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Sample records for nordic areas status

  1. PardNor - PARameters for ingestion dose models for NORdic areas. Status report for the NKS-B activity 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.P.; Andersson, K.G.

    2009-03-01

    The ECOSYS foodchain model is built into the European standard decision support systems ARGOS and RODOS, which are integrated in the preparedness for radiological events in the Nordic countries. However, a review has revealed that a number of parameters in ECOSYS do not reflect the current state-of-the-art knowledge, and do not adequately represent Nordic conditions. Improved and country/region specific data is required for ECOSYS to give trustworthy results. It is the aim of the PardNor activity to collect new data, and thus enable reliable use of ECOSYS for scenarios involving contamination of Nordic food production areas. In the reported work period of the PardNor activity, analyses have been performed for each Nordic country to determine the sensitivity of the ingestion dose end-point in ECOSYS to variation in 9 selected, potentially important parameters (human dietary components and animal fodder components). This parametric sensitivity was found to vary considerably between the different Nordic countries, reflecting considerable differences in diet and domestic production, and highlighting the importance of last year's work to identify appropriate location-specific parameters. A simple empirical Danish soil temperature based methodology for calculation of more reliable location-specific values of leaf area index (LAI) was tested for Swedish conditions and applied to estimate the seasonal LAI variation in other countries. The leaf area index reaches its maximum value much earlier in the southern parts of the Nordic region than in the northern. This means that the conditions for deposition and interception to vegetation would over a certain time span be very different in different Nordic areas. Also the influence on ECOSYS dose estimates of resuspension enrichment factors, leaching rates, fixation rates and desorption rates was investigated in the reported activity period, identifying new data sets where needed.(au)

  2. PardNor - PARameters for ingestion dose models for NORdic areas. Status report for the NKS-B activity 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, S.P.; Andersson, K.G. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2009-03-15

    The ECOSYS foodchain model is built into the European standard decision support systems ARGOS and RODOS, which are integrated in the preparedness for radiological events in the Nordic countries. However, a review has revealed that a number of parameters in ECOSYS do not reflect the current state-of-the-art knowledge, and do not adequately represent Nordic conditions. Improved and country/region specific data is required for ECOSYS to give trustworthy results. It is the aim of the PardNor activity to collect new data, and thus enable reliable use of ECOSYS for scenarios involving contamination of Nordic food production areas. In the reported work period of the PardNor activity, analyses have been performed for each Nordic country to determine the sensitivity of the ingestion dose end-point in ECOSYS to variation in 9 selected, potentially important parameters (human dietary components and animal fodder components). This parametric sensitivity was found to vary considerably between the different Nordic countries, reflecting considerable differences in diet and domestic production, and highlighting the importance of last year's work to identify appropriate location-specific parameters. A simple empirical Danish soil temperature based methodology for calculation of more reliable location-specific values of leaf area index (LAI) was tested for Swedish conditions and applied to estimate the seasonal LAI variation in other countries. The leaf area index reaches its maximum value much earlier in the southern parts of the Nordic region than in the northern. This means that the conditions for deposition and interception to vegetation would over a certain time span be very different in different Nordic areas. Also the influence on ECOSYS dose estimates of resuspension enrichment factors, leaching rates, fixation rates and desorption rates was investigated in the reported activity period, identifying new data sets where needed.(au)

  3. PardNor - PARameters for ingestion dose models for NORdic areas - Status report for the NKS-B activity 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Sven P.; Andersson, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    The ECOSYS foodchain model is built into the European standard decision support systems ARGOS and RODOS, which are integrated in the preparedness for radiological events in the Nordic countries. However, a review has revealed that a number of parameters in ECOSYS do not reflect the current state-of-the-art knowledge, and do not adequately represent Nordic conditions. Improved and country/region specific data is required for ECOSYS to give trustworthy results. It is the aim of the PardNor activity to collect new data, and thus enable reliable use of ECOSYS for scenarios involving contamination of Nordic food production areas. In the reported work period of the PardNor activity, examinations have been made of the availability in each of the Nordic countries of soil characterisation data that could be used as a basis for a refined and location-specific approach for estimation of soil-to-plant transfer of contaminants. Large national gridded soil type databases were found to be available for most of the Nordic countries. In addition, for many of these countries, also a number of more detailed soil parameter values, such as local concentrations of various exchangeable ions, cation exchange capacity and soil pH are available on national grids. The feasibility of implementing each of two detailed crop uptake models in ECOSYS - The CoupModel and the 'Absalom' model - was investigated. Both models were found to have serious constraints in this context, and it was therefore recommended to apply a simpler soil classification. To this end, a review was made of state-of-the-art transfer factor data for different soil types, and for the Faeroe Islands, where gridded information is not available, a different approach was described. A preliminary study was also included, on using the Radiocaesium Interception Potential (RIP) as a transfer parameter, utilising the very low RIP values caused by the geological conditions in Iceland. Parameters describing the processes of

  4. PardNor - PARameters for ingestion dose models for NORdic areas - Status report for the NKS-B activity 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Sven P.; Andersson, K.G. (eds.) (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2010-01-15

    The ECOSYS foodchain model is built into the European standard decision support systems ARGOS and RODOS, which are integrated in the preparedness for radiological events in the Nordic countries. However, a review has revealed that a number of parameters in ECOSYS do not reflect the current state-of-the-art knowledge, and do not adequately represent Nordic conditions. Improved and country/region specific data is required for ECOSYS to give trustworthy results. It is the aim of the PardNor activity to collect new data, and thus enable reliable use of ECOSYS for scenarios involving contamination of Nordic food production areas. In the reported work period of the PardNor activity, examinations have been made of the availability in each of the Nordic countries of soil characterisation data that could be used as a basis for a refined and location-specific approach for estimation of soil-to-plant transfer of contaminants. Large national gridded soil type databases were found to be available for most of the Nordic countries. In addition, for many of these countries, also a number of more detailed soil parameter values, such as local concentrations of various exchangeable ions, cation exchange capacity and soil pH are available on national grids. The feasibility of implementing each of two detailed crop uptake models in ECOSYS - The CoupModel and the 'Absalom' model - was investigated. Both models were found to have serious constraints in this context, and it was therefore recommended to apply a simpler soil classification. To this end, a review was made of state-of-the-art transfer factor data for different soil types, and for the Faeroe Islands, where gridded information is not available, a different approach was described. A preliminary study was also included, on using the Radiocaesium Interception Potential (RIP) as a transfer parameter, utilising the very low RIP values caused by the geological conditions in Iceland. Parameters describing the processes of

  5. PardNor - PARameters for ingestion dose models for NORdic areas - Status report for the NKS-B activity 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Sven P.; Andersson, K.G.

    2011-01-01

    The ECOSYS foodchain model is built into the European standard decision support systems ARGOS and RODOS, which are integrated in the preparedness for radiological events in the Nordic countries. However, a review has revealed that a number of parameters in ECOSYS do not reflect the current state-of-the-art knowledge, and do not adequately represent Nordic conditions. Improved and country/region specific data is required for ECOSYS to give trustworthy results. It is the aim of the PardNor activity to collect new data, and thus enable reliable use of ECOSYS for scenarios involving contamination of Nordic food production areas. In the reported work period of the PardNor activity, the parameters governing the contaminant deposition processes were revised, and an important point here is that contaminant particle sizes were taken into account, which has so far not been the case in ECOSYS. Both dry and wet deposition processes were addressed. New datasets were derived for dry deposition, whereas for wet deposition (washout, rainout, snow scavenging), which can not be addressed directly in ECOSYS, but must be dealt with elsewhere in the ARGOS and RODOS decision support systems, a new methodology was suggested on the basis of available measurement data. Also parameters governing the natural weathering processes of contaminants on crops and bare soil were revised, and it was demonstrated that precipitation has a strong influence on the weathering half-life, which should be included in ECOSYS. Both for deposition and weathering parameters, a special effort was made to retrieve measurement data of Nordic origin. A series of calculations were made with the ECOSYS model to show the effect of introducing new and improved parameter values for dry deposition and weathering processes. The parameter revision was found to have great effect on the ECOSYS estimates of food contamination levels for a 'Chernobyl-like' NPP accident scenario, and the effect could well be even greater for

  6. PardNor - PARameters for ingestion dose models for NORdic areas - Status report for the NKS-B activity 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Sven P.; Andersson, K.G. (eds.) (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2011-01-15

    The ECOSYS foodchain model is built into the European standard decision support systems ARGOS and RODOS, which are integrated in the preparedness for radiological events in the Nordic countries. However, a review has revealed that a number of parameters in ECOSYS do not reflect the current state-of-the-art knowledge, and do not adequately represent Nordic conditions. Improved and country/region specific data is required for ECOSYS to give trustworthy results. It is the aim of the PardNor activity to collect new data, and thus enable reliable use of ECOSYS for scenarios involving contamination of Nordic food production areas. In the reported work period of the PardNor activity, the parameters governing the contaminant deposition processes were revised, and an important point here is that contaminant particle sizes were taken into account, which has so far not been the case in ECOSYS. Both dry and wet deposition processes were addressed. New datasets were derived for dry deposition, whereas for wet deposition (washout, rainout, snow scavenging), which can not be addressed directly in ECOSYS, but must be dealt with elsewhere in the ARGOS and RODOS decision support systems, a new methodology was suggested on the basis of available measurement data. Also parameters governing the natural weathering processes of contaminants on crops and bare soil were revised, and it was demonstrated that precipitation has a strong influence on the weathering half-life, which should be included in ECOSYS. Both for deposition and weathering parameters, a special effort was made to retrieve measurement data of Nordic origin. A series of calculations were made with the ECOSYS model to show the effect of introducing new and improved parameter values for dry deposition and weathering processes. The parameter revision was found to have great effect on the ECOSYS estimates of food contamination levels for a 'Chernobyl-like' NPP accident scenario, and the effect could well be even

  7. Iodine status in the Nordic countries – past and present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Filipsson Nyström

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate iodine nutrition is dependent on ground water content, seafood, and, as many countries use iodized cow fodder, dairy products. In most countries, salt fortification programs are needed to assure adequate iodine intake. Objectives: The objectives are threefold: 1 to describe the past and present iodine situation in the Nordic countries, 2 to identify important gaps of knowledge, and 3 to highlight differences among the Nordic countries’ iodine biomonitoring and fortification policies. Design: Historical data are compared with the current situation. The Nordic countries’ strategies to achieve recommended intake and urine iodine levels and their respective success rates are evaluated. Results: In the past, the iodine situation ranged from excellent in Iceland to widespread goiter and cretinism in large areas of Sweden. The situation was less severe in Norway and Finland. According to a 1960 World Health Organization (WHO report, there were then no observations of iodine deficiency in Denmark. In Sweden and Finland, the fortification of table salt was introduced 50–75 years ago, and in Norway and Finland, the fortification of cow fodder starting in the 1950s helped improve the population's iodine status due to the high intake of milk. In Denmark, iodine has been added to household salt and salt in bread for the past 15 years. The Nordic countries differ with regard to regulations and degree of governmental involvement. There are indications that pregnant and lactating women, the two most vulnerable groups, are mildly deficient in iodine in several of the Nordic countries. Conclusion: The Nordic countries employ different strategies to attain adequate iodine nutrition. The situation is not optimal and is in need of re-evaluation. Iodine researchers, Nordic national food administrations, and Nordic governmental institutions would benefit from collaboration to attain a broader approach and guarantee good iodine health for all.

  8. Iodine status in the Nordic countries – past and present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Helena Filipsson; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Erlund, Iris; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Hulthén, Lena; Laurberg, Peter; Mattisson, Irene; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Virtanen, Suvi; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2016-01-01

    Background Adequate iodine nutrition is dependent on ground water content, seafood, and, as many countries use iodized cow fodder, dairy products. In most countries, salt fortification programs are needed to assure adequate iodine intake. Objectives The objectives are threefold: 1) to describe the past and present iodine situation in the Nordic countries, 2) to identify important gaps of knowledge, and 3) to highlight differences among the Nordic countries’ iodine biomonitoring and fortification policies. Design Historical data are compared with the current situation. The Nordic countries’ strategies to achieve recommended intake and urine iodine levels and their respective success rates are evaluated. Results In the past, the iodine situation ranged from excellent in Iceland to widespread goiter and cretinism in large areas of Sweden. The situation was less severe in Norway and Finland. According to a 1960 World Health Organization (WHO) report, there were then no observations of iodine deficiency in Denmark. In Sweden and Finland, the fortification of table salt was introduced 50–75 years ago, and in Norway and Finland, the fortification of cow fodder starting in the 1950s helped improve the population's iodine status due to the high intake of milk. In Denmark, iodine has been added to household salt and salt in bread for the past 15 years. The Nordic countries differ with regard to regulations and degree of governmental involvement. There are indications that pregnant and lactating women, the two most vulnerable groups, are mildly deficient in iodine in several of the Nordic countries. Conclusion The Nordic countries employ different strategies to attain adequate iodine nutrition. The situation is not optimal and is in need of re-evaluation. Iodine researchers, Nordic national food administrations, and Nordic governmental institutions would benefit from collaboration to attain a broader approach and guarantee good iodine health for all. PMID:27283870

  9. Iodine status in the Nordic countries - past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Helena Filipsson; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Erlund, Iris; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Hulthén, Lena; Laurberg, Peter; Mattisson, Irene; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Virtanen, Suvi; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2016-01-01

    Adequate iodine nutrition is dependent on ground water content, seafood, and, as many countries use iodized cow fodder, dairy products. In most countries, salt fortification programs are needed to assure adequate iodine intake. The objectives are threefold: 1) to describe the past and present iodine situation in the Nordic countries, 2) to identify important gaps of knowledge, and 3) to highlight differences among the Nordic countries' iodine biomonitoring and fortification policies. Historical data are compared with the current situation. The Nordic countries' strategies to achieve recommended intake and urine iodine levels and their respective success rates are evaluated. In the past, the iodine situation ranged from excellent in Iceland to widespread goiter and cretinism in large areas of Sweden. The situation was less severe in Norway and Finland. According to a 1960 World Health Organization (WHO) report, there were then no observations of iodine deficiency in Denmark. In Sweden and Finland, the fortification of table salt was introduced 50-75 years ago, and in Norway and Finland, the fortification of cow fodder starting in the 1950s helped improve the population's iodine status due to the high intake of milk. In Denmark, iodine has been added to household salt and salt in bread for the past 15 years. The Nordic countries differ with regard to regulations and degree of governmental involvement. There are indications that pregnant and lactating women, the two most vulnerable groups, are mildly deficient in iodine in several of the Nordic countries. The Nordic countries employ different strategies to attain adequate iodine nutrition. The situation is not optimal and is in need of re-evaluation. Iodine researchers, Nordic national food administrations, and Nordic governmental institutions would benefit from collaboration to attain a broader approach and guarantee good iodine health for all.

  10. Pharmacy internship in the Nordic countries – Status and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stig Nørgaard, Lotte; Wallman, Andy; Bjornsdóttir, Ingunn

    2017-01-01

    Pharmacy internship in the Nordic countries – Status and future Conference Paper in Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy 13(3):e14 · May 2017 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2017.02.099 Conference: Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy......Pharmacy internship in the Nordic countries – Status and future Conference Paper in Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy 13(3):e14 · May 2017 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2017.02.099 Conference: Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy...

  11. Data sheet based countermeasure evaluation for radioactively contaminated Nordic food-producing areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.G.; Roed, J.; Rantavaara, A.; Rosen, K.; Salbu, B.; Skipperud, L.

    2002-01-01

    A Nordic expert group has identified and critically evaluated the countermeasures that may potentially be implemented in connection with major nuclear accident situations contaminating Nordic food-producing areas. This paper demonstrates how the derived technical information can be applied by decision-makers to identify practicable and cost-effective means for mitigation of the impact of contamination. (au)

  12. Data sheet based countermeasure evaluation for radioactively contaminated Nordic food-producing areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K.G.; Roed, J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Rantavaara, A. [STUK, Helsinki (Finland); Rosen, K. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Salbu, B.; Skipperud, L. [Agricultural Univ. of Norway, Aas (Norway)

    2002-04-01

    A Nordic expert group has identified and critically evaluated the countermeasures that may potentially be implemented in connection with major nuclear accident situations contaminating Nordic food-producing areas. This paper demonstrates how the derived technical information can be applied by decision-makers to identify practicable and cost-effective means for mitigation of the impact of contamination. (au)

  13. Psoriatic arthritis mutilans (PAM) in the Nordic countries: demographics and disease status. The Nordic PAM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudbjornsson, B; Ejstrup, L; Gran, J T; Iversen, L; Lindqvist, U; Paimela, L; Ternowitz, T; Ståhle, M

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of psoriatic arthritis mutilans (PAM) in the Nordic countries. Patients with putative PAM aged ≥ 18 years were recruited. Fifty-nine patients were included after clinical examination. The prevalence of PAM in the adult Nordic population was estimated to be 3.69 per million inhabitants [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.75-4.63]. The female to male ratio was close to 1:1. The mean age of skin disease onset was 25 years and the mean age of onset of joint disease was 30 years. The onset of skin disease was 2 years earlier among female patients. At inclusion, the mean duration of arthritis was 27 ± 11 years for male patients and 33 ± 11 years for female patients. PAM was most frequently seen in the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints of the toes, followed by the IP joint of the thumb and the DIP joint of the little finger on the left hand. Female and male patients had similar numbers of painful and swollen joints. Enthesitis was found in 19 patients (32%), while 38 patients (64%) had a history of dactylitis. Twenty-three of these 38 patients (61%) had a history of dactylitis in the same finger/toe as they had PAM. At the time of inclusion, 45% of the patients were found to have clear or almost clear skin. PAM in the Nordic countries has a low prevalence, with only three to five cases per million inhabitants. The majority of the patients present with mild skin disease.

  14. Status of wind energy in Nordic communities in Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaumel, J.L. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada). Wind Energy Group

    2003-07-01

    Remote and nordic communities in Quebec include Inuit villages, the Lower North Coast, Anticosti Island, Magdalen Islands, and the James Bay region. Annual wind speed in each of these communities is more than 8.5 m/s which is ideal for wind power generation. However, wind energy projects that were underway have been abandoned for a variety of reasons. Hydro-Quebec has decided to invest in power lines to link villages in the Lower North coast. The electric utility is not interested in wind energy for the Magdalen Islands because of an existing large diesel power station. Likewise, Anticosti Island has a completely automated small diesel plant. Nordic Innu Villages are making money with fuel sales to Hydro-Quebec and have no economic interest in wind energy. Other barriers to development include a lack of government support and lack of interest in small wind projects. In addition, turbine manufacturers have not lobbied for wind energy development in Quebec's nordic communities. However, the potential exists for future development as innovations are rendering wind power more adaptable to community needs. Off-grid technology is also available. 2 figs.

