G1287A and A-3081T genotypes of SLC6A2 in methylphenidate-induced improvement in attentional performance and support the noradrenergic hypothesis for the pathophysiology of ADHD.

  5. Possible effect of norepinephrine transporter polymorphisms on methylphenidate-induced changes in neuropsychological function in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Kim, Jae-Won; Yang, Young-Hui; Hong, Soon-Beom; Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Cho, Soo-Churl

    2012-05-16

    Dysregulation of noradrenergic system may play important roles in pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We examined the relationship between polymorphisms in the norepinephrine transporter SLC6A2 gene and attentional performance before and after medication in children with ADHD. Fifty-three medication-naïve children with ADHD were genotyped and evaluated using the continuous performance test (CPT). After 8-weeks of methylphenidate treatment, these children were evaluated by CPT again. We compared the baseline CPT measures and the post-treatment changes in the CPT measures based on the G1287A and the A-3081T polymorphisms of SLC6A2. There was no significant difference in the baseline CPT measures associated with the G1287A or A-3081T polymorphisms. After medication, however, ADHD subjects with the G/G genotype at the G1287A polymorphism showed a greater decrease in the mean omission error scores (p = 0.006) than subjects with the G/A or A/A genotypes, and subjects with the T allele at the A-3081T polymorphism (T/T or A/T) showed a greater decrease in the mean commission error scores (p = 0.003) than those with the A/A genotypes. Our results provide evidence for the possible role of the G1287A and A-3081T genotypes of SLC6A2 in methylphenidate-induced improvement in attentional performance and support the noradrenergic hypothesis for the pathophysiology of ADHD.

  6. A Direct Comparison between Norepinephrine and Phenylephrine for Augmenting Spinal Cord Perfusion in a Porcine Model of Spinal Cord Injury.

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    Streijger, Femke; So, Kitty; Manouchehri, Neda; Gheorghe, Ana; Okon, Elena B; Chan, Ryan M; Ng, Benjamin; Shortt, Katelyn; Sekhon, Mypinder S; Griesdale, Donald E; Kwon, Brian K

    2018-03-28

    Current clinical guidelines recommend elevating the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) to increase spinal cord perfusion in patients with acute spinal cord injury (SCI). This is typically achieved with vasopressors such as norepinephrine (NE) and phenylephrine (PE). These drugs differ in their pharmacological properties and potentially have different effects on spinal cord blood flow (SCBF), oxygenation (PO 2 ), and downstream metabolism after injury. Using a porcine model of thoracic SCI, we evaluated how these vasopressors influenced intraparenchymal SCBF, PO 2 , hydrostatic pressure, and metabolism within the spinal cord adjacent to the injury site. Yorkshire pigs underwent a contusion/compression SCI at T10 and were randomized to receive either NE or PE for MAP elevation of 20 mm Hg, or no MAP augmentation. Prior to injury, a combined SCBF/PO 2 sensor, a pressure sensor, and a microdialysis probe were inserted into the spinal cord adjacent to T10 at two locations: a "proximal" site and a "distal" site, 2 mm and 22 mm from the SCI, respectively. At the proximal site, NE and PE resulted in little improvement in SCBF during cord compression. Following decompression, NE resulted in increased SCBF and PO 2 , whereas decreased levels were observed for PE. However, both NE and PE were associated with a gradual decrease in the lactate to pyruvate (L/P) ratio after decompression. PE was associated with greater hemorrhage through the injury site than that in control animals. Combined, our results suggest that NE promotes better restoration of blood flow and oxygenation than PE in the traumatically injured spinal cord, thus providing a physiological rationale for selecting NE over PE in the hemodynamic management of acute SCI.

  7. Effects of exercise on depressive behavior and striatal levels of norepinephrine, serotonin and their metabolites in sleep-deprived mice.

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    Daniele, Thiago Medeiros da Costa; de Bruin, Pedro Felipe Carvalhedo; Rios, Emiliano Ricardo Vasconcelos; de Bruin, Veralice Meireles Sales

    2017-08-14

    Exercise is a promising adjunctive therapy for depressive behavior, sleep/wake abnormalities, cognition and motor dysfunction. Conversely, sleep deprivation impairs mood, cognition and functional performance. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of exercise on anxiety and depressive behavior and striatal levels of norepinephrine (NE), serotonin and its metabolites in mice submitted to 6h of total sleep deprivation (6h-TSD) and 72h of Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep deprivation (72h-REMSD). Experimental groups were: (1) mice submitted to 6h-TSD by gentle handling; (2) mice submitted to 72h-REMSD by the flower pot method; (3) exercise (treadmill for 8 weeks); (4) exercise followed by 6h-TSD; (5) exercise followed by 72h-REMSD; (6) control (home cage). Behavioral tests included the Elevated Plus Maze and tail-suspension. NE, serotonin and its metabolites were determined in the striatum using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Sleep deprivation increased depressive behavior (time of immobilization in the tail-suspension test) and previous exercise hindered it. Sleep deprivation increased striatal NE and previous exercise reduced it. Exercise only was associated with higher levels of serotonin. Furthermore, exercise reduced serotonin turnover associated with sleep deprivation. In brief, previous exercise prevented depressive behavior and reduced striatal high NE levels and serotonin turnover. The present findings confirm the effects of exercise on behavior and neurochemical alterations associated with sleep deprivation. These findings provide new avenues for understanding the mechanisms of exercise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Elevated Norepinephrine may be a Unifying Etiological Factor in the Abuse of a Broad Range of Substances: Alcohol, Nicotine, Marijuana, Heroin, Cocaine, and Caffeine

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    Paul J. Fitzgerald

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of commonly abused drugs have effects on the noradrenergic neurotransmitter system, including alterations during acute intoxication and chronic use of these drugs. It is not established, however, that individual differences in noradrenergic signaling, which may be present prior to use of drugs, predispose certain persons to substance abuse. This paper puts forth the novel hypothesis that elevated noradrenergic signaling, which may be raised largely due to genetics but also due to environmental factors, is an etiological factor in the abuse of a wide range of substances, including alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, and caffeine. Data are reviewed for each of these drugs comprising their interaction with norepinephrine during acute intoxication, long-term use, subsequent withdrawal, and stress-induced relapse. In general, the data suggest that these drugs acutely boost noradrenergic signaling, whereas long-term use also affects this neurotransmitter system, possibly suppressing it. During acute withdrawal after chronic drug use, noradrenergic signaling tends to be elevated, consistent with the observation that norepinephrine lowering drugs such as clonidine reduce withdrawal symptoms. Since psychological stress can promote relapse of drug seeking in susceptible individuals and stress produces elevated norepinephrine release, this suggests that these drugs may be suppressing noradrenergic signaling during chronic use or instead elevating it only in reward circuits of the brain. If elevated noradrenergic signaling is an etiological factor in the abuse of a broad range of substances, then chronic use of pharmacological agents that reduce noradrenergic signaling, such as clonidine, guanfacine, lofexidine, propranolol, or prazosin, may help prevent or treat drug abuse in general.

  9. Adaptations to iron deficiency: cardiac functional responsiveness to norepinephrine, arterial remodeling, and the effect of beta-blockade on cardiac hypertrophy

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    Walker LeeAnn

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron deficiency (ID results in ventricular hypertrophy, believed to involve sympathetic stimulation. We hypothesized that with ID 1 intravenous norepinephrine would alter heart rate (HR and contractility, 2 abdominal aorta would be larger and more distensible, and 3 the beta-blocker propanolol would reduce hypertrophy. Methods 1 30 CD rats were fed an ID or replete diet for 1 week or 1 month. Norepinephrine was infused via jugular vein; pressure was monitored at carotid artery. Saline infusions were used as a control. The pressure trace was analyzed for HR, contractility, systolic and diastolic pressures. 2 Abdominal aorta catheters inflated the aorta, while digital microscopic images were recorded at stepwise pressures to measure arterial diameter and distensibility. 3 An additional 10 rats (5 ID, 5 control were given a daily injection of propanolol or saline. After 1 month, the hearts were excised and weighed. Results Enhanced contractility, but not HR, was associated with ID hypertrophic hearts. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were consistent with an increase in arterial diameter associated with ID. Aortic diameter at 100 mmHg and distensibility were increased with ID. Propanolol was associated with an increase in heart to body mass ratio. Conclusions ID cardiac hypertrophy results in an increased inotropic, but not chronotropic response to the sympathetic neurotransmitter, norepinephrine. Increased aortic diameter is consistent with a flow-dependent vascular remodeling; increased distensibility may reflect decreased vascular collagen content. The failure of propanolol to prevent hypertrophy suggests that ID hypertrophy is not mediated via beta-adrenergic neurotransmission.

  10. Elevated Norepinephrine may be a Unifying Etiological Factor in the Abuse of a Broad Range of Substances: Alcohol, Nicotine, Marijuana, Heroin, Cocaine, and Caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Paul J

    2013-10-13

    A wide range of commonly abused drugs have effects on the noradrenergic neurotransmitter system, including alterations during acute intoxication and chronic use of these drugs. It is not established, however, that individual differences in noradrenergic signaling, which may be present prior to use of drugs, predispose certain persons to substance abuse. This paper puts forth the novel hypothesis that elevated noradrenergic signaling, which may be raised largely due to genetics but also due to environmental factors, is an etiological factor in the abuse of a wide range of substances, including alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, and caffeine. Data are reviewed for each of these drugs comprising their interaction with norepinephrine during acute intoxication, long-term use, subsequent withdrawal, and stress-induced relapse. In general, the data suggest that these drugs acutely boost noradrenergic signaling, whereas long-term use also affects this neurotransmitter system, possibly suppressing it. During acute withdrawal after chronic drug use, noradrenergic signaling tends to be elevated, consistent with the observation that norepinephrine lowering drugs such as clonidine reduce withdrawal symptoms. Since psychological stress can promote relapse of drug seeking in susceptible individuals and stress produces elevated norepinephrine release, this suggests that these drugs may be suppressing noradrenergic signaling during chronic use or instead elevating it only in reward circuits of the brain. If elevated noradrenergic signaling is an etiological factor in the abuse of a broad range of substances, then chronic use of pharmacological agents that reduce noradrenergic signaling, such as clonidine, guanfacine, lofexidine, propranolol, or prazosin, may help prevent or treat drug abuse in general.

  11. PET Quantification of the Norepinephrine Transporter in Human Brain with (S,S)-18F-FMeNER-D2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriguchi, Sho; Kimura, Yasuyuki; Ichise, Masanori; Arakawa, Ryosuke; Takano, Harumasa; Seki, Chie; Ikoma, Yoko; Takahata, Keisuke; Nagashima, Tomohisa; Yamada, Makiko; Mimura, Masaru; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2017-07-01

    Norepinephrine transporter (NET) in the brain plays important roles in human cognition and the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Two radioligands, ( S , S )- 11 C-MRB and ( S , S )- 18 F-FMeNER-D 2 , have been used for imaging NETs in the thalamus and midbrain (including locus coeruleus) using PET in humans. However, NET density in the equally important cerebral cortex has not been well quantified because of unfavorable kinetics with ( S , S )- 11 C-MRB and defluorination with ( S , S )- 18 F-FMeNER-D 2 , which can complicate NET quantification in the cerebral cortex adjacent to the skull containing defluorinated 18 F radioactivity. In this study, we have established analysis methods of quantification of NET density in the brain including the cerebral cortex using ( S , S )- 18 F-FMeNER-D 2 PET. Methods: We analyzed our previous ( S , S )- 18 F-FMeNER-D 2 PET data of 10 healthy volunteers dynamically acquired for 240 min with arterial blood sampling. The effects of defluorination on the NET quantification in the superficial cerebral cortex was evaluated by establishing a time stability of NET density estimations with an arterial input 2-tissue-compartment model, which guided the less-invasive reference tissue model and area under the time-activity curve methods to accurately quantify NET density in all brain regions including the cerebral cortex. Results: Defluorination of ( S , S )- 18 F-FMeNER-D 2 became prominent toward the latter half of the 240-min scan. Total distribution volumes in the superficial cerebral cortex increased with the scan duration beyond 120 min. We verified that 90-min dynamic scans provided a sufficient amount of data for quantification of NET density unaffected by defluorination. Reference tissue model binding potential values from the 90-min scan data and area under the time-activity curve ratios of 70- to 90-min data allowed for the accurate quantification of NET density in the cerebral cortex. Conclusion: We have established

  12. Selective attenuation of norepinephrine release and stress-induced heart rate increase by partial adenosine A1 agonism.

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    Lorenz Bott-Flügel

    Full Text Available The release of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE is modulated by presynaptic adenosine receptors. In the present study we investigated the effect of a partial activation of this feedback mechanism. We hypothesized that partial agonism would have differential effects on NE release in isolated hearts as well as on heart rate in vivo depending on the genetic background and baseline sympathetic activity. In isolated perfused hearts of Wistar and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR, NE release was induced by electrical stimulation under control conditions (S1, and with capadenoson 6 · 10(-8 M (30 µg/l, 6 · 10(-7 M (300 µg/l or 2-chloro-N(6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA 10(-6 M (S2. Under control conditions (S1, NE release was significantly higher in SHR hearts compared to Wistar (766+/-87 pmol/g vs. 173+/-18 pmol/g, p<0.01. Capadenoson led to a concentration-dependent decrease of the stimulation-induced NE release in SHR (S2/S1  =  0.90 ± 0.08 with capadenoson 6 · 10(-8 M, 0.54 ± 0.02 with 6 · 10(-7 M, but not in Wistar hearts (S2/S1  =  1.05 ± 0.12 with 6 · 10(-8 M, 1.03 ± 0.09 with 6 · 10(-7 M. CCPA reduced NE release to a similar degree in hearts from both strains. In vivo capadenoson did not alter resting heart rate in Wistar rats or SHR. Restraint stress induced a significantly greater increase of heart rate in SHR than in Wistar rats. Capadenoson blunted this stress-induced tachycardia by 45% in SHR, but not in Wistar rats. Using a [(35S]GTPγS assay we demonstrated that capadenoson is a partial agonist compared to the full agonist CCPA (74+/-2% A(1-receptor stimulation. These results suggest that partial adenosine A(1-agonism dampens stress-induced tachycardia selectively in rats susceptible to strong increases in sympathetic activity, most likely due to a presynaptic attenuation of NE release.

  13. Norepinephrine release from Locus Ceruleus:a central regulator for the CNS spatio-temporal activation pattern?

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    Marco Atzori

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Norepinephrine (NE is synthesized in the Locus Coeruleus (LC of the brainstem, from where it is released by axonal varicosities throughout the brain via volume transmission. A wealth of data from clinics and from animal models indicates that this catecholamine coordinates the activity of the central nervous system and of the whole organism by modulating cell function in a vast number of brain areas in a coordinated manner. The ubiquity of NE receptors, the daunting number of cerebral areas regulated by the catecholamine, as well as the variety of cellular effects and of their timescales have contributed so far to defeat the attempts to integrate central adrenergic function into a unitary and coherent framework.Since three main families of NE receptors are represented – in decreasing order of affinity for the catecholamine – by: 2 adrenoceptors (2Rs, high affinity, 1 adrenoceptors (1Rs, intermediate affinity, and  adrenoceptors (Rs, low affinity, on a pharmacological basis, and on the ground of recent studies on cellular and systemic central noradrenergic effects, we propose that an increase in LC tonic activity promotes the emergence of four global states covering the whole spectrum of brain activation: 1 sleep: virtual absence of NE, 2 quiet wake: activation of 2Rs, 3 active wake/physiological stress: activation of 2- and 1Rs, 4 distress: activation of 2-, 1-, and Rs.We postulate that excess intensity and/or duration of states 3 and 4 may lead to maladaptive plasticity, causing – in turn – a variety of neuropsychiatric illnesses including depression, schizophrenic psychoses, anxiety disorders, and attention deficit. The interplay between tonic and phasic LC activity identified in the LC in relationship with behavioral response is of critical importance in defining the short- and long-term biological mechanisms associated with the basic states postulated for the central nervous system. While the model

  14. Effects of α2A Adrenoceptors on Norepinephrine Secretion from the Locus Coeruleus during Chronic Stress-Induced Depression

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    Hong-ping Huang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stressors can often lead to the development of psychological disorders, such as depression and anxiety. The locus coeruleus (LC is a stress sensitive brain region located in the pons, with noradrenergic neurons that project to the hypothalamus, especially the paraventricular nucleus (PVN of the hypothalamus. The purpose of this paper is to better understand how alpha 2A-adrenoceptors (α2A-ARs and LC-hypothalamus noradrenergic system participate in the pathophysiological mechanism of depression. In vivo norepinephrine (NE release in the PVN triggered by electrical stimulation in the LC was detected with carbon fiber electrodes in depression model of rats induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS. Also, the extracellular level of NE in the PVN was measured by microdialysis in vivo without any stimulation in the LC. The alpha 2-adrenoceptor (α2-AR antagonist yohimbine and α2A-ARs antagonist BRL-44408 maleate were systemically administered to rats to determine the effects of α2A-ARs on NE release in the PVN. The peak value of elicited NE release signals in the PVN induced by electrical stimulation in the LC in the CUMS rats were lower than that in the control rats. The extracellular levels of NE in the PVN of the CUMS rats were significantly less than that of the control rats. Intraperitoneal injection of yohimbine or BRL-44408 maleate significantly potentiated NE release in the PVN of the CUMS rats. The CUMS significantly increased protein expression levels of α2A-AR in the hypothalamus, and BRL-44408 maleate significantly reversed the increase of α2A-AR protein expression levels in the CUMS rats. Our results suggest that the CUMS could significantly facilitate the effect of α2-adrenoceptor-mediated presynaptic inhibition and decrease the release of NE in the PVN from LC. Blockade of the inhibitory action of excessive α2A-adrenergic receptors in the CUMS rats could increase the level of NE in the PVN, which is effective in

  15. Xiao Yao San Improves Depressive-Like Behaviors in Rats with Chronic Immobilization Stress through Modulation of Locus Coeruleus-Norepinephrine System.

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    Ding, Xiu-Fang; Zhao, Xiao-Hua; Tao, Yang; Zhong, Wei-Chao; Fan, Qin; Diao, Jian-Xin; Liu, Yuan-Liang; Chen, Yu-Yao; Chen, Jia-Xu; Lv, Zhi-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Most research focuses on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, and hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPGA) axis systems of abnormalities of emotions and behaviors induced by stress, while no studies of Chinese herbal medicine such as Xiao Yao San (XYS) on the mechanisms of locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system have been reported. Therefore, experiments were carried out to observe mechanism of LC-NE system in response to chronic immobilization stress (CIS) and explore the antidepressant effect of XYS. Rat model was established by CIS. LC morphology in rat was conducted. The serum norepinephrine (NE) concentrations and NE biosynthesis such as tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH), and corticotrophin-releasing-factor (CRF) in LC were determined. Results showed that there were no discernible alterations in LC in rats. The serum NE concentrations, positive neurons, mean optical density (MOD), and protein levels of TH, DBH, and CRF in model group were significantly increased compared to the control group. But XYS-treated group displayed a significantly decreased in NE levels and expressions of TH, DBH, and CRF compared to the model group. In conclusion, CIS can activate LC-NE system to release NE and then result in a significant decrease in rats. XYS treatment can effectively improve depressive-like behaviors in rats through inhibition of LC-NE neurons activity.

  16. Age-related changes in prefrontal norepinephrine transporter density: The basis for improved cognitive flexibility after low doses of atomoxetine in adolescent rats

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    Bradshaw, Sarah E.; Agster, Kara L.; Waterhouse, Barry D.; McGaughy, Jill A.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of major behavioral and brain reorganization. As diagnoses and treatment of disorders like attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often occur during adolescence, it is important to understand how the prefrontal cortices change and how these changes may influence the response to drugs during development. The current study uses an adolescent rat model to study the effect of standard ADHD treatments, atomoxetine and methylphenidate on attentional set shifting and reversal learning. While both of these drugs act as norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, higher doses of atomoxetine and all doses of methylphenidate also block dopamine transporters (DAT). Low doses of atomoxetine, were effective at remediating cognitive rigidity found in adolescents. In contrast, methylphenidate improved performance in rats unable to form an attentional set due to distractibility but was without effect in normal subjects. We also assessed the effects of GBR 12909, a selective DAT inhibitor, but found no effect of any dose on behavior. A second study in adolescent rats investigated changes in norepinephrine transporter (NET) and dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH) density in five functionally distinct subregions of the prefrontal cortex: infralimbic, prelimbic, anterior cingulate, medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortices. These regions are implicated in impulsivity and distractibility. We found that NET, but not DBH, changed across adolescence in a regionally selective manner. The prelimbic cortex, which is critical to cognitive rigidity, and the lateral orbitofrontal cortex, critical to reversal learning and some forms of response inhibition, showed higher levels of NET at early than mid- to late adolescence. PMID:26774596

  17. Synthesis and evaluation of {sup 18}F-labeled benzylguanidine analogs for targeting the human norepinephrine transporter

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    Zhang, Hanwen; Huang, Ruimin; Pillarsetty, NagaVaraKishore; Thorek, Daniel L.J. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Vaidyanathan, Ganesan [Duke University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Serganova, Inna [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), Department of Neurology, New York, NY (United States); Blasberg, Ronald G. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), Department of Neurology, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry Program, New York, NY (United States); Lewis, Jason S. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry Program, New York, NY (United States); Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry Program, SKI, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Radiochemistry and Imaging Sciences Service, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Both {sup 131}I- and {sup 123}I-labeled meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) have been widely used in the clinic for targeted imaging of the norepinephrine transporter (NET). The human NET (hNET) gene has been imaged successfully with {sup 124}I-MIBG positron emission tomography (PET) at time points of >24 h post-injection (p.i.). {sup 18}F-labeled MIBG analogs may be ideal to image hNET expression at time points of <8 h p.i. We developed improved methods for the synthesis of known MIBG analogs, [{sup 18}F]MFBG and [{sup 18}F]PFBG and evaluated them in hNET reporter gene-transduced C6 rat glioma cells and xenografts. [{sup 18}F]MFBG and [{sup 18}F]PFBG were synthesized manually using a three-step synthetic scheme. Wild-type and hNET reporter gene-transduced C6 rat glioma cells and xenografts were used to comparatively evaluate the {sup 18}F-labeled analogs with [{sup 123}I]/[{sup 124}I]MIBG. The fluorination efficacy on benzonitrile was predominantly determined by the position of the trimethylammonium group. The para-isomer afforded higher yields (75 ± 7 %) than meta-isomer (21 ± 5 %). The reaction of [{sup 18}F]fluorobenzylamine with 1H-pyrazole-1-carboximidamide was more efficient than with 2-methyl-2-thiopseudourea. The overall radiochemical yields (decay-corrected) were 11 ± 2 % (n = 12) for [{sup 18}F]MFBG and 41 ± 12 % (n = 5) for [{sup 18}F]PFBG, respectively. The specific uptakes of [{sup 18}F]MFBG and [{sup 18}F]PFBG were similar in C6-hNET cells, but 4-fold less than that of [{sup 123}I]/[{sup 124}I]MIBG. However, in vivo [{sup 18}F]MFBG accumulation in C6-hNET tumors was 1.6-fold higher than that of [{sup 18}F]PFBG at 1 h p.i., whereas their uptakes were similar at 4 h. Despite [{sup 18}F]MFBG having a 2.8-fold lower affinity to hNET and approximately 4-fold lower cell uptake in vitro compared to [{sup 123}I]/[{sup 124}I]MIBG, PET imaging demonstrated that [{sup 18}F]MFBG was able to visualize C6-hNET xenografts better than [{sup 124}I

  18. The role of genetic factors in predicting results of obesity treatment with sibutramine – serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Galieva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the influence of SERT and GNB3 gene polymorphisms on the results of the treatment of obesity by serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. Methods. Patients who didn’t achieve significant weight loss in 3 month period during PrimaVera Study were selected for the genetic evaluation and compared with the group of “effective treatment”. The study included 66 patients (57 females and 9 males, mean age 39.29 ± 12.64 years, who received Reduxin (sibutramine + MCC at the dose of 10 mg. Term follow-up was 3 months. Clinical examination and determination of biochemical parameters was performed at baseline and at the end of the observation period. In order to assess the type of eating behavior and identify hidden depressions a validated questionnaire was used (questionnaire "The types of eating disorders» (DEBQ, Beck Depression Scale. Also conducted a genetic study to assess SERT and GBN3 gene polymorphisms. Results. In the second group presence of S-allele SERT-gene was significantly associated with higher rates of external type of eating behavior. A statistically significant correlation between the genotype or allele of either body weight, rates of blood pressure, heart rate and cholesterol have not been found. In the first group there was a statistically significant association of S-allele carrier with less weight loss -2.8 kg (compared to l-allele and higher rates at baseline glucose 5.38 ± 0.63 mmol / l (compared to L-allele of -3.28 kg and 5.04 ± 0.91 mmol / l. In the study of GBN3 polymorphism in the second group among CC genotype carriers there were higher levels of systolic blood pressure (SBP before treatment (129.27 ± 9.16 mmHg, SBP and diastolic blood pressure after 3 months of treatment (127.36 ± 8.16 and 78.36 ± 4.3 mmHg compared with CT genotype (117.27 ± 12.5; 115.45 ± 10.6; 72.91 ± 6.0 mm Hg, respectively (p <0.05. Also among the carriers of C-allele there were more severe manifestations of

  19. Alteration effect of the PGFsub(2α) inhibition on the 3H-norepinephrine release caused by α2 receptor blocking, sodium loading and 4-aminopyridine addition in isolated pulmonary arteries of rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunyevacs, Zs.; Toeroek, T.; Hadhazy, P.; Magyar, K.; Feher, L.; Vizi, E.Sz.

    1983-01-01

    The tritium labelled norepinephrine release was measured in isolated pulmonary artery of rabbit. If the 3 H-norepinephrine release was induced by nerves stimulated with electric current, the PGFsub(2α) inhibited the release by 62%. In the presence of Yohimbin the inhibitory effect of FGFsub(2α) was increased to 78.8%. If the Na + pump activity was reduced by potassium-free medium the PGFsub(2α) inhibition remained at 62%. In the presence of 4-aminopyridine the potassium channel was blocked and the PGFsub(2α) inhibition decreased to 32.1%. The endogen prostaglandin may serve as a modulator of the neurotransmitter release. (L.G.)

  20. Regulation of the fear network by mediators of stress: Norepinephrine alters the balance between Cortical and Subcortical afferent excitation of the Lateral Amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke R Johnson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pavlovian auditory fear conditioning crucially involves the integration of information about and acoustic conditioned stimulus (CS and an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA. The auditory CS reaches the LA subcortically via a direct connection from the auditory thalamus and also from the auditory association cortex itself. How neural modulators, especially those activated during stress, such as norepinephrine (NE, regulate synaptic transmission and plasticity in this network is poorly understood. Here we show that NE inhibits synaptic transmission in both the subcortical and cortical input pathway but that sensory processing is biased towards the subcortical pathway. In addition binding of NE to β-adrenergic receptors further dissociates sensory processing in the LA. These findings suggest a network mechanism that shifts sensory balance towards the faster but more primitive subcortical input.

  1. A novel sensor made of Antimony Doped Tin Oxide-silica composite sol on a glassy carbon electrode modified by single-walled carbon nanotubes for detection of norepinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Lu; Chai, Shigan; Zhang, Jinzhi; Zhang, Xiuhua; Zou, Qichao

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we designed a novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), Antimony Doped Tin Oxide (ATO)-silica composite sol, which was made using a sol-gel method. Then a sensitive and selective imprinted electrochemical sensor was constructed with the ATO-silica composite sol on a glassy carbon electrode modified by single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The introduction of SWNTs increased the sensitivity of the MIP sensor. The surface morphology of the MIP and MIP/SWNTs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the optimal conditions for detection were determined. The oxidative peak current increased linearly with the concentration of norepinephrine in the range of 9.99×10 -8 M to 1.50×10 -5 M, as detected by cyclic voltammetry (CV), the detection limit was 3.33×10 -8 M (S/N=3). In addition, the proposed electrochemical sensors were successfully applied to detect the norepinephrine concentration in human blood serum samples. The recoveries of the sensors varied from 99.67% to 104.17%, indicating that the sensor has potential for the determination of norepinephrine in clinical tests. Moreover, the imprinted electrochemical sensor was used to selectively detect norepinephrine. The analytical application was conducted successfully and yielded accurate and precise results. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Reduced 125I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine uptake and norepinephrine transporter density in the hearts of mice with MPTP-induced parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Suzuki, Masahiko; Fukuda, Takahiro; Kiyono, Yasushi; Kajiyama, Satomi; Saji, Hideo

    2006-01-01

    Uptake of 123 I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine ( 123 I-MIBG) is markedly reduced in the hearts of patients with Parkinson's disease. Although the mechanism of this reduction is unclear, 12 5 I-MIBG uptake is similarly reduced in the hearts of mice with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydroxypyridine (MPTP)-induced parkinsonism. Three groups of ten 15-week-old C57BL6 mice received intraperitoneal injections of (1) saline (control) (2) 10 mg/kg MPTP or (3) 40 mg/kg MPTP. After 0.185 MBq of 125 I-MIBG was injected, the percent injected dose of 125 I-MIBG per gram of tissue (%ID/g) was determined and cardiac concentrations of norepinephrine were measured. Cardiac concentrations of norepinephrine transporter (NET) were measured in three groups of twenty 15-week-old C57BL6 mice receiving these same treatments. The %ID/g in mice receiving 10 or 40 mg/kg MPTP (5.7±1.1 and 4.4±1.2%/g) was significantly lower than that in control mice (11.3±2.2%/g; P 5 and 7.50±0.89x10 5 pg/wet g) was significantly lower than that in control mice (9.21±0.97x10 5 pg/wet g; P 125 I-MIBG and NET density decreased as the dose of MPTP increased. This study clearly shows that reduced cardiac 12 5 I-MIBG uptake in mice with MPTP-induced parkinsonism is closely related to the reduced NET density in postganglionic cardiac sympathetic nerve terminals

  3. Depletion of norepinephrine of the central nervous system Down-regulates the blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed and restraint stress models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Lee, Jae-Ryeong; Sharma, Naveen; Suh, Hong-Won

    2016-05-04

    DSP-4[N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride] is a neurotoxin that depletes norepinephrine. The catecholaminergic system has been implicated in the regulation of blood glucose level. In the present study, the effect of DSP-4 administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) or intrathecally (i.t.) on blood glucose level was examined in d-glucose-fed and restraint stress mice models. Mice were pretreated once i.c.v. or i.t. with DSP-4 (10-40μg) for 3days, and d-glucose (2g/kg) was fed orally. Blood glucose level was measured 0 (prior to glucose feeding or restraint stress), 30, 60, and 120min after d-glucose feeding or restraint stress. The i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 attenuated blood glucose level in the d-glucose-fed model. Plasma corticosterone level was downregulated in the d-glucose-fed model, whereas plasma insulin level increased in the d-glucose-fed group. The i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 reversed the downregulation of plasma corticosterone induced by feeding d-glucose. In addition, the d-glucose-induced increase in plasma insulin was attenuated by the DSP-4 pretreatment. Furthermore, i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with DSP-4 reduced restraint stress-induced increases in blood glucose levels. Restraint stress increased plasma corticosterone and insulin levels. The i.c.v. pretreatment with DSP-4 attenuated restraint stress-induced plasma corticosterone and insulin levels. Our results suggest that depleting norepinephrine at the supraspinal and spinal levels appears to be responsible for downregulating blood glucose levels in both d-glucose-fed and restraint stress models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential Internalization Rates and Postendocytic Sorting of the Norepinephrine and Dopamine Transporters Are Controlled by Structural Elements in the N Termini*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorenpää, Anne; Jørgensen, Trine N.; Newman, Amy H.; Madsen, Kenneth L.; Scheinin, Mika

    2016-01-01

    The norepinephrine transporter (NET) mediates reuptake of synaptically released norepinephrine in central and peripheral noradrenergic neurons. The molecular processes governing availability of NET in the plasma membrane are poorly understood. Here we use the fluorescent cocaine analogue JHC 1-64, as well as several other approaches, to investigate the trafficking itinerary of NET in live noradrenergic neurons. Confocal imaging revealed extensive constitutive internalization of JHC 1-64-labeled NET in the neuronal somata, proximal extensions and presynaptic boutons. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate increased intracellular accumulation of JHC 1-64-labeled NET and caused a parallel reduction in uptake capacity. Internalized NET strongly colocalized with the “long loop” recycling marker Rab11, whereas less overlap was seen with the “short loop” recycling marker Rab4 and the late endosomal marker Rab7. Moreover, mitigating Rab11 function by overexpression of dominant negative Rab11 impaired NET function. Sorting of NET to the Rab11 recycling compartment was further supported by confocal imaging and reversible biotinylation experiments in transfected differentiated CATH.a cells. In contrast to NET, the dopamine transporter displayed markedly less constitutive internalization and limited sorting to the Rab11 recycling compartment in the differentiated CATH.a cells. Exchange of domains between the two homologous transporters revealed that this difference was determined by non-conserved structural elements in the intracellular N terminus. We conclude that NET displays a distinct trafficking itinerary characterized by continuous shuffling between the plasma membrane and the Rab11 recycling compartment and that the functional integrity of the Rab11 compartment is critical for maintaining proper presynaptic NET function. PMID:26786096

  5. A haplotype of the norepinephrine transporter gene (SLC6A2) is associated with visual memory in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Chi-Yung; Chiang, Huey-Ling; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-04-03

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common heritable childhood-onset psychiatric disorder with impaired visual memory. Based on the evidence from treatment effect of atomoxetine, which interacts directly with the norepinephrine transporter, on visual memory in children with ADHD, this study examined the linkage disequilibrium structure of the norepinephrine transporter gene (SLC6A2) and the association between SLC6A2 and ADHD and visual memory, a promising endophenotype for ADHD. This family-based association sample consisted of 382 probands with DSM-IV ADHD and their family members (n=1298 in total) of Han Chinese in Taiwan. Visual memory was assessed by the Pattern Recognition Memory (PRM) and Spatial Recognition Memory (SRM) tasks of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). We screened 21 polymorphisms across SLC6A2 and used the Family-Based Association Test (FBAT) to test the associations of SLC6A2 polymorphisms with ADHD and the PRM and SRM measures. In haplotype analyses, a haplotype rs36011 (T)/rs1566652 (G) was significantly associated with ADHD (minimal p=0.045) after adjustment for multiple testing. In quantitative analyses, this TG haplotype also demonstrated significant associations with visual memory measures, including mean latency of correct responses in PRM (minimal p=0.019), total correct responses in PRM (minimal p=0.018), and total correct responses in SRM (minimal p=0.015). Our novel finding of the haplotype rs36011 (T)/rs1566652 (G) as a novel genetic marker involved in both ADHD disease susceptibility and visual memory suggests that allelic variations in SLC6A2 could provide insight into the pathways leading from genotype to phenotype of ADHD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of radioiodinated (2S,{alpha}S)-2-({alpha}-(2-iodophenoxy)benzyl)morpholine as a radioligand for imaging of norepinephrine transporter in the heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyono, Yasushi [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Radioisotopes Research Laboratory, Kyoto University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)], E-mail: ykiyono@u-fukui.ac.jp; Sugita, Taku [Department of Pathofunctional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Ueda, Masashi [Radioisotopes Research Laboratory, Kyoto University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Kawashima, Hidekazu [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Kanegawa, Naoki; Kuge, Yuji [Department of Pathofunctional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Saji, Hideo [Department of Pathofunctional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2008-02-15

    Introduction: The norepinephrine transporter (NET) is located presynaptically on noradrenergic nerve terminals and plays a critical role in the regulation of the synaptic norepinephrine (NE) concentration via the reuptake of NE. Changes in NET have been recently reported in several cardiac failures. Therefore, a NET-specific radioligand is useful for in vivo assessment of changes in NET density in various cardiac disorders. Recently, we developed a radioiodinated reboxetine analogue, (2S,{alpha}S)-2-({alpha}-(2-iodophenoxy)benzyl)morpholine ((S,S)-IPBM), for NET imaging. In the current study, we assessed the applicability of radioiodinated (S,S)-IPBM to NET imaging in the heart. Methods: The NET affinity and selectivity were measured from the ability to displace specific [{sup 3}H]nisoxetine and (S,S)-[{sup 125}I]IPBM binding to rat heart membrane, respectively. To evaluate the distribution of (S,S)-[{sup 125}I]IPBM in vivo, biodistribution experiment was performed in rats. With the use of several monoamine transporter binding agents, pharmacological blocking experiments were performed in rats. Results: In vitro binding assays showed that the affinity of (S,S)-IPBM to NET was similar to those of the well-known NET-specific binding agents, nisoxetine and desipramine. Furthermore, (S,S)-[{sup 125}I]IPBM binding was inhibited by nisoxetine and desipramine, but not by dopamine or serotonin transporter binding agents. These data indicated that (S,S)-IPBM had high affinity and selectivity for NET in vitro. Biodistribution studies in rats showed rapid and high uptake of (S,S)-[{sup 125}I]IPBM by the heart and rapid clearance from the blood. The heart-to-blood ratio was 31.9 at 180 min after the injection. The administration of nisoxetine and desipramine decreased (S,S)-[{sup 125}I]IPBM accumulation in the heart, but injection of fluoxetine and GBR12909 had little influence. Conclusions: Radioiodinated (S,S)-IPBM is a potential radioligand for NET imaging in the heart.

