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Sample records for nordic bifurcation study

  1. Simple or Complex Stenting for Bifurcation Coronary Lesions: A Patient-Level Pooled-Analysis of the Nordic Bifurcation Study and the British Bifurcation Coronary Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behan, Miles W; Holm, Niels Ramsing; Curzen, Nicholas P

    2011-01-01

    Background— Controversy persists regarding the correct strategy for bifurcation lesions. Therefore, we combined the patient-level data from 2 large trials with similar methodology: the NORDIC Bifurcation Study (NORDIC I) and the British Bifurcation Coronary Study (BBC ONE). Methods and Results— B...

  2. Long-Term Results After Simple Versus Complex Stenting of Coronary Artery Bifurcation Lesions Nordic Bifurcation Study 5-Year Follow-Up Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeng, M.; Holm, N. R.; Erglis, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to report the 5-year follow-up results of the Nordic Bifurcation Study. Background Randomized clinical trials with short-term follow-up have indicated that coronary bifurcation lesions may be optimally treated using the optional side branch stenting strategy. Methods...... complex strategy of planned stenting of both the main vessel and the side branch. (C) 2013 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation...

  3. The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colmorn, Lotte B.; Petersen, Kathrine B; Jakobsson, Maija

    2015-01-01

    by using International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision codes on diagnoses and the Nordic Medico-Statistical Committee Classification of Surgical Procedure codes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of the studied complications and possible risk factors among parturients in the Nordic countries. RESULTS......OBJECTIVE: To assess the rates and characteristics of women with complete uterine rupture, abnormally invasive placenta, peripartum hysterectomy, and severe blood loss at delivery in the Nordic countries. DESIGN: Prospective, Nordic collaboration. SETTING: The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study...... (NOSS) collected cases of severe obstetric complications in the Nordic countries from April 2009 to August 2012. SAMPLE AND METHODS: Cases were reported by clinicians at the Nordic maternity units and retrieved from medical birth registers, hospital discharge registers, and transfusion databases...

  4. Randomized comparison of final kissing balloon dilatation versus no final kissing balloon dilatation in patients with coronary bifurcation lesions treated with main vessel stenting: the Nordic-Baltic Bifurcation Study III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemelä, Matti; Kervinen, Kari; Erglis, Andrejs

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether the preferred 1-stent bifurcation stenting approach with stenting of the main vessel (MV) and optional side branch stenting using drug-eluting stents should be finalized by a kissing balloon dilatation (FKBD). Therefore, we compared strategies of MV stenting......, or stent thrombosis within 6 months. The 6-month major adverse cardiac event rates were 2.1% and 2.5% (P=1.00) in the FKBD and no-FKBD groups, respectively. Procedure and fluoroscopy times were longer and more contrast media was needed in the FKBD group than in the no-FKBD group. Three hundred twenty...... angiographic side branch (re)stenosis, especially in patients with true bifurcation lesions. The simple no-FKBD procedures resulted in reduced use of contrast media and shorter procedure and fluoroscopy times. Long-term data on stent thrombosis are needed....

  5. Randomized Comparison of Final Kissing Balloon Dilatation Versus No Final Kissing Balloon Dilatation in Patients With Coronary Bifurcation Lesions Treated With Main Vessel Stenting. Five Year Clinical Outcome in The Nordic-Baltic Bifurcation Study III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemelä, Matti; Holm, Niels R; Kervinen, Kari

    2015-01-01

    Background- It is unknown whether the preferred 1-stent bifurcation stenting approach with stenting of the main vessel (MV) and optional side branch stenting using drug-eluting stents should be finalized by a kissing balloon dilatation (FKBD). Therefore, we compared strategies of MV stenting......, or stent thrombosis within 6 months. The 6-month major adverse cardiac event rates were 2.1% and 2.5% (P=1.00) in the FKBD and no-FKBD groups, respectively. Procedure and fluoroscopy times were longer and more contrast media was needed in the FKBD group than in the no-FKBD group. Three hundred twenty...... angiographic side branch (re)stenosis, especially in patients with true bifurcation lesions. The simple no-FKBD procedures resulted in reduced use of contrast media and shorter procedure and fluoroscopy times. Long-term data on stent thrombosis are needed. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http...

  6. Nordic studies in reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pershagen, N.

    1993-01-01

    The Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Programme SIK programme in reactor safety is part of a major joint Nordic research effort in nuclear safety. The report summarizes the achievements of the SIK programme, which was carried out during 1990-1993 in collaboration between Nordic nuclear utilities, safety authorities, and research institutes. Three main projects were successfully completed dealing with: 1) development and application of a living PSA concept for monitoring the risk of core damage, and of safety indicators for early warning of possible safety problems; 2) review and intercomparison of severe accident codes, case studies of potential core melt accidents in nordic reactors, development of chemical models for the MAAP code, and outline of a system for computerized accident management support; 3) compilation of information about design and safety features of neighbouring reactors in Germany, Lithuania and Russia, and for naval reactors and nuclear submarines. The report reviews the state-of-the-art in each subject matter as an introduction to the individual project summaries. The main findings of each project are highlighted. The report also contains an overview of reactor safety research in the Nordic countries and a summary of fundamental reactor safety principles. (au) (69 refs.)

  7. A case study in bifurcation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khmou, Youssef

    This short paper is focused on the bifurcation theory found in map functions called evolution functions that are used in dynamical systems. The most well-known example of discrete iterative function is the logistic map that puts into evidence bifurcation and chaotic behavior of the topology of the logistic function. We propose a new iterative function based on Lorentizan function and its generalized versions, based on numerical study, it is found that the bifurcation of the Lorentzian function is of second-order where it is characterized by the absence of chaotic region.

  8. Nordic study on reactor waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    In 1981, 14 nuclear power reactors are in operation and 2 under construction in the Nordic countries. So far, the reactor waste originating from day-to-day operation of these plants has been stored in solidified form at the reactor sites. Within a few years a satisfactory disposal procedure needs to be established. While the main R and D effects in the waste field have earlier been devoted to the question of irradiated fuel and waste from reprocessing, there is therefore now an increased interest in reactor waste with its much lower radioactivity but somewhat larger volumes. Since 1977, efforts have been made in a joint Nordic study to examine which facts need to be known in order to perform a comprehensive safety assessment of a reactor waste management system. In the present study a Reference system related to the waste generated over 30 years from six 500 MW-reactors is examined. The dominating radionuclides during storage and transportation accident scenarios are Cs-134, Cs-137 and Co-60. For most of the release scenarios from repositories Cs-137 and Sr-90 are dominating. Some scenarios are, however, dominated by the very longlived nuclides I-129 and C-14. A closer examination of the concentration in the waste of these nuclides and of their leaching properties indicates that their small - but significant - influence, as calculated, is probably grossly overestimated. The mechanical stability obtained in routine solidification processes of reactor waste products in conjunction with the outer container (steel drum, transport container, etc.) turns out to be sufficient. Difficulties were encountered in applying ICRP methodology and available dose calculation methods to calculation of population doses due to small activity releases, and effects extending into the far future. (EG)

  9. Experimental Study of Flow in a Bifurcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresconi, Frank; Prasad, Ajay

    2003-11-01

    An instability known as the Dean vortex occurs in curved pipes with a longitudinal pressure gradient. A similar effect is manifest in the flow in a converging or diverging bifurcation, such as those found in the human respiratory airways. The goal of this study is to characterize secondary flows in a bifurcation. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) experiments were performed in a clear, plastic model. Results show the strength and migration of secondary vortices. Primary velocity features are also presented along with dispersion patterns from dye visualization. Unsteadiness, associated with a hairpin vortex, was also found at higher Re. This work can be used to assess the dispersion of particles in the lung. Medical delivery systems and pollution effect studies would profit from such an understanding.

  10. Nordic Journal of English Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    In difficult economic times, the place of education in the economy comes to the forefront with questions about how effective our programs are in preparing students to become contributing members of the workforce and society. As the discipline of English studies sits at the cross-roads of humanities...... and education for a global society, it has traditionally enjoyed high enrollments and unquestioned value. However, two trends are affecting the position of English studies in the academy: 1) the emergence of communication studies as a discipline and 2) the movement towards education in English as a global...... language across many disciplines in Scandinavia. Because of these movements, the place and purpose for English studies is being called into question. In addition, the ability of an English studies degree in preparing students for the global workforce is also being examined. To address these emergent trends...

  11. Bioindicator studies in Nordic waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.

    1985-06-01

    This project describes the application of bioindicator systems intended for the measruement of the low level radioactive contamination around nuclear installations. The system has been applied around the Swedish and Finnish nuclear power plants and has, furthermore, been used in a study of the dispersion of the effluents from the British nuclear reprocessing plant, Sellafield. The doses to man from these installations have been calculated and compared with the natural background radiation received form the consumption of marine fish. (author)

  12. Nordic registry-based cohort studies: Possibilities and pitfalls when combining Nordic registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maret-Ouda, John; Tao, Wenjing; Wahlin, Karl; Lagergren, Jesper

    2017-07-01

    All five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) have nationwide registries with similar data structure and validity, as well as personal identity numbers enabling linkage between registries. These resources provide opportunities for medical research that is based on large registry-based cohort studies with long and complete follow-up. This review describes practical aspects, opportunities and challenges encountered when setting up all-Nordic registry-based cohort studies. Relevant articles describing registries often used for medical research in the Nordic countries were retrieved. Further, our experiences of conducting this type of study, including planning, acquiring permissions, data retrieval and data cleaning and handling, and the possibilities and challenges we have encountered are described. Combining data from the Nordic countries makes it possible to create large and powerful cohorts. The main challenges include obtaining all permissions within each country, usually in the local language, and retrieving the data. These challenges emphasise the importance of having experienced collaborators within each country. Following the acquisition of data, data management requires the understanding of the differences between the variables to be used in the various countries. A concern is the long time required between initiation and completion. Nationwide Nordic registries can be combined into cohorts with high validity and statistical power, but the considerable expertise, workload and time required to complete such cohorts should not be underestimated.

  13. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON SEDIMENT DISTRIBUTION AT CHANNEL BIFURCATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.M. Tarekul ISLAM; M.R. KABIR; Ainun NISHAT

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results on the distribution of sediments at channel bifurcation.The experiments have been conducted in a physical model of channel bifurcation. It consists of a straight main channel which bifurcates into two branch channels of different widths. The test rig is a mobile bed with fixed bank. Four different noses have been used to study the phenomenon. For each nose, three upstream discharges viz. 20 l/s, 30 l/s and 40 l/s have been employed. From the measured data, discharges and sediment transport ratios per unit width are calculated in the downstream branches.These data have been set to the general nodal point relation and a set of equations has been developed to describe the distribution of sediments to the downstream branches for different nose angles.

  14. Nordic study on reactor waste. Technical part 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    An important part of the Nordic studies on system- and safety analysis of the management of low and medium level radioactive waste from nuclear power plants, is the safety analysis of a Reference System. This reference system was established within the study and is described in this Technical Part 1. The reference system covers waste management Schemes that are potential possibilities in either one of the four participating Nordic countries. The reference system is based on: a power reactor system consisting of 6 BWR's of 500 MWe each, operated simultaneously over the same 30 year period, and deep bed granular ion exchange resin wastes from the Reactor Water Clean-Up System (RWCS and powdered ion exchange resin from the Spent Fuel Pool Cleanup System (SFPCS)). Both waste types are supposed to be solidified by mixing with cement and bitumen. Two basic types of containers are considered. Standard 200 liter steel drums and specially made cubicreinforced concrete moulds with a net volume of 1 m 3 . The Nordic study assumes temporary storage of the solidified waste for a maximum of 50 years before the waste is transferred to the disposal site. Transportation of the waste from the storage facilitiy to the disposal site will be by road or sea. Three different disposal facilities are considered: Shallow land burial, near surface concrete bunker, and rock cavern with about 30 m granite cover. (EG)

  15. A numerical study of crack initiation in a bcc iron system based on dynamic bifurcation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiantao

    2014-01-01

    Crack initiation under dynamic loading conditions is studied under the framework of dynamic bifurcation theory. An atomistic model for BCC iron is considered to explicitly take into account the detailed molecular interactions. To understand the strain-rate dependence of the crack initiation process, we first obtain the bifurcation diagram from a computational procedure using continuation methods. The stability transition associated with a crack initiation, as well as the connection to the bifurcation diagram, is studied by comparing direct numerical results to the dynamic bifurcation theory [R. Haberman, SIAM J. Appl. Math. 37, 69–106 (1979)].

  16. Nordic working group on CCF studies. Parameter estimation within the activities of the Nordic CCF Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, G.

    2002-01-01

    This is a presentation of a project programme for assessment of CCF events and adoption of international data derived in the ICDE project to conditions in Sweden and Finland. The overall objective with the working group is to: - Support safety by studying potential and real CCF events and report conclusions and recommendations that can improve the understanding of these events eventually resulting in increased safety; - The result is intended for application in NPP operation, maintenance, inspection and risk assessments. The work is divided into one quantitative and one qualitative part with the following specific objectives: Qualitative objectives: Compile experiences data and generate insights in terms of relevant failure mechanisms and effective CCF protection measures. The results shall be presented as a guide with checklists and recommendations on how to identify current CCF protection standard and improvement possibilities regarding CCF defenses decreasing the CCF vulnerability. Quantitative objectives: Prepare a Nordic C-book where quantitative insights as Impact Vectors and CCF parameters for different redundancy levels are presented. Uncertainties in CCF data shall be reduced as much as possible. The high redundancy systems sensitivity to CCF events demand a well structured quantitative analysis in support of best possible and realistic CCF parameter estimates, if possible, plant specific. Model survey and review: This survey shah examine available models and their applicability for use on the data. Several models exist and are used in the Nordic PSAs. Data survey and review: This survey shall examine available data sources and their applicability. The survey shah review ICDE and other sources and Provide a background for the decision on what data to be used. A possible outcome is of course that the ICDE data are shown to cover all other sources, but there are possibilities the ICDE data shall be combined with some other source. The situation also differs

  17. Nordic reference study on uncertainty and sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, S.; Jacobsson, P.; Pulkkinen, U.; Porn, K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the first phase of Nordic reference study on uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. The main objective of this study is to use experiences form previous Nordic Benchmark Exercises and reference studies concerning critical modeling issues such as common cause failures and human interactions, and to demonstrate the impact of associated uncertainties on the uncertainty of the investigated accident sequence. This has been done independently by three working groups which used different approaches to modeling and to uncertainty analysis. The estimated uncertainty interval for the analyzed accident sequence is large. Also the discrepancies between the groups are substantial but can be explained. Sensitivity analyses which have been carried out concern e.g. use of different CCF-quantification models, alternative handling of CCF-data, time windows for operator actions and time dependences in phase mission operation, impact of state-of-knowledge dependences and ranking of dominating uncertainty contributors. Specific findings with respect to these issues are summarized in the paper

  18. Systematic parameter study of dynamo bifurcations in geodynamo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitdemange, Ludovic

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the nature of the dynamo bifurcation in a configuration applicable to the Earth's liquid outer core, i.e. in a rotating spherical shell with thermally driven motions with no-slip boundaries. Unlike in previous studies on dynamo bifurcations, the control parameters have been varied significantly in order to deduce general tendencies. Numerical studies on the stability domain of dipolar magnetic fields found a dichotomy between non-reversing dipole-dominated dynamos and the reversing non-dipole-dominated multipolar solutions. We show that, by considering weak initial fields, the above transition disappears and is replaced by a region of bistability for which dipolar and multipolar dynamos coexist. Such a result was also observed in models with free-slip boundaries in which the geostrophic zonal flow can develop and participate to the dynamo mechanism for non-dipolar fields. We show that a similar process develops in no-slip models when viscous effects are reduced sufficiently. The following three regimes are distinguished: (i) Close to the onset of convection (Rac) with only the most critical convective mode (wave number) being present, dynamos set in supercritically in the Ekman number regime explored here and are dipole-dominated. Larger critical magnetic Reynolds numbers indicate that they are particularly inefficient. (ii) in the range 3 10) , the relative importance of zonal flows increases with Ra in non-magnetic models. The field topology depends on the magnitude of the initial magnetic field. The dipolar branch has a subcritical behavior whereas the multipolar branch has a supercritical behavior. By approaching more realistic parameters, the extension of this bistable regime increases. A hysteretic behavior questions the common interpretation for geomagnetic reversals. Far above the dynamo threshold (by increasing the magnetic Prandtl number), Lorentz forces contribute to the first order force balance, as predicted for planetary dynamos. When

  19. Analysis of the magnetohydrodynamic equations and study of the nonlinear solution bifurcations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morros Tosas, J.

    1989-01-01

    The nonlinear problems related to the plasma magnetohydrodynamic instabilities are studied. A bifurcation theory is applied and a general magnetohydrodynamic equation is proposed. Scalar functions, a steady magnetic field and a new equation for the velocity field are taken into account. A method allowing the obtention of suitable reduced equations for the instabilities study is described. Toroidal and cylindrical configuration plasmas are studied. In the cylindrical configuration case, analytical calculations are performed and two steady bifurcated solutions are found. In the toroidal configuration case, a suitable reduced equation system is obtained; a qualitative approach of a steady solution bifurcation on a toroidal Kink type geometry is carried out [fr

  20. Dynamic Bifurcations

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    Dynamical Bifurcation Theory is concerned with the phenomena that occur in one parameter families of dynamical systems (usually ordinary differential equations), when the parameter is a slowly varying function of time. During the last decade these phenomena were observed and studied by many mathematicians, both pure and applied, from eastern and western countries, using classical and nonstandard analysis. It is the purpose of this book to give an account of these developments. The first paper, by C. Lobry, is an introduction: the reader will find here an explanation of the problems and some easy examples; this paper also explains the role of each of the other paper within the volume and their relationship to one another. CONTENTS: C. Lobry: Dynamic Bifurcations.- T. Erneux, E.L. Reiss, L.J. Holden, M. Georgiou: Slow Passage through Bifurcation and Limit Points. Asymptotic Theory and Applications.- M. Canalis-Durand: Formal Expansion of van der Pol Equation Canard Solutions are Gevrey.- V. Gautheron, E. Isambe...

  1. Policy responses to hepatitis C in the Nordic countries: Gaps and discrepant reporting in the Hep-Nordic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Safreed-Harmon

    Full Text Available In the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, the prevalence of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is relatively low in the general population, but is much higher among people who inject drugs (PWID. We conducted an exploratory study to investigate the extent to which these countries have policies supporting key elements of the public health response that is necessary to achieve the global goal of eliminating HCV as a public health threat.Fourteen stakeholders representing government agencies, medical societies, and civil society organisations (CSOs in the Nordic countries completed a cross-sectional online survey that included 21 policy questions related to national coordination, prevention, testing, linkage to care, and treatment. We summarised the findings in a descriptive analysis, and noted discrepant responses from stakeholders within the same country.Stakeholders reported that three of the five study countries have national viral hepatitis strategies, while only Iceland has a national HCV elimination goal. The availability of harm reduction services varies, with opioid substitution therapy provided for the general population throughout all countries, but not needle and syringe programmes. No country has access to anonymous HCV testing in all parts of the country. National HCV treatment guidelines are available in all countries except Finland, and all countries provide publicly funded direct-acting antiviral treatment. Disagreement regarding policies was observed across countries, and CSOs were the stakeholder group that most frequently answered survey questions incorrectly.The Nordic region as a whole has not consistently expressed its commitment to tackling HCV, despite the existence of large HCV epidemics among PWID in these countries. Stakeholder alignment and an established elimination goal with an accompanying strategy and implementation plan should be recognised as the basis for coordinated national

  2. Policy responses to hepatitis C in the Nordic countries: Gaps and discrepant reporting in the Hep-Nordic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Hetherington, Kristina L; Aleman, Soo; Alho, Hannu; Dalgard, Olav; Frisch, Tove; Gottfredsson, Magnus; Weis, Nina; Lazarus, Jeffrey V

    2018-01-01

    In the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden), the prevalence of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is relatively low in the general population, but is much higher among people who inject drugs (PWID). We conducted an exploratory study to investigate the extent to which these countries have policies supporting key elements of the public health response that is necessary to achieve the global goal of eliminating HCV as a public health threat. Fourteen stakeholders representing government agencies, medical societies, and civil society organisations (CSOs) in the Nordic countries completed a cross-sectional online survey that included 21 policy questions related to national coordination, prevention, testing, linkage to care, and treatment. We summarised the findings in a descriptive analysis, and noted discrepant responses from stakeholders within the same country. Stakeholders reported that three of the five study countries have national viral hepatitis strategies, while only Iceland has a national HCV elimination goal. The availability of harm reduction services varies, with opioid substitution therapy provided for the general population throughout all countries, but not needle and syringe programmes. No country has access to anonymous HCV testing in all parts of the country. National HCV treatment guidelines are available in all countries except Finland, and all countries provide publicly funded direct-acting antiviral treatment. Disagreement regarding policies was observed across countries, and CSOs were the stakeholder group that most frequently answered survey questions incorrectly. The Nordic region as a whole has not consistently expressed its commitment to tackling HCV, despite the existence of large HCV epidemics among PWID in these countries. Stakeholder alignment and an established elimination goal with an accompanying strategy and implementation plan should be recognised as the basis for coordinated national public health

  3. Psoriatic arthritis mutilans (PAM) in the Nordic countries: demographics and disease status. The Nordic PAM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudbjornsson, B; Ejstrup, L; Gran, J T; Iversen, L; Lindqvist, U; Paimela, L; Ternowitz, T; Ståhle, M

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of psoriatic arthritis mutilans (PAM) in the Nordic countries. Patients with putative PAM aged ≥ 18 years were recruited. Fifty-nine patients were included after clinical examination. The prevalence of PAM in the adult Nordic population was estimated to be 3.69 per million inhabitants [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.75-4.63]. The female to male ratio was close to 1:1. The mean age of skin disease onset was 25 years and the mean age of onset of joint disease was 30 years. The onset of skin disease was 2 years earlier among female patients. At inclusion, the mean duration of arthritis was 27 ± 11 years for male patients and 33 ± 11 years for female patients. PAM was most frequently seen in the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints of the toes, followed by the IP joint of the thumb and the DIP joint of the little finger on the left hand. Female and male patients had similar numbers of painful and swollen joints. Enthesitis was found in 19 patients (32%), while 38 patients (64%) had a history of dactylitis. Twenty-three of these 38 patients (61%) had a history of dactylitis in the same finger/toe as they had PAM. At the time of inclusion, 45% of the patients were found to have clear or almost clear skin. PAM in the Nordic countries has a low prevalence, with only three to five cases per million inhabitants. The majority of the patients present with mild skin disease.

  4. Consumer acceptance of the New Nordic Diet. An exploratory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micheelsen, Arun; Holm, Lotte; Jensen, Katherine O’Doherty

    2013-01-01

    With direct reference to New Nordic Cuisine and Nordic dietary recommendations, the OPUS Research Centre in Denmark is developing and testing a healthy, regional New Nordic Diet (NND) that promises to have outstanding gastronomic properties. The NND is disseminated to Danish consumers with a view......, are positive towards the ideas underlying the development of this new diet and enjoy the taste and appearance of NND meals. Barriers to acceptance include the untraditional formats of NND meals, the time needed to prepare them, the unfamiliarity of ingredients, perceived problems regarding product availability...

  5. Adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations in a Nordic population with metabolic syndrome: high salt consumption and low dietary fibre intake (The SYSDIET study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svandis Erna Jonsdottir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Nordic countries collaborate in setting recommendations for intake of nutrients by publishing the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR. Studies exploring how well the Nordic population adheres to the NNR are limited and none are available for the metabolic syndrome (MetS subgroup. Individuals with MetS are a large part of the adult Nordic population and their diet's nutritional quality is of great importance as it can affect the progression of MetS. Objective: To evaluate nutritional intake in a cohort of Nordic adults with MetS or MetS risk factors and their adherence to the NNR. Design: A multi-centre study was carried out in six centres in four Nordic countries (SYSDIET CoE. Participants (n=175 were 30–65 years of age, with BMI 27–38 kg/m2 and had at least two criteria for MetS. The NNR was used to evaluate the baseline nutrient intake calculated from the participants’ 4-day food diaries using national nutrient databases. Results: Less than 20% of participants consumed ≤10 E% from saturated fat as recommended in the NNR. Recommended intake (RI of polyunsaturated fat was met by approximately one-third of participants. Only 20% of men and 26% of women met the RI of dietary fibre. Intake below the defined lower intake level of 2.5 µg/day for vitamin D was observed in nearly 20% of participants. The daily median intake of salt was 8.8 g for men and 6.7 g for women. Conclusion: Dietary quality of this Nordic population with Mets or MetS risk factors is unsatisfactory and characterised by high intakes of SFA and sodium and low intakes of PUFA and dietary fibre. Vitamin D intake was below RI level in a large part of the population. Authorities in the Nordic countries are encouraged to develop intervention programmes for high-risk groups.

  6. Adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations in a Nordic population with metabolic syndrome: high salt consumption and low dietary fibre intake (The SYSDIET study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsdottir, Svandis Erna; Brader, Lea; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Kally Magnusdottir, Ola; Schwab, Ursula; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Risérus, Ulf; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Cloetens, Lieselotte; Helgegren, Hannah; Johansson-Persson, Anna; Hukkanen, Janne; Poutanen, Kaisa; Uusitupa, Matti; Hermansen, Kjeld; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-12-16

    The Nordic countries collaborate in setting recommendations for intake of nutrients by publishing the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR). Studies exploring how well the Nordic population adheres to the NNR are limited and none are available for the metabolic syndrome (MetS) subgroup. Individuals with MetS are a large part of the adult Nordic population and their diet's nutritional quality is of great importance as it can affect the progression of MetS. To evaluate nutritional intake in a cohort of Nordic adults with MetS or MetS risk factors and their adherence to the NNR. A multi-centre study was carried out in six centres in four Nordic countries (SYSDIET CoE). Participants (n=175) were 30-65 years of age, with BMI 27-38 kg/m(2) and had at least two criteria for MetS. The NNR was used to evaluate the baseline nutrient intake calculated from the participants' 4-day food diaries using national nutrient databases. Less than 20% of participants consumed ≤10 E% from saturated fat as recommended in the NNR. Recommended intake (RI) of polyunsaturated fat was met by approximately one-third of participants. Only 20% of men and 26% of women met the RI of dietary fibre. Intake below the defined lower intake level of 2.5 µg/day for vitamin D was observed in nearly 20% of participants. The daily median intake of salt was 8.8 g for men and 6.7 g for women. Dietary quality of this Nordic population with Mets or MetS risk factors is unsatisfactory and characterised by high intakes of SFA and sodium and low intakes of PUFA and dietary fibre. Vitamin D intake was below RI level in a large part of the population. Authorities in the Nordic countries are encouraged to develop intervention programmes for high-risk groups.

  7. Nordic study on reactor waste. Technical part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The ground disposal alternatives examined in the Nordic study are based on establishment of relevant product specifications which can be adapted to the safety analysis of the entire waste handling sequence. Such product specifications would in turn influence the choice of incorporation techniques and may enable an optimization of the process. In order to interprete the small-scale laboratory tests with respect to long-term performance of full-scale products there were accomplished: - qualitative evaluations of the relevance of product properties for normal and abnormal events during storage, transport and disposal; - attempts to quantify the relevance of different properties, i.e. their influence on radiation doses from different stages of well specified waste management system; - assessments of available laboratory tests and of correlations between results from such tests and the long-term performance of full-scale technical products; - studies of reaction mechanisms and parameters that can affect the long-term performance of disposed products; - laboratory incorporation experiments to study impacts of process variables on the fixation of ion exchange wastes in cement and bitumen; - full-scale tests to study product performance under simulated accident conditions. (EG)

  8. Analysis of the magnetohydrodynamic equations and study of the nonlinear solution bifurcations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morros Tosas, J.

    1989-05-01

    The nonlinear saturation of a plasma magnetohydrodynamic instabilities is studied, by means of a bifurcation theory. The work includes: an accurate mathematical method to study the MHD equations, in which the physical content is clear; and the study of the nonlinear solutions of the branch bifurcations, applied to different unstable plasma models. A scalar function representation is proposed for the MHD equations. This representation is characterized by a reference steady magnetic field and by a velocity field, which allow to write the equations for the scalar functions. An approximation method, leading to the obtention of the reduced equations applied in the instability study, is given. The cylindrical or toroidal plasmas are studied by using the nonlinear solutions bifurcation. Concerning the cylindrical plasma, the representation leads to a reduced system which enables the analytical calculations: two different steady bifurcation solutions are obtained. In the case of the toroidal plasma, an appropriate reduced equations system, is obtained. A qualitative approach of the Kink-type steady solution bifurcation, in a toroidal geometry, is performed [fr

  9. Does the principle of minimum work apply at the carotid bifurcation: a retrospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beare, Richard J; Das, Gita; Ren, Mandy; Chong, Winston; Sinnott, Matthew D; Hilton, James E; Srikanth, Velandai; Phan, Thanh G

    2011-01-01

    There is recent interest in the role of carotid bifurcation anatomy, geometry and hemodynamic factors in the pathogenesis of carotid artery atherosclerosis. Certain anatomical and geometric configurations at the carotid bifurcation have been linked to disturbed flow. It has been proposed that vascular dimensions are selected to minimize energy required to maintain blood flow, and that this occurs when an exponent of 3 relates the radii of parent and daughter arteries. We evaluate whether the dimensions of bifurcation of the extracranial carotid artery follow this principle of minimum work. This study involved subjects who had computed tomographic angiography (CTA) at our institution between 2006 and 2007. Radii of the common, internal and external carotid arteries were determined. The exponent was determined for individual bifurcations using numerical methods and for the sample using nonlinear regression. Mean age for 45 participants was 56.9 ± 16.5 years with 26 males. Prevalence of vascular risk factors was: hypertension-48%, smoking-23%, diabetes-16.7%, hyperlipidemia-51%, ischemic heart disease-18.7%. The value of the exponent ranged from 1.3 to 1.6, depending on estimation methodology. The principle of minimum work (defined by an exponent of 3) may not apply at the carotid bifurcation. Additional factors may play a role in the relationship between the radii of the parent and daughter vessels

  10. CISG Nordic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    CISG Nordic offers full text court decisions, papers, domestic laws, etc. collected in the Nordic countries. All material is related to the application of the CISG.......CISG Nordic offers full text court decisions, papers, domestic laws, etc. collected in the Nordic countries. All material is related to the application of the CISG....

  11. Regional climate scenarios for use in Nordic water resources studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rummukainen, Markku; Räisänen, J.; Bjørge, D.

    2003-01-01

    in the Nordic region than in the global mean, regional increases and decreases in net precipitation, longer growing season, shorter snow season etc. These in turn affect runoff, snowpack, groundwater, soil frost and moisture, and thus hydropower production potential, flooding risks etc. Regional climate models......-users of water resources scenarios are the hydropower industry, dam safety instances and planners of other lasting infrastructure exposed to precipitation, river flows and flooding....

  12. Genome-wide Association Studies for Female Fertility Traits in Chinese and Nordic Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aoxing; Wang, Yachun; Sahana, Goutam; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Lin; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Su, Guosheng

    2017-08-16

    Reduced female fertility could cause considerable economic loss and has become a worldwide problem in the modern dairy industry. The objective of this study was to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for female fertility traits in Chinese and Nordic Holsteins using various strategies. First, single-trait association analyses were performed for female fertility traits in Chinese and Nordic Holsteins. Second, the SNPs with P-value Nordic Holsteins. Third, the summary statistics from single-trait association analyses were combined into meta-analyses to: (1) identify common QTL for multiple fertility traits within each Holstein population; (2) detect SNPs which were associated with a female fertility trait across two Holstein populations. A large numbers of QTL were discovered or confirmed for female fertility traits. The QTL segregating at 31.4~34.1 Mb on BTA13, 48.3~51.9 Mb on BTA23 and 34.0~37.6 Mb on BTA28 shared between Chinese and Nordic Holsteins were further ascertained using a validation approach and meta-analyses. Furthermore, multiple novel variants identified in Chinese Holsteins were validated with Nordic data as well as meta-analyses. The genes IL6R, SLC39A12, CACNB2, ZEB1, ZMIZ1 and FAM213A were concluded to be strong candidate genes for female fertility in Holsteins.

  13. Differences in medical services in Nordic general practice: a comparative survey from the QUALICOPC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Torunn Bjerve; Straand, Jørund; Björkelund, Cecilia; Kosunen, Elise; Thorgeirsson, Ofeigur; Vedsted, Peter; Rosvold, Elin Olaug

    2017-06-01

    We aim to describe medical services provided by Nordic general practitioners (GPs), and to explore possible differences between the countries. We did a comparative analysis of selected data from the Nordic part of the study Quality and Costs of Primary Care in Europe (QUALICOPC). A total of 875 Nordic GPs (198 Norwegian, 80 Icelandic, 97 Swedish, 212 Danish and 288 Finnish) answered identical questionnaires regarding their practices. The GPs indicated which equipment they used in practice, which procedures that were carried out, and to what extent they were involved in treatment/follow-up of a selection of diagnoses. The Danish GPs performed minor surgical procedures significantly less frequent than GPs in all other countries, although they inserted IUDs significantly more often than GPs in Iceland, Sweden and Finland. Finnish GPs performed a majority of the medical procedures more frequently than GPs in the other countries. The GPs in Iceland reported involvement in a more narrow selection of conditions than the GPs in the other countries. The Finnish GPs had more advanced technical equipment than GPs in all other Nordic countries. GPs in all Nordic countries are well equipped and offer a wide range of medical services, yet with a substantial variation between countries. There was no clear pattern of GPs in one country doing consistently more procedures, having consistently more equipment and treating a larger diversity of medical conditions than GPs in the other countries. However, structural factors seemed to affect the services offered.

  14. Cross-Border Collaboration in History among Nordic Students: A Case Study about Creating Innovative ICT Didactic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spante, Maria; Karlsen, Asgjerd Vea; Nortvig, Anne-Mette; Christiansen, Rene B.

    2014-01-01

    Gränsöverskridande Nordisk Undervisning/Utdanelse (GNU, meaning Cross-Border Nordic Education), the larger Nordic project, under which this case study was carried out, aims at developing innovative, cross-border teaching models in different subject domains in elementary school, including mathematics, language, science, social studies and history.…

  15. In Search of Nordicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng; Strandgaard, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    This article looks at the branding of Copenhagen as a food destination through the advent of the New Nordic Cuisine movement and how this may change the way we think about destination branding. The destination management organization of Copenhagen opportunistically embraced the New Nordic Cuisine...... an inductive, in-depth, longitudinal study of the New Nordic Cuisine and its movement's development in relation to branding Copenhagen as a tourism destination....

  16. Mania in the Nordic countries: patients and treatment in the acute phase of the EMBLEM study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jens Knud; Porsdal, Vibeke; Aarre, Trond F

    2009-01-01

    countries with other European countries during the first 12 weeks of the EMBLEM (European Mania in Bipolar Longitudinal Evaluation of Medication) study. Adult patients with bipolar disorder were enrolled within standard course of care as in/outpatients if they initiated/changed oral medication...... status, functional status and pharmacological treatment. Psychiatric status at inclusion measured by the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and the Clinical Global Impression-Bipolar Disorder (CGI-BP) were similar in the Nordic and European patient groups, which is surprising as 73% of the Nordic patients...

  17. The Heritability of Breast Cancer among women in the Nordic Twin Study of Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Sören; Mucci, Lorelei A; Harris, Jennifer R

    2016-01-01

    and heritability of breast cancer among 21,054 monozygotic and 30,939 dizygotic female twin pairs from the Nordic Twin Study of Cancer, the largest twin study of cancer in the world. We accounted for left-censoring, right-censoring, as well as the competing risk of death. Results From 1943 through 2010, 3...

  18. Predictors for readmission risk of new patients : the Nordic Comparative Study on Sectorized Psychiatry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oiesvold, T; Saarento, O; Sytema, S; Vinding, H; Gostas, G; Lonnerberg, O; Muus, S; Sandlund, M; Hansson, L

    Objective: Predictors for readmission risk were investigated in this study, which forms part of the Nordic Comparative Study on Sectorized Psychiatry. Method: Included were a total of 837 consecutive 'new' patients (not in contact with the psychiatric services for at least 18 months) admitted to

  19. Nordic Experiences: Participants' Expectations and Experiences of Short-Term Study Abroad Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahikainen, Katariina; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Finnish high school students' and teachers' perceptions of the effects of short-term Nordic study abroad programs in which they had participated. The data presented were based on a "mixed-methods strategy." The data set consisted of responses from 158 students and 92 teachers to a specifically…

  20. Bifurcation study of phase oscillator systems with attractive and repulsive interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burylko, Oleksandr; Kazanovich, Yakov; Borisyuk, Roman

    2014-08-01

    We study a model of globally coupled phase oscillators that contains two groups of oscillators with positive (synchronizing) and negative (desynchronizing) incoming connections for the first and second groups, respectively. This model was previously studied by Hong and Strogatz (the Hong-Strogatz model) in the case of a large number of oscillators. We consider a generalized Hong-Strogatz model with a constant phase shift in coupling. Our approach is based on the study of invariant manifolds and bifurcation analysis of the system. In the case of zero phase shift, various invariant manifolds are analytically described and a new dynamical mode is found. In the case of a nonzero phase shift we obtained a set of bifurcation diagrams for various systems with three or four oscillators. It is shown that in these cases system dynamics can be complex enough and include multistability and chaotic oscillations.

  1. Study of Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve in Nordic Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the efficacy of Demand Frequency Reserve (DFR) in Nordic power system. Heat pump, due to its switching flexibility, less disturbing impacts to customers and promising future in application, is used to represent DFR in the study. Thermodynamics of the heat pump unit...

  2. Methodologies for tracking learning paths in the Making a filmmaker research study of young Nordic filmmakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Lindstrand, Fredrik; Öhman-Gullberg, Lisa

    The aim of this paper is twofold. On the one hand, to present an outline of the ongoing research study Making a filmmaker, which examines how young Nordic filmmakers create their own learning paths along formal and/or informal contexts. Our focus in this paper is especially directed towards issues...

  3. Survey of existing studies of smart grids and consumers - Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Meiken; Borup, Mads

    2014-01-01

    is on household consumers; not on industrial companies or other private or public organisations. The present report focuses on studies in the Nordic region, i.e., studies in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. Initially this report was part of a dual delivery, where 1) focused on the Nordic countries......The objective of this survey is to map smart grid studies that address private consumers. The survey shall identify what knowledge there exists about consumer and user behaviour in connection to smart grids and, moreover, how consumers and users are approached in the studies made. The focus......; and 2) focused on selected projects in other countries. This present report is the work completed in relation to the first part....

  4. The Heritability of Prostate Cancer in the Nordic Twin Study of Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Scheike, Thomas; Holst, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer is thought to be the most heritable cancer, although little is known about how this genetic contribution varies across age. Methods: To address this question, we undertook the world's largest prospective study in the Nordic Twin Study of Cancer cohort, including 18,680....... The role of genetic factors is consistently high across age Impact: Findings impact the search for genetic and epigenetic markers and frame prevention efforts....

  5. Asymmetry in convection and restratification in the Nordic Seas: an idealized model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ypma, Stefanie L.; Brüggemann, Nils; Pietrzak, Julie D.; Katsman, Caroline A.

    2017-04-01

    The Nordic Seas are an important production region for dense water masses that feed the lower limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. They display a pronounced hydrographic asymmetry, with a warm eastern basin, and a cold western basin. Previous studies have shown that this asymmetry is set by the interplay between large eddies shed near the coast of Norway where the continental slope steepens, and the Mohn-Knipovich ridge that separates the Lofoten Basin in the east from the Greenland Basin in the west. While it is known from earlier studies that eddies play a crucial role for the yearly cycle of wintertime convection and summertime restratification in marginal seas like the Labrador Sea, the situation in the Nordic Seas is different as the large eddies can only restratify the eastern part of the Nordic Seas due to the presence of the ridge. Possibly due to this asymmetry in eddy activity and a weaker stratification as a result, the western basin is more sensitive for intense deep convection. The question remains how this area is restratified after a deep convection event in the absence of large eddies and how the dense water is able to leave the basin. An high resolution, idealized model configuration of the MITgcm is used that reproduces the main characteristics of the Nordic Seas, including a warm cyclonic boundary current, a strong eddy field in the east and the hydrographic asymmetry between east and west. The idealized approach enables multiple sensitivity studies to changes in the eddy field and the boundary current and provides the possibility to investigate cause and effect, while keeping the set-up simple. We will present results of tracer studies where the sensitivity of the spreading and the restratification of dense water to the formation location in both basins is studied.

  6. Flow visualisation study of spiral flow in the aorta-renal bifurcation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulker, David; Javadzadegan, Ashkan; Li, Zuming; Barber, Tracie

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the flow dynamics in an idealised model of the aorta-renal bifurcation using flow visualisation, with a particular focus on the effect of aorta-to-renal flow ratio and flow spirality. The recirculation length was longest when there was low flow in the renal artery and smaller in the presence of spiral flow. The results also indicate that patients without spiral flow or who have low flow in the renal artery due to the presence of stenosis may be susceptible to heightened development of atherosclerotic lesions.

  7. Experimental study on representation of flow on the bifurcated carotid arterial phantoms using magnetic resonance angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Tae Sub; Rhim, Yoon Chul; Kim, Kyung Oh; Suh, Sang Ho; Jin, En Hao

    1995-01-01

    A common finding of carotid artery on magnetic resonance angiograms(MRAs) is a signal dropout along the posterior wall of carotid bulb due to reverse flow. The purpose of this study is to evaluate variable flow patterns on bifurcated carotid arterial phantoms using steady-state flow. We designed phantoms of a bifurcated carotid artery with acrylic materials. Flow patterns were evaluated with axial and coronal imaging of MRA(2D-TOF, 3D-TOF), color Doppler imaging, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) within the phantoms constructed of an automated closed-type circulatory system filled with 4% sugar solution. These findings were compared with findings obtained from normal volunteers. Axial 3D-TOF MRA images exhibited closer resemblance to the contour of the inner wall of phantoms when compared to coronal 2D-TOF MRA imaging. However, 2D-TOF MRA showed good contrast difference of signal intensities between forward flow area and reverse flow area. Dark zones with reduced signal intensities due to reversed flow were separated from the outer wall of the internal and external carotid arteries by a thin layer of forward flow along the wall on the source slice image of MRA. The general hemodynamics of the phantoms on MRA were identical to hemodynamics on color Doppler imaging and CFD. The results obtained with the phantoms matched the findings on normal volunteers. Although representations of bifurcated carotid arterial phantoms on axial 3D-TOF MRA were excellent if ideally designed, the zone of reversed flow could be a significant factor in creating distorted image when the zone of reversed flow contacted directly with curved or deformed arterial wall

  8. Patients requests and needs for culturally and individually adapted supportive care in type 2 diabetes patients: A comparative study between Nordic and non-Nordic patients in a social economical vulnerable area of Linköping, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Angelica; Garvin, Peter; Wiréhn, Ann-Britt; Yngman-Uhlin, Pia

    2017-12-01

    This study sought to determine and compare the metabolic control of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in non-Nordic immigrants and native Nordics. The aim was also to describe and compare the request of supportive care between these two groups. One hundred and eighty-four patients (n=184) coming to a routine check-up in a primary healthcare setting (PHC), were consecutively enrolled to the study during a period of one year. Data on therapeutic interventions, clinical measurements, healthcare consumption, and adherence to standard diabetes healthcare program were extracted from the patientś medical record. Structured interviews on supportive care were conducted by diabetes trained nurses. If needed, a qualified interpreter was used. Comparisons were made between Nordic patients (n=151) and non-Nordic patients (n=33). Among T2DM patients in a setting of PHC, there was a difference in meeting the metabolic target HbA1c, between native Nordics and non-Nordic immigrants. There was also a difference in request on supportive care. The non-Nordic group significantly requested more and different supportive care. They also attended the standard diabetes program to a lesser degree. Culturally/individually adapted prevention is not only medically warranted but also requested by the patients themselves. Copyright © 2017 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nordic Walking as an Exercise Intervention to Reduce Pain in Women With Aromatase Inhibitor-Associated Arthralgia: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Jo; Richardson, Alison; Hopkinson, Jane; Fenlon, Deborah

    2016-10-01

    Women taking aromatase inhibitors as treatment for breast cancer commonly experience joint pain and stiffness (aromatase inhibitor-associated arthralgia [AIAA]), which can cause problems with adherence. There is evidence that exercise might be helpful, and Nordic walking could reduce joint pain compared to normal walking. To determine the feasibility of a trial of Nordic walking as an exercise intervention for women with AIAA. A feasibility study was carried out in a sample of women with AIAA using a randomized control design. Women were randomized to exercise (six-week supervised group Nordic walking training once per week with an increasing independent element, followed by six weeks 4 × 30 minutes/week independent Nordic walking); or enhanced usual care. Data were collected on recruitment, retention, exercise adherence, safety, and acceptability. The Brief Pain Inventory, GP Physical Activity Questionnaire, and biopsychosocial measures were completed at baseline, six and 12 weeks. Forty of 159 eligible women were recruited and attrition was 10%. There was no increased lymphedema and no long-term or serious injury. Adherence was >90% for weekly supervised group Nordic walking, and during independent Nordic walking, >80% women managed one to two Nordic walking sessions per week. From baseline to study end point, overall activity levels increased and pain reduced in both the intervention and control groups. Our findings indicate that women with AIAA are prepared to take up Nordic walking, complete a six-week supervised course and maintain increased activity levels over a 12-week period with no adverse effects. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The patient experience of intensive care: a meta-synthesis of Nordic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerod, Ingrid; Bergbom, Ingegerd; Lindahl, Berit; Henricson, Maria; Granberg-Axell, Anetth; Storli, Sissel Lisa

    2015-08-01

    Sedation practices in the intensive care unit have evolved from deep sedation and paralysis toward lighter sedation and better pain management. The new paradigm of sedation has enabled early mobilization and optimized mechanical ventilator weaning. Intensive care units in the Nordic countries have been particularly close to goals of lighter or no sedation and a more humane approach to intensive care. The aim of our study was to systematically review and reinterpret newer Nordic studies of the patient experience of intensive care to obtain a contemporary description of human suffering during life-threatening illness. We conducted a meta-synthesis in which we collected, assessed, and analyzed published qualitative studies with the goal of synthesizing these findings into a new whole. Analysis was based on the scientific approach of Gadamerian hermeneutics. Nordic intensive care units. Patients in Nordic intensive care units. We performed a literature search of qualitative studies of the patient experience of intensive care based on Nordic publications in 2000-2013. We searched the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and PsycINFO. Each original paper was assessed by all authors using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program instrument for qualitative research. We included 22 studies, all of which provided direct patient quotes. The overarching theme was identified as: The patient experience when existence itself is at stake. We constructed an organizing framework for analysis using the main perspectives represented in the included studies: body, mind, relationships, and ICU-environment. Final analysis and interpretation resulted in the unfolding of four themes: existing in liminality, existing in unboundedness, existing in mystery, and existing on the threshold. Our main finding was that human suffering during intensive care is still evident although sedation is lighter and the environment is more humane. Our interpretation suggested that patients with life

  11. An empirical study of real estate stock return behavior on the Nordic markets : – A 2003-2013 study

    OpenAIRE

    Mäki, David; Lundström, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The financial crisis has made the stock markets a very turbulent place. Investors have therefore begun searching for stable and profitable investments. Nordic real estate has for decades steadily increased in value and the stocks of real estate companies are said to be less risky than the market. This has led to a view of them being a safe haven for risk adverse investors. Very few empirical studies have been done on how these supposedly safe stocks actually behave in the Nordic countries. Th...

  12. Study comparing the double kissing (DK) crush with classical crush for the treatment of coronary bifurcation lesions: the DKCRUSH-1 Bifurcation Study with drug-eluting stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S L; Zhang, J J; Ye, F; Chen, Y D; Patel, T; Kawajiri, K; Lee, M; Kwan, T W; Mintz, G; Tan, H C

    2008-06-01

    Classical crush has a lower rate of final kissing balloon inflation (FKBI) immediately after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The double kissing (DK) crush technique has the potential to increase the FKBI rate, and no prospective studies on the comparison of classical with DK crush techniques have been reported. Three hundred and eleven patients with true bifurcation lesions were randomly divided into classical (n = 156) and DK crush (n = 155) groups. Clinical and angiographic details at follow-up at 8 months were indexed. The primary end point was major adverse cardiac events (MACE) including myocardial infarction, cardiac death and target lesion revascularization (TLR) at 8 months. FKBI was 76% in the classical crush group and 100% in the DK group (P DK crush group. Cumulative 8 month MACE was 24.4% in the classical crush group and 11.4% in the DK crush group (P = 0.02). The TLR-free survival rate was 75.4% in the classical crush group and 89.5% in the DK crush group (P = 0.002). DK crush technique has the potential of increasing FKBI rate and reducing stent thrombosis, with a further reduction of TLR and cumulative MACE rate at 8 months.

  13. School meal provision, health, and cognitive function in a Nordic setting - the ProMeal-study: description of methodology and the Nordic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waling, Maria; Olafsdottir, Anna S; Lagström, Hanna; Wergedahl, Hege; Jonsson, Bert; Olsson, Cecilia; Fossgard, Eldbjørg; Holthe, Asle; Talvia, Sanna; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Hörnell, Agneta

    2016-01-01

    School meals, if both nutritious and attractive, provide a unique opportunity to improve health equality and public health. To describe the study rationale, data collection, and background of participants in the study 'Prospects for promoting health and performance by school meals in Nordic countries' (ProMeal). The general aim was to determine whether overall healthiness of the diet and learning conditions in children can be improved by school lunches, and to capture the main concerns regarding school lunches among children in a Nordic context. A cross-sectional, multidisciplinary study was performed in Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden on pupils (n=837) born in 2003. In total 3,928 pictures of school lunches were taken to capture pupils' school lunch intake. A mean of 85% of all parents responded to a questionnaire about socioeconomic background, dietary intake, and habitual physical activity at home. Cognitive function was measured on one occasion on 93% of the pupils during optimal conditions with a Stroop and a Child Operation Span test. A mean of 169 pupils also did an Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test after lunch over 3 days. In total, 37,413 10-sec observations of classroom learning behavior were performed. In addition, 753 empathy-based stories were written and 78 focus groups were conducted. The pupils had high socioeconomic status. This study will give new insights into which future interventions are needed to improve pupils' school lunch intake and learning. The study will provide valuable information for policy making, not least in countries where the history of school meals is shorter than in some of the Nordic countries.

  14. The drug-eluting resorbable magnesium vascular scaffold in complex coronary bifurcations: insights from an in vivo multimodality imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Johan; Vanhaverbeke, Maarten; Vanden Driessche, Nina; Hiltrop, Nick; Adriaenssens, Tom; Desmet, Walter; Sinnaeve, Peter; Dubois, Christophe

    2018-04-20

    This acute in vivo study sought to provide insights regarding the feasibility of performing complex bifurcation stenting with Magmaris magnesium alloy bioresorbable scaffolds (Biotronik, Bulach, Switzerland). Twenty-five New Zealand White rabbits underwent stenting of non-diseased aorto-iliac bifurcations with the Magmaris using provisional (PS; n=5), culotte (n=6), modified T (n=6), or T and protrusion (TAP, n=8) stenting techniques. Angiography, optical coherence tomography and micro-computed tomography were performed. Angiographic results were good without evidence of side branch (SB) compromise. In 9/25 procedures, strut fractures were identified with minimal luminal compromise in two cases. PS opened the SB optimally without evidence of scaffold compromise. Culotte resulted in complete bifurcation coverage and good scaffold expansion; single strut fractures were present in three out of six and double fractures in one out of six procedures. Modified T and TAP resulted in complete bifurcation coverage, minimal neocarina double-strut layers and good expansion. In two out of six modified T procedures, strut fractures were present with SB scaffold deformity present in an additional two out of six procedures. In three out of eight TAP procedures, strut fractures were present without compromising overall scaffold integrity. Bifurcation stenting using Magmaris appears feasible. PS with additional TAP whenever needed seems a reasonable approach. Whenever a two-stent technique is planned, TAP appears most favourable whilst modified T and culotte stenting should probably be avoided.

  15. Drug addict deaths in the Nordic countries: a study based on medicolegally examined cases in the five Nordic countries in 1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steentoft, Anni; Teige, Brita; Holmgren, Per

    1996-01-01

    The study includes medicolegally examined deaths among drug addicts in 1991 in the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. A common definition of ‘drug addict’ was applied by the participating countries. The greatest number of drug addict deaths per 105 inhabitants...... was observed in Denmark followed, in descending order by Norway, Sweden, Finland and finally Iceland with only four deaths. The main difference between the countries was found in the number of fatal poisonings. The distribution according to geographical regions showed that about half of all drug addict deaths...

  16. Backward Bifurcation in a Cholera Model: A Case Study of Outbreak in Zimbabwe and Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sandeep; Kumari, Nitu

    In this paper, a nonlinear deterministic model is proposed with a saturated treatment function. The expression of the basic reproduction number for the proposed model was obtained. The global dynamics of the proposed model was studied using the basic reproduction number and theory of dynamical systems. It is observed that proposed model exhibits backward bifurcation as multiple endemic equilibrium points exist when R0 cholera in the community. We also obtain a unique endemic equilibria when R0 > 1. The global stability of unique endemic equilibria is performed using the geometric approach. An extensive numerical study is performed to support our analytical results. Finally, we investigate two major cholera outbreaks, Zimbabwe (2008-09) and Haiti (2010), with the help of the present study.

  17. Study of Heat Flux Threshold and Perturbation Effect on Transport Barrier Formation Based on Bifurcation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatthong, B.; Onjun, T.; Imbeaux, F.; Sarazin, Y.; Strugarek, A.; Picha, R.; Poolyarat, N.