  15. Competitive policies in the Nordic energy research and innovation area - eNERGIA : Synthesis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klitkou, Antje; Pedersen, Trond Einar; Scordato, Lisa; Mariussen, Aage

    2008-07-01

    This report outlines the energy research and innovation policy in the Nordic and Baltic countries - Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The report is the result of the research project Competitive policies in the Nordic Energy Research and Innovation Area (eNERGIA). The project was co-funded by Nordic Energy Research and NIFU STEP. The objective of the project was to determine possible policy interventions targeted at the development and commercial promotion of promising renewable energy production technologies in the Nordic countries. The report is based on an analysis of the framework conditions for the sector innovation systems for energy production, with a focus on research and innovation policy in the Nordic and Baltic countries. We identified the key actors and institutions in all the eight countries studied. In addition, we conducted a performance assessment based on the quantitative indicators of publishing and patenting, international collaboration and funding data. Using these indicators as a basis, we conducted an analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT analysis) of the Nordic sector innovation systems for energy production. This analysis identified common or diverging characteristics, challenges, framework conditions, energy-technology specialisation and, most important of all, cases of good practice in key technologies. The project included two workshops, and the results of these are also reported here. The outcomes of the workshops have been used in several parts of the project: A Nordic workshop on the environmental consequences of deployment at scale of these technologies to replace existing energy systems, with a focus on wind energy and photovoltaic energy, carbon dioxide capture and storage, and second-generation bioenergy. A Nordic workshop on policy implications for Nordic Energy Research. The report comprises three parts: Part 1: Country reports Part 2: Technology reports

  16. Electricity demand profile with high penetration of heat pumps in Nordic area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the heat pump (HP) demand profile with high HP penetration in the Nordic area in order to achieve the carbon neutrality power system. The calculation method in the European Standard EN14825 was used to estimate the HP electricity demand profile. The study results show...... there will be high power demand from HPs and the selection of supplemental heating for heat pumps has a big impact on the peak electrical power load of heating. The study in this paper gives an estimate of the scale of the electricity demand with high penetration of heat pumps in the Nordic area....

  17. PardNor - PARameters for ingestion dose models for NORdic areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Sven P.; Andersson, K.G.

    2008-07-01

    A review of the foodchain ECOSYS model, which is applied in the European standard decision support systems ARGOS and RODOS, has identified a number of points where elaboration is deemed necessary before ECOSYS should be relied on for Nordic decision making. The present study has been performed to update the ECOSYS model, which in a number of ways does not reflect current state-of-the-art knowledge, and to obtain country-specific data. It is the aim of the PardNor project to collect new data, and thus enable the targeted use of ECOSYS for scenarios involving contamination of specific Nordic areas. The effort in 2007 is targeted on identifying location-specific Nordic data sets describing the typical human diets, fractions of imported food items and animal feeding regimes. For each of the Nordic countries, a dataset has been established describing the typical diets for four different age groups, ranging from young children to senior adults. A comparison of the datasets shows that there are significant differences between consumption rates of some of the important food items. For instance, the average consumption of milk varies by a factor of 4-5 among the Nordic countries, and consumption of leafy vegetables varies by a factor of almost 4. Due to the differences in climate among the Nordic countries and also compared to Southern Germany, for which the default ECOSYS values apply, there are also very significant differences in the production regimes of some food items. Since some countries import practically the entire consumption of some major food items, it is important to generally examine the import patterns for the different Nordic countries. Due to the complexity of current international trade routes, unexpectedly high import fractions were found for some food items, for which the production in the given countries was much more than sufficient to cover the home market. ECOSYS calculations for a scenario showed that the differences in consumption and production

  18. PardNor - PARameters for ingestion dose models for NORdic areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Sven P.; Andersson, K.G. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2008-07-15

    A review of the foodchain ECOSYS model, which is applied in the European standard decision support systems ARGOS and RODOS, has identified a number of points where elaboration is deemed necessary before ECOSYS should be relied on for Nordic decision making. The present study has been performed to update the ECOSYS model, which in a number of ways does not reflect current state-of-the-art knowledge, and to obtain country-specific data. It is the aim of the PardNor project to collect new data, and thus enable the targeted use of ECOSYS for scenarios involving contamination of specific Nordic areas. The effort in 2007 is targeted on identifying location-specific Nordic data sets describing the typical human diets, fractions of imported food items and animal feeding regimes. For each of the Nordic countries, a dataset has been established describing the typical diets for four different age groups, ranging from young children to senior adults. A comparison of the datasets shows that there are significant differences between consumption rates of some of the important food items. For instance, the average consumption of milk varies by a factor of 4-5 among the Nordic countries, and consumption of leafy vegetables varies by a factor of almost 4. Due to the differences in climate among the Nordic countries and also compared to Southern Germany, for which the default ECOSYS values apply, there are also very significant differences in the production regimes of some food items. Since some countries import practically the entire consumption of some major food items, it is important to generally examine the import patterns for the different Nordic countries. Due to the complexity of current international trade routes, unexpectedly high import fractions were found for some food items, for which the production in the given countries was much more than sufficient to cover the home market. ECOSYS calculations for a scenario showed that the differences in consumption and production

  19. Approaches for integrated assessment of ecological and eutrophication status of surface waters in Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Aroviita, Jukka; Carstensen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    We review approaches and tools currently used in Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) for integrated assessment of ‘ecological status’ sensu the EU Water Framework Directive as well as assessment of ‘eutrophication status’ in coastal and marine waters. Integration principles for...... principles applied within BQEs are critical and in need of harmonisation if we want a better understanding of potential transition in ecological status between surface water types, e.g. when riverine water enters a downstream lake or coastal water body.......We review approaches and tools currently used in Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) for integrated assessment of ‘ecological status’ sensu the EU Water Framework Directive as well as assessment of ‘eutrophication status’ in coastal and marine waters. Integration principles...

  20. Nordic cooperation within natural gas research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edna, O.-J.

    1993-01-01

    Nordic cooperation within natural gas research is discussed. A reorganization of this cooperation has recently taken place. It is explained that common Nordic resources are now to be concentrated within 7 areas, one of which is the area of energy/industrial policies, regional policies and agriculture and forestry, all under the common heading of ''Economy''. The plan of activities within this area includes international cooperation within the European Communities, the European Energy Charter, the International Energy Agency and will involve the energy policy situation in eastern Europe and the Baltic countries, the electric power and natural gas markets in the northern countries, energy related environmental questions and Nordic energy research cooperation. Nordic research activities constitute 2% of research resources within the OECD. The basis for Nordic research cooperation (for example a common cultural background) is described, and suggestions are made as to how it should be administrated. The Nordic energy research programme for 1991-1994 embodies bioenergy and the environment, fuel cells, energy and the society, solid fuels, district heating and petroleum technology. The status report for the nordic gas market, which represents the Nordic gas companies' evaluation of the Nordic gas market, is summarized, and Nordic research activities related to gas utilization are shortly commented upon. (AB)

  1. The Thermal State of Permafrost in the Nordic Area during the International Polar Year 2007-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, H. H.; Etzelmuller, B.; Isaksen, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a snapshot of the permafrost thermal state in the Nordic area obtained during the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2009. Several intensive research campaigns were undertaken within a variety of projects in the Nordic countries to obtain this snapshot. We demonstrate...... for Scandinavia that both lowland permafrost in palsas and peat plateaus, and large areas of permafrost in the mountains are at temperatures close to 0 degrees C, which makes them sensitive to climatic changes. In Svalbard and northeast Greenland, and also in the highest parts of the mountains in the rest...... affect the permafrost thermal state in the Nordic area. Time series of active-layer thickness and permafrost temperature conditions in the Nordic area, which are generally only 10 years in length, show generally increasing active-layer depths and risings permafrost temperatures....

  2. The association of employment status and family status with health among women and men in four Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, E; Lahelma, E; Saastamoinen, P; Elstad, J-I

    2005-01-01

    The Nordic countries have relatively equal employment participation between men and women, but some differences between countries exist in labour market participation. The aim was to examine the association between employment status and health among women and men in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, and analyse whether this association is modified by marital status and parental status. The data come from nationally representative cross-sectional surveys carried out in Denmark (n = 2,209), Finland (n = 4,604), Norway (n = 1,844) and Sweden (n = 5,360) in 1994-95. Women and men aged 25-49 were included. Employment status was categorized into full-time employed, part-time employed, unemployed, and housewives among women and into employed and unemployed among men. Health was measured by perceived health and limiting longstanding illness. Logistic regression analysis was used, adjusting for age and education. Marital status and parental status were analysed as modifying factors. The non-employed were more likely to report perceived health as below good and limiting longstanding illness than the employed among both women and men. The association between employment status and perceived health remained unchanged when marital status and parental status were adjusted for among all men and Finnish women, but the association was slightly strengthened among Danish and Swedish women, with the housewives becoming more likely to report ill health than employed women. The association between employment status and limiting longstanding illness was slightly strengthened among women, and slightly weakened among Norwegian men when marital and parental status were adjusted for. Non-employment was associated with poorer health in all countries, although there are differences in the employment patterns between the countries. Among women marital status and parental status showed a modest or no influence on the association between employment status and health. Among men there was no

  3. Heritage learning outcomes in the Nordic and Baltic area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Tine; Kling, Sofia,; Sonne, Lasse

    , there is a cultural heritage sector in a somewhat new arena, where concepts such as citizenship, lifelong learning, social cohesion and human capital are central. This means that museums and archives need to find new ways to justify their activities: it is no longer sufficient to focus on the collection and the care...... and preservation of documents and objects. On the contrary, it has become increasingly important to create new areas of use, relevant to the surrounding society, for the documents and objects chosen for preservation. These guidelines relate to competence development among adult visitors to archives and museums...

  4. EV Charging Analysis Based on the National Travel Surveys of the Nordic Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the charging demand profiles of electric vehicles (EVs) based on the National Travel Surveys of the Nordic area. The EV charging analysis is carried out considering different types of charging patterns which are dumb charging, timed charging and spot price based charging....... The driving behavior of the vehicles is studied through the National Travel Surveys of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The features of the charging demand are discussed based on the results of the analysis. The study in this paper provides an estimation of the possible level and patterns of the EV...

  5. Evaluation of early phase nuclear accident clean-up procedures for Nordic residential areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.G.

    1996-12-01

    The work reported was carried out as a part of the EKO-5 project under the framework of the Nordic co-operative NKS programme. The project is aimed at giving guidelines relating to Nordic conditions for the reduction of external doses in the early phase of a major accidental airborne nuclear contamination (essentially with 137 Cs) situation in urban areas. The material in this report describes the expected effects, in terms of immediate dose rate reduction and of reduction of the integrated doses over 70 years, of implementation of the methods which were considered to be feasible for early phase treatment of contaminated urban surfaces. Also given are estimates of the integrated doses if no action were taken. The given estimates were based on the experience obtained through large amounts of in situ measurements on different types of surface, mainly since the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The computer model URGENT, was used to apply the information on the migration of the radioactive material with time, together with the results of Monte Carlo photon transport calculations, for the time-integrated dose estimates. 66 data sheets describe the beneficial effects, costs and disadvantages of application of a feasible method for cleaning in the early phase of a specific type of surface in one of five different urban or suburban environments. These data form the foundation for the recommendations on guidelines, which are the ultimate goal of the EKO-5 project. References are given to recommended supplementary reading. (EG)

  6. Nordic market report 2009 : Development in the Nordic electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The Nordic region is characterized by a unique mix of generation sources where the high share of hydropower, representing virtually all of the Norwegian and nearly half of the Swedish generation capacity, has a great influence on the market. The level of precipitation is thus vital when calculating and analysing potential generation levels. In addition, the Nordic region has significantly colder winters than any other European country, influencing the consumption as many households are electrically heated. In 2008 the overall electricity consumption in the Nordic region was slightly higher - 1.6 per cent - than in 2007. During periods of peak consumption the Nordic power system proved sufficient to ensure security of supply without restrictions on consumption. The Nordic region operates almost entirely as one synchronous power system through transmission grid. The continuous reinforcement of the Nordic transmission grid has enabled an increased security of supply as well as a more efficient use of the generation capacity. Increasing cross border power flows strain the transmission lines and increases the demand for transmission capacity. Possible congestions occurring between the Nord Pool bidding areas are handled through market splitting, while internal congestions in general are handled through counter trade or by reducing interconnector capacity at the bidding area borders. The Nordic wholesale power market is a well functioning electricity market. Trade at Nord Pool has increased steadily since it was established in 1993. Although trading at Nord Pool Spot is voluntary, significantly more physical power is now traded on the power exchange than bilaterally - from 42 per cent of total Nordic consumption in 2004 to 76 per cent in 2008. During 2008 average spot prices at Nord Pool were considerably higher (approximately 60 per cent) than prices in 2007. The Nordic retail markets are essentially four separate markets, influenced by national differences, but work on

  7. Nordic market report 2009. Development in the Nordic electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-15

    The Nordic region is characterized by a unique mix of generation sources where the high share of hydropower, representing virtually all of the Norwegian and nearly half of the Swedish generation capacity, has a great influence on the market. The level of precipitation is thus vital when calculating and analysing potential generation levels. In addition, the Nordic region has significantly colder winters than any other European country, influencing the consumption as many households are electrically heated. In 2008 the overall electricity consumption in the Nordic region was slightly higher - 1.6 per cent - than in 2007. During periods of peak consumption the Nordic power system proved sufficient to ensure security of supply without restrictions on consumption. The Nordic region operates almost entirely as one synchronous power system through transmission grid. The continuous reinforcement of the Nordic transmission grid has enabled an increased security of supply as well as a more efficient use of the generation capacity. Increasing cross border power flows strain the transmission lines and increases the demand for transmission capacity. Possible congestions occurring between the Nord Pool bidding areas are handled through market splitting, while internal congestions in general are handled through counter trade or by reducing interconnector capacity at the bidding area borders. The Nordic wholesale power market is a well functioning electricity market. Trade at Nord Pool has increased steadily since it was established in 1993. Although trading at Nord Pool Spot is voluntary, significantly more physical power is now traded on the power exchange than bilaterally - from 42 per cent of total Nordic consumption in 2004 to 76 per cent in 2008. During 2008 average spot prices at Nord Pool were considerably higher (approximately 60 per cent) than prices in 2007. The Nordic retail markets are essentially four separate markets, influenced by national differences, but work on

  8. Nordic forum for generation IV reactors, status and activities in 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Nieuwenhove, R.; Lauritzen, B.; Nonboel, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Nordic-Gen4 (continuation from NOMAGE4) seminar was this year hosted by DTU Nutech at Risoe, Denmark. The seminar was well attended (49 participants from 12 countries). The presentations covered many aspects in Gen-IV reactor research and gave a good overview of the activities within this field at the various institutes and universities. The present report contains book of abstracts. The individual Power Point presentations are indexed in INIS and may be found at http://nordic-gen4.org/seminars/nordic-gen4-riso-2012-2/ (LN)

  9. Nordic forum for generation IV reactors, status and activities in 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Nieuwenhove, R. [Institutt for Energiteknikk, OECD Halden Reactor Project, Kjeller (Norway); Lauritzen, B.; Nonboel, E. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Nutech, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2012-12-15

    The Nordic-Gen4 (continuation from NOMAGE4) seminar was this year hosted by DTU Nutech at Risoe, Denmark. The seminar was well attended (49 participants from 12 countries). The presentations covered many aspects in Gen-IV reactor research and gave a good overview of the activities within this field at the various institutes and universities. The present report contains book of abstracts. The individual Power Point presentations are indexed in INIS and may be found at http://nordic-gen4.org/seminars/nordic-gen4-riso-2012-2/ (LN)

  10. Building the nordic research and innovation areas in hydrogen. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannemand Andersen, P.; Holst Joergensen, B. [Risoe National Lab., System Analysis Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Eerola, A.; Koljonen, T.; Loikkanen, T. [VTT Information Service, Espoo (Finland); Eriksson, E.A. [FOI, Stockholm (SE)] (eds.)

    2005-01-01

    The Nordic Hydrogen Energy Foresight was launched in January 2003 by 16 partners from academia, industry, energy companies and associations from all five Nordic countries. A wide range of additional Nordic and European experts from research, industry and governments have participated in the various steps of the foresight process. The aim of the foresight is to provide decision support for companies and research institutes in defining R and D priorities and to assist governmental decision-makers in making effective framework policies for the introduction of hydrogen energy. The foresight exercise also provides a means for developing Nordic networks to gain critical mass in a wider international context. Interaction between research, industry and government, and combination of judgemental and formal procedures are essential features of the Nordic H{sub 2} Energy Foresight. The foresight process includes a series of pre-structured interactive workshops, supported by systems analysis and assessment of technical developments. (BA)

  11. The status of the Nordic populations of the Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) in a changing world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Lars; Söderquist, Pär; Christensen, Thomas Kjær

    2013-01-01

    populations at the flyway level. In response to reported de- clines in the North-West European flyway population of the Mallard, we compiled avail- able data on this species in the Nordic countries up to 2010. Generally, national breeding numbers showed increasing trends, wintering abundance showed variable...... flyway. Numerically the Nordic breeding population appears in “good condition”, and the wintering numbers have been either stable or increasing in the last two decades. The annual number of releases needs to be determined in order to judge the sustainability of the current levels of exploitation. Overall......, none of the indicators showed alarming signs for the Mallard population in the Nordic countries when consid- ered in isolation. However, the widespread decline in wintering numbers elsewhere across North-western Europe requires urgent pan-European action....

  12. An overview of current non-nuclear radioactive waste management in the Nordic countries and considerations on possible needs for enhanced inter-Nordic cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Brewitz, Erica; Magnússon, Sigurður M.

    -hanced Nordic cooperation within the area. The radiation safety authorities in the Nordic countries were all asked to produce a current status report including thoughts about possible needs for enhanced cooperation. The material was presented and discussed at a meeting in Copenhagen of rep-resentatives of NKS...

  13. CISG Nordic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    CISG Nordic offers full text court decisions, papers, domestic laws, etc. collected in the Nordic countries. All material is related to the application of the CISG.......CISG Nordic offers full text court decisions, papers, domestic laws, etc. collected in the Nordic countries. All material is related to the application of the CISG....

  14. Present status and perspective of radiochemical analysis of radionuclides in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Olsson, Mattias; Togneri, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Radiochemical analysis plays a critical role in the determination of pure beta and alpha emitting radionuclides for environmental monitoring, radioecology, decommissioning, nuclear forensics and geological dating. A remarkable development on radiochemical analysis has been achieved in the past...... of radionuclides, especially in Nordic countries; some requirements from nuclear industries and research organizations, as well as perspectives on the development of radiochemical analysis are discussed....

  15. A guide to countermeasures for implementation in the event of a nuclear accident affecting nordic food-producing areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.G.; Roed, J.; Rantavaara, A.; Rosen, K.; Salbu, B.; Skipperud, L.