  7. Synthesis, enantiomeric resolution, F-18 labeling and biodistribution of reboxetine analogs: promising radioligands for imaging the norepinephrine transporter with positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuo-Shyan; Ding, Yu-Shin; Kim, Sung-Won; Kil, Kun-Eek

    2005-05-01

    Racemic and enantiomerically pure ((S,S) and (R,R)) 2-[alpha-(2-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethoxy)phenoxy)benzyl]morpholine ([(18)F]FRB) and its tetradeuterated form [(18)F]FRB-D(4), analogs of the highly selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor reboxetine (2-[alpha-(2-ethoxyphenoxy)benzyl]morpholine, RB), have been synthesized for studies of norepinephrine transporter (NET) system with positron emission tomography (PET). The [(18)F]fluorinated precursor, (S,S)/(R,R)-N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-2-[alpha-(2-hydroxyphenoxy)benzyl]morpholine ((S,S)/(R,R)-N-Boc-desethylRB), was prepared by the N-protection of (S,S)/(R,R)-2-[alpha-(2-hydroxyphenoxy)benzyl]morpholine ((S,S)/(R,R)-desethylRB) with a tert-butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) group followed by enantiomeric resolution with chiral HPLC to provide both (S,S) and (R,R) enantiomers with >99% enantiomeric purity. These compounds were then used for radiosynthesis to prepare enantiomerically pure [(18)F]FRB and [(18)F]FRB-D(4) via the following three-step procedure: (1) formation of 1-bromo-2-[(18)F]fluoroethane ([(18)F]BFE or [(18)F]BFE-D(4)) by nucleophilic displacement of 2-bromoethyl triflate (or D(4) analog) with no-carrier added [(18)F]F(-) in THF; (2) reaction of [(18)F]BFE (or [(18)F]BFE-D(4)) with N-Boc-desethylRB in DMF in the presence of excess base; and (3) deprotection with trifluoroacetic acid. The racemates, (S,S) and (R,R) enantiomers of [(18)F]FRB and [(18)F]FRB-D(4) were obtained in 11-27% (decay corrected to the end of bombardment, EOB) in 120-min synthesis time with a radiochemical purity of >98% and specific activities of 21-48 GBq/micromol (EOB). The results of the whole-body biodistribution studies with (S,S)-[(18)F]FRB-D(4) were similar to those with (S,S)-[(18)F]FRB but showed relatively faster blood clearance and no significant in vivo defluorination. Positron emission tomography studies in baboon brain also showed that (S,S)-[(18)F]FRB-D(4) may be a potentially useful ligand for imaging NET with PET.

  8. Synthesis, enantiomeric resolution, F-18 labeling and biodistribution of reboxetine analogs: promising radioligands for imaging the norepinephrine transporter with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, K.-S.; Ding, Y.-S.; Kim, Sung-Won; Kil, Kun-Eek

    2005-01-01

    Racemic and enantiomerically pure ((S,S) and (R,R)) 2-[α-(2-(2-[ 18 F]fluoroethoxy)phenoxy)benzyl]morpholine ([ 18 F]FRB) and its tetradeuterated form [ 18 F]FRB-D 4 , analogs of the highly selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor reboxetine (2-[α-(2-ethoxyphenoxy)benzyl]morpholine, RB), have been synthesized for studies of norepinephrine transporter (NET) system with positron emission tomography (PET). The [ 18 F]fluorinated precursor, (S,S)/(R,R)-N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-2-[α-(2-hydroxyphenoxy)benzyl] morpholine ((S,S)/(R,R)-N-Boc-desethylRB), was prepared by the N-protection of (S,S)/(R,R)-2-[α-(2-hydroxyphenoxy)benzyl]morpholine ((S,S)/(R,R)-desethylRB) with a tert-butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) group followed by enantiomeric resolution with chiral HPLC to provide both (S,S) and (R,R) enantiomers with >99% enantiomeric purity. These compounds were then used for radiosynthesis to prepare enantiomerically pure [ 18 F]FRB and [ 18 F]FRB-D 4 via the following three-step procedure: (1) formation of 1-bromo-2-[ 18 F]fluoroethane ([ 18 F]BFE or [ 18 F]BFE-D 4 ) by nucleophilic displacement of 2-bromoethyl triflate (or D 4 analog) with no-carrier added [ 18 F]F - in THF; (2) reaction of [ 18 F]BFE (or [ 18 F]BFE-D 4 ) with N-Boc-desethylRB in DMF in the presence of excess base; and (3) deprotection with trifluoroacetic acid. The racemates, (S,S) and (R,R) enantiomers of [ 18 F]FRB and [ 18 F]FRB-D 4 were obtained in 11-27% (decay corrected to the end of bombardment, EOB) in 120-min synthesis time with a radiochemical purity of >98% and specific activities of 21-48 GBq/μmol (EOB). The results of the whole-body biodistribution studies with (S,S)-[ 18 F]FRB-D 4 were similar to those with (S,S)-[ 18 F]FRB but showed relatively faster blood clearance and no significant in vivo defluorination. Positron emission tomography studies in baboon brain also showed that (S,S)-[ 18 F]FRB-D 4 may be a potentially useful ligand for imaging NET with PET

  9. Synthesis, enantiomeric resolution, F-18 labeling and biodistribution of reboxetine analogs: promising radioligands for imaging the norepinephrine transporter with positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, K.-S. [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Ding, Y.-S. [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)]. E-mail: ding@bnl.gov; Kim, Sung-Won [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kil, Kun-Eek [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Racemic and enantiomerically pure ((S,S) and (R,R)) 2-[{alpha}-(2-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethoxy)phenoxy)benzyl]morpholine ([{sup 18}F]FRB) and its tetradeuterated form [{sup 18}F]FRB-D{sub 4}, analogs of the highly selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor reboxetine (2-[{alpha}-(2-ethoxyphenoxy)benzyl]morpholine, RB), have been synthesized for studies of norepinephrine transporter (NET) system with positron emission tomography (PET). The [{sup 18}F]fluorinated precursor, (S,S)/(R,R)-N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-2-[{alpha}-(2-hydroxyphenoxy)benzyl] morpholine ((S,S)/(R,R)-N-Boc-desethylRB), was prepared by the N-protection of (S,S)/(R,R)-2-[{alpha}-(2-hydroxyphenoxy)benzyl]morpholine ((S,S)/(R,R)-desethylRB) with a tert-butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) group followed by enantiomeric resolution with chiral HPLC to provide both (S,S) and (R,R) enantiomers with >99% enantiomeric purity. These compounds were then used for radiosynthesis to prepare enantiomerically pure [{sup 18}F]FRB and [{sup 18}F]FRB-D{sub 4} via the following three-step procedure: (1) formation of 1-bromo-2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethane ([{sup 18}F]BFE or [{sup 18}F]BFE-D{sub 4}) by nucleophilic displacement of 2-bromoethyl triflate (or D{sub 4} analog) with no-carrier added [{sup 18}F]F{sup -} in THF; (2) reaction of [{sup 18}F]BFE (or [{sup 18}F]BFE-D{sub 4}) with N-Boc-desethylRB in DMF in the presence of excess base; and (3) deprotection with trifluoroacetic acid. The racemates, (S,S) and (R,R) enantiomers of [{sup 18}F]FRB and [{sup 18}F]FRB-D{sub 4} were obtained in 11-27% (decay corrected to the end of bombardment, EOB) in 120-min synthesis time with a radiochemical purity of >98% and specific activities of 21-48 GBq/{mu}mol (EOB). The results of the whole-body biodistribution studies with (S,S)-[{sup 18}F]FRB-D{sub 4} were similar to those with (S,S)-[{sup 18}F]FRB but showed relatively faster blood clearance and no significant in vivo defluorination. Positron emission tomography studies in baboon brain also

  10. Effects of Electroacupuncture on Pain Threshold of Laboring Rats and the Expression of Norepinephrine Transporter and α2 Adrenergic Receptor in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianli Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To observe the effects of electroacupuncture on pain threshold of laboring rats and the expression of norepinephrine transporter and α2 adrenergic receptor in the central nervous system to determine the mechanism of the analgesic effect of labor. 120 pregnant rats were divided into 6 groups: a control group, 4 electroacupuncture groups, and a meperidine group. After interventions, the warm water tail-flick test was used to observe pain threshold. NE levels in serum, NET, and α2AR mRNA and protein expression levels in the central nervous system were measured. No difference in pain threshold was observed between the 6 groups before intervention. After intervention, increased pain thresholds were observed in all groups except the control group with a higher threshold seen in the electroacupuncture groups. Serum NE levels decreased in the electroacupuncture and MP groups. Increases in NET and α2AR expression in the cerebral cortex and decreases in enlarged segments of the spinal cord were seen. Acupuncture increases uptake of NE via cerebral NET and decreases its uptake by spinal NET. The levels of α2AR are also increased and decreased, respectively, in both tissues. This results in a decrease in systemic NE levels and may be the mechanism for its analgesic effects.

  11. Contemporary review on the pathogenesis of takotsubo syndrome: The heart shedding tears: Norepinephrine churn and foam at the cardiac sympathetic nerve terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y-Hassan, Shams; De Palma, Rodney

    2017-02-01

    Takotsubo syndrome (TS), an increasingly recognized acute cardiac disease entity, is characterized by a unique pattern of circumferential and typically regional left ventricular wall motion abnormality resulting in a conspicuous transient ballooning of the left ventricle during systole. The mechanism of the disease remains elusive. However, the sudden onset of acute myocardial stunning in a systematic pattern extending beyond a coronary artery territory; the history of a preceding emotional or physical stress factor in two thirds of cases; the signs of sympathetic denervation at the regions of left ventricular dysfunction on sympathetic scintigraphy; the finding of myocardial edema and other signs consistent with (catecholamine-induced) myocarditis shown by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging; and the contraction band necrosis on histopathological examination all argue strongly for the involvement of the cardiac sympathetic nervous system in the pathogenesis of TS. In this narrative review, extensive evidence in support of local cardiac sympathetic nerve hyperactivation, disruption and norepinephrine spillover causing TS in predisposed patients is provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Linear scan voltammetric indirect determination of Al(III) by the catalytic cathodic response of norepinephrine at the hanging mercury drop electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuping; Ji, Ming; Xu, Quan; Yang, Li; Bi, Shuping

    2005-09-01

    The biological effects of aluminum (Al) have received much attention in recent years. Al is of basic relevance as concern with its reactivity and bioavailability. In this paper, the electrochemical behaviors of norepinephrine (NE) in the absence and presence of Al(III) at the hanging mercury drop electrode have been studied and applied to the practical analysis. Highly selective catalytic cathodic peak of NE is yielded by linear scan voltammetry (LSV) at -1.32 V (vs. SCE). A linear relationship holds between the cathodic peak current and the Al(III) concentration. It has been successfully applied to the determination of Al(III) in real waters and synthetic biological samples with satisfying results, which are in accordance with those obtained by ICP-AES method. The electrochemical properties and the mechanisms of the peaks in the presence and absence of Al(III) have been explored. The results show that they are irreversible adsorptive hydrogen catalytic waves. These studies not only enrich the methods of determining Al, but also lay foundations of further understanding of the mechanisms of neurodementia.

  13. Increasing CNS norepinephrine levels by the precursor L-DOPS facilitates beam-walking recovery after sensorimotor cortex ablation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, K; Nishino, K; Ohyu, H

    2000-03-31

    The present investigation was conducted to document a role of L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine (L-DOPS), precursor of L-norepinephrine (NE), in the functional recovery from beam-walking performance deficits in rats after unilateral sensorimotor cortex ablation. L-DOPS was administered simultaneously with benserazide (BSZ; a peripheral aromatic amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor), and the regional contents of NE in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum were assayed. Behavioral recovery was demonstrated by the rats treated with L-DOPS and BSZ, and the rate of recovery was significantly different from that of either BSZ-treated or vehicle-treated control rats. The NE tissue levels in the three discrete regions of the rat brain were significantly elevated in the experimental rats receiving both L-DOPS and BSZ. The present studies indicate that increasing NE levels by the precursor L-DOPS may be responsible for facilitating behavioral recovery from beam-walking performance deficits in rats, and further suggest that L-DOPS may become one of the candidate compounds for further clinical human trials promoting functional recovery after injuries to the cerebral cortex.

  14. Randomized controlled trials of serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor in treating major depressive disorder in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis of efficacy and acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New generation antidepressant therapies, including serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRIs, were introduced in the late 1980s; however, few comprehensive studies have compared the benefits and risks of various contemporary treatments for major depressive disorder (MDD in young patients. A comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, Web of Science, and PsycINFO databases was conducted from 1970 to January 2015. Only clinical trials that randomly assigned one SNRI or placebo to patients aged 7 to 18 years who met the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder were included. Treatment success, dropout rate, and suicidal ideation/attempt outcomes were measured. Primary efficacy was determined by pooling the risk ratios (RRs of treatment response and remission. Acceptability was determined by pooling the RRs of dropouts for all reasons and for adverse effects as well as suicide-risk outcomes. Five trials with a total of 973 patients were included. SNRIs were not significantly more effective than placebo for treatment response but were for remission. The comparison of patients taking SNRIs that dropped out for all reasons and those taking placebo did not reach statistical significance. Significantly more patients taking SNRIs dropped out for adverse effects than those taking placebo. No significant difference was found in suicide-related risk outcomes. SNRI therapy does not display a superior efficacy and is not better tolerated compared to placebo in these young patients. However, duloxetine has a potential beneficial effect for depression in young populations, showing a need for further research.

  15. Effect of etorphine on the spontaneous and field stimulation-mediated release of norepinephrine and total tritium from perfused guinea pig hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Isolated guinea pig hearts were prelabeled with 3 H-norepinephrine ( 3 H-NE) and perfused with modified Krebs-bicarbonate solution at 37 0 C. Spontaneous release of total 3 H and field stimulation-mediated (supramax. V., 1 Hz, 2 msec duration for a total of 60 pulses) overflow of NE and 3 H-NE were measured in the absence or presence of etorphine. Etorphine (0.1 - 100 μM) was added to the perfusion fluid 15 min. before the stimulation. To study the effect of etorphine on spontaneous release of total 3 H, etorphine was added cumulatively without stimulation. Etorphine (1.0 - 100 μM) caused a significant decrease in the stimulation-mediated overflow of NE and the inhibition was dose-related. The overflow of NE was 5.1 +/- 0.3 ng in the absence and 4.0 +/- 0.2 ng in the presence of etorphine (1.0 μM). Low concentrations of etorphine (0.1 - 1.0 μM) had no effect on the spontaneous release of total 3 H while 10 μM and 100 μM caused a 3 and 6-fold increase respectively. The results show that etorphine inhibited neuronal release of NE at a dose which had no effect on spontaneous release. It is suggested that opiate receptors might be involved in the prejunctional modulation of the release of NE in the guinea pig heart

  16. Pharmacodynamics of norepinephrine reuptake inhibition: Modeling the peripheral and central effects of atomoxetine, duloxetine, and edivoxetine on the biomarker 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielbasa, William; Lobo, Evelyn

    2015-12-01

    Norepinephrine, a neurotransmitter in the autonomic sympathetic nervous system, is deaminated by monoamine oxidase to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG). Inhibition of the NE transporter (NET) using DHPG as a biomarker was evaluated using atomoxetine, duloxetine, and edivoxetine as probe NET inhibitors. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data were obtained from healthy subjects (n = 160) from 5 clinical trials. An indirect response model was used to describe the relationship between drug plasma concentration and DHPG concentration in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The baseline plasma DHPG concentration (1130-1240 ng/mL) and Imax (33%-37%) were similar for the 3 drugs. The unbound plasma drug IC50 (IC50U ) based on plasma DHPG was 0.973 nM for duloxetine, 0.136 nM for atomoxetine, and 0.041 nM for edivoxetine. The baseline CSF DHPG concentration (1850-2260 ng/mL) was similar for the 3 drugs, but unlike plasma DHPG, the Imax for DHPG was 38% for duloxetine, 53% for atomoxetine, and75% for edivoxetine. The IC50U based on CSF DHPG was 2.72 nM for atomoxetine, 1.22 nM for duloxetine, and 0.794 nM for edivoxetine. These modeling results provide insights into the pharmacology of NET inhibitors and the use of DHPG as a biomarker. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  17. Saturated norepinephrine transporter occupancy by atomoxetine relevant to clinical doses: a rhesus monkey study with (S,S)-[{sup 18}F]FMeNER-D{sub 2}

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    Takano, Akihiro; Gulyas, Balazs; Varrone, Andrea; Halldin, Christer [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Stockholm (Sweden); Maguire, Ralph Paul [Pfizer Global Research and Development, New London, CT (United States); Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Basel (Switzerland)

    2009-08-15

    In a previous PET study on norepinephrine transporter (NET) occupancy in the nonhuman primate brain, the relationship between NET occupancy and atomoxetine plasma concentration, and occupancies among different brain regions, were not demonstrated adequately. It may therefore be difficult to translate the results to the clinical situations. In the present study, the detailed change of NET occupancy was investigated among a wider range of doses in a more advanced manner. Two rhesus monkeys were examined using a high-resolution PET system with (S,S)-[{sup 18}F]FMeNER-D{sub 2} under baseline conditions and after steady-state infusion of different doses of atomoxetine (0.003 to 0.12 mg/kg per hour). NET occupancy of the thalamus, brainstem and anterior cingulate cortex was calculated using BP{sub ND} obtained with the simplified reference tissue model. NET occupancy increased regionally and uniformly as the plasma concentration of atomoxetine increased. The estimated Kd value (the amount to occupy 50% of NET) in the thalamus was 16 ng/ml. The results indicate that clinical doses of atomoxetine would occupy NET almost completely. (orig.)

  18. Saturated norepinephrine transporter occupancy by atomoxetine relevant to clinical doses: a rhesus monkey study with (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Akihiro; Gulyas, Balazs; Varrone, Andrea; Halldin, Christer; Maguire, Ralph Paul

    2009-01-01

    In a previous PET study on norepinephrine transporter (NET) occupancy in the nonhuman primate brain, the relationship between NET occupancy and atomoxetine plasma concentration, and occupancies among different brain regions, were not demonstrated adequately. It may therefore be difficult to translate the results to the clinical situations. In the present study, the detailed change of NET occupancy was investigated among a wider range of doses in a more advanced manner. Two rhesus monkeys were examined using a high-resolution PET system with (S,S)-[ 18 F]FMeNER-D 2 under baseline conditions and after steady-state infusion of different doses of atomoxetine (0.003 to 0.12 mg/kg per hour). NET occupancy of the thalamus, brainstem and anterior cingulate cortex was calculated using BP ND obtained with the simplified reference tissue model. NET occupancy increased regionally and uniformly as the plasma concentration of atomoxetine increased. The estimated Kd value (the amount to occupy 50% of NET) in the thalamus was 16 ng/ml. The results indicate that clinical doses of atomoxetine would occupy NET almost completely. (orig.)

  19. Proteomic analysis of human norepinephrine transporter complexes reveals associations with protein phosphatase 2A anchoring subunit and 14-3-3 proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Uhna; Jennings, Jennifer L.; Link, Andrew J.; Blakely, Randy D.

    2005-01-01

    The norepinephrine transporter (NET) terminates noradrenergic signals by clearing released NE at synapses. NET regulation by receptors and intracellular signaling pathways is supported by a growing list of associated proteins including syntaxin1A, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) catalytic subunit (PP2A-C), PICK1, and Hic-5. In the present study, we sought evidence for additional partnerships by mass spectrometry-based analysis of proteins co-immunoprecipitated with human NET (hNET) stably expressed in a mouse noradrenergic neuroblastoma cell line. Our initial proteomic analyses reveal multiple peptides derived from hNET, peptides arising from the mouse PP2A anchoring subunit (PP2A-Ar) and peptides derived from 14-3-3 proteins. We verified physical association of NET with PP2A-Ar via co-immunoprecipitation studies using mouse vas deferens extracts and with 14-3-3 via a fusion pull-down approach, implicating specifically the hNET NH 2 -terminus for interactions. The transporter complexes described likely support mechanisms regulating transporter activity, localization, and trafficking

  20. Fetal Adrenal Demedullation Lowers Circulating Norepinephrine and Attenuates Growth Restriction but not Reduction of Endocrine Cell Mass in an Ovine Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Davis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Placental insufficiency is associated with fetal hypoglycemia, hypoxemia, and elevated plasma norepinephrine (NE that become increasingly pronounced throughout the third trimester and contribute to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR. This study evaluated the effect of fetal adrenal demedullation (AD on growth and pancreatic endocrine cell mass. Placental insufficiency-induced IUGR was created by exposing pregnant ewes to elevated ambient temperatures during mid-gestation. Treatment groups consisted of control and IUGR fetuses with either surgical sham or AD at 98 days gestational age (dGA; term = 147 dGA, a time-point that precedes IUGR. Samples were collected at 134 dGA. IUGR-sham fetuses were hypoxemic, hypoglycemic, and hypoinsulinemic, and values were similar in IUGR-AD fetuses. Plasma NE concentrations were ~5-fold greater in IUGR-sham compared to control-sham, control-AD, and IUGR-AD fetuses. IUGR-sham and IUGR-AD fetuses weighed less than controls. Compared to IUGR-sham fetuses, IUGR-AD fetuses weighed more and asymmetrical organ growth was absent. Pancreatic β-cell mass and α-cell mass were lower in both IUGR-sham and IUGR-AD fetuses compared to controls, however, pancreatic endocrine cell mass relative to fetal mass was lower in IUGR-AD fetuses. These findings indicate that NE, independently of hypoxemia, hypoglycemia and hypoinsulinemia, influence growth and asymmetry of growth but not pancreatic endocrine cell mass in IUGR fetuses.

  1. Fetal Adrenal Demedullation Lowers Circulating Norepinephrine and Attenuates Growth Restriction but not Reduction of Endocrine Cell Mass in an Ovine Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Melissa A.; Macko, Antoni R.; Steyn, Leah V.; Anderson, Miranda J.; Limesand, Sean W.

    2015-01-01

    Placental insufficiency is associated with fetal hypoglycemia, hypoxemia, and elevated plasma norepinephrine (NE) that become increasingly pronounced throughout the third trimester and contribute to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). This study evaluated the effect of fetal adrenal demedullation (AD) on growth and pancreatic endocrine cell mass. Placental insufficiency-induced IUGR was created by exposing pregnant ewes to elevated ambient temperatures during mid-gestation. Treatment groups consisted of control and IUGR fetuses with either surgical sham or AD at 98 days gestational age (dGA; term = 147 dGA), a time-point that precedes IUGR. Samples were collected at 134 dGA. IUGR-sham fetuses were hypoxemic, hypoglycemic, and hypoinsulinemic, and values were similar in IUGR-AD fetuses. Plasma NE concentrations were ~5-fold greater in IUGR-sham compared to control-sham, control-AD, and IUGR-AD fetuses. IUGR-sham and IUGR-AD fetuses weighed less than controls. Compared to IUGR-sham fetuses, IUGR-AD fetuses weighed more and asymmetrical organ growth was absent. Pancreatic β-cell mass and α-cell mass were lower in both IUGR-sham and IUGR-AD fetuses compared to controls, however, pancreatic endocrine cell mass relative to fetal mass was lower in IUGR-AD fetuses. These findings indicate that NE, independently of hypoxemia, hypoglycemia and hypoinsulinemia, influence growth and asymmetry of growth but not pancreatic endocrine cell mass in IUGR fetuses. PMID:25584967

  2. Increase in telencephalic dopamine and cerebellar norepinephrine contents by hydrostatic pressure in goldfish: the possible involvement in hydrostatic pressure-related locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Taro; Takemura, Akihiro; Choi, Eunjung; Suda, Atsushi; Tomonaga, Shozo; Badruzzaman, Muhammad; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-10-01

    Fish are faced with a wide range of hydrostatic pressure (HP) in their natural habitats. Additionally, freshwater fish are occasionally exposed to rapid changes in HP due to heavy rainfall, flood and/or dam release. Accordingly, variations in HP are one of the most important environmental cues for fish. However, little information is available on how HP information is perceived and transmitted in the central nervous system of fish. The present study examined the effect of HP (water depth of 1.3 m) on the quantities of monoamines and their metabolites in the telencephalon, optic tectum, diencephalon, cerebellum (including partial mesencephalon) and vagal lobe (including medulla oblongata) of the goldfish, Carassius auratus, using high-performance liquid chromatography. HP affected monoamine and metabolite contents in restricted brain regions, including the telencephalon, cerebellum and vagal lobe. In particular, HP significantly increased the levels of dopamine (DA) in the telencephalon at 15 min and that of norepinephrine (NE) in the cerebellum at 30 min. In addition, HP also significantly increased locomotor activity at 15 and 30 min after HP treatment. It is possible that HP indirectly induces locomotion in goldfish via telencephalic DA and cerebellar NE neuronal activity.

  3. Norepinephrine-induced apoptotic and hypertrophic responses in H9c2 cardiac myoblasts are characterized by different repertoire of reactive oxygen species generation

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    Anita Thakur

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances, the role of ROS in mediating hypertrophic and apoptotic responses in cardiac myocytes elicited by norepinephrine (NE is rather poorly understood. We demonstrate through our experiments that H9c2 cardiac myoblasts treated with 2 µM NE (hypertrophic dose generate DCFH-DA positive ROS only for 2 h; while those treated with 100 µM NE (apoptotic dose sustains generation for 48 h, followed by apoptosis. Though the levels of DCFH fluorescence were comparable at early time points in the two treatment sets, its quenching by DPI, catalase and MnTmPyP suggested the existence of a different repertoire of ROS. Both doses of NE also induced moderate levels of H2O2 but with different kinetics. Sustained but intermittent generation of highly reactive species detectable by HPF was seen in both treatment sets but no peroxynitrite was generated in either conditions. Sustained generation of hydroxyl radicals with no appreciable differences were noticed in both treatment sets. Nevertheless, despite similar profile of ROS generation between the two conditions, extensive DNA damage as evident from the increase in 8-OH-dG content, formation of γ-H2AX and PARP cleavage was seen only in cells treated with the higher dose of NE. We therefore conclude that hypertrophic and apoptotic doses of NE generate distinct but comparable repertoire of ROS/RNS leading to two very distinct downstream responses.

  4. Norepinephrine in the Medial Pre-frontal Cortex Supports Accumbens Shell Responses to a Novel Palatable Food in Food-Restricted Mice Only

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    Emanuele Claudio Latagliata

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous findings from this laboratory demonstrate: (1 that different classes of addictive drugs require intact norepinephrine (NE transmission in the medial pre Frontal Cortex (mpFC to promote conditioned place preference and to increase dopamine (DA tone in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAc Shell; (2 that only food-restricted mice require intact NE transmission in the mpFC to develop conditioned preference for a context associated with milk chocolate; and (3 that food-restricted mice show a significantly larger increase of mpFC NE outflow then free fed mice when experiencing the palatable food for the first time. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that only the high levels of frontal cortical NE elicited by the natural reward in food restricted mice stimulate mesoaccumbens DA transmission. To this aim we investigated the ability of a first experience with milk chocolate to increase DA outflow in the accumbens Shell and c-fos expression in striatal and limbic areas of food–restricted and ad-libitum fed mice. Moreover, we tested the effects of a selective depletion of frontal cortical NE on both responses in either feeding group. Only in food-restricted mice milk chocolate induced an increase of DA outflow beyond baseline in the accumbens Shell and a c-fos expression larger than that promoted by a novel inedible object in the nucleus accumbens. Moreover, depletion of frontal cortical NE selectively prevented both the increase of DA outflow and the large expression of c-fos promoted by milk chocolate in the NAc Shell of food-restricted mice. These findings support the conclusion that in food-restricted mice a novel palatable food activates the motivational circuit engaged by addictive drugs and support the development of noradrenergic pharmacology of motivational disturbances.

  5. Intermittent Fasting Promotes Fat Loss With Lean Mass Retention, Increased Hypothalamic Norepinephrine Content, and Increased Neuropeptide Y Gene Expression in Diet-Induced Obese Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Verpeut, Jessica L; Yeomans, Bryn L; Yang, Jennifer A; Yasrebi, Ali; Roepke, Troy A; Bello, Nicholas T

    2016-02-01

    Clinical studies indicate alternate-day, intermittent fasting (IMF) protocols result in meaningful weight loss in obese individuals. To further understand the mechanisms sustaining weight loss by IMF, we investigated the metabolic and neural alterations of IMF in obese mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat) ad libitum for 8 weeks to promote an obese phenotype. Mice were divided into four groups and either maintained on ad libitum HFD, received alternate-day access to HFD (IMF-HFD), and switched to ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD; 10% fat) or received IMF of LFD (IMF-LFD). After 4 weeks, IMF-HFD (∼13%) and IMF-LFD (∼18%) had significantly lower body weights than the HFD. Body fat was also lower (∼40%-52%) in all diet interventions. Lean mass was increased in the IMF-LFD (∼12%-13%) compared with the HFD and IMF-HFD groups. Oral glucose tolerance area under the curve was lower in the IMF-HFD (∼50%), whereas the insulin tolerance area under the curve was reduced in all diet interventions (∼22%-42%). HPLC measurements of hypothalamic tissue homogenates indicated higher (∼55%-60%) norepinephrine (NE) content in the anterior regions of the medial hypothalamus of IMF compared with the ad libitum-fed groups, whereas NE content was higher (∼19%-32%) in posterior regions in the IMF-LFD group only. Relative gene expression of Npy in the arcuate nucleus was increased (∼65%-75%) in IMF groups. Our novel findings indicate that intermittent fasting produces alterations in hypothalamic NE and neuropeptide Y, suggesting the counterregulatory processes of short-term weight loss are associated with an IMF dietary strategy.

  6. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D QSAR) and pharmacophore elucidation of tetrahydropyran derivatives as serotonin and norepinephrine transporter inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkar, Prashant S.; Reith, Maarten E. A.; Dutta, Aloke K.

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D QSAR) using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) was performed on a series of substituted tetrahydropyran (THP) derivatives possessing serotonin (SERT) and norepinephrine (NET) transporter inhibitory activities. The study aimed to rationalize the potency of these inhibitors for SERT and NET as well as the observed selectivity differences for NET over SERT. The dataset consisted of 29 molecules, of which 23 molecules were used as the training set for deriving CoMFA models for SERT and NET uptake inhibitory activities. Superimpositions were performed using atom-based fitting and 3-point pharmacophore-based alignment. Two charge calculation methods, Gasteiger-Hückel and semiempirical PM3, were tried. Both alignment methods were analyzed in terms of their predictive abilities and produced comparable results with high internal and external predictivities. The models obtained using the 3-point pharmacophore-based alignment outperformed the models with atom-based fitting in terms of relevant statistics and interpretability of the generated contour maps. Steric fields dominated electrostatic fields in terms of contribution. The selectivity analysis (NET over SERT), though yielded models with good internal predictivity, showed very poor external test set predictions. The analysis was repeated with 24 molecules after systematically excluding so-called outliers (5 out of 29) from the model derivation process. The resulting CoMFA model using the atom-based fitting exhibited good statistics and was able to explain most of the selectivity (NET over SERT)-discriminating factors. The presence of -OH substituent on the THP ring was found to be one of the most important factors governing the NET selectivity over SERT. Thus, a 4-point NET-selective pharmacophore, after introducing this newly found H-bond donor/acceptor feature in addition to the initial 3-point pharmacophore, was proposed.

  7. A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic investigation: assessment of edivoxetine and atomoxetine on systemic and central 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol, a biochemical marker for norepinephrine transporter inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielbasa, William; Pan, Alan; Pereira, Alvaro

    2015-03-01

    Inhibition of norepinephrine (NE) reuptake into noradrenergic nerves is a common therapeutic target in the central nervous system (CNS). In noradrenergic nerves, NE is oxidized by monoamine oxidase to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG). In this study, 40 healthy male subjects received the NE transporter (NET) inhibitor edivoxetine (EDX) or atomoxetine (ATX), or placebo. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of these drugs in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was assessed. In Part A, subjects received EDX once daily (QD) for 14 or 15 days at targeted doses of 6mg or 9mg. In Part B, subjects received 80mg ATX QD for 14 or 15 days. Each subject received a lumbar puncture before receiving drug and after 14 or 15 days of dosing. Plasma and urine were collected at baseline and after 14 days of dosing. Edivoxetine plasma and CSF concentrations increased dose dependently. The time to maximum plasma concentration of EDX was 2h, and the half-life was 9h. At the highest EDX dose of 9mg, DHPG concentrations were reduced from baseline by 51% at 8h postdose in CSF, and steady-state plasma and urine DHPG concentrations decreased by 38% and 26%, respectively. For 80mg ATX, the decrease of plasma, CSF, or urine DHPG was similar to EDX. Herein we provide clinical evidence that EDX and ATX decrease DHPG concentrations in the periphery and CNS, presumably via NET inhibition. EDX and ATX concentrations measured in the CSF confirmed the availability of those drugs in the CNS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  8. Antidepressant-like drug effects in juvenile and adolescent mice in the tail suspension test: Relationship with hippocampal serotonin and norepinephrine transporter expression and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan C Mitchell

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a major health problem for which most patients are not effectively treated. This problem is further compounded in children and adolescents where only two antidepressants [both selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs] are currently approved for clinical use. Mouse models provide tools to identify mechanisms that might account for poor treatment response to antidepressants. However, there are few studies in adolescent mice and none in juvenile mice. The tail suspension test (TST is commonly used to assay for antidepressant-like effects of drugs in adult mice. Here we show that the TST can also be used to assay antidepressant-like effects of drugs in C57Bl/6 mice aged 21 (juvenile and 28 (adolescent days post-partum (P. We found that the magnitude of antidepressant-like response to the SSRI escitalopram was less in P21 mice than in P28 or adult mice. The smaller antidepressant response of juveniles was not related to either maximal binding (Bmax or affinity (Kd for [3H]citalopram binding to the serotonin transporter (SERT in hippocampus, which did not vary significantly among ages. Magnitude of antidepressant-like response to the tricyclic desipramine was similar among ages, as were Bmax and Kd values for [3H]nisoxetine binding to the norepinephrine transporter (NET in hippocampus. Together, these findings suggest that juvenile mice are less responsive to the antidepressant-like effects of escitalopram than adults, but that this effect is not due to delayed maturation of SERT in hippocampus. Showing that the TST is a relevant behavioral assay of antidepressant-like activity in juvenile and adolescent mice sets the stage for future studies of the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant response in these young populations.