    2011-06-01

    Full text: Formation of transport barrier in fusion plasma is studied using a simple one-field bistable S-curve bifurcation model. This model is characterized by an S-line with two stable branches corresponding to the low (L) and high (H) confinement modes, connected by an unstable branch. Assumptions used in this model are such that the reduction in anomalous transport is caused by v E velocity shear effect and also this velocity shear is proportional to pressure gradient. In this study, analytical and numerical approaches are used to obtain necessary conditions for transport barrier formation, i.e. the ratio of anomalous over neoclassical coefficients and heat flux thresholds which must be exceeded. Several profiles of heat sources are considered in this work including constant, Gaussian, and hyperbolic tangent forms. Moreover, the effect of perturbation in heat flux is investigated with respect to transport barrier formation

  18. Nordic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    This Box Set NORDIC LANDSCAPE presents Nordic Territories, a project by Rasmus Hjortshøj, exploring the man-made landscapes of the coastal territories and the entanglement of society and nature in times where it is no longer merely mankind subjected to nature, but where nature is equally being...... territories is not only their transient nature, but also the warm currents of the Gulf Stream making these northern shorelines habitable for human settlements....

  19. A bifurcation study to guide the design of a landing gear with a combined uplock/downlock mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, James A C; Lowenberg, Mark H; Neild, Simon A; Krauskopf, Bernd

    2014-12-08

    This paper discusses the insights that a bifurcation analysis can provide when designing mechanisms. A model, in the form of a set of coupled steady-state equations, can be derived to describe the mechanism. Solutions to this model can be traced through the mechanism's state versus parameter space via numerical continuation, under the simultaneous variation of one or more parameters. With this approach, crucial features in the response surface, such as bifurcation points, can be identified. By numerically continuing these points in the appropriate parameter space, the resulting bifurcation diagram can be used to guide parameter selection and optimization. In this paper, we demonstrate the potential of this technique by considering an aircraft nose landing gear, with a novel locking strategy that uses a combined uplock/downlock mechanism. The landing gear is locked when in the retracted or deployed states. Transitions between these locked states and the unlocked state (where the landing gear is a mechanism) are shown to depend upon the positions of two fold point bifurcations. By performing a two-parameter continuation, the critical points are traced to identify operational boundaries. Following the variation of the fold points through parameter space, a minimum spring stiffness is identified that enables the landing gear to be locked in the retracted state. The bifurcation analysis also shows that the unlocking of a retracted landing gear should use an unlock force measure, rather than a position indicator, to de-couple the effects of the retraction and locking actuators. Overall, the study demonstrates that bifurcation analysis can enhance the understanding of the influence of design choices over a wide operating range where nonlinearity is significant.

  20. A bifurcation study to guide the design of a landing gear with a combined uplock/downlock mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, James A. C.; Lowenberg, Mark H.; Neild, Simon A.; Krauskopf, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the insights that a bifurcation analysis can provide when designing mechanisms. A model, in the form of a set of coupled steady-state equations, can be derived to describe the mechanism. Solutions to this model can be traced through the mechanism's state versus parameter space via numerical continuation, under the simultaneous variation of one or more parameters. With this approach, crucial features in the response surface, such as bifurcation points, can be identified. By numerically continuing these points in the appropriate parameter space, the resulting bifurcation diagram can be used to guide parameter selection and optimization. In this paper, we demonstrate the potential of this technique by considering an aircraft nose landing gear, with a novel locking strategy that uses a combined uplock/downlock mechanism. The landing gear is locked when in the retracted or deployed states. Transitions between these locked states and the unlocked state (where the landing gear is a mechanism) are shown to depend upon the positions of two fold point bifurcations. By performing a two-parameter continuation, the critical points are traced to identify operational boundaries. Following the variation of the fold points through parameter space, a minimum spring stiffness is identified that enables the landing gear to be locked in the retracted state. The bifurcation analysis also shows that the unlocking of a retracted landing gear should use an unlock force measure, rather than a position indicator, to de-couple the effects of the retraction and locking actuators. Overall, the study demonstrates that bifurcation analysis can enhance the understanding of the influence of design choices over a wide operating range where nonlinearity is significant. PMID:25484601

  1. Factors associated with pharmacy students' attitudes towards learning communication skills - A study among Nordic pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensberg, Karin; Brandlistuen, Ragnhild Eek; Björnsdottir, Ingunn; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2018-03-01

    Good communication skills are essential for pharmacy students to help patients with their medicines. Students' attitudes towards communication skills learning will influence their willingness to engage in communication training, and their skills when dealing with patients later on in their professional life. The aim of this study was to explore Nordic pharmacy students' attitudes to communication skills learning, and the associations between those attitudes and various student characteristics. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted in 11 Nordic pharmacy schools between April 2015 and January 2016. The overall response rate for the final study population was 77% (367 out of 479 students). Pharmacy students who had fulfilled all mandatory communication training and most of their pharmacy practical experience periods were included. The communication skills attitudes scale was the main outcome. Linear regression models were fitted with the outcome variable and various student characteristics as the predictors, using generalized estimating equations to account for clustering within pharmacy schools. Nordic pharmacy students in general have moderately positive attitudes towards learning communication skills. Positive attitudes towards learning communication skills among pharmacy students were associated with being female (β adjusted 0.42, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.63, p skills improvement (β adjusted 0.50, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.71, pskills are not the result of personality (β adjusted  -0.24, 95% CI -0.44 to -0.04, p=0.017). The study provides important information for faculty members responsible for curriculum improvements and teachers to refine their teaching of communication skills. From this, the teaching can be better tailored to suit different students. The students' chances of being able to effectively help patients in the future will be increased by that. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A healthy Nordic diet and physical performance in old age: findings from the longitudinal Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Männistö, Satu; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Kanerva, Noora; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; Eriksson, Johan G

    2016-03-14

    Epidemiological studies have shown that a number of nutrients are associated with better physical performance. However, little is still known about the role of the whole diet, particularly a healthy Nordic diet, in relation to physical performance. Therefore, we examined whether a healthy Nordic diet was associated with measures of physical performance 10 years later. We studied 1072 participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Participants' diet was assessed using a validated 128-item FFQ at the mean age of 61 years, and a priori-defined Nordic diet score (NDS) was calculated. The score included Nordic fruits and berries, vegetables, cereals, PUFA:SFA and trans-fatty acids ratio, low-fat milk, fish, red and processed meat, total fat and alcohol. At the mean age of 71 years, participants' physical performance was measured using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT), and an overall SFT score was calculated. Women in the highest fourth of the NDS had on average 5 points higher SFT score compared with those in the lowest fourth (P for trend 0·005). No such association was observed in men. Women with the highest score had 17% better result in the 6-min walk test, 16% better arm curl and 20% better chair stand results compared with those with the lowest score (all P valueshealthy Nordic diet was associated with better overall physical performance among women and might help decrease the risk of disability in old age.

  3. Hamstring Muscle Use in Females During Hip-Extension and the Nordic Hamstring Exercise: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, Daniel J; Bourne, Matthew N; Williams, Morgan D; Al Najjar, Aiman; Shield, Anthony J

    2018-04-23

    Study Design Cross-sectional study. Background Understanding hamstring muscle activation patterns in resistance training exercises may have implications for the design of strength training and injury prevention programs. Unfortunately, surface electromyography studies have reported conflicting results with regard to hamstring muscle activation patterns in women. Objectives To determine the spatial patterns of hamstring muscle activity during the 45º hip-extension and Nordic hamstring exercises, in females using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Methods Six recreationally active females with no history of lower limb injury underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on both thighs before and immediately after 5 sets of 6 bilateral eccentric contractions of the 45º hip-extension or Nordic exercises. Using fMRI, the transverse (T2) relaxation times were measured from pre- and post- exercise scans and the percentage increase in T2 was used as an index of muscle activation. Results fMRI revealed a significantly higher biceps femoris long head (BF LongHead ) to semitendinosus ratio during the 45° hip-extension than the Nordic exercise (P = .028). The T2 increase after 45° hip-extension was greater for BF LongHead (P Nordic exercise, the T2 increase for semitendinosus was greater than that of BF ShortHead (P Nordic exercise preferentially recruits that muscle while the hip extension more evenly activates all of the biarticular hamstrings. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 23 Apr 2018. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.7748.

  4. Studies on Solid Wood. IV. Comparison of Nordic Pine Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørkmann, Anders

    2002-01-01

    The methods developed previously for measuring stiffness, creep, and axial compression of solid wood have been used for a comparative study of three specimens of pine (Pinus silvestris), collected at different latitudes in Scandinavia (North Sweden, South Finland and Denmark). Axial samples taken...

  5. Emergency peripartum hysterectomy: results from the prospective Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study (NOSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Maija; Tapper, Anna-Maija; Colmorn, Lotte Berdiin; Lindqvist, Pelle G; Klungsøyr, Kari; Krebs, Lone; Børdahl, Per E; Gottvall, Karin; Källén, Karin; Bjarnadóttir, Ragnheiður I; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Gissler, Mika

    2015-07-01

    To assess the prevalence and risk factors of emergency peripartum hysterectomy. Nordic collaborative study. 605 362 deliveries across the five Nordic countries. We collected data prospectively from patients undergoing emergency peripartum hysterectomy within 7 days of delivery from medical birth registers and hospital discharge registers. Control populations consisted of all other women delivering on the same units during the same time period. Emergency peripartum hysterectomy rate. The total number of emergency peripartum hysterectomies reached 211, yielding an incidence rate of 3.5/10 000 (95% confidence interval 3.0-4.0) births. Finland had the highest prevalence (5.1) and Norway the lowest (2.9). Primary indications included an abnormally invasive placenta (n = 91, 43.1%), atonic bleeding (n = 69, 32.7%), uterine rupture (n = 31, 14.7%), other bleeding disorders (n = 12, 5.7%), and other indications (n = 8, 3.8%). The delivery mode was cesarean section in nearly 80% of cases. Previous cesarean section was reported in 45% of women. Both preterm and post-term birth increased the risk for emergency peripartum hysterectomy. The number of stillbirths was substantially high (70/1000), but the case fatality rate stood at 0.47% (one death, maternal mortality rate 0.17/100 000 deliveries). A combination of prospective data collected from clinicians and information gathered from register-based databases can yield valuable data, improving the registration accuracy for rare, near-miss cases. However, proper and uniform clinical guidelines for the use of well-defined international diagnostic codes are still needed. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. The Nordic EIA-effectiveness workshop. A contribution to the international study of effectiveness of environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilden, M.; Laitinen, R. [eds.

    1995-09-01

    The Nordic EIA-effectiveness (Environmental Impact Assessment) workshop met in Tuusula, Finland 10-12 april 1994. EIA-experts from all Nordic countries and Canada discussed cases in which environmental impact assessment procedures had been applied with varying success. Nordic cases are included in the proceedings as separate chapters. The problems and successes of diverse cases allowed experts to identify key issues and avenues for future development. The reports of the working groups cover all stages of the EIA-process and provide reference material for future studies. `How can we ensure that EIA, which now has legal backing in all Nordic countries, becomes an efficient way to improve public participation and to avoid deleterious changes in the environment?` is the basic theme. Several recommendations were put forward for building on the results of the workshop, i.e. to: 1) elaborate and consolidate the criteria developed by the working groups and cross reference with the results of other international workshops; 2) review their application of EIA capacity building in countries with transitional economies; 3) test the proposed guidelines of good practice in EIAs in Nordic countries and disseminate the results; establish ecosystem specific approaches for sensitive and distinctive bioregions; and 5) focus on the Arctic as a priority area shared by eight northern countries and covered by a regional environmental strategy. (AB)

  7. Parents' labour market participation as a predictor of children's health and wellbeing: a comparative study in five Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt Pedersen, C; Madsen, Mette

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between parents' labour market participation and children's health and wellbeing. DESIGN: Parent reported data on health and wellbeing among their children from the survey Health and welfare among children and adolescents in the Nordic countries, 1996. A cross...... significant. Health outcomes and parents' labour market participation were associated in all five countries. CONCLUSIONS: Children in families with no parents employed in the past six months had higher prevalence of ill health and low wellbeing in the five Nordic countries despite differences in employment...... sectional study of random samples of children and their families in five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). PARTICIPANTS: A total of 10 317 children aged 2-17 years. RESULTS: Children in families with no parents employed in the past six months had higher prevalence...

  8. Reclamation of natural, seminatural and agricultural environments following radioactive contamination - A Nordic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liland, A.; Strand, P.; Skuterud, L.

    2002-01-01

    A range of methods, from simple cost benefits analyses to sophisticated decision making systems, are available for assessing the net countermeasure benefits to man contamination of different environments. As part of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Programme, an attempt was made to develop a strategy for mid- and long-term reclamation of contaminated cultivated agricultural environments, animals, forests, freshwater and fish, and urban environments. The study focused on the long-lived nuclides 137 Cs and 90 Sr. Also social implications and a sound environmental management should be addressed in the selection of a countermeasure strategy. The considerations of the cultivated agricultural environment included a model of a Nordic environment, with different soil types, land use and crops. When considering countermeasure strategies for animals, both transfer and production rates have to be compared, as the transfer of radiocaesium to animals in cultivated areas is low compared to the transfer in unimproved areas or to wild animals. The countermeasures considered for freshwater were: use of alternative water supply, and ion exchange method, and for freshwater fish: limiting consumption, brining in households, and wet land and lake liming. In urban environments knowledge on the source strengths, relative dose rate at different locations (indoor, outdoor) due to the deposition on different urban surfaces (roofs, walls, paved areas, trees, bushes etc.) is important. For all environments costs and averted doses were estimated for a fallout scenario giving 1 MBq m -2 of 137 Cs. The effectiveness of the different countermeasures was then compared and reclamation strategies suggested. (author)

  9. Burden of gout in the Nordic region, 1990-2015: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiadaliri, A A; Uhlig, T; Englund, M

    2018-01-29

    To explore the burden of gout in the Nordic region, with a population around 27 million in 2015 distributed across six countries. We used the findings of the 2015 Global Burden of Diseases study to report prevalence and disability associated with gout in the Nordic region. From 1990 to 2015, the number of prevalent gout cases rose by 30% to 252 967 [95% uncertainty interval (UI) 223 478‒287 288] in the Nordic region. In 2015, gout contributed to 7982 (95% UI 5431‒10 800) years lived with disability (YLDs) in the region, an increase of 29% (95% UI 24‒35%) from 1990. While the crude YLD rate of gout increased by 12.9% (95% UI 7.8‒18.1%) between 1990 and 2015, the age-standardized YLD rate remained stable. Gout was ranked as the 63rd leading cause of total YLDs in the region in 2015, with the highest rank in men aged 55-59 years (38th leading cause of YLDs). The corresponding rank at the global level was 94. Of 195 countries studied, four Nordic countries [Greenland (2nd), Iceland (12th), Finland (14th), and Sweden (15th)] were among the top 15 countries with the highest age-standardized YLD rate of gout. The burden of gout is rising in the Nordic region. Gout's contribution to the total burden of diseases in the region is more significant than the global average. Expected increases in gout burden owing to population growth and ageing call for stronger preventive and therapeutic strategies for gout management in Nordic countries.

  10. The Nordic Mobile Telecommunication Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2000-01-01

    A study of the historic role of the Nordic mobile telephone and telecommunications cluster and its background in both coordinated innovation policies and societal developments in Scandinavia.......A study of the historic role of the Nordic mobile telephone and telecommunications cluster and its background in both coordinated innovation policies and societal developments in Scandinavia....

  11. CISG Nordic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    CISG Nordic er en forskningsdatabase hvor den seneste information om den internationale købelovs anvendelse i de Nordiske lande offentliggøres. På hjemmesiden indgår retsafgørelser, bibliografiske noter, FN dokumenter m.m.......CISG Nordic er en forskningsdatabase hvor den seneste information om den internationale købelovs anvendelse i de Nordiske lande offentliggøres. På hjemmesiden indgår retsafgørelser, bibliografiske noter, FN dokumenter m.m....

  12. CISG Nordic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    CISG Nordic er en forskningsdatabase hvor den seneste information om den internationale købelovs anvendelse i de Nordiske lande offentliggøres. På hjemmesiden indgår retsafgørelser, bibliografiske noter, FN dokumenter m.m.......CISG Nordic er en forskningsdatabase hvor den seneste information om den internationale købelovs anvendelse i de Nordiske lande offentliggøres. På hjemmesiden indgår retsafgørelser, bibliografiske noter, FN dokumenter m.m....

  13. The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study: a study of complete uterine rupture, abnormally invasive placenta, peripartum hysterectomy, and severe blood loss at delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmorn, Lotte B; Petersen, Kathrine B; Jakobsson, Maija; Lindqvist, Pelle G; Klungsoyr, Kari; Källen, Karin; Bjarnadottir, Ragnheidur I; Tapper, Anna-Maija; Børdahl, Per E; Gottvall, Karin; Thurn, Lars; Gissler, Mika; Krebs, Lone; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2015-07-01

    To assess the rates and characteristics of women with complete uterine rupture, abnormally invasive placenta, peripartum hysterectomy, and severe blood loss at delivery in the Nordic countries. Prospective, Nordic collaboration. The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study (NOSS) collected cases of severe obstetric complications in the Nordic countries from April 2009 to August 2012. Cases were reported by clinicians at the Nordic maternity units and retrieved from medical birth registers, hospital discharge registers, and transfusion databases by using International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision codes on diagnoses and the Nordic Medico-Statistical Committee Classification of Surgical Procedure codes. Rates of the studied complications and possible risk factors among parturients in the Nordic countries. The studied complications were reported in 1019 instances among 605 362 deliveries during the study period. The reported rate of severe blood loss at delivery was 11.6/10 000 deliveries, complete uterine rupture was 5.6/10 000 deliveries, abnormally invasive placenta was 4.6/10 000 deliveries, and peripartum hysterectomy was 3.5/10 000 deliveries. Of the women, 25% had two or more complications. Women with complications were more often >35 years old, overweight, with a higher parity, and a history of cesarean delivery compared with the total population. The studied obstetric complications are rare. Uniform definitions and valid reporting are essential for international comparisons. The main risk factors include previous cesarean section. The detailed information collected in the NOSS database provides a basis for epidemiologic studies, audits, and educational activities. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Parent Attitudes to Children's L1 Maintenance. A Cross-Sectional Study of Immigrant Groups in the Nordic Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmen, Anne; And Others

    This paper focuses on parents' attitudes about their children's maintenance of their native language (L1). It is part of an inter-nordic study of immigrant languages between generation one and generation two, that interviewed 276 parents of North American, Finnish, Turkish, and Vietnamese origin, residing in Denmark, Norway, Finland, and Sweden.…

  15. The Heritability of Prostate Cancer in the Nordic Twin Study of Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bornemann Hjelmborg, Jacob; Scheike, Thomas; Holst, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer is thought to be the most heritable cancer, although little is known about how this genetic contribution varies across age. Methods: To address this question, we undertook the world’s largest prospective study in the Nordic Twin Study of Cancer cohort, including 18...... risk and liability. Results: The cumulative risk of prostate cancer was similar to that of the background population. The cumulative risk for twins whose co-twin was diagnosed with prostate cancer was greater for MZ than for DZ twins across all ages. Among concordantly affected pairs, the time between...... diagnoses was significantly shorter for MZ than DZ pairs (median 3.8 versus 6.5 years, respectively). Genetic differences contributed substantially to variation in both the risk and the liability (heritability=58% (95% CI 52%–63%) of developing prostate cancer. The relative contribution of genetic factors...

  16. Energetics and monsoon bifurcations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Ashwin K.

    2017-01-01

    Monsoons involve increases in dry static energy (DSE), with primary contributions from increased shortwave radiation and condensation of water vapor, compensated by DSE export via horizontal fluxes in monsoonal circulations. We introduce a simple box-model characterizing evolution of the DSE budget to study nonlinear dynamics of steady-state monsoons. Horizontal fluxes of DSE are stabilizing during monsoons, exporting DSE and hence weakening the monsoonal circulation. By contrast latent heat addition (LHA) due to condensation of water vapor destabilizes, by increasing the DSE budget. These two factors, horizontal DSE fluxes and LHA, are most strongly dependent on the contrast in tropospheric mean temperature between land and ocean. For the steady-state DSE in the box-model to be stable, the DSE flux should depend more strongly on the temperature contrast than LHA; stronger circulation then reduces DSE and thereby restores equilibrium. We present conditions for this to occur. The main focus of the paper is describing conditions for bifurcation behavior of simple models. Previous authors presented a minimal model of abrupt monsoon transitions and argued that such behavior can be related to a positive feedback called the `moisture advection feedback'. However, by accounting for the effect of vertical lapse rate of temperature on the DSE flux, we show that bifurcations are not a generic property of such models despite these fluxes being nonlinear in the temperature contrast. We explain the origin of this behavior and describe conditions for a bifurcation to occur. This is illustrated for the case of the July-mean monsoon over India. The default model with mean parameter estimates does not contain a bifurcation, but the model admits bifurcation as parameters are varied.

  17. The Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Slaug, Bjørn; Brandt, Åse

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses development of a content valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients and their home environments. The instrument was translated...... from the original Swedish version of the Housing Enabler, and adapted according to accessibility norms and guidelines for housing design in Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Iceland. This iterative process involved occupational therapists, architects, building engineers and professional translators......, resulting in the Nordic Housing Enabler. For reliability testing, the sampling strategy and data collection procedures used were the same in all countries. Twenty voluntary occupational therapists, pair-wise but independently from each other, collected data from 106 cases by means of the Nordic Housing...

  18. Perspectives on Nordic Working Life Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ch. Karlsson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to this Thematic Issue on Perspectives on Nordic Working Life Research! It is perhaps not that surprising that a journal called Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies contains many discussions about “Nordic Models”: What is the Nordic Welfare State Model? What has happened to it lately? Is there still one? Has there ever been one? What about the Nordic Industrial Relations Model—is it on its way to be abandoned? And the Nordic Labor Market Model? Or the Nordic Work Environment Model? In contrast, in the Thematic Issue part of this issue of NJWLS Nordic working life research itself is discussed. Editing the issue has led me to some (selfcritical reflections on Nordic working life research—or perhaps rather reflections on the self-image of Nordic working life researchers. We often say that two of the cornerstones of Nordic working life research are the assumption that there is a positive correlation between employee autonomy at work and higher productivity, and that our research tradition is different from those found in other geographical areas (and, implicitly, probably better. Being part of the Nordic tradition, I too have claimed both, but I now think both needs to be qualified and critically discussed. Or rather, the first needs to be qualified and the consequences of the other critically evaluated (...

  19. Bifurcation in a buoyant horizontal laminar jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, Jaywant H.; Das, Debopam; Srinivasan, J.

    2000-06-01

    The trajectory of a laminar buoyant jet discharged horizontally has been studied. The experimental observations were based on the injection of pure water into a brine solution. Under certain conditions the jet has been found to undergo bifurcation. The bifurcation of the jet occurs in a limited domain of Grashof number and Reynolds number. The regions in which the bifurcation occurs has been mapped in the Reynolds number Grashof number plane. There are three regions where bifurcation does not occur. The various mechanisms that prevent bifurcation have been proposed.

  20. Evaluation of the impact of carotid artery bifurcation angle on hemodynamics by use of computational fluid dynamics: a simulation and volunteer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saho, Tatsunori; Onishi, Hideo

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the hemodynamics of carotid artery bifurcation with various geometries using simulated and volunteer models based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was analyzed by use of OpenFOAM. The velocity distribution, streamline, and wall shear stress (WSS) were evaluated in a simulated model with known bifurcation angles (30°, 40°, 50°, 60°, derived from patients' data) and in three-dimensional (3D) healthy volunteer models. Separated flow was observed at the outer side of the bifurcation, and large bifurcation models represented upstream transfer of the point. Local WSS values at the outer bifurcation [both simulated (100 Pa). The bifurcation angle had a significant negative correlation with the WSS value (p<0.05). The results of this study show that the carotid artery bifurcation angle is related to the WSS value. This suggests that hemodynamic stress can be estimated based on the carotid artery geometry. The construction of a clinical database for estimation of developing atherosclerosis is warranted.

  1. Parents' labour market participation as a predictor of children's health and wellbeing: a comparative study in five Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt Pedersen, C; Madsen, M

    2002-11-01

    To study the association between parents' labour market participation and children's health and wellbeing. Parent reported data on health and wellbeing among their children from the survey Health and welfare among children and adolescents in the Nordic countries, 1996. A cross sectional study of random samples of children and their families in five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). A total of 10 317 children aged 2-17 years. Children in families with no parents employed in the past six months had higher prevalence of recurrent psychosomatic symptoms (odds ratio 1.67, 95% confidence intervals 1.16 to 2.40), chronic illness (odds ratio 1.35, 95% confidence intervals 1.00 to 1.84), and low wellbeing (odds ratio 1.47, 95% confidence intervals 1.12 to 1.94). Social class, family type, parents' immigrant status, gender and age of the child, respondent, and country were included as confounders. When social class, family type and the parents' immigrant status (one or more born in the Nordic country versus both born elsewhere) were introduced into the model, the odds ratios were reduced but were still statistically significant. Health outcomes and parents' labour market participation were associated in all five countries. Children in families with no parents employed in the past six months had higher prevalence of ill health and low wellbeing in the five Nordic countries despite differences in employment rates and social benefits.

  2. Laboratory study of subjective perceptions to low temperature heating systems with exhaust ventilation in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Quan; Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2017-01-01

    Given the global trends of rising energy demand and the increasing utilization of low-grade renewable energy, low-temperature heating systems can play key roles in improving building energy efficiency while providing a comfortable indoor environment. To meet the need to retrofit existing buildings...... in Nordic countries for greater energy efficiency, this study focused on human subjects’ thermal sensation, thermal comfort, thermal acceptability, draft acceptability, and perceived air quality when three low-temperature heating systems were used: conventional radiator, ventilation radiator, or floor...... heating with exhaust ventilation. Human subject tests were carried out in the climate chamber at the Technical University of Denmark. In total, 24 human subjects, 12 females and 12 males, participated in the tests during the winter season. The results show that no significant differences in thermal...

  3. Familial Risk and Heritability of Colorectal Cancer in the Nordic Twin Study of Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, Rebecca E; Möller, Sören; Passarelli, Michael N

    2017-01-01

    included 39,990 monozygotic and 61,443 same-sex dizygotic twins from the Nordic Twin Study of Cancer. We compared each cancer's risk in twins of affected co-twins relative to the cohort risk (familial risk ratio; FRR). We then estimated the proportion of variation in risk that could be attributed......BACKGROUND & AIMS: We analyzed data from twins to determine how much the familial risk of colorectal cancer can be attributed to genetic factors vs environment. We also examined whether heritability is distinct for colon vs rectal cancer, given evidence of distinct etiologies. METHODS: Our data set...... to genetic factors (heritability). RESULTS: From earliest registration in 1943 through 2010, 1861 individuals were diagnosed with colon cancer and 1268 with rectal cancer. Monozygotic twins of affected co-twins had an FRR for colorectal cancer of 3.1 (95% CI, 2.4-3.8) relative to the cohort risk. Dizygotic...

  4. Bifurcations sights, sounds, and mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Takashi; Kokubu, Hiroshi; Tokunaga, Ryuji

    1993-01-01

    Bifurcation originally meant "splitting into two parts. " Namely, a system under­ goes a bifurcation when there is a qualitative change in the behavior of the sys­ tem. Bifurcation in the context of dynamical systems, where the time evolution of systems are involved, has been the subject of research for many scientists and engineers for the past hundred years simply because bifurcations are interesting. A very good way of understanding bifurcations would be to see them first and study theories second. Another way would be to first comprehend the basic concepts and theories and then see what they look like. In any event, it is best to both observe experiments and understand the theories of bifurcations. This book attempts to provide a general audience with both avenues toward understanding bifurcations. Specifically, (1) A variety of concrete experimental results obtained from electronic circuits are given in Chapter 1. All the circuits are very simple, which is crucial in any experiment. The circuits, howev...

  5. Taking part in Nordic collaboration; nursing students' experiences and perceptions from a learning perspective: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerbotn, Margareta; Kneck, Åsa; Hovland, Olav Johannes; Elrond, Malene; Pedersen, Ingrid; Lejonqvist, Gun-Britt; Dulavik, Johild; Ecklon, Tove; Nilsson, Inga-Lill; Sigurdardottir, Árún K

    2015-05-01

    Nordic networking of different kinds has a long tradition aiming to increase collaboration and understanding between citizens in different countries. Cultural competence in relation to health care and nursing is important for clinical nurses and is a central issue in nurse education. To gain an understanding of what nurse students experienced and learned during an intensive course in diabetes together with students and nurse educators from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and the Faroe Islands. In 2012, an intensive course within the Nordic network, Nordkvist, was conducted in Faroe Islands with the theme "Nursing - to live a good life with diabetes". To answer the objective of the study, 26 students conducted written reflections based on two questions. The data was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Through meetings with nurse students and educators from the Nordic countries the intensive course strengthened the students' identification with the nursing profession. The students gained new perspectives on diabetes, such as how complex it can be to live with a chronic illness. Because of the difficulties in understanding one another and because of different mother tongues, the students gained a better understanding of patients' vulnerability in relation to hospital jargon and how it felt to be in an unfamiliar place. The intensive course increased the students' personal and professional growth, cross-cultural competence, and their identification with nursing. Students' understanding of health care in the Nordic countries improved as similarities and differences were recognized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Unstable Modes and Order Parameters of Bistable Signaling Pathways at Saddle-Node Bifurcations: A Theoretical Study Based on Synergetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till D. Frank

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling has become an indispensable part of systems biology which is a discipline that has become increasingly popular in recent years. In this context, our understanding of bistable signaling pathways in terms of mathematical modeling is of particular importance because such bistable components perform crucial functions in living cells. Bistable signaling pathways can act as switches or memory functions and can determine cell fate. In the present study, properties of mathematical models of bistable signaling pathways are examined from the perspective of synergetics, a theory of self-organization and pattern formation founded by Hermann Haken. At the heart of synergetics is the concept of so-called unstable modes or order parameters that determine the behavior of systems as a whole close to bifurcation points. How to determine these order parameters for bistable signaling pathways at saddle-node bifurcation points is shown. The procedure is outlined in general and an explicit example is worked out in detail.

  7. 2D nonlocal versus 3D bifurcation studies for biaxially loaded plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benallal, A.; Tvergaard, Viggo

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to analyse how a two-dimensional second gradient plasticity model is able to reproduce the three-dimensional bifurcation behaviour for a biaxially loaded flat plate. While it is found that the simple model used here is able to capture them qualitatively for the ...

  8. The Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, T.; Nygren, C.; Slaug, B.

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses development of a content-valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients, and their home environments. The instrument was transla......This study addresses development of a content-valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients, and their home environments. The instrument...... was translated from the original Swedish version of the Housing Enabler, and adapted according to accessibility norms and guidelines for housing design in Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland. This iterative process involved occupational therapists, architects, building engineers, and professional translators......, resulting in the Nordic Housing Enabler. For reliability testing, the sampling strategy and data collection procedures used were the same in all countries. Twenty voluntary occupational therapists, pair-wise but independently of each other, collected data from 106 cases by means of the Nordic Housing...

  9. Hopf bifurcation in an Internet congestion control model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunguang; Chen Guanrong; Liao Xiaofeng; Yu Juebang

    2004-01-01

    We consider an Internet model with a single link accessed by a single source, which responds to congestion signals from the network, and study bifurcation of such a system. By choosing the gain parameter as a bifurcation parameter, we prove that Hopf bifurcation occurs. The stability of bifurcating periodic solutions and the direction of the Hopf bifurcation are determined by applying the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. Finally, a numerical example is given to verify the theoretical analysis

  10. Adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations in a Nordic population with metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Svandis Erna; Brader, Lea; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg

    2013-01-01

    The Nordic countries collaborate in setting recommendations for intake of nutrients by publishing the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR). Studies exploring how well the Nordic population adheres to the NNR are limited and none are available for the metabolic syndrome (MetS) subgroup...

  11. Study of intermittent bifurcations and chaos in boost PFC converters by nonlinear discrete models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hao; Ma Xikui; Xue Bianling; Liu Weizeng

    2005-01-01

    This paper mainly deals with nonlinear phenomena like intermittent bifurcations and chaos in boost PFC converters under peak-current control mode. Two nonlinear models in the form of discrete maps are derived to describe precisely the nonlinear dynamics of boost PFC converters from two points of view, i.e., low- and high-frequency regimes. Based on the presented discrete models, both the evolution of intermittent behavior and the periodicity of intermittency are investigated in detail from the fast and slow-scale aspects, respectively. Numerical results show that the occurrence of intermittent bifurcations and chaos with half one line period is one of the most distinguished dynamical characteristics. Finally, we make some instructive conclusions, which prove to be helpful in improving the performances of practical circuits

  12. Effects of school meals based on the New Nordic Diet on intake of signature foods: a randomised controlled trial. The OPUS School Meal Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford

    2015-01-01

    A New Nordic Diet (NND) was developed in the context of the Danish OPUS Study (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet). Health, gastronomic potential, sustainability and Nordic identity were crucial principles of the NND. The aim......) in random order. The entire diet was recorded over 7 consecutive days using a validated Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children. The NND resulted in higher intakes during the entire week (% increase) of root vegetables (116 (95 % CI 1.93, 2.42)), cabbage (26 (95 % CI 1.08, 1.47)), legumes (22 (95...

  13. Flow studies in canine artery bifurcations using a numerical simulation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X Y; Collins, M W; Jones, C J

    1992-11-01

    Three-dimensional flows through canine femoral bifurcation models were predicted under physiological flow conditions by solving numerically the time-dependent three-dimensional Navier-stokes equations. In the calculations, two models were assumed for the blood, those of (a) a Newtonian fluid, and (b) a non-Newtonian fluid obeying the power law. The blood vessel wall was assumed to be rigid this being the only approximation to the prediction model. The numerical procedure utilized a finite volume approach on a finite element mesh to discretize the equations, and the code used (ASTEC) incorporated the SIMPLE velocity-pressure algorithm in performing the calculations. The predicted velocity profiles were in good qualitative agreement with the in vivo measurements recently obtained by Jones et al. The non-Newtonian effects on the bifurcation flow field were also investigated, and no great differences in velocity profiles were observed. This indicated that the non-Newtonian characteristics of the blood might not be an important factor in determining the general flow patterns for these bifurcations, but could have local significance. Current work involves modeling wall distensibility in an empirically valid manner. Predictions accommodating these will permit a true quantitative comparison with experiment.

  14. Nordic Luther Research in Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bo Kristian

    2008-01-01

    Luther research in the Nordic countries is characterised by both continuation and discussion of its own legacy. Finnish Luther studies have a prominent position here, but are by no means the only actors in Nordic Luther research. Giving an overview of Nordic Luther research in the last decade......, the article selects four main topics that have been the focus of special attention: politics and ethics, Communicatio idiomatum  and Luther's view on language, Luther as preacher, and Luther and the gift. The article concludes with some comments on the continuing role of creation theology, so strongly...

  15. The challenges of military medical education and training for physicians and nurses in the Nordic countries - an interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonesson, Linda; Boffard, Kenneth; Lundberg, Lars; Rydmark, Martin; Karlgren, Klas

    2017-04-11

    Development and use of e-learning has not taken place to the same extent in military medicine in the Nordic countries. The aim was to explore the similarities and differences in education and training in military medicine for health professionals in the Nordic countries, and more specifically to identify the specific challenges regarding education and training of military medicine, and how e-learning is used at present and the opportunities for the future. Key educators within military medicine in the Nordic countries, as approved by the respective Surgeons General, were interviewed and the interviews were analyzed using content analysis. The data showed that all Nordic countries cooperate in the field of military medical training to some extent. The models of recruitment and employment of health professionals differed as well as the degree of political support. These differences affected the ability for health professionals to gain actual experience from the military environment. To improve the quality of medical education and training, attempts were made to recruit physicians. The recruitment of physicians was considered a challenge which had resulted in disruptions of courses, training programs and maintenance of accreditation. The Nordic countries were described as having commonalities in the military medical systems and common needs for international collaboration within training, but differing in the range of education and training. Gaps were identified in methods for transferring outcomes from education into practice, as well as regarding evaluation and feedback of outcomes to military medicine. The educational tradition was described as oriented towards practical skills training without requirements on pedagogical education of educators. The results confirmed previous studies showing that e-learning was underutilized. Contextual understanding and experience of healthcare were seen as crucial factors for successful e-learning development. Extended Nordic

  16. Nordic Branding Podcast 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Reflections on Nordic branding with professor Dannie Kjeldgaard. Why Nordic regionality and why now? What is the dynamics of local/global/glocal/regional?......Reflections on Nordic branding with professor Dannie Kjeldgaard. Why Nordic regionality and why now? What is the dynamics of local/global/glocal/regional?...

  17. Taking part in Nordic collaboration; nursing students' experiences and perceptions from a learning perspective: A qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elrond*, Malene; Westerbotn, Margareta; Kneck, Åsa

    2015-01-01

    . Objective To gain an understanding of what nurse students experienced and learned during an intensive course in diabetes together with students and nurse educators from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and the Faroe Islands. Methods In 2012, an intensive course within the Nordic network, Nordkvist......, was conducted in Faroe Islands with the theme “Nursing — to live a good life with diabetes”. To answer the objective of the study, 26 students conducted written reflections based on two questions. The data was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Through meetings with nurse students...... and educators from the Nordic countries the intensive course strengthened the students' identification with the nursing profession. The students gained new perspectives on diabetes, such as how complex it can be to live with a chronic illness. Because of the difficulties in understanding one another and because...

  18. Genome-wide association study for female fertility in Nordic Red cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, Johanna; Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    cattle. The sub-traits of FTI are: number of inseminations per conception (AIS) in cows (C) and heifers (H), the length in days of the interval from calving to first insemination (ICF) in cows, days from first to last insemination (IFL) in cows and heifers, and 56-day non-return rate (NRR) in cows...... and heifers. The aim of this study was first to identify QTL for FTI by conducting a genome scan for variants associated with fertility index using imputed whole genome sequence data based on 4207 Nordic Red sires, and subsequently analyzing which of the sub-traits were affected by each FTI QTL by associating......). Conclusion This study 1) shows that many markers within FTI QTL regions were significantly associated with both AISH and IFLH, and 2) identified candidate genes for FTI located on BTA6 (GPR125), BTA13 (ANKRD60), BTA15 (GRAMD1B), and BTA24 (ZNF521). It is not known how the genes/variants identified...

  19. Cancer in children and young adults born after assisted reproductive technology: a Nordic cohort study from the Committee of Nordic ART and Safety (CoNARTaS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundh, Karin Jerhamre; Henningsen, Anna-Karina A; Källen, Karin; Bergh, Christina; Romundstad, Liv Bente; Gissler, Mika; Pinborg, Anja; Skjaerven, Rolv; Tiitinen, Aila; Vassard, Ditte; Lannering, Birgitta; Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt

    2014-09-01

    Do children and young adults born after assisted reproductive technology (ART) have an increased risk of cancer? Children born after ART showed no overall increase in the rate of cancer when compared with children born as a result of spontaneous conception. Children born after ART have more adverse perinatal outcomes, i.e. preterm births, low birthweights and birth defects. Previous studies have shown divergent results regarding the risk of cancer among children born after ART. A retrospective Nordic population-based cohort study was performed, comprising all children born after ART in Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Norway between 1982 and 2007. The mean (±standard deviation) follow-up time was 9.5 (4.8) years. Children born after ART (n = 91 796) were compared with a control group of children born after spontaneous conception. This control group was almost 4-fold the size of the ART group (n = 358 419) and matched for parity, year of birth and country. Data on perinatal outcomes and cancer were obtained from the National Medical Birth Registries, the Cancer Registries, the Patient Registries and the Cause of Death Registries. The cancer diagnoses were divided into 12 main groups. Hazard ratios (HRs) and adjusted HR were calculated. Adjustments were carried out for country, maternal age, parity, sex, gestational age and birth defects. There was no significant increase in overall cancer rates among children born after ART when compared with children born after spontaneous conception (adjusted HR 1.08; 95% CI 0.91-1.27). Cancer, of any form, was found among 181 children born after ART (2.0/1000 children, 21.0/100 000 person-years) compared with 638 children born after spontaneous conception (1.8/1000 children, 18.8/100 000 person-years). Leukaemia was the most common type of cancer (n = 278, 0.62/1000 children) but no significantly increased incidence was found among children born after ART. An increased risk was observed for 2 of 12 cancer groups. They were central

  20. Millifluidics as a simple tool to optimize droplet networks: Case study on drop traffic in a bifurcated loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, William S.; Vanapalli, Siva A.

    2014-01-01

    We report that modular millifluidic networks are simpler, more cost-effective alternatives to traditional microfluidic networks, and they can be rapidly generated and altered to optimize designs. Droplet traffic can also be studied more conveniently and inexpensively at the millimeter scale, as droplets are readily visible to the naked eye. Bifurcated loops, ladder networks, and parking networks were made using only Tygon® tubing and plastic T-junction fittings and visualized using an iPod® camera. As a case study, droplet traffic experiments through a millifluidic bifurcated loop were conducted, and the periodicity of drop spacing at the outlet was mapped over a wide range of inlet drop spacing. We observed periodic, intermittent, and aperiodic behaviors depending on the inlet drop spacing. The experimentally observed periodic behaviors were in good agreement with numerical simulations based on the simple network model. Our experiments further identified three main sources of intermittency between different periodic and/or aperiodic behaviors: (1) simultaneous entering and exiting events, (2) channel defects, and (3) equal or nearly equal hydrodynamic resistances in both sides of the bifurcated loop. In cases of simultaneous events and/or channel defects, the range of input spacings where intermittent behaviors are observed depends on the degree of inherent variation in input spacing. Finally, using a time scale analysis of syringe pump fluctuations and experiment observation times, we find that in most cases, more consistent results can be generated in experiments conducted at the millimeter scale than those conducted at the micrometer scale. Thus, millifluidic networks offer a simple means to probe collective interactions due to drop traffic and optimize network geometry to engineer passive devices for biological and material analysis. PMID:25553188

  1. The Nordic financial electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-15

    NordREG is a cooperation of the Nordic energy regulators. The mission is to actively promote legal and institutional framework and conditions necessary for developing the Nordic and European electricity markets. The financial market is an important market for market participants to mitigate their risks. By providing tools for risk management, the financial market contributes to the efficient functioning of both wholesale and end-user markets. NordREG decided during 2009 to undertake a study on the Nordic financial electricity market. The aim of the report is to consider whether any improvements can be made to further increase the efficiency of the Nordic financial electricity market in order to secure an optimal price setting in the wholesale and the end-user markets

  2. Nordic Lighting?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.

    2018-01-01

    The Danish designer Poul Henningsen wrote very elaborated theories of interior lighting from the mid-1920s on. He fought against the cold and reduced light quality of electric bulbs and tried to tame and cultivate this technology by design. He wanted a more rich light for domestic purpose...... worthwhile discussing than other design categories to interpret, whether experience of nature and climatic conditions play a role in Scandinavian Design, as repeatedly stated. This discussion contributes both to understanding of interior lighting and the historiographical critique of Scandinavian Design...... and shaped it through lamp design, colour reflections and differentiated use of several lamps in the room to make a more dim lighting, but with greater variation and softer contrasts. It was a ‘culture’ of lighting, he promoted, but he didn’t saw it as linked to the Nordic countries. His sensibility...

  3. Nordic walking and chronic low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsø, Lars; Hartvigsen, Jan; Puggaard, Lis

    2006-01-01

    activity provide similar benefits. Nordic Walking is a popular and fast growing type of exercise in Northern Europe. Initial studies have demonstrated that persons performing Nordic Walking are able to exercise longer and harder compared to normal walking thereby increasing their cardiovascular metabolism....... Until now no studies have been performed to investigate whether Nordic Walking has beneficial effects in relation to low back pain. The primary aim of this study is to investigate whether supervised Nordic Walking can reduce pain and improve function in a population of chronic low back pain patients...... when compared to unsupervised Nordic Walking and advice to stay active. In addition we investigate whether there is an increase in the cardiovascular metabolism in persons performing supervised Nordic Walking compared to persons who are advised to stay active. Finally, we investigate whether...

  4. Nordic Walking and the Isa Method for Breast Cancer Survivors: Effects on Upper Limb Circumferences and Total Body Extracellular Water - a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Blasio, Andrea; Morano, Teresa; Napolitano, Giorgio; Bucci, Ines; Di Santo, Serena; Gallina, Sabina; Cugusi, Lucia; Di Donato, Francesco; D'Arielli, Alberto; Cianchetti, Ettore

    2016-12-01

    The negative side effects of breast cancer treatments can include upper limb lymphoedema. The growing literature indicates that Nordic walking is an effective discipline against several disease symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine whether introduction to Nordic walking alone is effective against total body extracellular water and upper limb circumferences in breast cancer survivors compared to its combination with a series of specifically created exercises (i.e. the Isa method). 16 breast cancer survivors (49.09 ± 2.24 years) were recruited and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 different training groups. 10 lessons on Nordic walking technique plus the Isa method significantly reduced both extracellular body water and the extracellular-to-total body water ratio (p = 0.01 for both), and also the circumference of the upper limb, (both relaxed arm and forearm circumferences) (p = 0.01 for all), whereas Nordic walking alone did not. Introduction to Nordic walking does not seem to affect lymphoedema in breast cancer survivors. This might be because novice Nordic Walkers do not adequately generate an effective muscular pump through coordination of the alternated bimanual open-close cycle. The Isa method appears to close this gap.

  5. Bifurcation structure of parameter plane for a family of unimodal piecewise smooth maps: Border-collision bifurcation curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushko, Iryna; Agliari, Anna; Gardini, Laura

    2006-01-01

    We study the structure of the 2D bifurcation diagram for a two-parameter family of piecewise smooth unimodal maps f with one break point. Analysing the parameters of the normal form for the border-collision bifurcation of an attracting n-cycle of the map f, we describe the possible kinds of dynamics associated with such a bifurcation. Emergence and role of border-collision bifurcation curves in the 2D bifurcation plane are studied. Particular attention is paid also to the curves of homoclinic bifurcations giving rise to the band merging of pieces of cyclic chaotic intervals

  6. Time pressure among parents in the Nordic countries: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Hrafnhildur; Petzold, Max; Povlsen, Lene

    2014-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of time pressure experienced by parents in the Nordic countries and examine potential gender disparities as well as associations to parents' family and/or living conditions. 5949 parents of children aged 2-17 years from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, participating in the 2011 version of the NordChild study, reported their experience of time pressure when keeping up with duties of everyday life. A postal questionnaire addressed to the most active caretaker of the child, was used for data gathering and logistic regression analysis applied. The mother was regarded as the primary caregiver in 83.9% of the cases. Of the mothers, 14.2% reported that they experienced time pressure "most often", 54.7 % reported "sometimes" and 31.1 % reported they did "not" experience time pressure at all. Time pressure was experienced by 22.2 % of mothers in Sweden, 18.4% in Finland, 13.7% in Norway and 3.9% in Denmark, and could be associated to lack of support, high educational level, financial stress, young child age and working overtime. The mother is regarded as the child's primary caregiver among the vast majority of families in spite of living in societies with gender-equal family policies. The results indicate that time pressure is embedded in everyday life of mainly highly-educated mothers and those experiencing financial stress and/or lack of social support. No conclusion could be made about time pressure from the "normbreaking" fathers participating in the study, but associations were found to financial stress and lack of support.

  7. Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Brandt, Åse

    Development and reliability testing of the Nordic Housing Enabler – an instrument for accessibility assessment of the physical housing. Tina Helle & Åse Brandt University of Lund, Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine (SE) and University College Northern Jutland, Occupational Therapy department (DK......). Danish Centre for Assistive Technology. Abstract. For decades, accessibility to the physical housing environment for people with functional limitations has been of interest politically, professionally and for the users. Guidelines and norms on accessible housing design have gradually been developed......, however, the built environment shows serious deficits when it comes to accessibility. This study addresses development of a content valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of inter-rater reliability, when used in occupational therapy practice. The instrument was translated from...

  8. A school meal study: comparing platewaste and likings of packed lunch and school lunch based on the New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Christensen, Lene M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives: The majority of Danish children do not eat in accordance with the national dietary guidelines. The OPUS School Meal Study is a school-based intervention study testing the health effects of the New Nordic Diet (NND). The aim of this sub-study was to compare edible plate.......0; 119.0). Lunches rated as ‘really bad’ or ‘bad’ in the self-reported likings had more waste than lunches rated ‘really good’ (P

  9. Pierce instability and bifurcating equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, B.B.

    1981-01-01

    The report investigates the connection between equilibrium bifurcations and occurrence of the Pierce instability. Electrons flowing from one ground plane to a second through an ion background possess a countable infinity of static equilibria, of which only one is uniform and force-free. Degeneracy of the uniform and simplest non-uniform equilibria at a certain ground plan separation marks the onset of the Pierce instability, based on a newly derived dispersion relation appropriate to all the equilibria. For large ground plane separations the uniform equilibrium is unstable and the non-uniform equilibrium is stable, the reverse of their stability properties at small separations. Onset of the Pierce instability at the first bifurcation of equilibria persists in more complicated geometries, providing a general criterion for marginal stability. It seems probable that bifurcation analysis can be a useful tool in the overall study of stable beam generation in diodes and transport in finite cavities

  10. Discretizing the transcritical and pitchfork bifurcations – conjugacy results

    KAUST Repository

    Ló czi, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Taylor & Francis. We present two case studies in one-dimensional dynamics concerning the discretization of transcritical (TC) and pitchfork (PF) bifurcations. In the vicinity of a TC or PF bifurcation point and under some natural assumptions

  11. A comparative study of gender pay gaps in nordic countries and eastern european countries

    OpenAIRE

    Weng, Linling

    2007-01-01

    Under the compressed wage structure and generous family policies, Nordic countries have been regarded as leaders of gender equality in terms of low gender pay gaps and high rates of female labor force participation; after the fundamental restructuring of the economic system in Eastern European countries, women have experienced a remarkable change with respect to the labor market positions and economic status facing the increased wage inequality and significant declines in labor force particip...

  12. Adherence to a Healthy Nordic Diet and Risk of Stroke: A Danish Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Camilla Plambeck; Overvad, Kim; Kyrø, Cecilie; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Dahm, Christina Catherine

    2017-02-01

    Specific dietary patterns, including the Mediterranean diet, have been associated with stroke prevention. Our aim was to investigate whether adherence to a healthy Nordic diet, including fish, apples and pears, cabbages, root vegetables, rye bread, and oatmeal, was associated with risk of stroke. Incident cases of stroke among 55 338 men and women from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort were identified from the Danish National Patient Register and verified by review of records. Cases of ischemic stroke were further subclassified based on etiology according to the TOAST classification system (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment). Information on diet was collected at baseline (1993-1997) using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazards ratios of total stroke and subtypes of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. During a median follow-up of 13.5 years, 2283 cases of incident stroke were verified, including 1879 ischemic strokes. Adherence to a healthy Nordic diet, as reflected by a higher Healthy Nordic Food Index score, was associated with a lower risk of stroke. The hazards ratio comparing an index score of 4 to 6 (high adherence) with an index score of 0 to 1 (low adherence) was 0.86 (95% confidence interval 0.76-0.98) for total stroke. Inverse associations were observed for ischemic stroke, including large-artery atherosclerosis. No trend was observed for hemorrhagic stroke; however, a statistically insignificant trend was observed for intracerebral hemorrhage. Our findings suggest that a healthy Nordic diet may be recommended for the prevention of stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Nordic cultural policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity......A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity...

  14. Food waste quantification in primary production - The Nordic countries as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartikainen, Hanna; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Svanes, Erik; Franke, Ulrika

    2018-01-01

    Our understanding of food waste in the food supply chain has increased, but very few studies have been published on food waste in primary production. The overall aims of this study were to quantify the total amount of food waste in primary production in Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark, and to create a framework for how to define and quantify food waste in primary production. The quantification of food waste was based on case studies conducted in the present study and estimates published in scientific literature. The chosen scope of the study was to quantify the amount of edible food (excluding inedible parts like peels and bones) produced for human consumption that did not end up as food. As a result, the quantification was different from the existing guidelines. One of the main differences is that food that ends up as animal feed is included in the present study, whereas this is not the case for the recently launched food waste definition of the FUSIONS project. To distinguish the 'food waste' definition of the present study from the existing definitions and to avoid confusion with established usage of the term, a new term 'side flow' (SF) was introduced as a synonym for food waste in primary production. A rough estimate of the total amount of food waste in primary production in Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark was made using SF and 'FUSIONS Food Waste' (FFW) definitions. The SFs in primary production in the four Nordic countries were an estimated 800,000 tonnes per year with an additional 100,000 tonnes per year from the rearing phase of animals. The 900,000 tonnes per year of SF corresponds to 3.7% of the total production of 24,000,000 tonnes per year of edible primary products. When using the FFW definition proposed by the FUSIONS project, the FFW amount was estimated at 330,000 tonnes per year, or 1% of the total production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Unfolding the Riddling Bifurcation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maistrenko, Yu.; Popovych, O.; Mosekilde, Erik

    1999-01-01

    We present analytical conditions for the riddling bifurcation in a system of two symmetrically coupled, identical, smooth one-dimensional maps to be soft or hard and describe a generic scenario for the transformations of the basin of attraction following a soft riddling bifurcation.......We present analytical conditions for the riddling bifurcation in a system of two symmetrically coupled, identical, smooth one-dimensional maps to be soft or hard and describe a generic scenario for the transformations of the basin of attraction following a soft riddling bifurcation....

  16. What is a healthy Nordic diet? Foods and nutrients in the NORDIET study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Adamsson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A healthy Nordic diet (ND, a diet based on foods originating from the Nordic countries, improves blood lipid profile and insulin sensitivity and lowers blood pressure and body weight in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Objective: To describe and compare food and nutrient composition of the ND in relation to the intake of a Swedish reference population (SRP and the recommended intake (RI and average requirement (AR, as described by the Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR. Design: The analyses were based on an estimate of actual food and nutrient intake of 44 men and women (mean age 53±8 years, BMI 26±3, representing an intervention arm receiving ND for 6 weeks. Results: The main difference between ND and SRP was the higher intake of plant foods, fish, egg and vegetable fat and a lower intake of meat products, dairy products, sweets and desserts and alcoholic beverages during ND (p<0.001 for all food groups. Intake of cereals and seeds was similar between ND and SRP (p>0.3. The relative intake of protein, fat and carbohydrates during ND was in accordance with RI. Intake of all vitamins and minerals was above AR, whereas sodium intake was below RI. Conclusions: When compared with the food intake of an SRP, ND is primarily a plant-based diet. ND represents a balanced food intake that meets the current RI and AR of NNR 2004 and has a dietary pattern that is associated with decreased morbidity and mortality.