    2000-08-01

    State-of-the-art information on methods for management of nuclear accidents affecting food-producing areas has been reviewed, evaluated and transposed to reflect conditions relevant to the Nordic countries. This data, describing in detail the various method-specific costs and benefits, is reported in a well-arranged format facilitating analyses in connection with decision-making. Guidance, recommendations and examples are given as to how the individual data sheets may be used in emergency preparedness planning. (au)

  16. Farming different species in RAS in Nordic countries: Current status and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Lund, Ivar; Thorarinsdottir, Ragnheidur

    2013-01-01

    Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) have gained increasing interest in recent years as a means to intensify fish production while at the same time minimize the environmental impact. Considerable hands-on experience has accumulated within the Nordic countries over the last 20-30 years in desig...... such as aquaponic systems appear to be feasible primarily when culturing more exotic species targeted for selected customers...

  17. Status of small water supplies in the Nordic countries: Characteristics, water quality and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Maria J; Persson, Kenneth M; Andradottir, Hrund O; Gardarsson, Sigurdur M

    2017-11-01

    Access to safe water is essential for public health and is one of the most important prerequisites for good living and safe food production. Many studies have shown that non-compliance with drinking water quality standards in small water supply systems is much higher than in large systems. Nevertheless, people served by small water supply systems have the right to the same level of health protection. Actions are therefore needed to improve the situation. The objective of the present study was to carry out a baseline analysis of the situation in the Nordic region and provide recommendations for governmental policy and actions. Data were gathered on number of water supplies, population served, compliance with regulations and waterborne disease outbreaks from various sources in the Nordic countries. The collected data showed that there are about 12500 regulated water supplies, 9400 of which serve fewer than 500 persons. The number of unregulated and poorly regulated supplies is unknown, but it can be roughly estimated that these serve 10% of the Nordic population on a permanent basis or 2.6 million people. However, this does not tell the whole story as many of the very small water supplies serve transient populations, summerhouse dwellers and tourist sites, with many more users. Non-compliance regarding microbes is much higher in the small supplies. The population weighted average fecal contamination incidence rate in the Nordic region is eleven times higher in the smaller supplies than in the large ones, 0.76% and 0.07%, respectively. Registered waterborne disease outbreaks were also more frequent in the small supplies than in the large ones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Trends in Food Habits and Their Relation to Socioeconomic Status among Nordic Adolescents 2001/2002-2009/2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Siri Fismen

    Full Text Available In the Nordic countries, substantial policy and intervention efforts have been made to increase adolescents' consumption of fruit and vegetables and to reduce their intake of sweets and soft drinks. Some initiatives have been formulated in a Nordic collaboration and implemented at national level. In recent years, social inequalities in food habits have been attracted particular governmental interest and several initiatives addressing the socioeconomic gradient in food habits have been highlighted. However, few internationally published studies have evaluated how trends in adolescents' food habits develop in the context of Nordic nutrition policy, or have compared differences between the Nordic countries.The study was based on Danish, Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish cross-sectional data from the international Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC study, collected via three nationally representative and comparable questionnaire surveys in 2001/2002, 2005/2006 and 2009/2010. Food habits were identified by students' consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets and sugar sweetened soft drink. Socioeconomic status (SES was measured with the Family Affluence Scale (FAS. Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the data.Trends in fruit consumption developed differently across countries, characterized by an increase in Denmark and Norway and more stable trends in Sweden and Finland. Vegetable consumption increased particularly in Denmark and to a lesser extent in Norway, whereas Sweden and Finland displayed stable trends. Decreased trends were observed for sweet and soft drink consumption and were similar in Norway, Sweden and Finland. Sweet consumption decreased across all survey years, whereas soft drink consumption decreased between 2001/2002-2005/2006 and was stable thereafter. Denmark displayed an increase between 2001/2002-2005/2006 followed by a similar decrease between 2005/2006-2009/2010 for both sweet and soft drink consumption

  19. Trends in Food Habits and Their Relation to Socioeconomic Status among Nordic Adolescents 2001/2002-2009/2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fismen, Anne-Siri; Smith, Otto Robert Frans; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Rasmussen, Mette; Pedersen Pagh, Trine; Augustine, Lilly; Ojala, Kristiina; Samdal, Oddrun

    2016-01-01

    In the Nordic countries, substantial policy and intervention efforts have been made to increase adolescents' consumption of fruit and vegetables and to reduce their intake of sweets and soft drinks. Some initiatives have been formulated in a Nordic collaboration and implemented at national level. In recent years, social inequalities in food habits have been attracted particular governmental interest and several initiatives addressing the socioeconomic gradient in food habits have been highlighted. However, few internationally published studies have evaluated how trends in adolescents' food habits develop in the context of Nordic nutrition policy, or have compared differences between the Nordic countries. The study was based on Danish, Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish cross-sectional data from the international Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study, collected via three nationally representative and comparable questionnaire surveys in 2001/2002, 2005/2006 and 2009/2010. Food habits were identified by students' consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets and sugar sweetened soft drink. Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured with the Family Affluence Scale (FAS). Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the data. Trends in fruit consumption developed differently across countries, characterized by an increase in Denmark and Norway and more stable trends in Sweden and Finland. Vegetable consumption increased particularly in Denmark and to a lesser extent in Norway, whereas Sweden and Finland displayed stable trends. Decreased trends were observed for sweet and soft drink consumption and were similar in Norway, Sweden and Finland. Sweet consumption decreased across all survey years, whereas soft drink consumption decreased between 2001/2002-2005/2006 and was stable thereafter. Denmark displayed an increase between 2001/2002-2005/2006 followed by a similar decrease between 2005/2006-2009/2010 for both sweet and soft drink consumption. Socioeconomic

  20. Trends in Food Habits and Their Relation to Socioeconomic Status among Nordic Adolescents 2001/2002-2009/2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fismen, Anne-Siri; Smith, Otto Robert Frans; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Rasmussen, Mette; Pedersen Pagh, Trine; Augustine, Lilly; Ojala, Kristiina; Samdal, Oddrun

    2016-01-01

    Background In the Nordic countries, substantial policy and intervention efforts have been made to increase adolescents' consumption of fruit and vegetables and to reduce their intake of sweets and soft drinks. Some initiatives have been formulated in a Nordic collaboration and implemented at national level. In recent years, social inequalities in food habits have been attracted particular governmental interest and several initiatives addressing the socioeconomic gradient in food habits have been highlighted. However, few internationally published studies have evaluated how trends in adolescents' food habits develop in the context of Nordic nutrition policy, or have compared differences between the Nordic countries. Methods The study was based on Danish, Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish cross-sectional data from the international Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study, collected via three nationally representative and comparable questionnaire surveys in 2001/2002, 2005/2006 and 2009/2010. Food habits were identified by students' consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets and sugar sweetened soft drink. Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured with the Family Affluence Scale (FAS). Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the data. Results Trends in fruit consumption developed differently across countries, characterized by an increase in Denmark and Norway and more stable trends in Sweden and Finland. Vegetable consumption increased particularly in Denmark and to a lesser extent in Norway, whereas Sweden and Finland displayed stable trends. Decreased trends were observed for sweet and soft drink consumption and were similar in Norway, Sweden and Finland. Sweet consumption decreased across all survey years, whereas soft drink consumption decreased between 2001/2002–2005/2006 and was stable thereafter. Denmark displayed an increase between 2001/2002–2005/2006 followed by a similar decrease between 2005/2006–2009/2010 for both sweet and soft

  1. Competitive policies in the Nordic energy research and innovation area - eNERGIA : Part 2: Technology reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klitkou, Antje; Pedersen, Trond Einar; Scordato, Lisa; Mariussen, Aage

    2008-07-01

    This (Part 2: Technology reports) is the second report about the results from the eNERGIA project. The first report deals with the countries covered by the eNERGIA project, while the third report sums up the SWOT-analysis, the eNERGIA workshops and the case studies of good practice. A short synthesis report summarises the entire project. This second report mainly deals with selected renewable energy technologies from different perspectives. The report comprises the following nine chapters. Chapter 1 is the presentation of the selected renewable technologies (solar photovoltaic technology, wind technology, 2nd generation bio-energy technology, wave technology and hydroelectric technology) and a subsequent elaboration of the status of the technologies in the Nordic and Baltic countries. Chapter 2 gives an overview of patterns of international R&D collaboration as seen from the countries in question. Chapter 3 draws on technology specific patenting data and bibliometric data, describing the level of technology specific activity in each country. Chapter 4 and 5 describe the status of renewable energy production and renewable energy research respectively in each country. The four last chapters are relatively brief descriptions of the situation in the Nordic and Baltic countries. Chapter 6 gives an overview of the venture capital situation. Chapter 7 is about market regulations and Chapter 8 is about social concerns. Finally, Chapter 9 addresses infrastructural challenges. (Author) 77 figs., 70 tabs

  2. A survey of social support for exercise and its relationship to health behaviours and health status among endurance Nordic skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Paul J; Bovard, Ralph S; Wang, Zhen; Beebe, Timothy J; Murad, Mohammad Hassan

    2016-06-23

    Regular exercise is a key component of obesity prevention and 48% of Americans do not meet minimum guidelines for weekly exercise. Social support has been shown to help individuals start and maintain exercise programmes. We evaluated social support among endurance athletes and explored the relationship between social support for exercise, health behaviours and health status. Survey. The largest Nordic ski race in North America. 5433 past participants responded to an online questionnaire. Social support, health behaviours and health status. The mean overall support score was 32.1 (SD=16.5; possible range=-16.0 to 88.0). The most common forms of social support were verbal such as discussing exercise, invitations to exercise and celebrating the enjoyment of exercise. We found that an increase of 10 points in the social support score was associated with a 5 min increase in weekly self-reported exercise (5.02, 95% CI 3.63 to 6.41). Physical activity recommendations should incorporate the importance of participation in group activities, especially those connected to strong fitness cultures created by community and competitive events. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Severe accident research and management in Nordic Countries - A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, W.

    2002-01-01

    The report describes the status of severe accident research and accident management development in Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark. The emphasis is on severe accident phenomena and issues of special importance for the severe accident management strategies implemented in Sweden and in Finland. The main objective of the research has been to verify the protection provided by the accident mitigation measures and to reduce the uncertainties in risk dominant accident phenomena. Another objective has been to support validation and improvements of accident management strategies and procedures as well as to contribute to the development of level 2 PSA, computerised operator aids for accident management and certain aspects of emergency preparedness. Severe accident research addresses both the in-vessel and the ex-vessel accident progression phenomena and issues. Even though there are differences between Sweden and Finland as to the scope and content of the research programs, the focus of the research in both countries is on in-vessel coolability, integrity of the reactor vessel lower head and core melt behaviour in the containment, in particular the issues of core debris coolability and steam explosions. Notwithstanding that our understanding of these issues has significantly improved, and that experimental data base has been largely expanded, there are still important uncertainties which motivate continued research. Other important areas are thermal-hydraulic phenomena during reflooding of an overheated partially degraded core, fission product chemistry, in particular formation of organic iodine, and hydrogen transport and combustion phenomena. The development of severe accident management has embraced, among other things, improvements of accident mitigating procedures and strategies, further work at IFE Halden on Computerised Accident Management Support (CAMS) system, as well as plant modifications, including new instrumentation. Recent efforts in Sweden in this area

  4. The Nordic programme for nuclear safety 1990-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    The report, covering the year 1991 of the Nordic Programme for Nuclear Safety 1990-1993, presents 18 projects divided into 4 main areas: preparedness in abnormal radiation situations, nuclear wastes and shutdowns, radioecology and reactor safety - knowledge preparedness. The main areas are briefly described and the status of each project is presented. (CLS) (118 refs.)

  5. The search for the white Nordic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    arrived immigrants and descendants. The article includes an analysis of Nordic race science from the turn of the twentieth century in order to illustrate how the New Nordic Kitchen draws upon a longer historical tradition of viewing the Nordic, and especially Nordic whiteness, as superior. The historical...... importance of race science in Denmark is not common knowledge, and very limited research is done in this area. The article therefore also brings new insights to the historical construction of whiteness in the Nordic context. Finally, the article also shows how the New Nordic Kitchen not only draws upon...

  6. Trends in Food Habits and Their Relation to Socioeconomic Status among Nordic Adolescents 2001/2002 - 2009/2010

    OpenAIRE

    Fismen, Anne-Siri; Smith, Otto Robert Frans; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Rasmussen, Mette; Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Augustine, Lilly; Ojala, Kristiina; Samdal, Oddrun

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the Nordic countries, substantial policy and intervention efforts have been made to increase adolescents' consumption of fruit and vegetables and to reduce their intake of sweets and soft drinks. Some initiatives have been formulated in a Nordic collaboration and implemented at national level. In recent years, social inequalities in food habits have been attracted particular governmental interest and several initiatives addressing the socioeconomic gradient in food habits have ...

  7. Control of high natural activity building materials and land areas in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mjoenes, L.

    1997-01-01

    Enhanced levels of natural radioactivity in the ground can cause problems with high concentrations of indoor 222 Rn, elevated levels of gamma radiation and natural radioactive elements in drinking water. Of the Nordic countries it is essentially Finland, Norway and Sweden that have problems with enhanced natural radioactivity in the ground and in building materials. Finland and Sweden have among the highest mean 222 Rn concentrations in dwellings in the world, 123 Bq m -3 and 108 Bq m -3 with a corresponding mean annual effective dose of about 2 mSv. In Sweden about 500,000 and in Finland and Norway about 200,000 persons get their drinking water from wells drilled in bedrock. The water from a large number of these wells contain elevated levels of naturally occurring radioactive elements, primarily 222 Rn. The action levels for 222 Rn in dwellings and above-ground workplaces are essentially the same in Finland, Norway and Sweden: 200 Bq m -3 for new buildings and 400 Bq m -3 for existing buildings. For mines and underground excavations, however, there are some differences. The treatment of gamma emitting natural radionuclides in building materials etc. is similar, although there are differences in the degree of control. The action levels for 222 Rn in drinking water differ from 100 Bq l -1 to 500 Bq l -1 . The action level in Finland has the form of an activity index that restricts also other radioactive nuclides. Denmark has not adopted a formal radon policy and has no recommended or legally binding action levels for 222 Rn or any other naturally occurring radionuclides. (author)

  8. Nordic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    This Box Set NORDIC LANDSCAPE presents Nordic Territories, a project by Rasmus Hjortshøj, exploring the man-made landscapes of the coastal territories and the entanglement of society and nature in times where it is no longer merely mankind subjected to nature, but where nature is equally being...... territories is not only their transient nature, but also the warm currents of the Gulf Stream making these northern shorelines habitable for human settlements....

  9. Summary of the meeting status of static reactor calculations in Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindahl, S.-Oe.

    1983-02-01

    Some impressions of the material presented at the meeting are given. The covered areas were as follows: in-core fuel management, cross section generation, burnable absorbers nodal models, pin power calculations and benchmarking. (Author)

  10. Energy efficiency and its relationship with milk, body, and intake traits and energy status among primiparous Nordic Red dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntysaari, P; Liinamo, A-E; Mäntysaari, E A

    2012-06-01

    Existing variation in energy efficiency and its relationship with milk yield and milk composition, body weight and body condition, feed intake, and energy status was studied in primiparous Nordic Red dairy cattle with data including 3,752 weekly records from 145 cows. Energy efficiency was defined as energy conversion efficiency (ECE) and as residual energy intake (REI) estimated based on Finnish feeding standards (REI₁) or from the current data (REI₂). The results indicated true phenotypic variation in energy efficiency of the cows. The proportion of total variance due to the animal was 0.35 for REI₁, 0.30 for REI₂, and 0.50 for ECE. The high efficiency based on ECE was associated with increased mobilization of body reserves (r = -0.50) and decreased dry matter intake (r = -0.51). With REI as an energy efficiency measure, the increased efficiency was associated with a large decrease in feed intake (REI₁: r = 0.60; REI2: r = 0.74) without any effect on body weight change (REI₁: r = 0.13; REI2: r = 0.00). Increased efficiency based on ECE and REI₁ was associated with increased milk yield (ECE: r = 0.58; REI₁: r = -0.41). A clear effect of stage of lactation on REI was found, which could be caused by true differences in utilization of metabolizable energy during lactation. However, it might also be related, in part, to the lack of knowledge of the composition of body weight change in the beginning of lactation. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. NOMAGE4 activities 2011. Part I, Nordic Nuclear Materials Forum for Generation IV Reactors: Status and activities in 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Nieuwenhove, R.

    2012-01-01

    A network for materials issues has been initiated in 2009 within the Nordic countries. The original objectives of the Generation IV Nordic Nuclear Materials Forum (NOMAGE4) were to form the basis of a sustainable forum for Gen-IV issues, especially focusing on fuels, cladding, structural materials and coolant interaction. Over the last years, other issues such as reactor physics, thermal hydraulics, safety and waste have gained in importance (within the network) and therefore the scope of the forum has been enlarged and a more appropriate and more general name, NORDIC-GEN4, has been chosen for the forum. Further, the interaction with non-Nordic countries (such as The Netherlands (JRC, NRG) and Czech Republic (CVR)) will be increased. Within the NOMAGE4 project, a seminar was organized by IFE-Halden during 31 October - 1 November 2011. The seminar attracted 65 participants from 12 countries. The seminar provided a forum for exchange of information, discussion on future research reactor needs and networking of experts on Generation IV reactor concepts. The participants could also visit the Halden reactor site and the workshop. (Author)

  12. NOMAGE4 activities 2011. Part I, Nordic Nuclear Materials Forum for Generation IV Reactors: Status and activities in 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Nieuwenhove, R. (Institutt for Energiteknikk, OECD Halden Reactor Project (Norway))

    2012-01-15

    A network for materials issues has been initiated in 2009 within the Nordic countries. The original objectives of the Generation IV Nordic Nuclear Materials Forum (NOMAGE4) were to form the basis of a sustainable forum for Gen-IV issues, especially focusing on fuels, cladding, structural materials and coolant interaction. Over the last years, other issues such as reactor physics, thermal hydraulics, safety and waste have gained in importance (within the network) and therefore the scope of the forum has been enlarged and a more appropriate and more general name, NORDIC-GEN4, has been chosen for the forum. Further, the interaction with non-Nordic countries (such as The Netherlands (JRC, NRG) and Czech Republic (CVR)) will be increased. Within the NOMAGE4 project, a seminar was organized by IFE-Halden during 31 October - 1 November 2011. The seminar attracted 65 participants from 12 countries. The seminar provided a forum for exchange of information, discussion on future research reactor needs and networking of experts on Generation IV reactor concepts. The participants could also visit the Halden reactor site and the workshop. (Author)

  13. Perspectives on Nordic Working Life Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ch. Karlsson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to this Thematic Issue on Perspectives on Nordic Working Life Research! It is perhaps not that surprising that a journal called Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies contains many discussions about “Nordic Models”: What is the Nordic Welfare State Model? What has happened to it lately? Is there still one? Has there ever been one? What about the Nordic Industrial Relations Model—is it on its way to be abandoned? And the Nordic Labor Market Model? Or the Nordic Work Environment Model? In contrast, in the Thematic Issue part of this issue of NJWLS Nordic working life research itself is discussed. Editing the issue has led me to some (selfcritical reflections on Nordic working life research—or perhaps rather reflections on the self-image of Nordic working life researchers. We often say that two of the cornerstones of Nordic working life research are the assumption that there is a positive correlation between employee autonomy at work and higher productivity, and that our research tradition is different from those found in other geographical areas (and, implicitly, probably better. Being part of the Nordic tradition, I too have claimed both, but I now think both needs to be qualified and critically discussed. Or rather, the first needs to be qualified and the consequences of the other critically evaluated (...