  9. Comparative efficacy and safety of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors in older adults: a network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlund, Kristian; Druyts, Eric; Wu, Ping; Balijepalli, Chakrapani; Keohane, Denis; Mills, Edward

    2015-05-01

    To establish the comparative efficacy and safety of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors in older adults using the network meta-analysis approach. Systematic review and network meta-analysis. Individuals aged 60 and older. Data on partial response (defined as at least 50% reduction in depression score from baseline) and safety (dizziness, vertigo, syncope, falls, loss of consciousness) were extracted. A Bayesian network meta-analysis was performed on the efficacy and safety outcomes, and relative risks (RRs) with 95% credible intervals (CrIs) were produced. Fifteen randomized controlled trials were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. Citalopram, escitalopram, paroxetine, duloxetine, venlafaxine, fluoxetine, and sertraline were represented. Reporting on partial response and dizziness was sufficient to conduct a network meta-analysis. Reporting on other outcomes was sparse. For partial response, sertraline (RR=1.28), paroxetine (RR=1.48), and duloxetine (RR=1.62) were significantly better than placebo. The remaining interventions yielded RRs lower than 1.20. For dizziness, duloxetine (RR=3.18) and venlafaxine (RR=2.94) were statistically significantly worse than placebo. Compared with placebo, sertraline had the lowest RR for dizziness (1.14) and fluoxetine the second lowest (1.31). Citalopram, escitalopram, and paroxetine all had RRs between 1.4 and 1.7. There was clear evidence of the effectiveness of sertraline, paroxetine, and duloxetine. There also appears to be a hierarchy of safety associated with the different antidepressants, although there appears to be a dearth of reporting of safety outcomes. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  10. Norepinephrine-induced alteration in the coupling of α1-adrenergic receptor occupancy to calcium efflux in rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colucci, W.S.; Alexander, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    To determine whether α-adrenergic desensitization of vascular smooth muscle is due to an alteration in α 1 -adrenergic receptor coupling, the authors determined the relationship between receptor occupancy and maximal receptor-coupled Ca 2+ efflux in cultured rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells (i) under basal conditions as defined by receptor inactivation with phenoxybenzamine and (ii) after 48 hr of exposure to several concentrations of 1-norepinephrine (NE). Neither phenoxybenzamine nor NE exposure caused a change in binding affinity for [ 3 H]prazosin or NE. Maximal [ 3 H]prazosin binding capacity and maximal NE-stimulated 45 Ca 2+ efflux decreased progressively with exposure of incubated cells to increasing concentrations of phenoxybenzamine or NE. An approximately 80% decrease in maximal [ 3 H]prazosin binding capacity caused by either phenoxybenzamine or NE resulted in complete loss of NE-stimulated 45 Ca 2+ efflux, indicating that under these conditions approximately 20% of α 1 -adrenergic receptors are not coupled to the Ca 2+ efflux. Under basal conditions, the relationship between maximal [ 3 H]prazosin binding capacity and maximal NE-stimulated 45 Ca 2+ efflux was markedly nonlinear, so that a near maximal response could be elicited by occupancy of only approximately 40% of the receptors. Thus, an alteration in occupancy-response coupling at a step proximal to Ca 2+ mobilization and/or influx, rather than a reduction in receptor number, is of primary importance in the process of agonist-induced α-adrenergic receptor desensitization of vascular smooth muscle cells

  11. Involvement of norepinephrine activity in the regulation of α1 adrenergic receptors in the medial preoptic nucleus of estradiol-treated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sortino, M.A.; Weiland, N.G.; Wise, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    To establish whether the diurnal decrease in the density of α1 receptors observed in the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN) of estrogen (E 2 )-treated rats is related to the concomitant diurnal increase in norepinephrine (NE) turnover rates, we quantitiated the density of [ 3 H]-Prazosin binding to α1 receptors after blockade of NE turnover with alpha-methyl-paratyrosine (αMPT). A series of preliminary studies was performed to rule out an interference of this drug with [ 3 H]-Prazosin binding to α1 adrenergic receptors in vitro and in vivo. Incubation of brain slices with αMPT produced a dose-dependent inhibition of [ 3 H]-Prazosin binding to α1 adrenergic receptors with an IC 50 of approximately 6 mM. Scatchard analysis demonstrated that αMPT exhibited a simple competitive interaction with [ 3 H]-Prazosin binding sites as shown by an increase in the apparent dissociation constant (Kd) of the ligand and no change in the number of α1 receptors (B/sub max/). In contrast, preincubation of brain slices with αMPT and prior in vivo administration of αMPT did not affect [ 3 H]-Prazosin binding to α1 adrenergic receptors. The density of α1 adrenergic receptors in MPN was quantitated autoradiographically. Blockade of NE turnover with αMPT only partially prevented the reduction in α1 receptor density observed in the E 2 -treated rats, suggesting that the decrease in the level of [ 3 H]-Prazosin binding sites cannot be completely ascribed to increased NE turnover rates

  12. Aluminum chloride- and norepinephrine-induced immunotoxicity on splenic lymphocytes by activating β2-AR/cAMP/PKA/NF-κB signal pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Chunyu; Ren, Limin; Li, Miao; Liu, Shiming; Zhu, Yanzhu; Liu, Jianyu; Li, Yanfei

    2014-12-01

    We found in our previous research that aluminum (Al) exposure induced immunotoxicity on spleen and increased norepinephrine (NE) content in serum from rats. However, it is unclear how NE is involved in the AlCl3 immunotoxicity on rats. Therefore, this experiment was designed to explore the mechanism of AlCl3 and NE-induced immunotoxicity on the splenic lymphocytes. Eighty male Wistar rats were orally exposed to AlCl3 (0, 64, 128, and 256 mg/kg BW) through drinking water for 120 days. Al contents in brain and spleen; NE contents in serum and in the hypothalamus; β2-AR density; cAMP content; β2-AR, PKA, and NF-κB mRNA expression levels; and protein expressions of PKA and nuclear NF-κB in splenic lymphocytes of AlCl3-treated rats were examined. The results showed that AlCl3 increased NE content in serum, the β2-AR density, the β2-AR and PKA (C-subunits) mRNA expression levels, cAMP content and the PKA (C-subunits) protein expression levels in lymphocytes, whereas, decreased NE content in the hypothalamus, the NF-κB (p65) mRNA expression level and nuclear NF-κB (p65) protein expression level in lymphocytes. These results indicated that the accumulated AlCl3 in spleen and the increased NE in serum induced the immunotoxicity on splenic lymphocytes by activating β2-AR/cAMP/PKA/NF-κB signal pathway in rats.

  13. Dissociation of the role of the prelimbic cortex in interval timing and resource allocation: beneficial effect of norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor nomifensine on anxiety-inducing distraction

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    Alexander R Matthews

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Emotional distracters impair cognitive function. Emotional processing is dysregulated in affective disorders such as depression, phobias, schizophrenia, and PTSD. Among the processes impaired by emotional distracters, and whose dysregulation is documented in affective disorders, is the ability to time in the seconds-to-minutes range, i.e. interval timing. Presentation of task-irrelevant distracters during a timing task results in a delay in responding suggesting a failure to maintain subjective time in working memory, possibly due to attentional and working memory resources being diverted away from timing, as proposed by the Relative Time-Sharing model. We investigated the role of the prelimbic cortex in the detrimental effect of anxiety-inducing task-irrelevant distracters on the cognitive ability to keep track of time, using local infusions of norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor nomifensine in a modified peak-interval procedure with neutral and anxiety-inducing distracters. Given that some antidepressants have beneficial effects on attention and working memory, e.g., decreasing emotional response to negative events, we hypothesized that nomifensine would improve maintenance of information in working memory in trials with distracters, resulting in a decrease of the disruptive effect of emotional events on the timekeeping abilities. Our results revealed a dissociation of the effects of nomifensine infusion in prelimbic cortex between interval timing and resource allocation, and between neutral and anxiety-inducing distraction. Nomifensine was effective only during trials with distracters, but not during trials without distracters. Nomifensine reduced the detrimental effect of the distracters only when the distracters were anxiety-inducing, but not when they were neutral. Results are discussed in relation to the brain circuits involved in Relative Time-Sharing of resources, and the pharmacological management of affective disorders.

  14. Atomoxetine affects transcription/translation of the NMDA receptor and the norepinephrine transporter in the rat brain – an in vivo study

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    Udvardi PT

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Patrick T Udvardi,1,2 Karl J Föhr,3 Carolin Henes,1,2 Stefan Liebau,2 Jens Dreyhaupt,4 Tobias M Boeckers,2 Andrea G Ludolph11Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, 2Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, 3Department of Anaesthesiology, 4Institute of Epidemiology and Medical Biometry, University of Ulm, Ulm, GermanyAbstract: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most frequently diagnosed neurodevelopmental disorder. The norepinephrine transporter (NET inhibitor atomoxetine, the first nonstimulant drug licensed for ADHD treatment, also acts as an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR antagonist. The compound's effects on gene expression and protein levels of NET and NMDAR subunits (1, 2A, and 2B are unknown. Therefore, adolescent Sprague Dawley rats were treated with atomoxetine (3 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection [ip] or saline (0.9%, ip for 21 consecutive days on postnatal days (PND 21–41. In humans, atomoxetine's earliest clinical therapeutic effects emerge after 2–3 weeks. Material from prefrontal cortex, striatum (STR, mesencephalon (MES, and hippocampus (HC was analyzed either directly after treatment (PND 42 or 2 months after termination of treatment (PND 101 to assess the compound's long-term effects. In rat brains analyzed immediately after treatment, protein analysis exhibited decreased levels of the NET in HC, and NMDAR subunit 2B in both STR and HC; the transcript levels were unaltered. In rat brains probed 2 months after final atomoxetine exposure, messenger RNA analysis also revealed significantly reduced levels of genes coding for NMDAR subunits in MES and STR. NMDAR protein levels were reduced in STR and HC. Furthermore, the levels of two SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor proteins, synaptophysin and synaptosomal-associated protein 25, were also significantly altered in both treatment groups. This in vivo study detected atomoxetine's effects

  15. Atomoxetine affects transcription/translation of the NMDA receptor and the norepinephrine transporter in the rat brain – an in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udvardi, Patrick T; Föhr, Karl J; Henes, Carolin; Liebau, Stefan; Dreyhaupt, Jens; Boeckers, Tobias M; Ludolph, Andrea G

    2013-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most frequently diagnosed neurodevelopmental disorder. The norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitor atomoxetine, the first nonstimulant drug licensed for ADHD treatment, also acts as an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist. The compound’s effects on gene expression and protein levels of NET and NMDAR subunits (1, 2A, and 2B) are unknown. Therefore, adolescent Sprague Dawley rats were treated with atomoxetine (3 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection [ip]) or saline (0.9%, ip) for 21 consecutive days on postnatal days (PND) 21–41. In humans, atomoxetine’s earliest clinical therapeutic effects emerge after 2–3 weeks. Material from prefrontal cortex, striatum (STR), mesencephalon (MES), and hippocampus (HC) was analyzed either directly after treatment (PND 42) or 2 months after termination of treatment (PND 101) to assess the compound’s long-term effects. In rat brains analyzed immediately after treatment, protein analysis exhibited decreased levels of the NET in HC, and NMDAR subunit 2B in both STR and HC; the transcript levels were unaltered. In rat brains probed 2 months after final atomoxetine exposure, messenger RNA analysis also revealed significantly reduced levels of genes coding for NMDAR subunits in MES and STR. NMDAR protein levels were reduced in STR and HC. Furthermore, the levels of two SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) proteins, synaptophysin and synaptosomal-associated protein 25, were also significantly altered in both treatment groups. This in vivo study detected atomoxetine’s effects beyond NET inhibition. Taken together, these data reveal that atomoxetine seems to decrease glutamatergic transmission in a brain region-specific manner. Long-term data show that the compound’s impact is not due to an acute pharmacological effect but lasts or even amplifies after a drug-free period of 2 months, leading to altered development of

  16. Comprehensive phenotype/genotype analyses of the norepinephrine transporter gene (SLC6A2 in ADHD: relation to maternal smoking during pregnancy.

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    Geeta A Thakur

    Full Text Available Despite strong pharmacological evidence implicating the norepinephrine transporter in ADHD, genetic studies have yielded largely insignificant results. We tested the association between 30 tag SNPs within the SLC6A2 gene and ADHD, with stratification based on maternal smoking during pregnancy, an environmental factor strongly associated with ADHD.Children (6-12 years old diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV criteria were comprehensively evaluated with regard to several behavioral and cognitive dimensions of ADHD as well as response to a fixed dose of methylphenidate (MPH using a double-blind placebo controlled crossover trial. Family-based association tests (FBAT, including categorical and quantitative trait analyses, were conducted in 377 nuclear families.A highly significant association was observed with rs36021 (and linked SNPs in the group where mothers smoked during pregnancy. Association was noted with categorical DSM-IV ADHD diagnosis (Z=3.74, P=0.0002, behavioral assessments by parents (CBCL, P=0.00008, as well as restless-impulsive subscale scores on Conners'-teachers (P=0.006 and parents (P=0.006. In this subgroup, significant association was also observed with cognitive deficits, more specifically sustained attention, spatial working memory, planning, and response inhibition. The risk allele was associated with significant improvement of behavior as measured by research staff (Z=3.28, P=0.001, parents (Z=2.62, P=0.009, as well as evaluation in the simulated academic environment (Z=3.58, P=0.0003.By using maternal smoking during pregnancy to index a putatively more homogeneous group of ADHD, highly significant associations were observed between tag SNPs within SLC6A2 and ADHD diagnosis, behavioral and cognitive measures relevant to ADHD and response to MPH. This comprehensive phenotype/genotype analysis may help to further understand this complex disorder and improve its treatment. Clinical trial registration information - Clinical

  17. Characterization of poly(5-hydroxytryptamine)-modified glassy carbon electrode and applications to sensing of norepinephrine and uric acid in preparations and human urines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Peiying; Miao, Xiaoqing; Yao, Hong; Lin, Sijie; Wei, Biyu; Chen, Jianji; Lin, Xinhua; Tang, Yuhai

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) modified electrode was fabricated by electro-polymerization of 5-HT on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in 0.05 M PBS (pH 7). The characterization of the modified electrode was carried out by atomic force microscopy (AFM), voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The mechanism of electro-deposition of 5-HT at GCE was discussed based on electrochemical studies and quantum chemical calculations. The poly(5-HT)-modified electrode could separately detect NE and UA, even in the presence of 10-fold concentration of ascorbic acid (AA) and was applied successfully to the analysis of NE preparations and healthy human urines. Due to the favorable functionalized groups (-NH 2 and -OH), electroactivity, biocompatibility and stability, the poly(5-HT) film could be a promising immobilization matrix for anchoring interested biological molecules in the fabrication of sensors and biosensors. Highlights: ► A poly(5-HT)-modified electrode was fabricated originally by CV. ► The electro-deposition mechanism of 5-HT at GCE was proposed. ► The polymer film shows favorable electrocatalytic properties to NE and UA. ► The modified GCE was applied to the sensing analysis of real samples. -- Abstract: A poly(5-hydroxytryptamine) (poly(5-HT)) modified electrode was fabricated by electropolymerization of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in 0.05 M PBS (pH 7). The characterization of poly(5-HT)-modified electrode was carried out by atomic force microscopy (AFM), voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results showed that a brown and heterogeneous film was formed on the surface of the modified electrode. The mechanism of electro-deposition of 5-HT at GCE was discussed. The modified electrode showed good affinity and electrocatalytic properties to some species, such as norepinephrine (NE) and uric acid (UA). Furthermore

  18. Norepinephrine-Induced Adrenergic Activation Strikingly Increased the Atrial Fibrillation Duration through β1- and α1-Adrenergic Receptor-Mediated Signaling in Mice.

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    Kenji Suita

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common arrhythmias among old people. It causes serious long-term health problems affecting the quality of life. It has been suggested that the autonomic nervous system is involved in the onset and maintenance of AF in human. However, investigation of its pathogenesis and potential treatment has been hampered by the lack of suitable AF models in experimental animals.Our aim was to establish a long-lasting AF model in mice. We also investigated the role of adrenergic receptor (AR subtypes, which may be involved in the onset and duration of AF.Trans-esophageal atrial burst pacing in mice could induce AF, as previously shown, but with only a short duration (29.0 ± 8.1 sec. We found that adrenergic activation by intraperitoneal norepinephrine (NE injection strikingly increased the AF duration. It increased the duration to more than 10 minutes, i.e., by more than 20-fold (656.2 ± 104.8 sec; P<0.001. In this model, a prior injection of a specific β1-AR blocker metoprolol and an α1-AR blocker prazosin both significantly attenuated NE-induced elongation of AF. To further explore the mechanisms underlying these receptors' effects on AF, we assessed the SR Ca(2+ leak, a major trigger of AF, and consequent spontaneous SR Ca(2+ release (SCR in atrial myocytes. Consistent with the results of our in-vivo experiments, both metoprolol and prazosin significantly inhibited the NE-induced SR Ca(2+ leak and SCR. These findings suggest that both β1-AR and α1-AR may play important roles in the development of AF.We have established a long-lasting AF model in mice induced by adrenergic activation, which will be valuable in future AF study using experimental animals, such as transgenic mice. We also revealed the important role of β1- and α1-AR-mediated signaling in the development of AF through in-vivo and in-vitro experiments.

  19. The Locus Coeruleus–Norepinephrine System Mediates Empathy for Pain through Selective Up-Regulation of P2X3 Receptor in Dorsal Root Ganglia in Rats

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    Yun-Fei Lü

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Empathy for pain (vicariously felt pain, an ability to feel, recognize, understand and share the painful emotions of others, has been gradually accepted to be a common identity in both humans and rodents, however, the underlying neural and molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Recently, we have developed a rat model of empathy for pain in which pain can be transferred from a cagemate demonstrator (CD in pain to a naïve cagemate observer (CO after 30 min dyadic priming social interaction. The naïve CO rats display both mechanical pain hypersensitivity (hyperalgesia and enhanced spinal nociception. Chemical lesions of bilateral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC abolish the empathic pain response completely, suggesting existence of a top-down facilitation system in production of empathy for pain. However, the social transfer of pain was not observed in non-cagemate observer (NCO after dyadic social interaction with a non-cagemate demonstrator (NCD in pain. Here we showed that dyadic social interaction with a painful CD resulted in elevation of circulating norepinephrine (NE and increased neuronal activity in the locus coeruleus (LC in the CO rats. Meanwhile, CO rats also had over-expression of P2X3, but not TRPV1, in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG. Chemical lesion of the LC-NE neurons by systemic DSP-4 and pharmacological inhibition of central synaptic release of NE by clonidine completely abolished increase in circulating NE and P2X3 receptor expression, as well as the sympathetically-maintained development of empathic mechanical hyperalgesia. However, in the NCO rats, neither the LC-NE neuronal activity nor the P2X3 receptor expression was altered after dyadic social interaction with a painful NCD although the circulating corticosterone and NE were elevated. Finally, in the periphery, both P2X3 receptor and α1 adrenergic receptor were found to be involved in the development of empathic mechanical hyperalgesia. Taken together with our previous

  20. Structure activity correlations in the inhibition of brain synaptosomal 3H-norepinephrine uptake by phenethylamine analogs. The role of α-alkyl side chain and methoxyl ring substitutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makriyannis, A.; Bowerman, D.; Sze, P.Y.; Fournier, D.; Jong, A.P. de

    1982-01-01

    α-Ethylphenethylamine proved to be a weaker inhibitor of rat brain synaptosomal [ 3 H]norepinephrine ([ 3 H]NE) uptake than amphetamine, while 2-amino-tetralin and 2-amino-1,2-dihydronaphtalene, compounds in which the α-side chain ethyl group is tied to the aromatic ring have a similar inhibiting potency as amphetamine. Hallucinogenic polymethoxy substituted phenethylamine analogs have very low inhibitory potencies indicating that inhibition of NE-reuptake in brain noradrenergic neurons is not associated with the drug-induced hallucinogenic syndrome. (Auth.)

  1. Reduction in renal blood flow following administration of norepinephrine and phenylephrine in septic rats treated with Kir6.1 ATP-sensitive and KCa1.1 calcium-activated K+ channel blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa Maggi Sant'Helena, Bruna; Guarido, Karla L; de Souza, Priscila; Crestani, Sandra; da Silva-Santos, J Eduardo

    2015-10-15

    We evaluated the effects of K+ channel blockers in the vascular reactivity of in vitro perfused kidneys, as well as on the influence of vasoactive agents in the renal blood flow of rats subjected to the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model of sepsis. Both norepinephrine and phenylephrine had the ability to increase the vascular perfusion pressure reduced in kidneys of rats subjected to CLP at 18 h and 36 h before the experiments. The non-selective K+ channel blocker tetraethylammonium, but not the Kir6.1 blocker glibenclamide, normalized the effects of phenylephrine in kidneys from the CLP 18 h group. Systemic administration of tetraethylammonium, glibenclamide, or the KCa1.1 blocker iberiotoxin, did not change the renal blood flow in control or septic rats. Norepinephrine or phenylephrine also had no influence on the renal blood flow of septic animals, but its injection in rats from the CLP 18 h group previously treated with either glibenclamide or iberiotoxin resulted in an exacerbated reduction in the renal blood flow. These results suggest an abnormal functionality of K+ channels in the renal vascular bed in sepsis, and that the blockage of different subtypes of K+ channels may be deleterious for blood perfusion in kidneys, mainly when associated with vasoactive drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Imaging the norepinephrine transporter in humans with (S,S)-[11C]O-methyl reboxetine and PET: problems and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, Jean; Wang, Gene-jack; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S.; Alexoff, David; Zabroski, John; Jayne, Millard; Hubbard, Barbara; King, Payton; Carter, Pauline; Shea, Colleen; Xu, Youwen; Muench, Lisa; Schlyer, David; Learned-Coughlin, Susan; Cosson, Valerie; Volkow, Nora D.; Ding, Yu-shin

    2007-01-01

    Results from human studies with the PET radiotracer (S,S)-[ 11 C]O-methyl reboxetine ([ 11 C](S,S)-MRB), a ligand targeting the norepinephrine transporter (NET), are reported. Quantification methods were determined from test/retest studies, and sensitivity to pharmacological blockade was tested with different doses of atomoxetine (ATX), a drug that binds to the NET with high affinity (K i =2-5 nM). Methods: Twenty-four male subjects were divided into different groups for serial 90-min PET studies with [ 11 C](S,S)-MRB to assess reproducibility and the effect of blocking with different doses of ATX (25, 50 and 100 mg, po). Region-of-interest uptake data and arterial plasma input were analyzed for the distribution volume (DV). Images were normalized to a template, and average parametric images for each group were formed. Results: [ 11 C](S,S)-MRB uptake was highest in the thalamus (THL) and the midbrain (MBR) [containing the locus coeruleus (LC)] and lowest for the caudate nucleus (CDT). The CDT, a region with low NET, showed the smallest change on ATX treatment and was used as a reference region for the DV ratio (DVR). The baseline average DVR was 1.48 for both the THL and MBR with lower values for other regions [cerebellum (CB), 1.09; cingulate gyrus (CNG) 1.07]. However, more accurate information about relative densities came from the blocking studies. MBR exhibited greater blocking than THL, indicating a transporter density ∼40% greater than THL. No relationship was found between DVR change and plasma ATX level. Although the higher dose tended to induce a greater decrease than the lower dose for MBR (average decrease for 25 mg=24±7%; 100 mg=31±11%), these differences were not significant. The different blocking between MBR (average decrease=28±10%) and THL (average decrease=17±10%) given the same baseline DVR indicates that the CDT is not a good measure for non-NET binding in both regions. Threshold analysis of the difference between the average baseline DV

  3. Imaging the norepinephrine transporter in humans with (S,S)-[{sup 11}C]O-methyl reboxetine and PET: problems and progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Jean [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)], E-mail: logan@bnl.gov; Wang, Gene-jack; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S.; Alexoff, David; Zabroski, John; Jayne, Millard; Hubbard, Barbara; King, Payton; Carter, Pauline; Shea, Colleen; Xu, Youwen; Muench, Lisa; Schlyer, David [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Learned-Coughlin, Susan; Cosson, Valerie [GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Volkow, Nora D. [National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Ding, Yu-shin [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520-8048 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    Results from human studies with the PET radiotracer (S,S)-[{sup 11}C]O-methyl reboxetine ([{sup 11}C](S,S)-MRB), a ligand targeting the norepinephrine transporter (NET), are reported. Quantification methods were determined from test/retest studies, and sensitivity to pharmacological blockade was tested with different doses of atomoxetine (ATX), a drug that binds to the NET with high affinity (K{sub i}=2-5 nM). Methods: Twenty-four male subjects were divided into different groups for serial 90-min PET studies with [{sup 11}C](S,S)-MRB to assess reproducibility and the effect of blocking with different doses of ATX (25, 50 and 100 mg, po). Region-of-interest uptake data and arterial plasma input were analyzed for the distribution volume (DV). Images were normalized to a template, and average parametric images for each group were formed. Results: [{sup 11}C](S,S)-MRB uptake was highest in the thalamus (THL) and the midbrain (MBR) [containing the locus coeruleus (LC)] and lowest for the caudate nucleus (CDT). The CDT, a region with low NET, showed the smallest change on ATX treatment and was used as a reference region for the DV ratio (DVR). The baseline average DVR was 1.48 for both the THL and MBR with lower values for other regions [cerebellum (CB), 1.09; cingulate gyrus (CNG) 1.07]. However, more accurate information about relative densities came from the blocking studies. MBR exhibited greater blocking than THL, indicating a transporter density {approx}40% greater than THL. No relationship was found between DVR change and plasma ATX level. Although the higher dose tended to induce a greater decrease than the lower dose for MBR (average decrease for 25 mg=24{+-}7%; 100 mg=31{+-}11%), these differences were not significant. The different blocking between MBR (average decrease=28{+-}10%) and THL (average decrease=17{+-}10%) given the same baseline DVR indicates that the CDT is not a good measure for non-NET binding in both regions. Threshold analysis of the

  4. The effects of prolonged administration of norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors on long-term potentiation in dentate gyrus, and on tests of spatial and object recognition memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walling, Susan G; Milway, J Stephen; Ingram, Matthew; Lau, Catherine; Morrison, Gillian; Martin, Gerard M

    2016-02-01

    Phasic norepinephrine (NE) release events are involved in arousal, novelty detection and in plasticity processes underlying learning and memory in mammalian systems. Although the effects of phasic NE release events on plasticity and memory are prevalently documented, it is less understood what effects chronic NE reuptake inhibition and sustained increases in noradrenergic tone, might have on plasticity and cognitive processes in rodent models of learning and memory. This study investigates the effects of chronic NE reuptake inhibition on hippocampal plasticity and memory in rats. Rats were administered NE reuptake inhibitors (NRIs) desipramine (DMI; 0, 3, or 7.5mg/kg/day) or nortriptyline (NTP; 0, 10 or 20mg/kg/day) in drinking water. Long-term potentiation (LTP; 200 Hz) of the perforant path-dentate gyrus evoked potential was examined in urethane anesthetized rats after 30-32 days of DMI treatment. Short- (4-h) and long-term (24-h) spatial memory was tested in separate rats administered 0 or 7.5mg/kg/day DMI (25-30 days) using a two-trial spatial memory test. Additionally, the effects of chronically administered DMI and NTP were tested in rats using a two-trial, Object Recognition Test (ORT) at 2- and 24-h after 45 and 60 days of drug administration. Rats administered 3 or 7.5mg/kg/day DMI had attenuated LTP of the EPSP slope but not the population spike at the perforant path-dentate gyrus synapse. Short- and long-term memory for objects is differentially disrupted in rats after prolonged administration of DMI and NTP. Rats that were administered 7.5mg/kg/day DMI showed decreased memory for a two-trial spatial task when tested at 4-h. In the novel ORT, rats receiving 0 or 7.5mg/kg/day DMI showed a preference for the arm containing a Novel object when tested at both 2- and 24-h demonstrating both short- and long-term memory retention of the Familiar object. Rats that received either dose of NTP or 3mg/kg/day DMI showed impaired memory at 2-h, however this

  5. Norepinephrine alkaloids as antiplasmodial agents: Synthesis of syncarpamide and insight into the structure-activity relationships of its analogues as antiplasmodial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aratikatla, Eswar K; Valkute, Tushar R; Puri, Sunil K; Srivastava, Kumkum; Bhattacharya, Asish K

    2017-09-29

    Syncarpamide 1, a norepinephrine alkaloid isolated from the leaves of Zanthoxylum syncarpum (Rutaceae) exhibited promising antiplasmodial activities against Plasmodium falciparum with reported IC 50 values of 2.04 μM (D6 clone), 3.06 μM (W2 clone) and observed by us 3.90 μM (3D7 clone) and 2.56 μM (K1 clone). In continuation of our work on naturally occurring antimalarial compounds, synthesis of syncarpamide 1 and its enantiomer, (R)-2 using Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation as a key step has been accomplished. In order to study structure-activity-relationship (SAR) in detail, a library of 55 compounds (3-57), which are analogues/homologues of syncarpamide 1 were synthesized by varying the substituents on the aromatic ring, by changing the stereocentre at the C-7 and/or by varying the acid groups in the ester and/or amide side chain based on the natural product lead molecule and further assayed in vitro against 3D7 and K1 strains of P. falciparum to evaluate their antiplasmodial activities. In order to study the effect of position of functional groups on antiplasmodial activity profile, a regioisomer (S)-58 of syncarpamide 1 was synthesized however, it turned out to be inactive against both the strains. Two compounds, (S)-41 and its enantiomer, (R)-42 having 3,4,5-trimethoxy cinnamoyl groups as side chains showed better antiplasmodial activity with IC 50 values of 3.16, 2.28 μM (3D7) and 1.78, 2.07 μM (K1), respectively than the natural product, syncarpamide 1. Three compounds (S)-13, (S)-17, (S)-21 exhibited antiplasmodial activities with IC 50 values of 6.39, 6.82, 6.41 μM against 3D7 strain, 4.27, 7.26, 2.71 μM against K1 strain and with CC 50 values of 147.72, 153.0, >200 μM respectively. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity data of synthesized library suggests that the electron density and possibility of resonance in both the ester and amide side chains increases the antiplasmodial activity as compared to the parent natural product 1

  6. Atomoxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, improves short-term histological outcomes after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in the neonatal male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshimitsu, Masatake; Kamei, Yoshimasa; Ichinose, Mari; Seyama, Takahiro; Imada, Shinya; Iriyama, Takayuki; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2018-03-30

    Despite the recent progress of perinatal medicine, perinatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) insult remains an important cause of brain injury in neonates, and is pathologically characterized by neuronal loss and the presence of microglia. Neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine (NE) and glutamate, are involved in the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy via the interaction between neurons and microglia. Although it is well known that the monoamine neurotransmitter NE acts as an anti-inflammatory agent in the brain under pathological conditions, its effects on perinatal HI insult remains elusive. Atomoxetine, a selective NE reuptake inhibitor, has been used clinically for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children. Here, we investigated whether the enhancement of endogenous NE by administration of atomoxetine could protect neonates against HI insult by using the neonatal male rat model. We also examined the involvement of microglia in this process. Unilateral HI brain injury was induced by the combination of left carotid artery dissection followed by ligation and hypoxia (8% O 2 , 2 h) in postnatal day 7 (P7) male rat pups. The pups were randomized into three groups: the atomoxetine treatment immediately after HI insult, the atomoxetine treatment at 3 h after HI insult, or the vehicle treatment group. The pups were euthanized on P8 and P14, and the brain regions including the cortex, striatum, hippocampus, and thalamus were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. HI insult resulted in severe brain damage in the ipsilateral hemisphere at P14. Atomoxetine treatment immediately after HI insult significantly increased NE levels in the ipsilateral hemisphere at 1 h after HI insult and reduced the neuronal damage via the increased phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) in all brain regions examined. In addition, the number of microglia was maintained under atomoxetine treatment compared with that of the vehicle

  7. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) for the prevention of tension-type headache in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzi, Rita; Cusi, Cristina; Randazzo, Concetta; Sterzi, Roberto; Tedesco, Dario; Moja, Lorenzo

    2015-05-01

    This is an updated version of the Cochrane review published in 2005 on selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for preventing migraine and tension-type headache. The original review has been split in two parts and this review now only regards tension-type headache prevention. Another updated review covers migraine. Tension-type headache is the second most common disorder worldwide and has high social and economic relevance. As serotonin and other neurotransmitters may have a role in pain mechanisms, SSRIs and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) have been evaluated for the prevention of tension-type headache. To determine the efficacy and tolerability of SSRIs and SNRIs compared to placebo and other active interventions in the prevention of episodic and chronic tension-type headache in adults. For the original review, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2003, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1966 to January 2004), EMBASE (1994 to May 2003), and Headache Quarterly (1990 to 2003). For this update, we revised the original search strategy to reflect the broader type of intervention (SSRIs and SNRIs). We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 10) on the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (1946 to November 2014), EMBASE (1980 to November 2014), and PsycINFO (1987 to November 2014). We also checked the reference lists of retrieved articles and searched trial registries for ongoing trials. We included randomised controlled trials comparing SSRIs or SNRIs with any type of control intervention in participants 18 years and older, of either sex, with tension-type headache. Two authors independently extracted data (headache frequency, index, intensity, and duration; use of symptomatic/analgesic medication; quality of life; and withdrawals) and assessed the risk of bias of trials. The primary outcome is tension-type headache frequency, measured by the number of headache attacks or the number of days with headache per evaluation period. The original

  8. An Open-Label Pilot Study of Combined Augmentation With Creatine Monohydrate and 5-Hydroxytryptophan for Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor- or Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor-Resistant Depression in Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kious, Brent M; Sabic, Hana; Sung, Young-Hoon; Kondo, Douglas G; Renshaw, Perry

    2017-10-01

    Many women with major depressive disorder (MDD) respond inadequately to standard treatments. Augmentation of conventional antidepressants with creatine monohydrate and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) could correct deficits in serotonin production and brain bioenergetics associated with depression in women, yielding synergistic benefit. We describe an open-label study of 5-HTP and creatine augmentation in women with MDD who had failed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) monotherapy. Fifteen women who were adequately adherent to an SSRI or SNRI and currently experiencing MDD, with a 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) score of 16 or higher, were treated with 5 g of creatine monohydrate daily and 100 mg of 5-HTP twice daily for 8 weeks, with 4 weeks of posttreatment follow-up. The primary outcome was change in mean HAM-D scores. Mean HAM-D scores declined from 18.9 (SD, 2.5) at pretreatment visits to 7.5 (SD, 4.4) (P creatine and 5-HTP may represent an effective augmentation strategy for women with SSRI- or SNRI-resistant depression. Given the limitations of this small, open-label trial, future study in randomized, placebo-controlled trials is warranted.