  17. Codimension-2 bifurcations of the Kaldor model of business cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiaoqin P.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The conditions are given such that the characteristic equation may have purely imaginary roots and double zero roots. → Purely imaginary roots lead us to study Hopf and Bautin bifurcations and to calculate the first and second Lyapunov coefficients. → Double zero roots lead us to study Bogdanov-Takens (BT) bifurcation. → Bifurcation diagrams for Bautin and BT bifurcations are obtained by using the normal form theory. - Abstract: In this paper, complete analysis is presented to study codimension-2 bifurcations for the nonlinear Kaldor model of business cycle. Sufficient conditions are given for the model to demonstrate Bautin and Bogdanov-Takens (BT) bifurcations. By computing the first and second Lyapunov coefficients and performing nonlinear transformation, the normal forms are derived to obtain the bifurcation diagrams such as Hopf, homoclinic and double limit cycle bifurcations. Some examples are given to confirm the theoretical results.

  18. Bubble transport in bifurcations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Joseph; Qamar, Adnan

    2017-11-01

    Motivated by a developmental gas embolotherapy technique for cancer treatment, we examine the transport of bubbles entrained in liquid. In gas embolotherapy, infarction of tumors is induced by selectively formed vascular gas bubbles that originate from acoustic vaporization of vascular droplets. In the case of non-functionalized droplets with the objective of vessel occlusion, the bubbles are transported by flow through vessel bifurcations, where they may split prior to eventually reach vessels small enough that they become lodged. This splitting behavior affects the distribution of bubbles and the efficacy of flow occlusion and the treatment. In these studies, we investigated bubble transport in bifurcations using computational and theoretical modeling. The model reproduces the variety of experimentally observed splitting behaviors. Splitting homogeneity and maximum shear stress along the vessel walls is predicted over a variety of physical parameters. Maximum shear stresses were found to decrease with increasing Reynolds number. The initial bubble length was found to affect the splitting behavior in the presence of gravitational asymmetry. This work was supported by NIH Grant R01EB006476.

  19. Trends in perinatal health after assisted reproduction: a Nordic study from the CoNARTaS group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsen, A A; Gissler, M; Skjaerven, R; Bergh, C; Tiitinen, A; Romundstad, L B; Wennerholm, U B; Lidegaard, O; Nyboe Andersen, A; Forman, J L; Pinborg, A

    2015-03-01

    Has the perinatal outcome of children conceived after assisted reproductive technology (ART) improved over time? The perinatal outcomes in children born after ART have improved over the last 20 years, mainly due to the reduction of multiple births. A Swedish study has shown a reduction in unwanted outcomes over time in children conceived after ART. Our analyses based on data from more than 92 000 ART children born in four Nordic countries confirm these findings. Nordic population-based matched cohort study with ART outcome and health data from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. We analysed the perinatal outcome of 62 379 ART singletons and 29 758 ART twins, born from 1988 to 2007 in four Nordic countries. The ART singletons were compared with a control group of 362 215 spontaneously conceived singletons. Twins conceived after ART were compared with all spontaneously conceived twins (n = 122 763) born in the Nordic countries during the study period. The rates of several adverse perinatal outcomes were stratified into the time periods: 1988-1992; 1993-1997; 1998-2002 and 2003-2007 and presented according to multiplicity. For singletons conceived after ART, a remarkable decline in the risk of being born preterm and very preterm was observed. The proportion of ART singletons born with a low and very low birthweight also decreased. Finally, the stillbirth and infant death rates have declined among both ART singletons and twins. Throughout the 20 year period, fewer ART twins were stillborn or died during the first year of life compared with spontaneously conceived twins, presumably due to the lower proportion of monozygotic twins among the ART twins. We were not able to adjust for some potential confounders such as BMI, smoking, length or cause of infertility. The Nordic ART populations have changed over time, and in recent years, both less as well as severely reproductive ill couples are being treated. This may have affected the observed trends. It is assuring that

  20. Locating Nordic Noir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft; Waade, Anne Marit

    such as Beck, The Killing, Trapped and The Bridge as well as a range of other important Nordic Noir cases. The book positions the development of Nordic Noir on the global market for popular television drama and places the international attention towards Nordic crime dramas within regional development of drama...

  1. Consumer perception of food products involving genetic modification: Results from a qualitative study in four Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Nielsen, Niels Asger

    2000-01-01

    1. The present study addresses consumer acceptance of food products involving the use of different applications of genetic modification in four Nordic countries. Three food products were used as examples: hard cheese, hard candy, and salmon. Three types of applications of genetic modification were...... in the final product has a clear impact on consumer acceptance. When the GM material is present and viable/able to function, acceptance is lowest. 5. The type of application of genetic modification has an impact on consumer acceptance as well, but it differs across products. Still, there is a clear tendency...

  2. Bifurcations of a class of singular biological economic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xue; Zhang Qingling; Zhang Yue

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies systematically a prey-predator singular biological economic model with time delay. It shows that this model exhibits two bifurcation phenomena when the economic profit is zero. One is transcritical bifurcation which changes the stability of the system, and the other is singular induced bifurcation which indicates that zero economic profit brings impulse, i.e., rapid expansion of the population in biological explanation. On the other hand, if the economic profit is positive, at a critical value of bifurcation parameter, the system undergoes a Hopf bifurcation, i.e., the increase of delay destabilizes the system and bifurcates into small amplitude periodic solution. Finally, by using Matlab software, numerical simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the results obtained here. In addition, we study numerically that the system undergoes a saddle-node bifurcation when the bifurcation parameter goes through critical value of positive economic profit.

  3. Bifurcation structure of a model of bursting pancreatic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik; Lading, B.; Yanchuk, S.

    2001-01-01

    One- and two-dimensional bifurcation studies of a prototypic model of bursting oscillations in pancreatic P-cells reveal a squid-formed area of chaotic dynamics in the parameter plane, with period-doubling bifurcations on one side of the arms and saddle-node bifurcations on the other. The transit......One- and two-dimensional bifurcation studies of a prototypic model of bursting oscillations in pancreatic P-cells reveal a squid-formed area of chaotic dynamics in the parameter plane, with period-doubling bifurcations on one side of the arms and saddle-node bifurcations on the other....... The transition from this structure to the so-called period-adding structure is found to involve a subcritical period-doubling bifurcation and the emergence of type-III intermittency. The period-adding transition itself is not smooth but consists of a saddle-node bifurcation in which (n + 1)-spike bursting...

  4. Nordic Exceptionalism and the Nordic 'Others'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars; Loftsdóttir, Kristín

    2012-01-01

    Introduction to 'Whiteness and Postcolonialism in the Nordic Region' co-authored with Kristín Loftsdóttir, University of Iceland......Introduction to 'Whiteness and Postcolonialism in the Nordic Region' co-authored with Kristín Loftsdóttir, University of Iceland...

  5. Bifurcation of the spin-wave equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cascon, A.; Koiller, J.; Rezende, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    We study the bifurcations of the spin-wave equations that describe the parametric pumping of collective modes in magnetic media. Mechanisms describing the following dynamical phenomena are proposed: (i) sequential excitation of modes via zero eigenvalue bifurcations; (ii) Hopf bifurcations followed (or not) by Feingenbaum cascades of period doubling; (iii) local and global homoclinic phenomena. Two new organizing center for routes to chaos are identified; in the classification given by Guckenheimer and Holmes [GH], one is a codimension-two local bifurcation, with one pair of imaginary eigenvalues and a zero eigenvalue, to which many dynamical consequences are known; secondly, global homoclinic bifurcations associated to splitting of separatrices, in the limit where the system can be considered a Hamiltonian subjected to weak dissipation and forcing. We outline what further numerical and algebraic work is necessary for the detailed study following this program. (author)

  6. Occupation and leukemia in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talibov, Madar; Kautiainen, Susanna; Martinsen, Jan Ivar

    2012-01-01

    We studied occupational variation of the risk of acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and other leukemia in Nordic countries.......We studied occupational variation of the risk of acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and other leukemia in Nordic countries....

  7. Melancholy in Nordic Noir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit

    2017-01-01

    Nordic noir on screen is characterised by a certain melancholy displayed in the plot, the imagery and the characters. These elements also characterise Scandinavian crime fiction, for example, the troubled protagonists and the cold climate. Nordic noir has attracted considerable interest among...... audiences and academics. However, none of the academic contributions reflect the connection to the historical Nordic melancholy. In this article, I relate Nordic noir to Nordic melancholy in art, philosophy and culture in which melancholy as a romantic ideal was embedded in a particular landscape...

  8. Design of the OPUS School Meal Study: A randomised controlled trial assessing the impact of serving school meals based on the New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Petersen, Rikke A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Danish children consume too much sugar and not enough whole grain, fish, fruit, and vegetables. The Nordic region is rich in such foods with a strong health-promoting potential. We lack randomised controlled trials that investigate the developmental and health impact of serving school...... meals based on Nordic foods. Aim: This paper describes the rationale, design, study population, and potential implications of the Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study. Methods: In a cluster-randomised cross-over design...... activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, sleep, growth, body composition, early metabolic and cardiovascular risk markers, illness, absence from school, wellbeing, cognitive function, social and cultural features, food acceptance, waste, and cost were assessed. Results: In total, 834 children (82% of those...

  9. Intravascular ultrasound assessment of minimumlumen area and intimal hyperplasia in in-stent restenosis after drug-eluting or bare-metal stent implantation. The Nordic Intravascular Ultrasound Study (NIVUS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Vikman, Saila; Antonsen, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    presenting with a DES or bare-metal stent (BMS) in-stent restenosis. Methods: The ``Nordic Intravascular Ultrasound Study (NIVUS)'' study was conducted in Nordic and Baltic countries as a prospective multicenter registry. Two hundred nine patients (DES n = 121 and BMS n = 88) with instent restenosis were...

  10. Creactive protein and interleukin-6 as markers of systemic inflammatory response and as prognostic factors for metastatic colorectal cancer. Data from the randomized phase III NORDIC-VII study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, M.; Kersten, C.; Sorbye, H.

    2015-01-01

    -6 (IL-6). Methods: The study was based on data from the randomized phase III NORDIC-VII study (Nordic FLOX +/cetuximab as first line treatment of mCRC). The effect of different markers of SIR, including modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS), derived Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio (dNLR), levels...

  11. Hemodynamic study on flow patterns in the carotid bifurcation before and after carotid endarterectomy using cine magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, Kanji; Shima, Takeshi; Okada, Yoshikazu; Nishida, Masahiro; Okita, Shinji; Hanaguri, Katsuro [Chugoku Rousai Hospital, Kure, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1993-11-01

    Blood flow in the cervical carotid bifurcation was investigated by cine magnetic resonance imaging. In patients with stenosis, a low-intensity stream was demonstrated from the beginning of the carotid bulb, which was more distinct in the systolic phase. In patients with stenotic carotid bifurcations,the low-intensity flow was also present but was more prominent than in the non-stenotic bifurcation. This low-intensity stream may be due to the change from steady to turbulent flow due to the geometric characteristics of the carotid bifurcation or atheromatous plaque, similar to the flow separation phenomenon in fluid dynamics because of the coincidence of location and flow pattern. After carotid endarterectomy, turbulent flow was seen at the proximal and distal ends of the endarterectomy. Close follow-up and administration of antiplatelet agents are necessary to prevent restenosis due to mural thrombosis induced by such turbulent flow. (author).

  12. Effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on ambulatory blood pressure in metabolic syndrome: a randomized SYSDIET sub-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brader, L; Uusitupa, M; Dragsted, L O; Hermansen, K

    2014-01-01

    Dietary pattern is central in the prevention of hypertension and blood pressure (BP)-related diseases. A diet based on healthy Nordic foods may have a favourable impact on BP. The objective was to clarify whether a Nordic alternative for a healthy food pattern would have beneficial effects on ambulatory BP in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS). In total, 37 subjects were randomized to either a healthy Nordic diet or a control diet. A healthy Nordic diet embraced whole grains, rapeseed oil, berries, fruits, vegetables, fish, nuts and low-fat dairy products of Nordic origin. The mean nutrient intake in the Nordic countries formed the control diet, embracing wheat products, dairy fat-based spread and a lower intake of fruits, vegetables and fish. Diets were isoenergetic. Ambulatory BP was monitored and 24-h urine was collected before and after 12 weeks of intervention. After 12 weeks, ambulatory diastolic BP (-4.4 mm Hg; P=0.001) and mean arterial pressure (-4.2 mm Hg; P=0.006) were lowered by the healthy Nordic diet compared with the control diet, whereas changes in ambulatory systolic BP did not differ significantly between diets (-3.5 mm Hg; P=0.122). Heart rate tended to be lower in those on the healthy Nordic diet (P=0.057). Urinary sodium and potassium excretions were unaffected by diets and consequently not associated with the healthy Nordic diet-induced lowering of BP. Consumption of Nordic varieties of health-enhancing foods for 12 weeks decreased diastolic ambulatory BP and mean arterial pressure in subjects with features of MetS during weight-stable condition, suggesting beneficial effects of a healthy Nordic dietary pattern on ambulatory BP.

  13. Nordic Noir - Location, Identity and Emotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and discussing the impact of the Nordic element in ‘Nordic Noir’ is the main purpose of this article. This is pursued by tracing the concepts of location, identity and emotion in selected episodes of TV series and serials representative of Nordic Noir – Wallander (2005-) Forbrydelsen...... the Nordic countries traditionally see each other are therefore investigated – with Denmark and Sweden in the main roles. In terms of theory, the concept of emotions as “structures of feeling” (Raymond Williams 1978) has recently been revived, paving the way for studies of the relationship between culture...... and emotion (Sharma & Dahl 2013, Tygstrup 2013, Pribram 2011, Laine 2011). Their concepts are applied in the analyses. The article concludes with a perspective considering the role of Nordic Noir vis-à-vis international TV drama productions....

  14. Obesity Prevention in the Nordic Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockmarr, Anders; Hejgaard, Tatjana; Matthiessen, Jeppe

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that mean BMI and prevalences of overweight/obesity and obesity have increased over the last decades in the Nordic countries, despite highly regulated societies with a focus on obesity prevention. We review recent overweight/obesity and obesity prevention initiatives within four of the five Nordic countries: Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland. Moreover, we analyze the current situation based on monitoring data on BMI collected in 2011 and 2014, and obtain overall estimates of overweight/obesity and obesity prevalences for the Nordic Region. Data analysis shows that obesity in adults has increased from 2011 to 2014, while no significant changes were found for children. No significant increases were found for mean BMI and overweight/obesity prevalence. Obesity prevention initiatives among the Nordic countries are highly similar although minor differences are present, which is rooted in transnational Nordic cooperation and comparable societal structures.

  15. Absenteeism in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Jensen, Troels Wendelboe

    2007-01-01

    and Sweden. Employees working in the public sector, more specific the municipalities, have a higher level of absence compared to the private sector. According to the personal characteristics, women are more absent than men in all Nordic countries, but the effect of age differs according to the country...... in question. If the manager however is a woman and the employee likewise, then the level of absence is higher in Denmark, Norway and Finland compared to the other gender constellations. Originality/value - Because of the lack of international comparative studies of absenteeism in the Nordic countries...

  16. A school meal study: comparing platewaste and likings of packed lunch and school lunch based on the New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Christensen, Lene M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives: The majority of Danish children do not eat in accordance with the national dietary guidelines. The OPUS School Meal Study is a school-based intervention study testing the health effects of the New Nordic Diet (NND). The aim of this sub-study was to compare edible plate.......0; 119.0). Lunches rated as ‘really bad’ or ‘bad’ in the self-reported likings had more waste than lunches rated ‘really good’ (P ... schools were assigned to the food waste sub-study. Edible plate waste was measured by weighing individually the meal for 5 consecutive days before and after lunch at the end of each dietary period. Self-reported smiley ratings from a web-based dietary assessment software for children were compared...

  17. One-Year Clinical Outcomes of Patients Presenting With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Caused by Bifurcation Culprit Lesions Treated With the Stentys Self-Apposing Coronary Stent: Results From the APPOSITION III Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundeken, Maik J; Lu, Huangling; Vos, Nicola; IJsselmuiden, Alexander; van Geuns, Robert-Jan; Wessely, Rainer; Dengler, Thomas; La Manna, Alessio; Silvain, Johanne; Montalescot, Gilles; Spaargaren, René; Tijssen, Jan G P; de Winter, Robbert J; Wykrzykowska, Joanna J; Amoroso, Giovanni; Koch, Karel T

    2017-08-01

    To investigate outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) after treatment with the Stentys self-apposing stent (Stentys SAS; Stentys S.A.) for bifurcation culprit lesions. The nitinol, self-expanding Stentys was initially developed as a dedicated bifurcation stent. The stent facilitates a provisional strategy by accommodating its diameter to both the proximal and distal reference diameters and offering an opportunity to "disconnect" the interconnectors, opening the stent toward the side branch. The APPOSITION (a post-market registry to assess the Stentys self-expanding coronary stent in acute myocardial infarction) III study was a prospective, multicenter, international, observational study including STEMI patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with the Stentys SAS. Clinical endpoints were evaluated and stratified by bifurcation vs non-bifurcation culprit lesions. From 965 patients included, a total of 123 (13%) were documented as having a bifurcation lesion. Target-vessel revascularization (TVR) rates were higher in the bifurcation subgroup (16.4% vs 10.0%; P=.04). Although not statistically significant, other endpoints were numerically higher in the bifurcation subgroup: major adverse cardiac events (MACE; 12.7% vs 8.8%), myocardial infarction (MI; 3.4% vs 1.8%), and definite/probable stent thrombosis (ST; 5.8% vs 3.1%). However, when postdilation was performed, clinical endpoints were similar between bifurcation and non-bifurcation lesions: MACE (8.7% vs 8.4%), MI (1.2% vs 0.7%), and definite/probable ST (3.7% vs 2.4%). The use of the Stentys SAS was safe and feasible for the treatment of bifurcation lesions in the setting of primary PCI for STEMI treatment with acceptable 1-year cardiovascular event rates, which improved when postdilation was performed.

  18. Nordic Management and Sustainable Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preuss, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    The Nordics have been since a longer time a role model for a social and reliable management style. However, this statement was in the last just proven by doing few case studies with top executives. This study wants to describe the corporate culture and management style in the biggest companies...

  19. Hepatoblastoma in the nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, S; Schmidt, L S; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiology of hepatoblastoma. Because of the young age at diagnosis, several studies have looked at various birth characteristics. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of hepatoblastoma in the Nordic countries and the association between selected bir...

  20. Relative Lyapunov Center Bifurcations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Claudia; Schilder, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Relative equilibria (REs) and relative periodic orbits (RPOs) are ubiquitous in symmetric Hamiltonian systems and occur, for example, in celestial mechanics, molecular dynamics, and rigid body motion. REs are equilibria, and RPOs are periodic orbits of the symmetry reduced system. Relative Lyapunov...... center bifurcations are bifurcations of RPOs from REs corresponding to Lyapunov center bifurcations of the symmetry reduced dynamics. In this paper we first prove a relative Lyapunov center theorem by combining recent results on the persistence of RPOs in Hamiltonian systems with a symmetric Lyapunov...... center theorem of Montaldi, Roberts, and Stewart. We then develop numerical methods for the detection of relative Lyapunov center bifurcations along branches of RPOs and for their computation. We apply our methods to Lagrangian REs of the N-body problem....

  1. Nordic Energy basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koljonen, T.; Pursiheimo, E. [VTT, Espoo (Finland)

    2004-01-01

    This report gives numerical data of the existing energy systems in Denmark, Finland, Island, Norway and Sweden. The data includes: 1) Primary fossil fuel production and fuel reserves; 2) Energy production and consumption; 3) Hydrogen production in the Nordic countries; 4) Energy balances of the Nordic countries. The above data has been used as background information during the Nordic H{sub 2} Energy Foresight project. The data has been collected from public literature sources and also from project partners. (au)

  2. The Nordic electric power market. A study of the market characteristics, price factors and the competitive environment of the Nordic power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskikallio, J.; Lindholm, J.

    2003-06-01

    The market price of power depends on the balance between energy supply and demand. This balance depends on several external factors: the hydrological situation, temperature, time, fuel prices and exchange rates, transmission capacity and congestion, business cycles, other weather-related factors (wind, sun etc.) There are interdependencies between the factors, but the greatest price effects are caused by changes in the hydrological situation (affects energy supply) and temperature (affects mainly demand). Transmission capacity is normally sufficient, especially between Sweden and Finland. When congestion occurs, the price effects may be drastic, due to differences between the countries in the energy production mix. Price areas with several other bordering price areas (Oslo) have the lowest price level. The Helsinki area has the highest price level over time. Congestion is more frequent between southern Sweden and Norway, which accounts for a major part of the difference between the Helsinki area price and the system price. Market concentration is very high in separate price areas, but only moderate for the Nordic market as a whole. Congestion automatically leads to a highly concentrated sub-market. Further market concentration should be avoided, and congestion management should be improved in order to ensure a functioning market. Our findings also included the fact that although power producers have increased their profits since the deregulation of the market, there were no conclusive evidence of market power abuse. A continued trend toward higher profits may change the situation in the future, as the possibility to take advantage of market power already exists. Transmission System Operators (TSO's) have a crucial role for ensuring a functioning power market. As the actions of the TSO may have adverse effects, they should be continuously monitored and subject to much tighter scrutiny than 'ordinary' energy companies. Issues have arisen from the TSO's trading of

  3. Bifurcation Behavior Analysis in a Predator-Prey Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A predator-prey model is studied mathematically and numerically. The aim is to explore how some key factors influence dynamic evolutionary mechanism of steady conversion and bifurcation behavior in predator-prey model. The theoretical works have been pursuing the investigation of the existence and stability of the equilibria, as well as the occurrence of bifurcation behaviors (transcritical bifurcation, saddle-node bifurcation, and Hopf bifurcation, which can deduce a standard parameter controlled relationship and in turn provide a theoretical basis for the numerical simulation. Numerical analysis ensures reliability of the theoretical results and illustrates that three stable equilibria will arise simultaneously in the model. It testifies the existence of Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation, too. It should also be stressed that the dynamic evolutionary mechanism of steady conversion and bifurcation behavior mainly depend on a specific key parameter. In a word, all these results are expected to be of use in the study of the dynamic complexity of ecosystems.

  4. Women's sexual behavior. Population-based study among 65,000 women from four Nordic countries before introduction of human papillomavirus vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kirsten Egebjerg; Munk, Christian; Sparen, Par

    2011-01-01

    Sexual behavior is of public health interest because of the association with reproductive health and sexually transmitted infections such as human papillomavirus, which is the causal factor of cervical cancer. The aim of the study was to describe patterns in women's sexual behavior in four Nordic...

  5. Cerebral sinus venous thromboses in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia - a multicentre study from the Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranta, Susanna; Tuckuviene, Ruta; Mäkipernaa, Anne

    2014-01-01

    We present a prospective multicentre cohort of 20 children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CSVT). The study covers a period of 5 years and comprises 1038 children treated according to the Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (NOPHO...

  6. Establishment of Risk based microbiological criteria in the Nordic countries: A case study on Campylobacter in broiler meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten

    Microbiological criteria (MCs) offer a practical tool for food safety control and they are currently under discussion internationally. To meet the present scientific standards, there is an increasing demand for so- called “risk based” microbiological criteria that are based on risk assessment....... In this project we studied the potentials for setting risk based microbiological criteria on Campylobacter in chicken meat by studying the potential impact that specific microbiological criteria would have in different Nordic countries. This is done on the basis of different data sets that have been collected...... based microbiological criteria, the “case-by-case” risk assessment methodology is used (Christensen et al 2013) and its impact is analysed on the basis of the same data sets. In both approaches the same risk assessment model for Campylobacter in broiler meat is used. The difference between...

  7. Measuring international electricity integration: a comparative study of the power systems under the Nordic Council, MERCOSUR, and NAFTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineau, P.-O.; Hira, Anil; Froschauer, Karl

    2004-01-01

    Many regions of the world feel the pressure to interconnect electric power systems internationally. Regional integrations of the electricity sector have become part of free trade and common market initiatives, though the steps individual national jurisdictions take towards developing integrated systems vary. In this article, we review three regions concerned with common market initiatives and at different stages of integration processes that involve infrastructural, regulatory, and commercial decisions. First, we examine the North European countries in the Nordic Council, then countries in the Southern Cone of South America in MERCOSUR, and finally Mexico, the United States and Canada, linked under NAFTA. This comparative study highlights the potential, but also the many hurdles, that electricity sector integrations face. The study suggests a framework for measuring the level of electricity sector integration that could be applied to other regions

  8. A multiscale modelling approach to understand atherosclerosis formation: A patient-specific case study in the aortic bifurcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimohammadi, Mona; Pichardo-Almarza, Cesar; Agu, Obiekezie; Díaz-Zuccarini, Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    Atherogenesis, the formation of plaques in the wall of blood vessels, starts as a result of lipid accumulation (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) in the vessel wall. Such accumulation is related to the site of endothelial mechanotransduction, the endothelial response to mechanical stimuli and haemodynamics, which determines biochemical processes regulating the vessel wall permeability. This interaction between biomechanical and biochemical phenomena is complex, spanning different biological scales and is patient-specific, requiring tools able to capture such mathematical and biological complexity in a unified framework. Mathematical models offer an elegant and efficient way of doing this, by taking into account multifactorial and multiscale processes and mechanisms, in order to capture the fundamentals of plaque formation in individual patients. In this study, a mathematical model to understand plaque and calcification locations is presented: this model provides a strong interpretability and physical meaning through a multiscale, complex index or metric (the penetration site of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, expressed as volumetric flux). Computed tomography scans of the aortic bifurcation and iliac arteries are analysed and compared with the results of the multifactorial model. The results indicate that the model shows potential to predict the majority of the plaque locations, also not predicting regions where plaques are absent. The promising results from this case study provide a proof of concept that can be applied to a larger patient population. PMID:28427316

  9. Evaluation of Explosive Power Performance in Ski Jumpers and Nordic Combined Competitive Athletes: A 19-Year Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janura, Miroslav; Cabell, Lee; Svoboda, Zdenek; Elfmark, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Between 1992 and 2010, a total of 334 males participated in this study that assessed the differences and relationships between anthropometric variables and lower limb muscle strength in young and adult ski jumpers (n = 207) and Nordic combined (NC, n = 127) athletes. All athletes completed a maximal vertical jump from an in-run position and a maximal relative isometric force (MRIF) of the knee extensor measurement in a laboratory setting. The body mass index (BMI) in young competitors was lower than in adult groups (NC: p ski jumping [SJ]: p jump height (VJH) was lower for young competitors than for adults (NC: p ≤ 0.05; SJ: p ski jumpers even at lower-body weights. These changes are in accordance with the change in ski jump techniques.

  10. A study of phage- and ribotype patterns of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Jensen, N.E.

    1997-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the geographical distribution of phage and ribotypes of Staphylococcus aureus causing bovine mastitis in the 5 Nordic countries. A total of 403 isolates of S. aureus was isolated from 403 different dairy herds. One hundred five strains were isolated...... of the isolates of ribotype 1 belonged to phage type 29/52. This combined type accounted for 17% of all the 403 isolates. These findings show that a large number of different types of S. aureus can be isolated from cases of bovine mastitis. However, few types predominate within different countries....... These predominating types seem to be specific in each country, however, a single type was common for both Denmark, Sweden and Finland. This could suggest differences in the virulence or in modes of transmission of predominating and rare types of S. aureus associated with bovine mastitis....

  11. Cross-border collaboration in history among Nordic students: A case study about creating innovative ICT didactic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Spante

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Gränsöverskridande Nordisk Undervisning/Utdanelse (GNU, meaning Cross-Border Nordic Education, the larger Nordic project, under which this case study was carried out, aims at developing innovative, cross-border teaching models in different subject domains in elementary school, including mathematics, language, science, social studies and history. This paper provides an in-depth description and analysis of how four social science and history elementary school teachers and their 70 students (5th–7th grades worked together between November 2011 and December 2012. Previous research regarding the use of information and communication technology (ICT in history education in elementary schools is limited, thus calling for contemporary investigations in this particular subject domain. The Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK model, enhancing the combination of teachers’ pedagogical, content and technical competence, was used as the analytical framework, together with nation-specific curricula and the European Union’s recommendations regarding students’ skills for lifelong learning. A range of empirical materials was analyzed, such as classroom observations, students’ video productions, texts and photos distributed and shared on a mutual blog, real-time interaction and teachers’ communication. The teachers tried out two ICT didactic models. In the asynchronous model, the major focus was on the form and content of the video productions being shared, whereas work with the synchronous model concentrated on the content and quality of the communication. Notwithstanding obstacles, cross-border collaboration provided added value. The nation-specific differences triggered curiosity and motivation to produce digital presentations of history content to be understood by the students in the three nations, facilitating goal fulfillment in communication skills and digital competence. However, achieving subject-specific goals in history

  12. Social inequalities in self-rated health: A comparative cross-national study among 32,560 Nordic adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torsheim, Torbjørn; Nygren, Jens M; Rasmussen, Mette; Arnarsson, Arsæll M; Bendtsen, Pernille; Schnohr, Christina W; Nielsen, Line; Nyholm, Maria

    2018-02-01

    We aimed to estimate the magnitude of socioeconomic inequality in self-rated health among Nordic adolescents (aged 11, 13 and 15 years) using the Family Affluence Scale (a composite measure of material assets) and perceived family wealth as indicators of socioeconomic status. Data were collected from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey in 2013-2014. A sample of 32,560 adolescents from Denmark, Norway, Finland, Iceland, Greenland and Sweden was included in the study. Age-adjusted regression analyses were used to estimate associations between fair or poor self-rated health and the ridit scores for family affluence and perceived wealth. The pooled relative index of inequality of 2.10 indicates that the risk of fair or poor health was about twice as high for young people with the lowest family affluence relative to those with the highest family affluence. The relative index of inequality for observed family affluence was highest in Denmark and lowest in Norway. For perceived family wealth, the pooled relative index of inequality of 3.99 indicates that the risk of fair or poor health was about four times as high for young people with the lowest perceived family wealth relative to those with the highest perceived family wealth. The relative index of inequality for perceived family wealth was highest in Iceland and lowest in Greenland. Social inequality in self-rated health among adolescents was found to be robust across subjective and objective indicators of family affluence in the Nordic welfare states.

  13. Clinical Outcome After DK Crush Versus Culotte Stenting of Distal Left Main Bifurcation Lesions: The 3-Year Follow-Up Results of the DKCRUSH-III Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Liang; Xu, Bo; Han, Ya-Ling; Sheiban, Imad; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Ye, Fei; Kwan, Tak W; Paiboon, Chitprapai; Zhou, Yu-Jie; Lv, Shu-Zheng; Dangas, George D; Xu, Ya-Wei; Wen, Shang-Yu; Hong, Lang; Zhang, Rui-Yan; Wang, Hai-Chang; Jiang, Tie-Ming; Wang, Yan; Sansoto, Teguh; Chen, Fang; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Li, Wei-Min; Leon, Martin B

    2015-08-24

    The present study aimed to investigate the difference in major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 3 years after double-kissing (DK) crush versus culotte stenting for unprotected left main distal bifurcation lesions (LMDBLs). The multicenter and randomized DKCRUSH-III (Comparison of double kissing crush versus culotte stenting for unprotected distal left main bifurcation lesions: results from a multicenter, randomized, prospective study) showed that DK crush stenting was associated with fewer MACE at 1-year follow-up in patients with LMDBLs compared with culotte stenting. Here, we report the 3-year clinical outcome of the DKCRUSH-III study. A total of 419 patients with LMDBLs who were randomly assigned to either the DK crush or culotte group in the DKCRUSH-III study were followed for 3 year. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of a MACE at 3 years. Stent thrombosis (ST) was the safety endpoint. Patients were classified by simple and complex LMDBLs according to the DEFINITION (Definition and Impact of Complex Bifurcation Lesions on Clinical Outcomes After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Using Drug-Eluting Stents) study criteria. At 3 years, MACE occurred in 49 patients the culotte group and in 17 patients in the DK crush group (cumulative event rates of 23.7% and 8.2%, respectively; p DK crush group (p = 0.007). Complex LMDBLs were associated with a higher rate of MACE (35.3%) at 3 years compared with a rate of 8.1% in patients with simple LMDBLs (p DK] Crush Versus Culotte Stenting for the Treatment of Unprotected Distal Left Main Bifurcation Lesions: DKCRUSH-III, a Multicenter Randomized Study Comparing Double-Stent Techniques; ChiCTR-TRC-11001877). Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index and risk of myocardial infarction in middle-aged Danes: the diet, cancer and health cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunge, V B; Andersen, I; Kyrø, C; Hansen, C P; Dahm, C C; Christensen, J; Tjønneland, A; Olsen, A

    2017-05-01

    For decades, the Mediterranean diet has been in focus regarding healthy eating as it has been associated with reduced risk of non-communicable diseases. Less interest has been given to health benefits of other regional diets. The aim of the present study was to assess whether adherence to a healthy Nordic food index was associated with lower risk of myocardial infarction (MI) among middle-aged Danes. Data were obtained from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study of 57 053 men and women aged 50-64 years recruited between 1993 and 1997. The healthy Nordic food index comprised healthy Nordic food items selected a priori (fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apple and pears and root vegetables). Information on incident MI was ascertained through linkage with national registries. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from sex-specific Cox proportional hazard models. In total, 1669 men and 653 women developed MI during follow-up (13.6 median years). In adjusted models, those with an index score of 5-6 points (highest scores) had significantly lower MI risk (men: HR=0.77, 95% CI=0.62, 0.97; women: HR=0.55, 95% CI=0.37, 0.82) relative to those scoring 0 points in the index (lowest score). A significantly lower MI risk was found per 1-point increment in the index in both men (HR=0.95, 95% CI=0.92, 0.99) and women (HR=0.93, 95% CI=0.88, 0.98). A healthy Nordic diet is associated with lower MI risk among middle-aged Danes, suggesting that Nordic diets should be considered in recommendations for dietary changes in the promotion of coronary health.

  15. Nordic Branding Podcast 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    'Hygge' is a concept that has generated much interest as a way of conceptualising 'Nordic living', e.g. in books on hygge or scented candles. In this Nordic Branding reflections podcast we are having a 'hyggelig' session with ph.d. Jeppe Trolle Linnet, reflecting on this concept and related 'Nord......' values. We met at Meyers Deli and The Laundromat Cafe (Copenhagen)....

  16. New Nordic Exceptionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danbolt, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    At the 2009 Nordic Culture Forum summit in Berlin that centered on the profiling and branding of the Nordic region in a globalized world, one presenter stood out from the crowd. The lobbyist Annika Sigurdardottir delivered a speech that called for the establishment of “The United Nations of Norden...... that have been central to the debates on the branding of Nordicity over the last decades: on the one hand, the discourse of “Nordic exceptionalism,” that since the 1960s has been central to the promotion of a Nordic political, socio-economic, and internationalist “third way” model, and, on the other hand......, the discourse on the “New Nordic,” that emerged out of the New Nordic Food-movement in the early 2000s, and which has given art and culture a privileged role in the international re-fashioning of the Nordic brand. Through an analysis of Kim and Einhorn’s United Nations of Norden (UNN)-performance, the article...

  17. Preliminary Study of Hemodynamic Distribution in Patient-Specific Stenotic Carotid Bifurcation by Image-Based Computational Fluid Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Y.J.; Gao, P.Y.; Duan, Q.; Lin, Y.; Dai, C.B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Regions prone to atherosclerosis, such as bends and bifurcations, tend to exhibit a certain degree of non-planarity or curvature, and these geometric features are known to strongly influence local flow patterns. Recently, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used as a means of enhancing understanding of the mechanisms involved in atherosclerotic plaque formation and development. Purpose: To analyze flow patterns and hemodynamic distribution in stenotic carotid bifurcation in vivo by combining CFD with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Material and Methods: Twenty-one patients with carotid atherosclerosis proved by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and/or Doppler ultrasound underwent contrast-enhanced MR angiography of the carotid bifurcation by a 3.0T MR scanner. Hemodynamic variables and flow patterns of the carotid bifurcation were calculated and visualized by combining vascular imaging postprocessing with CFD. Results: In mild stenotic cases, there was much more streamlined flow in the bulbs, with reduced or disappeared areas of weakly turbulent flow. Also, the corresponding areas of low wall shear stress (WSS) were reduced or even disappeared. As the extent of stenosis increased, stronger blood jets formed at the portion of narrowing, and more prominent eddy flows and slow back flows were noted in the lee of the stenosis. Regions of elevated WSS were predicted at the portion of stenosis and in the path of the downstream jet. Areas of low WSS were predicted on the leeward side of the stenosis, corresponding with the location of slowly turbulent flows. Conclusion: CFD combined with MRA can simulate flow patterns and calculate hemodynamic variables in stenotic carotid bifurcations as well as normal ones. It provides a new method to investigate the relationship of vascular geometry and flow condition with atherosclerotic pathological changes

  18. Nordic Approaches to Peace Operations (in Korean)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    operations. First, it demolishes the widely held view that the Nordic countries remain a bastion of traditional Cold War peacekeeping with little relevance for contemporary operations. Second, it constitutes the first systematic overview of the reforms undertaken by the four Nordic countries since the end......A new examination of Nordic approaches to peace operations after the Cold War. It shows how the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) remain relevant for the study and practice of post-Cold War peace operations. This unique study is structured around eleven success conditions...... derived from an analysis of the lessons learned since the early 1990s, ensuring that the results of the case studies are directly comparable. These case studies are supplemented by an analysis of Nordics’ collective efforts to replace their old Cold War peacekeeping model with a new one that meets...

  19. Bifurcations of transition states: Morse bifurcations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKay, R S; Strub, D C

    2014-01-01

    A transition state for a Hamiltonian system is a closed, invariant, oriented, codimension-2 submanifold of an energy level that can be spanned by two compact codimension-1 surfaces of unidirectional flux whose union, called a dividing surface, locally separates the energy level into two components and has no local recrossings. For this to happen robustly to all smooth perturbations, the transition state must be normally hyperbolic. The dividing surface then has locally minimal geometric flux through it, giving an upper bound on the rate of transport in either direction. Transition states diffeomorphic to S 2m−3 are known to exist for energies just above any index-1 critical point of a Hamiltonian of m degrees of freedom, with dividing surfaces S 2m−2 . The question addressed here is what qualitative changes in the transition state, and consequently the dividing surface, may occur as the energy or other parameters are varied? We find that there is a class of systems for which the transition state becomes singular and then regains normal hyperbolicity with a change in diffeomorphism class. These are Morse bifurcations. Various examples are considered. Firstly, some simple examples in which transition states connect or disconnect, and the dividing surface may become a torus or other. Then, we show how sequences of Morse bifurcations producing various interesting forms of transition state and dividing surface are present in reacting systems, by considering a hypothetical class of bimolecular reactions in gas phase. (paper)

  20. Bifurcation with memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmstead, W.E.; Davis, S.H.; Rosenblat, S.; Kath, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    A model equation containing a memory integral is posed. The extent of the memory, the relaxation time lambda, controls the bifurcation behavior as the control parameter R is increased. Small (large) lambda gives steady (periodic) bifurcation. There is a double eigenvalue at lambda = lambda 1 , separating purely steady (lambda 1 ) from combined steady/T-periodic (lambda > lambda 1 ) states with T → infinity as lambda → lambda + 1 . Analysis leads to the co-existence of stable steady/periodic states and as R is increased, the periodic states give way to the steady states. Numerical solutions show that this behavior persists away from lambda = lambda 1

  1. Influence of the Accuracy of Angiography-Based Reconstructions on Velocity and Wall Shear Stress Computations in Coronary Bifurcations: A Phantom Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrauwen, Jelle T. C.; Karanasos, Antonios; van Ditzhuijzen, Nienke S.; Aben, Jean-Paul; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Wall shear stress (WSS) plays a key role in the onset and progression of atherosclerosis in human coronary arteries. Especially sites with low and oscillating WSS near bifurcations have a higher propensity to develop atherosclerosis. WSS computations in coronary bifurcations can be performed in angiography-based 3D reconstructions. It is essential to evaluate how reconstruction errors influence WSS computations in mildly-diseased coronary bifurcations. In mildly-diseased lesions WSS could potentially provide more insight in plaque progression. Materials Methods Four Plexiglas phantom models of coronary bifurcations were imaged with bi-plane angiography. The lumens were segmented by two clinically experienced readers. Based on the segmentations 3D models were generated. This resulted in three models per phantom: one gold-standard from the phantom model itself, and one from each reader. Steady-state and transient simulations were performed with computational fluid dynamics to compute the WSS. A similarity index and a noninferiority test were used to compare the WSS in the phantoms and their reconstructions. The margin for this test was based on the resolution constraints of angiography. Results The reconstruction errors were similar to previously reported data; in seven out of eight reconstructions less than 0.10 mm. WSS in the regions proximal and far distal of the stenosis showed a good agreement. However, the low WSS areas directly distal of the stenosis showed some disagreement between the phantoms and the readers. This was due to small deviations in the reconstruction of the stenosis that caused differences in the resulting jet, and consequently the size and location of the low WSS area. Discussion This study showed that WSS can accurately be computed within angiography-based 3D reconstructions of coronary arteries with early stage atherosclerosis. Qualitatively, there was a good agreement between the phantoms and the readers. Quantitatively, the

  2. Influence of the Accuracy of Angiography-Based Reconstructions on Velocity and Wall Shear Stress Computations in Coronary Bifurcations: A Phantom Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle T C Schrauwen

    Full Text Available Wall shear stress (WSS plays a key role in the onset and progression of atherosclerosis in human coronary arteries. Especially sites with low and oscillating WSS near bifurcations have a higher propensity to develop atherosclerosis. WSS computations in coronary bifurcations can be performed in angiography-based 3D reconstructions. It is essential to evaluate how reconstruction errors influence WSS computations in mildly-diseased coronary bifurcations. In mildly-diseased lesions WSS could potentially provide more insight in plaque progression.Four Plexiglas phantom models of coronary bifurcations were imaged with bi-plane angiography. The lumens were segmented by two clinically experienced readers. Based on the segmentations 3D models were generated. This resulted in three models per phantom: one gold-standard from the phantom model itself, and one from each reader. Steady-state and transient simulations were performed with computational fluid dynamics to compute the WSS. A similarity index and a noninferiority test were used to compare the WSS in the phantoms and their reconstructions. The margin for this test was based on the resolution constraints of angiography.The reconstruction errors were similar to previously reported data; in seven out of eight reconstructions less than 0.10 mm. WSS in the regions proximal and far distal of the stenosis showed a good agreement. However, the low WSS areas directly distal of the stenosis showed some disagreement between the phantoms and the readers. This was due to small deviations in the reconstruction of the stenosis that caused differences in the resulting jet, and consequently the size and location of the low WSS area.This study showed that WSS can accurately be computed within angiography-based 3D reconstructions of coronary arteries with early stage atherosclerosis. Qualitatively, there was a good agreement between the phantoms and the readers. Quantitatively, the low WSS regions directly distal to

  3. Nordic urban nature recreation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cole, Scott; Lindhjem, Henrik; Zandersen, Marianne

    the associated nonmarket welfare benefits. The study stresses the need to collect user data to better understand visitation patterns, which can be combined with valuation methods to provide evidence of economic benefits associated with e.g., hiking, cycling, skiing, paddling and other recreation activities. Once......The Nordic countries continue to experience growth of urban areas, which provides benefits like economic growth, but also imposes economic costs in terms of reduced ecosystem services. This report focuses on urban nature recreation and highlights economic methods and data that can help capture...... these benefits are visible, decision-makers will have a better basis to balance economic growth with the environmental costs it imposes on urban ecosystem services....

  4. Nordic Dance Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume identifies different kinds of dance activities and examines their distribution and modes of operation across and beyond the Nordic region. The focus of the research is on dance and how it moves between different locations, organizations and networks of individuals. The study integrates...... three complementary perspectives. One looks at the interplay between politics and larger global flows on the one hand and the movements of dance and dancers on the other. Another looks at the contribution of localized activities such as dance festivals, competitions and cultural mobility pro......-grammes to the transnational movements within dance. The third looks at the ways in which the impact of the transnational context is supported, resisted or commented upon either by the general public, in the dance itself or by the dancers themselves. The book presents a critical analysis of cul-tural location, relocation...

  5. The Wage Curve in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Albæk, K.; Asplund, R.

    regions in the long run. One explanation put forward for this slow speed of regional wage adjustment is the rather centralized bargaining system on the labour market in the Nordic countries. Wages are set according to the average unemployment rate for the economy as a whole, and differences in regional...... for researchers or civil servants with a deeper interest in labour market problems. The main result from this study is that the wage formation at the regional level is rather inflexible in the short run in all five Nordic countries, with no effect from changes in local unemployment on the local wage level......This report focusses on wage formation in the Nordic countries with a special attention to the effect from changes in local unemployment on the local wage level. The book gives a comprehensive and comparable study of this topic in the five Nordic countries which may be of great value...

  6. Associations between parents' subjective time pressure and mental health problems among children in the Nordic countries: a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Hrafnhildur; Bjereld, Ylva; Hensing, Gunnel; Petzold, Max; Povlsen, Lene

    2015-04-10

    The home, the family and the parents represent a context of everyday life that is important for child health and development, with parent-child relationships highlighted as crucial for children's mental health. Time pressure is an emerging feature of modern societies and previous studies indicates that parents with children living at home experience time pressure to a greater extent than people with no children living at home. Previous studies of children's mental health in relation to parents' time pressure are lacking. Hence, the purpose of this study was to examine the association between parents' subjective time pressure and mental health problems among children in the Nordic countries as well as potential disparities between boys and girls in different age groups. 4592 children, aged 4-16 from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, participating in the 2011 version of the NordChild study, were included. The Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to measure children's mental health and associations to parents' time pressure were assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Among children of parents experiencing time pressure, 18.6% had mental health problems compared to 10.1% among children of parents experiencing time pressure not or sometimes. The odds of mental health problems were higher among both boys (OR 1.80 95% CI 1.32-2.46) and girls (OR 1.95 95% CI 1.42-2.66) if their parents experienced time pressure when adjusted for financial stress. The highest prevalence of mental health problems in the case of parental time pressure was found among girls 13-16 years old (23.6%) and the lowest prevalence was found among boys 13-16 years old (10.7%). In this study an association between parents' subjective time pressure and increased mental health problems among children was found. Given that time pressure is a growing feature of modern societies, the results might contribute to an explanation as to mental health problems are common among children

  7. Bifurcation theory for finitely smooth planar autonomous differential systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Maoan; Sheng, Lijuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we establish bifurcation theory of limit cycles for planar Ck smooth autonomous differential systems, with k ∈ N. The key point is to study the smoothness of bifurcation functions which are basic and important tool on the study of Hopf bifurcation at a fine focus or a center, and of Poincaré bifurcation in a period annulus. We especially study the smoothness of the first order Melnikov function in degenerate Hopf bifurcation at an elementary center. As we know, the smoothness problem was solved for analytic and C∞ differential systems, but it was not tackled for finitely smooth differential systems. Here, we present their optimal regularity of these bifurcation functions and their asymptotic expressions in the finite smooth case.

  8. Nordic Energy Policy Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Birte Holst

    2016-01-01

    Brundtland Commission Report, and climate change became a common concern. Energy technology cooperation was an integral part of Nordic energy policy cooperation from the very beginning. The Nordic Energy Research Programme was established with funding from each of the Nordic countries, and was earmarked...... by a committee of senior officials and a secretariat. This was characterised by an incremental development of the cooperation based on consensus, mutual understanding and trust facilitated through exchange of experiences, work groups, seminars, educational activities and mobility schemes for energy policy...

  9. Obesity Prevention in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockmarr, Anders; Hejgaard, Tatjana; Matthiessen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that mean BMI and prevalences of overweight/obesity and obesity have increased over the last decades in the Nordic countries, despite highly regulated societies with a focus on obesity prevention. We review recent overweight/obesity and obesity prevention initiatives...... that obesity in adults has increased from 2011 to 2014, while no significant changes were found for children. No significant increases were found for mean BMI and overweight/obesity prevalence. Obesity prevention initiatives among the Nordic countries are highly similar although minor differences are present...... within four of the five Nordic countries: Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland. Moreover, we analyze the current situation based on monitoring data on BMI collected in 2011 and 2014, and obtain overall estimates of overweight/obesity and obesity prevalences for the Nordic Region. Data analysis shows...

  10. Development of bifurcated solutions and study of their stability in damage problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaurain, J.

    2011-01-01

    This work is concerned with the development and the implementation of a numerical optimization algorithm in an industrial software for studying the stability of non local gradient damage numerical solutions given by finite elements method. Stability is a fundamental concept, that takes into account the existence of multiple solutions which could emerge due to the softening constitutive laws generally used to represent the irreversible damage of materials like concrete. Among all those solutions, only stable ones, invariant by little perturbations, could be physically observed. The difficulty is to satisfy the irreversible constraint of damage which drives to define a stability criterion by the positivity of the second derivative of the total energy in the direction of increasing damage. It numerically leads to ensure the positivity of the minimum of a quadratic form, using the second derivative matrix and subjected to inequalities constraints. In conclusion, the aim of this work is to implement an efficient and robust numerical constraints minimization algorithm in Code-Aster, adapted to different damage modelling, and to improve it using test cases found in the literature. (author)

  11. Night-shift work and hematological cancers: a population based case-control study in three Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talibov, Madar; Pukkala, Eero; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Hansen, Johnni

    2018-05-01

    Objective The aim of this case-control study was to assess the effect of night-shift work on the risk of hematological cancers. Methods The study included 39 371 leukemia, 56 713 non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 9322 Hodgkin lymphoma, and 26 188 multiple myeloma cases diagnosed between 1961 and 2005 in Finland, Sweden, and Iceland. Five controls for each case were selected from the Nordic Occupational Cancer Study (NOCCA) cohort, matched by year of birth, sex and country. Night-shift exposure was assessed by using the NOCCA job-exposure matrix (JEM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated from conditional logistic regression models. Results Overall, night work was not associated with a risk of hematological cancers. We observed a small but non-significantly increased risk for leukemia (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.99-1.16), especially for acute myeloid leukemia (OR 1.15, 95% CI 0.97-1.36) among workers exposed to a high level of cumulative night work exposure. Night work exposure was not associated with lymphatic cancers and multiple myeloma. Conclusion This study did not support associations between night-shift work and hematological cancers.

  12. Bifurcation of rupture path by linear and cubic damping force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis L. C., C.; Chew X., Y.; Lee Y., C.

    2014-06-01

    Bifurcation of rupture path is studied for the effect of linear and cubic damping. Momentum equation with Rayleigh factor was transformed into ordinary differential form. Bernoulli differential equation was obtained and solved by the separation of variables. Analytical or exact solutions yielded the bifurcation was visible at imaginary part when the wave was non dispersive. For the dispersive wave, bifurcation of rupture path was invisible.

  13. Bifurcation structure of a model of bursting pancreatic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik; Lading, B.; Yanchuk, S.

    2001-01-01

    . The transition from this structure to the so-called period-adding structure is found to involve a subcritical period-doubling bifurcation and the emergence of type-III intermittency. The period-adding transition itself is not smooth but consists of a saddle-node bifurcation in which (n + 1)-spike bursting...... behavior is born, slightly overlapping with a subcritical period-doubling bifurcation in which n-spike bursting behavior loses its stability.......One- and two-dimensional bifurcation studies of a prototypic model of bursting oscillations in pancreatic P-cells reveal a squid-formed area of chaotic dynamics in the parameter plane, with period-doubling bifurcations on one side of the arms and saddle-node bifurcations on the other...

  14. Particularities of the Nordic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Stoltz, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    The Nordic countries are in international rankings included as some of the most gender equal societies in the world (see e.g. the Global Gender Gap Index and the Gender Equality Index developed by the European Gender Equality Institute, EIGE), and scholars have demonstrated that the discourse...... and politics of women’s rights and gender equality has become an intrinsic part of the Nordic national identities and politics of belongings (Gullestad 2006). In spite of these achievements, Nordic scholars suggest that the increasing impact of globalization present major challenges for addressing multiple...... inequalities in power and resources (Melby et.al. 2008; Siim and Skjeie 2008). The chapter aims to analyse the challenge from globalization to the Nordic welfare and gender regimes and discuss the potentials and limits of this approach to equality from historical and comparative perspectives. The main research...

  15. Nordic Corporate Governance Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the key elements of the Nordic governance model, which include a distinct legal system, high governance ratings and low levels of corruption. Other characteristics include concentrated ownership, foundation ownership, semi two-tier board structures, employee representation...

  16. Nordic Noir Production Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit; Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    2013-01-01

    In this article the authors argue that Nordic noir constitutes a set of production values utilised and conceptualised to make Danish television series attractive in the international market. The idea of production values is embedded into a media industrial context where market principles of target...... by relating the specific Nordic noir production values present in the two series to changing conditions in Danish television drama production, in particular the internationalisation of DR’s Drama Division....