  14. CISG Nordic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    CISG Nordic er en forskningsdatabase hvor den seneste information om den internationale købelovs anvendelse i de Nordiske lande offentliggøres. På hjemmesiden indgår retsafgørelser, bibliografiske noter, FN dokumenter m.m.......CISG Nordic er en forskningsdatabase hvor den seneste information om den internationale købelovs anvendelse i de Nordiske lande offentliggøres. På hjemmesiden indgår retsafgørelser, bibliografiske noter, FN dokumenter m.m....

  15. CISG Nordic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    CISG Nordic er en forskningsdatabase hvor den seneste information om den internationale købelovs anvendelse i de Nordiske lande offentliggøres. På hjemmesiden indgår retsafgørelser, bibliografiske noter, FN dokumenter m.m.......CISG Nordic er en forskningsdatabase hvor den seneste information om den internationale købelovs anvendelse i de Nordiske lande offentliggøres. På hjemmesiden indgår retsafgørelser, bibliografiske noter, FN dokumenter m.m....

  16. Polonium-210 and radiocaesium in muscle tissue of fish from different Nordic marine areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.

    1994-01-01

    210 Po and radiocaesium were analyzed in the muscle tissue of different species of fish from the Baltic Sea, the Norwegian Sea and Icelandic waters. On the basis of the results a dose assessment was made which demonstrates that the dose to the population from 210 Po originating from the consumption of fish from the Baltic Sea is similar so that from radiocaesium, even after the Chernobyl accident. For the other areas the dose from radiocaesium is smaller but of the same importance as that from 210 Po. Differences in salinity are of minor importance compared to the food chains with respect to 210 Po. (orig.)

  17. The Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringsberg, Karin C

    2015-08-01

    The Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN) was established in 2007 at the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV). This article aims to describe the foundation of the NHPRN, the development and the present status of the work of NHPRN. The NHPRN consists of about 50 senior and junior researchers from all Nordic countries. It is a working network that aims to develop the theoretical understanding of health promotion, to create research cooperation in health promotion from a Nordic perspective and to extend the scope of health promotion through education. Network members meet biannually to discuss and further develop research within the field and are also responsible for the Nordic conference on Health Promotion, organized every 3 years. The NHV hosted the network between 2007 and 2014; and the World Health Organisation (WHO) will assume this role in 2015. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  18. Patients requests and needs for culturally and individually adapted supportive care in type 2 diabetes patients: A comparative study between Nordic and non-Nordic patients in a social economical vulnerable area of Linköping, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Angelica; Garvin, Peter; Wiréhn, Ann-Britt; Yngman-Uhlin, Pia

    2017-12-01

    This study sought to determine and compare the metabolic control of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in non-Nordic immigrants and native Nordics. The aim was also to describe and compare the request of supportive care between these two groups. One hundred and eighty-four patients (n=184) coming to a routine check-up in a primary healthcare setting (PHC), were consecutively enrolled to the study during a period of one year. Data on therapeutic interventions, clinical measurements, healthcare consumption, and adherence to standard diabetes healthcare program were extracted from the patientś medical record. Structured interviews on supportive care were conducted by diabetes trained nurses. If needed, a qualified interpreter was used. Comparisons were made between Nordic patients (n=151) and non-Nordic patients (n=33). Among T2DM patients in a setting of PHC, there was a difference in meeting the metabolic target HbA1c, between native Nordics and non-Nordic immigrants. There was also a difference in request on supportive care. The non-Nordic group significantly requested more and different supportive care. They also attended the standard diabetes program to a lesser degree. Culturally/individually adapted prevention is not only medically warranted but also requested by the patients themselves. Copyright © 2017 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Status of marine protected areas in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy, M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Egypt has sought to protect its natural resources and marine biodiversity by establishing a network of six MPAs that are generally located in the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea; most of them include interconnected marine and terrestrial sectors based on conserving coral reefs and accompanying systems. We assessed the present status of MPA networks that showed a set of important results manifested in some strengths (i.e. proper selection according to specific criteria, management plans, etc., and also some weaknesses (i.e. a relatively small protected proportion of the Egyptian marine territorial waters, significant pressures mainly by tourism activities, etc.. Finally, some recommendations are proposed from this work (i.e. incorporate more habitats that are not well represented in the network, especially on the Mediterranean Sea; establishing a touristic carrying capacity of each area; etc. to improve the current situation.

  20. Nordic Branding Podcast 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Reflections on Nordic branding with professor Dannie Kjeldgaard. Why Nordic regionality and why now? What is the dynamics of local/global/glocal/regional?......Reflections on Nordic branding with professor Dannie Kjeldgaard. Why Nordic regionality and why now? What is the dynamics of local/global/glocal/regional?...

  1. Competitive policies in the Nordic energy research and innovation area - eNERGIA : Part 3: Special reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klitkou, Antje; Pedersen, Trond Einar; Scordato, Lisa; Mariussen, Aage

    2008-07-01

    This report (Part 3: Special reports) is the third in a series of four reporting the results of the eNERGIA project. The first report presents the eight countries examined in the project - Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The second report deals mainly with selected renewable energy technologies, which are discussed from different perspectives. The fourth report provides a summary of the whole project. The present report summarises the SWOT analyses of the Nordic countries and the eNERGIA workshops, and presents case studies of good practice. (Author) refs., 1 fig., 10 tabs

  2. Nordic Market report 2010. Development in the Nordic Electricity Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-15

    The Nordic region is characterized by a unique mix of generation sources, with a very high share of hydropower. Hydropower accounts for virtually all of the Norwegian and nearly half of the Swedish generation capacity, making the level of precipitation vital when calculating and analysing potential generation levels. Climatic conditions such as, significantly colder winters than any other European country also influence consumption in the Nordic region, as many households are electrically heated. Overall electricity consumption in the Nordic region in 2009 was marked by decreasing consumption in every market - from a decrease of 1,5% in Denmark to a decrease of 5,5% in Finland. The Nordic transmission grid connects almost the entire region into one synchronous power system enabling increased security of supply as well as a more efficient use of the generation capacity, but congestion occurs. Congestions between the Nord Pool bidding areas are handled through market splitting, while internal congestions in general are handled through counter trade or by reducing interconnector capacity at the bidding area borders. The key future challenge for transmission network operations both in the Nordic area, and as well on the European level will be to facilitate the functioning of the pan-European wholesale electricity markets. The Nordic wholesale power market is well functioning. The volume traded at Nord Pool in 2009 was about the same share of total consumption as that of 2008. Although trading at Nord Pool is voluntary, significantly more power is traded on the power exchange than bilaterally. During 2009 average spot prices at Nord Pool were lower than prices in 2008 due to both lower demand and generation costs for thermal power plants for most of 2009. The Nordic retail markets are essentially four separate markets, influenced by national differences, but work on integration has started. Throughout 2009 retail prices in the Nordic region were lower than in 2008

  3. Nordic Lighting?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.

    2018-01-01

    The Danish designer Poul Henningsen wrote very elaborated theories of interior lighting from the mid-1920s on. He fought against the cold and reduced light quality of electric bulbs and tried to tame and cultivate this technology by design. He wanted a more rich light for domestic purpose...... worthwhile discussing than other design categories to interpret, whether experience of nature and climatic conditions play a role in Scandinavian Design, as repeatedly stated. This discussion contributes both to understanding of interior lighting and the historiographical critique of Scandinavian Design...... and shaped it through lamp design, colour reflections and differentiated use of several lamps in the room to make a more dim lighting, but with greater variation and softer contrasts. It was a ‘culture’ of lighting, he promoted, but he didn’t saw it as linked to the Nordic countries. His sensibility...

  4. Alternatives to incineration. Technical area status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E. [BDM Federal, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McFee, J.; Devarakonda, M. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nenninger, L.L.; Fadullon, F.S. [Science Applications International Corp., Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Donaldson, T.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dickerson, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Recently, the DOE`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) (superseded by the Mixed Waste Focus Area) initiated an evaluation of alternatives to incineration to identify technologies capable of treating DOE organically contaminated mixed wastes and which may be more easily permitted. These technologies have the potential of alleviating stakeholder concerns by decreasing off-gas volurties and the associated emissions of particulates, volatilized metals and radionuclides, PICs, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and recombination products (dioxins and furans). Ideally, the alternate technology would be easily permitted, relatively omnivorous and effective in treating a variety of wastes with varying constituents, require minimal pretreatment or characterization, and be easy to implement. In addition, it would produce secondary waste stream volumes significantly smaller than the original waste stream, and would minimize the environmental health and safety effects on workers and the public. The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date (as of early 1995) compendium of iternative technologies for designers of mixed waste treatment facilities, and to identify Iternate technologies that may merit funding for further development. Various categories of non-thermal and thermal technologies have been evaluated and are summarized in Table ES-1. Brief descriptions of these technologies are provided in Section 1.7 of the Introduction. This report provides a detailed description of approximately 30 alternative technologies in these categories. Included in the report are descriptions of each technology; applicable input waste streams and the characteristics of the secondary, or output, waste streams; the current status of each technology relative to its availability for implementation; performance data; and costs. This information was gleaned from the open literature, governments reports, and discussions with principal investigators and developers.

  5. Alternatives to incineration. Technical area status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.; McFee, J.; Devarakonda, M.; Nenninger, L.L.; Fadullon, F.S.; Donaldson, T.L.; Dickerson, K.

    1995-04-01

    Recently, the DOE's Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) (superseded by the Mixed Waste Focus Area) initiated an evaluation of alternatives to incineration to identify technologies capable of treating DOE organically contaminated mixed wastes and which may be more easily permitted. These technologies have the potential of alleviating stakeholder concerns by decreasing off-gas volurties and the associated emissions of particulates, volatilized metals and radionuclides, PICs, NO x , SO x , and recombination products (dioxins and furans). Ideally, the alternate technology would be easily permitted, relatively omnivorous and effective in treating a variety of wastes with varying constituents, require minimal pretreatment or characterization, and be easy to implement. In addition, it would produce secondary waste stream volumes significantly smaller than the original waste stream, and would minimize the environmental health and safety effects on workers and the public. The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date (as of early 1995) compendium of iternative technologies for designers of mixed waste treatment facilities, and to identify Iternate technologies that may merit funding for further development. Various categories of non-thermal and thermal technologies have been evaluated and are summarized in Table ES-1. Brief descriptions of these technologies are provided in Section 1.7 of the Introduction. This report provides a detailed description of approximately 30 alternative technologies in these categories. Included in the report are descriptions of each technology; applicable input waste streams and the characteristics of the secondary, or output, waste streams; the current status of each technology relative to its availability for implementation; performance data; and costs. This information was gleaned from the open literature, governments reports, and discussions with principal investigators and developers

  6. Development of the Nordic Bioeconomy: NCM reporting: Test centers for green energy solutions - Biorefineries and business needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Lene; Björnsdóttir, Bryndís; Brandt, Asbjørn

    In 2014 the Nordic Council of Ministers initiated a new bioeconomy project: “Test centers for green energy solutions – Biorefineries and Busi-ness needs”. The purpose was to strengthen green growth in the area of the bioeconomy by analyzing and mapping the current status of the bio-economy in the......In 2014 the Nordic Council of Ministers initiated a new bioeconomy project: “Test centers for green energy solutions – Biorefineries and Busi-ness needs”. The purpose was to strengthen green growth in the area of the bioeconomy by analyzing and mapping the current status of the bio...

  7. Action plan for Nordic energy co-operation 2006-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Action Plan for Nordic Energy Co-operation 2006-2009 is targeted at creating a visible and sustainable contribution to solving the most important and politically most relevant energy policy challenges faced by the Nordic region. The plan concentrates on three main areas: Energy markets; Sustainable energy system; and Nordic impact on the international agenda. The Action Plan is the energy sector's contribution to the implementation of the Nordic strategy 'Sustainable Development - New Bearing for the Nordic Countries' and to a number of the Nordic Council's recommendations for the development of the Nordic energy sector. An important element of the implementation of the action plan is on-going contact and information sharing between the Nordic Energy Policy co-operation and the Nordic Energy Research. The continues dialogue between the Nordic Council of Energy Ministers and The Nordic Council on future energy policy challenges will likewise be an important part of the political process. (BA)

  8. Nordic cultural policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity......A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity...

  9. Nordic Seniors on the Move

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ”I believe that all people need to move about. Actually, some have difficulties in doing so. They stay in their home neighbourhoods where they’ve grown up and feel safe. I can understand that, but my wife and I, we didn’t want that. We are more open to new ideas.” This anthology is about seniors...... on the move. In seven chapters, Nordic researchers from various disciplines, by means of ethnographic methods, attempt to comprehend the phenomenon of Nordic seniors who move to leisure areas in their own or in other countries. The number of people involved in this kind of migratory movement has grown...... above gives voice to one of these seniors, stressing the necessity of moving. The anthology contributes to the international body of literature about later life migration, specifically representing experiences made by Nordic seniors. As shown here, mobility and migration in later life have implications...

  10. Locating Nordic Noir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft; Waade, Anne Marit

    such as Beck, The Killing, Trapped and The Bridge as well as a range of other important Nordic Noir cases. The book positions the development of Nordic Noir on the global market for popular television drama and places the international attention towards Nordic crime dramas within regional development of drama...

  11. Nordic Exceptionalism and the Nordic 'Others'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars; Loftsdóttir, Kristín

    2012-01-01

    Introduction to 'Whiteness and Postcolonialism in the Nordic Region' co-authored with Kristín Loftsdóttir, University of Iceland......Introduction to 'Whiteness and Postcolonialism in the Nordic Region' co-authored with Kristín Loftsdóttir, University of Iceland...

  12. Melancholy in Nordic Noir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit

    2017-01-01

    Nordic noir on screen is characterised by a certain melancholy displayed in the plot, the imagery and the characters. These elements also characterise Scandinavian crime fiction, for example, the troubled protagonists and the cold climate. Nordic noir has attracted considerable interest among...... audiences and academics. However, none of the academic contributions reflect the connection to the historical Nordic melancholy. In this article, I relate Nordic noir to Nordic melancholy in art, philosophy and culture in which melancholy as a romantic ideal was embedded in a particular landscape...

  13. The Nordic Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) programme. Nordic cooperation on nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kasper G. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Roskilde (Denmark). National Lab. for Sustainable Energy; Ekstroem, Karoliina [Fortum Power and Heat, Fortum (Finland); Gwynn, Justin P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Tromsoe (Norway). Fram Centre; Magnusson, Sigurdur M. [Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority, Reykjavik (Iceland); Physant, Finn C. [NKS-Sekretariatet, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2012-07-01

    The roots of the current Nordic Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) programme can be traced back to the recommendation by the Nordic Council in the late 1950s for the establishment of joint Nordic committees on the issues of nuclear research and radiation protection. One of these joint Nordic committees, the 'Kontaktorgan', paved the way over its 33 years of existence for the future of Nordic cooperation in the field of nuclear safety, through the formation of Nordic groups on reactor safety, nuclear waste and environmental effects of nuclear power in the late 1960s and early 1970s. With an increased focus on developing nuclear power in the wake of the energy crisis on the 1970s, the NKS was established by the Nordic Council to further develop the previous strands of Nordic cooperation in nuclear safety. NKS started its first programme in 1977, funding a series of four year programmes over the next 24 years covering the areas of reactor safety, waste management, emergency preparedness and radioecology. Initially funded directly from the Nordic Council, ownership of NKS was transferred from the political level to the national competent authorities at the beginning of the 1990s. This organizational and funding model has continued to the present day with additional financial support from a number of co-sponsors in Finland, Norway and Sweden. (orig.)

  14. Energy research projects in the Nordic countries - catalogue 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The Nordic energy ministers at their meeting February 9, 1982 agreed upon a working plan for the Nordic energy cooperation. As part of this plan a contact group was established in order to maintain coordination and cooperation within the area of energy research and development. This group decided April 1982 to establish a catalogue of energy research projects in the Nordic countries. A pilot catalogue was published in June 1982. The 1983 catalogue gives an up-to-date survey of energy research and development projects in the Nordic countries. About 2125 projects are described, and information is given on investigator(s), performing organization, financing body, funds, and period. The catalogue is prepared by the Nordic energy libraries through their cooperation in Nordic Atomic Libraries Joint Secretariat. The information is also included in the data base Nordic Energy Index (NEI), which is online accessible at I/S Datacentralen, Copenhagen, via EURONET, SCANNET, TYMNET, AND TELENET. (BP)

  15. Mercury in Nordic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munthe, John; Waengberg, Ingvar (IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (SE)); Rognerud, Sigurd; Fjeld, Eirik (Norwegian Inst. for Water Research (NIVA), Oslo (Norway)); Verta, Matti; Porvari, Petri (Finnish Environment Inst. (SYKE), Helsinki (Finland)); Meili, Markus (Inst. of Applied Environmental Research (ITM), Stockholm (Sweden))

    2007-12-15

    This report provides a first comprehensive compilation and assessment of available data on mercury in air, precipitation, sediments and fish in the Nordic countries. The main conclusion is that mercury levels in Nordic ecosystems continue to be affected by long-range atmospheric transport. The geographical patterns of mercury concentrations in both sediments and fish are also strongly affected by ecosystem characteristics and in some regions possibly by historical pollution. An evaluation of geographical variations in mercury concentrations in precipitation indicates that the influence from anthropogenic sources from Central European areas is still significant. The annual variability of deposition is large and dependant of precipitation amounts. An evaluation of data from stations around the North Sea has indicated a significant decrease in mercury concentrations in precipitation indicating a continuous decrease of emissions in Europe (Waengberg et al., 2007). For mercury in air (TGM), the geographical pattern is less pronounced indicating the influence of mercury emissions and distribution over a larger geographical area (i.e. hemispherical transport). Comparison of recent (surficial) and historical lake sediments show significantly elevated concentrations of mercury most likely caused by anthropogenic atmospheric deposition over the past century. The highest pollution impact was observed in the coastal areas of southern Norway, in south western Finland and in Sweden from the coastal areas in the southwest across the central parts to the north-east. The general increase in recent versus old sediments was 2-5 fold. Data on mercury in Nordic freshwater fish was assembled and evaluated with respect to geographical variations. The fish data were further compared with temporal and spatial trends in mercury deposition and mercury contamination of lake sediments in order to investigate the coupling between atmospheric transport and deposition of mercury and local mercury

  16. Trends in Food Habits and Their Relation to Socioeconomic Status among Nordic Adolescents 2001/2002-2009/2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fismen, Anne-Siri; Smith, Otto Robert Frans; Torsheim, Torbjørn

    2016-01-01

    , collected via three nationally representative and comparable questionnaire surveys in 2001/2002, 2005/2006 and 2009/2010. Food habits were identified by students' consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets and sugar sweetened soft drink. Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured with the Family Affluence Scale...... at national level. In recent years, social inequalities in food habits have been attracted particular governmental interest and several initiatives addressing the socioeconomic gradient in food habits have been highlighted. However, few internationally published studies have evaluated how trends....../2002-2005/2006 and was stable thereafter. Denmark displayed an increase between 2001/2002-2005/2006 followed by a similar decrease between 2005/2006-2009/2010 for both sweet and soft drink consumption. Socioeconomic inequalities in fruit and vegetable consumption were observed in all countries, with no cross...