  9. Influência do ciclo estral sobre a sensibilidade da resposta cronotrópica à norepinefrina em ratas submetidas a estresse agudo Influence of estrous cycle on the sensitivity of cronotropic answer to norepinephrine in rats submitted to acute stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Tanno

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available O estresse pode alterar a sensibilidade da resposta cronotrópica às catecolaminas em vários tecidos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a sensibilidade à norepinefrina (NE em átrios direitos de ratas submetidas ao estresse agudo por natação nas fases de estro e proestro. Ratas Wistar em estro ou proestro foram submetidas a uma sessão de 50 min de natação, após a qual foram anestesiadas e sacrifícadas. Os átrios direitos destes animais e de ratas controle foram isolados para obtenção de curvas concentração-efeito à NE antes e após o bloqueio dos sistemas de metabolização das catecolaminas (fenoxibenzamina + estradiol. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA ou teste t de Student. Não houve diferenças de sensibilidade à NE entre as fases de estro e proestro nos tecidos isolados de animais controle (p>0,05. No proestro, a natação induziu supersensibilidade à NE (pStress may change the response to catecholamines in many tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the estrous cycle on the sensitivity to norepinephrine in right atria from female rats submitted to a single swimming session. Wistar female rats were submitted to one swimming session at estrus or proestrus. Immediately after the stress session, the animal was sacrificed and its right atria set up for isometric recording of spontaneous beating. Concentration-effect curves to norepinephrine were obtained before and after inhibition of uptake1 (phenoxibenzamine and uptake2 (estradiol. Swimming stress did not change the sensitivity to noradrenaline in right atria from rats at estrus. However, at proestrus swimming induced supersensitivity to norepinephrine (pD2 control: 7.14 ± 0.03 vs. pD2 swimming: 7.55 ± 0.04; p< 0.05. Moreover at proestrus, the inhibition of the uptake systems induced a lower shift to the left in the concentration-effect curves to norepinephrine compared to the estrus. Changes on the uptake systems seem to be involved in the

  10. The co-occurrence of zinc deficiency and social isolation has the opposite effects on mood compared with either condition alone due to changes in the central norepinephrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuya, Hironori; Omata, Naoto; Kiyono, Yasushi; Mizuno, Tomoyuki; Murata, Tetsuhito; Mita, Kayo; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Wada, Yuji

    2015-05-01

    Nutritional and social environmental problems during the early stages of life are closely associated with the pathophysiology of mood disorders such as depression. Disruption or dysfunction of the central norepinephrine (NE) system is also considered to play a role in mood disorders. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of zinc deficiency and/or social isolation on mood and changes in the central NE system using rats. Compared with the controls, the rats subjected to zinc deficiency or social isolation alone exhibited increased anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze and greater depression-like behavior in the forced swim test. However, the co-occurrence of zinc deficiency and social isolation resulted in decreased anxiety-related behavior and control levels of depression-like behavior. Social isolation alone decreased the rats' cerebral NE concentrations. The expression of the NE transporter was not affected by social isolation alone, but its expression in the locus coeruleus was markedly decreased by the co-occurrence of social isolation and zinc deficiency, and this change was accompanied by an increase in the blood concentration of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, which is a marker of central NE system activity. These findings suggest that zinc deficiency or social isolation alone induce anxious or depressive symptoms, but the presence of both conditions has anxiolytic or antidepressive effects. Furthermore, these opposing effects of mood-related behaviors were found to be associated with changes in the central NE system. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of a simple and rapid solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method for the analysis of dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccarato, Attilio; Gionfriddo, Emanuela; Sindona, Giovanni; Tagarelli, Antonio

    2014-01-31

    The work aims at developing a simple and rapid method for the quantification of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) in human urine. The urinary levels of these biogenic amines can be correlated with several pathological conditions concerning heart disease, stress, neurological disorders and cancerous tumors. The proposed analytical approach is based on the use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS) after a fast derivatization of both aliphatic amino and phenolic moieties by propyl chloroformate. The variables influencing the derivatization reaction were reliably optimized by the multivariate approach of "Experimental design". The optimal conditions were obtained by performing derivatization with 100μL of propyl chloroformate and 100μL of pyridine. The extraction ability of five commercially available SPME fibers was evaluated in univariate mode and the best results were obtained using the polyacrylate fiber. The variables affecting the efficiency of SPME analysis were again optimized by the multivariate approach of "Experimental design" and, in particular, a central composite design (CCD) was applied. The optimal values were extraction in 45min at room temperature, desorption temperature at 300°C, no addition of NaCl. Assay of derivatized analytes was performed by using a gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS) system in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) acquisition. An evaluation of all analytical parameters demonstrates that the developed method provides satisfactory results. Indeed, very good linearities were achieved in the tested calibration range with correlation coefficient values of 0.9995, 0.9999 and 0.9997 for DA, 5-HT and NE, respectively. Accuracies and RSDs calculated for between-run and tested at concentrations of 30, 200, and 800μg L(-1) were in the range from 92.8% to 103.0%, and from 0.67 to 4.5%, respectively. Finally

  12. Plasma norepinephrine in humans: limitations in assessment of whole body norepinephrine kinetics and plasma clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N J; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1989-01-01

    ]IP and 131I-hippurate, whole body clearance from plasma of [3H]NE, as obtained from infusion rate divided by plasma concentration of tracer [1.74 +/- 0.64 (SD) 1/min] was significantly higher than the value obtained by total tracer infusion divided by total plasma area of tracer (1.27 +/- 0.51, P less than 0...... irreversible removal of NE, is smaller than previously estimated due to recycling through the plasma space. Attention has been drawn to limitations of [3H]NE kinetics....

  13. Continuous infusion of tracer norepinephrine may miscalculate unidirectional nerve uptake of norepinephrine in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Christensen, N J; Ring-Larsen, H

    1989-01-01

    -intestine extraction ratios of [3H]NE decreased significantly and equally with infusion time in patients (from 0.57 to 0.44, p less than 0.01) and controls (from 0.59 to 0.46, p less than 0.01). This was observed despite the fact that spillover of NE from this vascular bed was observed only in patients with cirrhosis...... and not in controls (41 vs. -5 ng/min, p less than 0.02). In the lower limb, net release of NE was similar in patients and controls, and extraction ratios of [3H]NE decreased almost equally with infusion time (from 0.35 to 0.30, p less than 0.01 and from 0.40 to 0.24, p less than 0.1, respectively). Whole...

  14. Efeito da ropivacaína na recaptação neuronal de noradrenalina em músculo liso Efecto de la ropivacaína en la recaptación neuronal de noradrenalina en un músculo liso Effect of ropivacaine on neuronal norepinephrine reuptake in smooth muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto de Souza Martins

    2005-10-01

    ón-efecto de noradrenalina en la ausencia o en la presencia de la ropivacaína. En otra serie de experimentos los ratones fueron tratados con reserpina (10 mg.kg-1, por la via intraperitoneal para evaluar la reactividad de los conductos deferentes a la tiramina o noradrenalina, en la ausencia o presencia de la ropivacaína. RESULTADOS: La ropivacaína en las concentraciones de 5 ó 10 µg.mL-1 potenció el efecto máximo (Emax de la noradrenalina en un 47% y 35%, respectivamente, mientras que en las concentraciones de 50 ó 100 µg.mL-1 inhibió el efecto máximo producido por este agonista. En conductos deferentes separados de ratones reserpinizados, la ropivacaína (10 ó 20 µg.mL-1 potenció (150% y 25%, respectivamente las contracciones inducidas por la noradrenalina, mientras que las concentraciones de 50 ó 100 µg.mL-1 no alteraron las respuestas a la noradrenalina. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados logrados permiten concluir que la ropivacaína bloquea la recaptación neuronal de noradrenalina por los terminales nerviosos simpáticos.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In addition to local anesthetic action, ropivacaine has clinically significant vasoconstrictor effects, which may be observed at infiltrative anesthesia, making it an important anesthetic for field blockade. This study aimed at characterizing the constrictor mechanism of ropivacaine on smooth muscles. METHODS: Norepinephrine concentration-effect curves in the absence or presence of ropivacaine were plotted on isolated preparations of vas deferens of rats. In another series of experiments rats were treated with reserpine (10 mg.kg-1, i.p. to evaluate vas deferens reactivity to tyramine or norepinephrine, in the absence or presence of ropivacaine. RESULTS: Ropivacaine 5 or 10 µg.mL-1 potentiated maximum norepinephrine effect (Emax in 47% and 35%, respectively, while higher concentrations (50 or 100 µg.mL-1 inhibited its maximum effect. In isolated vas deferens of rats treated with reserpine, ropivacaine (10 or 20 µg

  15. Genetic moderation of child maltreatment effects on depression and internalizing symptoms by serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), norepinephrine transporter (NET), and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) genes in African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A

    2014-11-01

    Genetic moderation of the effects of child maltreatment on depression and internalizing symptoms was investigated in a sample of low-income maltreated and nonmaltreated African American children (N = 1,096). Lifetime child maltreatment experiences were independently coded from Child Protective Services records and maternal report. Child depression and internalizing problems were assessed in the context of a summer research camp by self-report on the Children's Depression Inventory and adult counselor report on the Teacher Report Form. DNA was obtained from buccal cell or saliva samples and genotyped for polymorphisms of the following genes: serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), norepinephrine transporter, and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1. Analyses of covariance with age and gender as covariates were conducted, with maltreatment status and respective polymorphism as main effects and their Gene × Environment (G × E) interactions. Maltreatment consistently was associated with higher Children's Depression Inventory and Teacher Report Form symptoms. The results for child self-report symptoms indicated a G × E interaction for BDNF and maltreatment. In addition, BDNF and triallelic 5-HTTLPR interacted with child maltreatment in a G × G × E interaction. Analyses for counselor report of child anxiety/depression symptoms on the Teacher Report Form indicated moderation of child maltreatment effects by triallelic 5-HTTLPR. These effects were elaborated based on variation in developmental timing of maltreatment experiences. Norepinephrine transporter was found to further moderate the G × E interaction of 5-HTTLPR and maltreatment status, revealing a G × G × E interaction. This G × G × E was extended by consideration of variation in maltreatment subtype experiences. Finally, G × G × E effects were observed for the co-action of BDNF and the corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1

  16. Intermedin inhibits norepinephrine-induced contraction of rat seminal vesicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.F. Wong

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The results demonstrated that the inhibitory action of IMD on NE-induced seminal vesicle contraction was mediated via the ADM receptor(s and the nitric oxide production pathway, partially by the IMD receptor, but not by the CGRP receptor and the cAMP-PKA pathway.

  17. Measurement of tritiated norepinephrine metabolism in intact rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitt, M.; Kowalik, S.; Barkai, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    A procedure for the study of NE metabolism in the intact rat brain is described. The method involves ventriculocisternal perfusion of the adult male rat with artificial CSF containing [ 3 H]NE. Radioactivity in the perfusate associated with NE and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid (DOMA), 3,4-dihydroxphenylethyleneglycol (DHPG), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxymandelic acid (VMA), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (MHPG), and normetanephrine (NMN) is separated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After 80 min the radioactivity in the perfusate reaches an apparent steady-state. Analysis of the steady-state samples shows higher activity in the fractions corresponding to DHPG and MHPG than in those corresponding to DOMA and VMA, confirming glycol formation as the major pathway of NE metabolism in rat brain. Pretreatment with an MAO inhibitor (tranylcypromine) results in a marked decrease in the deaminated metabolites DHPG and MHPG and a concurrent increase in NMN. The results indicate this to be a sensitive procedure for the in vivo determination of changes in NE metabolism. (Auth.)

  18. The association study between the interaction of serotonin and norepinephrine transporter gene polymorphisms and the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors%5-羟色胺和去甲肾上腺素转运体基因多态性的交互作用与重性抑郁障碍临床疗效的关联研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟亚琴; 孙宁; 王彦芳; 段慧君; 李素萍; 彭菊意; 杜巧荣; 张克让

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the relevance of the interaction of serotonin and norepinephrine transporter gene polymorphisms and the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.Methods The subjects comprised 246 patients according to the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders in the fourth edition (DSM-Ⅳ) criterion for major depressive disorder(MDD).The clinical efficacy were assessed by using 17 Hamilton depression quantity (HAMD) scale after selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors(SSRIs) citalopram (20 to 60 mg/d) or paroxetine (20 to 60 mg/d) were used randomly for 1,2,4,6 weeks.Polymerase chain reaction(PCR),sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(SDS-PAGE)and DNA sequencing analysis were used to detect the genotype of 5-HTT gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of VNTR and LPR and SNPs at rs2242446 and rs5569 of NET.SPSS13.0 software were used for statistical analysis.Results (1) An association between 5-HTT LPR and the efficacy of SSRIs was found after 6 weeks in these samples (P =0.023).The clinical efficiency of LL genotype was higher than SS + LS genotype(OR =2.225,OR 95% CI=1.118,4.427).(2) The interaction of 5-HTT LPR and NET rs5569 and the SSRIs antidepressant effects was statistical significance (P =0.01).Conclusion Preliminary study found that the interaction of 5-HTT LPR and NET rs5569 may be related to SSRIs antidepressant effects in China' s patients with MDD.%目的 探讨5-羟色胺和去甲肾上腺素转运体基因多态性的交互作用与选择性5-羟色胺再摄取抑制剂临床疗效的关联研究.方法 收集符合美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第四版(DSM-Ⅳ)重性抑郁障碍(MDD)诊断标准的患者246例,给予选择性5-羟色胺再摄取抑制剂(SSRIs)西酞普兰(20~ 60mg/d)或帕罗西汀(20 ~ 60 mg/d),在治疗后1,2,4,6周运用17项汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)评定临床疗效;应用聚合酶链反应技术(PCR)、聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电

  19. Lidocaine attenuates anisomycin-induced amnesia and release of norepinephrine in the amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Sadowski, Renee N.; Canal, Clint E.; Gold, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    When administered near the time of training, protein synthesis inhibitors such as anisomycin impair later memory. A common interpretation of these findings is that memory consolidation requires new protein synthesis initiated by training. However, recent findings support an alternative interpretation that abnormally large increases in neurotransmitter release after injections of anisomycin may be responsible for producing amnesia. In the present study, a local anesthetic was administered prio...

  20. Role of norepinephrine in the regulation of rapid eye movement sleep

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sleep and wakefulness are instinctive behaviours that are present across the animal species. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is a unique biological phenomenon expressed during sleep. It evolved about 300 million years ago and is noticed in the more evolved animal species. Although it has been objectively identified ...

  1. Comparison of Hydroxocobalamin Versus Norepinephrine Versus Saline in a Swine Model of Servere Septic Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    Versus Saline in a Swine Model of Severe Septic Shock presented at/published to SURF Conference, San Antonio, TX 20 May 2016 with MDWJ 41-108, and has...of Wilford Hall Ambulatory Surgical Center (WHASC) internship and residency programs. 3. Please know that if you are a Graduate Health Sciences...must complete page two of this form: a. In Section 2, add the funding source for your study (e.g., S9 MOW CRD Graduate Health Sciences Education (GHSE

  2. [11C]NS8880, a promising PET radiotracer targeting the norepinephrine transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vase, Karina Højrup; Peters, Dan; Nielsen, Elsebeth Ø

    2014-01-01

    -azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane (NS8880), targeting NET. NS8880 has an in vitro binding profile comparable to desipramine and is structurally not related to reboxetine. METHODS: Labeling of NS8880 with [11C] was achieved by a non-conventional technique: substitution of pyridinyl fluorine with [11C]methanolate...... yields with high purity. The PET in vivo evaluation in pig and rat revealed a rapid brain uptake of [11C]NS8880 and fast obtaining of equilibrium. Highest binding was observed in thalamic and hypothalamic regions. Pretreatment with desipramine efficiently reduced binding of [11C]NS8880. CONCLUSION: Based...... on the pre-clinical results obtained so far [11C]NS8880 displays promising properties for PET imaging of NET....

  3. Memory-enhancing corticosterone treatment increases amygdala norepinephrine and Arc protein expression in hippocampal synaptic fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McReynolds, Jayme R.; Donowho, Kyle; Abdi, Amin; McGaugh, James L.; Roozendaal, Benno; McIntyre, Christa K.

    Considerable evidence indicates that glucocorticoid hormones enhance the consolidation of memory for emotionally arousing events through interactions with the noradrenergic system of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA). We previously reported that intra-BLA administration of a

  4. The modulatory effect of substance P on rat pineal norepinephrine release and melatonin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukda, Sujira; Møller, Morten; Ebadi, Manuchair

    2009-01-01

    innervate the pineal gland. Some of these peptidergic nerve fibers contain substance P. Previously, we have characterized neurokinin 1 type substance P receptors in the pineal gland. However, the function of this receptor in the pineal gland remains unclear. Here, we examined the modulatory effect...... of substance P on rat pineal NE transmission. We show that at the presynaptic level, substance P stimulates the KCl-induced [(3)H]NE release from the pineal nerve ending. However, we found that substance P did not affect the basal levels of either arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) activity...... or melatonin secretion in rat pineal organ cultures. However, in the presence of NE, substance P inhibited the NE-induced increase in AANAT activity and melatonin secretion. This is the first time that a function for substance P in the mammalian pineal gland has been demonstrated....

  5. Seasonal and biological variation of urinary epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Garde, A H; Skovgaard, L T

    2001-01-01

    There is a significant circadian and seasonal periodicity in various endocrine functions. The present study describes the within-day and seasonal fluctuation for urinary catecholamines and cortisol and estimates the within- (CV(i)) and between-subject (CV(g)) coefficients of variation for healthy...

  6. Differential radioautographic visualization of central catecholaminergic neurons following intracisternal or intraventricular injection of tritiated norepinephrine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowaczyk, T.; Pujol, J.F.; Valatx, J.L.; Bobillier, P.

    1978-01-01

    The differential [ 3 H]NE labeling of CA groups following cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) injection procedures seems to be accounted by the dynamics of CSF formation and circulation, which is similar in the rat to that known in man. Following intraventricular injection there was a lack of labeling of CA neurons located at a distance from the cerebrospinal cavities. Labeled neurons were also visualized outside known CA groups, questioning the nature and functional significance of these cells. (C.F.)

  7. Discrepant uptake of the radiolabeled norepinephrine analogues hydroxyephedrine (HED) and metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) in rat hearts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rischpler, Christoph [Johns Hopkins University, Division of Nuclear Medicine, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Klinikum rechts der Isar, Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Munich (Germany); Fukushima, Kenji; Isoda, Takuro; Javadi, Mehrbod S.; Dannals, Robert F.; Wahl, Richard [Johns Hopkins University, Division of Nuclear Medicine, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Abraham, Roselle [Johns Hopkins University, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Bengel, Frank M. [Johns Hopkins University, Division of Nuclear Medicine, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Hannover Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Higuchi, Takahiro [Johns Hopkins University, Division of Nuclear Medicine, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Wuerzburg University, CHFC/Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg, Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    {sup 11}C-Hydroxyephedrine (HED) and radioiodinated metaiodobenzylguanidine ({sup 123}I/{sup 131}I-MIBG) are catecholamine analogue tracers for sympathetic nerve positron emission tomography/single photon emission computed tomography (PET/SPECT) imaging. In contrast to humans, rat hearts demonstrate high nonneural catecholamine uptake-2 in addition to neural uptake-1, the contributions of which to tracer accumulation are not fully elucidated. Wistar rats were studied using the following pretreatments: uptake-1 blockade with desipramine 2 mg/kg IV, both uptake-1 and -2 blockade with phenoxybenzamine 50 mg/kg IV, or control with saline IV. HED or {sup 123}I-MIBG was injected 10 min after pretreatment, and rats were sacrificed 10 min later. Heart to blood tissue count ratio (H/B ratio) was obtained using a gamma counter. To determine regional tracer uptake, dual-tracer autoradiography was performed with HED and {sup 131}I-MIBG in Wistar rats with chronic infarction by transient coronary occlusion and reperfusion and in healthy control rats. Local tracer distributions were analyzed, and the infarcted rats' local tracer distributions were compared with histology. The H/B ratios in control hearts were 34.4 {+-} 1.7 and 25.5 {+-} 2.1 for HED and {sup 123}I-MIBG, respectively. Desipramine led to a significant decrease in HED (3.2 {+-} 0.5, p < 0.0001), while there was no change in {sup 123}I-MIBG (25.5 {+-} 6.4, p = n.s.). Phenoxybenzamine led to a significant decrease in both HED and {sup 123}I-MIBG (3.5 {+-} 0.02, 4.3 {+-} 0.7, p < 0.0001). Only HED showed a subepicardium-subendocardium gradient in healthy control hearts which is consistent with physiological innervation, while {sup 131}I-MIBG was evenly distributed throughout the myocardium. {sup 131}I-MIBG uptake defect closely matched the scar area determined by histology [3.8 {+-} 2.3 % ({sup 131}I-MIBG defect) vs 4.0 {+-} 2.4 % (scar)]. However, the scar area was clearly exceeded by the HED uptake defect (9.1 {+-} 2.2 %, p < 0.001). HED uptake showed high specificity to neural uptake-1 in rat hearts. On the other hand, {sup 123}I/{sup 131}I-MIBG demonstrated distinct characters of regional tracer distribution and uptake mechanism that are compatible with significant contribution of nonneural uptake-2. (orig.)

  8. Sibutramine, a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, causes fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberholzer, Hester Magdalena; van der Schoor, Ciska; Bester, Megan Jean

    2015-07-01

    Sibutramine hydrochloride monohydrate is a weight loss agent indicated for the treatment of obesity. Although it has been banned from most markets, studies are still relevant as it is often a hidden ingredient in herbal and over the counter slimming products. Sibutramine induces liver fibrosis with steatosis in female Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-energy diet without significant weight gain. In this study, using the same animal model, the effect of Sibutramine on lung morphology was investigated using histological evaluation of the terminal bronchiole and transmission electron microscopy evaluation of the respiratory tissue. From these results Sibutramine was found to induce lung fibrosis in Sprague-Dawley rats as increased collagen synthesis, mast cell accumulation and aggregates of Bronchus Associated Lymphoid Tissue (BALT) in the terminal bronchiole as well as increased collagen deposition in the respiratory tissue was seen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Brain norepinephrine identified by mass spectrometry is associated with reproductive status of females of the linden bug Pyrrhocoris apterus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chvalová, D.; Zdechovanová, Lenka; Vaněčková, Hana; Hodková, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 168, č. 1 (2014), s. 70-75 ISSN 1096-4959 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/10/1612 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : adult diapause * brain complex * dopamine Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.551, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1096495913001796

  10. Fructose intake exacerbates the contractile response elicited by norepinephrine in mesenteric vascular bed of rats via increased endothelial prostanoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Glauciene J; Oliveira, Phablo Wendell C; Nogueira, Breno V; Melo, Antônio F; Faria, Thaís de Oliveira; Meira, Eduardo Frizera; Mill, José G; Bissoli, Nazaré S; Baldo, Marcelo P

    2017-10-01

    Chronic fructose intake induces major cardiovascular and metabolic disturbances and is associated with the development of hypertension due to changes in vascular function. We hypothesized that high fructose intake for 6 weeks would cause metabolic syndrome and lead to initial vascular dysfunction. Male Wistar rats were assigned to receive fructose (FRU, 10%) or drinking water (CON) for 6 weeks. Systolic blood pressure was evaluated by tail plethysmography. Fasting glucose, insulin and glucose tolerance were measured at the end of the follow-up. Mesenteric vascular bed reactivity was tested before and after pharmacological blockade. Western blot analysis was performed for iNOS, eNOS, Nox2 and COX-2. DHE staining was used for vascular superoxide anion detection. Vessel structure was evaluated by optical and electronic microscopy. Fructose intake did not alter blood pressure, but did increase visceral fat deposition and fasting glucose as well as impair insulin and glucose tolerance. Fructose increased NE-induced vasoconstriction compared with CON, and this difference was abrogated by indomethacin perfusion as well as endothelium removal. ACh-induced relaxation was preserved, and the NO modulation tested after L-NAME perfusion was similar between groups. SNP-induced relaxation was not altered. Inducible NOS was increased; however, there were no changes in eNOS, Nox2 or COX-2 protein expression. Basal or stimulated superoxide anion production was not changed by fructose intake. In conclusion, high fructose intake increased NE-induced vasoconstriction through the endothelial prostanoids even in the presence of a preserved endothelium-mediated relaxation. No major changes in vessel structure were detected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Post-Acquisition Release of Glutamate and Norepinephrine in the Amygdala Is Involved in Taste-Aversion Memory Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Ramos, Kioko; Osorio-Gomez, Daniel; Moreno-Castilla, Perla; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Amygdala activity mediates the acquisition and consolidation of emotional experiences; we have recently shown that post-acquisition reactivation of this structure is necessary for the long-term storage of conditioned taste aversion (CTA). However, the specific neurotransmitters involved in such reactivation are not known. The aim of the present…

  12. Potassium-induced contraction in the lamb proximal urethra: Involvement of norepinephrine and different calcium entry pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Pascual, A.; Costa, G.; Isla, M.; Jimenez, E.; Garcia-Sacristan, A.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the mechanisms involved in the peculiar biphasic response of the lamb urethral smooth muscle to high K+ solutions. The relative amplitude of the phasic and tonic components of the contraction and its reproducibility were dependent on the concentration of K+ used. Only concentrations higher than 80 mM (i.e., 120 mM) showed a tonic component greater in amplitude than the phasic one and manifested a tachyphylactic effect. Phentolamine (10(-6) M), prazosin (10(-6) M) and chemical denervation with 6-hydroxydopamine significantly inhibited the tonic component of the K+ (120 mM)-induced contraction, modifying its morphology. Reproducible contractions to K+ (120 mM) could be obtained in the presence of prazosin (10(-6) M) or cocaine (10(-6) M). The preparations were also shown to accumulate [3H]noradrenaline and release it upon depolarization with K+ (60 and 120 mM). Calcium removal inhibited the K+ (120 mM)-induced contraction. After addition of calcium (0.5-5 mM) the contractile activity was restored. Nifedipine (10(-6) M) and verapamil (10(-6) M) but not sodium nitroprusside (10(-6) M) significantly blocked the contractile response for calcium as well as the phasic component of the K+ contraction in calcium-containing medium. In preparations treated with prazosin (10(-6) M) the tonic component of the K+ (120 mM) contraction was more sensitive to nifedipine and removal of extracellular calcium than the phasic one

  13. Stimulatory effects of bioamines norepinephrine and dopamine on locomotion of Pyrrhocoris apterus (L.): Is the adipokinetic hormone involved?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Socha, Radomír; Kodrík, Dalibor; Zemek, Rostislav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 151, č. 3 (2008), s. 305-310 ISSN 1096-4959 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/07/0788 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : adipokinetic hormone * biogenic amine * CNS Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.468, year: 2008

  14. Effects of acetylcholine (ACh) and norepinephrine (NE) on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) turnover in rabbit cornea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, R.A.; Abdel-Latif, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Muscarinic cholinergic and α 1 -adrenergic agonists provoke hydrolysis of PIP 2 into diacylglycerol (DG) and inositol trisphosphate (IP 3 ) in a wide variety of tissue. Recently, IP 3 has been shown to mobilize Ca 2+ from ER in several permeabilized tissue preparations. Although rabbit cornea is enriched in ACh and NE, the physiological function of these neurotransmitters is unclear. The present studies were initiated to determine the effects of cholinergic and adrenergic agonists on PIP 2 turnover in the cornea. Addition of ACh or NE (50 μM each) to the 32 P-labeled corneas for 10 min decreased the radioactivity in PIP 2 by 33 and 36%, and increased the radioactivity in phosphatidic acid by 72 and 52%, respectively. When the corneas were labeled with myo-[ 3 H]inositol, ACh and NE increased the accumulation of IP 3 by 92 and 48%, respectively. The effects of ACh and NE on phospholipid labeling and IP 3 accumulation were specifically inhibited by atropine (10 μM) and prazosin (10 μM), respectively. The data suggest the presence of muscarinic cholinergic and α 1 -adrenergic receptors in the rabbit cornea. Furthermore, activation of these receptors leads to cleavage of PIP 2 into DG and IP 3 which may function as second messengers in this tissue

  15. Dgroup: DG01455 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 212 ... Norepinephrine ... D00076 ... Noradrenaline (JP17); Norepinephrine (INN) ... D05206 ... Norepinephrine bitartr...USP); Isoprenaline sulfate (JAN) ... D02150 ... l-Isoprenaline hydrochloride (JP17) ... DG00212 ... Norepinephrine ... D00076 ... Noradrenaline...DG00212 ... Norepinephrine ... D00076 ... Noradrenaline (JP17); Norepinephrine (INN) ...

  16. Contribution of Ca2+-Dependent Cl- Channels to Norepinephrine-Induced Contraction of Femoral Artery Is Replaced by Increasing EDCF Contribution during Ageing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Líšková, Silvia; Petrová, M.; Karen, Petr; Behuliak, Michal; Zicha, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2014, č. 2014 (2014), s. 289361 ISSN 2314-6133 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/0259 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : calcium-dependent chloride channels * endothelium-derived contracting factor * ageing Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 1.579, year: 2014

  17. Duloxetine loaded-microemulsion system to improve behavioral activities by upregulating serotonin and norepinephrine in brain for the treatment of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, Pardeep; Kumar, Shobhit; Iqbal, Babar; Ali, Javed; Baboota, Sanjula

    2018-04-01

    Duloxetine is a well-known antidepressant molecule which is used in the treatment of depression but due to poor solubility it suffers with the drawback of low oral bioavailability. The objective of present work was to formulate and characterize duloxetine loaded microemulsion to enhance the oral bioavailability. Prepared microemulsion was studied for droplet size, zeta potential, refractive index, polydispersity index (PDI), percentage transmittance, viscosity and in vitro release study. Optimized microemulsion (D1) showed spherical droplets with mean diameter of 35.40 ± 3.11 nm, PDI of 0.170 and zeta potential values of -25.8 mV. Formulation showed good transmittance (greater than 99%), viscosity (0.205 Pa s) and refractive index (1.43 ± 0.01). Increased duloxetine release was obtained with microemulsion in comparison to drug suspension. Behavioral tests like mobility test, tail suspension test and forced swimming test performed in depressed and treated rats with duloxetine microemulsion significantly improved the behavioral activities in comparison to duloxetine suspension. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that microemulsion exhibited 1.8 times increment in bioavailability in comparison to duloxetine suspension. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Selepressin, a novel selective vasopressin V1A agonist, is an effective substitute for norepinephrine in a phase IIa randomized, placebo-controlled trial in septic shock patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russell, James A; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Kjølbye, Anne Louise

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vasopressin is widely used for vasopressor support in septic shock patients, but experimental evidence suggests that selective V1A agonists are superior. The initial pharmacodynamic effects, pharmacokinetics, and safety of selepressin, a novel V1A-selective vasopressin analogue, was e...

  19. Differential Internalization Rates and Postendocytic Sorting of the Norepinephrine and Dopamine Transporters Are Controlled by Structural Elements in the N Termini

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuorenpää, Anne Elina; Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard; Newman, Amy H

    2016-01-01

    . Moreover, mitigating Rab11 function by overexpression of dominant negative Rab11 impaired NET function. Sorting of NET to the Rab11 recycling compartment was further supported by confocal imaging and reversible biotinylation experiments in transfected differentiated CATH.a cells. In contrast to NET......, the dopamine transporter displayed markedly less constitutive internalization and limited sorting to the Rab11 recycling compartment in the differentiated CATH.a cells. Exchange of domains between the two homologous transporters revealed that this difference was determined by non-conserved structural elements...... in the intracellular N terminus. We conclude that NET displays a distinct trafficking itinerary characterized by continuous shuffling between the plasma membrane and the Rab11 recycling compartment and that the functional integrity of the Rab11 compartment is critical for maintaining proper presynaptic NET function....

  20. Phosphorylation of the norepinephrine transporter at threonine 258 and serine 259 is linked to protein kinase C-mediated transporter internalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jayanthi, Lankupalle D; Annamalai, Balasubramaniam; Samuvel, Devadoss J

    2006-01-01

    . Most interestingly, the plasma membrane insertion of the WT-hNET and hNET double mutant were not affected by beta-PMA. Although the WT-hNET showed increased endocytosis and redistribution from caveolin-rich plasma membrane domains following beta-PMA treatment, the hNET double mutant was completely......-regulation. These results suggest that Thr-258 and Ser-259 serve as a PKC-specific phospho-acceptor site and that phosphorylation of this motif is linked to PKC-induced NET internalization....

  1. Norepinephrine Causes a Biphasic Change in Mammalian Pinealocye Membrane Potential: Role of alfa1B-Adrenoreceptors, Phospholipase C, and Ca2plus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemková, Hana; Stojilkovič, S.S.; Klein, D. C.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 152, č. 10 (2011), s. 3842-3851 ISSN 0013-7227 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/07/0681 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Ca2plus-activated Kplus channels * voltage-gated Ca2plus channels * electrical activity * pinealocyte Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.459, year: 2011

  2. The effect of sibutramine, a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, on platelets and fibrin networks of male Sprague-Dawley rats: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schoor, Ciska; Oberholzer, Hester Magdalena; Bester, Megan Jean; van Rooy, Mia-Jeanne

    2014-12-01

    Sibutramine is used in the treatment of obesity due to its ability to influence feelings of hunger and satiety by inhibiting the re-uptake of serotonin and noradrenalin in the central nervous system (CNS). Sibutramine use has been associated with numerous adverse events in particular cardiovascular complications possibly due to the formation of thrombi. This ultrastructural descriptive study investigated the effect of sibutramine on blood coagulation, specifically the effect on morphology of platelets and fibrin networks using scanning electron microscopy. Male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with either a recommended therapeutic dose [low dosage 1.32 mg/kg] or a toxicological higher dose [high dosage 13.2 mg/kg] of sibutramine for 28 days were used and compared to control animals. Blood samples were collected and plasma smears were prepared for platelet evaluation. Following the addition of thrombin to the plasma samples, the morphology of the fibrin clots was evaluated. Platelet evaluation by scanning electron microscopy revealed morphology typical of a prothrombotic state with a characteristic excessive platelet activation in both low-dose (LD) and high-dose (HD) rats. The fibrin clots of sibutramine-treated rats, LD and HD revealed fused thick fibers with thin fibers forming a net-like structure over the thick fibers which differ considerably from the organized structure of the control animals. It can be concluded that sibutramine alters the ultrastructure of platelets and fibrin networks creating a prothrombotic state.

  3. Modulation of the release of ( sup 3 H)norepinephrine from the base and body of the rat urinary bladder by endogenous adrenergic and cholinergic mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somogyi, G.T.; de Groat, W.C. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Modulation of (3H)NE release was studied in rat urinary bladder strips prelabeled with (3H)NE. (3H)NE uptake occurred in strips from the bladder base and body, but was very prominent in the base where the noradrenergic innervation is most dense. Electrical field stimulation markedly increased (3H)NE outflow from the superfused tissue. The quantity of (3H)NE release was approximately equal during three consecutive periods of stimulation. Activation of presynaptic muscarinic receptors by 1.0 microM oxotremorine reduced (3H)NE release to 46% of the control. Atropine (1 microM) blocked the effect of oxotremorine and increased the release to 147% of predrug control levels. Activation of presynaptic alpha-2 adrenoceptors by 1 microM clonidine reduced (3H)NE release to 55% of control. Yohimbine blocked the action of clonidine and increased the release to 148% of control. The release of (3H)NE from the bladder base and body was increased by both 1 microM atropine (to 167% and 174% of control, respectively) and 1 microM yohimbine (to 286% and 425% of control, respectively). Atropine and yohimbine administered in combination had similar facilitatory effects as when administered alone. We conclude that the release of (3H)NE from adrenergic nerve endings in electrically stimulated bladder strips is modulated via endogenous transmitters acting on both muscarinic and alpha-2 adrenergic presynaptic receptors and that the latter provide the most prominent control.

  4. Gastrointestinal (GI) permeability correlates with trait anxiety and urinary norepinephrine/creatinine (CR)ratio in children with functional abdominal pain (FAP)and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) but not in controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    FAP and IBS affect 10–15% of school age children and bear many similarities to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in adults (e.g., functional pain, visceral hyperalgesia). Animal models of IBS have suggested a relationship between neonatal stress/anxiety and increased GI permeability later in life. We h...

  5. Dgroup: DG01450 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne hydrochloride (JAN) ... D02149 ... Epinephrine bitartrate (JAN/USP) ... DG00212 ... Norepinephrine ... D00076 ... Noradrenaline...rine hydrochloride (JAN) ... D02149 ... Epinephrine bitartrate (JAN/USP) ... DG00212 ... Norepinephrine ... D00076 ... Noradrenaline

  6. Sympathetic nervous activity decreases during head-down bed rest but not during microgravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Niels J; Heer, Martina; Ivanova, Krassimira

    2005-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that sympathoadrenal activity in humans is low during spaceflight and that this effect can be simulated by head-down bed rest (HDBR). Platelet norepinephrine and epinephrine were measured as indexes of long-term changes in sympathoadrenal activity. Ten normal healthy......, and at least 2 wk after return to Earth. Because of the long half-life of platelet norepinephrine, data obtained early after landing would still reflect the microgravity state. Platelet norepinephrine decreased markedly during HDBR (P

  7. 杏仁核内去甲肾上腺素在应激激素调控记忆保持过程中的作用%Role of amygdala norepinephrine in mediating stress hormone regu-lation of memory storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barbara FERRY; James L McGAUGH

    2000-01-01

    There is extensive evidence indicating that the noradrenergic system of the amygdala, particularly the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA), is involved in memory consolidation. This article reviews the central hypothesis that stress hormones released during emotionally arousing experiences activate noradrenergic mechanisms in the BLA, resulting in enhanced memory for those events. Findings from expenments using rats have shown that the memory-modulatory effects of the adrenocortical stress hormones epinephrine and glucocorficoids involve activation of β-adrenoceptors in the BLA. In addition, both behavioral and microdialysis studies have shown that the noradrenergic system of the BLA also mediates the influences of other neuromodulatory systems such as opioid peptidergic and GABAergic systems on memory storage. Other findings indicate that this stress hormone-induced activation of noradrenergic mechanisms in the BLA regulates memory storage in other brain regions.