  17. CONFERENCE: Nordic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Around 80 physicists from eleven countries fought heavy snowstorms and 20-below temperatures at the winter resort of Spåtind, Norway, for the 8th Nordic Meeting on Elementary Particle Physics in January. This biennial conference is a traditional meeting place for Nordic particle physicists, and especially for the young research students, but also draws participants from other countries. This year's meeting was organized by the Division of Particle Physics of the Swedish Physical Society

  18. The modernisation of Nordic eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lotte; Ekström, Marianne Pipping; Gronow, Jukka

    2012-01-01

    It is often claimed that in post-industrial societies eating is characterised by the dissolution of traditional cultural patterns regarding eating rhythms, the structure of meals and the social context of eating. This paper presents results from a Nordic quantitative and comparative study which...... was conducted in 1997 based on interviews with almost 5000 individuals from four nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden). The study showed that even through some flexibility was evident, eating was characterized by nationally different, but socially coordinated rhythms. Two distinct meal patterns...... were identified, a "western" pattern with one daily hot meal (Denmark, Norway), and an "eastern" patterns with two, daily hot meals (Finalnad, Sweden). Even though a lot of eating took place in solitude, eating was most often a social activity. It is concluded that daily eating patterns are still...

  19. Adherence to a Healthy Nordic Food Index Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Type-2 Diabetes—The Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Amalie Lacoppidan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type-2 diabetes (T2D prevalence is rapidly increasing worldwide. Lifestyle factors, in particular obesity, diet, and physical activity play a significant role in the etiology of the disease. Of dietary patterns, particularly the Mediterranean diet has been studied, and generally a protective association has been identified. However, other regional diets are less explored. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between adherence to a healthy Nordic food index and the risk of T2D. The index consists of six food items: fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apples and pears, and root vegetables. Methods: Data was obtained from a prospective cohort study of 57,053 Danish men and women aged 50–64 years, at baseline, of whom 7366 developed T2D (median follow-up: 15.3 years. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the association between the healthy Nordic food index and risk of T2D, adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Greater adherence to the healthy Nordic food index was significantly associated with lower risk of T2D after adjusting for potential confounders. An index score of 5−6 points (high adherence was associated with a statistically significantly 25% lower T2D risk in women (HR: 0.75, 95%CI: 0.61–0.92 and 38% in men (HR: 0.62; 95%CI: 0.53–0.71 compared to those with an index score of 0 points (poor adherence. Conclusion: Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index was found to be inversely associated with risk of T2D, suggesting that regional diets other than the Mediterranean may also be recommended for prevention of T2D.

  20. Adherence to a Healthy Nordic Food Index Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Type-2 Diabetes--The Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoppidan, Sandra Amalie; Kyrø, Cecilie; Loft, Steffen; Helnæs, Anne; Christensen, Jane; Hansen, Camilla Plambeck; Dahm, Christina Catherine; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja

    2015-10-21

    Type-2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence is rapidly increasing worldwide. Lifestyle factors, in particular obesity, diet, and physical activity play a significant role in the etiology of the disease. Of dietary patterns, particularly the Mediterranean diet has been studied, and generally a protective association has been identified. However, other regional diets are less explored. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between adherence to a healthy Nordic food index and the risk of T2D. The index consists of six food items: fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apples and pears, and root vegetables. Data was obtained from a prospective cohort study of 57,053 Danish men and women aged 50-64 years, at baseline, of whom 7366 developed T2D (median follow-up: 15.3 years). The Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the association between the healthy Nordic food index and risk of T2D, adjusted for potential confounders. Greater adherence to the healthy Nordic food index was significantly associated with lower risk of T2D after adjusting for potential confounders. An index score of 5-6 points (high adherence) was associated with a statistically significantly 25% lower T2D risk in women (HR: 0.75, 95%CI: 0.61-0.92) and 38% in men (HR: 0.62; 95%CI: 0.53-0.71) compared to those with an index score of 0 points (poor adherence). Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index was found to be inversely associated with risk of T2D, suggesting that regional diets other than the Mediterranean may also be recommended for prevention of T2D.

  1. Burden of rheumatoid arthritis in the Nordic region, 1990-2015: a comparative analysis using the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiadaliri, A A; Kristensen, L-E; Englund, M

    2018-03-01

    To report mortality and disability due to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the Nordic region (Denmark, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) using data from the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2015. Using the results of GBD 2015, we present rates and trends in prevalence, mortality, years of life lost, years lived with disability (YLD), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) of RA in the Nordic region during 1990-2015. In 2015, the age-standardized prevalence of RA was higher in the Nordic region than the global level (0.44%, 95% uncertainty interval 0.40-0.48%, vs 0.35%, 0.32-0.38%). For women (men), DALYs increased by 2.4% (12.9%), from 29 263 (10 909) in 1990 to 29 966 (12 311) in 2015. The burden of RA as a proportion of total DALYs in women (men) increased from 0.90% (0.29%) in 1990 to 0.94% (0.36%) in 2015. Age-standardized DALY rates declined in all countries except Denmark and Greenland between 1990 and 2015. Of 315 conditions studied, RA was ranked as the 16th (37th) leading cause of YLD in women (men) in the region. Of 195 countries studied, Greenland, Finland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Iceland had the 7th, 11th, 28th, 38th, 48th, and 78th highest age-standardized YLD rates for RA, respectively. The prevalence of RA in the Nordic region is higher than the global average. Current trends in population growth and ageing suggest a potential increase in RA burden in the coming decades in the region that should be considered in healthcare resources allocation.

  2. Predictors of subjective quality of life in schizophrenic patients living in the community. A Nordic multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, L; Middelboe, T; Merinder, L; Bjarnason, O; Bengtsson-Tops, A; Nilsson, L; Sandlund, M; Sourander, A; Sørgaard, K W; Vinding, H

    1999-01-01

    As part of a Nordic multi-centre study investigating the life and care situation of community samples of schizophrenic patients the aim of the present part of the study was to examine the relationship between global subjective quality of life and objective life conditions, clinical characteristics including psychopathology and number of needs for care, subjective factors such as satisfaction with different life domains, social network, and self-esteem. A sample of 418 persons with schizophrenia from 10 sites was used. The results of a final multiple regression analysis, explaining 52.3% of the variance, showed that five subjective factors were significantly associated with global subjective quality of life, together with one objective indicator, to have a close friend. No clinical characteristics were associated with global subjective quality of life. The largest part of the variance was explained by satisfaction with health, 36.3% of the variance, and self-esteem, 7.3% of the variance. It is concluded that the actual relationship between objective life conditions and subjectively experienced quality of life still remains unclear. Furthermore, it seems obvious that personality related factors such as self-esteem, mastery and sense of autonomy also play a role in the appraisal of subjective quality of life, which implies that factors like these are important to consider in clinical and social interventions for patients with schizophrenia in order to improve quality of life for these persons.

  3. Bifurcation analysis and stability design for aircraft longitudinal motion with high angle of attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Qi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bifurcation analysis and stability design for aircraft longitudinal motion are investigated when the nonlinearity in flight dynamics takes place severely at high angle of attack regime. To predict the special nonlinear flight phenomena, bifurcation theory and continuation method are employed to systematically analyze the nonlinear motions. With the refinement of the flight dynamics for F-8 Crusader longitudinal motion, a framework is derived to identify the stationary bifurcation and dynamic bifurcation for high-dimensional system. Case study shows that the F-8 longitudinal motion undergoes saddle node bifurcation, Hopf bifurcation, Zero-Hopf bifurcation and branch point bifurcation under certain conditions. Moreover, the Hopf bifurcation renders series of multiple frequency pitch oscillation phenomena, which deteriorate the flight control stability severely. To relieve the adverse effects of these phenomena, a stabilization control based on gain scheduling and polynomial fitting for F-8 longitudinal motion is presented to enlarge the flight envelope. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  4. Bifurcations of a periodically forced microbial continuous culture model with restrained growth rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jingli; Yuan, Qigang

    2017-08-01

    A three dimensional microbial continuous culture model with a restrained microbial growth rate is studied in this paper. Two types of dilution rates are considered to investigate the dynamic behaviors of the model. For the unforced system, fold bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation are detected, and numerical simulations reveal that the system undergoes degenerate Hopf bifurcation. When the system is periodically forced, bifurcation diagrams for periodic solutions of period-one and period-two are given by researching the Poincaré map, corresponding to different bifurcation cases in the unforced system. Stable and unstable quasiperiodic solutions are obtained by Neimark-Sacker bifurcation with different parameter values. Periodic solutions of various periods can occur or disappear and even change their stability, when the Poincaré map of the forced system undergoes Neimark-Sacker bifurcation, flip bifurcation, and fold bifurcation. Chaotic attractors generated by a cascade of period doublings and some phase portraits are given at last.

  5. Self-Rated Health of the Temporary Employees in a Nordic Welfare State: Findings From the Finnish Public Sector Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Pekka; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna

    2018-02-01

    This 9-year follow-up study explores a possible association between temporary employment and declining health. Years in temporary employment from 2004 to 2008 to 2009 were measured for a cohort of 26,886 public sector employees. Self-rated health was measured by surveys in 2004 (baseline), 2008/2009 (short-term follow-up), and 2012/2013 (long-term follow-up). Compared with the permanently employed, the baseline health-adjusted odds of poor health were lower both in the short-term and long-term follow-up, but the differences became nonsignificant when adjusted for sociodemographic and work-related factors. The results would suggest that temporary employment in public sector of a Nordic welfare state does not entail health risks. Future research is needed to elucidate if this is true also among those exposed to nonpermanent employment in the private labor market, in particular those with most atypical jobs and unstable job careers.

  6. E-learning Nordic 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sanya Gertsen

    2006-01-01

    E-learning Nordic 2006 er den første fællesnordiske undersøgelse, som specifikt fokuserer på effekten af it i uddannelsessektoren. Studiet er gennemført i Finland, Sverige, Norge og Danmark og mere end 8000 personer (elever, lærere, forældre og skoleledere i grundskoler og på de gymnasiale...... ungdomsuddannelser) har deltaget. Dette studie giver en række svar på centrale spørgsmål såsom: Hvad har vi fået ud af satsningen på it i uddannelsessektoren indtil nu? Og hvilke udfordringer inden for uddannelsessektoren står de nordiske lande foran i en globaliseret verden? E-learning Nordic 2006 er designet og...

  7. Sedation practice in Nordic and non-Nordic ICUs: a European survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerod, Ingrid; Albarran, John W; Ring, Mette; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2013-07-01

    A trend towards lighter sedation has been evident in many intensive care units (ICUs). The aims of the survey were to describe sedation practice in European ICUs and to compare sedation practice in Nordic and non-Nordic countries. A cross-sectional survey of ICU nurses attending the fourth European federation of Critical Care Nursing associations (EfCCNa) in Denmark, 2011. Data included use of protocols; sedation, pain and delirium assessment tools; collaborative decision-making; sedation and analgesic medications; and educational preparation related to sedation. Response rate was 42% (n = 291) from 22 countries where 53% (n = 148) used sedation protocols. Nordic nurses reported greater use of sedation (91% versus 67%, p Nordic nurses. Decision-making on sedation was more inter-professionally collaborative in Nordic ICUs (83% versus 61%, p Nordic nurses reported greater consistency in maintaining circadian rhythm (66% versus 49%, p Nordic context might be more germane to the goal of lighter sedation and better pain management. Our study raises awareness of current sedation practice, paving the way towards optimized ICU sedation management. © 2013 The Authors. Nursing in Critical Care © 2013 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  8. Dedicated bifurcation stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajith Ananthakrishna Pillai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bifurcation percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI is still a difficult call for the interventionist despite advancements in the instrumentation, technical skill and the imaging modalities. With major cardiac events relate to the side-branch (SB compromise, the concept and practice of dedicated bifurcation stents seems exciting. Several designs of such dedicated stents are currently undergoing trials. This novel concept and pristine technology offers new hope notwithstanding the fact that we need to go a long way in widespread acceptance and practice of these gadgets. Some of these designs even though looks enterprising, the mere complex delivering technique and the demanding knowledge of the exact coronary anatomy makes their routine use challenging.

  9. Bifurcation and Nonlinear Oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-28

    Structural stability and bifurcation theory. pp. 549-560 in Dinamical Systems (Ed. MI. Peixoto), Academic Press, 1973. [211 J. Sotomayor, Generic one...Dynamical Systems Brown University ELECTP" 71, Providence, R. I. 02912 1EC 2 4 1980j //C -*)’ Septabe-4., 1980 / -A + This research was supported in...problems are discussed. The first one deals with the characterization of the flow for a periodic planar system which is the perturbation of an autonomous

  10. Numerical analysis of bifurcations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guckenheimer, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a brief survey of numerical methods for computing bifurcations of generic families of dynamical systems. Emphasis is placed upon algorithms that reflect the structure of the underlying mathematical theory while retaining numerical efficiency. Significant improvements in the computational analysis of dynamical systems are to be expected from more reliance of geometric insight coming from dynamical systems theory. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  11. Sedation practice in Nordic and non-Nordic ICUs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerod, Ingrid; Albarran, John W; Ring, Mette

    2013-01-01

    A trend towards lighter sedation has been evident in many intensive care units (ICUs). The aims of the survey were to describe sedation practice in European ICUs and to compare sedation practice in Nordic and non-Nordic countries....

  12. Bifurcation analysis of a three dimensional system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwen WANG

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to enrich the stability and bifurcation theory of the three dimensional chaotic systems, taking a quadratic truncate unfolding system with the triple singularity equilibrium as the research subject, the existence of the equilibrium, the stability and the bifurcation of the system near the equilibrium under different parametric conditions are studied. Using the method of mathematical analysis, the existence of the real roots of the corresponding characteristic equation under the different parametric conditions is analyzed, and the local manifolds of the equilibrium are gotten, then the possible bifurcations are guessed. The parametric conditions under which the equilibrium is saddle-focus are analyzed carefully by the Cardan formula. Moreover, the conditions of codimension-one Hopf bifucation and the prerequisites of the supercritical and subcritical Hopf bifurcation are found by computation. The results show that the system has abundant stability and bifurcation, and can also supply theorical support for the proof of the existence of the homoclinic or heteroclinic loop connecting saddle-focus and the Silnikov's chaos. This method can be extended to study the other higher nonlinear systems.

  13. Nuclear threats in the vicinity of the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikelmann, I.M.H.; Moeller, B.

    1999-01-01

    This project is one of the new cross-disciplinary studies in the NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety) research program 1998-2001. The main task for the project is to aggregate knowledge of nuclear threats in the vicinity of the Nordic countries, a 'base of knowledge', and make this available for the Nordic authorities as a supplement for the national emergency preparedness work. The project will focus on potential events in nuclear installations and the consequences for the Nordic countries especially on: vulnerable food chains; doses to man; environmental contamination; the emergency preparedness system. (au)

  14. Provisional versus elective two-stent strategy for unprotected true left main bifurcation lesions: Insights from a FAILS-2 sub-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Hiroyoshi; Chieffo, Alaide; D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Jabbour, Richard J; Naganuma, Toru; Cerrato, Enrico; Ugo, Fabrizio; Pavani, Marco; Varbella, Ferdinando; Boccuzzi, Giacomo; Pennone, Mauro; Garbo, Roberto; Conrotto, Federico; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe; D'Amico, Maurizio; Moretti, Claudio; Escaned, Javier; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Nakamura, Sunao; Colombo, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the optimal percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) strategy for true unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) bifurcations. The FAILS-2 was a retrospective multi-center study including patients with ULMCA disease treated with second-generation drug-eluting stents. Of these, we compared clinical outcomes of a provisional strategy (PS; n=216) versus an elective two-stent strategy (E2S; n=161) for true ULMCA bifurcations. The primary endpoint was the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) at 3-years. We further performed propensity-score adjustment for clinical outcomes. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of patient and lesion characteristics. 9.7% of patients in the PS group crossed over to a provisional two-stent strategy. MACEs were not significantly different between groups (MACE at 3-year; PS 28.1% vs. E2S 28.9%, adjusted p=0.99). The rates of target lesion revascularization (TLR) on the circumflex artery (LCX) were numerically high in the E2S group (LCX-TLR at 3-years; PS 11.8% vs. E2S 16.6%, adjusted p=0.51). E2S was associated with a comparable MACE rate to PS for true ULMCA bifurcations. The rates of LCX-TLR tended to be higher in the E2S group although there was no statistical significance. This study sought to compare the clinical outcomes of a provisional strategy (PS) with an elective two-stent strategy (E2S) for the treatment of true unprotected left main coronary artery bifurcations. 377 Patients (PS 216 vs. E2S 161 patients) were evaluated, and 9.7% in the PS group crossed over to a two-stent strategy. E2S was associated with a similar major adverse cardiac event rate at 3-years when compared to the PS strategy (PS 28.1% vs. E2S 28.9%, p=0.99). However, the left circumflex artery TLR rate at 3-year tended to be higher in the E2S group (PS 11.8% vs. E2S 16.6%, p=0.51). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Strategies for Internationalization of Higher Education. A Case Study--the Nordic Centre at Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtermann, Sigrid

    1996-01-01

    The Nordic Centre at Fudan University (China) links it with Norwegian universities, and has resulted in: a new Norwegian School of Management program; a Chinese-Norwegian dictionary; short credit courses on Scandinavian affairs for Chinese students; language courses and examinations for Norwegian students of Chinese; establishment of a library on…

  16. Attractors near grazing–sliding bifurcations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendinning, P; Kowalczyk, P; Nordmark, A B

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we prove, for the first time, that multistability can occur in three-dimensional Fillipov type flows due to grazing–sliding bifurcations. We do this by reducing the study of the dynamics of Filippov type flows around a grazing–sliding bifurcation to the study of appropriately defined one-dimensional maps. In particular, we prove the presence of three qualitatively different types of multiple attractors born in grazing–sliding bifurcations. Namely, a period-two orbit with a sliding segment may coexist with a chaotic attractor, two stable, period-two and period-three orbits with a segment of sliding each may coexist, or a non-sliding and period-three orbit with two sliding segments may coexist

  17. Occupational exposure to asbestos and risk of cholangiocarcinoma: a population-based case–control study in four Nordic countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farioli, Andrea; Straif, Kurt; Brandi, Giovanni; Curti, Stefania; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Sparen, Pär; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Biasco, Guido; Violante, Francesco Saverio; Mattioli, Stefano; Pukkala, Eero

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between occupational exposure to asbestos and the risk of cholangiocarcinoma (CC). Methods We conducted a case–control study nested in the Nordic Occupational Cancer (NOCCA) cohort. We studied 1458 intrahepatic CC (ICC) and 3972 extrahepatic CC (ECC) cases occurring among subjects born in 1920 or later in Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. Each case was individually matched by birth year, gender and country to five population controls. The cumulative exposure to asbestos (measured in fibres (f)/ml × years) was assessed by applying the NOCCA job-exposure matrix to data on occupations collected during national population censuses (conducted in 1960, 1970, 1980/81 and 1990). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI were estimated using conditional logistic regression models adjusted by printing industry work. Results We observed an increasing risk of ICC with cumulative exposure to asbestos: never exposed, OR 1.0 (reference category); 0.1–4.9 f/mL × years, OR 1.1 (95% CI 0.9 to 1.3); 5.0–9.9 f/mL × years, OR 1.3 (95% CI 0.9 to 2.1); 10.0–14.9 f/mL × years, OR 1.6 (95% CI 1.0 to 2.5); ≥15.0 f/mL × years, OR 1.7 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.6). We did not observe an association between cumulative asbestos exposure and ECC. Conclusions Our study provides evidence that exposure to asbestos might be a risk factor for ICC. Our findings also suggest that the association between ECC and asbestos is null or weaker than that observed for ICC. Further studies based on large industrial cohorts of asbestos workers and possibly accounting for personal characteristics and clinical history are needed. PMID:29133597

  18. No association between adherence to the healthy Nordic food index and cardiovascular disease amongst Swedish women: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, N; Sandin, S; Scragg, R; Löf, M; Skeie, G; Olsen, A; Adami, H-O; Weiderpass, E

    2015-11-01

    In several intervention trials, a healthy Nordic diet showed beneficial effects on markers of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the association between a healthy Nordic diet and clinical diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. Our aim was first to examine the association between a healthy Nordic food index (wholegrain bread, oatmeal, apples/pears, root vegetables, cabbages and fish) and the incidence of overall cardiovascular disease (ischaemic heart disease, stroke, arrhythmia, thrombosis and hypertensive disease), and secondly to test for possible effect modification by smoking, body mass index (BMI), alcohol consumption and age. We conducted an analysis of data from the prospective Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort, including 43 310 women who completed a food frequency questionnaire in 1991-1992, and followed up until 31 December 2012 through Swedish registries. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. During follow-up, 8383 women developed cardiovascular disease. We found no association between the healthy Nordic food index and overall cardiovascular disease risk or any of the subgroups investigated. There was a statistically significant interaction with smoking status (P = 0.02), with a beneficial effect only amongst former smokers (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.99 per 1-point increment). The present results do not support an association between a healthy Nordic food index and risk of cardiovascular disease in Swedish women. There was also no effect modification by alcohol intake, BMI or age. Our finding of an interaction with smoking status requires reproduction. © 2015 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  19. Blood–plasma separation in Y-shaped bifurcating microfluidic channels: a dissipative particle dynamics simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xuejin; Karniadakis, George Em; Popel, Aleksander S

    2012-01-01

    The motion of a suspension of red blood cells (RBCs) flowing in a Y-shaped bifurcating microfluidic channel is investigated using a validated low-dimensional RBC model based on dissipative particle dynamics. Specifically, the RBC is represented as a closed torus-like ring of ten colloidal particles, which leads to efficient simulations of blood flow in microcirculation over a wide range of hematocrits. Adaptive no-slip wall boundary conditions were implemented to model hydrodynamic flow within a specific wall structure of diverging three-dimensional microfluidic channels, paying attention to controlling density fluctuations. Plasma skimming and the all-or-nothing phenomenon of RBCs in a bifurcating microfluidic channel have been investigated in our simulations for healthy and diseased blood, including the size of a cell-free layer on the daughter branches. The feed hematocrit level in the parent channel has considerable influence on blood–plasma separation. Compared to the blood–plasma separation efficiencies of healthy RBCs, malaria-infected stiff RBCs (iRBCs) have a tendency to travel into the low flow-rate daughter branch because of their different initial distribution in the parent channel. Our simulation results are consistent with previously published experimental results and theoretical predictions. (paper)

  20. Birth characteristics and Wilms tumors in children in the Nordic countries: a register-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Joachim; Schmidt, Lisbeth Samsø; Kogner, Per; Lähteenmäki, Päivi M; Pal, Niklas; Stokland, Tore; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2011-05-01

    Little is known about causes of Wilms tumor. Because of the young age at diagnosis, several studies have looked at various birth characteristics. We conducted a registry-based case-control study involving 690 cases of Wilms tumor aged 0-14 years, occurring in Denmark, Finland, Norway or Sweden during 1985-2006, individually matched to five controls drawn randomly from the Nordic childhood population. Information on birth characteristics was obtained from the population-based medical birth registries. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using conditional logistic regression analysis. We observed a distinct association between Wilms tumor and high birth weight (≥4 kg) for girls (OR 1.97, CI 1.50-2.59) but not for boys (1.04, 0.78-1.38); overall, the OR was 1.43 (1.17-1.74). Among girls, risk increased by 28% (15-42%) per 500 g increase in birth weight. Large-for-gestational age girls also had a higher risk (2.48, 1.51-4.05), whereas no effect was seen for boys (1.12, 0.60-2.07). An association was seen with Apgar score at 5 min birth order. In our large-scale, registry-based study, we confirmed earlier observations of an association between high birth weight and risk of Wilms tumor, but we found an effect only in girls. The higher risk of infants with low Apgar score might reflect hypoxia causing cell damage, adverse side effects of neonatal treatment or reverse causation as low Apgar score might indicate the presence of a tumor. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  1. Challenges to Nordic Police Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The paper will cover three main points: A short description of published police research in the Nordic countries; a somewhat longer discussion of the nature of, and challenges to, Nordic police research and, finally, a critique of the homeliness of research.......The paper will cover three main points: A short description of published police research in the Nordic countries; a somewhat longer discussion of the nature of, and challenges to, Nordic police research and, finally, a critique of the homeliness of research....

  2. Nordic Regional Report; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper elaborates findings and discussions of 2013 Cluster Consultation Nordic Regional report. The countries have close economic and financial ties and face some common challenges and shared risks, such as large banking sectors and high household debt. The economic performance of the four continental Nordic economies (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden—Nordic-4) ranks among the advanced economic development circle. It is analyzed that the large Nordic banking systems su...

  3. Disease activity in and quality of life of patients with psoriatic arthritis mutilans: the Nordic PAM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, U; Gudbjornsson, B; Iversen, L; Laasonen, L; Ejstrup, L; Ternowitz, T; Ståhle, M

    2017-11-01

    To describe the social status and health-related quality of life of patients with psoriatic arthritis mutilans (PAM) in the Nordic countries. Patients with at least one mutilated joint confirmed by radiology were studied. Disease activity involving joints and skin, physician-assessed disease activity, and patient's education and work status were recorded. Data from the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, Health Assessment Questionnaire and Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaire were gathered and correlated with disease duration, pain, and general well-being (visual analogue scale). The controls were 58 Swedish patients with long-standing psoriatic arthritis sine PAM. Sixty-seven patients were included. Patients with PAM had a protracted disease history (33 ± 14 years) and disease onset at a relatively early age (30 ± 12 years). Overall inflammatory activity at inclusion was mild to moderate. The mean number of mutilated joints was 8.2 and gross deformity was found in 16% of patients. Forty per cent were treated with biological and 32% with conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. Forty-two per cent had retired early or were on sick leave. Impaired functional capacity with little or no ability to perform self-care or everyday tasks was reported by 21% of the patients. Patients between 45 and 60 years of age reported the most impaired quality of life in comparison to the control group. PAM seriously affects social functioning. Whether early recognition of PAM and new forms of therapy can improve disease outcome and quality of life remains to be studied.

  4. Nordic Management and Sustainable Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preuss, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    of the Nordics and from that wants to answer if this management approach fosters a sustainable business culture. For defining the management and cultural approach applied in Nordic companies, the method of text mining in relation with machine learning will be used. Among European companies, the Nordic companies...

  5. Views on the Hopf bifurcation with respect to voltage instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roa-Sepulveda, C A [Universidad de Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile). Dept. de Ingenieria Electrica; Knight, U G [Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents a sensitivity study of the Hopf bifurcation phenomenon which can in theory appear in power systems, with reference to the dynamics of the process and the impact of demand characteristics. Conclusions are drawn regarding power levels at which these bifurcations could appear and concern the concept of the imaginary axis as a `hard` limit eigenvalue analyses. (author) 20 refs., 31 figs.

  6. Examestane in advanced or recurrent endometrial carcinoma: a prospective phase II study by the Nordic Society of Gynecologic Oncology (NSGO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemann, Kristina; Nordstrøm, Britta; Malander, Susanne; Christensen, Rene D; Mirza, Mansoor R; Kristensen, Gunnar B; Aavall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth; Vergote, Ignace; Rosenberg, Per; Boman, Karin

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and safety of the aromatase inhibitor exemestane in patients with advanced, persistent or recurrent endometrial carcinoma. We performed an open-label one-arm, two-stage, phase II study of 25 mg of oral exemestane in 51 patients with advanced (FIGO stage III-IV) or relapsed endometrioid endometrial cancer. Patients were stratified into subsets of estrogen receptor (ER) positive and ER negative patients. Recruitment to the ER negative group was stopped prematurely after 12 patients due to slow accrual. In the ER positive patients, we observed an overall response rate of 10%, and a lack of progression after 6 months in 35% of the patients. No responses were registered in the ER negative patients, and all had progressive disease within 6 months. For the total group of patients, the median progression free survival (PFS) was 3.1 months (95% CI: 2.0-4.1). In the ER positive patients the median PFS was 3.8 months (95% CI: 0.7-6.9) and in the ER negative patients it was 2.6 months (95% CI: 2.1-3-1). In the ER positive patients the median overall survival (OS) time was 13.3 months (95% CI: 7.7-18.9), in the ER negative patients the corresponding numbers were 6.1 months (95% CI: 4.1-8.2). Treatment with exemestane was well tolerated. Treatment of estrogen positive advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer with exemestane, an aromatase inhibitor, resulted in a response rate of 10% and lack of progression after 6 months in 35% of the patients. Trial identification number (Clinical Trials.gov): http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/NCT01965080. Nordic Society of Gynecological Oncology: NSGO–EC–0302. EudraCT number: 2004-001103-35

  7. Democracy, Caring and Competence: Values Perspectives in ECEC Curricula in the Nordic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Johanna; Purola, Anna-Maija; Johansson, Eva Marianne; Broström, Stig; Emilson, Anette

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore how Nordic Early Childhood Education and Care policies frame values education in preschools with a special focus on the values of democracy, caring and competence. The study is part of a larger Nordic project, "Values education in Nordic preschools: Basis of education for tomorrow," the aim of which is…

  8. Fitness Club / Nordic Walking

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2011-01-01

    Nordic Walking at CERN Enrollments are open for Nordic Walking courses and outings at CERN. Classes will be on Tuesdays as of 20 September, and outings for the more experienced will be on Thursdays as of 15 September. We meet at the CERN Club barracks car park (near entrance A). • 18:00 to 19:00 on 20 & 27 September, as well as 4 & 11 October. Check out our schedule and rates and enroll at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! CERN Fitness Club fitness.club@cern.ch  

  9. A Mixed Nordic Experience:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole Jess; Johnsen, Tor Arnt; Lewis, Philip

    2006-01-01

    Although the Nordic countries were among the first to develop competition in the electricity industry, it took a long time to make retail competition work. In Norway and Sweden a considerable number of households are actively using the market but very few households are active in Finland and Denm......Although the Nordic countries were among the first to develop competition in the electricity industry, it took a long time to make retail competition work. In Norway and Sweden a considerable number of households are actively using the market but very few households are active in Finland...

  10. New New Nordic Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Pynt

    2017-01-01

    Konstruktionen af nordisk regionalisme er en stærk tendens som udgangspunkt for Nordic branding, men har vi egentlig forstået de værdier og spændinger, der driver hele projektet om en ny ’nordiskhed’?......Konstruktionen af nordisk regionalisme er en stærk tendens som udgangspunkt for Nordic branding, men har vi egentlig forstået de værdier og spændinger, der driver hele projektet om en ny ’nordiskhed’?...

  11. Bifurcation diagram of a cubic three-parameter autonomous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Barakova

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the cubic three-parameter autonomous planar system $$displaylines{ dot x_1 = k_1 + k_2x_1 - x_1^3 - x_2,cr dot x_2 = k_3 x_1 - x_2, }$$ where $k_2, k_3$ are greater than 0. Our goal is to obtain a bifurcation diagram; i.e., to divide the parameter space into regions within which the system has topologically equivalent phase portraits and to describe how these portraits are transformed at the bifurcation boundaries. Results may be applied to the macroeconomical model IS-LM with Kaldor's assumptions. In this model existence of a stable limit cycles has already been studied (Andronov-Hopf bifurcation. We present the whole bifurcation diagram and among others, we prove existence of more difficult bifurcations and existence of unstable cycles.

  12. Socio-economic inequality in preterm birth: a comparative study of the Nordic countries from 1981 to 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina B; Mortensen, Laust H; Morgen, Camilla S

    2009-01-01

    During the 1980s and 1990s, there were large social and structural changes within the Nordic countries. Here we examine time changes in risks of preterm birth by maternal educational attainment in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Information on gestational age and maternal socio-economic posi......During the 1980s and 1990s, there were large social and structural changes within the Nordic countries. Here we examine time changes in risks of preterm birth by maternal educational attainment in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Information on gestational age and maternal socio......-economic position was obtained from the NorCHASE database, which includes comparable population-based register data of births from Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway from 1981 to 2000. The risks of very preterm birth (12 years of education, mothers with...

  13. Nordic Walking Practice Might Improve Plantar Pressure Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Soriano, Pedro; Llana-Belloch, Salvador; Martinez-Nova, Alfonso; Morey-Klapsing, G.; Encarnacion-Martinez, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Nordic walking (NW), characterized by the use of two walking poles, is becoming increasingly popular (Morgulec-Adamowicz, Marszalek, & Jagustyn, 2011). We studied walking pressure patterns of 20 experienced and 30 beginner Nordic walkers. Plantar pressures from nine foot zones were measured during trials performed at two walking speeds (preferred…

  14. Travelling waves and their bifurcations in the Lorenz-96 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kekem, Dirk L.; Sterk, Alef E.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we study the dynamics of the monoscale Lorenz-96 model using both analytical and numerical means. The bifurcations for positive forcing parameter F are investigated. The main analytical result is the existence of Hopf or Hopf-Hopf bifurcations in any dimension n ≥ 4. Exploiting the circulant structure of the Jacobian matrix enables us to reduce the first Lyapunov coefficient to an explicit formula from which it can be determined when the Hopf bifurcation is sub- or supercritical. The first Hopf bifurcation for F > 0 is always supercritical and the periodic orbit born at this bifurcation has the physical interpretation of a travelling wave. Furthermore, by unfolding the codimension two Hopf-Hopf bifurcation it is shown to act as an organising centre, explaining dynamics such as quasi-periodic attractors and multistability, which are observed in the original Lorenz-96 model. Finally, the region of parameter values beyond the first Hopf bifurcation value is investigated numerically and routes to chaos are described using bifurcation diagrams and Lyapunov exponents. The observed routes to chaos are various but without clear pattern as n → ∞.

  15. Challenges to nordic teacher education programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Dorf, Hans

    2010-01-01

    and subjects in the Finnish teacher education program (pedagogical studies, quality of practice teaching, research base) and its strong focus on training future teachers for the teacher profession and a professional community play an important role in respect to recruitment and low drop-out rates.......  This article resumes a comparative study on the Nordic teacher education programs in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden (Nordisk Ministerråd/Nordic Council of Ministers, 2008). By focusing on the part of the study which is occupied with the structure and organisation of the Nordic...... teacher education programs it tries to find explanations for the fact that only the Finnish teacher education does not suffer from a decreasing number of applicants, from high drop-out rates, and from low retention rates. It is claimed that the strong emphasis on specific professional elements...

  16. Cohort Fertility Patterns in the Nordic Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Andersson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous analyses of period fertility suggest that the trends of the Nordic countries are sufficiently similar to speak of a common "Nordic fertility regime". We investigate whether this assumption can be corroborated by comparing cohort fertility patterns in the Nordic countries. We study cumulated and completed fertility of Nordic birth cohorts based on the childbearing histories of women born in 1935 and later derived from the population registers of Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. We further explore childbearing behaviour by women's educational attainment. The results show remarkable similarities in postponement and recuperation between the countries and very small differences in completed fertility across educational groups. Median childbearing age is about 2-3 years higher in the 1960-64 cohort than in the 1950-54 cohort, but the younger cohort recuperates the fertility level of the older cohort at ages 30 and above. A similar pattern of recuperation can be observed for highly educated women as compared to women with less education. An interesting finding is that of a positive relationship between educational level and the final number of children when women who become mothers at similar ages are compared. Country differences in fertility outcome are generally rather low. Childlessness is highest in Finland and lowest in Norway, and the educational differentials are largest in Norway. Despite such differences, the cohort analyses in many ways support the notion of a common Nordic fertility regime.

  17. Dermatological moulage collections in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worm, A-M; Sinisalo, H; Eilertsen, G; Åhrén, E; Meyer, I

    2018-04-01

    The art of producing and acquiring dermatological wax models, moulages, flourished all over Europe in the beginning of the twentieth century, whereas very little is known about the existence of moulage collections in the Nordic countries. The aim of this study was to elucidate the presence, the origin, the production place, the use and the condition of dermatological moulage collections in the Nordic countries. In each Nordic country, an extensive survey was undertaken during spring 2016. Dermatological departments, museums with medical collections, persons assumed to have specific information about wax moulages as well as secondary sources were contacted and interviewed. Several hitherto undescribed collections have survived in each country, most, however, damaged and in disrepair. One Danish and part of a Finnish collection have been restored. Only few moulages are exhibited and some have been photographed and digitalized. Denmark and Sweden have had a local moulage production. Responses to the survey indicate that the result covers all collections of dermatological moulages in the Nordic countries, though some moulages may remain in private collections unknown to the authors, or uncatalogued in museums. Moulages are medical gems from bygone days before modern technology facilitated new means of communication. Restoration and appropriate storing should be considered for at least selected items from the Nordic collections. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  18. The Nordic Prudent Diet Reduces Risk of Cognitive Decline in the Swedish Older Adults: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Shakersain

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate dietary pattern for preserving cognitive function in northern Europe remains unknown. We aimed to identify a Nordic dietary pattern index associated with slower cognitive decline compared to the Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay, Mediterranean Diet, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, and Baltic Sea Diet indices. A total of 2223 dementia-free adults aged ≥60 were followed for 6 years. Mini-Mental State Examination was administrated at baseline and follow-ups. Dietary intake was assessed by 98-item food frequency questionnaire, and the Nordic Prudent Dietary Pattern (NPDP was identified. Data were analysed using mixed-effects and parametric survival models and receiver operating characteristic curves with adjustment for potential confounders. Moderate (β = 0.139, 95% CI 0.077−0.201 and high adherence (β = 0.238, 95% CI 0.175−0.300 to NPDP were associated with less cognitive decline compared to other four indices. High adherence to NPDP was also associated with the lowest risk of MMSE decline to ≤24 (HR = 0.176, 95% CI 0.080−0.386 and had the greatest ability to predict such decline (area under the curve = 0.70. Moderate-to-high adherence to the NPDP may predict a better-preserved cognitive function among older adults in Nordic countries. Regional dietary habits should be considered in developing dietary guidelines for the prevention of cognitive impairment and dementia.

  19. The Nordic Prudent Diet Reduces Risk of Cognitive Decline in the Swedish Older Adults: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakersain, Behnaz; Rizzuto, Debora; Larsson, Susanna C; Faxén-Irving, Gerd; Fratiglioni, Laura; Xu, Wei-Li

    2018-02-17

    Appropriate dietary pattern for preserving cognitive function in northern Europe remains unknown. We aimed to identify a Nordic dietary pattern index associated with slower cognitive decline compared to the Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay, Mediterranean Diet, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, and Baltic Sea Diet indices. A total of 2223 dementia-free adults aged ≥60 were followed for 6 years. Mini-Mental State Examination was administrated at baseline and follow-ups. Dietary intake was assessed by 98-item food frequency questionnaire, and the Nordic Prudent Dietary Pattern (NPDP) was identified. Data were analysed using mixed-effects and parametric survival models and receiver operating characteristic curves with adjustment for potential confounders. Moderate (β = 0.139, 95% CI 0.077-0.201) and high adherence (β = 0.238, 95% CI 0.175-0.300) to NPDP were associated with less cognitive decline compared to other four indices. High adherence to NPDP was also associated with the lowest risk of MMSE decline to ≤24 (HR = 0.176, 95% CI 0.080-0.386) and had the greatest ability to predict such decline (area under the curve = 0.70). Moderate-to-high adherence to the NPDP may predict a better-preserved cognitive function among older adults in Nordic countries. Regional dietary habits should be considered in developing dietary guidelines for the prevention of cognitive impairment and dementia.

  20. Development of voluntary private health insurance in Nordic countries - An exploratory study on country-specific contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynkkynen, Liina-Kaisa; Alexandersen, Nina; Kaarbøe, Oddvar; Anell, Anders; Lehto, Juhani; Vrangbӕk, Karsten

    2018-03-16

    The Nordic countries are healthcare systems with tax-based financing and ambitions for universal access to comprehensive services. This implies that distribution of healthcare resources should be based on individual needs, not on the ability to pay. Despite this ideological orientation, significant expansion in voluntary private health insurance (VPHI) contracts has occurred in recent decades. The development and role of VPHIs are different across the Nordic countries. Complementary VPHI plays a significant role in Denmark and in Finland. Supplementary VPHI is prominent in Norway and Sweden. The aim of this paper is to explore drivers behind the developments of the VPHI markets in the Nordic countries. We analyze the developments in terms of the following aspects: the performance of the statutory system (real or perceived), lack of coverage in certain areas of healthcare, governmental interventions or inability to reform the system, policy trends and the general socio-cultural environment, and policy responses to voting behavior or lobbying by certain interest groups. It seems that the early developments in VPHI markets have been an answer to the gaps in the national health systems created by institutional contexts, political decisions, and cultural interpretations on the functioning of the system. However, once the market is created it introduces new dynamics that have less to do with gaps and inflexibilities and more with cultural factors. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Bifurcation of solutions to Hamiltonian boundary value problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, R. I.; Offen, C.

    2018-06-01

    A bifurcation is a qualitative change in a family of solutions to an equation produced by varying parameters. In contrast to the local bifurcations of dynamical systems that are often related to a change in the number or stability of equilibria, bifurcations of boundary value problems are global in nature and may not be related to any obvious change in dynamical behaviour. Catastrophe theory is a well-developed framework which studies the bifurcations of critical points of functions. In this paper we study the bifurcations of solutions of boundary-value problems for symplectic maps, using the language of (finite-dimensional) singularity theory. We associate certain such problems with a geometric picture involving the intersection of Lagrangian submanifolds, and hence with the critical points of a suitable generating function. Within this framework, we then study the effect of three special cases: (i) some common boundary conditions, such as Dirichlet boundary conditions for second-order systems, restrict the possible types of bifurcations (for example, in generic planar systems only the A-series beginning with folds and cusps can occur); (ii) integrable systems, such as planar Hamiltonian systems, can exhibit a novel periodic pitchfork bifurcation; and (iii) systems with Hamiltonian symmetries or reversing symmetries can exhibit restricted bifurcations associated with the symmetry. This approach offers an alternative to the analysis of critical points in function spaces, typically used in the study of bifurcation of variational problems, and opens the way to the detection of more exotic bifurcations than the simple folds and cusps that are often found in examples.

  2. Effects of school meals based on the New Nordic Diet on intake of signature foods: a randomised controlled trial. The OPUS School Meal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Rikke; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Andersen, Elisabeth W; Ege, Majken; Christensen, Tue; Ygil, Karin H; Thorsen, Anne V; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F; Tetens, Inge

    2015-09-14

    A New Nordic Diet (NND) was developed in the context of the Danish OPUS Study (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet). Health, gastronomic potential, sustainability and Nordic identity were crucial principles of the NND. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of serving NND school meals compared with the usual packed lunches on the dietary intake of NND signature foods. For two 3-month periods, 834 Danish children aged 8-11 years received NND school meals or their usual packed lunches brought from home (control) in random order. The entire diet was recorded over 7 consecutive days using a validated Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children. The NND resulted in higher intakes during the entire week (% increase) of root vegetables (116 (95 % CI 1·93, 2·42)), cabbage (26 (95 % CI 1·08, 1·47)), legumes (22 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·40)), herbs (175 (95 % CI 2·36, 3·20)), fresh berries (48 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·94)), nuts and seeds (18 (95 % CI 1·02, 1·38)), lean fish and fish products (47 (95 % CI 1·31, 1·66)), fat fish and fish products (18 (95 % CI 1·02, 1·37)) and potatoes (129 (95 % CI 2·05, 2·56)). Furthermore, there was a decrease in the number of children with zero intakes when their habitual packed lunches were replaced by NND school meals. In conclusion, this study showed that the children increased their intake of NND signature foods, and, furthermore, there was a decrease in the number of children with zero intakes of NND signature foods when their habitual packed lunches were replaced by school meals following the NND principles.

  3. Performance management in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mads Bøge

    -specific perspective, I analyze variations and similarities among countries and agencies in their development of a performance measurement system and the incorporation and use of performance information. Empirically the study shows that some patterns can be discerned but they also seem to be rather complex. Starting......This paper reports a study of performance management in practice in three tasks (Food safety, Meteorology and Prisons) across the three Scandinavian countries Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The paper examines how the system of performance management in Denmark, Norway and Sweden (Management...... from this analysis I discuss, whether it is possible to identify a Nordic model of performance management? Whether we should distinguish between an East Nordic and a West Nordic model? Should we rather talk about a Danish model, a Swedish model and a Norwegian model, or are the differences within...

  4. Digital subtraction angiography of carotid bifurcation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, A.R. de.

    1984-01-01

    This study demonstrates the reliability of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) by means of intra- and interobserver investigations as well as indicating the possibility of substituting catheterangiography by DSA in the diagnosis of carotid bifurcation. Whenever insufficient information is obtained from the combination of non-invasive investigation and DSA, a catheterangiogram will be necessary. (Auth.)

  5. Occupational exposure to asbestos and risk of cholangiocarcinoma: a population-based case-control study in four Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farioli, Andrea; Straif, Kurt; Brandi, Giovanni; Curti, Stefania; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Sparen, Pär; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Biasco, Guido; Violante, Francesco Saverio; Mattioli, Stefano; Pukkala, Eero

    2018-03-01

    To assess the association between occupational exposure to asbestos and the risk of cholangiocarcinoma (CC). We conducted a case-control study nested in the Nordic Occupational Cancer (NOCCA) cohort. We studied 1458 intrahepatic CC (ICC) and 3972 extrahepatic CC (ECC) cases occurring among subjects born in 1920 or later in Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. Each case was individually matched by birth year, gender and country to five population controls. The cumulative exposure to asbestos (measured in fibres (f)/ml × years) was assessed by applying the NOCCA job-exposure matrix to data on occupations collected during national population censuses (conducted in 1960, 1970, 1980/81 and 1990). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI were estimated using conditional logistic regression models adjusted by printing industry work. We observed an increasing risk of ICC with cumulative exposure to asbestos: never exposed, OR 1.0 (reference category); 0.1-4.9 f/mL × years, OR 1.1 (95% CI 0.9 to 1.3); 5.0-9.9 f/mL × years, OR 1.3 (95% CI 0.9 to 2.1); 10.0-14.9 f/mL × years, OR 1.6 (95% CI 1.0 to 2.5); ≥15.0 f/mL × years, OR 1.7 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.6). We did not observe an association between cumulative asbestos exposure and ECC. Our study provides evidence that exposure to asbestos might be a risk factor for ICC. Our findings also suggest that the association between ECC and asbestos is null or weaker than that observed for ICC. Further studies based on large industrial cohorts of asbestos workers and possibly accounting for personal characteristics and clinical history are needed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Hospital volume and the risk of revision in Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty in the Nordic countries -an observational study of 14,496 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badawy, Mona; Fenstad, Anne M.; Bartz-Johannessen, Christoffer A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: High procedure volume and dedication to unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) has been suggested to improve revision rates. This study aimed to quantify the annual hospital volume effect on revision risk in Oxfordu? nicompartmental knee arthroplasty in the Nordic countries. Methods......). The outcome was revision risk after 2 and 10 years calculated using Kaplan Meier method. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to assess the Hazard Ratio (HR) of any revision due to specific reasons with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: The implant survival was 80% at 10 years in the volume...

  7. A collaborative study on a Nordic standard protocol for detection and enumeration of thermotolerant Campylobacter in food (NMKL 119, 3. Ed., 2007)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Bengtsson, Anja; Hansen, Tina Beck

    2007-01-01

    A Nordic standard protocol for detection and enumeration of thermotolerant Campylobacter in food has been elaborated (NMKL 119, 3. Ed., 2007). Performance and precision characteristics of this protocol were evaluated in a collaborative study with participation of 14 laboratories from seven European...... jejuni (SLV-542). Expected concentrations (95% C.I.) (cfu g(-1) or ml(-1)) of both strains in matrices were 0.6-1.4 and 23-60 for qualitative detection, and 0.6-1.4; 23-60; and 420-1200 for semi-quantitative detection. For quantitative determination, the expected concentrations of C. jejuni/C. coli were...

  8. Effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and inflammation markers in metabolic syndrome -- a randomized study (SYSDIET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusitupa, M; Hermansen, K; Savolainen, M J; Schwab, U; Kolehmainen, M; Brader, L; Mortensen, L S; Cloetens, L; Johansson-Persson, A; Onning, G; Landin-Olsson, M; Herzig, K-H; Hukkanen, J; Rosqvist, F; Iggman, D; Paananen, J; Pulkki, K J; Siloaho, M; Dragsted, L; Barri, T; Overvad, K; Bach Knudsen, K E; Hedemann, M S; Arner, P; Dahlman, I; Borge, G I A; Baardseth, P; Ulven, S M; Gunnarsdottir, I; Jónsdóttir, S; Thorsdottir, I; Orešič, M; Poutanen, K S; Risérus, U; Akesson, B

    2013-07-01

    Different healthy food patterns may modify cardiometabolic risk. We investigated the effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, blood pressure and inflammatory markers in people with metabolic syndrome. We conducted a randomized dietary study lasting for 18-24 weeks in individuals with features of metabolic syndrome (mean age 55 years, BMI 31.6 kg m(-2) , 67% women). Altogether 309 individuals were screened, 200 started the intervention after 4-week run-in period, and 96 (proportion of dropouts 7.9%) and 70 individuals (dropouts 27%) completed the study, in the Healthy diet and Control diet groups, respectively. Healthy diet included whole-grain products, berries, fruits and vegetables, rapeseed oil, three fish meals per week and low-fat dairy products. An average Nordic diet served as a Control diet. Compliance was monitored by repeated 4-day food diaries and fatty acid composition of serum phospholipids. Body weight remained stable, and no significant changes were observed in insulin sensitivity or blood pressure. Significant changes between the groups were found in non-HDL cholesterol (-0.18, mmol L(-1) 95% CI -0.35; -0.01, P = 0.04), LDL to HDL cholesterol (-0.15, -0.28; -0.00, P = 0.046) and apolipoprotein B to apolipoprotein A1 ratios (-0.04, -0.07; -0.00, P = 0.025) favouring the Healthy diet. IL-1 Ra increased during the Control diet (difference -84, -133; -37 ng L(-1) , P = 0.00053). Intakes of saturated fats (E%, beta estimate 4.28, 0.02; 8.53, P = 0.049) and magnesium (mg, -0.23, -0.41; -0.05, P = 0.012) were associated with IL-1 Ra. Healthy Nordic diet improved lipid profile and had a beneficial effect on low-grade inflammation. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  9. Vocational education in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    a common heritage in education policy. This volume will help strengthen the knowledge base required for transnational policy learning, and for developing vocational education internationally for the future. As a result, the book will be of interest to researchers, academics and postgraduate students......Vocational Education in the Nordic Countries: Learning from Diversity is the second of two books that disseminates new and systematic knowledge on the strengths and weaknesses of the different models of vocational education and training (VET) in four Nordic countries. Vocational education in Europe...... involved in the study of vocational education, educational studies and educational policy, as well as policy makers....

  10. Genomic predictions across Nordic Holstein and Nordic Red using the genomic best linear unbiased prediction model with different genomic relationship matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L; Lund, M S; Wang, Y; Su, G

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated genomic predictions across Nordic Holstein and Nordic Red using various genomic relationship matrices. Different sources of information, such as consistencies of linkage disequilibrium (LD) phase and marker effects, were used to construct the genomic relationship matrices (G-matrices) across these two breeds. Single-trait genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) model and two-trait GBLUP model were used for single-breed and two-breed genomic predictions. The data included 5215 Nordic Holstein bulls and 4361 Nordic Red bulls, which was composed of three populations: Danish Red, Swedish Red and Finnish Ayrshire. The bulls were genotyped with 50 000 SNP chip. Using the two-breed predictions with a joint Nordic Holstein and Nordic Red reference population, accuracies increased slightly for all traits in Nordic Red, but only for some traits in Nordic Holstein. Among the three subpopulations of Nordic Red, accuracies increased more for Danish Red than for Swedish Red and Finnish Ayrshire. This is because closer genetic relationships exist between Danish Red and Nordic Holstein. Among Danish Red, individuals with higher genomic relationship coefficients with Nordic Holstein showed more increased accuracies in the two-breed predictions. Weighting the two-breed G-matrices by LD phase consistencies, marker effects or both did not further improve accuracies of the two-breed predictions. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Is Danish Difficult to Acquire? Evidence from Nordic Past-Tense Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleses, Dorthe; Basboll, Hans; Vach, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Cross-linguistic findings have shown that Danish children's early receptive vocabulary development is slower relative to children learning other languages. In this study, we examined whether Danish children's acquisition of inflectional past-tense morphology is delayed relative to Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish children. Our comparison of data…

  12. Control mechanisms for Nordic ship emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsen, K. [DNV, Oslo (Norway); Torvanger, A. [Cicero, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-04-15

    Shipping today operates under a complex set of international and domestic regulations. However, the environmental regulations have lagged behind those of other industries. This situation is now changing quite dramatically. The increased focus on environmental issues, combined with the growing realisation of the actual pollution burden imposed by shipping, has led to an upsurge in both international and national regulations. Some are ready and will enter into force in the near future, while others are still being developed. On behalf of the Nordic Council of Ministers DNV has carried out a study on possible control mechanisms for Nordic ship emission. The aim is to assess the baseline shipping emissions and reduction potential and the possible controlling mechanisms (both incentives and regulations) available for reducing the emissions to air from shipping within the Nordic region. (Author)

  13. Living with the New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micheelsen, Arun; Holm, Lotte; Jensen, Katherine O'Doherty

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Based on New Nordic Cuisine and Nordic dietary recommendations, the research centre OPUS has developed a healthy, sustainable and tasty New Nordic Diet (NND) with the goal of improving public health in Denmark. In order to determine the health potential of the NND, a six-month, controlled...... dietary intervention trial was conducted, in which participants procured NND foods at a specially designed intervention supermarket and prepared and consumed NND meals in their homes. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative sociological study was conducted among...... indicate that while the taste of the NND is likely to appeal to wider groups of consumers, the tasks of food procurement and preparation are likely to constitute barriers to its adoption. The strictly controlled intervention setting enabled participants to learn how to comply with dietary composition...

  14. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, J F; Ulbak, Kaare; Dreyer, L

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our...... malignant melanomas arising in the Nordic populations around the year 2000 will be due to exposure to natural ultraviolet radiation, equivalent to an annual number of about 4700 cases, with 2100 in men and 2600 in women, or some 4% of all cancers notified. Exposure to ionizing radiation in the Nordic...... and building materials, the man-made sources are dominated by the diagnostic and therapeutic use of ionizing radiation. On the basis of measured levels of radon in Nordic dwellings and associated risk estimates for lung cancer derived from well-conducted epidemiological studies, we estimated that about 180...