  17. In Search of Nordicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng; Strandgaard, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    This article looks at the branding of Copenhagen as a food destination through the advent of the New Nordic Cuisine movement and how this may change the way we think about destination branding. The destination management organization of Copenhagen opportunistically embraced the New Nordic Cuisine...... an inductive, in-depth, longitudinal study of the New Nordic Cuisine and its movement's development in relation to branding Copenhagen as a tourism destination....

  18. Nordic Energy basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koljonen, T.; Pursiheimo, E. [VTT, Espoo (Finland)

    2004-01-01

    This report gives numerical data of the existing energy systems in Denmark, Finland, Island, Norway and Sweden. The data includes: 1) Primary fossil fuel production and fuel reserves; 2) Energy production and consumption; 3) Hydrogen production in the Nordic countries; 4) Energy balances of the Nordic countries. The above data has been used as background information during the Nordic H{sub 2} Energy Foresight project. The data has been collected from public literature sources and also from project partners. (au)

  19. Nordic urban nature recreation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cole, Scott; Lindhjem, Henrik; Zandersen, Marianne

    the associated nonmarket welfare benefits. The study stresses the need to collect user data to better understand visitation patterns, which can be combined with valuation methods to provide evidence of economic benefits associated with e.g., hiking, cycling, skiing, paddling and other recreation activities. Once......The Nordic countries continue to experience growth of urban areas, which provides benefits like economic growth, but also imposes economic costs in terms of reduced ecosystem services. This report focuses on urban nature recreation and highlights economic methods and data that can help capture...... these benefits are visible, decision-makers will have a better basis to balance economic growth with the environmental costs it imposes on urban ecosystem services....

  20. The Nordic safety program on accident consequence assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1988-01-01

    One important part of Nordic cooperation is partially funded by the Nordic Council of Ministers, namely the work performed within the Nordic Safety Program (often referred to as the NKA projects). NKA is the Nordic abbreviation of the Nordic Liaison Committee on Atomic Energy. One program area in the present four-year period is concerned with problems related to reactor accident consequence assessment, and contains almost twenty projects covering a wide range of subjects. The author is program coordinator for this program area. The program will be completed in 1989. The program was strongly influenced by Chernobyl, and a number of new projects were included in the program in 1986. Involved in the program are these Nordic institutions: Riso National Laboratory (Denmark). Technical Research Centre of Finland. Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. Finnish Meteorological Institute. Institute for Energy Technology (Norway). Agricultural University of Norway. Meteorological Institute of Norway. Studsvik Energiteknik AB (Sweden). National Defence Research Laboratory (Sweden)

  1. Nordic Branding Podcast 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    'Hygge' is a concept that has generated much interest as a way of conceptualising 'Nordic living', e.g. in books on hygge or scented candles. In this Nordic Branding reflections podcast we are having a 'hyggelig' session with ph.d. Jeppe Trolle Linnet, reflecting on this concept and related 'Nord......' values. We met at Meyers Deli and The Laundromat Cafe (Copenhagen)....

  2. New Nordic Exceptionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danbolt, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    At the 2009 Nordic Culture Forum summit in Berlin that centered on the profiling and branding of the Nordic region in a globalized world, one presenter stood out from the crowd. The lobbyist Annika Sigurdardottir delivered a speech that called for the establishment of “The United Nations of Norden...... that have been central to the debates on the branding of Nordicity over the last decades: on the one hand, the discourse of “Nordic exceptionalism,” that since the 1960s has been central to the promotion of a Nordic political, socio-economic, and internationalist “third way” model, and, on the other hand......, the discourse on the “New Nordic,” that emerged out of the New Nordic Food-movement in the early 2000s, and which has given art and culture a privileged role in the international re-fashioning of the Nordic brand. Through an analysis of Kim and Einhorn’s United Nations of Norden (UNN)-performance, the article...

  3. The Nordic Seas carbon budget: Sources, sinks, and uncertainties

    OpenAIRE

    Jeansson, Emil; Olsen, Are; Eldevik, Tor; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Lauvset, Siv K.; Nilsen, Jan Even Ø.; Bellerby, Richard G. J; Johannessen, Truls; Falck, Eva

    2011-01-01

    A carbon budget for the Nordic Seas is derived by combining recent inorganic carbon data from the CARINA database with relevant volume transports. Values of organic carbon in the Nordic Seas' water masses, the amount of carbon input from river runoff, and the removal through sediment burial are taken from the literature. The largest source of carbon to the Nordic Seas is the Atlantic Water that enters the area across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge; this is in particular true for the anthropogen...

  4. Nordic project food contact materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ågot; Tesdal Håland, Julie; Petersen, Jens Højslev

    Denmark, Finland, Faroe Islands, Iceland, Norway and Sweden have in 2013––2015 conducted a Nordic project on food contact materials. Food contact materials are used in all stages of food production and can be a general source of contamination. The food safety authorities in most of the Nordic...... countries have had a limited focus on the FCM area with the exception of Denmark and Finland. The aim of the project was therefore to control establishments producing, importing or using plastic food contact materials as well as to increase the knowledge of the inspectors performing these controls....... The focus of the inspections was to control the declaration of compliance (DoC) for plastic food contact materials. The requirement for a Doc is mandatory in order to ensure that the FCM complies with the legislation. In addition some products were analyzed for phthalates....

  5. Nordic Energy Policy Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Birte Holst

    2016-01-01

    Brundtland Commission Report, and climate change became a common concern. Energy technology cooperation was an integral part of Nordic energy policy cooperation from the very beginning. The Nordic Energy Research Programme was established with funding from each of the Nordic countries, and was earmarked...... by a committee of senior officials and a secretariat. This was characterised by an incremental development of the cooperation based on consensus, mutual understanding and trust facilitated through exchange of experiences, work groups, seminars, educational activities and mobility schemes for energy policy...

  6. Guidelines for Nordic co-operation concerning nuclear installations in the border areas between Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in respect of nuclear safety conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    These Guidelines were established by an Agreement between the Nordic countries. Their purpose is to set up a consultation mechanism between those countries regarding the projected setting up of nuclear facilities near borders which would be likely to affect their respective territories [fr

  7. On Long-Term Transmission Rights in the Nordic Electricity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Spodniak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In vein with the new energy market rules drafted in the EU this paper presents and discusses two contract types for hedging the risks connected to long-term transmission rights, the financial transmission right (FTR and the electricity price area differentials (EPAD that are used in the Nordic electricity markets. The possibility to replicate the FTR contracts with a combination of EPAD contracts is presented and discussed. Based on historical evidence and empirical analysis of ten Nordic interconnectors and twenty bidding areas, we investigate the pricing accuracy of the replicated FTR contracts by quantifying ex-post forward risk premia. The results show that the majority of the studied FTR contain a negative risk premium, especially the monthly and the quarterly contracts. Reverse flow (unnatural pricing was identified for two interconnectors. From a theoretical policy point of view the results imply that it may be possible to continue with the EPAD-based system by using EPAD Combos in the Nordic countries, even if FTR contracts would prevail elsewhere in the EU. In practice the pricing of bi-directional EPAD contracts is more complex and may not always be very efficient. The efficiency of the EPAD market structure should be discussed from various points of view before accepting their status quo as a replacement for FTRs in the Nordic electricity markets.

  8. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. External environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, L; Andersen, A; Pukkala, E

    1997-01-01

    of the Nordic countries, corresponding to 7.3 million people, lives in urban areas. If there is an excess risk associated with air pollution, the annual number of lung cancer cases around the year 2000 in the Nordic countries would range from 0 (no excess risk) to 1,800 (relative risk, 1.5). As the existence...

  9. Particularities of the Nordic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Stoltz, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    The Nordic countries are in international rankings included as some of the most gender equal societies in the world (see e.g. the Global Gender Gap Index and the Gender Equality Index developed by the European Gender Equality Institute, EIGE), and scholars have demonstrated that the discourse...... and politics of women’s rights and gender equality has become an intrinsic part of the Nordic national identities and politics of belongings (Gullestad 2006). In spite of these achievements, Nordic scholars suggest that the increasing impact of globalization present major challenges for addressing multiple...... inequalities in power and resources (Melby et.al. 2008; Siim and Skjeie 2008). The chapter aims to analyse the challenge from globalization to the Nordic welfare and gender regimes and discuss the potentials and limits of this approach to equality from historical and comparative perspectives. The main research...

  10. Nordic Corporate Governance Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the key elements of the Nordic governance model, which include a distinct legal system, high governance ratings and low levels of corruption. Other characteristics include concentrated ownership, foundation ownership, semi two-tier board structures, employee representation...

  11. Nordic Noir Production Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit; Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    2013-01-01

    In this article the authors argue that Nordic noir constitutes a set of production values utilised and conceptualised to make Danish television series attractive in the international market. The idea of production values is embedded into a media industrial context where market principles of target...... by relating the specific Nordic noir production values present in the two series to changing conditions in Danish television drama production, in particular the internationalisation of DR’s Drama Division....

  12. CONFERENCE: Nordic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Around 80 physicists from eleven countries fought heavy snowstorms and 20-below temperatures at the winter resort of Spåtind, Norway, for the 8th Nordic Meeting on Elementary Particle Physics in January. This biennial conference is a traditional meeting place for Nordic particle physicists, and especially for the young research students, but also draws participants from other countries. This year's meeting was organized by the Division of Particle Physics of the Swedish Physical Society

  13. The Nordic programme for nuclear safety 1990-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The status report for the first half of the year 1992 of the Nordic programme for nuclear safety 1990-1993 contains summaries of the progress of the projects under the four sections of the programme. These sections are divided under the main headings of dealing with readiness in abnormal radiation situations, nuclear wastes and deposition, radioecology and reactor safety. The projects included in the first part concern radiation-spreading prognoses and consequences for the area, strategies and methods for measuring and management of exchange of data between decision-makers, evaluation and harmonizing of remedial measures, public information, Nordic exercises in readiness and the determination of radioactive contamination in the area. Projects under the second section concern exemptions from regulatory control of radioactive material, experiences of demolition of uranium cleaning systems, storing of information, handling of radioactive wastes from reactor accidents, transport etc., and geological and climatological processes of significance for long-term safety in a final storage system. The third section of the programme handles training and quality assurance methods, aquatic radioecology, agricultural and natural ecosystems. The fourth section treats data on the safety status of Greifswald I-IV, Leningrad I-IV, Ignalia I-II, ship reactors, Brunsbuettel, Kruemmel and Kola I-IV. The programme's total budget is presented. (AB)

  14. Work Programme 2010. Nordic Energy Regulators (NordREG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-02-15

    The Nordic regulators' cooperation through NordREG is based on a strong consensus and common understanding of the Nordic market. Through mutual efforts and contributions NordREG members identify areas of work that can create added value for the Nordic electricity market. NordREG works by exchanging information and views, mapping and analysing energy market issues and by delivering statements and reports for harmonisation and improvement. In this, the regulators aim at identifying areas where NordREG can take joint action to influence Nordic or European electricity market development. NordREGs key focus in 2010 is the work towards a common Nordic retail market and the emphasis is on promoting a legal and institutional framework that supports this goal

  15. Sedation practice in Nordic and non-Nordic ICUs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerod, Ingrid; Albarran, John W; Ring, Mette

    2013-01-01

    A trend towards lighter sedation has been evident in many intensive care units (ICUs). The aims of the survey were to describe sedation practice in European ICUs and to compare sedation practice in Nordic and non-Nordic countries....

  16. Status review of CHEMVAL2 technical areas, June 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, J.; Crawford, M.; Fabriol, R.; Jamet, Ph.; Lang, H.; Read, D.; Tweed, C.; Warwick, P.

    1993-01-01

    The second phase of the CHEMVAL project has the principal aim of advancing the state of validation of predictive geochemical models in defined areas. Target areas are those known to be of concern in radiological assessment, namely temperature effects, ionic strength effects, organic complexation, sorption processes, coprecipitation and solid solution formation, and coupled chemical transport modelling. The first stage of CHEMVAL2 involved production of status reviews, which are now complete and combined in this report. The two remaining stages comprise the execution of the main research programme on code verification and model validation, followed by a more detailed comparison with experimental data, model refinement and final reporting. (author)

  17. Challenges to Nordic Police Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The paper will cover three main points: A short description of published police research in the Nordic countries; a somewhat longer discussion of the nature of, and challenges to, Nordic police research and, finally, a critique of the homeliness of research.......The paper will cover three main points: A short description of published police research in the Nordic countries; a somewhat longer discussion of the nature of, and challenges to, Nordic police research and, finally, a critique of the homeliness of research....

  18. Nordic Regional Report; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper elaborates findings and discussions of 2013 Cluster Consultation Nordic Regional report. The countries have close economic and financial ties and face some common challenges and shared risks, such as large banking sectors and high household debt. The economic performance of the four continental Nordic economies (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden—Nordic-4) ranks among the advanced economic development circle. It is analyzed that the large Nordic banking systems su...

  19. Nordic seminar on biomass gasification and combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The report comprises a collection of papers from a seminar arranged as a part of the Nordic Energy Research Program. The aim of this program is to strengthen the basic competence in the energy field at universities and research organizations in the Nordic countries. In the program 1991-1994 six areas are selected for cooperation such as energy and society, solid fuels, district heating, petroleum technology, bioenergy and environment, and fuel cells. The topics deal both with biomass combustion and gasification, and combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). A number of 11 papers are prepared. 97 refs., 91 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Freshwater exposure pathways in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1984-06-01

    The report relates to a subproject under a Nordic project called ''Large reactor accidents - consequences and mitigating actions''. The report summarizes information available, primarily in the Nordic countries, on freshwater exposure pathways. Experimental and theoretical data concerning the deposition and run-off of the nuclides *sp90*Sr and*Sp137*Cs is presented. Internal exposure via drinking water and freshwater fish is dealt with, as well as external exposure due to swimming, boating, contact with fishing utensils and use of beach areas. In addition is exposure via irrigated agricultural products considered. (RF)

  1. Nordic seminar on biomass gasification and combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The report comprises a collection of papers from a seminar arranged as a part of the Nordic Energy Research Program. The aim of this program is to strengthen the basic competence in the energy field at universities and research organizations in the Nordic countries. In the program 1991-1994 six areas are selected for cooperation such as energy and society, solid fuels, district heating, petroleum technology, bioenergy and environment, and fuel cells. The topics deal both with biomass combustion and gasification, and combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). A number of 11 papers are prepared. 97 refs., 91 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. Nordic seminar on biomass gasification and combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The report comprises a collection of papers from a seminar arranged as a part of the Nordic Energy Research Program. The aim of this program is to strengthen the basic competence in the energy field at universities and research organizations in the Nordic countries. In the program 1991-1994 six areas are selected for cooperation such as energy and society, solid fuels, district heating, petroleum technology, bioenergy and environment, and fuel cells. The topics deal both with biomass combustion and gasification, and combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) and refuse derived fuel (RDF). A number of 11 papers are prepared. 97 refs., 91 figs., 11 tabs

  3. Nordic Management and Sustainable Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preuss, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    of the Nordics and from that wants to answer if this management approach fosters a sustainable business culture. For defining the management and cultural approach applied in Nordic companies, the method of text mining in relation with machine learning will be used. Among European companies, the Nordic companies...

  4. Nordic research in logistics and supply chain management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlbjørn, Jan Stentoft; Jonsson, Patrik; Johansen, John

    2006-01-01

    management and to explain how the discipline differs in terms of demographics, research areas, methodological approach, resources and publication. The analysis is conducted in a Nordic research context through a survey distributed to persons with research interest in logistics and supply chain management......This article reflects on research completed within logistics and supply chain management in the Nordic countries based on an empirical analysis. The purpose of this paper is to describe the characteristics of the Nordic academic discipline working in the field of logistics and supply chain....... The research does not provide clear empirical evidence of the contours of a Nordic research paradigm within logistics and supply chain management. The analysis shows that the significant and typical research issues among the Nordic researchers are the focus on supply chains/networks as the most important...

  5. Radiation protection and atomic energy legislation in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1987-01-01

    The radiation protection and atomic energy laws of the Nordic countries Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden are presented in this report in their status of March 1, 1984. As a background to this legislation the Nordic co-operation is briefly reviewed and the common basis for the legal texts is given. Some historical remarks for the legislation of each country are included. (orig./HP)

  6. The Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Slaug, Bjørn; Brandt, Åse

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses development of a content valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients and their home environments. The instrument was translated...... from the original Swedish version of the Housing Enabler, and adapted according to accessibility norms and guidelines for housing design in Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Iceland. This iterative process involved occupational therapists, architects, building engineers and professional translators......, resulting in the Nordic Housing Enabler. For reliability testing, the sampling strategy and data collection procedures used were the same in all countries. Twenty voluntary occupational therapists, pair-wise but independently from each other, collected data from 106 cases by means of the Nordic Housing...

  7. Fitness Club / Nordic Walking

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2011-01-01

    Nordic Walking at CERN Enrollments are open for Nordic Walking courses and outings at CERN. Classes will be on Tuesdays as of 20 September, and outings for the more experienced will be on Thursdays as of 15 September. We meet at the CERN Club barracks car park (near entrance A). • 18:00 to 19:00 on 20 & 27 September, as well as 4 & 11 October. Check out our schedule and rates and enroll at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! CERN Fitness Club fitness.club@cern.ch  

  8. A Mixed Nordic Experience:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole Jess; Johnsen, Tor Arnt; Lewis, Philip

    2006-01-01

    Although the Nordic countries were among the first to develop competition in the electricity industry, it took a long time to make retail competition work. In Norway and Sweden a considerable number of households are actively using the market but very few households are active in Finland and Denm......Although the Nordic countries were among the first to develop competition in the electricity industry, it took a long time to make retail competition work. In Norway and Sweden a considerable number of households are actively using the market but very few households are active in Finland...