  8. Use of microdialysis for monitoring sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation of heart in conscious rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, T.I.F.H.; Teisman, A.C H; van Gilst, W.H; Westerink, B.H.C.

    1997-01-01

    A microdialysis method was developed to sample norepinephrine and acetylcholine from the heart of freely moving rats. A flexible dialysis fiber (length 14 mm), with a copper wire inserted inside, was implanted into the heart. Extracellular norepinephrine was detectable for at least 72 h after

  9. Own song selectivity in the songbird auditory pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poirier, Colline; Boumans, Tiny; Vellema, Michiel

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Like human speech, birdsong is a learned behavior that supports species and individual recognition. Norepinephrine is a catecholamine suspected to play a role in song learning. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of norepinephrine in bird's own song selectivity, a prope...

  10. Differential effects of catecholamines on in vitro growth of pathogenic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belay, Tesfaye; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2002-01-01

    Supplementation of minimal medium inoculated with bacterial cultures with norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, or isoproterenol resulted in marked increases in growth compared to controls. Norepinephrine and dopamine had the greatest enhancing effects on growth of cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae, while epinephrine and isoproterenol also enhanced growth to a lesser extent. The growth of Escherichia coli in the presence of norepinephrine was greater than growth in the presence of the three other neurochemicals used in the study. Growth of Staphylococcus aureus was also enhanced in the presence of norepinephrine, but not to the same degree as was the growth of gram negative bacteria. Addition of culture supernatants from E. coli cultures that had been grown in the presence of norepinephrine was able to enhance the growth of K. pneumoniae. Addition of the culture supernatant fluid culture from E. coli cultures that had been grown in the presence of norepinephrine did not enhance growth of P. aeruginosa or S. aureus. Culture supernatant fluids from bacteria other than E. coli grown in the presence of norepinephrine were not able to enhance the growth of any bacteria tested. The results suggest that catecholamines can enhance growth of pathogenic bacteria, which may contribute to development of pathogenesis; however, there is no uniform effect of catecholamines on bacterial growth.

  11. Left ventricular performance during psychological stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, D.Z.; Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Dimsdale, J.E.; Moore, R.H.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Newell, J.B.; McKusick, K.A.; Boucher, C.A.; Fifer, M.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    Left ventricular ejection fraction, systolic blood pressure and plasma norepinephrine were measured in six normotensive and six mildly hypertensive subjects during rest and psychological stress. Compared with rest, 8 of the 12 subjects developed significant changes in ejection fraction (increase in 6, decrease in 2); 10 of 12 subjects developed significant elevations of plasma norepinephrine; and all developed significant increases in systolic blood pressure. When the stress effects were examined for the total group, as opposed to within subjects, there were significant increases in plasma norepinephrine and systolic blood pressure but, interestingly, mean ejection fraction and stroke volume remained unchanged, implying stress led to increased left ventricular contractility. (orig.)

  12. Effect of oral propranolol administration on azygos, renal and hepatic uptake and output of catecholamines in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, F; Christensen, N J; Sørensen, T I

    1991-01-01

    Circulating catecholamines are increased in cirrhosis with portal hypertension, and increase further after propranolol. In 23 cirrhotic patients, plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine were determined in an artery, the azygos vein, the right renal vein and a hepatic vein before and after an oral 80...... to the circulation) and clearance of epinephrine remained unaltered. Hepatointestinal clearance showed no significant change for norepinephrine, but showed a borderline-significant decrease for epinephrine (-23%, p = 0.08). Our results show a net production of norepinephrine in the prehepatic splanchnic area drained...

  13. A double blind comparison of venlafaxine and paroxetine in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denys, Damiaan; van der Wee, Nic; van Megen, Harold J. G. M.; Westenberg, Herman G. M.

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY: While the usefulness of clomipramine and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been established, the efficacy of serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors remains to be determined. This report describes the first randomized

  14. Effect of Permeation Enhancers on the Release Behavior and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Chemical Abstracts, Embase, Index Copernicus, EBSCO, African. Index Medicus ... inhibition of norepinephrine and serotonin uptake. ..... structural organization and increase in their fluidity and partial ...

  15. Influence of gallamine, pancuronium, d-tubocurarine and succinylcholine on adrenergic neurotransmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vercruysse, P.; Bossuyt, P.; Verbeuren, T. J.; Vanhoutte, P. M.; Hanegreefs, G.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of gallamine, pancuronium, d-tubocurarine and succinylcholine on adrenergic neurotransmission was studied in the isolated saphenous vein of the dog. Pancuronium increased the response of vascular smooth muscle to adrenergic nerve stimulation and to exogenous norepinephrine; gallamine,

  16. Atomoxetine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... develop serious symptoms very suddenly, so it is important to pay attention to his or her behavior every day. Ask ... treatment program to increase the ability to pay attention and decrease ... selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. It works by increasing the ...

  17. The effect of α-, β-adrenergic receptor agonists and antagonists of the efflux of 22Na and uptake of 42K by rat brain cortical slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillis, J.W.; Wu, P.H.; Thierry, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of norepinephrine on ion fluxes in rat brain cortical slices have now been ascertained. 22 Na efflux and 42 K influx are enhanced by norepinephrine. The increase in ion fluxes can be blocked by ouabain, phentolamine and propranolol, suggesting that the catecholamine activates a membrane sodium pump by a receptor-mediated step. The facilitation of 22 Na efflux is stereospecific as demonstrated by the very weak action of D-norepinephrine at 10 -5 M concentration. Various α-adrenergic and β-adrenergic receptor agonists, including oxymetazoline, naphazoline, clonidine, tramazoline, methoxamine, phenylephrine, L-isoproterenol and methoxyphenamine are potent stimulants of the sodium pump as demonstrated by their enhancement of ion fluxes in rat brain cortical slices. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that norepinephrine hyperpolarizes central neurons by activating an ouabain-sensitive, receptor-mediated sodium pump. (Auth.)

  18. Glucose: the worst of all evils?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    occurs secondary to elevated levels of cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine ... recovery and higher mortality in stroke patients,14,15,16,17 and an increased morbidity and .... TGC come into play.1,24 Avoiding variable blood glucose and exact.

  19. Effect of α-bungarotoxin and etorphine on acetylcholine-evoked release of endogenous and radiolabeled catecholamines from primary culture of adrenal chromaffin cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageyama, H.; Guidotti, A.

    1984-01-01

    Cell cultures of adrenal medulla have become an important research tool to study basic processes that regulate catecholamine storage, release and synthesis. Release has been studied either by labeling with [ 3 H]norepinephrine and measuring release of radioactivity or by measuring the endogenous catecholamines released with HPLC. Acetylcholine (5X10 -6 -10 -4 M) appears to release preferentially norepinephrine, although the cells store more epinephrine than norepinephrine. Etorphine and α-bungarotoxin antagonize the release of catecholamines elicited by acetylcholine. This inhibitory action appears to be greater when the measurement of endogenous catecholamines rather than radioactive norepinephrine is used to monitor the action of acetylcholine. The data suggest that the measurement of endogenous catecholamines by HPLC is preferable to the [ 3 H]NE loading and release technique, especially when analyzing the effects of low concentrations of drugs that are thought to affect nicotinic receptor function. (Auth.)

  20. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compulsive Disorder Resource Center Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child ... ADHD. They know that biological substances in the brain, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, play a role ...

  1. Automated mass spectrometric analysis of urinary free catecholamines using on-line solid phase extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Wilhelmina H. A.; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Kema, I. P.

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine) in plasma and urine is used for diagnosis and treatment of catecholamine-producing tumors Current analytical techniques for catecholamine quantification are laborious, time-consuming and technically demanding Our aim was to

  2. Genetic predictors of response to antidepressants in the GENDEP project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uher, Rudolf; Huezo-Diaz, Patricia; Perroud, Nader

    2009-01-01

    -reuptake-inhibiting and norepinephrine-reuptake-inhibiting antidepressants. A total of 116 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 10 candidate genes were genotyped in 760 adult patients with moderate-to-severe depression, treated with escitalopram (a serotonin reuptake inhibitor) or nortriptyline (a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor......) for 12 weeks in an open-label part-randomized multicenter study. The effect of genetic variants on change in depressive symptoms was evaluated using mixed linear models. Several variants in a serotonin receptor gene (HTR2A) predicted response to escitalopram with one marker (rs9316233) explaining 1...... to the serotonin-reuptake-inhibiting escitalopram, genes encoding proteins in norepinephrine signaling influencing response to the norepinephrine-reuptake-inhibiting nortriptyline and a common pathway gene influencing response to both antidepressants. The single marker associations explained only a small...

  3. A theoretical study of solvent effects on the characteristics of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    adrenaline).25 Unlike norepinephrine and epinephrine themselves, L-DOPS is capable of crossing the protective blood–brain barrier (BBB).25. Data from clinical studies and post-marketing surveil- lance programs conducted in Japan show that the.

  4. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... know that biological substances in the brain, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, play a role in ADHD. ... More recently, non-stimulant medications have become available as alternatives. Scientists are continuing to research and develop ...

  5. Safety and vasopressor effect of rosuvastatin in septic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa A. El Gendy

    2014-07-01

    Conclusions: Rosuvastatin 20 mg/day in septic patients increased number ABPSPD, decreased time to initial ABPSPD, norepinephrine dose and duration, with no significant elevation in transaminases or CPK.

  6. Improvement of Myocardial Function Following Catheter-Based Renal Denervation in Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Yan Liao, MD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Renal denervation (RD is a potential novel nonpharmacological therapy for heart failure (HF. We performed bilateral catheter-based RD in 10 adult pigs and compared them with 10 control subjects after induction of HF to investigate the long-term beneficial effects of RD on left ventricular (LV function and regional norepinephrine gradient after conventional HF pharmacological therapy. Compared with control subjects, animals treated with RD demonstrated an improvement in LV function and reduction of norepinephrine gradients over the myocardium and kidney at 10-week follow-up. Our results demonstrated that effective bilateral RD decrease regional norepinephrine gradients and improve LV contractile function compared with medical therapy alone. Key Words: heart failure, left ventricular function, norepinephrine, renal denervation

  7. Overlevelse efter massiv verapamiloverdosis hos en 48-årig kvinde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Karina K; Belhage, Bo

    2007-01-01

    , was hypotensive, and ECG showed bradycardia with nodal rhythm. The patient was treated with activated charcoal, colloids, crystalloids, norepinephrine, isoprenalin and epinephrine infusion, high dose glucose-insulin infusion and calcium. The patient was discharged for rehabilitation after two weeks....

  8. Overlevelse efter massiv verapamiloverdosis hos en 48-årig kvinde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Karina K; Belhage, Bo

    2007-01-01

    , was hypotensive, and ECG showed bradycardia with nodal rhythm. The patient was treated with activated charcoal, colloids, crystalloids, norepinephrine, isoprenalin and epinephrine infusion, high dose glucose-insulin infusion and calcium. The patient was discharged for rehabilitation after two weeks...

  9. Eye Accommodation, Personality, and Autonomic Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    associated with central nervous system action, "transient catecnolamine ( dopamine and norepinephrine) action followed by a cholinergic rebound together with...parallels of psycnopatny: A psychophysiological model relating autonomic imbalance to hyperactivity, psychopathy, and autism . Advnces in Cild

  10. Anti-depressant-like effect of curculigoside isolated from Curculigo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research October 2016; 15 (10): 2165-2172 ... Purpose: To investigate the anti-depressant-like activity of curculigoside from ... levels of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) ...

  11. Duloxetine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by increasing the amounts of serotonin and norepinephrine, natural substances in the brain that help maintain mental ... weakness confusion flu-like symptoms fever, sweating, confusion, fast or ... the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  12. Left ventricular structure and diastolic function in subjects with two hypertensive parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U B; Steensgaard-Hansen, F; Rokkedal, J

    2001-01-01

    -parental hypertension and 26 matched controls with normotensive parents. Families with non-insulin-dependent diabetes or morbid obesity were excluded. (i) Echocardiography; (ii) plasma concentrations of renin, angiotensin-II, aldosterone, epinephrine and norepinephrine; (iii) euglycaemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp study...

  13. Sleep disturbances in phenylketonuria : An explorative study in men and mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinenberg, Vibeke M.; Gordijn, Marijke C. M.; MacDonald, Anita; van Spronsen, Francjan J.; Van der Zee, Eddy A.

    2017-01-01

    Sleep problems have not been directly reported in phenylketonuria (PKU). In PKU, the metabolic pathway of phenylalanine is disrupted, which, among others, causes deficits in the neurotransmitters and sleep modulators dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. Understanding sleep problems in PKU

  14. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ADHD. They know that biological substances in the brain, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, play a role ... image. The therapist can help the child identify his or her strengths and build on them. Therapy ...

  15. Memory Impairment in Korsakoff's Psychosis: A Correlation with Brain Noradrenergic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntee, William J.; Mair, Robert G.

    1978-01-01

    The concentration of the primary brain metabolite of norepinephrine is diminished in the lumbar spinal fluid of patients with Korsakoff's syndrome. The extent of its reduction is correlated with measures of memory impairment. (BB)

  16. Treating Anxiety Disorders | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Benzodiazepines are the most common class of anti-anxiety drugs. Commonly prescribed: Xanax, Klonopin, Valium, and Ativan. Beta blockers. These drugs block norepinephrine, the body's "fight-or- ...

  17. Behavioral and cognitive effects of tyrosine intake in healthy human adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hase, Adrian; Jung, Sophie E.; aan het Rot, Marije

    2015-01-01

    The amino acid tyrosine is the precursor to the catecholamine neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine. Increasing tyrosine uptake may positively influence catecholamine-related psychological functioning. We conducted a systematic review to examine the effects of tyrosine on behavior and

  18. Duloxetine in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, Martin C.; Oelke, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    This manuscript reviews the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of duloxetine and its efficacy and safety in women with stress urinary incontinence. Duloxetine is a selective inhibitor of neuronal serotonin and norepinephrine uptake which increases urethral striated muscle activity and bladder

  19. Duloxetine in patients with central neuropathic pain caused by spinal cord injury or stroke: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vranken, J. H.; Hollmann, M. W.; van der Vegt, M. H.; Kruis, M. R.; Heesen, M.; Vos, K.; Pijl, A. J.; Dijkgraaf, M. G. W.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying central neuropathic pain are poorly understood. Pain inhibitory mechanisms including sertononergic and norepinephrine systems may be dysfunctional. In this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial we evaluated the effects of duloxetine on pain relief

  20. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... brain, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, play a role in ADHD. Medications for ADHD are wellestablished and ... as organizing schoolwork or dealing with emotional experiences. Social skills training can help children learn more rewarding ...

  1. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Pilot Study of Milnacipran for Chronic Radicular Pain (Sciatica) Associated With Lumbosacral Disc Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Marks, David M.; Pae, Chi-Un; Patkar, Ashwin A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigates whether milnacipran, an equipotent serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, is effective in reducing chronic radicular pain in patients (N = 11) with lumbosacral disc disease.

  2. Cognitive performance in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togsverd, Mads; Werge, Thomas M; Tankó, Laszlo B

    2007-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors influence cognitive aging. The gene encoding dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) could be one such factor since this hydroxylase converts dopamine to norepinephrine both of which are involved in cognition regulation....

  3. Individual differences in the motivation to communicate relate to levels of midbrain and striatal catecholamine markers in male European starlings

    OpenAIRE

    Heimovics, Sarah A; Salvante, Katrina G; Sockman, Keith W; Riters, Lauren V

    2011-01-01

    Individuals display dramatic differences in social communication even within similar social contexts. Across vertebrates dopaminergic projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and midbrain central gray (GCt) strongly influence motivated, reward-directed behaviors. Norepinephrine is also rich in these areas and may alter dopamine neuronal activity. The present study was designed to provide insight into the roles of dopamine and norepinephrine in VTA and GCt and their efferent striatal ...

  4. Cognitive performance in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togsverd, Mads; Werge, Thomas M; Tankó, Laszlo B

    2007-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors influence cognitive aging. The gene encoding dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) could be one such factor since this hydroxylase converts dopamine to norepinephrine both of which are involved in cognition regulation.......Genetic and environmental factors influence cognitive aging. The gene encoding dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) could be one such factor since this hydroxylase converts dopamine to norepinephrine both of which are involved in cognition regulation....

  5. Test–retest repeatability of quantitative cardiac 11C-meta-hydroxyephedrine measurements in rats by small animal positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thackeray, James T.; Renaud, Jennifer M.; Kordos, Myra; Klein, Ran; Kemp, Robert A. de; Beanlands, Rob S.B.; DaSilva, Jean N.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The norepinephrine analogue 11 C-meta-hydroxyephedrine (HED) has been used to interrogate sympathetic neuronal reuptake in cardiovascular disease. Application for longitudinal studies in small animal models of disease necessitates an understanding of test–retest variability. This study evaluated the repeatability of multiple quantitative cardiac measurements of HED retention and washout and the pharmacological response to reuptake blockade and enhanced norepinephrine levels. Methods: Small animal PET images were acquired over 60 min following HED administration to healthy male Sprague Dawley rats. Paired test and retest scans were undertaken in individual animals over 7 days. Additional HED scans were conducted following administration of norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desipramine or continuous infusion of exogenous norepinephrine. HED retention was quantified by retention index, standardized uptake value (SUV), monoexponential and one-compartment washout. Plasma and cardiac norepinephrine were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Results: Test retest variability was lower for retention index (15% ± 12%) and SUV (19% ± 15%) as compared to monoexponential washout rates (21% ± 13%). Desipramine pretreatment reduced myocardial HED retention index by 69% and SUV by 85%. Chase treatment with desipramine increased monoexponential HED washout by 197% compared to untreated controls. Norepinephrine infusion dose-dependently reduced HED accumulation, reflected by both retention index and SUV, with a corresponding increase in monoexponential washout. Plasma and cardiac norepinephrine levels correlated with HED quantitative measurements. Conclusion: The repeatability of HED retention index, SUV, and monoexponential washout supports its suitability for longitudinal PET studies in rats. Uptake and washout of HED are sensitive to acute increases in norepinephrine concentration

  6. Effects of endotoxin on monoamine metabolism in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorecky, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.; Taam, D.; Fine, J.

    1972-01-01

    Examination of effects of administered endotoxin on catecholamine metabolism in the rat brain, sympathetic neurons, and adrenal medulla. It is found that endotoxin, administered intraperitoneally, lowers the norepinephrine content in peripheral sympathetic neurons and the brain, and the catecholamine content in the adrenal medulla. It also accelerates the disappearance of H3-norepinephrine from all these tissues. It is therefore suggested that the effects of endotoxin on body temperature may be mediated in part by central non-adrenergic neurons.

  7. Renal sympathetic denervation for treatment of patients with heart failure: summary of the available evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nammas, Wail; Koistinen, Juhani; Paana, Tuomas; Karjalainen, Pasi P

    2017-08-01

    Heart failure syndrome results from compensatory mechanisms that operate to restore - back to normal - the systemic perfusion pressure. Sympathetic overactivity plays a pivotal role in heart failure; norepinephrine contributes to maintenance of the systemic blood pressure and increasing preload. Cardiac norepinephrine spillover increases in patients with heart failure; norepinephrine exerts direct toxicity on cardiac myocytes resulting in a decrease of synthetic activity and/or viability. Importantly, cardiac norepinephrine spillover is a powerful predictor of mortality in patients with moderate to severe HF. This provided the rationale for trials that demonstrated survival benefit associated with the use of beta adrenergic blockers in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Nevertheless, the MOXCON trial demonstrated that rapid uptitration of moxonidine (inhibitor of central sympathetic outflow) in patients with heart failure was associated with excess mortality and morbidity, despite reduction of plasma norepinephrine. Interestingly, renal norepinephrine spillover was the only independent predictor of adverse outcome in patients with heart failure, in multivariable analysis. Recently, renal sympathetic denervation has emerged as a novel approach for control of blood pressure in patients with treatment-resistant hypertension. This article summarizes the available evidence for the effect of renal sympathetic denervation in the setting of heart failure. Key messages Experimental studies supported a beneficial effect of renal sympathetic denervation in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Clinical studies demonstrated improvement of symptoms, and left ventricular function. In heart failure and preserved ejection fraction, renal sympathetic denervation is associated with improvement of surrogate endpoints.

  8. Individual differences in the motivation to communicate relate to levels of midbrain and striatal catecholamine markers in male European starlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimovics, Sarah A; Salvante, Katrina G; Sockman, Keith W; Riters, Lauren V

    2011-11-01

    Individuals display dramatic differences in social communication even within similar social contexts. Across vertebrates dopaminergic projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and midbrain central gray (GCt) strongly influence motivated, reward-directed behaviors. Norepinephrine is also rich in these areas and may alter dopamine neuronal activity. The present study was designed to provide insight into the roles of dopamine and norepinephrine in VTA and GCt and their efferent striatal target, song control region area X, in the regulation of individual differences in the motivation to sing. We used high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection to measure dopamine, norepinephrine and their metabolites in micropunched samples from VTA, GCt, and area X in male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). We categorized males as sexually motivated or non-sexually motivated based on individual differences in song produced in response to a female. Dopamine markers and norepinephrine in VTA and dopamine in area X correlated positively with sexually-motivated song. Norepinephrine in area X correlated negatively with non-sexually-motivated song. Dopamine in GCt correlated negatively with sexually-motivated song, and the metabolite DOPAC correlated positively with non-sexually-motivated song. Results highlight a role for evolutionarily conserved dopaminergic projections from VTA to striatum in the motivation to communicate and highlight novel patterns of catecholamine activity in area X, VTA, and GCt associated with individual differences in sexually-motivated and non-sexually-motivated communication. Correlations between dopamine and norepinephrine markers also suggest that norepinephrine may contribute to individual differences in communication by modifying dopamine neuronal activity in VTA and GCt. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Does chronic smoking affect induced-exercise catecholamine release?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan İpekoğlu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the acute effect of the submaximal aerobic exercise upon epinephrine and nor-epinephrine levels in chronic smokers and non-smoker.  The study was carried out upon 10 regular (15> cigarettes/day smoker untrained male along five years and 10 never smoker untrained male. Subjects performed an endurance exercise that continues 40 minutes at 70% maximal heart rate. There were 15cc venous blood samples extracted from the forearm pre-exercise (PRE, post-exercise (POST, post-exercise 2 hours (2h, post-exercise 24 hours (24h to measure of epinephrine and nor-epinephrine levels. The plasma level of each hormone increased after exercise and the tendency of rise was similar between groups as it seen in which 55,6% and 54,68% for epinephrine and 27,1% and 35,7% for norepinephrine. In this respect no group-time relationship has been found (p>0,05.  But in between-group analyses, basal and after exercise levels were different (p<0,05. The study revealed the fact that, smokers have higher plasma levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine before and after exercise. The results demonstrate that long-term smoking induces elevate baseline and post-aerobic submaximal exercise plasma epinephrine and nor-epinephrine levels.  The sympatho-adrenal activity appears to be disrupt with long-term smoking which effect the glycolytic and fat metabolism during exercise.

  10. The effect of atomoxetine on random and directed exploration in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Christopher M; Wilson, Robert C; van der Wee, Nic J; Giltay, Eric J; van Noorden, Martijn S; Cohen, Jonathan D; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2017-01-01

    The adaptive regulation of the trade-off between pursuing a known reward (exploitation) and sampling lesser-known options in search of something better (exploration) is critical for optimal performance. Theory and recent empirical work suggest that humans use at least two strategies for solving this dilemma: a directed strategy in which choices are explicitly biased toward information seeking, and a random strategy in which decision noise leads to exploration by chance. Here we examined the hypothesis that random exploration is governed by the neuromodulatory locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system. We administered atomoxetine, a norepinephrine transporter blocker that increases extracellular levels of norepinephrine throughout the cortex, to 22 healthy human participants in a double-blind crossover design. We examined the effect of treatment on performance in a gambling task designed to produce distinct measures of directed exploration and random exploration. In line with our hypothesis we found an effect of atomoxetine on random, but not directed exploration. However, contrary to expectation, atomoxetine reduced rather than increased random exploration. We offer three potential explanations of our findings, involving the non-linear relationship between tonic NE and cognitive performance, the interaction of atomoxetine with other neuromodulators, and the possibility that atomoxetine affected phasic norepinephrine activity more so than tonic norepinephrine activity.

  11. Amphetamine-Like Analogues in Diabetes: Speeding towards Ketogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia M. Branis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is common in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Amphetamine-like analogues comprise the most popular class of weight loss medications. We present a case of a 34-year-old African American female with a history of type 1 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity who developed diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA after starting Diethylpropion for the purpose of weight loss. Shortly after starting Diethylpropion, she developed nausea, vomiting, and periumbilical pain. Blood work revealed glucose of 718 mg/dL, pH 7.32 (7.35–7.45, bicarbonate 16 mmol/L (22–29 mmol/L, and anion gap 19 mmol/L (8–16 mmol/L. Urine analysis demonstrated large amount of ketones. She was hospitalized and successfully treated for DKA. Diethylpropion was discontinued. Amphetamine-like analogues administration leads to norepinephrine release from the lateral hypothalamus which results in the appetite suppression. Peripheral norepinephrine concentration rises as well. Norepinephrine stimulates adipocyte lipolysis and thereby increases nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA availability. It promotes β-oxidation of NEFA to ketone bodies while decreasing metabolic clearance rate of ketones. In the setting of acute insulin deficiency these effects are augmented. Females are more sensitive to norepinephrine effects compared to males. In conclusion, amphetamine-like analogues lead to a release of norepinephrine which can result in a clinically significant ketosis, especially in the setting of insulin deficiency.

  12. Adrenergic innervation of the developing chick heart: neural crest ablations to produce sympathetically aneural hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, M.; Stewart, D.

    1984-01-01

    Ablation of various regions of premigratory trunk neural crest which gives rise to the sympathetic trunks was used to remove sympathetic cardiac innervation. Neuronal uptake of [ 3 H]-norepinephrine was used as an index of neuronal development in the chick atrium. Following ablation of neural crest over somites 10-15 or 15-20, uptake was significantly decreased in the atrium at 16 and 17 days of development. Ablation of neural crest over somites 5-10 and 20-25 caused no decrease in [ 3 H]-norepinephrine uptake. Removal of neural crest over somites 5-25 or 10-20 caused approximately equal depletions of [ 3 H]-norepinephrine uptake in the atrium. Cardiac norepinephrine concentration was significantly depressed following ablation of neural crest over somites 5-25 but not over somites 10-20. Light-microscopic and histofluorescent preparations confirmed the absence of sympathetic trunks in the region of the normal origin of the sympathetic cardiac nerves following neural crest ablation over somites 10-20. The neural tube and dorsal root ganglia were damaged in the area of the neural-crest ablation; however, all of these structures were normal cranial and caudal to the lesioned area. Development of most of the embryos as well as the morphology of all of the hearts was normal following the lesion. These results indicate that it is possible to produce sympathetically aneural hearts by neural-crest ablation; however, sympathetic cardiac nerves account for an insignificant amount of cardiac norepinephrine

  13. Modification of sympathetic neuronal function in the rat tail artery by dietary lipid treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panek, R.L.; Dixon, W.R.; Rutledge, C.O.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of dietary lipid treatment on sympathetic neuronal function was examined in isolated perfused tail arteries of adult rats. The hypothesis that dietary manipulations alter the lipid environment of receptor proteins which may result in the perturbation of specific membrane-associated processes that regulate peripheral adrenergic neurotransmission in the vasculature was the basis for this investigation. In the present study, rats were fed semisynthetic diets enriched in either 16% coconut oil (saturated fat) or 16% sunflower oil (unsaturated fat). The field stimulation-evoked release of endogenous norepinephrine and total 3 H was decreased significantly in rats receiving the coconut oil diet when compared to either sunflower oil- or standard lab chow-fed rats. Norepinephrine content in artery segments from coconut oil-treated rats was significantly higher compared to either sunflower oil- or standard lab chow-fed rats. Tail arteries from rats receiving the coconut oil diet displayed significantly lower perfusion pressure responses to nerve stimulation at all frequencies tested when compared to the sunflower oil- or standard lab chow-fed rats. Vasoconstrictor responses of perfused tail arteries exposed to exogenous norepinephrine resulted in an EC50 for norepinephrine that was not changed by the dietary treatment, but adult rats receiving the sunflower oil diet displayed a significantly greater maximum response to exogenous norepinephrine (10(-5) M) compared to arteries from either coconut oil- or standard lab chow-fed rats

  14. Perbandingan Efek Pemberian Norepinefrin Bolus Intravena dengan Norepinefrin Infus Kontinu dalam Tatalaksana Hipotensi, Laju Nadi, dan Nilai APGAR pada Seksio Sesarea dengan Anestesi Spinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Sepviyanti Sumardi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vasopresors are commonly used for the treatment of hypotension in spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. This research aimed to compare intravenous bolus of norepinephrine to continuous infusion of norepinephrine effectiveness in hypotension management in caesarean section patient under spinal anesthesia and their effect on heart rate and APGAR Score, The experimental study was conducted in a double-blind randomized manner to 44 American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA physical status II pregnant women undergoing cesarean section with spinal anesthesia in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung within the period of September to -November 2013. The Study subjects were grouped into two groups, the first group received 4 µg intravenous bolus of norepinephrine group (NB and and the second received 8 µg/minute continuous infusion of norepinephrine group (NK. Data were analyzed by t-test, Mann-Whitney test, chi-square and analysis of variance (ANOVA t-test with p0.05. Conclusion from this study is the administration of norepinephrine in both ways can be used for the treatment of hypotension of spinal anesthesia without affecting the heart rate and APGAR score

  15. Comparison of psychological symptoms and serum levels of neurotransmitters in Shanghai adolescents with and without internet addiction disorder: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Xia; Jiang, Wen-Qing; Lin, Zhi-Guang; Du, Ya-Song; Vance, Alasdair

    2013-01-01

    Internet addiction disorder (IAD) is now recognized internationally and is known to be linked with academic and social impairment. To date, we know little about its associated main biological factors. This study aimed to collect a carefully defined group of adolescents with IAD and an age- and gender-matched typically developing comparison group. We hypothesized that the young people with IAD would have higher rates of self-reported anxiety and depressive symptoms, have altered levels of peripheral blood dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin. In addition, we hypothesized the hours spent online are correlated with the severity of depression and anxiety among these young people with IAD. A cross-sectional study of 20 adolescents who met Beard's criteria for IAD and 15 typically developing adolescents (comparison group) was conducted. All the participants completed the Self Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Self Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED). Peripheral blood dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine were assayed. The mean level of norepinephrine was lower in the IAD group than that in the typically developing participants, while dopamine and serotonin levels did not differ. The SDS, SAS and SCARED symptom scores were increased in the adolescents with IAD. A logistic regression analysis revealed that a higher SAS score and lower level of norepinephrine independently predicted IAD group membership. There was no significant correlation between hours spent online and scores of SAS/SDS in IAD group. Increased self-reported anxiety and lower peripheral blood norepinephrine are independently associated with IAD.

  16. Differential regulation of catecholamine synthesis and transport in rat adrenal medulla by fluoxetine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasojevic, Natasa; Jovanovic, Predrag; Dronjak, Sladjana

    2015-03-01

    We have recently shown that chronic fluoxetine treatment acted significantly increasing plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations both in control and chronically stressed adult male rats. However, possible effects of fluoxetine on catecholamine synthesis and re-uptake in adrenal medulla have been largely unknown. In the present study the effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on tyrosine hydroxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis, as well as a norepinephrine transporter and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 gene expressions in adrenal medulla of animals exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) for 4 weeks, were investigated. Gene expression analyses were performed using a real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Chronically stressed animals had increased tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels and decreased expression of both transporters. Fluoxetine increased tyrosine hydroxylase and decreased norepinephrine transporter gene expression in both unstressed and CUMS rats. These findings suggest that chronic fluoxetine treatment increased plasma catecholamine levels by affecting opposing changes in catecholamine synthesis and uptake.

  17. Human myometrial adrenergic receptors during pregnancy: identification of the alpha-adrenergic receptor by [3H] dihydroergocryptine binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, M.M.; Hayashida, D.; Roberts, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The radioactive alpha-adrenergic antagonist [ 3 H] dihydroergocryptine binds to particulate preparations of term pregnant human myometrium in a manner compatible with binding to the alpha-adrenergic receptor (alpha-receptor). [ 3 H] Dihydroergocryptine binds with high affinity (KD = 2 nmol/L and low capacity (receptor concentration = 100 fmol/mg of protein). Adrenergic agonists compete for [ 3 H] dihydroergocryptine binding sites stereo-selectively ([-]-norepinephrine is 100 times as potent as [+]-norepinephrine) and in a manner compatible with alpha-adrenergic potencies (epinephrine approximately equal to norepinephrine much greater than isoproterenol). Studies in which prazosin, an alpha 1-antagonist, and yohimbine, and alpha 2-antagonist, competed for [ 3 H] dihydroergocryptine binding sites in human myometrium indicated that approximately 70% are alpha 2-receptors and that 30% are alpha 1-receptors. [ 3 H] dihydroergocryptine binding to human myometrial membrane particulate provides an important tool with which to study the molecular mechanisms of uterine alpha-adrenergic response

  18. Photo-renewable electroanalytical sensor for neurotransmitters detection in body fluid mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifferi, Valentina; Soliveri, Guido; Panzarasa, Guido; Cappelletti, Giuseppe; Meroni, Daniela; Falciola, Luigi

    2016-10-01

    A composite electrode with a sandwich structure combining the properties of silver nanoparticles and a titania photoactive layer was used for the electroanalytical detection, by differential pulse voltammetry, of three neurotransmitters: dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. The three analytes were determined at low detection limits (around 0.03 μM) also in the presence of conventional interferents, such as uric and ascorbic acids. The fouling of the electrode surface was overcome by irradiating the device with UVA light, restoring the initial sensor sensitivity. Dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin were determined also in simulated biological matrices: liquor (artificially reproduced cerebrospinal fluid) and serum. Moreover, the contemporaneous detection of dopamine and norepinephrine in simulated human urine solutions was also demonstrated, representing the first step towards clinical applications of the proposed methodology. Graphical abstract The photo-renewable electroanalytical sensor.

  19. Chloride is essential for contraction of afferent arterioles after agonists and potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B L; Ellekvist, Peter; Skøtt, O

    1997-01-01

    to norepinephrine, angiotensin II (ANG II), and potassium were measured after chloride depletion and compared with controls. Chloride depletion did not change arteriolar diameters, but the response to norepinephrine was markedly reduced when chloride was substituted with gluconate (n = 6) or isethionate (n = 6......). Reintroduction of chloride fully restored the sensitivity to norepinephrine. Contractions after ANG II and potassium were totally abolished in the absence of chloride (n = 6). In additional experiments (n = 7), the arteriolar contraction to 100 mM potassium was abolished only 1 min after removal of extracellular......A depolarizing chloride efflux has been suggested to activate voltage-dependent calcium channels in renal afferent arteriolar smooth muscle cells in response to vasoconstrictors. To test this proposal, rabbit afferent arterioles were microperfused, and the contractile dose responses...

  20. Release of galanin from isolated perfused porcine adrenal glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Ehrhart-Bornstein, M; Messell, T

    1991-01-01

    We found a high concentration of galanin in extracts of porcine adrenal glands (114 pmol/g). By immunohistochemistry, galanin was localized to groups of medullary cells previously shown to produce norepinephrine. To study mechanisms for the release of galanin, we developed the following in vitro...... model: isolated perfused porcine adrenals with intact splanchnic nerve supply. When the nerves were electrically stimulated, epinephrine and norepinephrine secretion increased 276- and 291-fold, respectively, and galanin release increased up to 1,300-fold. Acetylcholine at 10(-6) M stimulated galanin...... release, and hexamethonium almost abolished the response to nerve stimulation. Galanin infusions had no effect on epinephrine and norepinephrine secretion in concentrations of 10(-8) and 10(-7) M, but increased both cortisol and aldosterone secretion (P less than 0.05). Splanchnic nerve stimulation...