  15. Local bifurcation analysis in nuclear reactor dynamics by Sotomayor’s theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirayesh, Behnam; Pazirandeh, Ali; Akbari, Monireh

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • When the feedback reactivity is considered as a nonlinear function some complex behaviors may emerge in the system such as local bifurcation phenomenon. • The qualitative behaviors of a typical nuclear reactor near its equilibrium points have been studied analytically. • Comprehensive analytical bifurcation analyses presented in this paper are transcritical bifurcation, saddle- node bifurcation and pitchfork bifurcation. - Abstract: In this paper, a qualitative approach has been used to explore nuclear reactor behaviors with nonlinear feedback. First, a system of four dimensional ordinary differential equations governing the dynamics of a typical nuclear reactor is introduced. These four state variables are the relative power of the reactor, the relative concentration of delayed neutron precursors, the fuel temperature and the coolant temperature. Then, the qualitative behaviors of the dynamical system near its equilibria have been studied analytically by using local bifurcation theory and Sotomayor’s theorem. The results indicated that despite the uncertainty of the reactivity, we can analyze the qualitative behavior changes of the reactor from the bifurcation point of view. Notably, local bifurcations that were considered in this paper include transcritical bifurcation, saddle-node bifurcation and pitchfork bifurcation. The theoretical analysis showed that these three types of local bifurcations may occur in the four dimensional dynamical system. In addition, to confirm the analytical results the numerical simulations are given.

  16. Nordic seminar on energy taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Taxes on energy contribute considerably to a State's income, it is stated. This form of taxation also influences the consumer prices of energy products significantly. Taxation is an important means of political control within the energy sector, it is also a powerful means of controlling a country's environmental policy. The seminar's aim was to study the theoretical background for energy taxation and to provide information on how the standard system for taxation has changed in the various Nordic countries, and the need for a renewal of energy taxation. Seven papers presented at the seminar are presented. (AB)

  17. Sustainable Energy Future - Nordic Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This invited paper first outlines the methodologies applied in analysing the energy savings potentials, as applied to a Nordic and a European case study. Afterwards are shown results for how a high quality of life can be achieved with an energy consumption only a small fraction of the present in ...... in Europe. The energy policy in Denmark since 1973 is outlined, including the activities and the roles of NGOs. Finally are described some of the difficulties of implementing energy saving policies, especially in combination with increasing liberalization of the energy market....

  18. Nordic MCL2 trial update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, Christian H; Kolstad, Arne; Laurell, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a heterogenic non-Hodgkin lymphoma entity, with a median survival of about 5 years. In 2008 we reported the early - based on the median observation time of 4 years - results of the Nordic Lymphoma Group MCL2 study of frontline intensive induction immunochemotherapy...... and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT), with more than 60% event-free survival at 5 years, and no subsequent relapses reported. Here we present an update after a median observation time of 6·5 years. The overall results are still excellent, with median overall survival and response duration longer than...

  19. Ayres' bifurcated solar model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkofen, W.

    1985-01-01

    The assumptions of Ayres' model of the upper solar atmosphere are examined. It is found that the bistable character of his model is postulated - through the assumptions concerning the opacity sources and the effect of mechanical waves, which are allowed to destroy the CO molecules but not to heat the gas. The neglect of cooling by metal lines is based on their reduced local cooling rate, but it ignores the increased depth over which this cooling occurs. Thus, the bifurcated model of the upper solar atmosphere consists of two models, one cold at the temperature minimum, with a kinetic temperature of 2900 K, and the other hot, with a temperature of 4900 K. 8 references

  20. Nasal cancer and occupational exposures. Preliminary report of a joint Nordic case-referent study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernberg, S; Collan, Y; Degerth, R

    1983-01-01

    Nasal and sinus paranasal cancers have been associated with several occupational exposures, for example, dust from hardwood, nickel and unspecific agents occurring in the boot and shoe industry. A joint Danish-Finnish-Swedish case-referent investigation was initiated in 1977 to study further...... showed associations between nasal or sinus paranasal cancer and exposure to hardwood or mixed wood dust (discordant pairs 14/2); softwood dust alone (13/4); chromium 16/6); nickel (12/5, not significant); welding, flamecutting, and soldering (17/16); and lacquers and paints (12/0). Hardwood dust exposure...... the connection between nasal and sinus paranasal cancers and various occupational exposures. All new cases of these cancers were collected from the national cancer registers (Finland & Sweden) or from hospitals (Denmark). Those still alive who agreed to the interview (N = 167) were individually matched for age...

  1. Plasma YKL-40 in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with first line oxaliplatin-based regimen with or without cetuximab: RESULTS from the NORDIC VII Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line S Tarpgaard

    Full Text Available We aim to test the hypothesis that high plasma YKL-40 is associated with short progression-free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC treated with first-line oxaliplatin and 5-flourouracil with or without cetuximab.A total of 566 patients in the NORDIC VII Study were randomized 1∶1∶1 to arm A (Nordic FLOX, arm B (Nordic FLOX + cetuximab, or arm C (Nordic FLOX + cetuximab for 16 weeks followed by cetuximab alone as maintenance therapy. Pretreatment plasma samples were available from 510 patients. Plasma YKL-40 was determined by ELISA and dichotomized according to the age-corrected 95% YKL-40 level in 3130 healthy subjects.Pretreatment plasma YKL-40 was elevated in 204 patients (40%, and median YKL-40 was higher in patients with mCRC than in healthy subjects (age adjusted, P<0.001. Patients with elevated YKL-40 had shorter PFS than patients with normal YKL-40 (7.5 vs. 8.2 months; hazard ratio (HR  = 1.27 95% confidence interval (CI 1.05-1.53 P = 0.013 and shorter OS (16.8 vs. 23.9 months; HR = 1.33, 1.04-1.69, P = 0.024. Multivariate Cox analysis demonstrated that elevated pretreatment YKL-40 was an independent biomarker of short OS (HR = 1.12, 1.01-1.25, P = 0.033. The ratio of the updated plasma YKL-40 (i.e. level after 1, 2, 8 weeks of treatment, and at end of treatment compared to the baseline level was associated with OS (HR = 1.27, 1.06-1.52, P = 0.011.Plasma YKL-40 is an independent prognostic biomarker in patients with mCRC treated with first-line oxaliplatin-based therapy alone or combined with cetuximab.

  2. Mortality after parental death in childhood: a nationwide cohort study from three Nordic countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiong Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bereavement by spousal death and child death in adulthood has been shown to lead to an increased risk of mortality. Maternal death in infancy or parental death in early childhood may have an impact on mortality but evidence has been limited to short-term or selected causes of death. Little is known about long-term or cause-specific mortality after parental death in childhood.This cohort study included all persons born in Denmark from 1968 to 2008 (n = 2,789,807 and in Sweden from 1973 to 2006 (n = 3,380,301, and a random sample of 89.3% of all born in Finland from 1987 to 2007 (n = 1,131,905. A total of 189,094 persons were included in the exposed cohort when they lost a parent before 18 years old. Log-linear Poisson regression was used to estimate mortality rate ratio (MRR. Parental death was associated with a 50% increased all-cause mortality (MRR = 1.50, 95% CI 1.43-1.58. The risks were increased for most specific cause groups and the highest MRRs were observed when the cause of child death and the cause of parental death were in the same category. Parental unnatural death was associated with a higher mortality risk (MRR = 1.84, 95% CI 1.71-2.00 than parental natural death (MRR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.24-1.41. The magnitude of the associations varied according to type of death and age at bereavement over different follow-up periods. The main limitation of the study is the lack of data on post-bereavement information on the quality of the parent-child relationship, lifestyles, and common physical environment.Parental death in childhood or adolescence is associated with increased all-cause mortality into early adulthood. Since an increased mortality reflects both genetic susceptibility and long-term impacts of parental death on health and social well-being, our findings have implications in clinical responses and public health strategies. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  3. Effect of nonlinear void reactivity on bifurcation characteristics of a lumped-parameter model of a BWR: A study relevant to RBMK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Dinkar, E-mail: dinkar@iitk.ac.in [Nuclear Engineering and Technology Program, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India); Kalra, Manjeet Singh, E-mail: drmanjeet.singh@dituniversity.edu.in [DIT University, Dehradun 248 009 (India); Wahi, Pankaj, E-mail: wahi@iitk.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • A simplified model with nonlinear void reactivity feedback is studied. • Method of multiple scales for nonlinear analysis and oscillation characteristics. • Second order void reactivity dominates in determining system dynamics. • Opposing signs of linear and quadratic void reactivity enhances global safety. - Abstract: In the present work, the effect of nonlinear void reactivity on the dynamics of a simplified lumped-parameter model for a boiling water reactor (BWR) is investigated. A mathematical model of five differential equations comprising of neutronics and thermal-hydraulics encompassing the nonlinearities associated with both the reactivity feedbacks and the heat transfer process has been used. To this end, we have considered parameters relevant to RBMK for which the void reactivity is known to be nonlinear. A nonlinear analysis of the model exploiting the method of multiple time scales (MMTS) predicts the occurrence of the two types of Hopf bifurcation, namely subcritical and supercritical, leading to the evolution of limit cycles for a range of parameters. Numerical simulations have been performed to verify the analytical results obtained by MMTS. The study shows that the nonlinear reactivity has a significant influence on the system dynamics. A parametric study with varying nominal reactor power and operating conditions in coolant channel has also been performed which shows the effect of change in concerned parameter on the boundary between regions of sub- and super-critical Hopf bifurcations in the space constituted by the two coefficients of reactivities viz. the void and the Doppler coefficient of reactivities. In particular, we find that introduction of a negative quadratic term in the void reactivity feedback significantly increases the supercritical region and dominates in determining the system dynamics.

  4. Values Education in Nordic Preschools: A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The six papers in this special issue focus on how values and values education are embedded in the everyday life at Nordic preschools. The studies in this special issue provide stimulating theoretical and methodological knowledge to inform further study of values education internationally. A key contribution of the papers is that there is…

  5. A Novel QTL for Powdery Mildew Resistance in Nordic Spring Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) Revealed by Genome-Wide Association Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Therése; Åhman, Inger; Manninen, Outi; Reitan, Lars; Christerson, Therese; Due Jensen, Jens; Krusell, Lene; Jahoor, Ahmed; Orabi, Jihad

    2017-01-01

    The powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei is a worldwide threat to barley ( Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare ) production. One way to control the disease is by the development and deployment of resistant cultivars. A genome-wide association study was performed in a Nordic spring barley panel consisting of 169 genotypes, to identify marker-trait associations significant for powdery mildew. Powdery mildew was scored during three years (2012-2014) in four different locations within the Nordic region. There were strong correlations between data from all locations and years. In total four QTLs were identified, one located on chromosome 4H in the same region as the previously identified mlo locus and three on chromosome 6H. Out of these three QTLs identified on chromosome 6H, two are in the same region as previously reported QTLs for powdery mildew resistance, whereas one QTL appears to be novel. The top NCBI BLASTn hit of the SNP markers within the novel QTL predicted the responsible gene to be the 26S proteasome regulatory subunit, RPN1, which is required for innate immunity and powdery mildew-induced cell death in Arabidopsis . The results from this study have revealed SNP marker candidates that can be exploited for use in marker-assisted selection and stacking of genes for powdery mildew resistance in barley.

  6. Kineziologická charakteristika Nordic Walking

    OpenAIRE

    Pospíšilová, Petra

    2009-01-01

    Title: Functional a physiological characteristics of Nordic Walking Purposes: The aim of the thesis is to describe and summarize current knowledge about Nordic Walking Methods: Literature analysis Key words: Nordic Walking, free bipedal walk, health benefits, functional indicator changes

  7. Nordic Walking Classes

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2015-01-01

    Four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Spring Course 2015: 05.05/12.05/19.05/26.05 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Nordic%20Walking/NewForm.aspx? Hope to see you among us! fitness.club@cern.ch

  8. Developing Nordic Pedagogical Best Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Bettan; Kelly, Hélène; Wonsyld, Merete

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a Nordic educational project that supported dialogue and cooperation between nursing students and educators from eight Nordic educational institutions. An intensive course concept was developed. The course focus of prevention and health promotion among nordic youth not only...... illuminated the benefits of student exchange with respect to student learning but also how pedagogical cooperation can contribute to institutional, pedagogical innovation. Keywords Cooperation, pedagogcial development, comparative nursing, pedagogical best practice....

  9. Hopf bifurcations of a ratio-dependent predator–prey model involving two discrete maturation time delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaoglu, Esra; Merdan, Huseyin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A ratio-dependent predator–prey system involving two discrete maturation time delays is studied. • Hopf bifurcations are analyzed by choosing delay parameters as bifurcation parameters. • When a delay parameter passes through a critical value, Hopf bifurcations occur. • The direction of bifurcation, the period and the stability of periodic solution are also obtained. - Abstract: In this paper we give a detailed Hopf bifurcation analysis of a ratio-dependent predator–prey system involving two different discrete delays. By analyzing the characteristic equation associated with the model, its linear stability is investigated. Choosing delay terms as bifurcation parameters the existence of Hopf bifurcations is demonstrated. Stability of the bifurcating periodic solutions is determined by using the center manifold theorem and the normal form theory introduced by Hassard et al. Furthermore, some of the bifurcation properties including direction, stability and period are given. Finally, theoretical results are supported by some numerical simulations

  10. Riddling bifurcation and interstellar journeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitaniak, Tomasz

    2005-01-01

    We show that riddling bifurcation which is characteristic for low-dimensional attractors embedded in higher-dimensional phase space can give physical mechanism explaining interstellar journeys described in science-fiction literature

  11. Telehealth ICT Infrastructures in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Daniel Bjerring; Hallenborg, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview and recommendations of ICT infrastructures and reference architectures for telehealth in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). This study shows that so far only Denmark has designed a complete reference architecture, and by the end...

  12. Grazing management for Nordic organic dairy farming

    OpenAIRE

    Kuusela, Eeva

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this study were to identify limiting factors and to develop adjusted grazing management for Nordic organic dairy farming conditions. The focus was to combine the aspects of plant, animal and organic production, as they are all involved in organic dairy pastures.

  13. Dynamic bifurcations on financial markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozłowska, M.; Denys, M.; Wiliński, M.; Link, G.; Gubiec, T.; Werner, T.R.; Kutner, R.; Struzik, Z.R.

    2016-01-01

    We provide evidence that catastrophic bifurcation breakdowns or transitions, preceded by early warning signs such as flickering phenomena, are present on notoriously unpredictable financial markets. For this we construct robust indicators of catastrophic dynamical slowing down and apply these to identify hallmarks of dynamical catastrophic bifurcation transitions. This is done using daily closing index records for the representative examples of financial markets of small and mid to large capitalisations experiencing a speculative bubble induced by the worldwide financial crisis of 2007-08.

  14. Arctic melt ponds and bifurcations in the climate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudakov, I.; Vakulenko, S. A.; Golden, K. M.

    2015-05-01

    Understanding how sea ice melts is critical to climate projections. In the Arctic, melt ponds that develop on the surface of sea ice floes during the late spring and summer largely determine their albedo - a key parameter in climate modeling. Here we explore the possibility of a conceptual sea ice climate model passing through a bifurcation point - an irreversible critical threshold as the system warms, by incorporating geometric information about melt pond evolution. This study is based on a bifurcation analysis of the energy balance climate model with ice-albedo feedback as the key mechanism driving the system to bifurcation points.

  15. FFT Bifurcation Analysis of Routes to Chaos via Quasiperiodic Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Borkowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of a ring of seven unidirectionally coupled nonlinear Duffing oscillators is studied. We show that the FFT analysis presented in form of a bifurcation graph, that is, frequency distribution versus a control parameter, can provide a valuable and helpful complement to the corresponding typical bifurcation diagram and the course of Lyapunov exponents, especially in context of detailed identification of the observed attractors. As an example, bifurcation analysis of routes to chaos via 2-frequency and 3-frequency quasiperiodicity is demonstrated.

  16. Should we use seasonnal meteorological ensemble forecasts for hydrological forecasting? A case study for nordic watersheds in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Rachel; Boucher, Marie-Amélie; Perreault, Luc; Leconte, Robert; Guay, Catherine

    2017-04-01

    reliability diagram. This study covers 10 nordic watersheds. We show that forecast performance according to the CRPS varies with lead-time but also with the period of the year. The raw forecasts from the ECMWF System4 display important biases for both temperature and precipitation, which need to be corrected. The linear scaling method is used for this purpose and is found effective. Bias correction improves forecasts performance, especially during the summer when the precipitations are over-estimated. According to the CRPS, bias corrected forecasts from System4 show performances comparable to those of the ESP system. However, the Ignorance score, which penalizes the lack of calibration (under-dispersive forecasts in this case) more severely than the CRPS, provides a different outlook for the comparison of the two systems. In fact, according to the Ignorance score, the ESP system outperforms forecasts based on System4 in most cases. This illustrates that the joint use of several metrics is crucial to assess the quality of a forecasts system thoroughly. Globally, ESP provide reliable forecasts which can be over-dispersed whereas bias corrected ECMWF System4 forecasts are sharper but at the risk of missing events.

  17. Nordic (cross-country) skiing injuries in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, E; Asquith, J

    1987-03-02

    A retrospective study of 88 nordic skiing injuries from the 1984 and 1985 skiing seasons in Australia is presented. To our knowledge, this is the largest study to date of such injuries. These injuries are compared with alpine skiing injuries from the same medical clinic for the 1985 skiing season. There was a much lower incidence of injury from nordic skiing; however, when injuries did occur, they tended to be more serious than those of alpine skiing and frequently required immediate evacuation to hospital for treatment. As the nordic skier is relatively isolated from medical services, these findings need to be considered in the future planning of rescue services for such skiers.

  18. Labour education the Nordic way

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, John Steen

    2007-01-01

    With its more than 75 years of experience, the Nordic Folk High School in Geneva has a strong tradition of labour education. Every year, about 35 trade union members from the Nordic countries take part in a course run alongside the International Labour Conference in Geneva....

  19. Is Nordic Private Equity Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spliid, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Most research on private equity is based on American theory, tested on American empirical data. Nevertheless, the private equity concept has gained a solid foothold in the Nordic region, especially in Sweden. This article analyzes whether American-biased assumptions prevail in the Nordic countries...

  20. Lutheranism and the Nordic States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchardt, Mette

    2017-01-01

    The Reformation in the Nordic region – today consisting of Island, Norway, Denmark, Sweden and Finland – was Lutheran and state driven. This chapter addresses the question of Nordic forms of Lutheranism as well as the question of the impact of Lutheranism in the North by focusing on the relation...

  1. Implementation of lung cancer CT screening in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Sørensen, Jens Benn; Saghir, Zaigham

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We review the current knowledge of CT screening for lung cancer and present an expert-based, joint protocol for the proper implementation of screening in the Nordic countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experts representing all the Nordic countries performed literature review...... and concensus for a joint protocol for lung cancer screening. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Areas of concern and caution are presented and discussed. We suggest to perform CT screening pilot studies in the Nordic countries in order to gain experience and develop specific and safe protocols for the implementation...

  2. A school and inquiry based project with Nordic student teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stougaard, Birgitte

    Álka is a framework involving teacher education institutions in the Nordic counties. This study describes the design of a module aiming at the establishment of a stronger nexus between research (theory) and teaching of science (practice) and to explore an issue relevant for the student teachers...... future professional life. The theme that was used for the research based project was: Nordic Children’s ideas about living things in the sea. Oral presentation at The 10th Nordic Research Symposium on Science Education (NFSUN), Linköbing, Sweden, June 2011....

  3. Multiple bifurcations and periodic 'bubbling' in a delay population model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Mingshu

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the flip bifurcation and periodic doubling bifurcations of a discrete population model without delay influence is firstly studied and the phenomenon of Feigenbaum's cascade of periodic doublings is also observed. Secondly, we explored the Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in the delay population model (two-dimension discrete dynamical systems) and the unique stable closed invariant curve which bifurcates from the nontrivial fixed point. Finally, a computer-assisted study for the delay population model is also delved into. Our computer simulation shows that the introduction of delay effect in a nonlinear difference equation derived from the logistic map leads to much richer dynamic behavior, such as stable node → stable focus → an lower-dimensional closed invariant curve (quasi-periodic solution, limit cycle) or/and stable periodic solutions → chaotic attractor by cascading bubbles (the combination of potential period doubling and reverse period-doubling) and the sudden change between two different attractors, etc

  4. Kári á Rógvi, West-Nordic Constitutional Judicial Review: A Comparative Study of Scandinavian Judicial Review and Judicial Reasoning (Copenhagen: Djøf Publishing, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael L. Johnstone

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of the following book: Kári á Rógvi, West-Nordic Constitutional Judicial Review: A Comparative Study of Scandinavian Judicial Review and Judicial Reasoning (Copenhagen: Djøf Publishing, 2013. pp. 364, 45.00 GBP (paperback. ISBN: 8757429154

  5. Effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and inflammation markers in metabolic syndrome – a randomized study (SYSDIET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusitupa, M; Hermansen, K; Savolainen, M J; Schwab, U; Kolehmainen, M; Brader, L; Mortensen, L S; Cloetens, L; Johansson-Persson, A; Önning, G; Landin-Olsson, M; Herzig, K-H; Hukkanen, J; Rosqvist, F; Iggman, D; Paananen, J; Pulkki, K J; Siloaho, M; Dragsted, L; Barri, T; Overvad, K; Bach Knudsen, K E; Hedemann, M S; Arner, P; Dahlman, I; Borge, G I A; Baardseth, P; Ulven, S M; Gunnarsdottir, I; Jónsdóttir, S; Thorsdottir, I; Orešič, M; Poutanen, K S; Risérus, U; Åkesson, B

    2013-01-01

    Background Different healthy food patterns may modify cardiometabolic risk. We investigated the effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, blood pressure and inflammatory markers in people with metabolic syndrome. Methods We conducted a randomized dietary study lasting for 18–24 weeks in individuals with features of metabolic syndrome (mean age 55 years, BMI 31.6 kg m−2, 67% women). Altogether 309 individuals were screened, 200 started the intervention after 4-week run-in period, and 96 (proportion of dropouts 7.9%) and 70 individuals (dropouts 27%) completed the study, in the Healthy diet and Control diet groups, respectively. Healthy diet included whole-grain products, berries, fruits and vegetables, rapeseed oil, three fish meals per week and low-fat dairy products. An average Nordic diet served as a Control diet. Compliance was monitored by repeated 4-day food diaries and fatty acid composition of serum phospholipids. Results Body weight remained stable, and no significant changes were observed in insulin sensitivity or blood pressure. Significant changes between the groups were found in non-HDL cholesterol (−0.18, mmol L−1 95% CI −0.35; −0.01, P = 0.04), LDL to HDL cholesterol (−0.15, −0.28; −0.00, P = 0.046) and apolipoprotein B to apolipoprotein A1 ratios (−0.04, −0.07; −0.00, P = 0.025) favouring the Healthy diet. IL-1 Ra increased during the Control diet (difference −84, −133; −37 ng L−1, P = 0.00053). Intakes of saturated fats (E%, beta estimate 4.28, 0.02; 8.53, P = 0.049) and magnesium (mg, −0.23, −0.41; −0.05, P = 0.012) were associated with IL-1 Ra. Conclusions Healthy Nordic diet improved lipid profile and had a beneficial effect on low-grade inflammation. PMID:23398528

  6. Cancer risk in humans predicted by increased levels of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes: Nordic study group on the health risk of chromosome damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmar, L; Brøgger, A; Hansteen, I L

    1994-01-01

    Cytogenetic assays in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) have been used extensively to survey the exposure of humans to genotoxic agents. The conceptual basis for this has been the hypothesis that the extent of genetic damage in PBL reflects critical events for carcinogenic processes in target...... tissues. Until now, no follow-up studies have been performed to assess the predictive value of these methods for subsequent cancer risk. In an ongoing Nordic cohort study of cancer incidence, 3182 subjects were examined between 1970 and 1988 for chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchange.......0009) in CA strata with regard to subsequent cancer risk. The point estimates of the standardized incidence ratio in the three CA strata were 0.9, 0.7, and 2.1, respectively. Thus, an increased level of chromosome breakage appears to be a relevant biomarker of future cancer risk....

  7. Perturbed period-doubling bifurcation. I. Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1990-01-01

    -defined way that is a function of the amplitude and the frequency of the signal. New scaling laws between the amplitude of the signal and the detuning δ are found; these scaling laws apply to a variety of quantities, e.g., to the shift of the bifurcation point. It is also found that the stability...... of a microwave-driven Josephson junction confirm the theory. Results should be of interest in parametric-amplification studies....

  8. Bifurcation dynamics of the tempered fractional Langevin equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Caibin, E-mail: macbzeng@scut.edu.cn; Yang, Qigui, E-mail: qgyang@scut.edu.cn [School of Mathematics, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen, YangQuan, E-mail: ychen53@ucmerced.edu [MESA LAB, School of Engineering, University of California, Merced, 5200 N. Lake Road, Merced, California 95343 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Tempered fractional processes offer a useful extension for turbulence to include low frequencies. In this paper, we investigate the stochastic phenomenological bifurcation, or stochastic P-bifurcation, of the Langevin equation perturbed by tempered fractional Brownian motion. However, most standard tools from the well-studied framework of random dynamical systems cannot be applied to systems driven by non-Markovian noise, so it is desirable to construct possible approaches in a non-Markovian framework. We first derive the spectral density function of the considered system based on the generalized Parseval's formula and the Wiener-Khinchin theorem. Then we show that it enjoys interesting and diverse bifurcation phenomena exchanging between or among explosive-like, unimodal, and bimodal kurtosis. Therefore, our procedures in this paper are not merely comparable in scope to the existing theory of Markovian systems but also provide a possible approach to discern P-bifurcation dynamics in the non-Markovian settings.

  9. Bifurcation theory for hexagonal agglomeration in economic geography

    CERN Document Server

    Ikeda, Kiyohiro

    2014-01-01

    This book contributes to an understanding of how bifurcation theory adapts to the analysis of economic geography. It is easily accessible not only to mathematicians and economists, but also to upper-level undergraduate and graduate students who are interested in nonlinear mathematics. The self-organization of hexagonal agglomeration patterns of industrial regions was first predicted by the central place theory in economic geography based on investigations of southern Germany. The emergence of hexagonal agglomeration in economic geography models was envisaged by Krugman. In this book, after a brief introduction of central place theory and new economic geography, the missing link between them is discovered by elucidating the mechanism of the evolution of bifurcating hexagonal patterns. Pattern formation by such bifurcation is a well-studied topic in nonlinear mathematics, and group-theoretic bifurcation analysis is a well-developed theoretical tool. A finite hexagonal lattice is used to express uniformly distri...

  10. ALARA efforts in nordic BWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingemansson, T.; Lundgren, K.; Elkert, J. [ABB Atom, Vaesteraes (Sweden)

    1995-03-01

    Some ALARA-related ABB Atom projects are currently under investigation. One of the projects has been ordered by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, and two others by the Nordic BWR utilities. The ultimate objective of the projects is to identify and develop methods to significantly decrease the future exposure levels in the Nordic BWRS. As 85% to 90% of the gamma radiation field in the Nordic BWRs originates from Co-60, the only way to significantly decrease the radiation doses is to effect Co and Co-60. The strategy to do this is to map the Co sources and estimate the source strength of Co from these sources, and to study the possibility to affect the release of Co-60 from the core surfaces and the uptake on system surfaces. Preliminary results indicate that corrosion/erosion of a relatively small number of Stellite-coated valves and/or dust from grinding of Stellite valves may significantly contribute to the Co input to the reactors. This can be seen from a high measured Co/Ni ratio in the feedwater and in the reactor water. If stainless steel is the only source of Co, the Co/Ni ratio would be less than 0.02 as the Co content in the steel is less than 0.2%. The Co/Ni ratio in the reactor water, however, is higher than 0.1, indicating that the major fraction of the Co originates from Stellite-coated valves. There are also other possible explanations for an increase of the radiation fields. The Co-60 inventory on the core surfaces increases approximately as the square of the burn-up level. If the burn-up is increased from 35 to 5 MWd/kgU, the Co-60 inventory on the core surfaces will be doubled. Also the effect on the behavior of Co-60 of different water chemistry and materials conditions is being investigated. Examples of areas studied are Fe and Zn injection, pH-control, and different forms of surface pre-treatments.

  11. Dose-dense chemoimmunotherapy and CNS prophylaxis in patients with high-risk DLBCL: a comparison of Nordic CRY-04 and CHIC studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leppä, Sirpa; Jørgensen, Judit Meszaros; Brown, Peter De Nully

    Background: Survival of patients with high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is suboptimal, and the risk of central nervous system (CNS) progression relatively high. We investigated the efficacy of dose-dense chemoimmunotherapy and systemic CNS prophylaxis in two completed Nordic trials...... including patients less than 65 years with high-risk DLBCL. We combined individual patient data from these studies to compare clinical outcome and prognostic factors in patients treated with CNS prophylaxis given in the beginning (CHIC) vs at the end (CRY-04) of therapy. Patients and methods: Inclusion...... proliferation index (Ki67 expression available PET data, Deauville score 5 at the end of treatment was associated with increased rate of progression and death in both trials (p=0.012). Only one out of 17 biopsies from PET positive...

  12. Quantitative angiography methods for bifurcation lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collet, Carlos; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Cavalcante, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Bifurcation lesions represent one of the most challenging lesion subsets in interventional cardiology. The European Bifurcation Club (EBC) is an academic consortium whose goal has been to assess and recommend the appropriate strategies to manage bifurcation lesions. The quantitative coronary...... angiography (QCA) methods for the evaluation of bifurcation lesions have been subject to extensive research. Single-vessel QCA has been shown to be inaccurate for the assessment of bifurcation lesion dimensions. For this reason, dedicated bifurcation software has been developed and validated. These software...

  13. Return to sender - American Images of the Nordic Welfare States and Nordic Welfare State Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marklund, C.; Petersen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we study the relationship between the United States of America and Norden, first showing how images of the Nordic model were constructed and reproduced in the United States from the 1920s until the 1960s. We find both utopias and dystopias in these narratives. Second, the article...... argues that these American images, narratives, and stereotypes did not only fulfill a function in the American debate, but were also relayed back to Norden, and affected debate, nation-branding strategies, and self-understandings there. During the Cold War, furthermore, the Nordic welfare state image...

  14. A study on stochastic resonance of one-dimensional bistable system in the neighborhood of bifurcation point with the moment method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Guangjun [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Structural Strength and Vibration, School of Architectural Engineering and Mechanics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Xu Jianxue [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Structural Strength and Vibration, School of Architectural Engineering and Mechanics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China)] e-mail: jxxu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

    2006-02-01

    This paper analyzes the stochastic resonance induced by a novel transition of one-dimensional bistable system in the neighborhood of bifurcation point with the method of moment, which refer to the transition of system motion among a potential well of stable fixed point before bifurcation of original system and double-well potential of two coexisting stable fixed points after original system bifurcation at the presence of internal noise. The results show: the semi-analytical result of stochastic resonance of one-dimensional bistable system in the neighborhood of bifurcation point may be obtained, and the semi-analytical result is in accord with the one of Monte Carlo simulation qualitatively, the occurrence of stochastic resonance is related to the bifurcation of noisy nonlinear dynamical system moment equations, which induce the transfer of energy of ensemble average (Ex) of system response in each frequency component and make the energy of ensemble average of system response concentrate on the frequency of input signal, stochastic resonance occurs.

  15. A study on stochastic resonance of one-dimensional bistable system in the neighborhood of bifurcation point with the moment method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guangjun; Xu Jianxue

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the stochastic resonance induced by a novel transition of one-dimensional bistable system in the neighborhood of bifurcation point with the method of moment, which refer to the transition of system motion among a potential well of stable fixed point before bifurcation of original system and double-well potential of two coexisting stable fixed points after original system bifurcation at the presence of internal noise. The results show: the semi-analytical result of stochastic resonance of one-dimensional bistable system in the neighborhood of bifurcation point may be obtained, and the semi-analytical result is in accord with the one of Monte Carlo simulation qualitatively, the occurrence of stochastic resonance is related to the bifurcation of noisy nonlinear dynamical system moment equations, which induce the transfer of energy of ensemble average (Ex) of system response in each frequency component and make the energy of ensemble average of system response concentrate on the frequency of input signal, stochastic resonance occurs

  16. Algae as bioindicators for radionuclides in Nordic coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, G.; Notter, M.

    1991-01-01

    During the later part of the 1970's NKS decided to introduce the bladder wrack (Fucus vesiculosus) as a suitable organism for monitoring radionuclides in Nordic coastal waters. During the past few years studies on this subject have been going on to a varying extent in the different Nordic countries. At this miniseminar the participants described different ongoing studies and projects. The lectures are summarized in the abstracts in the appendix, in which the speakers themselves are responsible for their contributions. (au)

  17. Bifurcation magnetic resonance in films magnetized along hard magnetization axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilevskaya, Tatiana M., E-mail: t_vasilevs@mail.ru [Ulyanovsk State University, Leo Tolstoy 42, 432017 Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Sementsov, Dmitriy I.; Shutyi, Anatoliy M. [Ulyanovsk State University, Leo Tolstoy 42, 432017 Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation)

    2012-09-15

    We study low-frequency ferromagnetic resonance in a thin film magnetized along the hard magnetization axis performing an analysis of magnetization precession dynamics equations and numerical simulation. Two types of films are considered: polycrystalline uniaxial films and single-crystal films with cubic magnetic anisotropy. An additional (bifurcation) resonance initiated by the bistability, i.e. appearance of two closely spaced equilibrium magnetization states is registered. The modification of dynamic modes provoked by variation of the frequency, amplitude, and magnetic bias value of the ac field is studied. Both steady and chaotic magnetization precession modes are registered in the bifurcation resonance range. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An additional bifurcation resonance arises in a case of a thin film magnetized along HMA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bifurcation resonance occurs due to the presence of two closely spaced equilibrium magnetization states. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both regular and chaotic precession modes are realized within bifurcation resonance range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Appearance of dynamic bistability is typical for bifurcation resonance.

  18. Bifurcation magnetic resonance in films magnetized along hard magnetization axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilevskaya, Tatiana M.; Sementsov, Dmitriy I.; Shutyi, Anatoliy M.

    2012-01-01

    We study low-frequency ferromagnetic resonance in a thin film magnetized along the hard magnetization axis performing an analysis of magnetization precession dynamics equations and numerical simulation. Two types of films are considered: polycrystalline uniaxial films and single-crystal films with cubic magnetic anisotropy. An additional (bifurcation) resonance initiated by the bistability, i.e. appearance of two closely spaced equilibrium magnetization states is registered. The modification of dynamic modes provoked by variation of the frequency, amplitude, and magnetic bias value of the ac field is studied. Both steady and chaotic magnetization precession modes are registered in the bifurcation resonance range. - Highlights: ► An additional bifurcation resonance arises in a case of a thin film magnetized along HMA. ► Bifurcation resonance occurs due to the presence of two closely spaced equilibrium magnetization states. ► Both regular and chaotic precession modes are realized within bifurcation resonance range. ► Appearance of dynamic bistability is typical for bifurcation resonance.

  19. Questionnaire use among nordic neuropsychologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeland, Jens; Norup, Anne; Persson, Bengt A.

    2017-01-01

    The core method of neuropsychologists has been to collect structured samples of behavior through standardized tests. Information that cannot be elicited through tests may be gathered by questionnaires asking questions about behavior. Tests may deconstruct cognitive function precisely, but lack...... the ecological validity of questionnaires. Thus, many neuropsychologists have advocated more use of questionnaires, but it is not known whether professional practice has changed. Until recently, personality instruments were the only widespread questionnaires in frequent use among neuropsychologists. We studied...... the inventory use of 702 Nordic neuropsychologists. The most used questionnaires are listed, and differences between countries are analyzed. In addition, the questionnaires are grouped with regard to whether they map cognition, behavior not observable during consultations, emotional symptoms, personality...

  20. Partnering models in Nordic construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    of local research and industry partners including major building clients. Data were collected by means of national reviews of partnering policies and practices, thematic analyses, and case studies. The concept partnering was introduced in a Nordic context in the 1990s and has since then been implemented...... in a large number of projects. Clients sought to establish a culture of openness and trust within the project and tried promoting this with various kinds of incentives. In some countries the move towards voluntary collaboration was, paradoxically, strongly advocated by public authorities. Generally, however......Traditionally, procurement and contractual policies adopted by building and construction clients produce a system in which clients procure design services separately from construction services, while operation and maintenance have been subject to further, separate procurement actions...

  1. Long-term survival in patients hospitalized for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a prospective observational study in the Nordic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudmundsson G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Gunnar Gudmundsson,1,2 Charlotte Suppli Ulrik,3 Thorarinn Gislason,1,2 Eva Lindberg,4 Eva Brøndum,3 Per Bakke,5 Christer Janson31Department of Respiratory Medicine, Allergy and Sleep, National University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland; 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland; 3Department of Respiratory Diseases, Hvidovre Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 4Department of Medical Sciences: Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 5Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, NorwayBackground and aim: Mortality rate is high in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Our aim was to investigate long-term mortality and associated risk factors in COPD patients previously hospitalized for a COPD exacerbation.Methods: A total of 256 patients from the Nordic countries were followed for 8.7 ± 0.4 years after the index hospitalization in 2000–2001. Prior to discharge, the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire was administered and data on therapy and comorbidities were obtained. Information on long-term mortality was obtained from national registries in each of the Nordic countries.Results: In total, 202 patients (79% died during the follow up period, whereas 54 (21% were still alive. Primary cause of death was respiratory (n = 116, cardiovascular (n = 43, malignancy (n = 28, other (n = 10, or unknown (n = 5. Mortality was related to older age, with a hazard risk ratio (HRR of 1.75 per 10 years, lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 (HRR 0.80, body mass index (BMI <20 kg/m2 (HRR 3.21, and diabetes (HRR 3.02. Older age, lower BMI, and diabetes were related to both respiratory and cardiovascular mortality. An association was also found between lower FEV1 and respiratory mortality, whereas mortality was not significantly associated with therapy, anxiety, or depression.Conclusion: Almost four out of five patients died within 9 years following an admission

  2. Bursting oscillations, bifurcation and synchronization in neuronal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Haixia [School of Science, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Wang Qingyun, E-mail: drwangqy@gmail.com [Department of Dynamics and Control, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Lu Qishao [Department of Dynamics and Control, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > We investigate bursting oscillations and related bifurcation in the modified Morris-Lecar neuron. > Two types of fast-slow bursters are analyzed in detail. > We show the properties of some crucial bifurcation points. > Synchronization transition and the neural excitability are explored in the coupled bursters. - Abstract: This paper investigates bursting oscillations and related bifurcation in the modified Morris-Lecar neuron. It is shown that for some appropriate parameters, the modified Morris-Lecar neuron can exhibit two types of fast-slow bursters, that is 'circle/fold cycle' bursting and 'subHopf/homoclinic' bursting with class 1 and class 2 neural excitability, which have different neuro-computational properties. By means of the analysis of fast-slow dynamics and phase plane, we explore bifurcation mechanisms associated with the two types of bursters. Furthermore, the properties of some crucial bifurcation points, which can determine the type of the burster, are studied by the stability and bifurcation theory. In addition, we investigate the influence of the coupling strength on synchronization transition and the neural excitability in two electrically coupled bursters with the same bursting type. More interestingly, the multi-time-scale synchronization transition phenomenon is found as the coupling strength varies.

  3. Partnerships in Nordic Building Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The project had two main objectives. The first was to establish a Nordic network of people and organisations interested in partnerships and partnering in the building industry in order to facilitate the exchange of experiences and new ideas. This objective was met through a series of workshops......, the functioning of specific partnering tools, knowledge management, training etc. Whereas the growth of partnering in all of the Nordic construction industries has developed from inspiration from the UK, and from other Nordic countries, it is the overall impression that partnering is interpreted, implemented...

  4. Current research in transcultural psychiatry in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekblad, Solvig; Kastrup, Marianne Carisius

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses major themes in recent transcultural psychiatric research in the Nordic countries from 2008 to 2011: (a) epidemiological studies of migration, (b) indigenous populations, and (c) quality of psychiatric care for migrants. Over the past several decades, the populations......, and after migration, with potential effects on their physical, mental, social, and spiritual health. Growing interest in transcultural issues is reflected in the level of scientific research and clinical activity in the field by Nordic physicians, psychologists, social scientists, demographers, medical...

  5. Mercury in Nordic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munthe, John; Waengberg, Ingvar (IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (SE)); Rognerud, Sigurd; Fjeld, Eirik (Norwegian Inst. for Water Research (NIVA), Oslo (Norway)); Verta, Matti; Porvari, Petri (Finnish Environment Inst. (SYKE), Helsinki (Finland)); Meili, Markus (Inst. of Applied Environmental Research (ITM), Stockholm (Sweden))

    2007-12-15

    This report provides a first comprehensive compilation and assessment of available data on mercury in air, precipitation, sediments and fish in the Nordic countries. The main conclusion is that mercury levels in Nordic ecosystems continue to be affected by long-range atmospheric transport. The geographical patterns of mercury concentrations in both sediments and fish are also strongly affected by ecosystem characteristics and in some regions possibly by historical pollution. An evaluation of geographical variations in mercury concentrations in precipitation indicates that the influence from anthropogenic sources from Central European areas is still significant. The annual variability of deposition is large and dependant of precipitation amounts. An evaluation of data from stations around the North Sea has indicated a significant decrease in mercury concentrations in precipitation indicating a continuous decrease of emissions in Europe (Waengberg et al., 2007). For mercury in air (TGM), the geographical pattern is less pronounced indicating the influence of mercury emissions and distribution over a larger geographical area (i.e. hemispherical transport). Comparison of recent (surficial) and historical lake sediments show significantly elevated concentrations of mercury most likely caused by anthropogenic atmospheric deposition over the past century. The highest pollution impact was observed in the coastal areas of southern Norway, in south western Finland and in Sweden from the coastal areas in the southwest across the central parts to the north-east. The general increase in recent versus old sediments was 2-5 fold. Data on mercury in Nordic freshwater fish was assembled and evaluated with respect to geographical variations. The fish data were further compared with temporal and spatial trends in mercury deposition and mercury contamination of lake sediments in order to investigate the coupling between atmospheric transport and deposition of mercury and local mercury

  6. Energized Oxygen : Speiser Current Sheet Bifurcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D. E.; Jahn, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    A single population of energized Oxygen (O+) is shown to produce a cross-tail bifurcated current sheet in 2.5D PIC simulations of the magnetotail without the influence of magnetic reconnection. Treatment of oxygen in simulations of space plasmas, specifically a magnetotail current sheet, has been limited to thermal energies despite observations of and mechanisms which explain energized ions. We performed simulations of a homogeneous oxygen background, that has been energized in a physically appropriate manner, to study the behavior of current sheets and magnetic reconnection, specifically their bifurcation. This work uses a 2.5D explicit Particle-In-a-Cell (PIC) code to investigate the dynamics of energized heavy ions as they stream Dawn-to-Dusk in the magnetotail current sheet. We present a simulation study dealing with the response of a current sheet system to energized oxygen ions. We establish a, well known and studied, 2-species GEM Challenge Harris current sheet as a starting point. This system is known to eventually evolve and produce magnetic reconnection upon thinning of the current sheet. We added a uniform distribution of thermal O+ to the background. This 3-species system is also known to eventually evolve and produce magnetic reconnection. We add one additional variable to the system by providing an initial duskward velocity to energize the O+. We also traced individual particle motion within the PIC simulation. Three main results are shown. First, energized dawn- dusk streaming ions are clearly seen to exhibit sustained Speiser motion. Second, a single population of heavy ions clearly produces a stable bifurcated current sheet. Third, magnetic reconnection is not required to produce the bifurcated current sheet. Finally a bifurcated current sheet is compatible with the Harris current sheet model. This work is the first step in a series of investigations aimed at studying the effects of energized heavy ions on magnetic reconnection. This work differs

  7. On Russian/Nordic Investment Competition in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olenchenko Vladimir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The researchers often overlook the relationships between Russian and Nordic investment capital; and even less attention is paid to studying the competition between the two. Yet this subject can be of particular relevance to the areas that are geographically, historically and culturally close to both Russia and the Nordic countries. Thus, the aim of this article is to understand how the competition between Russian and Nordic capital investment is played out in the Baltic States. The study discusses the principles of Russian and Nordic investment in the Baltic, and suggests ways to regulate these relations. To this end, we compare the investment conditions created in the Baltic States for both Russian and Nordic investors. The analysis shows that most of the Baltic market is controlled by the Nordic capital, which blocks the arrival of Russian investment to the Baltic States. With a nod to a number of previous studies, the authors of this article suggest some adjustments to the theory of foreign direct investment. The study will be also of practical interest to those Russian investors who are seeking entry points to the Baltic markets.

  8. Assay of cortisol with a radioimmunoassay method calibrated by isotope dilution-mass spectrometry. A Nordic collaborative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantto, O.; Lindback, B.; Aakvaag, A.; Bjoerkhem, I.; Damkjaer-Nielsen, M.; Pomoell, U.M.; Helsinki University Hospital

    1983-01-01

    A reference method for serum cortisol, based on isotope dilution-mass spectrometry (ID-MS), was compared with a modified commercial RIA method. The modification solely concerned the calibration standards used in the RIA method. These were replaced by a series of human serum samples, in which the concentration of cortisol had been determined by the reference ID-MS method. Samples were selected to cover the whole range of the standard curve. Serum samples from healthy, untreated subjects with cortisol concentrations 270-1134 nmol/l were analysed with the ID-MS calibrated RIA method in four laboratories, one in each of the four Nordic countries. Mean values based on results from all four laboratories were almost identical with the values obtained with the reference method. Serum samples from 11 patients with endocrine disorders with cortisol concentrations 31-916 nmol/l were analysed in three of the four laboratories. In three of the samples significant differences were observed between the values obtained with the ID-MS and the ID-MS calibrated RIA method. The value obtained with the ID-MS calibrated RIA was however always more accurate than the corresponding value obtained with RIA with the use of a commercial calibration standard. (author)

  9. Nordic Energy Technologies : Enabling a sustainable Nordic energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vik, Amund; Smith, Benjamin

    2009-10-15

    A high current Nordic competence in energy technology and an increased need for funding and international cooperation in the field are the main messages of the report. This report summarizes results from 7 different research projects relating to policies for energy technology, funded by Nordic Energy Research for the period 2007-2008, and provides an analysis of the Nordic innovation systems in the energy sector. The Nordic countries possess a high level of competence in the field of renewable energy technologies. Of the total installed capacity comprises a large share of renewable energy, and Nordic technology companies play an important role in the international market. Especially distinguished wind energy, both in view of the installed power and a global technology sales. Public funding for energy research has experienced a significant decline since the oil crisis of the 1970s, although the figures in recent years has increased a bit. According to the IEA, it will require a significant increase in funding to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and limit further climate change. The third point highlighted in the report is the importance of international cooperation in energy research. Nordic and international cooperation is necessary in order to reduce duplication and create the synergy needed if we are to achieve our ambitious policy objectives in the climate and energy issue. (AG)

  10. The New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomo, Louise Havkrog; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Rix, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: High phosphorus content in the diet may have adverse effect on cardiovascular health. We investigated whether the New Nordic Diet (NND), based mainly on local, organic and less processed food and large amounts of fruit, vegetables, wholegrain and fish, versus an Average Danish Diet (ADD......) would reduce the phosphorus load due to less phosphorus-containing food additives, animal protein and more plant-based proteins. METHODS: Phosphorus and creatinine were measured in plasma and urine at baseline, week 12 and week 26 in 132 centrally obese subjects with normal renal function as part....../10 MJ in the ADD group and decreased less in the NND compared to the ADD (67 ± 36 mg/10 MJ and -266 ± 45 mg/day, respectively, p high phosphorus intake and did not decrease the fractional phosphorus excretion compared with ADD. Further...

  11. Development of a joint Nordic master in cold climate engineering within the Nordic five tech alliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Tuhkuri, Jukka; Høyland, Knut V.

    2017-01-01

    , Nordic Five Tech, which was established in 2006 with the goal of utilizing the shared and complementary strengths of the universities and creating synergies, also within education in the form of joint master programmes. The Cold Climate Engineering students study for one year at two of the universities...

  12. Energy economy in Nordic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, P H; Finnedal, B H

    1980-01-01

    The employment, economic and energetic situation in various industrial branches and their importance for industry as a whole is mapped for Nordic countries. Future Nordic energy projects can base their attempts to decrease energy costs per unit on this report. In food and stimulants industry, chemical, glass and ceramic industry over 90% energy is used for processing while in steel- and metal-industry the processing consumes only about 25%. Rentability of new investments in energy saving should be considered in these branches against investments in automation, new equipment etc. Common Nordic energy-saving projects can provide much better energy economy. For instance 4% of USA energy which had formerly been used in drying processes is drastically decreased and if the USA result can be transferred to Nordic conditions DKr 160 million can be save. Prospective common projects are process-types like drying, spray-drying, heat treatments of mineral proproducts, and evaporation.

  13. Homoclinic bifurcation in Chua's circuit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    spiking and bursting behaviors of neurons. Recent experiments ... a limit cycle increases in a wiggle with alternate sequences of stable and unstable orbits via ... further changes in parameter, the system shows period-adding bifurcation when .... [21–23] transition from limit cycle to single scroll chaos via PD and then to alter-.

  14. Bifurcation scenarios for bubbling transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimin, Aleksey V; Hunt, Brian R; Ott, Edward

    2003-01-01

    Dynamical systems with chaos on an invariant submanifold can exhibit a type of behavior called bubbling, whereby a small random or fixed perturbation to the system induces intermittent bursting. The bifurcation to bubbling occurs when a periodic orbit embedded in the chaotic attractor in the invariant manifold becomes unstable to perturbations transverse to the invariant manifold. Generically the periodic orbit can become transversely unstable through a pitchfork, transcritical, period-doubling, or Hopf bifurcation. In this paper a unified treatment of the four types of bubbling bifurcation is presented. Conditions are obtained determining whether the transition to bubbling is soft or hard; that is, whether the maximum burst amplitude varies continuously or discontinuously with variation of the parameter through its critical value. For soft bubbling transitions, the scaling of the maximum burst amplitude with the parameter is derived. For both hard and soft transitions the scaling of the average interburst time with the bifurcation parameter is deduced. Both random (noise) and fixed (mismatch) perturbations are considered. Results of numerical experiments testing our theoretical predictions are presented.

  15. Bifurcation of steady tearing states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saramito, B.; Maschke, E.K.

    1985-10-01

    We apply the bifurcation theory for compact operators to the problem of the nonlinear solutions of the 3-dimensional incompressible visco-resistive MHD equations. For the plane plasma slab model we compute branches of nonlinear tearing modes, which are stationary for the range of parameters investigated up to now

  16. Challenges in Nordic Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1996-01-01

    Design research has not won a convincing reputation in industry. Nordic research being scattered and small in number of researchers should find its special strengths and focus on creating results, which are based on our peculiar conditions and background.......Design research has not won a convincing reputation in industry. Nordic research being scattered and small in number of researchers should find its special strengths and focus on creating results, which are based on our peculiar conditions and background....

  17. The Nordic Gender Equality Model

    OpenAIRE

    Teigen, Mari; Skjeie, Hege

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we investigate the descriptive premises involved in portrayals of a Nordic model of gender equality. Mainly, we focus on the equality dimensions that form the baseline in comparative welfare state research and research on political participation. We outline these dimensions as norms for economic equity and democratic parity. First, we examine whether and how descriptive statistics that assess these two dimensions currently rank Nordic countries compared with other European co...

  18. Transport in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, B.; Pettersson, S.; Vilkamo, S.

    1989-01-01

    Transport of radioactive material from different fields of operation is well advanced in the Nordic countries: waste from the medical sector, industry, research, and now in increasing amounts from reactor operation, including spent fuel. In the future, waste from decommissioning will also be transported. This report gives the amount of radioactive waste material to be transported in the Nordic countries. Transport routes, transport containers, and transport systems are described. Legislations and transport regulatins are discussed. (author)

  19. Nordic noir and lifted localities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    What I do here is to draw attention to a particular visual quality of recent Nordic noir and to relate the visuality of TV-drama to what I – with a term borrowed from Roland Robertson – dub lifted localites.......What I do here is to draw attention to a particular visual quality of recent Nordic noir and to relate the visuality of TV-drama to what I – with a term borrowed from Roland Robertson – dub lifted localites....

  20. Nordic research infrastructures for plant phenotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiina Himanen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenomics refers to the systematic study of plant phenotypes. Together with closely monitored, controlled climates, it provides an essential component for the integrated analysis of genotype-phenotype-environment interactions. Currently, several plant growth and phenotyping facilities are under establishment globally, and numerous facilities are already in use. Alongside the development of the research infrastructures, several national and international networks have been established to support shared use of the new methodology. In this review, an overview is given of the Nordic plant phenotyping and climate control facilities. Since many areas of phenomics such as sensor-based phenotyping, image analysis and data standards are still developing, promotion of educational and networking activities is especially important. These facilities and networks will be instrumental in tackling plant breeding and plant protection challenges. They will also provide possibilities to study wild species and their ecological interactions under changing Nordic climate conditions.