  9. New New Nordic Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Pynt

    2017-01-01

    Konstruktionen af nordisk regionalisme er en stærk tendens som udgangspunkt for Nordic branding, men har vi egentlig forstået de værdier og spændinger, der driver hele projektet om en ny ’nordiskhed’?......Konstruktionen af nordisk regionalisme er en stærk tendens som udgangspunkt for Nordic branding, men har vi egentlig forstået de værdier og spændinger, der driver hele projektet om en ny ’nordiskhed’?...

  10. The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colmorn, Lotte B.; Petersen, Kathrine B; Jakobsson, Maija

    2015-01-01

    by using International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision codes on diagnoses and the Nordic Medico-Statistical Committee Classification of Surgical Procedure codes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of the studied complications and possible risk factors among parturients in the Nordic countries. RESULTS......OBJECTIVE: To assess the rates and characteristics of women with complete uterine rupture, abnormally invasive placenta, peripartum hysterectomy, and severe blood loss at delivery in the Nordic countries. DESIGN: Prospective, Nordic collaboration. SETTING: The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study...... (NOSS) collected cases of severe obstetric complications in the Nordic countries from April 2009 to August 2012. SAMPLE AND METHODS: Cases were reported by clinicians at the Nordic maternity units and retrieved from medical birth registers, hospital discharge registers, and transfusion databases...

  11. The Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, T.; Nygren, C.; Slaug, B.

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses development of a content-valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients, and their home environments. The instrument was transla......This study addresses development of a content-valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients, and their home environments. The instrument...... was translated from the original Swedish version of the Housing Enabler, and adapted according to accessibility norms and guidelines for housing design in Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland. This iterative process involved occupational therapists, architects, building engineers, and professional translators......, resulting in the Nordic Housing Enabler. For reliability testing, the sampling strategy and data collection procedures used were the same in all countries. Twenty voluntary occupational therapists, pair-wise but independently of each other, collected data from 106 cases by means of the Nordic Housing...

  12. Toddlers in Nordic Early Childhood Education and Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Henrik; Greve, Anne

    2018-01-01

    -called Nordic model represents a uni ed system of early childhood education and care (ECEC). This chapter underlines the distinctive shared characteristics of the Nordic approach to play and learning, and care and education, where participation, democracy, respect for other cultures and religions...... and character of the Nordic people. Here, there is a strong foundation in an ideal of freedom, democracy, equality, in uence and sustainability, but also a focus on education that emphasises the toddler as a learning being. However, toddlers in ECEC represent an area in need of more attention and new research....

  13. Implementation of lung cancer CT screening in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Sørensen, Jens Benn; Saghir, Zaigham

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We review the current knowledge of CT screening for lung cancer and present an expert-based, joint protocol for the proper implementation of screening in the Nordic countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experts representing all the Nordic countries performed literature review...... and concensus for a joint protocol for lung cancer screening. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Areas of concern and caution are presented and discussed. We suggest to perform CT screening pilot studies in the Nordic countries in order to gain experience and develop specific and safe protocols for the implementation...

  14. The Mixed Waste Focus Area: Status and accomplishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area began operations in February of 1995. Its mission is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. The MWFA will develop, demonstrate, and deliver implementable technologies for treatment of mixed waste within the DOE complex. Treatment refers to all post waste-generation activities including sampling and analysis, characterization, storage, processing, packaging, transportation, and disposal. The MWFA's mission arises from the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as amended by the Federal Facility Compliance Act. Each DOE site facility that generates or stores mixed waste prepared a plan, the Site Treatment Plan, for developing treatment capacities and treating that waste. Agreements for each site were concluded with state regulators, resulting in Consent Orders providing enforceable milestones for achieving treatment of the waste. The paper discusses the implementation of the program, its status, accomplishments and goals for FY1996, and plans for 1997

  15. Nordic reactor safety research 1981-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micheelsen, B.

    1986-01-01

    National resources in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden were put together with Nordic funds in the four-year research programme 1981-85 on selected areas of nuclear safety. The outcome of the programme, edited in four separate reports, is summarized, and important findings are listed in the areas of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), loss-of-coolant accidents with small breaks, heat-transfer correlations, and corrosion in the nuclear industry. (author)

  16. The Nordic Research programme on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    Only two of the five Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Finland, Norway and Sweden) - Sweden and Finland - operate nuclear power plants, but there are a number of nuclear installations close to their borders. Regular 4-year programmes were initiated in 1977, designated NKS-programmes. (NKS: Nordisk KerneSikkerhedsforskning - Nordic nuclear-safety research). The current fourth NKS-programme is, influenced by the Chernobyl accident, dominated by the necessity for acquiring knowledge on unexpected events and release of radioactive material from nuclear installations. The present programme is divided into the areas of emergency preparedness, waste and decommissioning, radioecology and reactor safety. It comprises a total of 18 projects, the results of which will later be published in the form of handbooks for use in cases of emergency etc. The future of joint Nordic project work in the nuclear safety field must be seen in the light of changing conditions in and around the Nordic countries, such as the opening of relations to neighbours in the east, the move towards the European Communities and the need for training a new generation of specialists in the nuclear field etc. Each project is described in considerable detail and a list of reports resulting from the third NKS-programme 1985-1989 is given. (AB)

  17. Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Brandt, Åse

    Development and reliability testing of the Nordic Housing Enabler – an instrument for accessibility assessment of the physical housing. Tina Helle & Åse Brandt University of Lund, Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine (SE) and University College Northern Jutland, Occupational Therapy department (DK......). Danish Centre for Assistive Technology. Abstract. For decades, accessibility to the physical housing environment for people with functional limitations has been of interest politically, professionally and for the users. Guidelines and norms on accessible housing design have gradually been developed......, however, the built environment shows serious deficits when it comes to accessibility. This study addresses development of a content valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of inter-rater reliability, when used in occupational therapy practice. The instrument was translated from...

  18. Kineziologická charakteristika Nordic Walking

    OpenAIRE

    Pospíšilová, Petra

    2009-01-01

    Title: Functional a physiological characteristics of Nordic Walking Purposes: The aim of the thesis is to describe and summarize current knowledge about Nordic Walking Methods: Literature analysis Key words: Nordic Walking, free bipedal walk, health benefits, functional indicator changes

  19. Nordic Walking Classes

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2015-01-01

    Four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Spring Course 2015: 05.05/12.05/19.05/26.05 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Nordic%20Walking/NewForm.aspx? Hope to see you among us! fitness.club@cern.ch

  20. Developing Nordic Pedagogical Best Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Bettan; Kelly, Hélène; Wonsyld, Merete

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a Nordic educational project that supported dialogue and cooperation between nursing students and educators from eight Nordic educational institutions. An intensive course concept was developed. The course focus of prevention and health promotion among nordic youth not only...... illuminated the benefits of student exchange with respect to student learning but also how pedagogical cooperation can contribute to institutional, pedagogical innovation. Keywords Cooperation, pedagogcial development, comparative nursing, pedagogical best practice....

  1. Health And Social Status Of Senior Citizens In Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunder Lal

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What is the quality of life of the elderly people, as also the available support system, in rural areas? Objectives:i To determine the demographic profile of eld­erly ii To assess the socio-economic, nutritional, health, morbidity and dependency status, and health care utilization. Study Design: Population based cross sectional study. Setting: Community Development   Block - Lakhanmajra Participants: Persons above the age of 65 years. Sample Size: 809 elderly above the age of 65 years. Study Variables: Demographic profile, Literacy, Oc­cupation, Health, Nutrition, Mobility, Dependency, Substance abuse, Support system. Statistical Analysis: By simple proportions. Result: In this study, majority ofthe elderly were self reliant and mobile, being an asset to the family and led socially useful and productive lives. Their pre­dominant problems were visual impairment, joint pains, respiratory diseases and hearing impairment. Joint family and government pension was the major support system to the elderly. However, there is an imperative need to organize education, training and special service programmes for the elderly at the village level.

  2. Intravascular ultrasound assessment of minimumlumen area and intimal hyperplasia in in-stent restenosis after drug-eluting or bare-metal stent implantation. The Nordic Intravascular Ultrasound Study (NIVUS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Vikman, Saila; Antonsen, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    presenting with a DES or bare-metal stent (BMS) in-stent restenosis. Methods: The ``Nordic Intravascular Ultrasound Study (NIVUS)'' study was conducted in Nordic and Baltic countries as a prospective multicenter registry. Two hundred nine patients (DES n = 121 and BMS n = 88) with instent restenosis were...

  3. ALARA efforts in nordic BWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingemansson, T.; Lundgren, K.; Elkert, J. [ABB Atom, Vaesteraes (Sweden)

    1995-03-01

    Some ALARA-related ABB Atom projects are currently under investigation. One of the projects has been ordered by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, and two others by the Nordic BWR utilities. The ultimate objective of the projects is to identify and develop methods to significantly decrease the future exposure levels in the Nordic BWRS. As 85% to 90% of the gamma radiation field in the Nordic BWRs originates from Co-60, the only way to significantly decrease the radiation doses is to effect Co and Co-60. The strategy to do this is to map the Co sources and estimate the source strength of Co from these sources, and to study the possibility to affect the release of Co-60 from the core surfaces and the uptake on system surfaces. Preliminary results indicate that corrosion/erosion of a relatively small number of Stellite-coated valves and/or dust from grinding of Stellite valves may significantly contribute to the Co input to the reactors. This can be seen from a high measured Co/Ni ratio in the feedwater and in the reactor water. If stainless steel is the only source of Co, the Co/Ni ratio would be less than 0.02 as the Co content in the steel is less than 0.2%. The Co/Ni ratio in the reactor water, however, is higher than 0.1, indicating that the major fraction of the Co originates from Stellite-coated valves. There are also other possible explanations for an increase of the radiation fields. The Co-60 inventory on the core surfaces increases approximately as the square of the burn-up level. If the burn-up is increased from 35 to 5 MWd/kgU, the Co-60 inventory on the core surfaces will be doubled. Also the effect on the behavior of Co-60 of different water chemistry and materials conditions is being investigated. Examples of areas studied are Fe and Zn injection, pH-control, and different forms of surface pre-treatments.

  4. Labour education the Nordic way

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, John Steen

    2007-01-01

    With its more than 75 years of experience, the Nordic Folk High School in Geneva has a strong tradition of labour education. Every year, about 35 trade union members from the Nordic countries take part in a course run alongside the International Labour Conference in Geneva....

  5. The Nordic Mobile Telecommunication Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2000-01-01

    A study of the historic role of the Nordic mobile telephone and telecommunications cluster and its background in both coordinated innovation policies and societal developments in Scandinavia.......A study of the historic role of the Nordic mobile telephone and telecommunications cluster and its background in both coordinated innovation policies and societal developments in Scandinavia....

  6. Is Nordic Private Equity Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spliid, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Most research on private equity is based on American theory, tested on American empirical data. Nevertheless, the private equity concept has gained a solid foothold in the Nordic region, especially in Sweden. This article analyzes whether American-biased assumptions prevail in the Nordic countries...

  7. Lutheranism and the Nordic States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchardt, Mette

    2017-01-01

    The Reformation in the Nordic region – today consisting of Island, Norway, Denmark, Sweden and Finland – was Lutheran and state driven. This chapter addresses the question of Nordic forms of Lutheranism as well as the question of the impact of Lutheranism in the North by focusing on the relation...

  8. Development of a Common Nordic Balance Settlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    need for incentives to reduce imbalances. NordREG comprehends that there are advantages for vertically integrated companies if they can net their imbalances. These advantages might be reduced and competition enhanced if the balance settlement includes separate consumption imbalances and separate production imbalances per Elspot area. It is difficult and costly to harmonize the area of metering value processing requirements and data systems, but it is crucial that it is done in order to have a common Nordic retail market. Therefore it is important that a road map for the necessary harmonisation and standardisation of these differences is agreed in the first phase. The difference in load profile systems is a obstacle for a harmonised balance settlement regarding customers without hourly measurements. After these issues have been discussed and agreed, it is possible to decide a plan for the further work aiming at implementation of a common Nordic balance settlement, which will also include necessary changes in the legal and regulatory framework.

  9. Development of a Common Nordic Balance Settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    need for incentives to reduce imbalances. NordREG comprehends that there are advantages for vertically integrated companies if they can net their imbalances. These advantages might be reduced and competition enhanced if the balance settlement includes separate consumption imbalances and separate production imbalances per Elspot area. It is difficult and costly to harmonize the area of metering value processing requirements and data systems, but it is crucial that it is done in order to have a common Nordic retail market. Therefore it is important that a road map for the necessary harmonisation and standardisation of these differences is agreed in the first phase. The difference in load profile systems is a obstacle for a harmonised balance settlement regarding customers without hourly measurements. After these issues have been discussed and agreed, it is possible to decide a plan for the further work aiming at implementation of a common Nordic balance settlement, which will also include necessary changes in the legal and regulatory framework

  10. Maternal and infant characteristics: differences and similarities between the Nordic countries and the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfling, Lukas; Bröms, Gabriella; Bahmanyar, Shahram; Kieler, Helle

    2016-01-01

    Data from the Nordic health care registers have been of great value in perinatal epidemiological research. It has been assumed that findings from the Nordic population (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) are applicable to other populations as well, including the population of the US. To describe and compare maternal and infant characteristics between the Nordic and the American populations as recorded in the official statistics. This population-based study included data on all females who gave birth and their infants in the Nordic countries and the US. The data were obtained from the US National Center for Health Statistics and the official statistics data for the Nordic countries. The data from all six countries included births from 2006 to 2010. The mean maternal age at delivery was lower in the US than in the Nordic countries (27.5 vs 30.3 years). Cesarean sections (32.2% vs 17.9%), low birth weight (8.2% vs 4.8%), and preterm birth (12.3% vs 5.9%) were more common in the US than in the Nordic countries. Smoking during early pregnancy was slightly less common in the US compared with Nordic countries (9.8% vs 11.2%). Restricting the data from the US to females with a university degree, characteristics such as age at delivery, birth weight, and preterm deliveries were more in alignment with the Nordic data. There are differences in some key maternal and neonatal characteristics between the Nordic countries and the US. However, some characteristics are related to socioeconomic status, suggesting that the Nordic data seem to be applicable to the part of the population in the US with a higher socioeconomic status.

  11. F/H area high level waste tank status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, C.R. Jr.; Wells, M.N.

    1997-03-01

    Section IX.E.3 of the SRS Federal Facility Agreement requires the DOE to submit to EPA and SCDHEC, an annual report on the status of tanks being removed from service. Tanks that are slated for removal from service either do not meet secondary containment standards or have leak sites. The attached document is intended to meet this annual report requirement. An updated status of relevant portions of the Waste Removal Plan and Schedule is also included

  12. Nordic research infrastructures for plant phenotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiina Himanen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenomics refers to the systematic study of plant phenotypes. Together with closely monitored, controlled climates, it provides an essential component for the integrated analysis of genotype-phenotype-environment interactions. Currently, several plant growth and phenotyping facilities are under establishment globally, and numerous facilities are already in use. Alongside the development of the research infrastructures, several national and international networks have been established to support shared use of the new methodology. In this review, an overview is given of the Nordic plant phenotyping and climate control facilities. Since many areas of phenomics such as sensor-based phenotyping, image analysis and data standards are still developing, promotion of educational and networking activities is especially important. These facilities and networks will be instrumental in tackling plant breeding and plant protection challenges. They will also provide possibilities to study wild species and their ecological interactions under changing Nordic climate conditions.

  13. Survey of system responsibility in the Nordic countries. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    In September 2004 the Nordic Council of Ministers asked Nordel to perform some tasks and present the results to the Council on 1 March 2005. One of the tasks is to survey how system responsibility is defined and executed in the different Nordic countries. According to the Nordic Council of Ministers, the survey shall illuminate similarities and differences between the countries and assess the reasons for the differences. Nordel is asked to present a joint view system responsibility in the Nordic countries. Among other things, the responsibility for the system operators and the participants in the market shall be defined. The definition shall also include the distribution of costs between costs for network business and costs for business in competition. This shall be done in a way that creates a common platform for the further harmonisation work and continuous positive development of the Nordic electricity market. It is also important to identify the need for changes in e.g. legislation and guidelines in the different countries as a consequence of an implementation of a common definition in the Nordic countries. Areas to be included in the task are among others, balance settlement, security of supply, congestion management and system services. (BA)

  14. On Russian/Nordic Investment Competition in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olenchenko Vladimir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The researchers often overlook the relationships between Russian and Nordic investment capital; and even less attention is paid to studying the competition between the two. Yet this subject can be of particular relevance to the areas that are geographically, historically and culturally close to both Russia and the Nordic countries. Thus, the aim of this article is to understand how the competition between Russian and Nordic capital investment is played out in the Baltic States. The study discusses the principles of Russian and Nordic investment in the Baltic, and suggests ways to regulate these relations. To this end, we compare the investment conditions created in the Baltic States for both Russian and Nordic investors. The analysis shows that most of the Baltic market is controlled by the Nordic capital, which blocks the arrival of Russian investment to the Baltic States. With a nod to a number of previous studies, the authors of this article suggest some adjustments to the theory of foreign direct investment. The study will be also of practical interest to those Russian investors who are seeking entry points to the Baltic markets.

  15. The Nordic program for nuclear safety 1990-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The status of ongoing projects under The Nordic Program for Nuclear Safety (NKS) 1990-1993, and the economy of the programme is presented. A review of projects, projects managers and coordinators, and a list of members of NKS and associated members is included. (CLS)

  16. Partnerships in Nordic Building Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The project had two main objectives. The first was to establish a Nordic network of people and organisations interested in partnerships and partnering in the building industry in order to facilitate the exchange of experiences and new ideas. This objective was met through a series of workshops......, the functioning of specific partnering tools, knowledge management, training etc. Whereas the growth of partnering in all of the Nordic construction industries has developed from inspiration from the UK, and from other Nordic countries, it is the overall impression that partnering is interpreted, implemented...

  17. Nordic Luther Research in Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bo Kristian

    2008-01-01

    Luther research in the Nordic countries is characterised by both continuation and discussion of its own legacy. Finnish Luther studies have a prominent position here, but are by no means the only actors in Nordic Luther research. Giving an overview of Nordic Luther research in the last decade......, the article selects four main topics that have been the focus of special attention: politics and ethics, Communicatio idiomatum  and Luther's view on language, Luther as preacher, and Luther and the gift. The article concludes with some comments on the continuing role of creation theology, so strongly...