  1. Radioenzymatic test for catecholamines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.A.; Peuler, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    The invention deals with a method to determine total endogenic epinephrine and norepinephrine in human and mammal systems consisting of a supernatant of deproteinated tissue homogenate, blood serum, or blood plasma. The method uses a tritium tracer technique where the epinephrine (norepinephrine) is reactet to O-methylated ( 3 H) epinephrine (norepinephrine) in an enzymatic reaction while the product is oxygenated to vanillin- 3 H and analyzed with the aid of a liquid scintillation spectrometer. Another patent claim deals with a method for the purification of the enzyme catechin-O-methyl transferase from rat liver and ways to optimize the enzymatic reaction as well as with a method of optimizing oxygenation to vanillin- 3 H, its isolation and measurements. (VJ) [de

  2. Arterial pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass is not associated with acute kidney injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandler, K; Jensen, M E; Nilsson, J C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is common and is associated with increased mortality. We wanted to investigate if the arterial pressure or the use of norepinephrine during cardiopulmonary bypass were associated with AKI. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients who...... underwent coronary artery bypass grafting with or without concomitant procedures was conducted. AKI was defined using the RIFLE criteria. Data on arterial pressure and use of norepinephrine during cardiopulmonary bypass were entered in a binary logistic regression model to control for possible perioperative...... and in higher amounts, during cardiopulmonary bypass, in patients who developed AKI. These differences in arterial pressures and use of norepinephrine between the groups were not found to be significant when entered in the binary logistic regression model. CONCLUSION: No independent relationship between...

  3. Octopamine connects nutrient cues to lipid metabolism upon nutrient deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jun; Ma, Yi-Cheng; Yang, Zhong-Shan; Zou, Cheng-Gang; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2016-05-01

    Starvation is probably the most common stressful situation in nature. In vertebrates, elevation of the biogenic amine norepinephrine levels is common during starvation. However, the precise role of norepinephrine in nutrient deprivation remains largely unknown. We report that in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, up-regulation of the biosynthesis of octopamine, the invertebrate counterpart of norepinephrine, serves as a mechanism to adapt to starvation. During nutrient deprivation, the nuclear receptor DAF-12, known to sense nutritional cues, up-regulates the expression of tbh-1 that encodes tyramine β-hydroxylase, a key enzyme for octopamine biosynthesis, in the RIC neurons. Octopamine induces the expression of the lipase gene lips-6 via its receptor SER-3 in the intestine. LIPS-6, in turn, elicits lipid mobilization. Our findings reveal that octopamine acts as an endocrine regulator linking nutrient cues to lipolysis to maintain energy homeostasis, and suggest that such a mechanism may be evolutionally conserved in diverse organisms.

  4. Acute stress reduces wound-induced activation of microbicidal potential of ex vivo isolated human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Kuebler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychological stress delays wound healing but the precise underlying mechanisms are unclear. Macrophages play an important role in wound healing, in particular by killing microbes. We hypothesized that (a acute psychological stress reduces wound-induced activation of microbicidal potential of human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM, and (b that these reductions are modulated by stress hormone release. METHODS: Fourty-one healthy men (mean age 35 ± 13 years were randomly assigned to either a stress or stress-control group. While the stress group underwent a standardized short-term psychological stress task after catheter-induced wound infliction, stress-controls did not. Catheter insertion was controlled. Assessing the microbicidal potential, we investigated PMA-activated superoxide anion production by HMDM immediately before and 1, 10 and 60 min after stress/rest. Moreover, plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine and salivary cortisol were repeatedly measured. In subsequent in vitro studies, whole blood was incubated with norepinephrine in the presence or absence of phentolamine (norepinephrine blocker before assessing HMDM microbicidal potential. RESULTS: Compared with stress-controls, HMDM of the stressed subjects displayed decreased superoxide anion-responses after stress (p's <.05. Higher plasma norepinephrine levels statistically mediated lower amounts of superoxide anion-responses (indirect effect 95% CI: 4.14-44.72. Norepinephrine-treated HMDM showed reduced superoxide anion-production (p<.001. This effect was blocked by prior incubation with phentolamine. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that acute psychological stress reduces wound-induced activation of microbicidal potential of HMDM and that this reduction is mediated by norepinephrine. This might have implications for stress-induced impairment in wound healing.

  5. Neuronal uptake and metabolism of 2- and 6-fluorodopamine: false neurotransmitters for positron emission tomographic imaging of sympathetically innervated tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhofer, G.; Hovevey-Sion, D.; Kopin, I.J.; Miletich, R.; Kirk, K.L.; Finn, R.; Goldstein, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    The neuronal uptake and metabolism of 2-fluorodopamine (2F-dopamine), 6-fluorodopamine (6F-dopamine) and tritium-labeled dopamine were compared in heart, submaxillary gland and spleen of rats to assess the utility of 18F-labeled 2F- or 6F-dopamine for positron emission tomographic imaging of sympathetically innervated tissues. Tritiated dopamine with and without 2F- or 6F-dopamine, or tritiated 2F-dopamine alone, were injected i.v. into rats that were or were not pretreated with desipramine to block catecholamine neuronal uptake or with reserpine to block vesicular translocation of catecholamines. Tissue and plasma samples were obtained at intervals up to 1 hr after injections. At 1 hr after injection of tritiated dopamine, tritium-labeled norepinephrine, dopamine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and dihydroxyphenylglucol accounted for less than 2% of the tritium in plasma but up to 92% of that in tissues; tritiated norepinephrine accounted for 70% or more of the tritium in tissues. In contrast, at 1 hr after injection of tritiated 2F-dopamine, tritiated 2F-norepinephrine accounted for 30 to 46% of the tritium in tissues. Desipramine and reserpine pretreatment blocked the tissue accumulation of tritiated and fluorinated dopamine as well as their dihydroxy-metabolites, indicating that accumulation of exogenous norepinephrine and dopamine analogs was within sympathetic storage vesicles. Relative to the doses of dopamine precursors, less 2F- and 6F-norepinephrine accumulated in tissues than tritiated norepinephrine, due largely to inefficient beta-hydroxylation of fluorinated dopamine.

  6. Melatonin mediated antidepressant-like effect in the hippocampus of chronic stress-induced depression rats: Regulating vesicular monoamine transporter 2 and monoamine oxidase A levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovic, Bojana; Spasojevic, Natasa; Jovanovic, Predrag; Jasnic, Nebojsa; Djordjevic, Jelena; Dronjak, Sladjana

    2016-10-01

    The hippocampus is sensitive to stress which activates norepinephrine terminals deriving from the locus coeruleus. Melatonin exerts positive effects on the hippocampal neurogenic process and on depressive-like behaviour. Thus, in the present study, an examination was made of the effect of chronic melatonin treatment on norepinephrine content, synthesis, uptake, vesicular transport and degradation in the hippocampus of rats exposed to CUMS. This entailed quantifying the norephinephrine, mRNA and protein levels of DBH, NET, VMAT 2, MAO-A and COMT. The results show that CUMS evoked prolonged immobility. Melatonin treatment decreased immobility in comparison with the placebo group, reflecting an antidepressant-like effect. Compared with the placebo group, a dramatic decrease in norepinephrine content, decreased VMAT2 mRNA and protein and increased MAO-A protein levels in the hippocampus of the CUMS rats were observed. However, no significant differences in the levels of DBH, NET, COMT mRNA and protein and MAO-A mRNA levels between the placebo and the stressed groups were found. The results showed the restorative effects of melatonin on the stress-induced decline in the norepinephrine content of the hippocampus. It was observed that melatonin treatment in the CUMS rats prevented the stress-induced decrease in VMAT2 mRNA and protein levels, whereas it reduced the increase of the mRNA of COMT and protein levels of MAO-A. Chronic treatment with melatonin failed to alter the gene expression of DBH or NET in the hippocampus of the CUMS rats. Additionally, the results show that melatonin enhances VMAT2 expression and norepinephrine storage, whilst it reduces norepinephrine degrading enzymes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  7. Different pathways of [3H]inositol phosphate formation mediated by α 1a- and α 1b-adrenergic receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, K.M.; Minneman, K.P.

    1990-01-01

    The types of inositol phosphates (InsPs) formed in response to activation of alpha 1-adrenergic receptor subtypes were determined in collagenase-dispersed renal cells and hepatocytes by high pressure liquid chromatography separation. In hepatocytes, which contain only the alpha 1b subtype, norepinephrine stimulated rapid (10-s) formation of [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 and [3H]Ins(1,3,4)P3 and slower (5-min) formation of Ins(1,4)P2 and Ins(1)P. Selective inactivation of alpha 1b receptors by chloroethylclonidine almost completely blocked the effects of norepinephrine in hepatocytes. In renal cells, which contain both alpha 1a and alpha 1b receptors in a 60:40 ratio, norepinephrine did not significantly increase the size of any peaks until 5 min after agonist activation. At this time, only a peak eluting with Ins(1)P and one eluting shortly after Ins(1,4)P2 were significantly elevated. Incubation with norepinephrine for 2 h caused small but significant increases in peaks co-eluting with Ins(1)P and Ins(1,4,5)P3 in renal cells; however, only the increase in Ins(1)P was inhibited by chloroethylclonidine pretreatment. Extraction under neutral conditions suggested that cyclic InsPs may be the primary compounds formed in response to norepinephrine in renal cells. Removal of extracellular Ca2+ caused a 60% reduction in the InsP response to norepinephrine in renal cells but had no effect in hepatocytes. These results suggest that activation of alpha 1a and alpha 1b receptor subtypes results in formation of different InsPs and that the response to alpha 1a activation may require influx of extracellular Ca2+

  8. Neuronal uptake and metabolism of 2- and 6-fluorodopamine: false neurotransmitters for positron emission tomographic imaging of sympathetically innervated tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhofer, G.; Hovevey-Sion, D.; Kopin, I.J.; Miletich, R.; Kirk, K.L.; Finn, R.; Goldstein, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    The neuronal uptake and metabolism of 2-fluorodopamine (2F-dopamine), 6-fluorodopamine (6F-dopamine) and tritium-labeled dopamine were compared in heart, submaxillary gland and spleen of rats to assess the utility of 18F-labeled 2F- or 6F-dopamine for positron emission tomographic imaging of sympathetically innervated tissues. Tritiated dopamine with and without 2F- or 6F-dopamine, or tritiated 2F-dopamine alone, were injected i.v. into rats that were or were not pretreated with desipramine to block catecholamine neuronal uptake or with reserpine to block vesicular translocation of catecholamines. Tissue and plasma samples were obtained at intervals up to 1 hr after injections. At 1 hr after injection of tritiated dopamine, tritium-labeled norepinephrine, dopamine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and dihydroxyphenylglucol accounted for less than 2% of the tritium in plasma but up to 92% of that in tissues; tritiated norepinephrine accounted for 70% or more of the tritium in tissues. In contrast, at 1 hr after injection of tritiated 2F-dopamine, tritiated 2F-norepinephrine accounted for 30 to 46% of the tritium in tissues. Desipramine and reserpine pretreatment blocked the tissue accumulation of tritiated and fluorinated dopamine as well as their dihydroxy-metabolites, indicating that accumulation of exogenous norepinephrine and dopamine analogs was within sympathetic storage vesicles. Relative to the doses of dopamine precursors, less 2F- and 6F-norepinephrine accumulated in tissues than tritiated norepinephrine, due largely to inefficient beta-hydroxylation of fluorinated dopamine

  9. Spontaneous and α-adrenoceptor-induced contractility in human collecting lymphatic vessels require chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanakumar, Sheyanth; Majgaard, Jens; Telinius, Niklas

    2018-01-01

    - with the impermeant anion aspartate and inhibition of Cl- transport and channels with the clinical diuretics furosemide and bendroflumethiazide, as well as DIDS and NPPB. The molecular expression of calcium-activated chloride channels was investigated by RT-PCR and proteins localized using immunoreactivity....... Spontaneous and norepinephrine-induced contractility in human lymphatic vessels was highly abrogated after Cl- substitution with aspartate. 100‒300µM DIDS or NPPB inhibited spontaneous contractile behavior. Norepinephrine-stimulated tone was furthermore markedly abrogated by 200µM DIDS. Furosemide lowered...

  10. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide induces glycogenolysis in mouse cortical slices: a possible regulatory mechanism for the local control of energy metabolism.

    OpenAIRE

    Magistretti, P J; Morrison, J H; Shoemaker, W J; Sapin, V; Bloom, F E

    1981-01-01

    Mouse cerebral cortex slices will synthesize [3H]glycogen in vitro. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) stimulates the enzymatic breakdown of this [3H]glycogen. The concentration giving 50% of maximum effectiveness (EC50) is 26 nM. Under the same experimental conditions norepinephrine also induces a concentration-dependent [3H]glycogen hydrolysis with an EC50 of 500 nM. The effect of VIP is not mediated by the release of norepinephrine because it is not blocked by the noradrenergic antago...

  11. Determination of venlafaxine and O-desmethylvenlafaxine in dried blood spots using LC-MS/MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berm, E.J.J.; Brummel-Mulder, E.; Paardekooper, J.; Hak, E.; Wilffert, B.; Maring, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Venlafaxine (VEN) is an antidepressant which exerts both serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition. The drug is mainly metabolized by CYP2D6 to its active metabolite O-desmetylvenlafaxine (ODMV). Due to large interindividual differences in clearance in which genetic variance in

  12. Metabolic Effects of Two Different Doses of Venlafaxine Therapy on Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamária Imre

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Venlafaxine is an antidepressant, categorized as a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI with suspected metabolic side effects. The aim of our study was to assess these metabolic effects in rats, using two different doses of venlafaxine.

  13. Commentary: Considerations on the Pharmacological Treatment of Compulsions and Stereotypies with Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors in Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, C. T.

    2000-01-01

    This commentary discusses study results that indicate the nonselective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) clomipramine is more efficacious than the relatively selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor desipramine and placebo in treating repetitive or ritualized behaviors in children with autism. The need for concurrent genetic and biochemical…

  14. Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies of Charge-Transfer Complex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICOLAAS

    aFaculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, 65174, Iran. bFaculty of ... tially ionic structure D+A–, and pointed out that a low ionization potential for the ... fering to the re-uptake of norepinephrine or serotonin.17 The study of CT ...

  15. Catecholamine uptake sites: characterization, localization, and a role in the production of N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced Parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javitch, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Dopamine and norepinephrine are inactivated by specific high affinity transport systems which mediate the recapture of the amines into presynaptic nerve terminals. [ 3 H]Maxindol labels neuronal dopamine uptake sites in corpus striatum membranes and neuronal norepinephrine uptake sites in cerebral cortex and submaxillary/sublingual gland membranes. The potencies of various inhibitors of biogenic amine uptake in reducing [ 3 H]mazindol binding in striatal membranes correlate with their potencies for inhibition of neurona [ 3 H]dopamine accumulation, whereas their potencies in reducing [ 3 H]mazindol binding to cortical and salivary gland membranes correlate with their potencies for inhibition of neuronal [ 3 H]norepinephrine accumulation. The association of [ 3 H]mazindol binding sites with neuronal dopamine uptake sites in the corpus striatum is further supported by the reduction of [ 3 H]mazindol binding sites in striatal membranes following destruction of dopaminergic neurons by 6-hydroxydopamine. Similarly, destruction of noradrenergic neurons by N-(2-chloro-ethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine(DSP-4) decreases [ 3 H]mazindol binding to cortical membranes. Dopamine and norepinephrine uptake sites in rat brain have been differentially visualized using [ 3 H]mazindol autoradiography. N-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) produces neuropathologic and clinical abnormalities in humans and animals that closely resemble idiopathic Parkinson disease. [ 3 H]MPTP binds with high affinity to brain membranes. The chemical specificity of the binding sites corresponds to structure-activity requirements for neurotoxicity

  16. Effects of disulfiram on choice behavior in a rodent gambling task: association with catecholamine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ciano, Patricia; Manvich, Daniel F; Pushparaj, Abhiram; Gappasov, Andrew; Hess, Ellen J; Weinshenker, David; Le Foll, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    Gambling disorder is a growing societal concern, as recognized by its recent classification as an addictive disorder in the DSM-5. Case reports have shown that disulfiram reduces gambling-related behavior in humans. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether disulfiram affects performance on a rat gambling task, a rodent version of the Iowa gambling task in humans, and whether any changes were associated with alterations in dopamine and/or norepinephrine levels. Rats were administered disulfiram prior to testing on the rat gambling task or prior to analysis of dopamine or norepinephrine levels in brain homogenates. Rats in the behavioral task were divided into two subgroups (optimal vs suboptimal) based on their baseline levels of performance in the rat gambling task. Rats in the optimal group chose the advantageous strategy more, and rats in the suboptimal group (a parallel to problem gambling) chose the disadvantageous strategy more. Rats were not divided into optimal or suboptimal groups prior to neurochemical analysis. Disulfiram administered 2 h, but not 30 min, before the task dose-dependently improved choice behavior in the rats with an initial disadvantageous "gambling-like" strategy, while having no effect on the rats employing an advantageous strategy. The behavioral effects of disulfiram were associated with increased striatal dopamine and decreased striatal norepinephrine. These findings suggest that combined actions on dopamine and norepinephrine may be a useful treatment for gambling disorders.

  17. Antagonism of Lateral Amygdala Alpha1-Adrenergic Receptors Facilitates Fear Conditioning and Long-Term Potentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaro, Stephanie C.; Hou, Mian; Cunha, Catarina; LeDoux, Joseph E.; Cain, Christopher K.

    2010-01-01

    Norepinephrine receptors have been studied in emotion, memory, and attention. However, the role of alpha1-adrenergic receptors in fear conditioning, a major model of emotional learning, is poorly understood. We examined the effect of terazosin, an alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, on cued fear conditioning. Systemic or intra-lateral amygdala…

  18. Gonadotropin Pulsatllity in FemaIe Long Distance Runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-24

    findings as well as her current knowledge of this area, she developed her own model of GnRH release. She believe that norepinephrine has a tonic...that . ,·. ~ only long distance runners and cross country skiers had trouble with their menstrual cycles. Similarly, Erdelyi (1976) found a higher

  19. Endocannabinoid signaling within the basolateral amygdala integrates multiple stress hormone effects on memory consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atsak, P.; Hauer, D.; Campolongo, P.; Schelling, G.; Fornari, R.V.; Roozendaal, B.

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones are known to act synergistically with other stress-activated neuromodulatory systems, such as norepinephrine and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), within the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) to induce optimal strengthening of the consolidation of long-term memory

  20. [Attenuation of the efficacy of vasoconstrictive effects in rats after a 3-week suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matchkov, Vladimir; Tarasova, Olga S; Timin, Eugeny N

    1997-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were maintained suspended by the skin of posterior third of the back for three weeks. Constrictive reactions to norepinephrine and irritation of sympathetic nerves were studied with hindlimb vessels perfused with physiological solution at constant pressure. Perfusion pressure was...

  1. The beneficial effects of meditation: contribution of the anterior cingulate and locus coeruleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Alker Craigmyle

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During fMRI studies of meditation the cortical salience detecting and executive networks become active during awareness of mind wandering, shifting and sustained attention. The anterior cingulate (AC is activated during awareness of mind wandering.The AC modulates both the peripheral sympathetic nervous system (SNS and the central locus coeruleus (LC norepinephrine systems, which form the principal neuromodulatory system, regulating in multiple ways both neuronal and non-neuronal cells to maximize adaptation in changing environments. The LC is the primary source of central norepinephrine (C-NE and nearly the exclusive source of cortical norepinephrine. Normally activated by novel or salient stimuli, the AC initially inhibits the SNS reflexively, lowering peripheral norepinephrine (P-NE and activates the LC, increasing C-NE.Moderate levels of C-NE enhance working memory through alpha 2 adrenergic receptors, while higher levels of C-NE, acting on alpha 1 and beta receptors, enhance other executive network functions such as the stopping of ongoing behavior, attentional set shifting and sustained attention. The actions of the AC on both the central and peripheral noradrenergic systems are implicated in the beneficial effects of meditation. This paper will explore some of the known functions and interrelationships of the AC, SNS and LC with respect to their possible relevance to meditation.

  2. Activation of beta2-Adrenoceptor Enhances Synaptic Potentiation and Behavioral Memory via cAMP-PKA Signaling in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hou-Cheng; Sun, Yan-Yan; Cai, Wei; He, Xiao-Ting; Yi, Feng; Li, Bao-Ming; Zhang, Xue-Han

    2013-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a critical role in cognitive functions, including working memory, attention regulation, behavioral inhibition, as well as memory storage. The functions of PFC are very sensitive to norepinephrine (NE), and even low levels of endogenously released NE exert a dramatic influence on the functioning of the PFC.…

  3. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the erectile tissue. These efferent axons travel along the pelvic nerve to the cavernous nerves, after Synapsing in the pelvic plexus, and then to the penis. For erections to occur, several neurotransmitters are required in the central nervous system. These include dopamine, Sertonin, norepinephrine, oytocin and nitric oxide.

  4. Milrinone attenuates arteriolar vasoconstriction and capillary perfusion deficits on endotoxemic hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Lopes de Miranda

    Full Text Available Apart from its inotropic property, milrinone has vasodilator, anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic effects that could assist in the reversal of septic microcirculatory changes. This paper investigates the effects of milrinone on endotoxemia-related microcirculatory changes and compares them to those observed with the use of norepinephrine.After skinfold chamber implantation procedures and endotoxemia induction by intravenous Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide administration (2 mg.kg-1, male golden Syrian hamsters were treated with two regimens of intravenous milrinone (0.25 or 0.5 μg.kg-1.min-1. Intravital microscopy of skinfold chamber preparations allowed quantitative analysis of microvascular variables. Macro-hemodynamic, biochemical, and hematological parameters and survival rate were also analyzed. Endotoxemic non-treated animals, endotoxemic animals treated with norepinephrine (0.2 μg.kg-1.min-1, and non-endotoxemic hamsters served as controls.Milrinone (0.5 μg.kg-1.min-1 was effective in reducing lipopolysaccharide-induced arteriolar vasoconstriction, capillary perfusion deficits, and inflammatory response, and in increasing survival. Norepinephrine treated animals showed the best mean arterial pressure levels but the worst functional capillary density values among all endotoxemic groups.Our data suggests that milrinone yielded protective effects on endotoxemic animals' microcirculation, showed anti-inflammatory properties, and improved survival. Norepinephrine did not recruit the microcirculation nor demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects.

  5. Milrinone attenuates arteriolar vasoconstriction and capillary perfusion deficits on endotoxemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miranda, Marcos Lopes; Pereira, Sandra J; Santos, Ana O M T; Villela, Nivaldo R; Kraemer-Aguiar, Luiz Guilherme; Bouskela, Eliete

    2015-01-01

    Apart from its inotropic property, milrinone has vasodilator, anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic effects that could assist in the reversal of septic microcirculatory changes. This paper investigates the effects of milrinone on endotoxemia-related microcirculatory changes and compares them to those observed with the use of norepinephrine. After skinfold chamber implantation procedures and endotoxemia induction by intravenous Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide administration (2 mg.kg-1), male golden Syrian hamsters were treated with two regimens of intravenous milrinone (0.25 or 0.5 μg.kg-1.min-1). Intravital microscopy of skinfold chamber preparations allowed quantitative analysis of microvascular variables. Macro-hemodynamic, biochemical, and hematological parameters and survival rate were also analyzed. Endotoxemic non-treated animals, endotoxemic animals treated with norepinephrine (0.2 μg.kg-1.min-1), and non-endotoxemic hamsters served as controls. Milrinone (0.5 μg.kg-1.min-1) was effective in reducing lipopolysaccharide-induced arteriolar vasoconstriction, capillary perfusion deficits, and inflammatory response, and in increasing survival. Norepinephrine treated animals showed the best mean arterial pressure levels but the worst functional capillary density values among all endotoxemic groups. Our data suggests that milrinone yielded protective effects on endotoxemic animals' microcirculation, showed anti-inflammatory properties, and improved survival. Norepinephrine did not recruit the microcirculation nor demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects.

  6. Vasopressin and angiotensin II stimulate oxygen uptake in the perfused rat hindlimb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colquhoun, E Q; Hettiarachchi, M; Ye, J M

    1988-01-01

    Vasopressin and angiotensin II markedly stimulated oxygen uptake in the perfused rat hindlimb. The increase due to each agent approached 70% of the basal rate, and was greater than that produced by a maximal concentration of norepinephrine. Half-maximal stimulation occurred at 60 pM vasopressin, 0...

  7. Impaired mitochondrial respiration and stimulated glycolysis by m-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loesberg, C.; van Rooij, H.; Nooijen, W. J.; Meijer, A. J.; Smets, L. A.

    1990-01-01

    m-Iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) is a functional analogue of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine. Radio-iodinated 131I-MIBG is used clinically as a tumor-targeted radiopharmaceutical agent in the diagnosis and treatment of adrenergic tumors. Native MIBG has previously been demonstrated to be cytotoxic

  8. Catecholamine function, brain state dynamics, and human cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Brink R.L.,

    2017-01-01

    The locus coeruleus (LC) is a nucleus in the brainstem, and projects widely to the forebrain where it releases norepinephrine (NE). Catecholamines such as NE do not have a unitary effect on their target neurons, but instead influence the function of other neurotransmitters, a process that is known

  9. Effects of Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine on Cortical Inhibition in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of methylphenidate (MPH, a psychostimulant, and atomoxetine (ATX, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, on short interval-cortical inhibition (SICI were measured in motor cortex with transcranial magnetic stimulation, in a study at Cincinnati Children’s Medical Center, OH, and other centers.

  10. β-Adrenergic receptor signaling and modulation of long-term potentiation in the mammalian hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    O'Dell, Thomas J.; Connor, Steven A.; Guglietta, Ryan; Nguyen, Peter V.

    2015-01-01

    Encoding new information in the brain requires changes in synaptic strength. Neuromodulatory transmitters can facilitate synaptic plasticity by modifying the actions and expression of specific signaling cascades, transmitter receptors and their associated signaling complexes, genes, and effector proteins. One critical neuromodulator in the mammalian brain is norepinephrine (NE), which regulates multiple brain functions such as attention, perception, arousal, sleep, learning, and memory. The m...

  11. Zn2+ modulation of neurotransmitter transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard-Nielsen, K.; Gether, U.

    2006-01-01

    of neurotransmitter transporters have been identified based on sequence homology: (1) the neurotransmitter sodium symporter family (NSS), which includes the Na+/C1(-)-dependent transporters for dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin; and (2) the dicarboxylate/amino acid cation symporter family (DAACS), which...

  12. RAAS and stress markers in acute ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Back, C.; Thiesen, K L; Olsen, Karsten Skovgaard

    2015-01-01

    . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood from a jugular and cubital vein was collected within 48 h of stroke onset, after 24 and 48 h, and renin, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, aldosterone, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and cortisol were measured. Post-stroke cubital vein samples were collected after 8 (4.7-10) months...

  13. The crystal structure of human dopamine  β-hydroxylase at 2.9 Å resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Trine Vammen; Harris, Pernille; Zhao, Y.

    2016-01-01

    , Alzheimer’s disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and cocaine dependence. We report the crystal structure of human dopamine β-hydroxylase, which is the enzyme converting dopamine to norepinephrine. The structure of the DOMON (dopamine β-monooxygenase N-terminal) domain, also found in >1600...

  14. Paraventricular hypothalamic adrenoceptors and energy metabolism in exercising rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheurink, Anton J.W.; Steffens, Anton B.; Gaykema, Ron P.A.

    The role of adrenoceptors in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in the exercise-induced changes in plasma norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), corticosterone, free fatty acids (FFA), and blood glucose was investigated in rats. Exercise consisted of strenuous swimming against a countercurrent for 15

  15. Meta-iodobenzylguanidine inhibits complex I and III of the respiratory chain in the human cell line Molt-4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J.; Wanders, R. J.; van Gennip, A. H.; van den Bogert, C.; Voûte, P. A.; van Kuilenburg, A. B.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we report the effects of meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), a structural analogue of norepinephrine, on cell proliferation and several parameters related to mitochondrial respiration in Molt-4 cells. In micromolar concentrations, MIBG completely inhibited the proliferation of Molt-4

  16. Noradrenalin a chování

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prokopová, Iva

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2010), s. 51-58 ISSN 1210-6313 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/09/0286; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : norepinephrine * learning * memory Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  17. Clinical Neurochemistry of Autism and Associated Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J. Gerald; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The fundamental preclinical and clinical studies of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine metabolism related to infantile autism are reviewed, and new studies are suggested, as examples of the productive strategies that will illuminate features of the autistic syndrome in the next decade. (Author)

  18. NORADRENERGIC AND ADRENERGIC FUNCTIONING IN AUTISM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MINDERAA, RB; ANDERSON, GM; VOLKMAR, FR; AKKERHUIS, GW; COHEN, DJ

    1994-01-01

    A neurochemical assessment of noradrenergic and adrenergic functioning was carried out with autistic patients and normal control individuals. Norepinephrine and related compounds were measured in autistic (n = 17 unmedicated, 23 medicated; age range 9-29 years old) and normal controls (n = 27; age

  19. Neurochemical Correlates of Autistic Disorder: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kristen S. L.; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, L. Eugene

    2006-01-01

    Review of neurochemical investigations in autistic disorder revealed that a wide array of transmitter systems have been studied, including serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, oxytocin, endogenous opioids, cortisol, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). These studies have been complicated by the fact that autism is a very…

  20. Triiodothyronine Administration in a Model of Septic Shock: A Randomized Blinded Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiden, Matthew J; Chapman, Marianne J; Torpy, David J; Kuchel, Timothy R; Clarke, Iain J; Nash, Coralie H; Fraser, Jonathan D; Ludbrook, Guy L

    2016-06-01

    Triiodothyronine concentration in plasma decreases during septic shock and may contribute to multiple organ dysfunction. We sought to determine the safety and efficacy of administering triiodothyronine, with and without hydrocortisone, in a model of septic shock. Randomized blinded placebo-controlled trial. Preclinical research laboratory. Thirty-two sheep rendered septic with IV Escherichia coli and receiving protocol-guided sedation, ventilation, IV fluids, and norepinephrine infusion. Two hours following induction of sepsis, 32 sheep received a 24-hour IV infusion of 1) placebo + placebo, 2) triiodothyronine + placebo, 3) hydrocortisone + placebo, or 4) triiodothyronine + hydrocortisone. Primary outcome was the total amount of norepinephrine required to maintain a target mean arterial pressure; secondary outcomes included hemodynamic and metabolic indices. Plasma triiodothyronine levels increased to supraphysiological concentrations with hormonal therapy. Following 24 hours of study drug infusion, the amount of norepinephrine required was no different between the study groups (mean ± SD μg/kg; placebo + placebo group 208 ± 392; triiodothyronine + placebo group 501 ± 370; hydrocortisone + placebo group 167 ± 286; triiodothyronine + hydrocortisone group 466 ± 495; p = 0.20). There was no significant treatment effect on any hemodynamic variable, metabolic parameter, or measure of organ function. A 24-hour infusion of triiodothyronine, with or without hydrocortisone, in an ovine model of septic shock did not markedly alter norepinephrine requirement or any other physiological parameter.

  1. Criminological approach of aggressive conduct and its hormonal etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco De la Cruz, José Luis; Universidad de San Martín de Porres

    2017-01-01

    Hormones are chemicals substances produced by glands, are secreted into the bloodstream and move throughout the body influencing human behavior. Thanks to the study of physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms, identified the behavioral effects of the testosterone hormone, cortisol, norepinephrine and serotonin. Recent studies have also demonstrated the importance of vasopressin, dopamine, insulin, thyroid hormone and nitric oxide. These scientific contributions identified the importanc...

  2. Elimination of high-refined-sugar diet as treatment strategy for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3Autism Research and Treatment Center, 4Shaik Al-Amodi Autism Research Chair, ... Purpose: To investigate the potency of ampicillin in altering gut flora in the ... rat pups (norepinephrine by 32.49 and 14.58 %, dopamine by 31.45 and.

  3. Use of antidepressants during pregnancy and the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loveren, Fianne MAM; Boekema, Monique; Hak, Eelko; Bos, Jens HJ; Aarnoudse, Jan G; Schuiling-Veninga, Catharina CM

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is possibly caused by an increased activity of the sympatic nervous system. Previous studies have suggested that inhibition of the re-uptake of serotonin and norepinephrine by selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and tricyclic

  4. Autonomic and Neuroendocrine Responses to a Psychosocial Stressor in Adults with Autistic Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Lucres M. C.; Gispen-de Wied, Christine C.; Wiegant, Victor M.; Westenberg, Herman G. M.; Lahuis, Bertine E.; van Engeland, Herman

    2006-01-01

    Objective of the study was to replicate in adults our previous findings of decreased heart rate and normal endocrine responses to stress in autistic children and to elucidate the discrepancy between autonomic and endocrine stress responses by including epinephrine, norepinephrine, oxytocin and vasopressin measurements. Ten autistic spectrum…

  5. Memory Trace Reactivation and Behavioral Response during Retrieval Are Differentially Modulated by Amygdalar Glutamate Receptors Activity: Interaction between Amygdala and Insular Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Gómez, Daniel; Guzmán-Ramos, Kioko; Bermúdez-Rattoni, Federico

    2017-01-01

    The insular cortex (IC) is required for conditioned taste aversion (CTA) retrieval. However, it remains unknown which cortical neurotransmitters levels are modified upon CTA retrieval. Using in vivo microdialysis, we observed that there were clear elevations in extracellular glutamate, norepinephrine, and dopamine in and around the center of the…

  6. Turning off neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Solomon H

    2006-04-07

    The historic discovery that the catecholamine neurotransmitters of the sympathetic nervous system, norepinephrine and epinephrine, are inactivated through their reuptake by presynaptic nerve terminals provided new insights into neurotransmitter action and paved the way for the development of modern antidepressant drugs.

  7. Tyrosine improves cognitive performance and reduces blood pressure in cadets after one week of combat training course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deijen, J.B.; Wientjes, C.J.E.; Vullinghs, H.F.M.; Cloin, P.A.; Langeveld, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the amino acid tyrosine on cognitive task performance were studied on a group of 21 cadets during a demanding military combat training course. In addition, the effects on mood, blood pressure and the norepinephrine metabolite MHPG were determined. Ten subjects received five daily doses

  8. Multiple effects of sibutramine on ejaculation and on vas deferens and seminal vesicle contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojimoto, Fernanda D; Piffer, Renata C; Kiguti, Luiz Ricardo de A; Lameu, Claudiana; de Camargo, Antônio C M; Pereira, Oduvaldo C M; Pupo, André S

    2009-09-15

    Sibutramine is an inhibitor of norepinephrine and 5-HT reuptake largely used in the management of obesity. Although a fairly safe drug, postmarketing adverse effects of sibutramine were reported including abnormal ejaculation in men. This study investigates the effects of sibutramine on ejaculation and vas deferens and seminal vesicle contractility. Adult male rats received sibutramine (5; 20; or 50 mg kg(-1), ip) and after 60 min were exposed to receptive females for determination of ejaculation parameters. The vasa deferentia and seminal vesicles of untreated rats were mounted in isolated organ baths for recording of isometric contractions and HEK293 cells loaded with fluorescent calcium indicator were used to measure intracellular Ca(2+) transients. Sibutramine 5 and 20 mg kg(-1) reduced ejaculation latency whereas 50 mg kg(-1) increased ejaculation latency. Sibutramine 3 to 30 microM greatly increased the sensitivity of the seminal vesicle and vas deferens to norepinephrine, but at concentrations higher than 10 microM there were striking depressions of maximal contractions induced by norepinephrine, carbachol and CaCl(2). In HEK293 cells, sibutramine 10 to 100 microM inhibited intracellular Ca(2+) transients induced by carbachol. Depending on the doses, sibutramine either facilitates or inhibits ejaculation. Apart from its actions in the central nervous system, facilitation of ejaculation may result from augmented sensitivity of smooth muscles to norepinephrine while reductions of intracellular Ca(2+) may be involved in the delayed ejaculation observed with high doses of sibutramine.