  1. Nordic market report 2009 : Development in the Nordic electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The Nordic region is characterized by a unique mix of generation sources where the high share of hydropower, representing virtually all of the Norwegian and nearly half of the Swedish generation capacity, has a great influence on the market. The level of precipitation is thus vital when calculating and analysing potential generation levels. In addition, the Nordic region has significantly colder winters than any other European country, influencing the consumption as many households are electrically heated. In 2008 the overall electricity consumption in the Nordic region was slightly higher - 1.6 per cent - than in 2007. During periods of peak consumption the Nordic power system proved sufficient to ensure security of supply without restrictions on consumption. The Nordic region operates almost entirely as one synchronous power system through transmission grid. The continuous reinforcement of the Nordic transmission grid has enabled an increased security of supply as well as a more efficient use of the generation capacity. Increasing cross border power flows strain the transmission lines and increases the demand for transmission capacity. Possible congestions occurring between the Nord Pool bidding areas are handled through market splitting, while internal congestions in general are handled through counter trade or by reducing interconnector capacity at the bidding area borders. The Nordic wholesale power market is a well functioning electricity market. Trade at Nord Pool has increased steadily since it was established in 1993. Although trading at Nord Pool Spot is voluntary, significantly more physical power is now traded on the power exchange than bilaterally - from 42 per cent of total Nordic consumption in 2004 to 76 per cent in 2008. During 2008 average spot prices at Nord Pool were considerably higher (approximately 60 per cent) than prices in 2007. The Nordic retail markets are essentially four separate markets, influenced by national differences, but work on

  2. Nordic market report 2009. Development in the Nordic electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-15

    The Nordic region is characterized by a unique mix of generation sources where the high share of hydropower, representing virtually all of the Norwegian and nearly half of the Swedish generation capacity, has a great influence on the market. The level of precipitation is thus vital when calculating and analysing potential generation levels. In addition, the Nordic region has significantly colder winters than any other European country, influencing the consumption as many households are electrically heated. In 2008 the overall electricity consumption in the Nordic region was slightly higher - 1.6 per cent - than in 2007. During periods of peak consumption the Nordic power system proved sufficient to ensure security of supply without restrictions on consumption. The Nordic region operates almost entirely as one synchronous power system through transmission grid. The continuous reinforcement of the Nordic transmission grid has enabled an increased security of supply as well as a more efficient use of the generation capacity. Increasing cross border power flows strain the transmission lines and increases the demand for transmission capacity. Possible congestions occurring between the Nord Pool bidding areas are handled through market splitting, while internal congestions in general are handled through counter trade or by reducing interconnector capacity at the bidding area borders. The Nordic wholesale power market is a well functioning electricity market. Trade at Nord Pool has increased steadily since it was established in 1993. Although trading at Nord Pool Spot is voluntary, significantly more physical power is now traded on the power exchange than bilaterally - from 42 per cent of total Nordic consumption in 2004 to 76 per cent in 2008. During 2008 average spot prices at Nord Pool were considerably higher (approximately 60 per cent) than prices in 2007. The Nordic retail markets are essentially four separate markets, influenced by national differences, but work on

  3. Current research in transcultural psychiatry in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekblad, Solvig; Kastrup, Marianne Carisius

    2013-12-01

    This article discusses major themes in recent transcultural psychiatric research in the Nordic countries from 2008 to 2011: (a) epidemiological studies of migration, (b) indigenous populations, and (c) quality of psychiatric care for migrants. Over the past several decades, the populations of the Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, which were relatively homogeneous, have become increasingly culturally diverse. Many migrants to Nordic countries have been exposed to extreme stress, such as threats of death and/or torture and other severe social adversities before, during, and after migration, with potential effects on their physical, mental, social, and spiritual health. Growing interest in transcultural issues is reflected in the level of scientific research and clinical activity in the field by Nordic physicians, psychologists, social scientists, demographers, medical anthropologists, as well as other clinicians and policy planners. Research includes work with migrants and indigenous minorities in the Nordic countries, as well as comparisons with mental health in postconflict countries. We conclude by suggesting future directions for transcultural psychiatry research and providing guidelines for the education and training of future clinicians in the Nordic countries.

  4. Period-doubling bifurcation and chaos control in a discrete-time mosquito model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qamar Din

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the study of some qualitative properties of a discrete-time mosquito Model. It is shown that there exists period-doubling bifurcation for wide range of bifurcation parameter for the unique positive steady-state of given system. In order to control the bifurcation we introduced a feedback strategy. For further confirmation of complexity and chaotic behavior largest Lyapunov exponents are plotted.

  5. Stability and bifurcation of a discrete BAM neural network model with delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Baodong; Zhang Yang; Zhang Chunrui

    2008-01-01

    A map modelling a discrete bidirectional associative memory neural network with delays is investigated. Its dynamics is studied in terms of local analysis and Hopf bifurcation analysis. By analyzing the associated characteristic equation, its linear stability is investigated and Hopf bifurcations are demonstrated. It is found that there exist Hopf bifurcations when the delay passes a sequence of critical values. Numerical simulation is performed to verify the analytical results

  6. The Nordic electricity market towards 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, Finn Roar; Johnsen, Tor Arnt

    2001-01-01

    This article opens by examining the development of the Nordic power market in the 1990s. It tries to establish that the power market is a complex one. The market conditions vary greatly from one region to another and over time, and there is varying degree of integration among the regional markets. Thus, analyses of policy and political measures must be based on a detailed computational tool. In the SAMRAM project ''Power trade and Transmission'', such a computational model has been established, Normod-T. The article describes the principle features of the model and uses it to study the development of the Nordic power market toward the year 2010. It further analyses the impact of building gas power plants in Norway and of establishing a new cable for transmission of electric power between Norway and Germany

  7. The search for the white Nordic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    arrived immigrants and descendants. The article includes an analysis of Nordic race science from the turn of the twentieth century in order to illustrate how the New Nordic Kitchen draws upon a longer historical tradition of viewing the Nordic, and especially Nordic whiteness, as superior. The historical...... importance of race science in Denmark is not common knowledge, and very limited research is done in this area. The article therefore also brings new insights to the historical construction of whiteness in the Nordic context. Finally, the article also shows how the New Nordic Kitchen not only draws upon...

  8. Nordic Market report 2010. Development in the Nordic Electricity Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-15

    The Nordic region is characterized by a unique mix of generation sources, with a very high share of hydropower. Hydropower accounts for virtually all of the Norwegian and nearly half of the Swedish generation capacity, making the level of precipitation vital when calculating and analysing potential generation levels. Climatic conditions such as, significantly colder winters than any other European country also influence consumption in the Nordic region, as many households are electrically heated. Overall electricity consumption in the Nordic region in 2009 was marked by decreasing consumption in every market - from a decrease of 1,5% in Denmark to a decrease of 5,5% in Finland. The Nordic transmission grid connects almost the entire region into one synchronous power system enabling increased security of supply as well as a more efficient use of the generation capacity, but congestion occurs. Congestions between the Nord Pool bidding areas are handled through market splitting, while internal congestions in general are handled through counter trade or by reducing interconnector capacity at the bidding area borders. The key future challenge for transmission network operations both in the Nordic area, and as well on the European level will be to facilitate the functioning of the pan-European wholesale electricity markets. The Nordic wholesale power market is well functioning. The volume traded at Nord Pool in 2009 was about the same share of total consumption as that of 2008. Although trading at Nord Pool is voluntary, significantly more power is traded on the power exchange than bilaterally. During 2009 average spot prices at Nord Pool were lower than prices in 2008 due to both lower demand and generation costs for thermal power plants for most of 2009. The Nordic retail markets are essentially four separate markets, influenced by national differences, but work on integration has started. Throughout 2009 retail prices in the Nordic region were lower than in 2008

  9. Bifurcation structure of localized states in the Lugiato-Lefever equation with anomalous dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Rivas, P.; Gomila, D.; Gelens, L.; Knobloch, E.

    2018-04-01

    The origin, stability, and bifurcation structure of different types of bright localized structures described by the Lugiato-Lefever equation are studied. This mean field model describes the nonlinear dynamics of light circulating in fiber cavities and microresonators. In the case of anomalous group velocity dispersion and low values of the intracavity phase detuning these bright states are organized in a homoclinic snaking bifurcation structure. We describe how this bifurcation structure is destroyed when the detuning is increased across a critical value, and determine how a bifurcation structure known as foliated snaking emerges.

  10. Stability and bifurcation analysis in a kind of business cycle model with delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunrui; Wei Junjie

    2004-01-01

    A kind of business cycle model with delay is considered. Firstly, the linear stability of the model is studied and bifurcation set is drawn in the appropriate parameter plane. It is found that there exist Hopf bifurcations when the delay passes a sequence of critical values. Then the explicit algorithm for determining the direction of the Hopf bifurcations and the stability of the bifurcating periodic solutions are derived, using the normal form method and center manifold theorem. Finally, a group conditions to guarantee the global existence of periodic solutions is given, and numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the analytical results found

  11. Bifurcation analysis of a discrete SIS model with bilinear incidence depending on new infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui; Zhou, Yicang; Ma, Zhien

    2013-01-01

    A discrete SIS epidemic model with the bilinear incidence depending on the new infection is formulated and studied. The condition for the global stability of the disease free equilibrium is obtained. The existence of the endemic equilibrium and its stability are investigated. More attention is paid to the existence of the saddle-node bifurcation, the flip bifurcation, and the Hopf bifurcation. Sufficient conditions for those bifurcations have been obtained. Numerical simulations are conducted to demonstrate our theoretical results and the complexity of the model.

  12. Adherence of pregnant women to Nordic dietary guidelines in relation to postpartum weight retention: results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Ruesten, Anne; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Mehlig, Kirsten; Winkvist, Anna; Lissner, Lauren

    2014-01-24

    Pregnancy is a major life event for women and often connected with changes in diet and lifestyle and natural gestational weight gain. However, excessive weight gain during pregnancy may lead to postpartum weight retention and add to the burden of increasing obesity prevalence. Therefore, it is of interest to examine whether adherence to nutrient recommendations or food-based guidelines is associated with postpartum weight retention 6 months after birth. This analysis is based on data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Diet during the first 4-5 months of pregnancy was assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire and maternal weight before pregnancy as well as in the postpartum period was assessed by questionnaires. Two Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores were applied to measure compliance with either the official Norwegian food-based guidelines (HEI-NFG) or the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (HEI-NNR) during pregnancy. The considered outcome, i.e. weight retention 6 months after birth, was modelled in two ways: continuously (in kg) and categorically (risk of substantial postpartum weight retention, i.e. ≥ 5% gain to pre-pregnancy weight). Associations between the HEI-NFG and HEI-NNR score with postpartum weight retention on the continuous scale were estimated by linear regression models. Relationships of both HEI scores with the categorical outcome variable were evaluated using logistic regression. In the continuous model without adjustment for gestational weight gain (GWG), the HEI-NFG score but not the HEI-NNR score was inversely related to postpartum weight retention. However, after additional adjustment for GWG as potential intermediate the HEI-NFG score was marginally inversely and the HEI-NNR score was inversely associated with postpartum weight retention. In the categorical model, both HEI scores were inversely related with risk of substantial postpartum weight retention

  13. Bifurcation routes and economic stability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vošvrda, Miloslav

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 14 (2001), s. 43-59 ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/00/0439; GA ČR GA402/01/0034; GA ČR GA402/01/0539 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1075907 Keywords : macroeconomic stability * foreign investment phenomenon * the Hopf bifurcation Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  14. Bifurcations of Fibonacci generating functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozer, Mehmet [Istanbul Kultur University, E5 Karayolu Uzeri Sirinevler, 34191 Istanbul (Turkey) and Semiconductor Physics Institute, LT-01108 and Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Sauletekio 11, LT-10223 (Lithuania)]. E-mail: m.ozer@iku.edu.tr; Cenys, Antanas [Semiconductor Physics Institute, LT-01108 and Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Sauletekio 11, LT-10223 (Lithuania); Polatoglu, Yasar [Istanbul Kultur University, E5 Karayolu Uzeri Sirinevler, 34191 Istanbul (Turkey); Hacibekiroglu, Guersel [Istanbul Kultur University, E5 Karayolu Uzeri Sirinevler, 34191 Istanbul (Turkey); Akat, Ercument [Yeditepe University, 26 Agustos Campus Kayisdagi Street, Kayisdagi 81120, Istanbul (Turkey); Valaristos, A. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124, Thessaloniki (Greece); Anagnostopoulos, A.N. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2007-08-15

    In this work the dynamic behaviour of the one-dimensional family of maps F{sub p,q}(x) = 1/(1 - px - qx {sup 2}) is examined, for specific values of the control parameters p and q. Lyapunov exponents and bifurcation diagrams are numerically calculated. Consequently, a transition from periodic to chaotic regions is observed at values of p and q, where the related maps correspond to Fibonacci generating functions associated with the golden-, the silver- and the bronze mean.

  15. Bifurcations of Fibonacci generating functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozer, Mehmet; Cenys, Antanas; Polatoglu, Yasar; Hacibekiroglu, Guersel; Akat, Ercument; Valaristos, A.; Anagnostopoulos, A.N.

    2007-01-01

    In this work the dynamic behaviour of the one-dimensional family of maps F p,q (x) = 1/(1 - px - qx 2 ) is examined, for specific values of the control parameters p and q. Lyapunov exponents and bifurcation diagrams are numerically calculated. Consequently, a transition from periodic to chaotic regions is observed at values of p and q, where the related maps correspond to Fibonacci generating functions associated with the golden-, the silver- and the bronze mean

  16. A study of the effect of space-dependent neutronics on stochastically-induced bifurcations in BWR dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Analytis, G.T. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1995-09-01

    A non-linear one-group space-dependent neutronic model for a finite one-dimensional core is coupled with a simple BWR feed-back model. In agreement with results obtained by the authors who originally developed the point-kinetics version of this model, we shall show numerically that stochastic reactivity excitations may result in limit-cycles and eventually in a chaotic behaviour, depending on the magnitude of the feed-back coefficient K. In the framework of this simple space-dependent model, the effect of the non-linearities on the different spatial harmonics is studied and the importance of the space-dependent effects is exemplified and assessed in terms of the importance of the higher harmonics. It is shown that under certain conditions, when the limit-cycle-type develop, the neutron spectra may exhibit strong space-dependent effects.

  17. Double Hopf bifurcation in delay differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redouane Qesmi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the computation of elements of double Hopf bifurcation for retarded functional differential equations (FDEs with parameters. We present an efficient method for computing, simultaneously, the coefficients of center manifolds and normal forms, in terms of the original FDEs, associated with the double Hopf singularity up to an arbitrary order. Finally, we apply our results to a nonlinear model with periodic delay. This shows the applicability of the methodology in the study of delay models arising in either natural or technological problems.

  18. Radiation Protection Legislation in the Nordic Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Person, Lars.

    1990-01-01

    Recent alterations in the radiation protection laws of the Nordic countries are presented. The report amends the previous SS-report 87-37 with the title Radiation Protection and Atomic Energy Legislation in the Nordic Countries. (au)

  19. Studies on the Mechanism of Electron Bifurcation Catalyzed by Electron Transferring Flavoprotein (Etf) and Butyryl-CoA Dehydrogenase (Bcd) of Acidaminococcus fermentans*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Nilanjan Pal; Mowafy, Amr M.; Demmer, Julius K.; Upadhyay, Vikrant; Koelzer, Sebastian; Jayamani, Elamparithi; Kahnt, Joerg; Hornung, Marco; Demmer, Ulrike; Ermler, Ulrich; Buckel, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Electron bifurcation is a fundamental strategy of energy coupling originally discovered in the Q-cycle of many organisms. Recently a flavin-based electron bifurcation has been detected in anaerobes, first in clostridia and later in acetogens and methanogens. It enables anaerobic bacteria and archaea to reduce the low-potential [4Fe-4S] clusters of ferredoxin, which increases the efficiency of the substrate level and electron transport phosphorylations. Here we characterize the bifurcating electron transferring flavoprotein (EtfAf) and butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (BcdAf) of Acidaminococcus fermentans, which couple the exergonic reduction of crotonyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA to the endergonic reduction of ferredoxin both with NADH. EtfAf contains one FAD (α-FAD) in subunit α and a second FAD (β-FAD) in subunit β. The distance between the two isoalloxazine rings is 18 Å. The EtfAf-NAD+ complex structure revealed β-FAD as acceptor of the hydride of NADH. The formed β-FADH− is considered as the bifurcating electron donor. As a result of a domain movement, α-FAD is able to approach β-FADH− by about 4 Å and to take up one electron yielding a stable anionic semiquinone, α-FAD⨪, which donates this electron further to Dh-FAD of BcdAf after a second domain movement. The remaining non-stabilized neutral semiquinone, β-FADH•, immediately reduces ferredoxin. Repetition of this process affords a second reduced ferredoxin and Dh-FADH− that converts crotonyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA. PMID:24379410

  20. Studies on the mechanism of electron bifurcation catalyzed by electron transferring flavoprotein (Etf) and butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (Bcd) of Acidaminococcus fermentans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Nilanjan Pal; Mowafy, Amr M; Demmer, Julius K; Upadhyay, Vikrant; Koelzer, Sebastian; Jayamani, Elamparithi; Kahnt, Joerg; Hornung, Marco; Demmer, Ulrike; Ermler, Ulrich; Buckel, Wolfgang

    2014-02-21

    Electron bifurcation is a fundamental strategy of energy coupling originally discovered in the Q-cycle of many organisms. Recently a flavin-based electron bifurcation has been detected in anaerobes, first in clostridia and later in acetogens and methanogens. It enables anaerobic bacteria and archaea to reduce the low-potential [4Fe-4S] clusters of ferredoxin, which increases the efficiency of the substrate level and electron transport phosphorylations. Here we characterize the bifurcating electron transferring flavoprotein (EtfAf) and butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (BcdAf) of Acidaminococcus fermentans, which couple the exergonic reduction of crotonyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA to the endergonic reduction of ferredoxin both with NADH. EtfAf contains one FAD (α-FAD) in subunit α and a second FAD (β-FAD) in subunit β. The distance between the two isoalloxazine rings is 18 Å. The EtfAf-NAD(+) complex structure revealed β-FAD as acceptor of the hydride of NADH. The formed β-FADH(-) is considered as the bifurcating electron donor. As a result of a domain movement, α-FAD is able to approach β-FADH(-) by about 4 Å and to take up one electron yielding a stable anionic semiquinone, α-FAD, which donates this electron further to Dh-FAD of BcdAf after a second domain movement. The remaining non-stabilized neutral semiquinone, β-FADH(•), immediately reduces ferredoxin. Repetition of this process affords a second reduced ferredoxin and Dh-FADH(-) that converts crotonyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA.

  1. Analytical determination of bifurcations of periodic solution in three-degree-of-freedom vibro-impact systems with clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yongbao; Wang, Qiang; Xu, Huidong

    2017-01-01

    The smooth bifurcation and non-smooth grazing bifurcation of periodic solution of three-degree-of-freedom vibro-impact systems with clearance are studied in this paper. Firstly, six-dimensional Poincaré maps are established through choosing suitable Poincaré section and solving periodic solutions of vibro-impact system. Then, as the analytic expressions of all eigenvalues of Jacobi matrix of six-dimensional map are unavailable, the numerical calculations to search for the critical bifurcation values point by point is a laborious job based on the classical critical criterion described by the properties of eigenvalues. To overcome the difficulty from the classical bifurcation criteria, the explicit critical criterion without using eigenvalues calculation of high-dimensional map is applied to determine bifurcation points of Co-dimension-one bifurcations and Co-dimension-two bifurcations, and then local dynamical behaviors of these bifurcations are further analyzed. Finally, the existence of the grazing periodic solution of the vibro-impact system and grazing bifurcation point are analyzed, the discontinuous grazing bifurcation behavior is studied based on the compound normal form map near the grazing point, the discontinuous jumping phenomenon and the co-existing multiple solutions near the grazing bifurcation point are revealed.

  2. Nordic Mediation - Comparing Denmark and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappi-Seppälä, Tapio; Storgaard, Anette

    2015-01-01

    The Nordic Countries have a long common history in criminal policy but a closer look also indicates individual Development. the introduction of Victim Offender Mediation is one example of Nordic diversity in details.......The Nordic Countries have a long common history in criminal policy but a closer look also indicates individual Development. the introduction of Victim Offender Mediation is one example of Nordic diversity in details....

  3. Shells, orbit bifurcations, and symmetry restorations in Fermi systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magner, A. G., E-mail: magner@kinr.kiev.ua; Koliesnik, M. V. [NASU, Institute for Nuclear Research (Ukraine); Arita, K. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    The periodic-orbit theory based on the improved stationary-phase method within the phase-space path integral approach is presented for the semiclassical description of the nuclear shell structure, concerning themain topics of the fruitful activity ofV.G. Soloviev. We apply this theory to study bifurcations and symmetry breaking phenomena in a radial power-law potential which is close to the realistic Woods–Saxon one up to about the Fermi energy. Using the realistic parametrization of nuclear shapes we explain the origin of the double-humped fission barrier and the asymmetry in the fission isomer shapes by the bifurcations of periodic orbits. The semiclassical origin of the oblate–prolate shape asymmetry and tetrahedral shapes is also suggested within the improved periodic-orbit approach. The enhancement of shell structures at some surface diffuseness and deformation parameters of such shapes are explained by existence of the simple local bifurcations and new non-local bridge-orbit bifurcations in integrable and partially integrable Fermi-systems. We obtained good agreement between the semiclassical and quantum shell-structure components of the level density and energy for several surface diffuseness and deformation parameters of the potentials, including their symmetry breaking and bifurcation values.

  4. The Nordic Approach to the Experience Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine

    This paper discusses the concept of the experience economy in a Nordic context and shows how the Nordic version of the concept has come about from a mix of three different approaches and theories. Besides, the Nordic definition links the experience economy closely with cultural activities...

  5. What Characterise the Nordic Welfare State Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2007-01-01

    The main distinctive characteristics of the Nordic welfare states are presented. These include full employment, high degree of equality, a high level of taxes and public sector spending. The Nordic countries are compared to other European countries. The conclusion being that the Nordic Model...... is here to stay, although a movement in a European direction is underway....

  6. Current use of ultrasound for central vascular access in children and infants in the Nordic countries--a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas C Risom; Rimstad, Ivan Jonassen; Tarpgaard, Mona

    2015-01-01

    . METHODS: A cross-sectional survey using an online questionnaire was distributed to one anaesthesiologist at every hospital in the Nordic countries; a total of 177 anaesthesiologists were contacted from July till August 2012. RESULTS: The use of US for placing central venous catheters (CVCs) seems......PURPOSE: The use of ultrasound (US) guidance for central vascular access in children has been advocated as a safer approach compared to traditional landmark techniques. We therefore collected data on the current use of US for central vascular access in children and infants in the Nordic countries...

  7. Nordic Seniors on the Move

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ”I believe that all people need to move about. Actually, some have difficulties in doing so. They stay in their home neighbourhoods where they’ve grown up and feel safe. I can understand that, but my wife and I, we didn’t want that. We are more open to new ideas.” This anthology is about seniors...... on the move. In seven chapters, Nordic researchers from various disciplines, by means of ethnographic methods, attempt to comprehend the phenomenon of Nordic seniors who move to leisure areas in their own or in other countries. The number of people involved in this kind of migratory movement has grown...... above gives voice to one of these seniors, stressing the necessity of moving. The anthology contributes to the international body of literature about later life migration, specifically representing experiences made by Nordic seniors. As shown here, mobility and migration in later life have implications...

  8. Bifurcated equilibria in two-dimensional MHD with diamagnetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottaviani, M.; Tebaldi, C.

    1998-12-01

    In this work we analyzed the sequence of bifurcated equilibria in two-dimensional reduced magnetohydrodynamics. Diamagnetic effects are studied under the assumption of a constant equilibrium pressure gradient, not altered by the formation of the magnetic island. The formation of an island when the symmetric equilibrium becomes unstable is studied as a function of the tearing mode stability parameter Δ' and of the diamagnetic frequency, by employing fixed-points numerical techniques and an initial value code. At larger values of Δ' a tangent bifurcation takes place, above which no small island solutions exist. This bifurcation persists up to fairly large values of the diamagnetic frequency (of the order of one tenth of the Alfven frequency). The implications of this phenomenology for the intermittent MHD dynamics observed in tokamaks is discussed. (authors)

  9. Bifurcations of propellant burning rate at oscillatory pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novozhilov, Boris V. [N. N. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Science, 4 Kosygina St., Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2006-06-15

    A new phenomenon, the disparity between pressure and propellant burning rate frequencies, has revealed in numerical studies of propellant burning rate response to oscillatory pressure. As is clear from the linear approximation, under small pressure amplitudes, h, pressure and propellant burning rate oscillations occur with equal period T (T-solution). In the paper, however, it is shown that at a certain critical value of the parameter h the system in hand undergoes a bifurcation so that the T-solution converts to oscillations with period 2T (2T-solution). When the bifurcation parameter h increases, the subsequent behavior of the system becomes complicated. It is obtained a sequence of period doubling to 4T-solution and 8T-solution. Beyond a certain value of the bifurcation parameter h an apparently fully chaotic solution is found. These effects undoubtedly should be taken into account in studies of oscillatory processes in combustion chambers. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Bifurcation analysis of a delayed mathematical model for tumor growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khajanchi, Subhas

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we present a modified mathematical model of tumor growth by introducing discrete time delay in interaction terms. The model describes the interaction between tumor cells, healthy tissue cells (host cells) and immune effector cells. The goal of this study is to obtain a better compatibility with reality for which we introduced the discrete time delay in the interaction between tumor cells and host cells. We investigate the local stability of the non-negative equilibria and the existence of Hopf-bifurcation by considering the discrete time delay as a bifurcation parameter. We estimate the length of delay to preserve the stability of bifurcating periodic solutions, which gives an idea about the mode of action for controlling oscillations in the tumor growth. Numerical simulations of the model confirm the analytical findings

  11. Nordic eHealth Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyppönen, Hannele; Faxvaag, Arild; Gilstad, Heidi

    This report describes first results of the Network: eHealth policy analysis and first common Nordic eHealth indicators. The results show similarities and also some differences in the eHealth policies, priorities and implementation. Interesting similarities and differences in availability and use...... of eHealth services in the Nordic countries were found with the first comparable eHealth indicators. The results create a basis for Evidence-based policy making as well as benchmarking and learning best practices from each other....

  12. Economic poverty among children and adolescents in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povlsen, Lene; Regber, Susann; Fosse, Elisabeth; Karlsson, Leena Eklund; Gunnarsdottir, Hrafnhildur

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to identify applied definitions and measurements of economic poverty and to explore the proportions and characteristics of children and adolescents living in economic poverty in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden during the last decade and to compare various statistics between the Nordic countries. Official data from central national authorities on statistics, national reports and European Union Statistics of income and living conditions data were collected and analysed during 2015-2016. The proportion of Nordic children living in economic poverty in 2014 ranged from 9.4% in Norway to 18.5% in Sweden. Compared with the European Union average, from 2004 to 2014 Nordic families with dependent children experienced fewer difficulties in making their money last, even though Icelandic families reported considerable difficulties. The characteristics of children living in economic poverty proved to be similar in the five countries and were related to their parents' level of education and employment, single-parent households and - in Denmark, Norway and Sweden - to immigrant background. In Finland, poverty among children was linked in particular to low income in employed households. This study showed that economic poverty among Nordic families with dependent children has increased during the latest decade, but it also showed that poverty rates are not necessarily connected to families' ability to make their money last. Therefore additional studies are needed to explore existing policies and political commitments in the Nordic countries to compensate families with dependent children living in poverty.

  13. Hopf bifurcation and chaos in macroeconomic models with policy lag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Xiaofeng; Li Chuandong; Zhou Shangbo

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the macroeconomic models with policy lag, and study how lags in policy response affect the macroeconomic stability. The local stability of the nonzero equilibrium of this equation is investigated by analyzing the corresponding transcendental characteristic equation of its linearized equation. Some general stability criteria involving the policy lag and the system parameter are derived. By choosing the policy lag as a bifurcation parameter, the model is found to undergo a sequence of Hopf bifurcation. The direction and stability of the bifurcating periodic solutions are determined by using the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. Moreover, we show that the government can stabilize the intrinsically unstable economy if the policy lag is sufficiently short, but the system become locally unstable when the policy lag is too long. We also find the chaotic behavior in some range of the policy lag

  14. Dynamical systems V bifurcation theory and catastrophe theory

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    Bifurcation theory and catastrophe theory are two of the best known areas within the field of dynamical systems. Both are studies of smooth systems, focusing on properties that seem to be manifestly non-smooth. Bifurcation theory is concerned with the sudden changes that occur in a system when one or more parameters are varied. Examples of such are familiar to students of differential equations, from phase portraits. Moreover, understanding the bifurcations of the differential equations that describe real physical systems provides important information about the behavior of the systems. Catastrophe theory became quite famous during the 1970's, mostly because of the sensation caused by the usually less than rigorous applications of its principal ideas to "hot topics", such as the characterization of personalities and the difference between a "genius" and a "maniac". Catastrophe theory is accurately described as singularity theory and its (genuine) applications. The authors of this book, the first printing of w...

  15. Bifurcations in the optimal elastic foundation for a buckling column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayneau-Kirkhope, Daniel; Farr, Robert; Ding, K.; Mao, Yong

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the buckling under compression of a slender beam with a distributed lateral elastic support, for which there is an associated cost. For a given cost, we study the optimal choice of support to protect against Euler buckling. We show that with only weak lateral support, the optimum distribution is a delta-function at the centre of the beam. When more support is allowed, we find numerically that the optimal distribution undergoes a series of bifurcations. We obtain analytical expressions for the buckling load around the first bifurcation point and corresponding expansions for the optimal position of support. Our theoretical predictions, including the critical exponent of the bifurcation, are confirmed by computer simulations.

  16. Bifurcations in the optimal elastic foundation for a buckling column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayneau-Kirkhope, Daniel, E-mail: ppxdr@nottingham.ac.u [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Farr, Robert [Unilever R and D, Olivier van Noortlaan 120, AT3133, Vlaardingen (Netherlands); London Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 22 South Audley Street, Mayfair, London (United Kingdom); Ding, K. [Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433 (China); Mao, Yong [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-01

    We investigate the buckling under compression of a slender beam with a distributed lateral elastic support, for which there is an associated cost. For a given cost, we study the optimal choice of support to protect against Euler buckling. We show that with only weak lateral support, the optimum distribution is a delta-function at the centre of the beam. When more support is allowed, we find numerically that the optimal distribution undergoes a series of bifurcations. We obtain analytical expressions for the buckling load around the first bifurcation point and corresponding expansions for the optimal position of support. Our theoretical predictions, including the critical exponent of the bifurcation, are confirmed by computer simulations.

  17. Resonant Homoclinic Flips Bifurcation in Principal Eigendirections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiansi Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A codimension-4 homoclinic bifurcation with one orbit flip and one inclination flip at principal eigenvalue direction resonance is considered. By introducing a local active coordinate system in some small neighborhood of homoclinic orbit, we get the Poincaré return map and the bifurcation equation. A detailed investigation produces the number and the existence of 1-homoclinic orbit, 1-periodic orbit, and double 1-periodic orbits. We also locate their bifurcation surfaces in certain regions.

  18. Bifurcation into functional niches in adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Justin S; Adami, Christoph

    2004-01-01

    One of the central questions in evolutionary biology concerns the dynamics of adaptation and diversification. This issue can be addressed experimentally if replicate populations adapting to identical environments can be investigated in detail. We have studied 501 such replicas using digital organisms adapting to at least two fundamentally different functional niches (survival strategies) present in the same environment: one in which fast replication is the way to live, and another where exploitation of the environment's complexity leads to complex organisms with longer life spans and smaller replication rates. While these two modes of survival are closely analogous to those expected to emerge in so-called r and K selection scenarios respectively, the bifurcation of evolutionary histories according to these functional niches occurs in identical environments, under identical selective pressures. We find that the branching occurs early, and leads to drastic phenotypic differences (in fitness, sequence length, and gestation time) that are permanent and irreversible. This study confirms an earlier experimental effort using microorganisms, in that diversification can be understood at least in part in terms of bifurcations on saddle points leading to peak shifts, as in the picture drawn by Sewall Wright.

  19. Hopf bifurcation of a free boundary problem modeling tumor growth with two time delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shihe

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a free boundary problem modeling tumor growth with two discrete delays is studied. The delays respectively represents the time taken for cells to undergo mitosis and the time taken for the cell to modify the rate of cell loss due to apoptosis. We show the influence of time delays on the Hopf bifurcation when one of delays as a bifurcation parameter.

  20. Bifurcation approach to the predator-prey population models (Version of the computer book)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazykin, A.D.; Zudin, S.L.

    1993-09-01

    Hierarchically organized family of predator-prey systems is studied. The classification is founded on two interacting principles: the biological and mathematical ones. The different combinations of biological factors included correspond to different bifurcations (up to codimension 3). As theoretical so computing methods are used for analysis, especially concerning non-local bifurcations. (author). 6 refs, figs

  1. Hopf bifurcation in a dynamic IS-LM model with time delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neamtu, Mihaela; Opris, Dumitru; Chilarescu, Constantin

    2007-01-01

    The paper investigates the impact of delayed tax revenues on the fiscal policy out-comes. Choosing the delay as a bifurcation parameter we study the direction and the stability of the bifurcating periodic solutions. We show when the system is stable with respect to the delay. Some numerical examples are given to confirm the theoretical results

  2. The period adding and incrementing bifurcations: from rotation theory to applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granados, Albert; Alseda, Lluis; Krupa, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    This survey article is concerned with the study of bifurcations of piecewise-smooth maps. We review the literature in circle maps and quasi-contractions and provide paths through this literature to prove sufficient conditions for the occurrence of two types of bifurcation scenarios involving rich...

  3. Maternal and infant characteristics: differences and similarities between the Nordic countries and the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfling, Lukas; Bröms, Gabriella; Bahmanyar, Shahram; Kieler, Helle

    2016-01-01

    Data from the Nordic health care registers have been of great value in perinatal epidemiological research. It has been assumed that findings from the Nordic population (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) are applicable to other populations as well, including the population of the US. To describe and compare maternal and infant characteristics between the Nordic and the American populations as recorded in the official statistics. This population-based study included data on all females who gave birth and their infants in the Nordic countries and the US. The data were obtained from the US National Center for Health Statistics and the official statistics data for the Nordic countries. The data from all six countries included births from 2006 to 2010. The mean maternal age at delivery was lower in the US than in the Nordic countries (27.5 vs 30.3 years). Cesarean sections (32.2% vs 17.9%), low birth weight (8.2% vs 4.8%), and preterm birth (12.3% vs 5.9%) were more common in the US than in the Nordic countries. Smoking during early pregnancy was slightly less common in the US compared with Nordic countries (9.8% vs 11.2%). Restricting the data from the US to females with a university degree, characteristics such as age at delivery, birth weight, and preterm deliveries were more in alignment with the Nordic data. There are differences in some key maternal and neonatal characteristics between the Nordic countries and the US. However, some characteristics are related to socioeconomic status, suggesting that the Nordic data seem to be applicable to the part of the population in the US with a higher socioeconomic status.

  4. Three dimensional nilpotent singularity and Sil'nikov bifurcation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xindan; Liu Haifei

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, by using the normal form, blow-up theory and the technique of global bifurcations, we study the singularity at the origin with threefold zero eigenvalue for nonsymmetric vector fields with nilpotent linear part and 4-jet C ∼ -equivalent toy-bar -bar x+z-bar -bar y+ax 3 y-bar -bar z,with a 0, and analytically prove the existence of Sil'nikov bifurcation, and then of the strange attractor for certain subfamilies of the nonsymmetric versal unfoldings of this singularity under some conditions

  5. Transportation and concentration inequalities for bifurcating Markov chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penda, S. Valère Bitseki; Escobar-Bach, Mikael; Guillin, Arnaud

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the transportation inequality for bifurcating Markov chains which are a class of processes indexed by a regular binary tree. Fitting well models like cell growth when each individual gives birth to exactly two offsprings, we use transportation inequalities to provide useful...... concentration inequalities.We also study deviation inequalities for the empirical means under relaxed assumptions on the Wasserstein contraction for the Markov kernels. Applications to bifurcating nonlinear autoregressive processes are considered for point-wise estimates of the non-linear autoregressive...

  6. Bifurcation analysis of nephron pressure and flow regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfred, Mikael; Mosekilde, Erik; Holstein-Rathlou, N.-H.

    1996-01-01

    One- and two-dimensional continuation techniques are applied to study the bifurcation structure of a model of renal flow and pressure control. Integrating the main physiological mechanisms by which the individual nephron regulates the incoming blood flow, the model describes the interaction between...... the tubuloglomerular feedback and the response of the afferent arteriole. It is shown how a Hopf bifurcation leads the system to perform self-sustained oscillations if the feedback gain becomes sufficiently strong, and how a further increase of this parameter produces a folded structure of overlapping period...

  7. Discretizing the transcritical and pitchfork bifurcations – conjugacy results

    KAUST Repository

    Lóczi, Lajos

    2015-01-07

    © 2015 Taylor & Francis. We present two case studies in one-dimensional dynamics concerning the discretization of transcritical (TC) and pitchfork (PF) bifurcations. In the vicinity of a TC or PF bifurcation point and under some natural assumptions on the one-step discretization method of order (Formula presented.) , we show that the time- (Formula presented.) exact and the step-size- (Formula presented.) discretized dynamics are topologically equivalent by constructing a two-parameter family of conjugacies in each case. As a main result, we prove that the constructed conjugacy maps are (Formula presented.) -close to the identity and these estimates are optimal.

  8. Nordic research in logistics and supply chain management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlbjørn, Jan Stentoft; Jonsson, Patrik; Johansen, John

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this data-based analysis is to report and reflect on the characteristics of the academic discipline concerned with logistics and supply chain management (SCM) as it is conducted in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden). The paper further seeks...... returned, the response rate was 41 per cent. Findings - The study did not provide a clear picture of a distinct Nordic research paradigm applying to the study of logistics and SCM. The analysis shows as characteristic of research issues pursued by Nordic researchers the focus on supply chains and networks...... with research in the field and external funding. Research limitations/implications - The research reported here may help individual researchers raise their consciousness about their own research. Originality/value - This is the first empirical study to analyze research paradigms within logistics and SCM...

  9. The role of forests in climate change: Nordic experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portin, A.; Barua, S.; Clarke, M.; Camargo, M.; Viding, J.; Pekkanen, M.

    2013-08-15

    The objective of this project is to discuss the role of forests in Nordic countries in climate change mitigation and discuss the possible roles of forests as a part of a cost-effective climate policy. The report aims to provide a comprehensive and easily digestible way to better understand the issue. The report includes a discussion on the role of forests for enhancing carbon stocks and carbon sinks in the Nordic countries. The extent of above- and below-ground biomass and their role as forests carbon sinks in Nordic forests is analysed. The use of wood in products, buildings and as bioenergy is examined. Finally the report presents emissions trading schemes from around the globe that allow offsets and credits from forest projects on them and provides an analysis on the feasibility of such a scheme for the Nordic region. The report has been commissioned by the Working Group on Environment and Economics under the Nordic Council of Ministers. The study was carried out by Indufor. (Author)

  10. Effects of Nordic walking and walking on spatiotemporal gait parameters and ground reaction force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung Kyu; Yang, Dae Jung; Kang, Yang Hun; Kim, Je Ho; Uhm, Yo Han; Lee, Yong Seon

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Nordic walking and walking on spatiotemporal gait parameters and ground reaction force. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 30 young adult males, who were divided into a Nordic walking group of 15 subjects and a walking group of 15 subjects. [Methods] To analyze the spatiotemporal parameters and ground reaction force during walking in the two groups, the six-camera Vicon MX motion analysis system was used. The subjects were asked to walk 12 meters using the more comfortable walking method for them between Nordic walking and walking. After they walked 12 meters more than 10 times, their most natural walking patterns were chosen three times and analyzed. To determine the pole for Nordic walking, each subject's height was multiplied by 0.68. We then measured the spatiotemporal gait parameters and ground reaction force. [Results] Compared with the walking group, the Nordic walking group showed an increase in cadence, stride length, and step length, and a decrease in stride time, step time, and vertical ground reaction force. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that Nordic walking increases the stride and can be considered as helping patients with diseases affecting their gait. This demonstrates that Nordic walking is more effective in improving functional capabilities by promoting effective energy use and reducing the lower limb load, because the weight of the upper and lower limbs is dispersed during Nordic walking.

  11. Breaking the Nordic Defense Deadlock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    United Nations] was a ‘ luxury good’, only affordable because the Nordics were allowed a free ride on a security order created by the presence of an... Brands Poroshenko ‘Nazi’ Ahead of EU Deal,” BBC News, June 27, 2014, available from www.bbc. co.uk/news/world-europe-28049565, accessed June, 27, 2014

  12. Nordic projects concerning nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, H.C.

    1988-11-01

    The report describes the nature of the work done in the first half of 1988 within the field of nuclear safety (1985-89) under the Nordic program for 1985-89. Five programmes and their documentation, are described and complete lists of addresses and of persons involved is given. (AB)

  13. Nordic scepticism towards health claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2008-01-01

    Imagine that you are shopping in a supermarket and find a package of pork chops labelled "omega-3 added" or that the yogurt "contains phosphatidylserine, which can improve your memory"; would you buy these pork chops or this yogurt? Most Nordic consumers would choose products without health claims....

  14. New Nordic and Scandinavian retro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels Peter; Munch, Anders V.

    2016-01-01

    ’?” with a focus on the Danish firm Muuto, which has been a central actor in establishing the term “New Nordic Design.” We focus on the interplay between the storytelling around the products and designers on webpages and in marketing, popular literature, etc., and the actual design objects. Reoccurring themes from...

  15. The Nordic Corporate Governance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2016-01-01

    , concentrated ownership, semi two-tier board structures, employee representation and low-powered managerial incentives – has been shaped by the welfare state in ways consistent with systemic corporate governance theories. The article concludes with a skeptical discussion of the Nordic model as a development...

  16. Bifurcation and chaos in a Tessiet type food chain chemostat with pulsed input and washout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fengyan; Hao Chunping; Chen Lansun

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce and study a model of a Tessiet type food chain chemostat with pulsed input and washout. We investigate the subsystem with substrate and prey and study the stability of the periodic solutions, which are the boundary periodic solutions of the system. The stability analysis of the boundary periodic solution yields an invasion threshold. By use of standard techniques of bifurcation theory, we prove that above this threshold there are periodic oscillations in substrate, prey and predator. Simple cycles may give way to chaos in a cascade of period-doubling bifurcations. Furthermore, by comparing bifurcation diagrams with different bifurcation parameters, we can see that the impulsive system shows two kinds of bifurcations, whose are period doubling and period halving

  17. Health Effects of the New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg

    The health effects of the New Nordic Diet (NND) are investigated in a six month randomized controlled intervention, in which the NND was compared to the average Danish diet (ADD) among 181 adult participants. Foods were handed out free of charge from a study shop according to the ad libitum...... period. Based on this study, the health effects of the NND are considerable as shown by the lower body weight and lower blood pressure. The follow up period clearly illustrated the challenges related to the voluntary and self-administered adherence to new dietary guidelines but also supports thatthe NND...

  18. Interpreting values in the daily practices of Nordic preschools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig; Anna-Maija, Puriola; Johannesson, Eva Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study explored how practitioners interpreted educational practices from the perspective of values in Nordic preschools. Drawing data from group interviews in five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden), practitioners reflected on an observational episode about...... children dressing for outdoor play in a Swedish preschool. The research material consisted of extracts from group interviews in ten preschools (two from each Nordic country). The research questions included: How do values emerge in practitioners’ interpretations? What is the interpretive process like...... and the co-construction of interpretations in the group dialogues. The practitioners employed indirect means more often than direct means to express their values. The group interviews contained themes that were connected to caring, disciplinary, competence and democratic values. The study provided evidence...

  19. The Nordic contribution to the English language twin literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, R M; Keith, L G; Keith, D M

    1986-01-01

    This project was inspired by the extensive contribution of Nordic researchers to the English language twin literature. The purpose of the study was to compile a source bibliography of twin literature written at Nordic institutions. The bibliography compiled as a supplement for this paper provides as complete a survey as is possible to obtain in the United States. Our search began with a Medline Computer data base. To make our survey more complete, we cross-referenced and added to this using the Index Medicus, the National Institute of Mental Health Bibliography, Excerpta Medica, specific article references, references provided by Nordic university libraries and Gedda's Estudio dei Gemelli. The full bibliography of 313 references is available at no cost from the Center for the study of multiple Birth, Rm. 476, 333 E. Superior, Chicago, Ill. 60611, U.S.A.

  20. Nordic Cuisine, but National Identities: Nordic Cuisines and the Gastronationalist Projects of Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuman, Nicklas; Leer, Jonatan

    2017-01-01

    This article is a cross-national comparison of how food is promoted on tourism websites offering information about Denmark and Sweden – two countries with big national projects targeting the promotion of culinary excellence, following the initiation of “New Nordic Cuisine” (NNC) in 2004. The aim...... is to study similarities and differences in the projects of these two countries, both quantitatively and qualitatively. 19 out of 32 (approx. 59%) Danish texts referred to a shared Nordic culinary identity, whereas this was only the case in five out 51 (approx. 10%) of the Swedish texts. Moreover......, the qualitative analysis also revealed that “Nordic” cuisine was almost interchangeably connected to Danish cuisine, while in Sweden NNC was more peripheral and culinary excellence was construed as specifically Swedish. We thus criticise the generally accepted idea that NNC is a post-national food movement...

  1. Anatomy of the Portal Vein Bifurcation: Implication for Transjugular Intrahepatic Portal Systemic Shunts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, Philip Chong-hei; Ng, Wai Fu; Lam, Christine Suk-yee; Tsui, Polly Po; Faruqi, Asma

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The relationship of the portalvein bifurcation to the liver capsule in Asians, which is an important landmark for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, has not previously been described. Methods: The anatomy of the portal vein bifurcation was studied in 70 adult Chinese cadavers; it was characterized as intrahepatic or extrahepatic. The length of the exposed portion of the right and left portal veins was measured when the bifurcation was extrahepatic. Results: The portal vein bifurcation was intrahepatic in 37 cadavers (53%) and extrahepatic in 33 cadavers (47%). The mean length of the right and left extrahepatic portal veins was 0.96 cm and 0.85 cm respectively.Both were less than or equal to 2 cm in 94% of the cadavers with extrahepatic bifurcation. There was no correlation between the presence of cirrhosis and the location of the portal vein bifurcation(p 1.0). There was no statistically significant difference in liver mass in cadavers with either extrahepatic or intrahepatic bifurcation (p =0.40). Conclusions: These findings suggest that fortransjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement, a portal vein puncture 2 cm from the bifurcation will be safe in most cases

  2. Nordic monitoring on diet, physical activity and overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagt, Sisse; Andersen, Lene Frost; Anderssen, Sigmund A.

    . In 2009, the indicator questions were validated against an objective method (physical activity) or existing survey methods (diet) and the present report mainly describes the validation studies. On basis of the validation studies the working group suggests that the indicators are used in a future......In 2007, a Nordic working group was established with the aim to describe a future Nordic monitoring system on diet, physical activity and overweight. The monitoring system should be simple and at relatively low cost. Therefore it has been decided to conduct the moni-toring as a telephone interview...

  3. [Comparison of DK crush with classical crush technique with drug-eluting stents for the treatment of coronary bifurcation lesions from DKCRUSH-1 study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-liang; Zhang, Jun-jie; Ye, Fei; Chen, Yun-dai; Lü, Shu-zheng; Tan, Huaycheem; Patel, Tejas; Kenji, Kawajiri; Tamari, Israel; Shan, Shou-jie; Zhu, Zhong-sheng; Lin, Song; Tian, Nai-liang; Li, Xiao-bo; Liu, Zhi-zhong; Lee, Michael; Wei, Meng; Xu, Ya-wei; Yuan, Zheng-bai; Qian, Jun; Sun, Xue-wen; Yang, Song; Chen, Jin-guo; He, Ben; Sumit, Suji

    2008-02-01

    To determine independent factors correlated with clinical effects of DK crush and classical crush technique with drug-eluting stents on bifurcation lesions. 311 patients with bifurcation lesions were randomized to classical (C, n = 156) or double kissing (DK) crush (n = 155) stent implantation group. The primary endpoints included major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Final kissing balloon inflation (FKBI) success rate was 76% in C and 100% in DK groups (P DK crush procedure was characterized by lower unsatisfactory FKBI rate (27.6% vs.6.3%, P DK groups (P = 0.01), respectively. Cumulative 8-month MACE was 35.9% in without-FKBI and 19.7% in with-FKBI sub-groups, and 11.4% in DK group (P = 0.02). The incidence of stent thrombosis was 3.2% in C group (5.1% without vs. 1.7% with FKBI) and 1.3% in DK group (P > 0.05). The predictive factors of MACE included minimal side branch stent lumen diameter and lack of DK crush technique. DK crush technique is an alternative of double stenting techniques in terms of improvement of restenosis and clinical outcomes.

  4. Influence of a healthy Nordic diet on serum fatty acid composition and associations with blood lipoproteins – results from the NORDIET study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Adamsson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fatty acid (FA composition of serum lipids is related to the quality of dietary fat intake. Objective: To investigate the effects of a healthy Nordic diet (ND on the FA composition of serum cholesterol esters (CE-FA and assess the associations between changes in the serum CE-FA composition and blood lipoproteins during a controlled dietary intervention. Design: The NORDIET trial was a 6-week randomised, controlled, parallel-group dietary intervention study that included 86 adults (53±8 years with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C. Serum CE-FA composition was measured using gas chromatography. Diet history interviews were conducted, and daily intake was assessed using checklists. Results: Food and nutrient intake data indicated that there was a reduction in the intake of fat from dairy and meat products and an increase in the consumption of fatty fish with the ND. The levels of saturated fatty acids in cholesterol esters (CE-SFA 14:0, 15:0, and 18:0, but not 16:0, showed a significant decrease after intake of ND compared to the control diet (p<0.01. Also, a significant increase in serum 22:6n – 3 was observed compared with the control diet (p<0.01. The changes in CE-SFA 14:0, 15:0, and 18:0 correlated positively with changes in LDL-C, HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoB (p<0.01, respectively, whereas the changes in polyunsaturated fatty acids in cholesterol esters (CE-PUFA 22:6n – 3 were negatively correlated with changes in the corresponding serum lipids. Conclusions: The decreased intake of saturated fat and increased intake of n-3 PUFA in a healthy ND is partly reflected by changes in the serum CE-FA composition, which are associated with an improved serum lipoprotein pattern.

  5. Bifurcation Analysis and Spatiotemporal Patterns in Unidirectionally Delay-Coupled Vibratory Gyroscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Xu, Jian

    Time delay is inevitable in unidirectionally coupled drive-free vibratory gyroscope system. The effect of time delay on the gyroscope system is studied in this paper. To this end, amplitude death and Hopf bifurcation induced by small time delay are first investigated by analyzing the related characteristic equation. Then, the direction of Hopf bifurcations and stability of Hopf-bifurcating periodic oscillations are determined by calculating the normal form on the center manifold. Next, spatiotemporal patterns of these Hopf-bifurcating periodic oscillations are analyzed by using the symmetric bifurcation theory of delay differential equations. Finally, it is found that numerical simulations agree with the associated analytic results. These phenomena could be induced although time delay is very small. Therefore, it is shown that time delay is an important factor which influences the sensitivity and accuracy of the gyroscope system and cannot be neglected during the design and manufacture.

  6. Bifurcation structures of a cobweb model with memory and competing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agliari, Anna; Naimzada, Ahmad; Pecora, Nicolò

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we study a simple model based on the cobweb demand-supply framework with costly innovators and free imitators. The evolutionary selection between technologies depends on a performance measure which is related to the degree of memory. The resulting dynamics is described by a two-dimensional map. The map has a fixed point which may lose stability either via supercritical Neimark-Sacker bifurcation or flip bifurcation and several multistability situations exist. We describe some sequences of global bifurcations involving attracting and repelling closed invariant curves. These bifurcations, characterized by the creation of homoclinic connections or homoclinic tangles, are described through several numerical simulations. Particular bifurcation phenomena are also observed when the parameters are selected inside a periodicity region.

  7. On the Role of family Policy in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    obligations, for gender equality and most recently, a growing concern for securing time for both work and private life. These policy measures have aimed at improving living conditions for families with children and thus only indirectly at increasing the propensity to have children. The paper argues......Compared to other countries, e.g. in Southern Europe the fertility in the Nordic countries is relatively high. This paper discusses the role of Family Policy in the Nordic Countries in this respect. The Nordic countries experienced a decline in fertility in the first three decades of the 20th...... century where after the total fertility rates increased until the late 1960s where a new decline took off. Throughout the studied period, policy measures influencing living conditions for families have been influenced by concern for population development, for reconciliation between family and work...

  8. Economic poverty among children and adolescents in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Lene; Regber, Susann; Fosse, Elisabeth

    2018-01-01

    Aims: This study aimed to identify applied definitions and measurements of economic poverty and to explore the proportions and characteristics of children and adolescents living in economic poverty in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden during the last decade and to compare various...... statistics between the Nordic countries. Methods: Official data from central national authorities on statistics, national reports and European Union Statistics of income and living conditions data were collected and analysed during 2015–2016. Results: The proportion of Nordic children living in economic...... poverty in 2014 ranged from 9.4% in Norway to 18.5% in Sweden. Compared with the European Union average, from 2004 to 2014 Nordic families with dependent children experienced fewer difficulties in making their money last, even though Icelandic families reported considerable difficulties...

  9. Language attitudes and the ideology of the Nordic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Jacob Martin; Östman, Jan Ola

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the rise and the current standing of “Norden” (the Nordic societies) as an imagined community (Anderson, Imagined communities, Verso, 1991). The ideology of Norden as a coherent community rests on the one hand on the perceived mutual intelligibility of the Scandinavian...... languages, used as mother tongue or as lingua franca. On the other hand the ideology of Norden rests on a sense of historical unity. Historically, the ideology of the Nordic grew out of the era of national romanticism. The present study therefore addresses the pertinent question of how the ideology...... of the Nordic fares in late modernity where ideology is under threat from more “rational”, e.g., financial lines of thinking....

  10. Bifurcations of optimal vector fields: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiseleva, T.; Wagener, F.; Rodellar, J.; Reithmeier, E.