  18. Nordic Energy Technologies : Enabling a sustainable Nordic energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vik, Amund; Smith, Benjamin

    2009-10-15

    A high current Nordic competence in energy technology and an increased need for funding and international cooperation in the field are the main messages of the report. This report summarizes results from 7 different research projects relating to policies for energy technology, funded by Nordic Energy Research for the period 2007-2008, and provides an analysis of the Nordic innovation systems in the energy sector. The Nordic countries possess a high level of competence in the field of renewable energy technologies. Of the total installed capacity comprises a large share of renewable energy, and Nordic technology companies play an important role in the international market. Especially distinguished wind energy, both in view of the installed power and a global technology sales. Public funding for energy research has experienced a significant decline since the oil crisis of the 1970s, although the figures in recent years has increased a bit. According to the IEA, it will require a significant increase in funding to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and limit further climate change. The third point highlighted in the report is the importance of international cooperation in energy research. Nordic and international cooperation is necessary in order to reduce duplication and create the synergy needed if we are to achieve our ambitious policy objectives in the climate and energy issue. (AG)

  19. Nordic Dance Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume identifies different kinds of dance activities and examines their distribution and modes of operation across and beyond the Nordic region. The focus of the research is on dance and how it moves between different locations, organizations and networks of individuals. The study integrates...... three complementary perspectives. One looks at the interplay between politics and larger global flows on the one hand and the movements of dance and dancers on the other. Another looks at the contribution of localized activities such as dance festivals, competitions and cultural mobility pro......-grammes to the transnational movements within dance. The third looks at the ways in which the impact of the transnational context is supported, resisted or commented upon either by the general public, in the dance itself or by the dancers themselves. The book presents a critical analysis of cul-tural location, relocation...

  20. The New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomo, Louise Havkrog; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Rix, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: High phosphorus content in the diet may have adverse effect on cardiovascular health. We investigated whether the New Nordic Diet (NND), based mainly on local, organic and less processed food and large amounts of fruit, vegetables, wholegrain and fish, versus an Average Danish Diet (ADD......) would reduce the phosphorus load due to less phosphorus-containing food additives, animal protein and more plant-based proteins. METHODS: Phosphorus and creatinine were measured in plasma and urine at baseline, week 12 and week 26 in 132 centrally obese subjects with normal renal function as part....../10 MJ in the ADD group and decreased less in the NND compared to the ADD (67 ± 36 mg/10 MJ and -266 ± 45 mg/day, respectively, p high phosphorus intake and did not decrease the fractional phosphorus excretion compared with ADD. Further...

  1. Double versus single high-dose melphalan 200 mg/m2 and autologous stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma: a region-based study in 484 patients from the Nordic area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkstrand, Bo; Klausen, Tobias W.; Remes, Kari; Gruber, Astrid; Knudsen, Lene M.; Bergmann, Olav J.; Lenhoff, Stig; Johnsen, Hans E.

    2009-01-01

    Autologous stem cell transplantation is still considered the standard of care in young patients with multiple myeloma (MM). This disease is the most common indication for high-dose therapy (HDT) supported by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and much data support the benefit of this procedure. Results of randomized studies are in favor of tandem autologous transplantation although the effect on overall survival is unclear. Based on sequential registration trials in the Nordic area, we aimed to evaluate the outcome of conventional single or double HDT. During 1994–2000 we registered a total of 484 previously untreated patients under the age of 60 years at diagnosis who on a regional basis initially were treated with single [Trial NMSG #5/94 and #7/98 (N=383)] or double [Trial Huddinge Karolinska Turku Herlev (N=101)] high-dose melphalan (200 mg/m2) therapy supported by autologous stem cell transplantation. A complete or very good partial response was achieved by 40% of patients in the single transplant group and 60% of patients in the double transplant group (p=0.0006). The probability of surviving progression free for five years after the diagnosis was 25% (95% CL 18–32%) in the singletransplant group and 46% (95% CL 33–55%) in the double transplant group (p=0.0014). The estimated overall five-year survival rate was 60% in the single transplant group and 64% in the doubletransplant (p=0.9). In a multivariate analysis of variables, including single versus double transplantation, β2 microglobulin level, age, sex and disease stage, only β2 microglobulin level was predictive for overall survival (p>0.0001) and progression free survival (p=0.001). In accordance with these results, a 1:1 case-control matched comparison between double and single transplantation did not identify significant differences in overall and progression free survival. In this retrospective analysis up front double transplantation with melphalan (200 mg/m2) as compared to single

  2. Workshop on assessments of National Carbon Budgets within the Nordic Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristina; Koyama, Aki; Lansø, Anne Sofie

    The three-day workshop organized by the three Nordic research projects; ECOCLIM, LAGGE and SnowCarbo brought together scientists and other actors from Nordic countries to communicate and discuss research on carbon budget estimations in the Nordic region. Through presentations of most recent...... research in the field and following scientific discussions, the workshop contributed to strengthen the scientific basis of the identification and quantification of major natural carbon sinks in the Nordic region on which integrated climate change abatement and management strategies and policy decisions...... status and knowledge on research on assessments of national carbon budgets as well as on projections and sensitivity to future changes in e.g. management and climate change in the Nordic Region....

  3. Workshop on assessments of National Carbon Budgets within the Nordic Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Eva Thorborg; Lansø, Anne Sofie; Hansen, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The three-day workshop organized by the three Nordic research projects; ECOCLIM, LAGGE and SnowCarbo brought together scientists and other actors from Nordic countries to communicate and discuss research on carbon budget estimations in the Nordic region. Through presentations of most recent...... research in the field and following scientific discussions, the workshop contributed to strengthen the scientific basis of the identification and quantification of major natural carbon sinks in the Nordic region on which integrated climate change abatement and management strategies and policy decisions...... status and knowledge on research on assessments of national carbon budgets as well as on projections and sensitivity to future changes in e.g. management and climate change in the Nordic Region....

  4. Peculiarities of phenotype and genetic statuses of diabetes mellitus patients living on contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel'nov, S.B.; Morozik, V.M.; Mokhort, T.V.

    2006-01-01

    Some peculiarities of cytogenetic status of the Diabetes Mellitus patients from areas with different level of ecology pressure were investigated. We found pronounced increase practically all types of aberrations. Comparative anthropology investigations showed real differences in status of children from mail group (citizens of radiation contaminated areas). (authors)

  5. The Nordic financial electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-15

    NordREG is a cooperation of the Nordic energy regulators. The mission is to actively promote legal and institutional framework and conditions necessary for developing the Nordic and European electricity markets. The financial market is an important market for market participants to mitigate their risks. By providing tools for risk management, the financial market contributes to the efficient functioning of both wholesale and end-user markets. NordREG decided during 2009 to undertake a study on the Nordic financial electricity market. The aim of the report is to consider whether any improvements can be made to further increase the efficiency of the Nordic financial electricity market in order to secure an optimal price setting in the wholesale and the end-user markets

  6. Energy economy in Nordic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, P H; Finnedal, B H

    1980-01-01

    The employment, economic and energetic situation in various industrial branches and their importance for industry as a whole is mapped for Nordic countries. Future Nordic energy projects can base their attempts to decrease energy costs per unit on this report. In food and stimulants industry, chemical, glass and ceramic industry over 90% energy is used for processing while in steel- and metal-industry the processing consumes only about 25%. Rentability of new investments in energy saving should be considered in these branches against investments in automation, new equipment etc. Common Nordic energy-saving projects can provide much better energy economy. For instance 4% of USA energy which had formerly been used in drying processes is drastically decreased and if the USA result can be transferred to Nordic conditions DKr 160 million can be save. Prospective common projects are process-types like drying, spray-drying, heat treatments of mineral proproducts, and evaporation.

  7. Challenges in Nordic Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1996-01-01

    Design research has not won a convincing reputation in industry. Nordic research being scattered and small in number of researchers should find its special strengths and focus on creating results, which are based on our peculiar conditions and background.......Design research has not won a convincing reputation in industry. Nordic research being scattered and small in number of researchers should find its special strengths and focus on creating results, which are based on our peculiar conditions and background....

  8. The Nordic Gender Equality Model

    OpenAIRE

    Teigen, Mari; Skjeie, Hege

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we investigate the descriptive premises involved in portrayals of a Nordic model of gender equality. Mainly, we focus on the equality dimensions that form the baseline in comparative welfare state research and research on political participation. We outline these dimensions as norms for economic equity and democratic parity. First, we examine whether and how descriptive statistics that assess these two dimensions currently rank Nordic countries compared with other European co...

  9. Transport in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, B.; Pettersson, S.; Vilkamo, S.

    1989-01-01

    Transport of radioactive material from different fields of operation is well advanced in the Nordic countries: waste from the medical sector, industry, research, and now in increasing amounts from reactor operation, including spent fuel. In the future, waste from decommissioning will also be transported. This report gives the amount of radioactive waste material to be transported in the Nordic countries. Transport routes, transport containers, and transport systems are described. Legislations and transport regulatins are discussed. (author)

  10. Nordic noir and lifted localities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    What I do here is to draw attention to a particular visual quality of recent Nordic noir and to relate the visuality of TV-drama to what I – with a term borrowed from Roland Robertson – dub lifted localites.......What I do here is to draw attention to a particular visual quality of recent Nordic noir and to relate the visuality of TV-drama to what I – with a term borrowed from Roland Robertson – dub lifted localites....

  11. Private protected areas in Australia: current status and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Fitzsimons

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the recognised importance of private land for biodiversity conservation, there has been little research into systems of private protected areas at a country-wide level. Here I look at definitions, legislation, ownership, management approaches and effectiveness, distribution and incentives provided to private protected areas in Australia. The term ‘private protected areas’, although increasingly used, still suffers from a lack of a clear and concise definition in Australia. Australian states and territories have legislation enabling the application of conservation covenants over private land; covenants being the primary mechanism to secure conservation intent on the title of the land in perpetuity. If considering all ‘in perpetuity’ conservation covenants under a dedicated program to be private protected areas and land owned by non-government organisations and managed for the purpose of biodiversity conservation, there were approximately 5,000 terrestrial properties that could be considered private protected areas in Australia covering 8,913,000 ha as at September 2013. This comprises almost 4,900 conservation covenants covering over 4,450,000 ha and approximately 140 properties owned by private land trusts covering approximately 4,594,120 ha. Most conservation covenanting programs now seek to complement the comprehensiveness, adequacy and representativeness of the public reserve system, either stating so explicitly or by aiming to protect the highest priority ecosystems on private land. There are a range of incentives offered for private land conservation and requirements of owners of private protected areas to report on their activities vary in Australia. However, there are a number of key policy challenges that need to be addressed if private protected areas are to achieve their full potential in Australia, including managing broad-scale ecosystem processes, protection and tenure reform, improved financial incentives, and

  12. Status of greenhouses in Eastern Mediterranean coastal areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plastic cover material used was mostly PE (79%) with inclusion of UV+IR. Heating of the greenhouses was only for frost protection purpose which adversely affected crop yields and quality. Only 2% of the greenhouses present in the area was constructed based on projects of engineering designs; the remaining were ...

  13. Costa Rica’s Marine Protected Areas: status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Alvarado

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available With 51 100km2 of terrestrial area and 589 000km² of national waters, Costa Rica is considered one of the countries with the greatest biodiversity. It has approximately 3.5% of the world marine species. In the last four decades, Costa Rica has done a considerable effort to create a representative system of Protected Areas (PA, mainly terrestrial. We present an assessment of the current situation of the Marine Protected Areas (MPA in Costa Rica, through an historical analysis, and an evaluation of their distribution, coverage and management categories. Costa Rica has 166 protected areas covering 50% of the coastline; of these 20 are MPAs, classified as National Parks (90.6%, National Wildlife Refuges (6.6%, Wetlands (1.5%, Biological Reserves (1%, and one Absolute Natural Reserve (0.3%. According to IUCN criteria, 93.7% correspond to category II, 5% to IV and 1.3% to I. The marine protected surface is 5 296.5km², corresponding to 17.5% of the territorial waters and 0.9% of the Exclusive Economic Zone. The median distance between MPAs is 22.4km in the Pacific and 32.9km along the Caribbean. The median size is close to 54km². The main threats to MPAs are the lack of coordination between governmental agencies, limited economic resources, restricted patrolling and control, poor watershed management, and rampant coastal alteration.

  14. Radiation Protection Legislation in the Nordic Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Person, Lars.

    1990-01-01

    Recent alterations in the radiation protection laws of the Nordic countries are presented. The report amends the previous SS-report 87-37 with the title Radiation Protection and Atomic Energy Legislation in the Nordic Countries. (au)

  15. Has the Nordic Welfare Model Been Transformed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent; Kvist, Jon

    2011-01-01

    The Nordic welfare model is undergoing a fundamental transformation. Using Denmark we show how a universal welfare state model is gradually being transformed into an emergent multi-tiered welfare state. Whereas the Danish pension system's having become multi-tiered in the 1990s, with private...... and the sick. Although Denmark still offers universal coverage in core welfare state areas, the increased use of occupational and fiscal welfare as well as changes in public schemes has gradually transformed the nation into a multi-tiered welfare state that is more dualistic and individualistic...

  16. Status of ground water in the 1100 Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, A.G.

    1990-12-01

    This document contains the results of monthly sampling of 1100 Area Wells and ground water monitoring. Included is a table that presents all of the results of monthly sampling and analyses between April 1989 and May 1990, for four constituents selected to be most indicative of the potential for contamination from US Department of Energy facilities. The samples were collected from the three wells near the city of Richland well field. Also included is a table that presents a listing of the analytical results from sampling and analyses of five wells between April 1989, and May 1990 in the 1100 Area. The detection limit and drinking water standards or maximum contaminant level are also listed in the tables for each constituent

  17. Ground-water status report, Pearl Harbor area, Hawaii, 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroos, Ronald L.; Ewart, Charles J.

    1979-01-01

    Increasing demand for freshwater in Hawaii has placed heavy stress on many of the State 's basal aquifer systems. The most heavily stressed of these systems is the Pearl Harbor on Oahu. The Pearl Harbor basal aquifer supplies as much as 277 million gallons per day. Since early in this century, spring discharge has been declining while pumpage has been increasing. Total ground-water discharge has remained steady despite short-term fluctuations. Some wells show general increases in chloride concentration while others remain steady. Chloride concentrations throughout the area show no apparent increase since 1970. Basal water head maps of the Pearl Harbor area clearly reflect the natural discharge points, which are the springs located along the shore near the center of Pearl Harbor. Basal-water hydrographs show a general decline of about 0.09 foot per year. This implies depletion of storage at a rate of about 25 million gallons per day. (USGS).

  18. Nordic studies in reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pershagen, N.

    1993-01-01

    The Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Programme SIK programme in reactor safety is part of a major joint Nordic research effort in nuclear safety. The report summarizes the achievements of the SIK programme, which was carried out during 1990-1993 in collaboration between Nordic nuclear utilities, safety authorities, and research institutes. Three main projects were successfully completed dealing with: 1) development and application of a living PSA concept for monitoring the risk of core damage, and of safety indicators for early warning of possible safety problems; 2) review and intercomparison of severe accident codes, case studies of potential core melt accidents in nordic reactors, development of chemical models for the MAAP code, and outline of a system for computerized accident management support; 3) compilation of information about design and safety features of neighbouring reactors in Germany, Lithuania and Russia, and for naval reactors and nuclear submarines. The report reviews the state-of-the-art in each subject matter as an introduction to the individual project summaries. The main findings of each project are highlighted. The report also contains an overview of reactor safety research in the Nordic countries and a summary of fundamental reactor safety principles. (au) (69 refs.)

  19. Nordic Mediation - Comparing Denmark and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappi-Seppälä, Tapio; Storgaard, Anette

    2015-01-01

    The Nordic Countries have a long common history in criminal policy but a closer look also indicates individual Development. the introduction of Victim Offender Mediation is one example of Nordic diversity in details.......The Nordic Countries have a long common history in criminal policy but a closer look also indicates individual Development. the introduction of Victim Offender Mediation is one example of Nordic diversity in details....

  20. Nutritional status of preschool children in informal settlement areas near Bloemfontein, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannhauser, A; Bester, C; Joubert, G; Badenhorst, P; Slabber, M; Badenhorst, A; Du Toit, E; Barnard, H; Botha, P; Nogabe, L

    2000-09-01

    To determine the nutritional status and household resources of preschool children. A cross-sectional survey. : Two informal settlement areas, Joe Slovo (JS) and JB Mafora (JBM) in Mangaung, near Bloemfontein, South Africa. Preschool children (poor household situation of the participants. The generally poor nutritional status and environmental conditions emphasize the urgency of intervention for these children.

  1. Impact Of GOCE On The Nordic Gravity Field Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yidiz, Hasan; Forsberg, René; Tscherning, C. C.

    2011-01-01

    GOCE level-2 Tzz and Txx gravity gradients at satellite altitude are used in combination as input data to predict surface free air gravity anomalies over the Nordic region using Least Square Collocation. We test the performance of using covariance functions created separately from Tzz gradients a...... Surface model, both the NKG-2004 quasi-geoid model of the Nordic and Baltic Area and the one obtained using second generation GOCE spherical harmonic coefficients based on time-wise method can successfully reproduce the higher level of the Baltic Sea relative to the Atlantic Ocean....

  2. Summary of 2 nd Nordic symposium on digital pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Lundström

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Techniques for digital pathology are envisioned to provide great benefits in clinical practice, but experiences also show that solutions must be carefully crafted. The Nordic countries are far along the path toward the use of whole-slide imaging in clinical routine. The Nordic Symposium on Digital Pathology (NDP was created to promote knowledge exchange in this area, between stakeholders in health care, industry, and academia. This article is a summary of the NDP 2014 symposium, including conclusions from a workshop on clinical adoption of digital pathology among the 144 attendees.

  3. Summary of 2nd Nordic symposium on digital pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Claes; Thorstenson, Sten; Waltersson, Marie; Persson, Anders; Treanor, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Techniques for digital pathology are envisioned to provide great benefits in clinical practice, but experiences also show that solutions must be carefully crafted. The Nordic countries are far along the path toward the use of whole-slide imaging in clinical routine. The Nordic Symposium on Digital Pathology (NDP) was created to promote knowledge exchange in this area, between stakeholders in health care, industry, and academia. This article is a summary of the NDP 2014 symposium, including conclusions from a workshop on clinical adoption of digital pathology among the 144 attendees. PMID:25774316

  4. Summary of 2(nd) Nordic symposium on digital pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Claes; Thorstenson, Sten; Waltersson, Marie; Persson, Anders; Treanor, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Techniques for digital pathology are envisioned to provide great benefits in clinical practice, but experiences also show that solutions must be carefully crafted. The Nordic countries are far along the path toward the use of whole-slide imaging in clinical routine. The Nordic Symposium on Digital Pathology (NDP) was created to promote knowledge exchange in this area, between stakeholders in health care, industry, and academia. This article is a summary of the NDP 2014 symposium, including conclusions from a workshop on clinical adoption of digital pathology among the 144 attendees.

  5. Nordic Guidance Levels for Patient Doses in Diagnostic Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxebol, G.; Olerud, H.M.; Hjardemaal, O.; Leitz, W.; Servomaa, A.; Walderhaug, T.