  9. Multiple effects of sibutramine on ejaculation and on vas deferens and seminal vesicle contractility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojimoto, Fernanda D.; Piffer, Renata C.; Kiguti, Luiz Ricardo de A.; Lameu, Claudiana; Camargo, Antonio C.M. de; Pereira, Oduvaldo C.M.; Pupo, Andre S.

    2009-01-01

    Sibutramine is an inhibitor of norepinephrine and 5-HT reuptake largely used in the management of obesity. Although a fairly safe drug, postmarketing adverse effects of sibutramine were reported including abnormal ejaculation in men. This study investigates the effects of sibutramine on ejaculation and vas deferens and seminal vesicle contractility. Adult male rats received sibutramine (5; 20; or 50 mg kg -1 , ip) and after 60 min were exposed to receptive females for determination of ejaculation parameters. The vasa deferentia and seminal vesicles of untreated rats were mounted in isolated organ baths for recording of isometric contractions and HEK293 cells loaded with fluorescent calcium indicator were used to measure intracellular Ca 2+ transients. Sibutramine 5 and 20 mg kg -1 reduced ejaculation latency whereas 50 mg kg -1 increased ejaculation latency. Sibutramine 3 to 30 μM greatly increased the sensitivity of the seminal vesicle and vas deferens to norepinephrine, but at concentrations higher than 10 μM there were striking depressions of maximal contractions induced by norepinephrine, carbachol and CaCl 2 . In HEK293 cells, sibutramine 10 to 100 μM inhibited intracellular Ca 2+ transients induced by carbachol. Depending on the doses, sibutramine either facilitates or inhibits ejaculation. Apart from its actions in the central nervous system, facilitation of ejaculation may result from augmented sensitivity of smooth muscles to norepinephrine while reductions of intracellular Ca 2+ may be involved in the delayed ejaculation observed with high doses of sibutramine.

  10. Human amygdala reactivity is diminished by the beta-noradrenergic antagonist propranolol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurlemann, R.; Walter, H.; Rehme, A. K.; Kukolja, J.; Santoro, S. C.; Schmidt, C.; Schnell, K.; Musshoff, F.; Keysers, C.; Maier, W.; Kendrick, K. M.; Onur, O. A.

    Background. Animal models of anxiety disorders emphasize the crucial role of locus ceruleus-noradrenergic (norepinephrine, NE) signaling, the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and their interactions in the expression of anxiety-like behavioral responses to stress. Despite clinical evidence for the efficacy

  11. Noradrenergic enhancement of amygdala responses to fear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onur, Oezguer A; Walter, Henrik; Schlaepfer, Thomas E; Rehme, Anne K; Schmidt, Christoph; Keysers, Christian; Maier, Wolfgang; Hurlemann, René

    Multiple lines of evidence implicate the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the noradrenergic (norepinephrine, NE) system in responding to stressful stimuli such as fear signals, suggesting hyperfunction of both in the development of stress-related pathologies including anxiety disorders. However, no

  12. Genetics Home Reference: monoamine oxidase A deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cases O, Seif I, Grimsby J, Gaspar P, Chen K, Pournin S, Müller U, Aguet M, Babinet C, Shih JC, et al. Aggressive behavior and altered amounts of brain serotonin and norepinephrine in mice lacking MAOA. Science. 1995 Jun 23;268(5218):1763-6. Citation on ...

  13. Methylphenidate Enhances Extinction of Contextual Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Antony D.; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Lattal, K. Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin) is a norepinephrine and dopamine transporter blocker that is widely used in humans for treatment of attention deficit disorder and narcolepsy. Although there is some evidence that targeted microinjections of MPH may enhance fear acquisition, little is known about the effect of MPH on fear extinction. Here, we show…

  14. Altered agonist-activated 86Rb+ efflux from arteries in canine renal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, R.H.; Bagshaw, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Basal rate constants for 86 Rb+ efflux from renal arteries of renal hypertensive dogs were lower than those of control animals whereas no differences were found for coronary arteries. Norepinephrine produced parallel increases in efflux rate constants for hypertensive and control renal arteries, but serotonin produced smaller responses in hypertensive compared to control coronary arteries

  15. Improvement with Duloxetine in an Adult ADHD Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourjman, Smadar Valerie; Bilodeau, Mathieu

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and disabling disorder among adults and is treated with stimulant and non stimulant medication. Objective: To report the case of a patient with ADHD showing good clinical response to duloxetine, a selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SSNRI). Case…

  16. Effect of ondansetron on the analgesic efficacy of tramadol used for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, its use has been associated with a higher .... Patients with a PONV score of 3 were treated with metoclopramide ... receptors.11 It also exerts analgesic effect by inhibiting serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake thereby blocking the nociceptive ... higher incidence of PONV.12 Ondansetron is a highly selective.

  17. The Septic Shock 3.0 Definition and Trials: A Vasopressin and Septic Shock Trial Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James A; Lee, Terry; Singer, Joel; Boyd, John H; Walley, Keith R

    2017-06-01

    The Septic Shock 3.0 definition could alter treatment comparisons in randomized controlled trials in septic shock. Our first hypothesis was that the vasopressin versus norepinephrine comparison and 28-day mortality of patients with Septic Shock 3.0 definition (lactate > 2 mmol/L) differ from vasopressin versus norepinephrine and mortality in Vasopressin and Septic Shock Trial. Our second hypothesis was that there are differences in plasma cytokine levels in Vasopressin and Septic Shock Trial for lactate less than or equal to 2 versus greater than 2 mmol/L. Retrospective analysis of randomized controlled trial. Multicenter ICUs. We compared vasopressin-to-norepinephrine group 28- and 90-day mortality in Vasopressin and Septic Shock Trial in lactate subgroups. We measured 39 cytokines to compare patients with lactate less than or equal to 2 versus greater than 2 mmol/L. Patients with septic shock with lactate greater than 2 mmol/L or less than or equal to 2 mmol/L, randomized to vasopressin or norepinephrine. Concealed vasopressin (0.03 U/min.) or norepinephrine infusions. The Septic Shock 3.0 definition would have decreased sample size by about half. The 28- and 90-day mortality rates were 10-12 % higher than the original Vasopressin and Septic Shock Trial mortality. There was a significantly (p = 0.028) lower mortality with vasopressin versus norepinephrine in lactate less than or equal to 2 mmol/L but no difference between treatment groups in lactate greater than 2 mmol/L. Nearly all cytokine levels were significantly higher in patients with lactate greater than 2 versus less than or equal to 2 mmol/L. The Septic Shock 3.0 definition decreased sample size by half and increased 28-day mortality rates by about 10%. Vasopressin lowered mortality versus norepinephrine if lactate was less than or equal to 2 mmol/L. Patients had higher plasma cytokines in lactate greater than 2 versus less than or equal to 2 mmol/L, a brisker cytokine response to infection. The Septic

  18. Nervus terminalis ganglion of the bonnethead shark (Sphyrna tiburo): evidence for cholinergic and catecholaminergic influence on two cell types distinguished by peptide immunocytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J; Meredith, M

    1995-01-16

    The nervus terminalis is a ganglionated vertebrate cranial nerve of unknown function that connects the brain and the peripheral nasal structures. To investigate its function, we have studied nervus terminalis ganglion morphology and physiology in the bonnethead shark (Sphyrna tiburo), where the nerve is particularly prominent. Immunocytochemistry for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and Leu-Pro-Leu-Arg-Phe-NH2 (LPLRFamide) revealed two distinct populations of cells. Both were acetylcholinesterase positive, but LPLR-Famide-immunoreactive cells consistently stained more darkly for acetylcholinesterase activity. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunocytochemistry revealed fibers and terminal-like puncta in the ganglion, primarily in areas containing GnRH-immunoreactive cells. Consistent with the anatomy, in vitro electrophysiological recordings provided evidence for cholinergic and catecholaminergic actions. In extracellular recordings, acetylcholine had a variable effect on baseline ganglion cell activity, whereas norepinephrine consistently reduced activity. Electrical stimulation of the nerve trunks suppressed ganglion activity, as did impulses from the brain in vivo. During electrical suppression, acetylcholine consistently increased activity, and norepinephrine decreased activity. Muscarinic and, to a lesser extent, alpha-adrenergic antagonists both increased activity during the electrical suppression, suggesting involvement of both systems. Intracellular recordings revealed two types of ganglion cells that were distinguishable pharmacologically and physiologically. Some cells were hyperpolarized by cholinergic agonists and unaffected by norepinephrine; these cells did not depolarize with peripheral nerve trunk stimulation. Another group of cells did depolarize with peripheral trunk stimulation; a representative of this group was depolarized by carbachol and hyperpolarized by norepinephrine. These and other data suggest that the bonnethead nervus terminalis ganglion

  19. Does Growth Impairment Underlie the Adverse Effects of Dexamethasone on Development of Noradrenergic Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotkin, Theodore A; Ko, Ashley; Seidler, Frederic J

    2018-06-20

    Glucocorticoids are given in preterm labor to prevent respiratory distress but these agents evoke neurobehavioral deficits in association with reduced brain region volumes. To determine whether the neurodevelopmental effects are distinct from growth impairment, we gave developing rats dexamethasone at doses below or within the therapeutic range (0.05, 0.2 or 0.8 mg/kg) at different stages: gestational days (GD) 17-19, postnatal days (PN) 1-3 or PN7-9. In adolescence and adulthood, we assessed the impact on noradrenergic systems in multiple brain regions, comparing the effects to those on somatic growth or on brain region growth. Somatic growth was reduced with exposure in all three stages, with greater sensitivity for the postnatal regimens; brain region growth was impaired to a lesser extent. Norepinephrine content and concentration were reduced depending on the treatment regimen, with a rank order of deficits of PN7-9 > PN1-3 > GD17-19. However, brain growth impairment did not parallel reduced norepinephrine content in magnitude, dose threshold, sex or regional selectivity, or temporal pattern, and even when corrected for reduced brain region weights (norepinephrine per g tissue), the dexamethasone-exposed animals showed subnormal values. Regression analysis showed that somatic growth impairment accounted for an insubstantial amount of the reduction in norepinephrine content, and brain growth impairment accounted for only 12%, whereas specific effects on norepinephrine accounted for most of the effect. The adverse effects of dexamethasone on noradrenergic system development are not simply related to impaired somatic or brain region growth, but rather include specific targeting of neurodifferentiation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Slimmer or fertile? Pharmacological mechanisms involved in reduced sperm quality and fertility in rats exposed to the anorexigen sibutramine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele S Borges

    Full Text Available Sperm acquire motility and fertility capacity during epididymal transit, under the control of androgens and sympathetic innervations. It is already known that the acceleration of epididymal sperm transit time can lead to lower sperm quality. In a previous work we showed that rats exposed to the anorexigen sibutramine, a non-selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, presented faster sperm transit time, lower epididymal sperm reserves and potentiation of the tension of epididymal duct to norepinephrine exposed acutely in vitro to sibutramine. In the present work we aimed to further investigate pharmacological mechanisms involved in these alterations and the impact on rat sperm quality. For this, adult male Wistar rats were treated with sibutramine (10 mg/kg/day or vehicle for 30 days. Sibutramine decreased final body, seminal vesicle, ventral prostate and epididymal weights, as well as sperm transit time in the epididymal cauda. On the contrary of the in vitro pharmacological assays, in which sibutramine was added directly to the bath containing strips of distal epididymal cauda, the ductal tension was not altered after in vivo sub-chronic exposure to sibutramine. However, there is pharmacological evidence that the endogenous epididymal norepinephrine reserves were reduced in these animals. It was also shown that the decrease in prostate weight can be related to increased tension developed of the gland, due to sibutramine sympathomimetic effects. In addition, our results showed reduced sperm quality after in utero artificial insemination, a more sensitive procedure to assess fertility in rodents. The epididymal norepinephrine depletion exerted by sibutramine, associated with decreases in sperm transit time, quantity and quality, leading to reduced fertility in this experimental model, reinforces the concerns about the possible impact on fertility of man taking sibutramine as well as other non-selective serotonin-norepinephrine

  1. Slimmer or fertile? Pharmacological mechanisms involved in reduced sperm quality and fertility in rats exposed to the anorexigen sibutramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Cibele S; Missassi, Gabriela; Pacini, Enio S A; Kiguti, Luiz Ricardo A; Sanabria, Marciana; Silva, Raquel F; Banzato, Thais P; Perobelli, Juliana E; Pupo, André S; Kempinas, Wilma G

    2013-01-01

    Sperm acquire motility and fertility capacity during epididymal transit, under the control of androgens and sympathetic innervations. It is already known that the acceleration of epididymal sperm transit time can lead to lower sperm quality. In a previous work we showed that rats exposed to the anorexigen sibutramine, a non-selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, presented faster sperm transit time, lower epididymal sperm reserves and potentiation of the tension of epididymal duct to norepinephrine exposed acutely in vitro to sibutramine. In the present work we aimed to further investigate pharmacological mechanisms involved in these alterations and the impact on rat sperm quality. For this, adult male Wistar rats were treated with sibutramine (10 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 30 days. Sibutramine decreased final body, seminal vesicle, ventral prostate and epididymal weights, as well as sperm transit time in the epididymal cauda. On the contrary of the in vitro pharmacological assays, in which sibutramine was added directly to the bath containing strips of distal epididymal cauda, the ductal tension was not altered after in vivo sub-chronic exposure to sibutramine. However, there is pharmacological evidence that the endogenous epididymal norepinephrine reserves were reduced in these animals. It was also shown that the decrease in prostate weight can be related to increased tension developed of the gland, due to sibutramine sympathomimetic effects. In addition, our results showed reduced sperm quality after in utero artificial insemination, a more sensitive procedure to assess fertility in rodents. The epididymal norepinephrine depletion exerted by sibutramine, associated with decreases in sperm transit time, quantity and quality, leading to reduced fertility in this experimental model, reinforces the concerns about the possible impact on fertility of man taking sibutramine as well as other non-selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors

  2. Assessment the effect of NO inhibition on hippocampal normetanephrine level in stress and non-stress conditions in adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Molahoveizeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nitric oxide (NO has a role in the regulation of neurotransmitters release such as norepinephrine, in the hippocampus.Normetanephrine (NMN is a metabolite of norepinephrine created by action of catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT on norepinephrine. Several studies have shown that various stresses increased release of norepinephrine and its metabolites. Therefore in the present study, the role of Nitric oxide in regulation of norepinephrine release and its metabolism was investigated by administration of L-NAME (NO synthase inhibitor in stressed and non-stressed rats. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, 50 adult rats were divided into 10 groups, of which 5 groups were exposed to restraint stress while another 5 groups were without stress. These two set of groups included intact, saline and L-NAME (20, 40, 80 mg/kg. Thirty minutes after intraperituneal injection of L-NAME, brains removed, the hippocampus dissected, weighed, homogenized and centrifuged then amount of NMN measured by ELISA kit. Results: The results showed that in non-stressed condition amount of NMN were significantly increased in group that received L-NAME (80 mg/kg in comparison with other groups but in stress condition, amount of NMN was significantly decreased in groups that received L-NAME (20,40,80 mg/kg, in comparison with control and saline groups. Comparison between stress and non-stressed groups showed that stress alone cause an increase in amount of NMN in control and saline groups. Conclusion: In conclusion, NO synthesis inhibition produced opposite responses with respect to NMN amount in the presence or absence of stress, and probably L-NAME preventing the effect of stress on increasing NMN levels mediated by nitrergic pathway.

  3. Comparison of psychological symptoms and serum levels of neurotransmitters in Shanghai adolescents with and without internet addiction disorder: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Xia Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Internet addiction disorder (IAD is now recognized internationally and is known to be linked with academic and social impairment. To date, we know little about its associated main biological factors. This study aimed to collect a carefully defined group of adolescents with IAD and an age- and gender-matched typically developing comparison group. We hypothesized that the young people with IAD would have higher rates of self-reported anxiety and depressive symptoms, have altered levels of peripheral blood dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin. In addition, we hypothesized the hours spent online are correlated with the severity of depression and anxiety among these young people with IAD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: A cross-sectional study of 20 adolescents who met Beard's criteria for IAD and 15 typically developing adolescents (comparison group was conducted. All the participants completed the Self Rating Depression Scale (SDS, Self Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS, and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED. Peripheral blood dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine were assayed. The mean level of norepinephrine was lower in the IAD group than that in the typically developing participants, while dopamine and serotonin levels did not differ. The SDS, SAS and SCARED symptom scores were increased in the adolescents with IAD. A logistic regression analysis revealed that a higher SAS score and lower level of norepinephrine independently predicted IAD group membership. There was no significant correlation between hours spent online and scores of SAS/SDS in IAD group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Increased self-reported anxiety and lower peripheral blood norepinephrine are independently associated with IAD.

  4. Elevated biomarkers of sympatho-adrenomedullary activity linked to e-waste air pollutant exposure in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaowei; Xu, Xijin; Xu, Long; Li, Minghui; Xu, Cheng; Qin, Qilin; Huo, Xia

    2018-06-01

    Air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cardiovascular regulatory changes in childhood contribute to the development and progression of cardiovascular events at older ages. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of air pollutant exposure on the child sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) system, which plays a vital role in regulating and controlling the cardiovascular system. Two plasma biomarkers (plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine) of SAM activity and heart rate were measured in preschool children (n = 228) living in Guiyu, and native (n = 104) and non-native children (n = 91) living in a reference area (Haojiang) for >1 year. Air pollution data, over the 4-months before the health examination, was also collected. Environmental PM 2.5 , PM 10 , SO 2 , NO 2 and CO, plasma norepinephrine and heart rate of the e-waste recycling area were significantly higher than for the non-e-waste recycling area. However, there was no difference in plasma norepinephrine and heart rate between native children living in the non-e-waste recycling area and non-native children living in the non-e-waste recycling area. PM 2.5 , PM 10 , SO 2 and NO 2 data, over the 30-day and the 4-month average of pollution before the health examination, showed a positive association with plasma norepinephrine level. PM 2.5 , PM 10 , SO 2 , NO 2 and CO concentrations, over the 24 h of the day of the health examination, the 3 previous 24-hour periods before the health examination, and the 24 h after the health examination, were related to increase in heart rate. At the same time, plasma norepinephrine and heart rate on children in the high air pollution level group (≤50-m radius of family-run workshops) were higher than those in the low air pollution level group. Our results suggest that air pollution exposure in e-waste recycling areas could result in an increase in heart rate and plasma norepinephrine, implying e-waste air pollutant exposure

  5. Hormonal regulation of AMPA receptor trafficking and memory formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmen J Krugers

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Humans and rodents retain memories for stressful events very well. The facilitated retention of these memories is normally very useful. However, in susceptible individuals a variety of pathological conditions may develop in which memories related to stressful events remain inappropriately present, such as in post-traumatic stress disorder. The memory enhancing effects of stress are mediated by hormones, such as norepinephrine and glucocorticoids which are released during stressful experiences. Here we review recently identified molecular mechanisms that underlie the effects of stress hormones on synaptic efficacy and learning and memory. We discuss AMPA receptors as major target for stress hormones and describe a model in which norepinephrine and glucocorticoids are able to strengthen and prolong different phases of stressful memories.

  6. Vitamin A is a necessary factor for sympathetic-independent rhythmic activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in the rat pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumond, F; Giraudet, F; Becquet, D; Sage, D; Laforge-Anglade, G; Bosler, O; François-Bellan, A M

    2005-02-01

    The circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) controls day-to-day physiology and behavior by sending timing messages to multiple peripheral oscillators. In the pineal gland, a major SCN target, circadian events are believed to be driven exclusively by the rhythmic release of norepinephrine from superior cervical ganglia (SCG) neurons relaying clock messages through a polysynaptic pathway. Here we show in rat an SCN-driven daily rhythm of pineal MAPK activation that is not dependent on the SCG and whose maintenance requires vitamin A as a blood-borne factor. This finding challenges the dogma that SCG-released norepinephrine is an exclusive mediator of SCN-pineal communication and allows the assumption that humoral mechanisms are involved in pineal integration of temporal messages.

  7. Role of hypotension in decreasing cerebral blood flow in porcine endotoxemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.F.; Breslow, M.J.; Shapiro, R.M.; Traystman, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The role of reduced arterial blood pressure (MAP) in decreasing cerebral blood flow (CBF) during endotoxemia was studied in pentobarbital-anesthetized pigs. Microspheres were used to measure regional CBF changes during MAP manipulations in animals with and without endotoxin. Endotoxin decreased MAP to 50 mmHg and decreased blood flow to the cortex and cerebellum without affecting cerebral cortical oxygen consumption (CMRo 2 ). Elevating MAP from 50 to 70 mmHg during endotoxemia with norepinephrine did not change cortical blood flow or CMRo 2 but increased cerebellar blood flow. Brain stem blood flow was not affected by endotoxin or norepinephrine. When MAP was decreased to 50 mmHg by hemorrhage without endotoxin, no change in blood flow to cortex, cerebellum, or brain stem was observed from base-line levels. These results suggest that decreased MAP below a lower limit for cerebral autoregulation does not account for the decreased CBF observed after endotoxin

  8. Plasma catecholamine responses to physiologic stimuli in normal human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, W M; Mujais, S K; Zinaman, M; Bravo, E L; Lindheimer, M D

    1986-01-01

    The dynamic response of the sympathoadrenal system was evaluated during and after pregnancy in 13 healthy women with a protocol that compared cardiovascular parameters and plasma catecholamine levels during the basal state, after postural maneuvers, and following isometric exercise. Plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine levels were similar during and after gestation when the women rested on their sides, but heart rate was greater in pregnancy. Ten minutes of supine recumbency produced minimal changes, but attenuation of the anticipated increases in heart rate and plasma norepinephrine levels during standing and isometric exercise were observed during pregnancy. In contrast, alterations in plasma epinephrine appeared unaffected by gestation. Plasma renin activity and aldosterone levels were, as expected, greater during pregnancy; however, increments in response to upright posture were similar in pregnant and postpartum women. To the extent that circulating catecholamines may be considered indices of sympathoadrenal function, these data suggest that normal pregnancy alters cardiovascular and sympathetic nervous system responses to physiologic stimuli.

  9. Noise in Neural Networks: Thresholds, Hysteresis, and Neuromodulation of Signal-To-Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, James D.; Pichler, Elgar E.; Ross, John

    1989-03-01

    We study a neural-network model including Gaussian noise, higher-order neuronal interactions, and neuromodulation. For a first-order network, there is a threshold in the noise level (phase transition) above which the network displays only disorganized behavior and critical slowing down near the noise threshold. The network can tolerate more noise if it has higher-order feedback interactions, which also lead to hysteresis and multistability in the network dynamics. The signal-to-noise ratio can be adjusted in a biological neural network by neuromodulators such as norepinephrine. Comparisons are made to experimental results and further investigations are suggested to test the effects of hysteresis and neuromodulation in pattern recognition and learning. We propose that norepinephrine may ``quench'' the neural patterns of activity to enhance the ability to learn details.

  10. Antinociceptive effect of intrathecal microencapsulated human pheochromocytoma cell in a rat model of bone cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Li, Guoqi; Wu, Shaoling; Zhang, Baiyu; Wan, Qing; Yu, Ding; Zhou, Ruijun; Ma, Chao

    2014-07-08

    Human pheochromocytoma cells, which are demonstrated to contain and release met-enkephalin and norepinephrine, may be a promising resource for cell therapy in cancer-induced intractable pain. Intrathecal injection of alginate-poly (l) lysine-alginate (APA) microencapsulated human pheochromocytoma cells leads to antinociceptive effect in a rat model of bone cancer pain, and this effect was blocked by opioid antagonist naloxone and alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist rauwolscine. Neurochemical changes of cerebrospinal fluid are in accordance with the analgesic responses. Taken together, these data support that human pheochromocytoma cell implant-induced antinociception was mediated by met-enkephalin and norepinephrine secreted from the cell implants and acting at spinal receptors. Spinal implantation of microencapsulated human pheochromocytoma cells may provide an alternative approach for the therapy of chronic intractable pain.

  11. Antinociceptive Effect of Intrathecal Microencapsulated Human Pheochromocytoma Cell in a Rat Model of Bone Cancer Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human pheochromocytoma cells, which are demonstrated to contain and release met-enkephalin and norepinephrine, may be a promising resource for cell therapy in cancer-induced intractable pain. Intrathecal injection of alginate-poly (l lysine-alginate (APA microencapsulated human pheochromocytoma cells leads to antinociceptive effect in a rat model of bone cancer pain, and this effect was blocked by opioid antagonist naloxone and alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist rauwolscine. Neurochemical changes of cerebrospinal fluid are in accordance with the analgesic responses. Taken together, these data support that human pheochromocytoma cell implant-induced antinociception was mediated by met-enkephalin and norepinephrine secreted from the cell implants and acting at spinal receptors. Spinal implantation of microencapsulated human pheochromocytoma cells may provide an alternative approach for the therapy of chronic intractable pain.

  12. Hormonal contraception use alters stress responses and emotional memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Shawn E; Segal, Sabrina K; Worden, Ian V; Yim, Ilona S; Cahill, Larry

    2013-02-01

    Emotionally arousing material is typically better remembered than neutral material. Since norepinephrine and cortisol interact to modulate emotional memory, sex-related influences on stress responses may be related to sex differences in emotional memory. Two groups of healthy women - one naturally cycling (NC women, n=42) and one using hormonal contraceptives (HC women, n=36) - viewed emotionally arousing and neutral images. Immediately after, they were assigned to Cold Pressor Stress (CPS) or a control procedure. One week later, participants received a surprise free recall test. Saliva samples were collected and later assayed for salivary alpha-amylase (biomarker for norepinephrine) and cortisol. Compared to NC women, HC women exhibited significantly blunted stress hormone responses to the images and CPS. Recall of emotional images differed between HC and NC women depending on noradrenergic and cortisol responses. These findings may have important implications for understanding the neurobiology of emotional memory disorders, especially those that disproportionately affect women. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. A Review of the Receptor-Binding Properties of p-Synephrine as Related to Its Pharmacological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney J. Stohs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine are used widely in weight loss/weight management and sports performance products. Because of structural similarities, the pharmacological effects of p-synephrine are widely assumed to be similar to those of ephedrine, m-synephrine (phenylephrine, and endogenous amine neurotransmitters as norepinephrine and epinephrine. However, small structural changes result in the receptor binding characteristics of these amines that are markedly different, providing a plausible explanation for the paucity of adverse effects associated with the wide-spread consumption of p-synephrine in the form of dietary supplements as well as in various Citrus foods and juices. This paper summarizes the adrenoreceptor binding characteristics of p-synephrine relative to m-synephrine, norepinephrine, and other amines as related to the observed pharmacological effects.

  14. Chemistry and biology of radiotracers that target changes in sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems in heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelman, William C; Dilsizian, Vasken

    2015-06-01

    Following the discovery of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system, numerous adrenoceptor drugs were radiolabeled and potent radioligands were prepared in order to image the β-adrenergic and the muscarinic systems. But the greatest effort has been in preparing noradrenaline analogs, such as norepinephrine, (11)C-metahydroxyephedrine, and (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine that measure cardiac sympathetic nerve varicosities. Given the technical and clinical challenges in designing and validating targeted adrenoceptor-binding radiotracers, namely the heavily weighted flow dependence and relatively low target-to-background ratio, both requiring complicated mathematic analysis, and the inability of targeted adrenoceptor radioligands to have an impact on clinical care of heart disease, the emphasis has been on radioligands monitoring the norepinephrine pathway. The chemistry and biology of such radiotracers, and the clinical and prognostic impact of these innervation imaging studies in patients with heart disease, are examined. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  15. The molecular mechanism for overcoming the rate-limiting step in monoamine neurotransmitter transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinning, Steffen; Said, Saida; Malinauskaite, Lina

    The monoamine transporter family consists of dopamine (DAT), norepinephrine (NET) and serotonin transporters (SERT) that mediate the reuptake of the monoamine neurotransmitters after their release during neurotransmission. These transporters play prominent roles in psychiatric disorders and are t......The monoamine transporter family consists of dopamine (DAT), norepinephrine (NET) and serotonin transporters (SERT) that mediate the reuptake of the monoamine neurotransmitters after their release during neurotransmission. These transporters play prominent roles in psychiatric disorders...... membrane. The rate-limiting step in monoamine reuptake is the return of the empty transporter from an inward-facing to an outward-facing conformation without neurotransmitter and sodium bound. The molecular mechanism underlying this important conformational transition has not been described. Crystal...

  16. Dependency of cerebral blood flow upon mean arterial pressure in patients with acute bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Larsen, Fin Stolze; Qvist, Jesper

    2000-01-01

    Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark. PATIENTS: Sixteen adult patients with acute bacterial meningitis. INTERVENTION: Infusion of norepinephrine to increase MAP. MEASUREMENTS: During a rise in MAP induced by norepinephrine infusion, we measured relative changes in CBF by transcranial Doppler......OBJECTIVE: Patients with acute bacterial meningitis are often treated with sympathomimetics to maintain an adequate mean arterial pressure (MAP). We studied the influence of such therapy on cerebral blood flow (CBF). DESIGN: Prospective physiologic trial. SETTING: The Department of Infectious....... Autoregulation was classified as impaired if Vmean increased by >10% per 30 mm Hg increase in MAP and if no lower limit of autoregulation was identified by the computer program; otherwise, autoregulation was classified as preserved. MAIN RESULTS: Initially, Vmean increased from a median value of 46 cm/sec (range...

  17. Relationship of neurotransmitters to the symptoms of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David J

    2008-01-01

    A relationship appears to exist between the 3 main monoamine neurotransmitters in the brain (i.e., dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin) and specific symptoms of major depressive disorder. Specific symptoms are associated with the increase or decrease of specific neurotransmitters, which suggests that specific symptoms of depression could be assigned to specific neurochemical mechanisms, and subsequently specific antidepressant drugs could target symptom-specific neurotransmitters. Research on electroconvulsive therapy has supported a correlation between neurotransmitters and depression symptoms. A 2-dimensional model of neurotransmitter functions is discussed that describes depression as a mixture of 2 separate components--negative affect and the loss of positive affect--that can be considered in relation to the 3 amine neurotransmitters. Owing to the different methods of action of available antidepressant agents and the depression symptoms thought to be associated with dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, current treatments can be targeted toward patients' specific symptoms.

  18. Effect of chronic exposure to gamma radiation and of hormonal stimulation with serum gonadotropin on catecholamine levels in hypothalamus, epiphysis and adrenals of ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastorova, B.; Arendarcik, J.

    1989-01-01

    The effects were studied of exposure to whole body continuous irradiation and of the administration of serum gonadotropin (SG) on the concentration of catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine) in the hypothalamus, epiphysis and adrenal glands of ewes during the anestric period with synchronized estrus. The first group (young barren ewes) and second group (older ewes) were exposed to continuous radiation of 60 Co for five days. The radiation was applied at a rate of 0.020 Gy per hour. After the termination of irradiation the ewes were subjected to hormonal stimulation by fractionated administration of 1500 I.U. SG. The third and fourth experimental groups of ewes were stimulated with 1500 I.U. SG without irradiation. Catecholamines were separated from the tissue supernatants by adsorption chromatography and the catecholamine contents in the eluates were determined spectrofluorometrically. Chronic exposure to gamma radiation and hormonal stimulation with SG reduced the concentration of norepinephrine in the whole hypothalamus of the sheep. A statistically significant decrease (P<0.001) was recorded in the medial and caudal hypothalamus of the adult ewes and in the rostral and caudal hypothalamus regions of the young ewes. A decrease in norepinephrine concentration, statistically significant in the caudal (P<0.01) and medial hypothalamus was recorded in the group of adult ewes after hormonal stimulation with SG without irradiation. The experimental group of young ewes responded to hormonal stimulation by a greater reduction of norepinephrine contents as compared with combined exposure to radiation and hormonal stimulation. It is assumed that the decrease in catecholamine concentration after hormonal stimulation with SG is associated with the increase in the contents of estrogens which act on the adrenergic receptors of the hypothalamus. (author). 4 figs., 21 refs

  19. A Mobile Device Based Intervention to Reduce the Influence of Smoking Cues Among African American Cigarette Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-04

    Second, I would like to thank the faculty members at USUHS who have gone to great lengths to ensure that I achieved my potential . First, I would like...Oxidase A and B, which are enzymes that break down dopamine and norepinephrine (19). Reduced enzyme activity results in even more dopamine and...results in neuroadaptations such as the upregulation of nAChRs in response to desensitized receptors (15). Nicotine Withdrawal An additional feature

  20. β1-adrenergic receptors activate two distinct signaling pathways in striatal neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitzen, John; Luoma, Jessie I.; Stern, Christopher M.; Mermelstein, Paul G.

    2010-01-01

    Monoamine action in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens plays essential roles in striatal physiology. Although research often focuses on dopamine and its receptors, norepinephrine and adrenergic receptors are also crucial in regulating striatal function. While noradrenergic neurotransmission has been identified in the striatum, little is known regarding the signaling pathways activated by β-adrenergic receptors in this brain region. Using cultured striatal neurons, we characterized a novel signaling pathway by which activation of β1-adrenergic receptors leads to the rapid phosphorylation of cAMP Response Element Binding Protein (CREB), a transcription-factor implicated as a molecular switch underlying long-term changes in brain function. Norepinephrine-mediated CREB phosphorylation requires β1-adrenergic receptor stimulation of a receptor tyrosine kinase, ultimately leading to the activation of a Ras/Raf/MEK/MAPK/MSK signaling pathway. Activation of β1-adrenergic receptors also induces CRE-dependent transcription and increased c-fos expression. In addition, stimulation of β1-adrenergic receptors produces cAMP production, but surprisingly, β1-adrenergic receptor activation of adenylyl cyclase was not functionally linked to rapid CREB phosphorylation. These findings demonstrate that activation of β1-adrenergic receptors on striatal neurons can stimulate two distinct signaling pathways. These adrenergic actions can produce long-term changes in gene expression, as well as rapidly modulate cellular physiology. By elucidating the mechanisms by which norepinephrine and β1-adrenergic receptor activation affects striatal physiology, we provide the means to more fully understand the role of monoamines in modulating striatal function, specifically how norepinephrine and β1-adrenergic receptors may affect striatal physiology. PMID:21143600

  1. Methylphenidate enhances extinction of contextual fear

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Antony D.; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Lattal, K. Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin) is a norepinephrine and dopamine transporter blocker that is widely used in humans for treatment of attention deficit disorder and narcolepsy. Although there is some evidence that targeted microinjections of MPH may enhance fear acquisition, little is known about the effect of MPH on fear extinction. Here, we show that MPH, administered before or immediately following extinction of contextual fear, will enhance extinction retention in C57BL/6 mice. Animals that ...

  2. Reduction of the Nitro Group to Amine by Hydroiodic Acid to Synthesize o-Aminophenol Derivatives as Putative Degradative Markers of Neuromelanin

    OpenAIRE

    Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Tanaka, Hitomi; Tabuchi, Keisuke; Ojika, Makoto; Zucca, Fabio; Zecca, Luigi; Ito, Shosuke

    2014-01-01

    Neuromelanin (NM) is produced in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) and in noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus (LC). The synthesis of NM in those neurons is a component of brain aging and there is the evidence that this pigment can be involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease. NM is believed to derive from the oxidative polymerization of dopamine (DA) or norepinephrine (NE) with the participation of cysteine, dolichols and ...

  3. Noradrenergic Activation of the Basolateral Amygdala Enhances Object Recognition Memory and Induces Chromatin Remodeling in the Insular Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassiba eBeldjoud

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that arousal-induced memory enhancement requires noradrenergic activation of the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA and modulatory influences on information storage processes in its many target regions. While this concept is well accepted, the molecular basis of such BLA effects on neural plasticity changes within other brain regions remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated whether noradrenergic activation of the BLA after object recognition training induces chromatin remodeling through histone post-translational modifications in the insular cortex (IC, a brain region that is importantly involved in object recognition memory. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were trained on an object recognition task, followed immediately by bilateral microinfusions of norepinephrine (1.0 µg or saline administered into the BLA. Saline-treated control rats exhibited poor 24-h retention, whereas norepinephrine treatment induced robust 24-h object recognition memory. Most importantly, this memory-enhancing dose of norepinephrine induced a global reduction in the acetylation levels of histone H3 at lysine 14, H2B and H4 in the IC 1 h later, whereas it had no effect on the phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10 or tri-methylation of histone H3 at lysine 27. Norepinephrine administered into the BLA of non-trained control rats did not induce any changes in the histone marks investigated in this study. These findings indicate that noradrenergic activation of the BLA induces training-specific effects on chromatin remodeling mechanisms, and presumably gene transcription, in its target regions, which may contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of stress and emotional arousal effects on memory consolidation.