    2009-01-01

    We develop a bifurcation theory for the solution structure of infinite horizon optimal control problems with one state variable. It turns out that qualitative changes of this structure are connected to local and global bifurcations in the state-costate system. We apply the theory to investigate an

  11. Nordic fathers’ willingness to participate during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Helle; Persson, Eva K.; Stenback, Pernilla

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to illuminate expectant first-time fathers’ experiences of participation during pregnancy in three Nordic countries. Background: Fathers’ participation in pregnancy is associated with improved health for the family as a whole. Research so far has primarily explored...... the unborn child’, ‘Being included in the rites of motherhood,’ ‘Lacking full control’, ‘Compensating for lack of embodiment’ and ‘Adopting an active father role’. ‘Cementing the partnership’ encompassed the subcategories: ‘Strengthening the partner relationship’, ‘Meeting the professionals, ‘Sharing...

  12. The Reinvention of Nordic Terroir and the Making of Gastrotourism Places

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia

    contributed to the mediatization of Nordic regional gastronomy. But how can we conceptualize contemporary food place promotion strategies the Nordic context, in which terroir was virtually absent before 2004 (the year when the New Nordic Cuisine manifesto was issued)? To address the question, this paper...... studies place branding narratives that mobilize local food and contemporary gastronomic trends by revisiting the notion of terroir (taste of place) as a strategic marketing asset. In particular, it explores how rural tourism destinations with little or no gastronomic heritage exploit the discourses of New...... Nordic Food to create a distinct sense of place. An extensive review of the literature identifies two conservationist strategies by which terroir narratives are constructed (accreditation and patrimonialization), neither of which fully capturing the particular rhetoric approaches shaping the Nordic...

  13. The Boundary-Hopf-Fold Bifurcation in Filippov Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efstathiou, Konstantinos; Liu, Xia; Broer, Henk W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the codimension-3 boundary-Hopf-fold (BHF) bifurcation of planar Filippov systems. Filippov systems consist of at least one discontinuity boundary locally separating the phase space to disjoint components with different dynamics. Such systems find applications in several fields,

  14. Epidemic model with vaccinated age that exhibits backward bifurcation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Junyuan; Zhang Fengqin; Li Xuezhi

    2009-01-01

    Vaccination of susceptibilities is included in a transmission model for a disease that confers immunity. In this paper, interplay of vaccination strategy together with vaccine efficacy and the vaccinated age is studied. In particular, vaccine efficacy can lead to a backward bifurcation. At the same time, we also discuss an abstract formulation of the problem, and establish the well-posedness of the model.

  15. Bifurcation methods of dynamical systems for handling nonlinear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 863–868. Bifurcation methods of dynamical systems for handling nonlinear wave equations. DAHE FENG and JIBIN LI. Center for Nonlinear Science Studies, School of Science, Kunming University of Science and Technology .... (b) It can be shown from (15) and (18) that the balance between the weak nonlinear.

  16. Experimental bifurcation analysis of an impact oscillator – Determining stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bureau, Emil; Schilder, Frank; Elmegård, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We propose and investigate three different methods for assessing stability of dynamical equilibrium states during experimental bifurcation analysis, using a control-based continuation method. The idea is to modify or turn off the control at an equilibrium state and study the resulting behavior...

  17. Nordic cooperation within natural gas research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edna, O.-J.

    1993-01-01

    Nordic cooperation within natural gas research is discussed. A reorganization of this cooperation has recently taken place. It is explained that common Nordic resources are now to be concentrated within 7 areas, one of which is the area of energy/industrial policies, regional policies and agriculture and forestry, all under the common heading of ''Economy''. The plan of activities within this area includes international cooperation within the European Communities, the European Energy Charter, the International Energy Agency and will involve the energy policy situation in eastern Europe and the Baltic countries, the electric power and natural gas markets in the northern countries, energy related environmental questions and Nordic energy research cooperation. Nordic research activities constitute 2% of research resources within the OECD. The basis for Nordic research cooperation (for example a common cultural background) is described, and suggestions are made as to how it should be administrated. The Nordic energy research programme for 1991-1994 embodies bioenergy and the environment, fuel cells, energy and the society, solid fuels, district heating and petroleum technology. The status report for the nordic gas market, which represents the Nordic gas companies' evaluation of the Nordic gas market, is summarized, and Nordic research activities related to gas utilization are shortly commented upon. (AB)

  18. Voltage stability, bifurcation parameters and continuation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, F L [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper considers the importance of the choice of bifurcation parameter in the determination of the voltage stability limit and the maximum power load ability of a system. When the bifurcation parameter is power demand, the two limits are equivalent. However, when other types of load models and bifurcation parameters are considered, the two concepts differ. The continuation method is considered as a method for determination of voltage stability margins. Three variants of the continuation method are described: the continuation parameter is the bifurcation parameter the continuation parameter is initially the bifurcation parameter, but is free to change, and the continuation parameter is a new `arc length` parameter. Implementations of voltage stability software using continuation methods are described. (author) 23 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Resarch on the Future of FM in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Rasmussen, Birgitte; Andersen, Per Dannemand

    2012-01-01

    input to a common Nordic research agenda. The project was undertaken by Centre for Facilities Management – Realdania Research (CFM) at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The project was designed by use of methods from the tradition of strategic foresight. This approach was chosen to ensure...... that the strategy reflects future needs and expectations among Nordic researchers and practitioners within the FM field. The foresight process included four elements: The first element was a preliminary survey of existing studies and foresight projects on the future for FM. In particular the survey included...

  20. Adherence to the New Nordic Diet during pregnancy and subsequent maternal weight development: a study conducted in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skreden, Marianne; Hillesund, Elisabet R; Wills, Andrew K; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Bere, Elling; Øverby, Nina C

    2018-06-01

    The rising prevalence of overweight and obesity is a worldwide public health challenge. Pregnancy and beyond is a potentially important window for future weight gain in women. We investigated associations between maternal adherence to the New Nordic diet (NND) during pregnancy and maternal BMI trajectories from delivery to 8 years post delivery. Data are from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. Pregnant women from all of Norway were recruited between 1999 and 2008, and 55 056 are included in the present analysis. A previously constructed diet score, NND, was used to assess adherence to the diet. The score favours intake of Nordic fruits, root vegetables, cabbages, potatoes, oatmeal porridge, whole grains, wild fish, game, berries, milk and water. Linear spline multi-level models were used to estimate the association. We found that women with higher adherence to the NND pattern during pregnancy had on average lower post-partum BMI trajectories and slightly less weight gain up to 8 years post delivery compared with the lower NND adherers. These associations remained after adjustment for physical activity, education, maternal age, smoking and parity (mean diff at delivery (high v. low adherers): -0·3 kg/m2; 95 % CI -0·4, -0·2; mean diff at 8 years: -0·5 kg/m2; 95 % CI -0·6, -0·4), and were not explained by differences in energy intake or by exclusive breast-feeding duration. Similar patterns of associations were seen with trajectories of overweight/obesity as the outcome. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the NND may have beneficial properties to long-term weight regulation among women post-partum.

  1. Bifurcation and chaos in neural excitable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Zhujun; Yang Jianping; Feng Wei

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamical behaviors of neural excitable system without periodic external current (proposed by Chialvo [Generic excitable dynamics on a two-dimensional map. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 1995;5(3-4):461-79] and with periodic external current as system's parameters vary. The existence and stability of three fixed points, bifurcation of fixed points, the conditions of existences of fold bifurcation, flip bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation are derived by using bifurcation theory and center manifold theorem. The chaotic existence in the sense of Marotto's definition of chaos is proved. We then give the numerical simulated results (using bifurcation diagrams, computations of Maximum Lyapunov exponent and phase portraits), which not only show the consistence with the analytic results but also display new and interesting dynamical behaviors, including the complete period-doubling and inverse period-doubling bifurcation, symmetry period-doubling bifurcations of period-3 orbit, simultaneous occurrence of two different routes (invariant cycle and period-doubling bifurcations) to chaos for a given bifurcation parameter, sudden disappearance of chaos at one critical point, a great abundance of period windows (period 2 to 10, 12, 19, 20 orbits, and so on) in transient chaotic regions with interior crises, strange chaotic attractors and strange non-chaotic attractor. In particular, the parameter k plays a important role in the system, which can leave the chaotic behavior or the quasi-periodic behavior to period-1 orbit as k varies, and it can be considered as an control strategy of chaos by adjusting the parameter k. Combining the existing results in [Generic excitable dynamics on a two-dimensional map. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 1995;5(3-4):461-79] with the new results reported in this paper, a more complete description of the system is now obtained

  2. Anaesthesia nursing education in the Nordic countries: Literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yunsuk; Lahtinen, Pia; Meretoja, Riitta; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this review was to analyse post-registration anaesthesia nursing education in the Nordic countries. The analysis was based on key determinants fundamental to analysing nursing education: 1) the sys]tem of anaesthesia nursing education, 2) entry requirements, 3) credits, the duration and the title or degree awarded, and 4) the amount of practical training. A scoping review was approached in a systematic manner. The literature was analysed using deductive content analysis. Data was gathered based on key determinants. The data were quantified into frequencies and percentages to compare the similarities and differences of anaesthesia nursing. The Nordic countries have different types of post-registration anaesthesia nursing education from non-degree supplementary programmes to Master's degree programmes. Even though the entry requirements correspond between countries, many more differences than similarities in anaesthesia nursing education were noted. A title granting the right to work as a nurse anaesthetist can be obtained through a variety of educational systems, credit requirements, the duration, and the amount of practical training in post-registration anaesthesia nursing programmes. This aim of the study was to analyse post-registration anaesthesia nursing education from the Nordic perspective. Harmonising the educational system and minimum education requirements in anaesthesia nursing education is recommended in order to facilitate free movement and assure the quality of care from the Nordic perspective. Since each Nordic country has its own native language, it was difficult to gather information from all the Nordic countries. Therefore, creating common educational database published in English can help to bench mark each country's educational system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bifurcations and degenerate periodic points in a three dimensional chaotic fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L. D.; Rudman, M.; Lester, D. R.; Metcalfe, G.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the periodic points of a conservative periodic dynamical system uncovers the basic kinematic structure of the transport dynamics and identifies regions of local stability or chaos. While elliptic and hyperbolic points typically govern such behaviour in 3D systems, degenerate (parabolic) points also play an important role. These points represent a bifurcation in local stability and Lagrangian topology. In this study, we consider the ramifications of the two types of degenerate periodic points that occur in a model 3D fluid flow. (1) Period-tripling bifurcations occur when the local rotation angle associated with elliptic points is reversed, creating a reversal in the orientation of associated Lagrangian structures. Even though a single unstable point is created, the bifurcation in local stability has a large influence on local transport and the global arrangement of manifolds as the unstable degenerate point has three stable and three unstable directions, similar to hyperbolic points, and occurs at the intersection of three hyperbolic periodic lines. The presence of period-tripling bifurcation points indicates regions of both chaos and confinement, with the extent of each depending on the nature of the associated manifold intersections. (2) The second type of bifurcation occurs when periodic lines become tangent to local or global invariant surfaces. This bifurcation creates both saddle–centre bifurcations which can create both chaotic and stable regions, and period-doubling bifurcations which are a common route to chaos in 2D systems. We provide conditions for the occurrence of these tangent bifurcations in 3D conservative systems, as well as constraints on the possible types of tangent bifurcation that can occur based on topological considerations.

  4. Experimental Investigation of Bifurcations in a Thermoacoustic Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu R. Unni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, variation in the characteristics of the pressure oscillations in a thermoacoustic engine is explored as the input heat flux is varied. A bifurcation diagram is plotted to study the variation in the qualitative behavior of the acoustic oscillations as the input heat flux changes. At a critical input heat flux (60 Watt, the engine begins to produce acoustic oscillations in its fundamental longitudinal mode. As the input heat flux is increased, incommensurate frequencies appear in the power spectrum. The simultaneous presence of incommensurate frequencies results in quasiperiodic oscillations. On further increase of heat flux, the fundamental mode disappears and second mode oscillations are observed. These bifurcations in the characteristics of the pressure oscillations are the result of nonlinear interaction between multiple modes present in the thermoacoustic engine. Hysteresis in the bifurcation diagram suggests that the bifurcation is subcritical. Further, the qualitative analysis of different dynamic regimes is performed using nonlinear time series analysis. The physical reason for the observed nonlinear behavior is discussed. Suggestions to avert the variations in qualitative behavior of the pressure oscillations in thermoacoustic engines are also provided.

  5. Regularization of the Boundary-Saddle-Node Bifurcation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we treat a particular class of planar Filippov systems which consist of two smooth systems that are separated by a discontinuity boundary. In such systems one vector field undergoes a saddle-node bifurcation while the other vector field is transversal to the boundary. The boundary-saddle-node (BSN bifurcation occurs at a critical value when the saddle-node point is located on the discontinuity boundary. We derive a local topological normal form for the BSN bifurcation and study its local dynamics by applying the classical Filippov’s convex method and a novel regularization approach. In fact, by the regularization approach a given Filippov system is approximated by a piecewise-smooth continuous system. Moreover, the regularization process produces a singular perturbation problem where the original discontinuous set becomes a center manifold. Thus, the regularization enables us to make use of the established theories for continuous systems and slow-fast systems to study the local behavior around the BSN bifurcation.

  6. Shared and task-specific muscle synergies of Nordic walking and conventional walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, G; Zoppirolli, C; Bortolan, L; Schena, F; Pellegrini, B

    2018-03-01

    Nordic walking is a form of walking that includes a poling action, and therefore an additional subtask, with respect to conventional walking. The aim of this study was to assess whether Nordic walking required a task-specific muscle coordination with respect to conventional walking. We compared the electromyographic (EMG) activity of 15 upper- and lower-limb muscles of 9 Nordic walking instructors, while executing Nordic walking and conventional walking at 1.3 ms -1 on a treadmill. Non-negative matrix factorization method was applied to identify muscle synergies, representing the spatial and temporal organization of muscle coordination. The number of muscle synergies was not different between Nordic walking (5.2 ± 0.4) and conventional walking (5.0 ± 0.7, P = .423). Five muscle synergies accounted for 91.2 ± 1.1% and 92.9 ± 1.2% of total EMG variance in Nordic walking and conventional walking, respectively. Similarity and cross-reconstruction analyses showed that 4 muscle synergies, mainly involving lower-limb and trunk muscles, are shared between Nordic walking and conventional walking. One synergy acting during upper limb propulsion is specific to Nordic walking, modifying the spatial organization and the magnitude of activation of upper limb muscles compared to conventional walking. The inclusion of the poling action in Nordic walking does not increase the complexity of movement control and does not change the coordination of lower limb muscles. This makes Nordic walking a physical activity suitable also for people with low motor skill. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Nordic Walking improves daily physical activities in COPD: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breyer Marie-Kathrin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with COPD progressive dyspnoea leads to a sedentary lifestyle. To date, no studies exist investigating the effects of Nordic Walking in patients with COPD. Therefore, the aim was to determine the feasibility of Nordic Walking in COPD patients at different disease stages. Furthermore we aimed to determine the short- and long-term effects of Nordic Walking on COPD patients' daily physical activity pattern as well as on patients exercise capacity. Methods Sixty COPD patients were randomised to either Nordic Walking or to a control group. Patients of the Nordic Walking group (n = 30; age: 62 ± 9 years; FEV1: 48 ± 19% predicted underwent a three-month outdoor Nordic Walking exercise program consisting of one hour walking at 75% of their initial maximum heart rate three times per week, whereas controls had no exercise intervention. Primary endpoint: daily physical activities (measured by a validated tri-axial accelerometer; secondary endpoint: functional exercise capacity (measured by the six-minute walking distance; 6MWD. Assessment time points in both groups: baseline, after three, six and nine months. Results After three month training period, in the Nordic Walking group time spent walking and standing as well as intensity of walking increased (Δ walking time: +14.9 ± 1.9 min/day; Δ standing time: +129 ± 26 min/day; Δ movement intensity: +0.40 ± 0.14 m/s2 while time spent sitting decreased (Δ sitting time: -128 ± 15 min/day compared to baseline (all: p Conclusions Nordic Walking is a feasible, simple and effective physical training modality in COPD. In addition, Nordic Walking has proven to positively impact the daily physical activity pattern of COPD patients under short- and long-term observation. Clinical trial registration Nordic Walking improves daily physical activities in COPD: a randomised controlled trial - ISRCTN31525632

  8. The Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringsberg, Karin C

    2015-08-01

    The Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN) was established in 2007 at the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV). This article aims to describe the foundation of the NHPRN, the development and the present status of the work of NHPRN. The NHPRN consists of about 50 senior and junior researchers from all Nordic countries. It is a working network that aims to develop the theoretical understanding of health promotion, to create research cooperation in health promotion from a Nordic perspective and to extend the scope of health promotion through education. Network members meet biannually to discuss and further develop research within the field and are also responsible for the Nordic conference on Health Promotion, organized every 3 years. The NHV hosted the network between 2007 and 2014; and the World Health Organisation (WHO) will assume this role in 2015. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  9. The Nordic prescription databases as a resource for pharmacoepidemiological research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wettermark, B; Zoëga, H; Furu, K

    2013-01-01

    All five Nordic countries have nationwide prescription databases covering all dispensed drugs, with potential for linkage to outcomes. The aim of this review is to present an overview of therapeutic areas studied and methods applied in pharmacoepidemiologic studies using data from these databases....

  10. Nordic project food contact materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ågot; Tesdal Håland, Julie; Petersen, Jens Højslev

    Denmark, Finland, Faroe Islands, Iceland, Norway and Sweden have in 2013––2015 conducted a Nordic project on food contact materials. Food contact materials are used in all stages of food production and can be a general source of contamination. The food safety authorities in most of the Nordic...... countries have had a limited focus on the FCM area with the exception of Denmark and Finland. The aim of the project was therefore to control establishments producing, importing or using plastic food contact materials as well as to increase the knowledge of the inspectors performing these controls....... The focus of the inspections was to control the declaration of compliance (DoC) for plastic food contact materials. The requirement for a Doc is mandatory in order to ensure that the FCM complies with the legislation. In addition some products were analyzed for phthalates....

  11. Ten perspectives on Nordic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennbakk, Berit

    2006-10-15

    Summary: Perspective no. 1: Costly early learning from the EU ETS - Unforeseen price levels hit industries hard; Perspective no. 2: Market based support schemes - Do they work as intended? Perspective no. 3: New decade in the Nordic energy markets. Perspective no. 4: Reduced CO{sub 2} emissions and more renewables - Are we getting there or not? Perspective no. 5: Interpretation of financial requirements - An impediment to sound investments? Perspective no. 6: Who should invest in infrastructure - Public or private investors? Perspective no. 7: Re regulation is not the answer - Need for coordination calls for a visible hand? Perspective no. 8: Increased infrastructure investments - Due to EU ETS and support schemes for RES. Perspective no. 9: Energy, welfare and industry - Complex links make policy making difficult. Perspective no. 10 'Fuel' for an energy policy discussion - A Nordic energy policy agenda? (AG)

  12. German versus Nordic Board Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Board structure is an important component of the individual governance of firms, and the appropriateness of the various models is one of the most debated issues in corporate governance today. A comparison of the Nordic and German approaches to the structure of corporate boards reveals stark...... conceptual differences, as emphasized by the 2014 Lekvall Report on the Nordic Corporate Governance Model. This article provides a conceptual comparison between the two approaches to board structure and confirms the fundamental divergence between both models. However, relying on a number of recent legal...... changes and developments in business practice, the article argues that board practices in the two systems effectively blur the structural distinction, and that board organization is converging in practice. It thereby contributes to the broader debates on functionality and comparative corporate law...

  13. The Nordic Chernobyl data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walmod-Larsen, O.

    1990-01-01

    The NORDIC CHERNOBYL DATA BASE (NCDB) is established for scientific purposes. The aim is to collect valid data on radiation and radioactivity resulting from measurements made in the Nordic countries particularly after the Chernobyl accident. All information is stored in the so called C-base data system, which can handle input from a variety of sources, including multiple information on each sample. The system permits output to various other computer programs for furhter data treatment. The data base can be used from personal computers and as well as from VAX-computers. Data can be displayed in time- or geographical scales and they can be arranged so as to fit different system for statistical analysis. (author)

  14. Heteroclinic Bifurcation Behaviors of a Duffing Oscillator with Delayed Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Fang Wen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The heteroclinic bifurcation and chaos of a Duffing oscillator with forcing excitation under both delayed displacement feedback and delayed velocity feedback are studied by Melnikov method. The Melnikov function is analytically established to detect the necessary conditions for generating chaos. Through the analysis of the analytical necessary conditions, we find that the influences of the delayed displacement feedback and delayed velocity feedback are separable. Then the influences of the displacement and velocity feedback parameters on heteroclinic bifurcation and threshold value of chaotic motion are investigated individually. In order to verify the correctness of the analytical conditions, the Duffing oscillator is also investigated by numerical iterative method. The bifurcation curves and the largest Lyapunov exponents are provided and compared. From the analysis of the numerical simulation results, it could be found that two types of period-doubling bifurcations occur in the Duffing oscillator, so that there are two paths leading to the chaos in this oscillator. The typical dynamical responses, including time histories, phase portraits, and Poincare maps, are all carried out to verify the conclusions. The results reveal some new phenomena, which is useful to design or control this kind of system.

  15. Innovating and re-branding Nordic wellbeing tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne-Mette; Konu, H.; Huijbens., E.H.

    2011-01-01

    Driving forces behind the successful development of coherent wellbeing tourism in the Nordic region. An innovation perspective on developing a particular Nordic content of wellbeing offered by tourism enterprises and destinations across the five Nordic countries...

  16. Nordic society for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soegaard-Hansen, J.; Damkjaer, A.

    1999-11-01

    The key themes of teh 12th ordinary general meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection were: RADIATION - ENVIRONMENT - INFORMATION. A number of outstanding international experts accepted to contribute on the meetings first day with invited presentations, which focussed on these themes. In all 38 oral presentations and 28 posters are included in the present Proceedings, which furthermore contains a resume of discussions from the special session on 'Controllable Dose'. (EHS)

  17. Bifurcations and Patterns in Nonlinear Dissipative Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenter Ahlers

    2005-05-27

    This project consists of experimental investigations of heat transport, pattern formation, and bifurcation phenomena in non-linear non-equilibrium fluid-mechanical systems. These issues are studies in Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection, using both pure and multicomponent fluids. They are of fundamental scientific interest, but also play an important role in engineering, materials science, ecology, meteorology, geophysics, and astrophysics. For instance, various forms of convection are important in such diverse phenomena as crystal growth from a melt with or without impurities, energy production in solar ponds, flow in the earth's mantle and outer core, geo-thermal stratifications, and various oceanographic and atmospheric phenomena. Our work utilizes computer-enhanced shadowgraph imaging of flow patterns, sophisticated digital image analysis, and high-resolution heat transport measurements.

  18. Transport Bifurcation in a Rotating Tokamak Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highcock, E. G.; Barnes, M.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Parra, F. I.; Roach, C. M.; Cowley, S. C.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of flow shear on turbulent transport in tokamaks is studied numerically in the experimentally relevant limit of zero magnetic shear. It is found that the plasma is linearly stable for all nonzero flow shear values, but that subcritical turbulence can be sustained nonlinearly at a wide range of temperature gradients. Flow shear increases the nonlinear temperature gradient threshold for turbulence but also increases the sensitivity of the heat flux to changes in the temperature gradient, except over a small range near the threshold where the sensitivity is decreased. A bifurcation in the equilibrium gradients is found: for a given input of heat, it is possible, by varying the applied torque, to trigger a transition to significantly higher temperature and flow gradients.

  19. Nonlinear stability control and λ-bifurcation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erneux, T.; Reiss, E.L.; Magnan, J.F.; Jayakumar, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    Passive techniques for nonlinear stability control are presented for a model of fluidelastic instability. They employ the phenomena of λ-bifurcation and a generalization of it. λ-bifurcation occurs when a branch of flutter solutions bifurcates supercritically from a basic solution and terminates with an infinite period orbit at a branch of divergence solutions which bifurcates subcritically from the basic solution. The shape of the bifurcation diagram then resembles the greek letter λ. When the system parameters are in the range where flutter occurs by λ-bifurcation, then as the flow velocity increase the flutter amplitude also increases, but the frequencies of the oscillations decrease to zero. This diminishes the damaging effects of structural fatigue by flutter, and permits the flow speed to exceed the critical flutter speed. If generalized λ-bifurcation occurs, then there is a jump transition from the flutter states to a divergence state with a substantially smaller amplitude, when the flow speed is sufficiently larger than the critical flutter speed

  20. Recent perspective on coronary artery bifurcation interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Debabrata

    2014-01-01

    Coronary bifurcation lesions are frequent in routine practice, accounting for 15-20% of all lesions undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). PCI of this subset of lesions is technically challenging and historically has been associated with lower procedural success rates and worse clinical outcomes compared with non-bifurcation lesions. The introduction of drug-eluting stents has dramatically improved the outcomes. The provisional technique of implanting one stent in the main branch remains the default approach in most bifurcation lesions. Selection of the most effective technique for an individual bifurcation is important. The use of two-stent techniques as an intention to treat is an acceptable approach in some bifurcation lesions. However, a large amount of metal is generally left unapposed in the lumen with complex two-stent techniques, which is particularly concerning for the risk of stent thrombosis. New technology and dedicated bifurcation stents may overcome some of the limitations of two-stent techniques and revolutionise the management of bifurcation PCI in the future.

  1. Model of Nordic energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjelsvik, E.; Johnsen, T.; Mysen, H.T.

    1992-01-01

    Simulation results are given of the consumption of electricity and oil in Denmark, Norway and Sweden based on the demand section of a Nordic energy market model which is in the process of being developed in Oslo under the auspices of the Nordic Council of Ministers. The model incorporates supply, and trade between countries so that it can be analyzed how trading can contribute to goals within energy and environmental policies and to cost effective activities aimed at reducing pollution. The article deals in some detail with the subject of how taxation on carbon dioxide emission can influence pollution abatement and with energy consumption development within individual sectors in individual Northern countries. The model of energy demand is described with emphasis on the individual sectors of industry, transport, service and private households. Simulation results giving the effects of energy consumption and increased taxation on fossil fuels are given. On this background the consequences of the adaption of power plants is discussed and a sketch is given of a Nordic electric power market incorporating trading. (AB) (15 refs.)

  2. The Bifurcation and Control of a Single-Species Fish Population Logistic Model with the Invasion of Alien Species

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Qiaoling; Li, Jinghao; Zhang, Qingling

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study systematically the bifurcation and control of a single-species fish population logistic model with the invasion of alien species based on the theory of singular system and bifurcation. It regards Spartina anglica as an invasive species, which invades the fisheries and aquaculture. Firstly, the stabilities of equilibria in this model are discussed. Moreover, the sufficient conditions for existence of the trans-critical bifurcation and the singularity ind...

  3. The Bifurcation and Control of a Single-Species Fish Population Logistic Model with the Invasion of Alien Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to study systematically the bifurcation and control of a single-species fish population logistic model with the invasion of alien species based on the theory of singular system and bifurcation. It regards Spartina anglica as an invasive species, which invades the fisheries and aquaculture. Firstly, the stabilities of equilibria in this model are discussed. Moreover, the sufficient conditions for existence of the trans-critical bifurcation and the singularity induced bifurcation are obtained. Secondly, the state feedback controller is designed to eliminate the unexpected singularity induced bifurcation by combining harvested effort with the purification capacity. It obviously inhibits the switch of population and makes the system stable. Finally, the numerical simulation is proposed to show the practical significance of the bifurcation and control from the biological point of view.

  4. Associations between parents? subjective time pressure and mental health problems among children in the Nordic countries: a population based study

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnarsdottir, Hrafnhildur; Bjereld, Ylva; Hensing, Gunnel; Petzold, Max; Povlsen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Background The home, the family and the parents represent a context of everyday life that is important for child health and development, with parent-child relationships highlighted as crucial for children?s mental health. Time pressure is an emerging feature of modern societies and previous studies indicates that parents with children living at home experience time pressure to a greater extent than people with no children living at home. Previous studies of children?s mental health in relatio...

  5. Nordic Analysis of Climate Friendly Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Inger; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wahlstrøm, Åsa

    This report summarizes the findings of the work conducted within the project “Nordic Analysis of Climate Friendly Buildings”, financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers. The main goal of the project was to establish a knowledge and decision base for a Nordic innovation program that will promote...... the development and demonstration of low energy and climate friendly buildings. The innovation program should support a development that brings the Nordic countries to an international forefront with respect to business strongholds and market penetration of low energy and climate friendly buildings....

  6. Nordic Corporate Governance and Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    to the international audience. This paper therefore reviews the Nordic corporate governance model with special emphasis on a unique ownership structure, industrial foundations (foundations that own business companies). Rather than a meticulous description of details it emphasizes the Nordic model as a mode......The Nordic countries have attracted considerable attention in recent years as a benchmark for good governance. However, while the political governance characteristics of the Nordic model – particularly the welfare state - are well understood, its corporate governance characteristics remain elusive...

  7. Quantum entanglement and fixed-point bifurcations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, Andrew P.; McKenzie, Ross H.; Milburn, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    How does the classical phase-space structure for a composite system relate to the entanglement characteristics of the corresponding quantum system? We demonstrate how the entanglement in nonlinear bipartite systems can be associated with a fixed-point bifurcation in the classical dynamics. Using the example of coupled giant spins we show that when a fixed point undergoes a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation, the corresponding quantum state--the ground state--achieves its maximum amount of entanglement near the critical point. We conjecture that this will be a generic feature of systems whose classical limit exhibits such a bifurcation

  8. Bifurcations of non-smooth systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Fabiola; Olivar, Gerard; Osorio, Gustavo A.; Escobar, Carlos M.; Ferreira, Jocirei D.; Redondo, Johan M.

    2012-12-01

    Non-smooth systems (namely piecewise-smooth systems) have received much attention in the last decade. Many contributions in this area show that theory and applications (to electronic circuits, mechanical systems, …) are relevant to problems in science and engineering. Specially, new bifurcations have been reported in the literature, and this was the topic of this minisymposium. Thus both bifurcation theory and its applications were included. Several contributions from different fields show that non-smooth bifurcations are a hot topic in research. Thus in this paper the reader can find contributions from electronics, energy markets and population dynamics. Also, a carefully-written specific algebraic software tool is presented.

  9. Interactions of infectious symptoms and modifiable risk factors in sudden infant death syndrome. The Nordic Epidemiological SIDS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, K; Banner, Jytte; Oyen, N

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of infection on sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and to analyse whether modifiable risk factors of SIDS, prone sleeping, covered head and smoking act as effect modifiers. In a consecutive multicentre case-control study of SIDS in Denmark, Norway...... regression. Significantly more cases than controls presenting symptoms of infectious diseases during the last week and/or last day were treated with antibiotics and had been seen by a physician. The finding is consistent with the hypothesis of an infectious mechanism in SIDS induced by local microorganism......, prone sleeping, head covered or parental smoking, was far greater than the sum of each individual factor. These risk factors thus modify the dangerousness of infection in infancy....

  10. Qualitative approaches to large scale studies and students' achievements in Science and Mathematics - An Australian and Nordic Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsson, Eva; Sørensen, Helene

    Large scale studies play an increasing role in educational politics and results from surveys such as TIMSS and PISA are extensively used in medial debates about students' knowledge in science and mathematics. Although this debate does not usually shed light on the more extensive quantitative...... analyses, there is a lack of investigations which aim at exploring what is possible to conclude or not to conclude from these analyses. There is also a need for more detailed discussions about what trends could be discern concerning students' knowledge in science and mathematics. The aim of this symposium...... is therefore to highlight and discuss different approaches to how data from large scale studies could be used for additional analyses in order to increase our understanding of students' knowledge in science and mathematics, but also to explore possible longitudinal trends, hidden in the data material...

  11. Consequences of severe radioactive releases to Nordic Marine environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iosjpe, M.; Isaksson, M.; Joensen, H.P.

    - or minor – radioactive releases to Nordic marine environment. As a reference, the release amounts from a 3000 MWth reactor size were used. Based on source term analyses, the chosen release fractions in the study were: iodine 20% (of the total core inventory), caesium 10%, tellurium 10%, strontium 0...

  12. Strategies for Internationalisation at Technical Universities in the Nordic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Katrine Hahn; Karlsen, Jan Erik

    2018-01-01

    This article investigates strategies for internationalisation at technical universities in the Nordic countries. The study explores the institutional rationales for internationalisation, the stories told in the strategy documents, the importance of leaders, faculty, administration and students for implementation of the strategy, and barriers and…

  13. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Heiervang, Einar; Rodriguez, Alina

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) has been translated into the different Nordic languages between 1996 and 2003. During the past few years, SDQs have been completed for nearly 100,000 children and adolescents in population-based studies as well as in clinical samples...

  14. Introduction: Postimperial sovereignty games in the Nordic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca; Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2014-01-01

    Benevolence, homogeneity and peace has never been the full story of the Nordic region. Building on a critical review of myths of ‘Norden’ in international relations theory and beyond (international political economy, security studies, regional and European integration theory and postcolonialism...

  15. Nordic City Regions in the Creative Class Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristina Vaarst; Hansen, Høgni Kalsø; Isakson, Arne

    2010-01-01

    . This paper employs comparative statistics to examine the importance of the quality of place in attracting members of the creative class to Nordic city regions, and it analyses the role of the creative class for regional economic development. Florida’s original study focused only on city regions with more...

  16. Inbreeding in the Danish populations of five Nordic sheep breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders Christian; Norberg, Elise

    2008-01-01

    In Denmark there are small populations of five Nordic sheep breeds, two of which are Danish in origin. The purpose of this study was to estimate trends in inbreeding for these breeds. All five breeds have been recording pedigrees for decades, so pedigree completeness is adequate. The rate of inbr...

  17. Numerical bifurcation analysis of conformal formulations of the Einstein constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst, M.; Kungurtsev, V.

    2011-01-01

    The Einstein constraint equations have been the subject of study for more than 50 years. The introduction of the conformal method in the 1970s as a parametrization of initial data for the Einstein equations led to increased interest in the development of a complete solution theory for the constraints, with the theory for constant mean curvature (CMC) spatial slices and closed manifolds completely developed by 1995. The first general non-CMC existence result was establish by Holst et al. in 2008, with extensions to rough data by Holst et al. in 2009, and to vacuum spacetimes by Maxwell in 2009. The non-CMC theory remains mostly open; moreover, recent work of Maxwell on specific symmetry models sheds light on fundamental nonuniqueness problems with the conformal method as a parametrization in non-CMC settings. In parallel with these mathematical developments, computational physicists have uncovered surprising behavior in numerical solutions to the extended conformal thin sandwich formulation of the Einstein constraints. In particular, numerical evidence suggests the existence of multiple solutions with a quadratic fold, and a recent analysis of a simplified model supports this conclusion. In this article, we examine this apparent bifurcation phenomena in a methodical way, using modern techniques in bifurcation theory and in numerical homotopy methods. We first review the evidence for the presence of bifurcation in the Hamiltonian constraint in the time-symmetric case. We give a brief introduction to the mathematical framework for analyzing bifurcation phenomena, and then develop the main ideas behind the construction of numerical homotopy, or path-following, methods in the analysis of bifurcation phenomena. We then apply the continuation software package AUTO to this problem, and verify the presence of the fold with homotopy-based numerical methods. We discuss these results and their physical significance, which lead to some interesting remaining questions to

  18. The Nordic Countries interests in principles for international greenhouse gas agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsnaes, K.; Meyer, H.; Stephensen, P.; Soerensen, L.

    1995-01-01

    The focus of this report is the interests of the Nordic countries in international agreements on greenhouse gases. The subject is approached mainly from an economic point of view. Introductory, the climate convention are described, with special attention to obligations to emission reductions. Important discussion points are timing of the reductions as well as the question of meeting the reductions by cooperation with other countries through joint-implementation projects. The different attitudes of the Nordic countries to these issues are discussed. In the following, the technical and economic possibilities for meeting the reduction objectives of each country are described. For this purpose, governmental plans and studies (on bottom-up as well as top-down studies) are brought into focus. A discussion of the differences and similarities of the methodology of the studies are carried out. Finally, the report focuses on costs of reducing emissions in the Nordic countries. A comparison between the different Nordic countries, as well as between the Nordic countries and the other OECD countries is done. The analysis points out, that the Nordic countries are characterized by relatively high costs in general. Another conclusion is, that the costs of reduction after the year 2000/2005 are much lower than costs of reductions in the short run. An exception to this is Denmark. This points out, that some Nordic countries prefer emission reductions through joint-implementation projects in other countries, rather than reductions through restrictive agreements in the sort run. (au) (29 tabs., 28 ills., 45 refs.)

  19. Bifurcation Analysis for an SEIRS-V Model with Delays on the Transmission of Worms in a Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizhen Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hopf bifurcation for an SEIRS-V model with delays on the transmission of worms in a wireless sensor network is investigated. We focus on existence of the Hopf bifurcation by regarding the diverse delay as a bifurcation parameter. The results show that propagation of worms in the wireless sensor network can be controlled when the delay is suitably small under some certain conditions. Then, we study properties of the Hopf bifurcation by using the normal form theory and center manifold theorem. Finally, we give a numerical example to support the theoretical results.

  20. Pregnancy Complications and Subsequent Breast Cancer Risk in the Mother: A Nordic population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Rebecca; Gulbech Ording, Anne; Grotmol, Tom; Glimelius, Ingrid; Engeland, Anders; Gissler, Mika; Trabert, Britton; Ekbom, Anders; Madanat-Harjuoja, Laura; Toft Sørensen, Henrik; Tretli, Steinar; Bjørge, Tone

    2018-05-11

    Certain features of pregnancy are important risk factors for breast cancer, such as protection afforded by young age at first birth. Preeclampsia, a pregnancy complication, is associated with reduced maternal breast cancer risk. However, questions remain regarding causality, biological mechanisms and the relation of other hypertensive conditions to risk. We conducted a population-based case-control study of breast cancer cases (n=116,196) in parous women identified through linkage of birth and cancer registries in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden (1967-2013), including up to 10 matched controls per case (n=1,147,192) sampled from the birth registries (complete data were not available on all variables). Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived from unconditional logistic regression models including matching factors (country, maternal birth year) and parity. Hypertension diagnosed before pregnancy (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.78-0.97), gestational hypertension (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.86-0.93) and preeclampsia (OR 0.91; 95% CI 0.88-0.95) were associated with reduced breast cancer risk. Results remained similar after adjustment for smoking and maternal body mass index before first pregnancy, and were generally similar stratified by parity, age at breast cancer diagnosis, time since first and last birth, sex of the offspring and calendar time. Except for retained placenta (OR 1.14; 95% CI 0.98-1.32), no other pregnancy complication appeared associated with breast cancer risk. The mechanisms mediating the modest risk reductions for history of preeclampsia or hypertension preceding or arising during pregnancy, and possible increased risk with history of retained placenta are unknown and warrant further laboratory, clinical and epidemiological investigation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 UICC.

  1. Gastro-enteritis outbreak among Nordic patients with psoriasis in a health centre in Gran Canaria, Spain: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Angela MC

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Between November 2 and 10, 2002 several patients with psoriasis and personnel staying in the health centre in Gran Canaria, Spain fell ill with diarrhoea, vomiting or both. Patient original came from Norway, Sweden and Finland. The patient group was scheduled to stay until 8 November. A new group of patients were due to arrive from 7 November. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted to assess the extent of the outbreak, to identify the source and mode of transmission and to prevent similar problems in the following group. Results Altogether 41% (48/116 of persons staying at the centre fell ill. Norovirus infection was suspected based on clinical presentations and the fact that no bacteria were identified. Kaplan criteria were met. Five persons in this outbreak were hospitalised and the mean duration of diarrhoea was 3 days. The consequences of the illness were more severe compared to many other norovirus outbreaks, possibly because many of the cases suffered from chronic diseases and were treated with drugs reported to affect the immunity (methotrexate or steroids. During the two first days of the outbreak, the attack rate was higher in residents who had consumed dried fruit (adjusted RR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.4–7.1 and strawberry jam (adjusted RR = 1.9; 95% CI: 0.9–4.1 than those who did not. In the following days, no association was found. The investigation suggests two modes of transmission: a common source for those who fell ill during the two first days of the outbreak and thereafter mainly person to person transmission. This is supported by a lower risk associated with the two food items at the end of the outbreak. Conclusions We believe that the food items were contaminated by foodhandlers who reported sick before the outbreak started. Control measures were successfully implemented; food buffets were banned, strict hygiene measures were implemented and sick personnel stayed at home >48 hours after last

  2. Hopf-pitchfork bifurcation and periodic phenomena in nonlinear financial system with delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yuting; Jiang Weihua; Wang Hongbin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We derive the unfolding of a financial system with Hopf-pitchfork bifurcation. ► We show the coexistence of a pair of stable small amplitudes periodic solutions. ► At the same time, also there is a pair of stable large amplitudes periodic solutions. ► Chaos can appear by period-doubling bifurcation far away from Hopf-pitchfork value. ► The study will be useful for interpreting economics phenomena in theory. - Abstract: In this paper, we identify the critical point for a Hopf-pitchfork bifurcation in a nonlinear financial system with delay, and derive the normal form up to third order with their unfolding in original system parameters near the bifurcation point by normal form method and center manifold theory. Furthermore, we analyze its local dynamical behaviors, and show the coexistence of a pair of stable periodic solutions. We also show that there coexist a pair of stable small-amplitude periodic solutions and a pair of stable large-amplitude periodic solutions for different initial values. Finally, we give the bifurcation diagram with numerical illustration, showing that the pair of stable small-amplitude periodic solutions can also exist in a large region of unfolding parameters, and the financial system with delay can exhibit chaos via period-doubling bifurcations as the unfolding parameter values are far away from the critical point of the Hopf-pitchfork bifurcation.

  3. Bifurcation Control of Chaotic Dynamical Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Hua O; Abed, Eyad H

    1992-01-01

    A nonlinear system which exhibits bifurcations, transient chaos, and fully developed chaos is considered, with the goal of illustrating the role of two ideas in the control of chaotic dynamical systems...

  4. Bifurcation and instability problems in vortex wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aref, Hassan; Brøns, Morten; Stremler, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    A number of instability and bifurcation problems related to the dynamics of vortex wake flows are addressed using various analytical tools and approaches. We discuss the bifurcations of the streamline pattern behind a bluff body as a vortex wake is produced, a theory of the universal Strouhal......-Reynolds number relation for vortex wakes, the bifurcation diagram for "exotic" wake patterns behind an oscillating cylinder first determined experimentally by Williamson & Roshko, and the bifurcations in topology of the streamlines pattern in point vortex streets. The Hamiltonian dynamics of point vortices...... in a periodic strip is considered. The classical results of von Kármán concerning the structure of the vortex street follow from the two-vortices-in-a-strip problem, while the stability results follow largely from a four-vortices-in-a-strip analysis. The three-vortices-in-a-strip problem is argued...

  5. Bifurcation structure of successive torus doubling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekikawa, Munehisa; Inaba, Naohiko; Yoshinaga, Tetsuya; Tsubouchi, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    The authors discuss the 'embryology' of successive torus doubling via the bifurcation theory, and assert that the coupled map of a logistic map and a circle map has a structure capable of generating infinite number of torus doublings

  6. Stability and Hopf bifurcation analysis of a prey-predator system with two delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Kai; Wei Junjie

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we have considered a prey-predator model with Beddington-DeAngelis functional response and selective harvesting of predator species. Two delays appear in this model to describe the time that juveniles take to mature. Its dynamics are studied in terms of local analysis and Hopf bifurcation analysis. By analyzing the associated characteristic equation, its linear stability is investigated and Hopf bifurcations are demonstrated. The stability and direction of the Hopf bifurcation are determined by applying the normal form method and the center manifold theory. Numerical simulation results are given to support the theoretical predictions.

  7. Stability and bifurcation analysis for a discrete-time bidirectional ring neural network model with delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ke Du

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We study a class of discrete-time bidirectional ring neural network model with delay. We discuss the asymptotic stability of the origin and the existence of Neimark-Sacker bifurcations, by analyzing the corresponding characteristic equation. Employing M-matrix theory and the Lyapunov functional method, global asymptotic stability of the origin is derived. Applying the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem, the direction of the Neimark-Sacker bifurcation and the stability of bifurcating periodic solutions are obtained. Numerical simulations are given to illustrate the main results.

  8. Bifurcation analysis of the logistic map via two periodic impulsive forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Hai-Bo; Li Tao; Zeng Xiao-Liang; Zhang Li-Ping

    2014-01-01

    The complex dynamics of the logistic map via two periodic impulsive forces is investigated in this paper. The influences of the system parameter and the impulsive forces on the dynamics of the system are studied respectively. With the parameter varying, the system produces the phenomenon such as periodic solutions, chaotic solutions, and chaotic crisis. Furthermore, the system can evolve to chaos by a cascading of period-doubling bifurcations. The Poincaré map of the logistic map via two periodic impulsive forces is constructed and its bifurcation is analyzed. Finally, the Floquet theory is extended to explore the bifurcation mechanism for the periodic solutions of this non-smooth map. (general)

  9. Nordic study on reactor waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1983-01-01

    The conclusions relevant to transportation were the following: the risk from a bitumen fire is not considered critical. It must be ensured, however, that the amount of radioactive materials contained in the release from one event can not be significantly larger than assumed. The doses may then reach a level where acute health effects may be encountered, and the basis for risk judgement is drastically changed if this is the case. A hundred times higher nuclide content would probably be considered unacceptable. However, the possible unrealistically high estimated fraction of nuclide content released during fire should be kept in mind. From a risk point of view sea transportation seems to be preferable. The analysis for sea transportation, however, was performed for one accident location only. Other possible accident locations might lead to significantly higher individual committed doses. Change of accident location in the land transportation case will not lead to significantly different doses. The doses resulting from a transportation accident will not increase much, even if the 5 years extra radioactive decay during temporary storage of the waste is not taken into account. Any requirements to mechanical strength of the waste products from a transportation point of view are not motivated. 13 references, 6 figures, 1 table

  10. Marginal public health gain of screening for colorectal cancer: modelling study, based on WHO and national databases in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, J.A.; Getz, L.; Sjonell, G.

    2013-01-01

    .78 to 0.92]. Our calculations are based on the World Health Organization and national databanks on death causes (ICD-10) and the mid-year number of inhabitants in the target group. For Finland, Denmark, Norway and Sweden, we used data for 2009. For Iceland, due to the population's small size, we......, cardiovascular diseases and accidents, with some national variations. Conclusions and implications Establishment of a screening programme for CRC for people aged 55-74 can be expected to affect only a minor proportion of all premature deaths in the Nordic setting. From a public health perspective, prioritizing...

  11. Effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and inflammation markers in metabolic syndrome - a randomized study (SYSDIET)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uusitupa, M; Hermansen, Kjeld; Savolainen, M J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Different healthy food patterns may modify cardiometabolic risk. We investigated the effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, blood pressure and inflammatory markers in people with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: We conducted a randomized dietary...... by repeated 4-day food diaries and fatty acid composition of serum phospholipids. RESULTS: Body weight remained stable, and no significant changes were observed in insulin sensitivity or blood pressure. Significant changes between the groups were found in non-HDL cholesterol (-0.18, mmol L-1 95% CI -0.35; -0...

  12. Outcomes, challenges and prospects for the Nordic network regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrell, Per J.; Koivuranta, Kari; Lorenz, Mathias

    2005-01-01

    The deregulation of the electricity sector in the NordPool area has largely been a success story in terms of market organization and responsiveness. The joint market and the tight cooperation among the TSOs serve as an international benchmark in terms of transparency and market efficiency. However, the regulation models for the residual distribution network monopolies are surprisingly heterogeneous in terms of character, instruments and application. For primarily historical and institutional reasons, the Nordic countries have chosen different methods to regulate the sector, with interesting differences also in industrial structure. Whereas Finland and Sweden long maintained a 'light-handed' ex post approach based on enforced self-regulation, Norway adopted an ex ante increasingly high-powered revenue cap regime based on frontier analysis methods (DEA). Denmark, where the sector is dominated by cooperatively owned distributors, opted for high-powered model based on simple regression tools (COLS). In this paper, we present findings from a joint Nordic study on the challenges to the heterogeneous regulation models in the presence of increasing consolidation and supra-national regulatory convergence from the IEM directives. Based on an analysis based on surveys among stakeholders in the four countries, we investigate the feasibility and potential properties of a common Nordic regulation model. The paper is illustrated with a new Nordic operating efficiency analysis for the area, based on frontier analysis, showing the relative and absolute cost differences in the current decentralized regime. (Author)

  13. Discretization analysis of bifurcation based nonlinear amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldkord, Sven; Reit, Marco; Mathis, Wolfgang

    2017-09-01

    Recently, for modeling biological amplification processes, nonlinear amplifiers based on the supercritical Andronov-Hopf bifurcation have been widely analyzed analytically. For technical realizations, digital systems have become the most relevant systems in signal processing applications. The underlying continuous-time systems are transferred to the discrete-time domain using numerical integration methods. Within this contribution, effects on the qualitative behavior of the Andronov-Hopf bifurcation based systems concerning numerical integration methods are analyzed. It is shown exemplarily that explicit Runge-Kutta methods transform the truncated normalform equation of the Andronov-Hopf bifurcation into the normalform equation of the Neimark-Sacker bifurcation. Dependent on the order of the integration method, higher order terms are added during this transformation.A rescaled normalform equation of the Neimark-Sacker bifurcation is introduced that allows a parametric design of a discrete-time system which corresponds to the rescaled Andronov-Hopf system. This system approximates the characteristics of the rescaled Hopf-type amplifier for a large range of parameters. The natural frequency and the peak amplitude are preserved for every set of parameters. The Neimark-Sacker bifurcation based systems avoid large computational effort that would be caused by applying higher order integration methods to the continuous-time normalform equations.

  14. Analysis of the flow at a T-bifurcation for a ternary unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campero, P; Beck, J; Jung, A

    2014-01-01

    The motivation of this research is to understand the flow behavior through a 90° T- type bifurcation, which connects a Francis turbine and the storage pump of a ternary unit, under different operating conditions (namely turbine, pump and hydraulic short-circuit operation). As a first step a CFD optimization process to define the hydraulic geometry of the bifurcation was performed. The CFD results show the complexity of the flow through the bifurcation, especially under hydraulic short-circuit operation. Therefore, it was decided to perform experimental investigations in addition to the CFD analysis, in order to get a better understanding of the flow. The aim of these studies was to investigate the flow development upstream and downstream the bifurcation, the estimation of the bifurcation loss coefficients and also to provide comprehensive data of the flow behavior for the whole operating range of the machine. In order to evaluate the development of the velocity field Stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (S-PIV) measurements at different sections upstream and downstream of the bifurcation on the main penstock and Laser Doppler Anemometrie (LDA) measurements at bifurcation inlet were performed. This paper presents the CFD results obtained for the final design for different operating conditions, the model test procedures and the model test results with special attention to: 1) The bifurcation head loss coefficients, and their extrapolation to prototype conditions, 2) S-PIV and LDA measurements. Additionally, criteria to define the minimal uniformity conditions for the velocity profiles entering the turbine are evaluated. Finally, based on the gathered flow information a better understanding to define the preferred location of a bifurcation is gained and can be applied to future projects

  15. Radiation protection legislation in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1992-01-01

    A close collaboration exists in the Nordic countries in the field of radiation protection. The radiation protection authorities attach major importance to a uniform interpretation of the international recommendations. The legal situation of the Nordic countries in the radiation protection field will be reviewed with the main emphasis on the new Swedish and Finnish laws. (author)

  16. An Overview of Nordic Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Bryde; Runesson, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This essay is published as the opening chapter in a book that celebrates the 100 year anniversary of the uniform Nordic Contracts Acts. It introduces some of the main concepts, main rules and lines of argumentation that you will find in Nordic contract law. Thereby it introduces the reader...

  17. Experiences from Nordic research collaboration in linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge Sandøy

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The project “Modern loanwords in the languages of the Nordic countries (MIN – Moderne importord i språka i Norden” was the first large-scale collaborative project between linguists in the Nordic countries. This article presents both the aim of the project and some experiences from the work with respect to project design, financing and networking.

  18. Technology foresight in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eerola, A.; Jørgensen, Birte Holst

    2002-01-01

    and the society at large at the sametime. The report recommends: 1. The establishment of a Nordic forum for technology foresight practitioners and researchers. 2. The creation of a common follow-up system for relevant international technology foresight exercises. 3. The realisation oftechnology foresight......Technology foresight (TF) is increasingly used by governments, funding agencies, R&D institutions and private companies as a tool for strategy development, prioritisation of R&D funds, and learning. Although the Nordic Council of Ministers aims at"developing Nordic region in next 10 years...... and social differences among the Nordic countries. Nordic foresight cooperation may alsoremain as a distant academic exercise if proper links to political and economic decisions cannot be made and maintained. A technology foresight exercise might serve different institutions of the innovation system...

  19. Nordic Mediation Reseach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A presentation of 12 studies on mediation from researchers from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.......A presentation of 12 studies on mediation from researchers from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden....

  20. Nordic eHealth Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyppönen, Hannele; Faxvaag, Arild; Gilstad, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    eHealth indicator and benchmarking activities are rapidly increasing nationally and internationally. The work is rarely based on a transparent methodology for indicator definition. This article describes first results of testing an indicator methodology for defining eHealth indicators, which...... was reported at the Medical Informatics Europe conference in 2012. The core elements of the methodology are illustrated, demonstrating validation of each of them in the context of Nordic eHealth Indicator work. Validation proved the importance of conducting each of the steps of the methodology, with several...