  4. Pupil Diameter Tracks the Exploration-Exploitation Trade-off during Analogical Reasoning and Explains Individual Differences in Fluid Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Taylor R; Petrov, Alexander A

    2016-02-01

    The ability to adaptively shift between exploration and exploitation control states is critical for optimizing behavioral performance. Converging evidence from primate electrophysiology and computational neural modeling has suggested that this ability may be mediated by the broad norepinephrine projections emanating from the locus coeruleus (LC) [Aston-Jones, G., & Cohen, J. D. An integrative theory of locus coeruleus-norepinephrine function: Adaptive gain and optimal performance. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 28, 403-450, 2005]. There is also evidence that pupil diameter covaries systematically with LC activity. Although imperfect and indirect, this link makes pupillometry a useful tool for studying the locus coeruleus norepinephrine system in humans and in high-level tasks. Here, we present a novel paradigm that examines how the pupillary response during exploration and exploitation covaries with individual differences in fluid intelligence during analogical reasoning on Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices. Pupillometry was used as a noninvasive proxy for LC activity, and concurrent think-aloud verbal protocols were used to identify exploratory and exploitative solution periods. This novel combination of pupillometry and verbal protocols from 40 participants revealed a decrease in pupil diameter during exploitation and an increase during exploration. The temporal dynamics of the pupillary response was characterized by a steep increase during the transition to exploratory periods, sustained dilation for many seconds afterward, and followed by gradual return to baseline. Moreover, the individual differences in the relative magnitude of pupillary dilation accounted for 16% of the variance in Advanced Progressive Matrices scores. Assuming that pupil diameter is a valid index of LC activity, these results establish promising preliminary connections between the literature on locus coeruleus norepinephrine-mediated cognitive control and the literature on analogical

  5. Pharmacologic study of calcium influx pathways in rabbit aortic smooth muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukeman, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    Functional characteristics and pharmacologic domains of receptor-operated and potential-sensitive calcium (Ca 2+ ) channels (ROCs and PSCs, respectively) were derived via measurements of 45 Ca 2+ influx (M/sup Ca/) during activation by the neurotransmitters norepinephrine (NE), histamine (HS), and serotonin (5-HT) and by elevated extracellular potassium (K + ) in the individual or combined presence of organic Ca 2+ channel antagonists (CAts), calmodulin antagonists (Calm-ants), lanthanum (La 3+ ), and agents that increase intracellular levels of cyclic AMP

  6. Self-Limited Kleptomania Symptoms as a Side Effect of Duloxetine

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Christopher W. T.; Gallagher, Keith E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Impulse control disorders (ICDs) have been described as a side effect of dopamine agonists, frequently used in neurodegenerative conditions affecting the nigrostriatal pathway. Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (e.g., duloxetine) have dose-dependent differential affinity for monoaminergic transporters, inhibiting the dopamine transporter at higher doses, thus increasing availability of synaptic dopamine, with the potential for similar impulse control side effects. Cas...

  7. Behavioural and Neuroendocrine Effects of Stress in Salmonid Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Øverli, Øyvind

    2001-01-01

    Stress can affect several behavioural patterns, such as food intake and the general activity level of an animal. The central monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine are important in the mediation of both behavioural and neuroendocrine stress effects. This thesis describes studies of two salmonid fish model systems: Fish that become socially dominant or subordinate when reared in pairs, and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) genetically selected for high (HR) and l...

  8. Metabolism, Seizures, and Blood Flow in Brain Following Organophosphate Exposure: Mechanisms of Action and Possible Therapeutic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-31

    and energy metabolism changes in acute ammonia Intoxication in the lower primate Tupaia glus. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 106: 183-186. 63. G~foe, D. D. (1982...Relaxation to transmural nerve stimulation and exogenously added norepinephrine in porcine cerebral vessels. A study utilizing cerebro - vascular intrinsic... primates against soman poisoning by pretreatment with pyridostigmine. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 31:295-299. 174. Harris, L. W., Heyl, W. C., Stitcher, D. L., and

  9. Dissociation between neural and vascular responses to sympathetic stimulation : contribution of local adrenergic receptor function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, G.; Costa, F.; Shannon, J.; Robertson, D.; Biaggioni, I.

    2000-01-01

    Sympathetic activation produced by various stimuli, eg, mental stress or handgrip, evokes regional vascular responses that are often nonhomogeneous. This phenomenon is believed to be the consequence of the recruitment of differential central neural pathways or of a sympathetically mediated vasodilation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a similar heterogeneous response occurs with cold pressor stimulation and to test the hypothesis that local differences in adrenergic receptor function could be in part responsible for this diversity. In 8 healthy subjects, local norepinephrine spillover and blood flow were measured in arms and legs at baseline and during sympathetic stimulation induced by baroreflex mechanisms (nitroprusside infusion) or cold pressor stimulation. At baseline, legs had higher vascular resistance (27+/-5 versus 17+/-2 U, P=0.05) despite lower norepinephrine spillover (0.28+/-0.04 versus 0.4+/-0.05 mg. min(-1). dL(-1), P=0.03). Norepinephrine spillover increased similarly in both arms and legs during nitroprusside infusion and cold pressor stimulation. On the other hand, during cold stimulation, vascular resistance increased in arms but not in legs (20+/-9% versus -7+/-4%, P=0.03). Increasing doses of isoproterenol and phenylephrine were infused intra-arterially in arms and legs to estimate beta-mediated vasodilation and alpha-induced vasoconstriction, respectively. beta-Mediated vasodilation was significantly lower in legs compared with arms. Thus, we report a dissociation between norepinephrine spillover and vascular responses to cold stress in lower limbs characterized by a paradoxical decrease in local resistance despite increases in sympathetic activity. The differences observed in adrenergic receptor responses cannot explain this phenomenon.

  10. Monoamines stimulate sex reversal in the saddleback wrasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Earl T; Norris, David O; Gordon Grau, E; Summers, Cliff H

    2003-02-15

    Monoamine neurotransmitters (norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin) play an important role in reproduction and sexual behavior throughout the vertebrates. They are the first endogenous chemical signals in the regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. In teleosts with behavioral sex determination, much is known about behavioral cues that induce sex reversal. The cues are social, processed via the visual system and depend on the ratio of females to males in the population. The mechanisms by which these external behavioral cues are converted to an internal chemical regulatory process are largely unknown. The protogynous Hawaiian saddleback wrasse, Thalassoma duperrey, was used to investigate the biological pathway mediating the conversion of a social cue into neuroendocrine events regulating sex reversal. Because monoamines play an important role in the regulation of the HPG axis, they were selected as likely candidates for such a conversion. To determine if monoamines could affect sex reversal, drugs affecting monoamines were used in an attempt to either induce sex reversal under non-permissive conditions, or prevent sex reversal under permissive conditions. Increasing norepinephrine or blocking dopamine or serotonin lead to sex reversal in experimental animals under non-permissive conditions. Increasing serotonin blocked sex reversal under permissive conditions, while blocking dopamine or norepinephrine retarded the process. The results presented here demonstrate that monoamines contribute significantly to the control sex reversal. Norepinephrine stimulates initiation and completion of gonadal sex of reversal as well as color change perhaps directly via its effects on the HPG axis. Dopamine exercises inhibitory action on the initiation of sex reversal while 5-HT inhibits both initiation and completion of sex reversal. The serotonergic system appears to be an integral part of the pathway mediating the conversion of a social cue into a

  11. Acute effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and methylphenidate on circulating steroid levels in healthy subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Seibert Julia; Hysek Cédric M; Penno Carlos A; Schmid Yasmin; Kratschmar Denise V; Liechti Matthias E; Odermatt Alex

    2014-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') and methylphenidate are widely used psychoactive substances. MDMA primarily enhances serotonergic neurotransmission, and methylphenidate increases dopamine but has no serotonergic effects. Both drugs also increase norepinephrine, resulting in sympathomimetic properties. Here we studied the effects of MDMA and methylphenidate on 24-h plasma steroid profiles. Sixteen healthy subjects (eight men, eight women) were treated with single doses of M...

  12. Amine Neurotransmitter Regulation of Long-Term Snyaptic Plasticity in Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-14

    conductance, or the membrane properties of the postsynaptic neuron. During the first and second years oi4AIpga, we explored the neuromodulation of LTP by...ladrenoceptors and cyclic AMP, increased the activity of single calcium chaj el. During the third year -of 4IW gisirt, we explored the neuromodulation ...the postsynaptic neuron. During the first and second years of the grant, we explored the neuromodulation of LTP by norepinephrine (NE). We found that NE

  13. Positron emission tomography offers new perspectives for evidence-based treatment development in PTSD

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Neumeister; Sean Sobin

    2012-01-01

    Background : Combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is increasingly recognized as a primary challenge to the fitness of American military personnel and represents a significant military and national public health concern (Hoge et al. 2004; Thomas et al. 2010). A few available drugs (e.g., selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors) provide some benefit in the management of PTSD symptoms and have been approved by the Food and Dr...

  14. Understanding the Neurobiology of Fear Conditioning and Emergence of PTSD Psychobiology: Commentary on Blanchard et al

    OpenAIRE

    Boscarino, Joseph A.; Figley, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we discuss the historical evolution of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following the Vietnam War with a focus on a article by Blanchard et al. published in the Journal in 1991, entitled: “Changes in plasma norepinephrine to combat-related stimuli among Vietnam veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder” (Blanchard et al., 1991). In this commentary, we discuss the significance of this brief article and developments in the PTSD field before, during, and after the Blanchard...

  15. Oxytocin and social functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Candace; Barrera, Ingrid; Brothers, Shaun; Ring, Robert; Wahlestedt, Claes

    2017-01-01

    Social anxiety is a form of anxiety characterized by continuous fear of one or more social or performance situations. Although multiple treatment modalities (cognitive behavioral therapy, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors/selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines) exist for social anxiety, they are effective for only 60% to 70% of patients. Thus, researchers have looked for other candidates for social anxiety treatment. Our review focuses on the peptide oxytocin as a...

  16. Hormonal contraception use alters stress responses and emotional memory

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Shawn E.; Segal, Sabrina K.; Worden, Ian V.; Yim, Ilona S.; Cahill, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Emotionally arousing material is typically better remembered than neutral material. Since norepinephrine and cortisol interact to modulate emotional memory, sex-related influences on stress responses may be related to sex differences in emotional memory. Two groups of healthy women – one naturally cycling (NC women, N = 42) and one using hormonal contraceptives (HC women, N = 36) – viewed emotionally arousing and neutral images. Immediately after, they were assigned to Cold Pressor Stress (CP...

  17. Increased Frequency of Encopresis in a Child Diagnosed With Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Encopresis After Atomoxetine Use: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yektaş, Çiğdem; Cansiz, Mehmet Akif; Tufan, Ali Evren

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most frequently reported coexisting psychiatric conditions in children with encopresis. Some case reports state that atomoxetine-a selective presynaptic norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor-approved for treatment of ADHD is also effective in the treatment of coexisting encopresis. Contrasting those reports, here we present a case diagnosed with ADHD and secondary encopresis without constipation whose encopretic symptoms increased after atomoxetine treatment and discuss possible mechanisms.

  18. Basolateral amygdala and stress-induced hyperexcitability affect motivated behaviors and addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Sharp, B M

    2017-01-01

    The amygdala integrates and processes incoming information pertinent to reward and to emotions such as fear and anxiety that promote survival by warning of potential danger. Basolateral amygdala (BLA) communicates bi-directionally with brain regions affecting cognition, motivation and stress responses including prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens and hindbrain regions that trigger norepinephrine-mediated stress responses. Disruption of intrinsic amygdala and BLA regulatory neuro...

  19. Biochemical changes in tissue catecholamines and serotonin in duodenal ulceration caused by cysteamine or propionitrile in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, S.; Horner, H.C.; Maull, H.; Schnoor, J.; Chiueh, C.C.; Palkovits, M.

    1987-01-01

    Previous structure-activity and pharmacologic studies with duodenal ulcerogens cysteamine and propionitrile implicating catecholamines in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulceration have now been followed up by dose- and time-response biochemical investigations to assess the importance of monoamines in the development of duodenal ulcers. The concentrations of norepinephrine (noradrenaline), dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites were measured in total brain, brain regions, stomach, duodenum, pancreas and adrenals in the rat. Turnover of catecholamines was determined in rats pretreated with the inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine. The duodenal ulcerogens caused a dose- and time-dependent depletion of norepinephrine in virtually all the tissues examined. The effect was maximal 4 or 7 hr after cysteamine or propionitrile, and norepinephrine levels returned to normal in 24 hr. Dopamine changes were selective and often biphasic, e.g., elevation in adrenals, biphasic in brain cortex, hippocampus and midbrain, but uniformly decreasing in glandular stomach and duodenum. In the median eminence dopamine levels decreased by 181 and 324% at 15 and 30 min, respectively, after cysteamine, but neither dopamine nor 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid was modified in the periventricular nucleus. Serotonin levels were relatively stable, revealing slight elevations or no changes in most of the tissues. The turnover of norepinephrine was accelerated by both chemicals in virtually all brain regions, but dopamine turnover was affected only in a few areas, e.g., in the corpus striatum and medulla oblongata cysteamine decreased dopamine turnover, whereas propionitrile first (at 1 hr) accelerated then (at 8 hr) significantly suppressed it.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Food seeking in spite of harmful consequences is under prefrontal cortical noradrenergic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrono Enrico

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eating disorders are multifactorial psychiatric disorders. Chronic stressful experiences and caloric restriction are the most powerful triggers of eating disorders in human and animals. Although compulsive behavior is considered to characterize pathological excessive food intake, to our knowledge, no evidence has been reported of continued food seeking/intake despite its possible harmful consequences, an index of compulsive behavior. Brain monoamine transmission is considered to have a key role in vulnerability to eating disorders, and norepinephrine in medial prefrontal cortex has been shown to be critical for food-related motivated behavior. Here, using a new paradigm of conditioned suppression, we investigated whether the ability of a foot-shock-paired conditioned stimulus to suppress chocolate-seeking behavior was reversed by previous exposure to a food restriction experience, thus modeling food seeking in spite of harmful consequences in mice. Moreover, we assessed the effects of selective norepinephrine inactivation in medial prefrontal cortex on conditioned suppression test in stressed and caloric restricted mice. Results While Control (non food deprived animals showed a profound conditioned suppression of chocolate seeking during presentation of conditioned stimulus, previously food restricted animals showed food seeking/intake despite its possible harmful consequences. Moreover, food seeking in spite of harmful consequences was prevented by selective norepinephrine inactivation, thus showing that prefrontal cortical norepinephrine is critical also for maladaptive food-related behavior. Conclusions These findings indicate that adaptive food seeking/intake can be transformed into maladaptive behaviors and point to "top-down" influence on eating disturbances and to new targets for therapy of aberrant eating behaviors.

  1. Integrative Blood Pressure Response to Upright Tilt Post Renal Denervation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, Erin J.; East, Cara; Lawley, Justin S.; Stickford, Abigail S.L.; Verhees, Myrthe; Fu, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND Whether renal denervation (RDN) in patients with resistant hypertension normalizes blood pressure (BP) regulation in response to routine cardiovascular stimuli such as upright posture is unknown. We conducted an integrative study of BP regulation in patients with resistant hypertension who had received RDN to characterize autonomic circulatory control. METHODS Twelve patients (60 ± 9 [SD] years, n = 10 males) who participated in the Symplicity HTN-3 trial were studied and compared to 2 age-matched normotensive (Norm) and hypertensive (unmedicated, HTN) control groups. BP, heart rate (HR), cardiac output (Qc), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and neurohormonal variables were measured supine, and 30° (5 minutes) and 60° (20 minutes) head-up-tilt (HUT). Total peripheral resistance (TPR) was calculated from mean arterial pressure and Qc. RESULTS Despite treatment with RDN and 4.8 (range, 3–7) antihypertensive medications, the RDN had significantly higher supine systolic BP compared to Norm and HTN (149 ± 15 vs. 118 ± 6, 108 ± 8 mm Hg, P < 0.001). When supine, RDN had higher HR, TPR, MSNA, plasma norepinephrine, and effective arterial elastance compared to Norm. Plasma norepinephrine, Qc, and HR were also higher in the RDN vs. HTN. During HUT, BP remained higher in the RDN, due to increases in Qc, plasma norepinephrine, and aldosterone. CONCLUSION We provide evidence of a possible mechanism by which BP remains elevated post RDN, with the observation of increased Qc and arterial stiffness, as well as plasma norepinephrine and aldosterone levels at approximately 2 years post treatment. These findings may be the consequence of incomplete ablation of sympathetic renal nerves or be related to other factors. PMID:28338768

  2. Triple Reuptake Inhibitors: The Next Generation of Antidepressants

    OpenAIRE

    Marks, David M; Pae, Chi-Un; Patkar, Ashwin A

    2008-01-01

    Depression has been associated with impaired neurotransmission of serotonergic, norepinephrinergic, and dopaminergic pathways, although most pharmacologic treatment strategies for depression enhance only serotonin and norepinephrine neurotransmission. Current drug development efforts are aimed at a new class of antidepressants which inhibit the reuptake of all three neurotransmitters in the hope of creating medications with broader efficacy and/or quicker onset of action. The current review e...

  3. Triple Reuptake Inhibitors: A Premise and Promise

    OpenAIRE

    Marks, David M.; Pae, Chi-Un; Patkar, Ashwin A.

    2008-01-01

    On the horizon there is a new class of psychoactive medications which work by inhibiting the neuronal reuptake of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. There are multiple potential indications for these drugs. Research suggests that they may have a role in treating depressive disorders, and it is plausible they may have potential efficacy in obesity, addiction, and pain syndromes. The current review describes some of the molecules in development presently and explores the research relevant...

  4. Duloxetine in the treatment of chronic pain due to fibromyalgia and diabetic neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Alan; Luedtke, Kyle E; VanDenBerg, Chad

    2010-01-01

    Alan Wright, Kyle E Luedtke, Chad VanDenBergCenter for Clinical Research, Mercer University, Atlanta, Georgia, USAAbstract: Duloxetine is a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of fibromyalgia and painful diabetic neuropathy at doses of 60 mg daily. Duloxetine has been shown to significantly improve the symptoms of chronic pain associated with these disorders, as measured by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Brief P...

  5. Acute Social Stress Engages Synergistic Activity of Stress Mediators in the VTA to Promote Pavlovian Reward Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Kan, Russell; Pomrenze, Matthew; Tovar-Diaz, Jorge; Morikawa, Hitoshi; Drew, Michael; Pahlavan, Bahram

    2017-01-01

    Stressful events rapidly trigger activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in certain brain areas, driving the formation of aversive memories. However, it remains unclear how stressful experience affects plasticity mechanisms to regulate learning of appetitive events, such as intake of addictive drugs or palatable foods. Using rats, we show that two acute stress mediators, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and norepinephrine (NE), enhance plasticity of NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic tra...

  6. Hyperpyrexia and Head Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-09

    thermoregula- tion, prostaglandins , norepinephrine, serotonin, carbamyl- choline, hypothalamus , preoptic area 2O ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse aide it...dependent fashion. In fact, a dose of 15 mg/kg given 1 hour before lesioning virtually abolished the effect (88% reduction in the 6-hour Fever Index). It... fevers are due to the action of prostaglandins on neuronal elements within the AH/Po region. At the time this contract began (1975), ’it was well

  7. Differential regulation of catecholamine synthesis and transport in rat adrenal medulla by fluoxetine treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATASA SPASOJEVIC

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We have recently shown that chronic fluoxetine treatment acted significantly increasing plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations both in control and chronically stressed adult male rats. However, possible effects of fluoxetine on catecholamine synthesis and re-uptake in adrenal medulla have been largely unknown. In the present study the effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on tyrosine hydroxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis, as well as a norepinephrine transporter and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 gene expressions in adrenal medulla of animals exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS for 4 weeks, were investigated. Gene expression analyses were performed using a real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Chronically stressed animals had increased tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels and decreased expression of both transporters. Fluoxetine increased tyrosine hydroxylase and decreased norepinephrine transporter gene expression in both unstressed and CUMS rats. These findings suggest that chronic fluoxetine treatment increased plasma catecholamine levels by affecting opposing changes in catecholamine synthesis and uptake.

  8. Vasoactive drugs and the gut: is there anything new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Cheryl A; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2006-04-01

    Systemic changes in blood pressure and cardiac output induced by pressors and inotropes do not always correlate to improvements in regional perfusion. Since the gut is often referred to as the 'motor' of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome, the impact of vasoactive agents on splanchnic perfusion has theoretical importance. This review will highlight recent studies examining secondary effects of vasoactive agents on intestinal perfusion, metabolism, and barrier function. Norepinephrine has minimal impact on mesenteric blood flow although the combination of norepinephrine and dobutamine increases splanchnic blood flow in sepsis. Dopamine also increases mesenteric blood flow although this may be associated with negative hepatic energy balance at high does. Vasopressin and epinephrine both have negative effects on splanchnic blood flow. Newer inodilators levosimendan and olprinone preferentially improve mesenteric perfusion in animal models. Secondary effects of norepinephrine and dopamine on splanchnic perfusion are minor compared with their systemic effects. While vasopressin usage is increasing in the intensive care unit, caution should be used because of its adverse effects on gut perfusion. Experimental agents for the treatment of heart failure have beneficial gut-specific effects although the clinical significance of this is currently limited by their availability.

  9. Endocannabinoid signaling within the basolateral amygdala integrates multiple stress hormone effects on memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsak, Piray; Hauer, Daniela; Campolongo, Patrizia; Schelling, Gustav; Fornari, Raquel V; Roozendaal, Benno

    2015-05-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones are known to act synergistically with other stress-activated neuromodulatory systems, such as norepinephrine and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), within the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) to induce optimal strengthening of the consolidation of long-term memory of emotionally arousing experiences. However, as the onset of these glucocorticoid actions appear often too rapid to be explained by genomic regulation, the neurobiological mechanism of how glucocorticoids could modify the memory-enhancing properties of norepinephrine and CRF remained elusive. Here, we show that the endocannabinoid system, a rapidly activated retrograde messenger system, is a primary route mediating the actions of glucocorticoids, via a glucocorticoid receptor on the cell surface, on BLA neural plasticity and memory consolidation. Furthermore, glucocorticoids recruit downstream endocannabinoid activity within the BLA to interact with both the norepinephrine and CRF systems in enhancing memory consolidation. These findings have important implications for understanding the fine-tuned crosstalk between multiple stress hormone systems in the coordination of (mal)adaptive stress and emotional arousal effects on neural plasticity and memory consolidation.

  10. Altered activity of the sympathetic nervous system and changes in the balance of hypophyseal, pituitary and adrenal hormones in patients with cluster headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strittmatter, M; Hamann, G F; Grauer, M; Fischer, C; Blaes, F; Hoffmann, K H; Schimrigk, K

    1996-05-17

    Twelve patients (age 43.4 +/- 6.3 years) with episodic cluster headache (CH) were examined during the cluster period. Plasma norepinephrine levels in patients suffering from CH were significantly decreased compared with the control group (p < 0.01). There were also statistically significant correlations between norepinephrine levels and clinical features of the pain attacks including duration (r = 0.75, p < 0.05), intensity (r = 0.64, p < 0.05) and frequency (r = 0.68, p < 0.06), thereby suggesting a pathophysiological involvement of the sympathetic nervous system in CH. Increased plasma levels of plasmacortisol and ACTH in patients with CH, especially in the morning and in the evening, suggest an alteration of the feedback circuit involving the hypothalamus, the pituitary and the adrenal gland, an imbalance in the hormones related to these structures, as well as an alteration of the circadian rhythm. In addition, CH patients demonstrated significantly decreased levels of norepinephrine (p < 0.05), HVA (p < 0.01) and 5-HIAA (p < 0.01) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) consistent with a central genesis of CH. These significant relationships between neurochemical parameters and the clinical patterns suggest a complex interplay between the hypothalamus, neuroendocrinological parameters, activity of the autonomic nervous system and the pain of CH.

  11. Effects of milnacipran on binge eating – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun’ichi Noma

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Shun’ichi Noma1, Teruhisa Uwatoko1, Haruka Yamamoto2, Takuji Hayashi11Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Toyooka Hospital, Hyogo, JapanAbstract: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are effective in the treatment of bulimia nervosa. There have been relatively few studies of the efficacy of specific serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors in the treatment of eating disorders. Twenty-five outpatients with binge eating episodes, diagnosed as anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type, bulimia nervosa/purging type, or bulimia nervosa/non-purging type, were treated with milnacipran and 20 patients completed the 8-week study. Symptom severity was evaluated using the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE self-rating scale before administration of milnacipran and after 1, 4, and 8 weeks treatment. The scores improved after 8 weeks, especially drive to, and regret for, binge eating. Milnacipran was more effective in patients without purging and in younger patients, while there was no difference in the efficacy of milnacipran among subtypes of eating disorders.Keywords: milnacipran, specific serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, binge eating, vomiting, eating disorder, pharmacotherapy

  12. Induction of gram-negative bacterial growth by neurochemical containing banana (Musa x paradisiaca) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyte, M

    1997-09-15

    Bananas contain large quantities of neurochemicals. Extracts from the peel and pulp of bananas in increasing stages of ripening were prepared and evaluated for their ability to modulate the growth of non-pathogenic and pathogenic bacteria. Extracts from the peel, and to a much lesser degree the pulp, increased the growth of Gram-negative bacterial strains Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella flexneri, Enterobacter cloacae and Salmonella typhimurium, as well as two non-pathogenic E. coli strains, in direct relation to the content of norepinephrine and dopamine, but not serotonin. The growth of Gram-positive bacteria was not altered by any of the extracts. Supplementation of vehicle and pulp cultures with norepinephrine or dopamine yielded growth equivalent to peel cultures. Total organic analysis of extracts further demonstrated that the differential effects of peel and pulp on bacterial growth was not nutritionally based, but due to norepinephrine and dopamine. These results suggest that neurochemicals contained within foodstuffs may influence the growth of pathogenic and indigenous bacteria through direct neurochemical-bacterial interactions.

  13. Laser Correction of Delayed Posthypoxic Encephalopathies (Experimental Study

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    V. V. Moroz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study whether posthypoxic brain dysfunctions may be corrected by low-intensity laser irradiation an hour after hypovolemic hypotension at late postresuscitation stages (following 30 days. Material and methods. Experiments were carried out on high-anxious male albino rats weighing 280—300 g. The study model was one-hour hypovolemic hypotension (blood pressure 40 mm Hg, followed by blood reinfusion. The integrative brain function was evaluated from the indices of the rat orientative-trying behavior in the elevated cross labyrinth test. The depressive component of the rats’ behavior was examined in the forced swimming test. Plasma norepinephrine levels were measured. Laser irradiation was performed 30 days after blood reinfusion. Results. Laser irradiation used at late postresuscitation stages leads to the normalization of plasma norepinephrine levels, the reduction of anxiety in the rats, and their improved orientative-trying behavior. Conclusion. The positive impact of laser irradiation on the rat orientative-trying behavior is associated with its anxiolytic effect, in which the recovery of autonomic homeostasis plays a considerable role. Key words: blood loss, postresuscitative period, behavior, laser, posthypoxic encephalopathy, norepinephrine.

  14. Interacting Brain Systems Modulate Memory Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Christa K.; McGaugh, James L.; Williams, Cedric L.

    2011-01-01

    Emotional arousal influences the consolidation of long-term memory. This review discusses experimental approaches and relevant findings that provide the foundation for current understanding of coordinated interactions between arousal activated peripheral hormones and the brain processes that modulate memory formation. Rewarding or aversive experiences release the stress hormones epinephrine (adrenalin) and glucocorticoids from the adrenal glands into the bloodstream. The effect of these hormones on memory consolidation depends upon binding of norepinephrine to beta-adrenergic receptors in the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA). Much evidence indicates that the stress hormones influence release of norepinephrine in the BLA through peripheral actions on the vagus nerve which stimulates, through polysynaptic connections, cells of the locus coeruleus to release norepinephrine. The BLA influences memory storage by actions on synapses, distributed throughout the brain, that are engaged in sensory and cognitive processing at the time of amygdala activation. The implications of the activation of these stress-activated memory processes are discussed in relation to stress-related memory disorders. PMID:22085800

  15. The pharmacology of amphetamine and methylphenidate: Relevance to the neurobiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and other psychiatric comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Stephen V

    2018-04-01

    Psychostimulants, including amphetamines and methylphenidate, are first-line pharmacotherapies for individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This review aims to educate physicians regarding differences in pharmacology and mechanisms of action between amphetamine and methylphenidate, thus enhancing physician understanding of psychostimulants and their use in managing individuals with ADHD who may have comorbid psychiatric conditions. A systematic literature review of PubMed was conducted in April 2017, focusing on cellular- and brain system-level effects of amphetamine and methylphenidate. The primary pharmacologic effect of both amphetamine and methylphenidate is to increase central dopamine and norepinephrine activity, which impacts executive and attentional function. Amphetamine actions include dopamine and norepinephrine transporter inhibition, vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT-2) inhibition, and monoamine oxidase activity inhibition. Methylphenidate actions include dopamine and norepinephrine transporter inhibition, agonist activity at the serotonin type 1A receptor, and redistribution of the VMAT-2. There is also evidence for interactions with glutamate and opioid systems. Clinical implications of these actions in individuals with ADHD with comorbid depression, anxiety, substance use disorder, and sleep disturbances are discussed. Copyright © 2018 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Responses of sympathetic nervous system to cold exposure in vibration syndrome subjects and age-matched healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, M

    1990-01-01

    Plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine in vibration syndrome subjects and age-matched healthy controls were measured for the purpose of estimating the responsibility of the sympathetic nervous system to cold exposure. In preliminary experiment, it was confirmed that cold air exposure of the whole body was more suitable than one-hand immersion in cold water. In the main experiment, 195 subjects were examined. Sixty-five subjects had vibration syndrome with vibration-induced white finger (VWF + group) and 65 subjects had vibration syndrome without VWF (VWF- group) and 65 controls had no symptoms (control group). In the three groups, plasma norepinephrine levels increased during cold air exposure of whole body at 7 degrees +/- 1.5 degrees C. Blood pressure increased and skin temperature decreased during cold exposure. Percent increase of norepinephrine in the VWF+ group was the highest while that in VWF- group followed and that in the control group was the lowest. This whole-body response of the sympathetic nervous system to cold conditions reflected the VWF which are characteristic symptoms of vibration syndrome. Excluding the effects of shivering and a cold feeling under cold conditions, it was confirmed that the sympathetic nervous system in vibration syndrome is activated more than in the controls. These results suggest that vibration exposure to hand and arm affects the sympathetic nervous system.

  17. [Effects of psychological stress on performances in open-field test of rats and tyrosine's modulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Qiang; Cheng, Yi-Yong; Li, Shu-Tian; Hong, Yan; Wang, Dong-Lan; Hou, Yue

    2009-02-01

    To explore the effects of different doses of tyrosine modulation on behavioral performances in open field test of psychological stress rats. The animal model of psychological stress was developed by restraint stress for 21 days. Wistar rats were randomly assigned to five groups (n = 10) as follows: control group (CT), stress control group (SCT), low, medium and high-doses of tyrosine modulation stress groups (SLT, SMT and SIT). The changes of behavioral performances were examined by open-field test. Serum levels of cortisol, norepinephrine and dopamine were also detected. The levels of serum cortisol were all increased obviously in the four stress groups, and their bodyweight gainings were diminished. The behavioral performances of SCT rats in open-field test were changed significantly in contrast to that of CT rats. However, The behavioral performances of SMT and SHT rats were not different from that of CT rats. In addition, the serum levels of norepinephrine and dopamine were downregulated obviously in SCT and SLT groups, and no differences were observed in other groups. Psychological stress can impair body behavioral performances, and moderate tyrosine modulation may improve these abnormal changes. The related mechanisms may be involved with the changes of norepinephrine and dopamine.

  18. Noradrenergic Modulation of Cognition in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Borodovitsyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Norepinephrine released by the locus coeruleus modulates cellular processes and synaptic transmission in the central nervous system through its actions at a number of pre- and postsynaptic receptors. This transmitter system facilitates sensory signal detection and promotes waking and arousal, processes which are necessary for navigating a complex and dynamic sensory environment. In addition to its effects on sensory processing and waking behavior, norepinephrine is now recognized as a contributor to various aspects of cognition, including attention, behavioral flexibility, working memory, and long-term mnemonic processes. Two areas of dense noradrenergic innervation, the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus, are particularly important with regard to these functions. Due to its role in mediating normal cognitive function, it is reasonable to expect that noradrenergic transmission becomes dysfunctional in a number of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases characterized by cognitive deficits. In this review, we summarize the unique role that norepinephrine plays in prefrontal cortical and hippocampal function and how its interaction with its various receptors contributes to cognitive behaviors. We further assess the changes that occur in the noradrenergic system in Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia and how these changes contribute to cognitive decline in these pathologies.

  19. Epinephrine as a metabolic regulatory hormone in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, M.A.; Saada, H.N.; Roushdy, H.M.; Awad, O.M.; El-Sayed, M.M.; Azab, Kh.Sh.

    1997-01-01

    The role of epinephrine as a regulatory hormone was examined in normal and irradiated rats. Epinephrine was intraperitoneally injected into rats at a concentration of 200 Mg/kg body weight. Epinephrine was injected either 15 minutes before or just after whole body gamma irradiation 6 Gy 9 single dose). The variations in serum epinephrine,norepinephrine, triglycerides,lipase activity, glucose and lactic acid were selected as biochemical markers in this study. Biochemical estimations were undertaken at 1 hr, 4 hrs. 1,3 and 7 days treatment (after irradiation). The data obtained revealed that the treatment of normal rats with epinephrine induced a significant increase in serum epinephrine level 1 hr after injection, while the level of norepinephrine significantly increased at 4 hrs. Lipase activity significantly increased on the 1 ST hr post treatment. A significant decrease in the level of triglycerides was recorded 1 and 4 hrs post treatment. Serum glucose significantly increased at 1 and 4 hrs post treatment, while no significant changes were recorded for lactic acid. In gamma irradiated rats, the level of serum epinephrine significantly decreased at 1 hr followed by significant increases recorded at 1,3, and 7 days after irradiation. Norepinephrine levels significantly decreased after irradiation during all the experimental time periods. The levels of triglycerides show significant increases accompanied by decrease in lipase activity

  20. Natalizumab Modifies Catecholamines Levels Present in Patients with Relapsing- Remitting Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano, Begona M; Aguilar-Luque, Macarena; Bahamonde, Carmen; Conde, Cristina; Lillo, Rafael; Sanchez-Lopez, Fernando; Giraldo, Ana I; Cruz, Antonio H; Luque, Evelio; Gascon, Felix; Aguera, Eduardo; Tunez, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to verify the effect of natalizumab on the levels of circulating catecholamines and indolamine and their possible relation with MS. For this purpose, 12 healthy individuals (control group) and 12 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients (RR-MS) were selected. The patients were treated with 300 mg of natalizumab during 56 weeks (1 dose/4 weeks) (MS-56). This selection was based on the McDonalds revision criterion and scheduled to star treatment with natalizumab. Blood samples were taken before treatment (basal level) and after 56 weeks of using natalizumab. Melatonin was measured in serum and in plasma, catecholamines (dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine), carbonylated proteins, 8-hydroxy-2'deoxyguanosine (8OH-dG) and the ratio reduced glutathione/oxidised glutathione (GSH/GSSG). The epinephrine and dopamine levels diminished in the basal group with respect to the control and did not recover normal levels with the treatment. The melatonin was decreased in RR-MS patients and went back to its normal levels with natalizumab. Norepinephrine was increased in RR-MS and decreased in MS-56 until it equalled the control group. Natalizumab normalizes altered melatonin and norepinephrine levels in MS.