  1. Competitive policies in the Nordic energy research and innovation area - eNERGIA : Synthesis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klitkou, Antje; Pedersen, Trond Einar; Scordato, Lisa; Mariussen, Aage

    2008-07-01

    This report outlines the energy research and innovation policy in the Nordic and Baltic countries - Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The report is the result of the research project Competitive policies in the Nordic Energy Research and Innovation Area (eNERGIA). The project was co-funded by Nordic Energy Research and NIFU STEP. The objective of the project was to determine possible policy interventions targeted at the development and commercial promotion of promising renewable energy production technologies in the Nordic countries. The report is based on an analysis of the framework conditions for the sector innovation systems for energy production, with a focus on research and innovation policy in the Nordic and Baltic countries. We identified the key actors and institutions in all the eight countries studied. In addition, we conducted a performance assessment based on the quantitative indicators of publishing and patenting, international collaboration and funding data. Using these indicators as a basis, we conducted an analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT analysis) of the Nordic sector innovation systems for energy production. This analysis identified common or diverging characteristics, challenges, framework conditions, energy-technology specialisation and, most important of all, cases of good practice in key technologies. The project included two workshops, and the results of these are also reported here. The outcomes of the workshops have been used in several parts of the project: A Nordic workshop on the environmental consequences of deployment at scale of these technologies to replace existing energy systems, with a focus on wind energy and photovoltaic energy, carbon dioxide capture and storage, and second-generation bioenergy. A Nordic workshop on policy implications for Nordic Energy Research. The report comprises three parts: Part 1: Country reports Part 2: Technology reports

  2. Cogeneration and taxation in a liberalised Nordic power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jess Olsen, O.; Munksgaard, J.

    1997-01-01

    This report is about the impact of the liberalisation of the Nordic power market on cogeneration of heat and power. Special attention is given to the effects on competition of the entirely different tax regimes in the Nordic countries. Some of the main questions answered in this study are: Which cogeneration technologies are able to compete on a liberalised power market? What are the consequences of different tax structures in the four countries for cross-border competition? Which principles should be applied if a common Nordic tax structure is to be developed? The following countries are included in the study: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Today, cogeneration provides a larger contribution to the energy supply in the Nordic countries than elsewhere in the world. Our analysis demonstrates that most cogeneration technologies can compete with the power-only technologies. This is the case with respect to both long- and short-term marginal costs. The main exception is the very expensive straw-fired cogeneration technology. The analysis is extended to include the effects of the existing tax regimes (in 1996) in Denmark, Finland and Sweden as well as of the combines energy/CO 2 -tax that was proposed in 1992 by the European Commission. Each of the four tax regimes preserve the competitiveness of cogeneration within its own regime, i.e. if a given cogeneration technology is competitive without taxes it will remain so in a closed market when either Danish, Finnish, Swedish or European taxes are added. The implication of this is that the same cogeneration technology will be exposed to very different conditions in an open power market with cross-border competition, if the present tax regimes in the Nordic countries are allowed to continue. (EG) Also published in Danish. 15 refs

  3. Cogeneration and taxation in a liberalised Nordic power market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jess Olsen, O.; Munksgaard, J.

    1997-12-31

    This report is about the impact of the liberalisation of the Nordic power market on cogeneration of heat and power. Special attention is given to the effects on competition of the entirely different tax regimes in the Nordic countries. Some of the main questions answered in this study are: Which cogeneration technologies are able to compete on a liberalised power market? What are the consequences of different tax structures in the four countries for cross-border competition? Which principles should be applied if a common Nordic tax structure is to be developed? The following countries are included in the study: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Today, cogeneration provides a larger contribution to the energy supply in the Nordic countries than elsewhere in the world. Our analysis demonstrates that most cogeneration technologies can compete with the power-only technologies. This is the case with respect to both long- and short-term marginal costs. The main exception is the very expensive straw-fired cogeneration technology. The analysis is extended to include the effects of the existing tax regimes (in 1996) in Denmark, Finland and Sweden as well as of the combines energy/CO{sub 2}-tax that was proposed in 1992 by the European Commission. Each of the four tax regimes preserve the competitiveness of cogeneration within its own regime, i.e. if a given cogeneration technology is competitive without taxes it will remain so in a closed market when either Danish, Finnish, Swedish or European taxes are added. The implication of this is that the same cogeneration technology will be exposed to very different conditions in an open power market with cross-border competition, if the present tax regimes in the Nordic countries are allowed to continue. (EG) Also published in Danish. 15 refs.

  4. Wind and load variability in the Nordic countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holttinen, H.; Rissanen, S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Larsen, X. [Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, Lyngby (Denmark); Loevholm, A. L. [Kjeller Vindteknikk (Norway)

    2013-04-15

    This publication analysed the variability of wind production and load in Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and the Nordic region as a whole, based on real data measured from large-scale wind power during 2009-2011. The Nordic-wide wind power time series was scaled up such that Sweden had same amount of wind power production than Denmark, and Finland and Norway only 50% of the wind power production in Denmark. Wind power production in Denmark and Sweden is somewhat correlated (coefficient 0.7) but less correlation is found between the other countries. The variations from one hour to the next are only weakly correlated between all countries, even between Denmark and Sweden. Largest variations occur when the production is approximately 30-70% of installed capacity and variability is low during periods of light winds. The variability in shorter time scales was less than the hourly variations. During the three years analysed in this publication there were few storm incidents and they did not produce dramatic wind power ramps in the Nordic region. Wind and load variations are not correlated between the countries, which is beneficial from the viewpoint of wind integration. The smoothing effect is shown as reduction of variability from a single country to Nordic-wide wind power. The impact of wind power on the variability that the system experiences is evaluated by analysing the variability of net load with different wind power penetration levels. The Nordic-wide wind power production increases the highest hourly ramps by 2.4% (up) and -3.6% (down) of installed wind power capacity when there is 20% wind power penetration and by 2.7% (up) and -4.7% (down) for 30% wind penetration. These results assess the impacts of variability only. The next step will be assessing the uncertainty from forecast errors. The timing of ramp events, and occurrence of high-wind and low-load are studied. With current wind penetration, low production levels (2-5% of installed wind power) can occur in a

  5. Nuclear threats in the vicinity of the Nordic countries. Supplementary final report of the Nordic Nuclear Safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikelmann, I.M.H.

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to continue the cross-disciplinary study SBA-1 'base of knowledge' in the NKS research program 1998-2001 regarding possible nuclear threats in the vicinity of the Nordic countries. The main task for the project was to expand and envelope this database. Finding information to be placed in the database and identifying and filling gaps in knowledge were prioritised. This is a continuous process which extends beyond the end of this project, in order to have an operating and updated database also in the years to come. In this project work has been done making information systems in Norway that can take care of the database in the future. The scope of the preceding project was to prepare a base of knowledge regarding possible nuclear threats in the vicinity of the Nordic countries. The database, including a literature database, is presented on the website 'Nuclear threats in the vicinity of the Nordic Countries'. The utilisation of modern information technology gives the user of the database easy access to information on different types of nuclear installations and threats. The project focused on potential events at nuclear installations and the consequences for the Nordic countries, especially with regards to vulnerable food chains, doses to man, environmental contamination and emergency preparedness systems. The geographical area dealt with includes North-west Russia and the Baltic states and the nuclear installations investigated are nuclear power plants, ship reactors and storage and handling of used fuel and radioactive waste. (au)

  6. Experimental Investigation of Bifurcations in a Thermoacoustic Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Vishnu R. Unni; Yogesh M. S. Prasaad; N. T. Ravi; S. Md Iqbal; Bala Pesala; R. I. Sujith

    2015-01-01

    In this study, variation in the characteristics of the pressure oscillations in a thermoacoustic engine is explored as the input heat flux is varied. A bifurcation diagram is plotted to study the variation in the qualitative behavior of the acoustic oscillations as the input heat flux changes. At a critical input heat flux (60 Watt), the engine begins to produce acoustic oscillations in its fundamental longitudinal mode. As the input heat flux is increased, incommensurate frequencies appear i...

  7. Struggling bodies and body struggles: explorations of body and religion in contemporary Nordic film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Sjö

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on representations of the body and religion in Nordic film. The aim is to illustrate the kinds of representations of religion and the body that can be found in contemporary Nordic films, demonstrate how these representations relate to religion, the body and film more generally, and explore what perceptions of and attitudes to the body and religion the representations suggest. The analysis begins with an introduction to religion and film studies, religion in Nordic film and the themes and films chosen for this study. After this a short overview of earlier studies dealing with the body, film, and religion is presented, before delving into the issue of the body and religion in Nordic film. The article is concluded by reflecting on the more over-arching ideas and attitudes that the material can be argued to point to and the possible changes and challenges the films express.

  8. An evaluation of the impact of green taxes in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.; Dengsøe, N.; Pedersen, A. B.

    The purpose of this report is to summarise the evaluations and studies of green taxes, that have been conducted in the Nordic countries and to discuss some of the methodological problems associated with these types of analyses...

  9. Source Apportionment of the Summer Time Carbonaceous Aerosol at Nordic Rural Background Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present study, natural and anthropogenic sources of particulate organic carbon (OCp) and elemental carbon (EC) have been quantified based on weekly filter samples of PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameter Nordic rural backgro...

  10. Geometrically Induced Interactions and Bifurcations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    In order to evaluate the proper boundary conditions in spin dynamics eventually leading to the emergence of natural and artificial solitons providing for strong interactions and potentials with monopole charges, the paper outlines a new concept referring to a curvature-invariant formalism, where superintegrability is given by a special isometric condition. Instead of referring to the spin operators and Casimir/Euler invariants as the generator of rotations, a curvature-invariant description is introduced utilizing a double Gudermann mapping function (generator of sine Gordon solitons and Mercator projection) cross-relating two angular variables, where geometric phases and rotations arise between surfaces of different curvature. Applying this stereographic projection to a superintegrable Hamiltonian can directly map linear oscillators to Kepler/Coulomb potentials and/or monopoles with Pöschl-Teller potentials and vice versa. In this sense a large scale Kepler/Coulomb (gravitational, electro-magnetic) wave dynamics with a hyperbolic metric could be mapped as a geodesic vertex flow to a local oscillator singularity (Dirac monopole) with spherical metrics and vice versa. Attracting fixed points and dynamic constraints are given by special isometries with magic precession angles. The nonlinear angular encoding directly provides for a Shannon mutual information entropy measure of the geodesic phase space flow. The emerging monopole patterns show relations to spiral Fresnel holography and Berry/Aharonov-Bohm geometric phases subject to bifurcation instabilities and singularities from phase ambiguities due to a local (entropy) overload. Neutral solitons and virtual patterns emerging and mediating in the overlap region between charged or twisted holographic patterns are visualized and directly assigned to the Berry geometric phase revealing the role of photons, neutrons, and neutrinos binding repulsive charges in Coulomb, strong and weak interaction.

  11. Dim nighttime illumination interacts with parametric effects of bright light to increase the stability of circadian rhythm bifurcation in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jennifer A; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Gorman, Michael R

    2011-07-01

    The endogenous circadian pacemaker of mammals is synchronized to the environmental day by the ambient cycle of relative light and dark. The present studies assessed the actions of light in a novel circadian entrainment paradigm where activity rhythms are bifurcated following exposure to a 24-h light:dark:light:dark (LDLD) cycle. Bifurcated entrainment under LDLD reflects the temporal dissociation of component oscillators that comprise the circadian system and is facilitated when daily scotophases are dimly lit rather than completely dark. Although bifurcation can be stably maintained in LDLD, it is quickly reversed under constant conditions. Here the authors examine whether dim scotophase illumination acts to maintain bifurcated entrainment under LDLD through potential interactions with the parametric actions of bright light during the two daily photophases. In three experiments, wheel-running rhythms of Syrian hamsters were bifurcated under LDLD with dimly lit scotophases, and after several weeks, dim scotophase illumination was either retained or extinguished. Additionally, "full" and "skeleton" photophases were employed under LDLD cycles with dimly lit or completely dark scotophases to distinguish parametric from nonparametric effects of bright light. Rhythm bifurcation was more stable in full versus skeleton LDLD cycles. Dim light facilitated the maintenance of bifurcated entrainment under full LDLD cycles but did not prevent the loss of rhythm bifurcation in skeleton LDLD cycles. These studies indicate that parametric actions of bright light maintain the bifurcated entrainment state; that dim scotophase illumination increases the stability of the bifurcated state; and that dim light interacts with the parametric effects of bright light to increase the stability of rhythm bifurcation under full LDLD cycles. A further understanding of the novel actions of dim light may lead to new strategies for understanding, preventing, and treating chronobiological

  12. Design of New Nordic Pasta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mai; Fisker, Anna Marie

    The wave The Danish nature is characterized by the rough oceans that capture Denmark, which has been an inspiration for this pasta-design. The Wave is supposed to be the base of a new Nordic meal that creates experiences and surprises on the journey through the meal. The Boiled sweet The pasta...... captures the the experience of taste in each single piece of the boiled sweet, that associates to pearls in a row. It creates a meal that is divided sharply into pieces and creates a simplicity and pureness on the plate like the Nordic designers like it. The colors of the stuffing are struggling to get out...... through the holes in the pasta which makes the guests interested and curious in the meal. Dualism This pasta-design is based on the clash between the Italian and the Danish culture. The simplicity and sharpness of the Danish design meets the soft and curved Italian design with the sharp edge and the soft...

  13. Personal piety in Nordic heathenism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åke V. Ström

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually, Nordic heathenism is thought of as a fairy-tale or as an impersonal, collective event. Sacrifice (blót and ethics appear to be the main facts. Was there anything at all like piety, and could it, in this case, be spoken of as personal? The inhabitant of the North stands out as a more collectively thinking person, attached to dynasty, housecarls and family. However, there are a couple of examples in the texts of a "personal faith" and an interest in "the individual or his soul or destiny". It is quite clear, that the collective and impersonal traits in old Norse religion were far more prominent than in the religious currents of today, but there was in Nordic paganism a personal piety, too. It appeared not only in personal opinion and personal means of expression, but also in daily life as well. The single peasant, Viking, fisherman, artisan, housewife, was in his or her everyday work totally dependent on the blessing of the gods and on protection from the attacks of the demons. He who succeeded enjoyed this personal success because of personal sacrifices, personal fortune and personal blessing.

  14. Limit cycles bifurcating from a perturbed quartic center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coll, Bartomeu, E-mail: dmitcv0@ps.uib.ca [Dept. de Matematiques i Informatica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Facultat de ciencies, 07071 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Llibre, Jaume, E-mail: jllibre@mat.uab.ca [Dept. de Matematiques, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cc 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Prohens, Rafel, E-mail: dmirps3@ps.uib.ca [Dept. de Matematiques i Informatica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Facultat de ciencies, 07071 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    Highlights: We study polynomial perturbations of a quartic center. We get simultaneous upper and lower bounds for the bifurcating limit cycles. A higher lower bound for the maximum number of limit cycles is obtained. We obtain more limit cycles than the number obtained in the cubic case. - Abstract: We consider the quartic center x{sup .}=-yf(x,y),y{sup .}=xf(x,y), with f(x, y) = (x + a) (y + b) (x + c) and abc {ne} 0. Here we study the maximum number {sigma} of limit cycles which can bifurcate from the periodic orbits of this quartic center when we perturb it inside the class of polynomial vector fields of degree n, using the averaging theory of first order. We prove that 4[(n - 1)/2] + 4 {<=} {sigma} {<=} 5[(n - 1)/2] + 14, where [{eta}] denotes the integer part function of {eta}.

  15. Nordic Children's Foodscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Barbro; Mäkelä, Johanna; Roos, Gun

    2009-01-01

    A study of the different food messages that children encounter and their own reflections of these messages was carried out among fifty-nine children from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.The children took photos of their "foodscapes," including school, home, shops, streets, cafés and restauran...

  16. Shortcuts to sustainable Nordic communities. Experiences from Nordic Climate Festival (at) Aalto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haanpaa, S. (ed.)

    2011-07-01

    Nordic Climate Festival (at) Aalto gathered some 90 Nordic Master's and PhD students to Helsinki and Espoo in late August 2011, to search for shortcuts to sustainable Nordic societies. The students worked in 7 workshop tracks, covering all key fields of sustainable societies, under the guidance of researchers from Aalto University. The workshop turned out to be a success with enthusiastic contribution from dedicated students. The real value of the workshop lies not only in the results however, but also in new ways of thinking about sustainability - both for the students and Aalto staff. Most of all, the event helped to build individual connections and networks people engaged in the topic. In the end, the festival was much more than just a Nordic event; the participants represented over 30 countries in total. This can only be seen as a richness in ways of looking at climate change related challenges and especially solutions that, although always being operationalized on a local level and in a local context, in the end are common challenges to all countries in one form or another. The core challenge in dealing with climate change, especially on mitigation, is time. As the level of global greenhouse gas emissions keeps on growing, we desperately need new policies and practices to turn this trend around. At the same time inertia both in natural phenomena and in changing our lifestyles means that global temperatures based on current emissions only will keep on rising for decades to come. This forces us to think of ways to adapt to unavoidable consequences of climate change and adaptation to them, despite the success of mitigation policies. Both aspects of managing climate change require forward oriented thinking already today, so that we can avoid being locked into unsustainable development pathways at the very least - a thing one might argue in many cases is already slowing mitigation efforts down. Therefore the key question the workshop set to study was: can we

  17. Shortcuts to sustainable Nordic communities. Experiences from Nordic Climate Festival (at) Aalto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haanpaa, S [ed.

    2011-07-01

    Nordic Climate Festival (at) Aalto gathered some 90 Nordic Master's and PhD students to Helsinki and Espoo in late August 2011, to search for shortcuts to sustainable Nordic societies. The students worked in 7 workshop tracks, covering all key fields of sustainable societies, under the guidance of researchers from Aalto University. The workshop turned out to be a success with enthusiastic contribution from dedicated students. The real value of the workshop lies not only in the results however, but also in new ways of thinking about sustainability - both for the students and Aalto staff. Most of all, the event helped to build individual connections and networks people engaged in the topic. In the end, the festival was much more than just a Nordic event; the participants represented over 30 countries in total. This can only be seen as a richness in ways of looking at climate change related challenges and especially solutions that, although always being operationalized on a local level and in a local context, in the end are common challenges to all countries in one form or another. The core challenge in dealing with climate change, especially on mitigation, is time. As the level of global greenhouse gas emissions keeps on growing, we desperately need new policies and practices to turn this trend around. At the same time inertia both in natural phenomena and in changing our lifestyles means that global temperatures based on current emissions only will keep on rising for decades to come. This forces us to think of ways to adapt to unavoidable consequences of climate change and adaptation to them, despite the success of mitigation policies. Both aspects of managing climate change require forward oriented thinking already today, so that we can avoid being locked into unsustainable development pathways at the very least - a thing one might argue in many cases is already slowing mitigation efforts down. Therefore the key question the workshop set to study was: can we find

  18. Walking dynamics of the passive compass-gait model under OGY-based state-feedback control: Analysis of local bifurcations via the hybrid Poincaré map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritli, Hassène; Belghith, Safya

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the passive walking dynamics of the compass-gait model under OGY-based state-feedback control. • We analyze local bifurcations via a hybrid Poincaré map. • We show exhibition of the super(sub)-critical flip bifurcation, the saddle-node(saddle) bifurcation and a saddle-flip bifurcation. • An analysis via a two-parameter bifurcation diagram is presented. • Some new hidden attractors in the controlled passive walking dynamics are displayed. - Abstract: In our previous work, we have analyzed the passive dynamic walking of the compass-gait biped model under the OGY-based state-feedback control using the impulsive hybrid nonlinear dynamics. Such study was carried out through bifurcation diagrams. It was shown that the controlled bipedal gait exhibits attractive nonlinear phenomena such as the cyclic-fold (saddle-node) bifurcation, the period-doubling (flip) bifurcation and chaos. Moreover, we revealed that, using the controlled continuous-time dynamics, we encountered a problem in finding, identifying and hence following branches of (un)stable solutions in order to characterize local bifurcations. The present paper solves such problem and then provides a further investigation of the controlled bipedal walking dynamics using the developed analytical expression of the controlled hybrid Poincaré map. Thus, we show that analysis via such Poincaré map allows to follow branches of both stable and unstable fixed points in bifurcation diagrams and hence to explore the complete dynamics of the controlled compass-gait biped model. We demonstrate the generation, other than the conventional local bifurcations in bipedal walking, i.e. the flip bifurcation and the saddle-node bifurcation, of a saddle-saddle bifurcation, a subcritical flip bifurcation and a new type of a local bifurcation, the saddle-flip bifurcation. In addition, to further understand the occurrence of the local bifurcations, we present an analysis with a two-parameter bifurcation

  19. The Nordic Welfare Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Thrane, Claus

    2011-01-01

    to include maternity/paternity leave, benefits, childcare and leave to take care of sick children. The aim of this paper is to increase awareness and elucidate the impact of welfare policies on women’s entrepreneurship because it may impact on women’s entrepreneurial behaviour. The paper investigates...... that the initiation of public childcare would facilitate increased entrepreneurship among women. Our study shows that this is not necessarily so, that women utilize ‘babystrapping’ strategies, and that there is a schism between welfare models that facilitate employment and those that facilitate entrepreneurship....

  20. An alternative bifurcation analysis of the Rose-Hindmarsh model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents an alternative study of the bifurcation behavior of the Rose-Hindmarsh model using Lyapunov-Andronov's theory. This is done on the basis of the obtained analytical formula expressing the first Lyapunov's value (this is not Lyapunov exponent) at the boundary of stability. From the obtained results the following new conclusions are made: Transition to chaos and the occurrence of chaotic oscillations in the Rose-Hindmarsh system take place under hard stability loss

  1. Streamline topology: Patterns in fluid flows and their bifurcations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Using dynamical systems theory, we consider structures such as vortices and separation in the streamline patterns of fluid flows. Bifurcation of patterns under variation of external parameters is studied using simplifying normal form transformations. Flows away from boundaries, flows close to fix...... walls, and axisymmetric flows are analyzed in detail. We show how to apply the ideas from the theory to analyze numerical simulations of the vortex breakdown in a closed cylindrical container....

  2. Has streamflow changed in the Nordic countries?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisdal, Hege; Holmqvist, Erik; Jonsdottir, Jona Finndis; Jonsson, Pall; Kuusisto, Esko; Lindstroem, Goeran; Roald, Lars A.

    2010-01-15

    Climate change studies traditionally include elaboration of possible scenarios for the future and attempts to detect a climate change signal in historical data. This study focuses on the latter. A pan-Nordic dataset of more than 160 streamflow records was analysed to detect spatial and temporal changes in streamflow. The Mann-Kendall trend test was applied to study changes in annual and seasonal streamflow as well as floods and droughts for three periods: 1961-2000, 1941-2002 and 1920-2002. The period analysed and the selection of stations influenced the regional patterns found, but the overall picture was that trends towards increased streamflow were dominating for annual values and the winter and spring seasons. Trends in summer flow highly depended on the period analysed whereas no trend was found for the autumn season. A signal towards earlier snowmelt floods was clear and a tendency towards more severe summer droughts was found in southern Norway. A qualitative comparison of the findings to available streamflow scenarios for the region showed that the strongest trends found are coherent with changes expected in the scenario period, for example increased winter discharge and earlier snowmelt floods. However, there are also expected changes that are not reflected in the trends, such as the expected increase in autumn discharge in Norway. It can be concluded that the observed temperature increase has clearly affected the streamflow in the Nordic countries. These changes correspond well with the estimated consequences of a projected temperature increase. The effect of the observed and projected precipitation increase on streamflow is less clear.(Author)

  3. Evidence for bifurcation and universal chaotic behavior in nonlinear semiconducting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, J.; Perez, J.; Jeffries, C.

    1982-01-01

    Bifurcations, chaos, and extensive periodic windows in the chaotic regime are observed for a driven LRC circuit, the capacitive element being a nonlinear varactor diode. Measurements include power spectral analysis; real time amplitude data; phase portraits; and a bifurcation diagram, obtained by sampling methods. The effects of added external noise are studied. These data yield experimental determinations of several of the universal numbers predicted to characterize nonlinear systems having this route to chaos

  4. Hopf bifurcation in love dynamical models with nonlinear couples and time delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Xiaofeng; Ran Jiouhong

    2007-01-01

    A love dynamical models with nonlinear couples and two delays is considered. Local stability of this model is studied by analyzing the associated characteristic transcendental equation. We find that the Hopf bifurcation occurs when the sum of the two delays varies and passes a sequence of critical values. The stability and direction of the Hopf bifurcation are determined by applying the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. Numerical example is given to illustrate our results

  5. Bifurcation analysis on a delayed SIS epidemic model with stage structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejun Zhuang

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a delayed SIS (Susceptible Infectious Susceptible model with stage structure is investigated. We study the Hopf bifurcations and stability of the model. Applying the normal form theory and the center manifold argument, we derive the explicit formulas determining the properties of the bifurcating periodic solutions. The conditions to guarantee the global existence of periodic solutions are established. Also some numerical simulations for supporting the theoretical are given.

  6. Household food waste in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Gaiani, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    such as climate change and unjust distribution of food resources, needs to be based on an appreciative and relational understanding of nature and food and not only on economic and moralizing arguments. This is done by drawing on an ecocentric perspective where food is seen as one of the areas where new narratives......This study focuses on food waste generated by households in four Nordic countries: Finland, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Based on existing literature we present (A) comparable data on amounts and monetary value of food waste; (B) explanations for food waste at household level; (C) a number...... of public and private initiatives at national levels aiming to reduce food waste; and (D) a discussion of ethical issues related to food waste with a focus on possible contributions from ecocentric ethics. We argue that reduction of food waste at household level, which has an impact on issues...

  7. Nordic campus retrofitting concepts - Scalable practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Robert; Nenonen, Suvi; Junghans, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Multidisciplinary collaboration and transformations in learning processes can be supported by activity-based campus retrofitting. The aim of this paper is to analyse the ongoing campus retrofitting processes at the three university campuses and to identify the elements of activity......-based retrofitting. We answer the questions “What kind of examples of retrofitting are there at Nordic Campuses?” and “What kind of elements are typical for activity-based retrofitting concepts?” The 3-level framework of campus retrofitting processes was employed when conducting the three case studies. The cases...... were about the new ways of researching, collaborating and learning with the concepts of Living lab, Creative community for innovation and entrepreneurship and Network of learning hubs. The cases provided the first insights on retrofitting based on users’ changing needs and the requirements of more...

  8. Maternal deaths in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangen, Siri; Bødker, Birgit; Ellingsen, Liv

    2017-01-01

    reporting from hospitals. Each case was then assessed to determine the cause of death, and level of care provided. Potential improvements to care were evaluated. RESULTS: We registered 168 maternal deaths, 90 direct and 78 indirect cases. The maternal mortality ratio was 7.2/100 000 live births ranging from......INTRODUCTION: Despite the seriousness of the event, maternal deaths are substantially underreported. There is often a missed opportunity to learn from such tragedies. The aim of the study was to identify maternal deaths in the five Nordic countries, to classify causes of death based...... on internationally acknowledged criteria, and to identify areas that would benefit from further teaching, training or research to possibly reduce the number of maternal deaths. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We present data for the years 2005-2013. National audit groups collected data by linkage of registers and direct...

  9. Pharmacoepidemiology at Nordic School of Public Health NHV: Examples from 1999 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Gyllensten, Hanna; Hedna, Khedidja; Hakkarainen, Katja M; Lesén, Eva; Andersson Sundell, Karolina; Gyllensten, H; Hedna, K; Hakkarainen, K M; Lesén, E; Sundell, K Andersson

    2015-08-01

    Pharmacoepidemiology is a branch of public health and had a place at the Nordic School of Public Health. Courses, Master's theses and Doctorates of Public Health (DrPH) in Pharmacoepidemiology were a relatively minor, but still important part of the school's activities. This paper gives a short background, followed by some snapshots of the activities at NHV, and then some illustrative case-studies. These case-studies list their own responsible co-authors and have separate reference lists. In the Nordic context, NHV was a unique provider of training and research in pharmacoepidemiology, with single courses to complete DrPH training, as well as implementation of externally-funded research projects. With the closure of NHV at the end of 2014, it is unclear if such a comprehensive approach towards pharmacoepidemiology will be found elsewhere in the Nordic countries. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  10. Stability and Hopf Bifurcation in a Computer Virus Model with Multistate Antivirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Dong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available By considering that people may immunize their computers with countermeasures in susceptible state, exposed state and using anti-virus software may take a period of time, a computer virus model with time delay based on an SEIR model is proposed. We regard time delay as bifurcating parameter to study the dynamical behaviors which include local asymptotical stability and local Hopf bifurcation. By analyzing the associated characteristic equation, Hopf bifurcation occurs when time delay passes through a sequence of critical value. The linerized model and stability of the bifurcating periodic solutions are also derived by applying the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. Finally, an illustrative example is also given to support the theoretical results.

  11. Bifurcation and synchronization of synaptically coupled FHN models with time delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qingyun; Lu Qishao; Chen Guanrong; Feng Zhaosheng; Duan Lixia

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of dynamics of the coupled nonidentical FHN models with synaptic connection, which can exhibit rich bifurcation behavior with variation of the coupling strength. With the time delay being introduced, the coupled neurons may display a transition from the original chaotic motions to periodic ones, which is accompanied by complex bifurcation scenario. At the same time, synchronization of the coupled neurons is studied in terms of their mean frequencies. We also find that the small time delay can induce new period windows with the coupling strength increasing. Moreover, it is found that synchronization of the coupled neurons can be achieved in some parameter ranges and related to their bifurcation transition. Bifurcation diagrams are obtained numerically or analytically from the mathematical model and the parameter regions of different behavior are clarified.

  12. Local stability and Hopf bifurcation in small-world delayed networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunguang; Chen Guanrong

    2004-01-01

    The notion of small-world networks, recently introduced by Watts and Strogatz, has attracted increasing interest in studying the interesting properties of complex networks. Notice that, a signal or influence travelling on a small-world network often is associated with time-delay features, which are very common in biological and physical networks. Also, the interactions within nodes in a small-world network are often nonlinear. In this paper, we consider a small-world networks model with nonlinear interactions and time delays, which was recently considered by Yang. By choosing the nonlinear interaction strength as a bifurcation parameter, we prove that Hopf bifurcation occurs. We determine the stability of the bifurcating periodic solutions and the direction of the Hopf bifurcation by applying the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. Finally, we show a numerical example to verify the theoretical analysis

  13. Local stability and Hopf bifurcation in small-world delayed networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Chunguang E-mail: cgli@uestc.edu.cn; Chen Guanrong E-mail: gchen@ee.cityu.edu.hk

    2004-04-01

    The notion of small-world networks, recently introduced by Watts and Strogatz, has attracted increasing interest in studying the interesting properties of complex networks. Notice that, a signal or influence travelling on a small-world network often is associated with time-delay features, which are very common in biological and physical networks. Also, the interactions within nodes in a small-world network are often nonlinear. In this paper, we consider a small-world networks model with nonlinear interactions and time delays, which was recently considered by Yang. By choosing the nonlinear interaction strength as a bifurcation parameter, we prove that Hopf bifurcation occurs. We determine the stability of the bifurcating periodic solutions and the direction of the Hopf bifurcation by applying the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. Finally, we show a numerical example to verify the theoretical analysis.

  14. Bifurcation in the Lengyel–Epstein system for the coupled reactors with diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaban Aly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to continue the investigations of the important system of Fengqi et al. (2008. The occurrence of Turing and Hopf bifurcations in small homogeneous arrays of two coupled reactors via diffusion-linked mass transfer which described by a system of ordinary differential equations is considered. I study the conditions of the existence as well as stability properties of the equilibrium solutions and derive the precise conditions on the parameters to show that the Hopf bifurcation occurs. Analytically I show that a diffusion driven instability occurs at a certain critical value, when the system undergoes a Turing bifurcation, patterns emerge. The spatially homogeneous equilibrium loses its stability and two new spatially non-constant stable equilibria emerge which are asymptotically stable. Numerically, at a certain critical value of diffusion the periodic solution gets destabilized and two new spatially nonconstant periodic solutions arise by Turing bifurcation.

  15. Stability and bifurcation in a simplified four-neuron BAM neural network with multiple delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We first study the distribution of the zeros of a fourth-degree exponential polynomial. Then we apply the obtained results to a simplified bidirectional associated memory (BAM neural network with four neurons and multiple time delays. By taking the sum of the delays as the bifurcation parameter, it is shown that under certain assumptions the steady state is absolutely stable. Under another set of conditions, there are some critical values of the delay, when the delay crosses these critical values, the Hopf bifurcation occurs. Furthermore, some explicit formulae determining the stability and the direction of periodic solutions bifurcating from Hopf bifurcations are obtained by applying the normal form theory and center manifold reduction. Numerical simulations supporting the theoretical analysis are also included.

  16. Bifurcation software in Matlab with applications in neuronal modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaerts, Willy; Sautois, Bart

    2005-02-01

    Many biological phenomena, notably in neuroscience, can be modeled by dynamical systems. We describe a recent improvement of a Matlab software package for dynamical systems with applications to modeling single neurons and all-to-all connected networks of neurons. The new software features consist of an object-oriented approach to bifurcation computations and the partial inclusion of C-code to speed up the computation. As an application, we study the origin of the spiking behaviour of neurons when the equilibrium state is destabilized by an incoming current. We show that Class II behaviour, i.e. firing with a finite frequency, is possible even if the destabilization occurs through a saddle-node bifurcation. Furthermore, we show that synchronization of an all-to-all connected network of such neurons with only excitatory connections is also possible in this case.

  17. Local bifurcations in differential equations with state-dependent delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Jan

    2017-11-01

    A common task when analysing dynamical systems is the determination of normal forms near local bifurcations of equilibria. As most of these normal forms have been classified and analysed, finding which particular class of normal form one encounters in a numerical bifurcation study guides follow-up computations. This paper builds on normal form algorithms for equilibria of delay differential equations with constant delay that were developed and implemented in DDE-Biftool recently. We show how one can extend these methods to delay-differential equations with state-dependent delay (sd-DDEs). Since higher degrees of regularity of local center manifolds are still open for sd-DDEs, we give an independent (still only partial) argument which phenomena from the truncated normal must persist in the full sd-DDE. In particular, we show that all invariant manifolds with a sufficient degree of normal hyperbolicity predicted by the normal form exist also in the full sd-DDE.

  18. A bifurcation analysis for the Lugiato-Lefever equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godey, Cyril

    2017-05-01

    The Lugiato-Lefever equation is a cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation, including damping, detuning and driving, which arises as a model in nonlinear optics. We study the existence of stationary waves which are found as solutions of a four-dimensional reversible dynamical system in which the evolutionary variable is the space variable. Relying upon tools from bifurcation theory and normal forms theory, we discuss the codimension 1 bifurcations. We prove the existence of various types of steady solutions, including spatially localized, periodic, or quasi-periodic solutions. Contribution to the Topical Issue: "Theory and Applications of the Lugiato-Lefever Equation", edited by Yanne K. Chembo, Damia Gomila, Mustapha Tlidi, Curtis R. Menyuk.

  19. Local bifurcations in differential equations with state-dependent delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Jan

    2017-11-01

    A common task when analysing dynamical systems is the determination of normal forms near local bifurcations of equilibria. As most of these normal forms have been classified and analysed, finding which particular class of normal form one encounters in a numerical bifurcation study guides follow-up computations. This paper builds on normal form algorithms for equilibria of delay differential equations with constant delay that were developed and implemented in DDE-Biftool recently. We show how one can extend these methods to delay-differential equations with state-dependent delay (sd-DDEs). Since higher degrees of regularity of local center manifolds are still open for sd-DDEs, we give an independent (still only partial) argument which phenomena from the truncated normal must persist in the full sd-DDE. In particular, we show that all invariant manifolds with a sufficient degree of normal hyperbolicity predicted by the normal form exist also in the full sd-DDE.

  20. Proceedings of the 1st Nordic Optimization Symposium - 10th Nordic MPS meeting, Copenhagen 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens; Jørgensen, Rene Munk; Kohl, Niklas

    2006-01-01

    , Operations Research and Mathematical Programming. Finally we would like to thank our sponsors and supporter for their contributions. It has among other things made it possible to give free registration to a number of researchers from the Baltic countries and Ph.D. students in general. We wish you all......On behalf of the Technical University of Denmark, the Danish Operations Research Society and the Nordic Section of the Mathematical Programming Society we welcome you to Copenhagen and the 1st Nordic Optimization Symposium - the 10th meeting of the Nordic MPS. The meetings of the Nordic MPS have...... to add a new title, that reflects the much broader field that is our playground at these meetings. Still the odd trustworthy title “Meeting of the Nordic MPS” has been maintained to demonstrate the origin of the symposium. It is our hope that future Nordic MPS meetings will carry on using this “double...

  1. Bifurcations of Tumor-Immune Competition Systems with Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Bi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A tumor-immune competition model with delay is considered, which consists of two-dimensional nonlinear differential equation. The conditions for the linear stability of the equilibria are obtained by analyzing the distribution of eigenvalues. General formulas for the direction, period, and stability of the bifurcated periodic solutions are given for codimension one and codimension two bifurcations, including Hopf bifurcation, steady-state bifurcation, and B-T bifurcation. Numerical examples and simulations are given to illustrate the bifurcations analysis and obtained results.

  2. Nordic Walking and chronic low back pain: design of a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartvigsen Jan

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low Back Pain is a major public health problem all over the western world. Active approaches including exercise in the treatment of low back pain results in better outcomes for patients, but it is not known exactly which types of back exercises are most beneficial or whether general physical activity provide similar benefits. Nordic Walking is a popular and fast growing type of exercise in Northern Europe. Initial studies have demonstrated that persons performing Nordic Walking are able to exercise longer and harder compared to normal walking thereby increasing their cardiovascular metabolism. Until now no studies have been performed to investigate whether Nordic Walking has beneficial effects in relation to low back pain. The primary aim of this study is to investigate whether supervised Nordic Walking can reduce pain and improve function in a population of chronic low back pain patients when compared to unsupervised Nordic Walking and advice to stay active. In addition we investigate whether there is an increase in the cardiovascular metabolism in persons performing supervised Nordic Walking compared to persons who are advised to stay active. Finally, we investigate whether there is a difference in compliance between persons receiving supervised Nordic Walking and persons doing unsupervised Nordic Walking. Methods One hundred and fifty patients with low back pain for at least eight weeks and referred to a specialized secondary sector outpatient back pain clinic are included in the study. After completion of the standard back centre treatment patients are randomized into one of three groups: A Nordic Walking twice a week for eight weeks under supervision of a specially trained instructor; B Unsupervised Nordic Walking for eight weeks after one training session with an instructor; C A one hour motivational talk including advice to stay active. Outcome measures are pain, function, overall health, cardiovascular ability and

  3. CISG Part II in Nordic Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In 2015, as the Nordic countries celebrate the 100th anniversary of the Nordic Contract Act (NCA), there is also good reason to celebrate the fact that - due to recent developments - the original field of NCA application has been narrowed in one important respect. In particular, the contract...... formation rules in NCA Chapter I – which for nearly 100 years applied by default to all contracts – no longer apply to contracts for the international sale of goods. As regards this latter significant contract category, Chapter I of the NCA has (except for inter-Nordic sales) been pre-empted, i.e. replaced...

  4. Patenting activity in biotechnology and pharmaceuticals: a comparative analysis of the Nordic Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Enrico Sorisio

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to study innovative activity, as measured by patent indicators, in pharmaceutical and biotechnological sectors in the Nordic Countries. The biotech sector in general and pharmaceutical in particular is one of the areas selected for strategic investments in every Nordic country. In terms of patents granted by country of inventors Denmark plays a leading role followed by Sweden, while patenting activity in Finland and Norway is lower. A concentration of patents tow...

  5. Endodontic-periodontic bifurcation lesions: a novel treatment option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shaul; Tillinger, Gabriel; Zuckerman, Offer

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this preliminary clinical report is to suggest a novel treatment modality for periodontal bifurcation lesions of endodontic origin. The study consisted of 11 consecutive patients who presented with periodontal bifurcation lesions of endodontic origin (endo-perio lesions). All patients were followed-up for at least 12 months. Treatment included calcium hydroxide with iodine-potassium iodide placed in the root canals for 90 days followed by canal sealing with gutta-percha and cement during a second stage. Dentin bonding was used to seal the furcation floor to prevent the ingress of bacteria and their by-products to the furcation root area through the accessory canals. A radiographic examination showed complete healing of the periradicular lesion in all patients. Probing periodontal pocket depths decreased to 2 to 4 mm (mean 3.5 mm), and resolution of the furcation involvement was observed in post-operative clinical evaluations. The suggested treatment of endo-perio lesions may result in complete healing. Further studies are warranted. This treatment method improves both the disinfection of the bifurcation area and the healing process in endodontically treated teeth considered to be hopeless.

  6. Improved survival for multiple myeloma in denmark based on autologous stem cell transplantation and novel drug therapy in collaborative trials: analysis of accrual, prognostic variables, selection bias, and clinical behavior on survival in more than 1200 patients in trials of the nordic myeloma study group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Hans Erik; Klausen, Tobias W; Boegsted, Martin

    2010-01-01

    An unexplained survival difference was observed in the Nordic Myeloma Study Group (NMSG) high-dose therapy trial 5/94 in Denmark compared with Sweden and Norway; however, this difference was eliminated in the subsequent NMSG trial 7/98. It was hypothesized that a detailed analysis of potential ex...

  7. The Nordic Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) programme. Nordic cooperation on nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kasper G. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Roskilde (Denmark). National Lab. for Sustainable Energy; Ekstroem, Karoliina [Fortum Power and Heat, Fortum (Finland); Gwynn, Justin P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Tromsoe (Norway). Fram Centre; Magnusson, Sigurdur M. [Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority, Reykjavik (Iceland); Physant, Finn C. [NKS-Sekretariatet, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2012-07-01

    The roots of the current Nordic Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) programme can be traced back to the recommendation by the Nordic Council in the late 1950s for the establishment of joint Nordic committees on the issues of nuclear research and radiation protection. One of these joint Nordic committees, the 'Kontaktorgan', paved the way over its 33 years of existence for the future of Nordic cooperation in the field of nuclear safety, through the formation of Nordic groups on reactor safety, nuclear waste and environmental effects of nuclear power in the late 1960s and early 1970s. With an increased focus on developing nuclear power in the wake of the energy crisis on the 1970s, the NKS was established by the Nordic Council to further develop the previous strands of Nordic cooperation in nuclear safety. NKS started its first programme in 1977, funding a series of four year programmes over the next 24 years covering the areas of reactor safety, waste management, emergency preparedness and radioecology. Initially funded directly from the Nordic Council, ownership of NKS was transferred from the political level to the national competent authorities at the beginning of the 1990s. This organizational and funding model has continued to the present day with additional financial support from a number of co-sponsors in Finland, Norway and Sweden. (orig.)

  8. Per and polyfluorinated substances in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posner, Stefan; Roos, Sandra; Brunn Poulsen, Pia

    This Tema Nord report presents a study based on open information and custom market research to review the most common perfluorinated substances (PFC) with less focus on PFOS and PFOA. The study includes three major parts: 1) Identification of relevant per-and polyfluorinated substances and their ......This Tema Nord report presents a study based on open information and custom market research to review the most common perfluorinated substances (PFC) with less focus on PFOS and PFOA. The study includes three major parts: 1) Identification of relevant per-and polyfluorinated substances...... and their use in various industrial sectors in the Nordic market by interviews with major players and database information 2) Emissions to and occurence in the Nordic environment of the substances described in 1) 3) A summary of knowledge of the toxic effects on humans and the environment of substances...

  9. The effects of Nordic school meals on concentration and school performance in 8- to 11-year-old children in the OPUS School Meal Study: a cluster-randomised, controlled, cross-over trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise B.; Dyssegaard, Camilla B.; Damsgaard, Camilla T.

    2015-01-01

    . The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal Study was a cluster-randomised, controlled, cross-over trial comparing a healthy school meal programme with the usual packed lunch from home (control) each for 3 months (NCT 01457794......It is widely assumed that nutrition can improve school performance in children; however, evidence remains limited and inconclusive. In the present study, we investigated whether serving healthy school meals influenced concentration and school performance of 8- to 11-year-old Danish children...... than reading speed. There was no effect on overall math performance or outcomes from the LRS. In conclusion, school meals did not affect CP, but improved reading performance, which is a complex cognitive activity that involves inference, and increased errors related to impulsivity and inattention...

  10. Spiral blood flow in aorta-renal bifurcation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadzadegan, Ashkan; Simmons, Anne; Barber, Tracie

    2016-01-01

    The presence of a spiral arterial blood flow pattern in humans has been widely accepted. It is believed that this spiral component of the blood flow alters arterial haemodynamics in both positive and negative ways. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of spiral flow on haemodynamic changes in aorta-renal bifurcations. In this regard, a computational fluid dynamics analysis of pulsatile blood flow was performed in two idealised models of aorta-renal bifurcations with and without flow diverter. The results show that the spirality effect causes a substantial variation in blood velocity distribution, while causing only slight changes in fluid shear stress patterns. The dominant observed effect of spiral flow is on turbulent kinetic energy and flow recirculation zones. As spiral flow intensity increases, the rate of turbulent kinetic energy production decreases, reducing the region of potential damage to red blood cells and endothelial cells. Furthermore, the recirculation zones which form on the cranial sides of the aorta and renal artery shrink in size in the presence of spirality effect; this may lower the rate of atherosclerosis development and progression in the aorta-renal bifurcation. These results indicate that the spiral nature of blood flow has atheroprotective effects in renal arteries and should be taken into consideration in analyses of the aorta and renal arteries.

  11. Observation of bifurcation phenomena in an electron beam plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, N.; Tanaka, M.; Shinohara, S.; Kawai, Y.

    1995-01-01

    When an electron beam is injected into a plasma, unstable waves are excited spontaneously near the electron plasma frequency f pe by the electron beam plasma instability. The experiment on subharmonics in an electron beam plasma system was performed with a glow discharge tube. The bifurcation of unstable waves with the electron plasma frequency f pe and 1/2 f pe was observed using a double-plasma device. Furthermore, the period doubling route to chaos around the ion plasma frequency in an electron beam plasma system was reported. However, the physical mechanism of bifurcation phenomena in an electron beam plasma system has not been clarified so far. We have studied nonlinear behaviors of the electron beam plasma instability. It was found that there are some cases: the fundamental unstable waves and subharmonics of 2 period are excited by the electron beam plasma instability, the fundamental unstable waves and subharmonics of 3 period are excited. In this paper, we measured the energy distribution functions of electrons and the dispersion relation of test waves in order to examine the physical mechanism of bifurcation phenomena in an electron beam plasma system

  12. Reverse bifurcation and fractal of the compound logistic map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingyuan; Liang, Qingyong

    2008-07-01

    The nature of the fixed points of the compound logistic map is researched and the boundary equation of the first bifurcation of the map in the parameter space is given out. Using the quantitative criterion and rule of chaotic system, the paper reveal the general features of the compound logistic map transforming from regularity to chaos, the following conclusions are shown: (1) chaotic patterns of the map may emerge out of double-periodic bifurcation and (2) the chaotic crisis phenomena and the reverse bifurcation are found. At the same time, we analyze the orbit of critical point of the compound logistic map and put forward the definition of Mandelbrot-Julia set of compound logistic map. We generalize the Welstead and Cromer's periodic scanning technology and using this technology construct a series of Mandelbrot-Julia sets of compound logistic map. We investigate the symmetry of Mandelbrot-Julia set and study the topological inflexibility of distributing of period region in the Mandelbrot set, and finds that Mandelbrot set contain abundant information of structure of Julia sets by founding the whole portray of Julia sets based on Mandelbrot set qualitatively.

  13. Hopf Bifurcation Control of Subsynchronous Resonance Utilizing UPFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Μ. Μ. Alomari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of a unified power flow controller (UPFC to control the bifurcations of a subsynchronous resonance (SSR in a multi-machine power system is introduced in this study. UPFC is one of the flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS where a voltage source converter (VSC is used based on gate-turn-off (GTO thyristor valve technology. Furthermore, UPFC can be used as a stabilizer by means of a power system stabilizer (PSS. The considered system is a modified version of the second system of the IEEE second benchmark model of subsynchronous resonance where the UPFC is added to its transmission line. The dynamic effects of the machine components on SSR are considered. Time domain simulations based on the complete nonlinear dynamical mathematical model are used for numerical simulations. The results in case of including UPFC are compared to the case where the transmission line is conventionally compensated (without UPFC where two Hopf bifurcations are predicted with unstable operating point at wide range of compensation levels. For UPFC systems, it is worth to mention that the operating point of the system never loses stability at all realistic compensation degrees and therefore all power system bifurcations have been eliminated.

  14. The Nordic concept of 'faellesskab'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, P

    1991-01-01

    The complex of cultural, political and societal affiliations, both in a historic and a contemporary perspective, is expressed by a special term in the Nordic languages, 'faellesskab', often with the addition of 'folkelig', as 'folkeligt faellesskab', where 'folkelig' means of the people. No corresponding term exists in English. For medical ethics the concept 'faellesskab', or whatever wording is chosen to serve the semantics of this term, is vital. In research ethics and clinical decision-making complex ethical analyses and normative evaluations are necessary. They cannot be based solely on moral relativism, whether being based on results of opinion polls or on a widespread 'every man minds his own business' concept. 'Faellesskab' possesses the necessary base of common values. PMID:2033630

  15. Bifurcation of Jovian magnetotail current sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Israelevich

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple crossings of the magnetotail current sheet by a single spacecraft give the possibility to distinguish between two types of electric current density distribution: single-peaked (Harris type current layer and double-peaked (bifurcated current sheet. Magnetic field measurements in the Jovian magnetic tail by Voyager-2 reveal bifurcation of the tail current sheet. The electric current density possesses a minimum at the point of the Bx-component reversal and two maxima at the distance where the magnetic field strength reaches 50% of its value in the tail lobe.

  16. Bifurcation of Jovian magnetotail current sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Israelevich

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple crossings of the magnetotail current sheet by a single spacecraft give the possibility to distinguish between two types of electric current density distribution: single-peaked (Harris type current layer and double-peaked (bifurcated current sheet. Magnetic field measurements in the Jovian magnetic tail by Voyager-2 reveal bifurcation of the tail current sheet. The electric current density possesses a minimum at the point of the Bx-component reversal and two maxima at the distance where the magnetic field strength reaches 50% of its value in the tail lobe.

  17. Analytical determination of the bifurcation thresholds in stochastic differential equations with delayed feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreault, Mathieu; Drolet, François; Viñals, Jorge

    2010-11-01

    Analytical expressions for pitchfork and Hopf bifurcation thresholds are given for a nonlinear stochastic differential delay equation with feedback. Our results assume that the delay time τ is small compared to other characteristic time scales, not a significant limitation close to the bifurcation line. A pitchfork bifurcation line is found, the location of which depends on the conditional average , where x(t) is the dynamical variable. This conditional probability incorporates the combined effect of fluctuation correlations and delayed feedback. We also find a Hopf bifurcation line which is obtained by a multiple scale expansion around the oscillatory solution near threshold. We solve the Fokker-Planck equation associated with the slowly varying amplitudes and use it to determine the threshold location. In both cases, the predicted bifurcation lines are in excellent agreement with a direct numerical integration of the governing equations. Contrary to the known case involving no delayed feedback, we show that the stochastic bifurcation lines are shifted relative to the deterministic limit and hence that the interaction between fluctuation correlations and delay affect the stability of the solutions of the model equation studied.

  18. Anatomy and function relation in the coronary tree: from bifurcations to myocardial flow and mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassab, Ghassan S; Finet, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    The study of the structure-function relation of coronary bifurcations is necessary not only to understand the design of the vasculature but also to use this understanding to restore structure and hence function. The objective of this review is to provide quantitative relations between bifurcation anatomy or geometry, flow distribution in the bifurcation and degree of perfused myocardial mass in order to establish practical rules to guide optimal treatment of bifurcations including side branches (SB). We use the scaling law between flow and diameter, conservation of mass and the scaling law between myocardial mass and diameter to provide geometric relations between the segment diameters of a bifurcation, flow fraction distribution in the SB, and the percentage of myocardial mass perfused by the SB. We demonstrate that the assessment of the functional significance of an SB for intervention should not only be based on the diameter of the SB but also on the diameter of the mother vessel as well as the diameter of the proximal main artery, as these dictate the flow fraction distribution and perfused myocardial mass, respectively. The geometric and flow rules for a bifurcation are extended to a trifurcation to ensure optimal therapy scaling rules for any branching pattern.

  19. Homoclinic connections and subcritical Neimark bifurcation in a duopoly model with adaptively adjusted productions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agliari, Anna

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study some global bifurcations arising in the Puu's oligopoly model when we assume that the producers do not adjust to the best reply but use an adaptive process to obtain at each step the new production. Such bifurcations cause the appearance of a pair of closed invariant curves, one attracting and one repelling, this latter being involved in the subcritical Neimark bifurcation of the Cournot equilibrium point. The aim of the paper is to highlight the relationship between the global bifurcations causing the appearance/disappearance of two invariant closed curves and the homoclinic connections of some saddle cycle, already conjectured in [Agliari A, Gardini L, Puu T. Some global bifurcations related to the appearance of closed invariant curves. Comput Math Simul 2005;68:201-19]. We refine the results obtained in such a paper, showing that the appearance/disappearance of closed invariant curves is not necessarily related to the existence of an attracting cycle. The characterization of the periodicity tongues (i.e. a region of the parameter space in which an attracting cycle exists) associated with a subcritical Neimark bifurcation is also discussed

  20. Multistability and gluing bifurcation to butterflies in coupled networks with non-monotonic feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jianfu; Wu Jianhong

    2009-01-01

    Neural networks with a non-monotonic activation function have been proposed to increase their capacity for memory storage and retrieval, but there is still a lack of rigorous mathematical analysis and detailed discussions of the impact of time lag. Here we consider a two-neuron recurrent network. We first show how supercritical pitchfork bifurcations and a saddle-node bifurcation lead to the coexistence of multiple stable equilibria (multistability) in the instantaneous updating network. We then study the effect of time delay on the local stability of these equilibria and show that four equilibria lose their stability at a certain critical value of time delay, and Hopf bifurcations of these equilibria occur simultaneously, leading to multiple coexisting periodic orbits. We apply centre manifold theory and normal form theory to determine the direction of these Hopf bifurcations and the stability of bifurcated periodic orbits. Numerical simulations show very interesting global patterns of periodic solutions as the time delay is varied. In particular, we observe that these four periodic solutions are glued together along the stable and unstable manifolds of saddle points to develop a butterfly structure through a complicated process of gluing bifurcations of periodic solutions