    1998-01-01

    Within the framework of Nordic authoritative cooperation in radiation protection and nuclear safety, recommendations have been prepared dealing with dose constraints in diagnostic radiology. A working group with participants from all the Nordic countries has met and discussed possible implementations of the ICRP dose constraint for medical radiology. Dose constraints, expressed as guidance levels, were specified for six different radiological examinations, i.e. chest, pelvis, lumbar spine, urography, barium meal and enema in units of kerma-area product and entrance surface dose. The recommendations are described in report No 5 in the series 'Report on Nordic Radiation Protection Cooperation'. Examples of dose distributions and factors affecting the patient dose are described in the report. (author)

  6. The Nordic programme for nuclear safety 1990 - 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    The report contains summaries written by leaders of the various projects carried out under the Nordic programme for nuclear safety during the first half-year of 1993. The programme covers spreading prognoses and consequences, strategy and methods for management and exchange of data for decision-makers, the evaluation and harmonizing of countermeasures and use of intervention levels, the basis for public information, Nordic emergency exercises, the re-establishment of radioactive contaminated areas, criteria for classification of radioactive materials, decommissioning of uranium-cleaning plants, storage of information, removal and disposal of contaminated soil from fields, influence of climatological and geological processes on longterm storage of radioactive wastes, training, quality assurance, aquatic radioecology, agriculture's radioecology, natural and semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems, reactor safety and personnel preparedness, safety evaluation, severe accidents and design and safety features of nuclear installations in countries which are neighbours to the Nordic lands. Budgets of expenditures for the various project groups are presented. (AB)

  7. 300 area solvent evaporator interim status closure plan: Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    This document describes activities for the closure of a hazardous waste tank treatment facility operated by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and co-operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This treatment facility was a solvent evaporator located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, from 1975 to 1985 on behalf of DOE-RL. The 300 Area Solvent Evaporator (300 ASE) was a modified load lugger (dumpster) in which solvent wastes were evaporated. Some of the solvents were radioactively contaminated because they came from a degreaser which processed bare uranium metal billets from the N Reactor Fuel Manufacturing Facility. The waste was composed of perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, ethyl acetate/bromine solution, paint shop solvents and possibly some used oil. Also, small amounts of uranium, copper, zirconium and possibly beryllium were present in the degreaser solvents as particulates. Radioactive and non-radioactive solvents were not segregated in the 300 ASE, and the entire mixture was regarded as mixed waste

  8. The Nordic Approach to the Experience Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine

    This paper discusses the concept of the experience economy in a Nordic context and shows how the Nordic version of the concept has come about from a mix of three different approaches and theories. Besides, the Nordic definition links the experience economy closely with cultural activities...

  9. What Characterise the Nordic Welfare State Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2007-01-01

    The main distinctive characteristics of the Nordic welfare states are presented. These include full employment, high degree of equality, a high level of taxes and public sector spending. The Nordic countries are compared to other European countries. The conclusion being that the Nordic Model...... is here to stay, although a movement in a European direction is underway....

  10. Costa Rica’s Marine Protected Areas: status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Alvarado

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available With 51 100km2 of terrestrial area and 589 000km² of national waters, Costa Rica is considered one of the countries with the greatest biodiversity. It has approximately 3.5% of the world marine species. In the last four decades, Costa Rica has done a considerable effort to create a representative system of Protected Areas (PA, mainly terrestrial. We present an assessment of the current situation of the Marine Protected Areas (MPA in Costa Rica, through an historical analysis, and an evaluation of their distribution, coverage and management categories. Costa Rica has 166 protected areas covering 50% of the coastline; of these 20 are MPAs, classified as National Parks (90.6%, National Wildlife Refuges (6.6%, Wetlands (1.5%, Biological Reserves (1%, and one Absolute Natural Reserve (0.3%. According to IUCN criteria, 93.7% correspond to category II, 5% to IV and 1.3% to I. The marine protected surface is 5 296.5km², corresponding to 17.5% of the territorial waters and 0.9% of the Exclusive Economic Zone. The median distance between MPAs is 22.4km in the Pacific and 32.9km along the Caribbean. The median size is close to 54km². The main threats to MPAs are the lack of coordination between governmental agencies, limited economic resources, restricted patrolling and control, poor watershed management, and rampant coastal alteration.Con 51 100km2 de área terrestre y 589 000km² de aguas jurisdiccionales, Costa Rica es considerado uno de los países con mayor biodiversidad. Posee aproximadamente 3.5% de las especies marinas del mundo. En las últimas cuatro décadas, Costa Rica ha dedicado un esfuerzo significativo para la creación de Áreas Protegidas (AP, principalmente terrestres. Aquí presentamos un diagnóstico de la situación actual de las Áreas Marinas Protegidas (AMP en Costa Rica, a través de un análisis histórico, su distribución, cobertura y categorías de manejo. Costa Rica posee 166 áreas protegidas que cubren 50% de la l

  11. The Nordic prescription databases as a resource for pharmacoepidemiological research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wettermark, B; Zoëga, H; Furu, K

    2013-01-01

    All five Nordic countries have nationwide prescription databases covering all dispensed drugs, with potential for linkage to outcomes. The aim of this review is to present an overview of therapeutic areas studied and methods applied in pharmacoepidemiologic studies using data from these databases....

  12. A Nordic Perspective on Early Childhood Education and Care Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karila, Kirsti

    2012-01-01

    The national policies and historical roots of early childhood education (ECE) vary from society to society. In the Nordic countries, early childhood education and care (ECEC) policies have been built in the context of the welfare state. As such, they are closely connected to other welfare policy areas such as social policy, family policy and…

  13. Nordic eHealth Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyppönen, Hannele; Faxvaag, Arild; Gilstad, Heidi

    This report describes first results of the Network: eHealth policy analysis and first common Nordic eHealth indicators. The results show similarities and also some differences in the eHealth policies, priorities and implementation. Interesting similarities and differences in availability and use...... of eHealth services in the Nordic countries were found with the first comparable eHealth indicators. The results create a basis for Evidence-based policy making as well as benchmarking and learning best practices from each other....

  14. Absenteeism in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Jensen, Troels Wendelboe

    2007-01-01

    and Sweden. Employees working in the public sector, more specific the municipalities, have a higher level of absence compared to the private sector. According to the personal characteristics, women are more absent than men in all Nordic countries, but the effect of age differs according to the country...... in question. If the manager however is a woman and the employee likewise, then the level of absence is higher in Denmark, Norway and Finland compared to the other gender constellations. Originality/value - Because of the lack of international comparative studies of absenteeism in the Nordic countries...

  15. Technical area status report for waste destruction and stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, J.D.; Harris, T.L.; DeWitt, L.M.

    1993-08-01

    The Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) was established by the Department of Energy (DOE) to direct and coordinate waste management and site remediation programs/activities throughout the DOE complex. In order to successfully achieve the goal of properly managing waste and the cleanup of the DOE sites, the EM was divided into five organizations: the Office of Planning and Resource Management (EM-10); the Office of Environmental Quality Assurance and Resource Management (EM-20); the Office of Waste Operations (EM-30); the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40); and the Office of Technology and Development (EM-50). The mission of the Office of Technology Development (OTD) is to develop treatment technologies for DOE's operational and environmental restoration wastes where current treatment technologies are inadequate or not available. The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) was created by OTD to assist in the development of treatment technologies for the DOE mixed low-level wastes (MLLW). The MWIP has established five Technical Support Groups (TSGs) whose purpose is to identify, evaluate, and develop treatment technologies within five general technical areas representing waste treatment functions from initial waste handling through generation of final waste forms. These TSGs are: (1) Front-End Waste Handling, (2) Physical/Chemical Treatment, (3) Waste Destruction and Stabilization, (4) Second-Stage Destruction and Offgas Treatment, and (5) Final Waste Forms. This report describes the functions of the Waste Destruction and Stabilization (WDS) group. Specifically, the following items are discussed: DOE waste stream identification; summary of previous efforts; summary of WDS treatment technologies; currently funded WDS activities; and recommendations for future activities

  16. Technical area status report for chemical/physical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.H. Jr.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1993-08-01

    The Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) was established by the Department of Energy (DOE) to direct and coordinate waste management and site remediation programs and activities throughout the DOE Complex. The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) was created by the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) to develop, deploy, and complete appropriate technologies for the treatment of an DOE low-level mixed waste (LLMW). The MWIP mission includes development of strategies related to enhanced waste form production, improvements to and testing of the EM-30 baseline flowsheet for mixed waste treatment, programmatic oversight for ongoing technical projects, and specific technical tasks related to the site specific Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement (FFCA). The MWIP has established five Technical Support Groups (TSGs) based on primary functional areas of the Mixed Waste Treatment Plant) identified by EM-30. These TSGs are: (1) Front-End Waste Handling, (2) Chemical/Physical Treatment, (3) Waste Destruction and Stabilization, (4) Second-stage Destruction and Offgas Treatment, and (5) Final Waste Forms. The focus of this document is the Chemical/Physical Treatment System (CPTS). The CPTS performs the required pretreatment and/or separations on the waste streams passing through the system for discharge to the environment or efficient downstream processing. Downstream processing can include all system components except Front-End Waste Handling. The primary separations to be considered by the CPTS are: (1) removal of suspended and dissolved solids from aqueous and liquid organic streams, (2) separation of water from organic liquids, (3) treatment of wet and dry solids, including separation into constituents as required, for subsequent thermal treatment and final form processing, (4) mercury removal and control, and (5) decontamination of equipment and waste classified as debris

  17. Analysing changes of health inequalities in the Nordic welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahelma, Eero; Kivelä, Katariina; Roos, Eva

    2002-01-01

    -standing illness and perceived health were analysed by age, gender, employment status and educational attainment. First, age-adjusted overall prevalence percentages were calculated. Second, changes in the magnitude of relative health inequalities were studied using logistic regression analysis. Within each country......This study examined changes over time in relative health inequalities among men and women in four Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. A serious economic recession burst out in the early 1990s particularly in Finland and Sweden. We ask whether this adverse social structural......'development influenced health inequalities by employment status and educational attainment, i.e. whether the trends in health inequalities were similar or dissimilar between the Nordic countries. The data derived from comparable interview surveys carried out in 1986/87 and 1994/95 in the four countries. Limiting long...

  18. Suggested best practice for geotechnical characterisation of permafrost in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Frederik Ancker; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Foged, Niels Nielsen

    2012-01-01

    Even though permafrost is a specialty within Nordic geotechnical engineering, engineers and researcher will be faced with managing the consequences of projected climatic influences to construction design in permafrost areas. This requires the determination of the frozen soil engineering propertie...

  19. Why has the Nordic electricity market worked so well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, Lars [Stockholm School of Economics (Sweden)

    2005-06-01

    There are two major threats to the success of electricity market reform in the Nordic countries. The first is that security of supply can not be maintained. The second is that market power prevents the potential benefits of competition to be realized. So far security of supply has been maintained, although exceptional storms have created serious problems in electricity distribution. The major power companies have been accused of exercising market power, but convincing proofs are lacking. At the same time power industry productivity has increased, and retail electricity prices (before tax) have become strongly linked to wholesale electricity prices. The situation may change in the future. Thus it remains to be seen that investments in new capacity are carried out when they are needed, and that mergers and capacity expansion do not significantly increase concentration and market power. But the development of the Nordic electricity market so far to a large extent is quite successful. Does this mean that the 'Nordic model' should be adopted all over the world? The answer is 'no'. In many ways the success of the Nordic model depends on area specific factors such as ample supply of hydropower and significant inter-connector capacities. Yet there are some 'universal' lessons that can be learned from the Nordic experiences. In particular the Nordic experiences suggest that a 'deregulated' market for electricity works well if: There are no price regulations and constraints on the development of financial markets; There is continued political support for a market based electricity supply system also when electricity is scarce and prices are high.

  20. Why has the Nordic electricity market worked so well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, Lars

    2005-06-01

    There are two major threats to the success of electricity market reform in the Nordic countries. The first is that security of supply can not be maintained. The second is that market power prevents the potential benefits of competition to be realized. So far security of supply has been maintained, although exceptional storms have created serious problems in electricity distribution. The major power companies have been accused of exercising market power, but convincing proofs are lacking. At the same time power industry productivity has increased, and retail electricity prices (before tax) have become strongly linked to wholesale electricity prices. The situation may change in the future. Thus it remains to be seen that investments in new capacity are carried out when they are needed, and that mergers and capacity expansion do not significantly increase concentration and market power. But the development of the Nordic electricity market so far to a large extent is quite successful. Does this mean that the 'Nordic model' should be adopted all over the world? The answer is 'no'. In many ways the success of the Nordic model depends on area specific factors such as ample supply of hydropower and significant inter-connector capacities. Yet there are some 'universal' lessons that can be learned from the Nordic experiences. In particular the Nordic experiences suggest that a 'deregulated' market for electricity works well if: There are no price regulations and constraints on the development of financial markets; There is continued political support for a market based electricity supply system also when electricity is scarce and prices are high

  1. Breaking the Nordic Defense Deadlock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    United Nations] was a ‘ luxury good’, only affordable because the Nordics were allowed a free ride on a security order created by the presence of an... Brands Poroshenko ‘Nazi’ Ahead of EU Deal,” BBC News, June 27, 2014, available from www.bbc. co.uk/news/world-europe-28049565, accessed June, 27, 2014

  2. Nordic projects concerning nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, H.C.

    1988-11-01

    The report describes the nature of the work done in the first half of 1988 within the field of nuclear safety (1985-89) under the Nordic program for 1985-89. Five programmes and their documentation, are described and complete lists of addresses and of persons involved is given. (AB)

  3. Nordic Management and Sustainable Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preuss, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    The Nordics have been since a longer time a role model for a social and reliable management style. However, this statement was in the last just proven by doing few case studies with top executives. This study wants to describe the corporate culture and management style in the biggest companies...

  4. Nordic scepticism towards health claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2008-01-01

    Imagine that you are shopping in a supermarket and find a package of pork chops labelled "omega-3 added" or that the yogurt "contains phosphatidylserine, which can improve your memory"; would you buy these pork chops or this yogurt? Most Nordic consumers would choose products without health claims....

  5. Hepatoblastoma in the nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, S; Schmidt, L S; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiology of hepatoblastoma. Because of the young age at diagnosis, several studies have looked at various birth characteristics. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of hepatoblastoma in the Nordic countries and the association between selected bir...

  6. New Nordic and Scandinavian retro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels Peter; Munch, Anders V.

    2016-01-01

    ’?” with a focus on the Danish firm Muuto, which has been a central actor in establishing the term “New Nordic Design.” We focus on the interplay between the storytelling around the products and designers on webpages and in marketing, popular literature, etc., and the actual design objects. Reoccurring themes from...

  7. The Nordic Corporate Governance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2016-01-01

    , concentrated ownership, semi two-tier board structures, employee representation and low-powered managerial incentives – has been shaped by the welfare state in ways consistent with systemic corporate governance theories. The article concludes with a skeptical discussion of the Nordic model as a development...

  8. Local Nordic tobacco interests collaborated with multinational companies to maintain a united front and undermine tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

    2013-03-01

    To analyse how local tobacco companies in the Nordic countries, individually and through National Manufacturers' Associations, cooperated with British American Tobacco and Philip Morris in denying the health hazards of smoking and undermining tobacco control. Analysis of tobacco control policies in the Nordic countries and tobacco industry documents. Nordic countries were early adopters of tobacco control policies. The multinational tobacco companies recognised this fact and mobilised to oppose these policies, in part because of fear that they would set unfavourable precedents. Since at least 1972, the Nordic tobacco companies were well informed about and willing to participate in the multinational companies activities to obscure the health dangers of smoking and secondhand smoke and to oppose tobacco control policies. Cooperation between multinational companies, Nordic national manufacturer associations and local companies ensured a united front on smoking and health issues in the Nordic area that was consistent with the positions that the multinational companies were taking. This cooperation delayed smoke-free laws and undermined other tobacco control measures. Local tobacco companies worked with multinational companies to undermine tobacco control in distant and small Nordic markets because of concern that pioneering policies initiated in Nordic countries would spread to bigger market areas. Claims by the local Nordic companies that they were not actively involved with the multinationals are not supported by the facts. These results also demonstrate that the industry appreciates the global importance of both positive and negative public health precedents in tobacco control.

  9. Local Nordic tobacco interests collaborated with multinational companies to maintain a united front and undermine tobacco control policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyse how local tobacco companies in the Nordic countries, individually and through National Manufacturers’ Associations, cooperated with British American Tobacco and Philip Morris in denying the health hazards of smoking and undermining tobacco control. Methods Analysis of tobacco control policies in the Nordic countries and tobacco industry documents. Results Nordic countries were early adopters of tobacco control policies. The multinational tobacco companies recognised this fact and mobilised to oppose these policies, in part because of fear that they would set unfavourable precedents. Since at least 1972, the Nordic tobacco companies were well informed about and willing to participate in the multinational companies activities to obscure the health dangers of smoking and secondhand smoke and to oppose tobacco control policies. Cooperation between multinational companies, Nordic national manufacturer associations and local companies ensured a united front on smoking and health issues in the Nordic area that was consistent with the positions that the multinational companies were taking. This cooperation delayed smoke-free laws and undermined other tobacco control measures. Conclusions Local tobacco companies worked with multinational companies to undermine tobacco control in distant and small Nordic markets because of concern that pioneering policies initiated in Nordic countries would spread to bigger market areas. Claims by the local Nordic companies that they were not actively involved with the multinationals are not supported by the facts. These results also demonstrate that the industry appreciates the global importance of both positive and negative public health precedents in tobacco control. PMID:22199013

  10. Mania in the Nordic countries: patients and treatment in the acute phase of the EMBLEM study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jens Knud; Porsdal, Vibeke; Aarre, Trond F

    2009-01-01

    countries with other European countries during the first 12 weeks of the EMBLEM (European Mania in Bipolar Longitudinal Evaluation of Medication) study. Adult patients with bipolar disorder were enrolled within standard course of care as in/outpatients if they initiated/changed oral medication...... status, functional status and pharmacological treatment. Psychiatric status at inclusion measured by the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and the Clinical Global Impression-Bipolar Disorder (CGI-BP) were similar in the Nordic and European patient groups, which is surprising as 73% of the Nordic patients...

  11. Nordic working group on CCF studies. Parameter estimation within the activities of the Nordic CCF Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, G.

    2002-01-01

    depending on component type. Plant And Regulator Survey: The survey shall provide a background to this project based on the needs and experience form the plant owners and the regulators. The survey shall try to reach a wide spectrum of personnel from regulation, operation, design engineering, safety committees and risk assessment groups. Important elements of the survey are to carry out a dialog with the organisations to engage them in the issues related to this programme and to marked the outcome and use of the analysis. The quantitative work area cover activities related to the quantitative assessment of the data. The procedure for common cause failure data analysis is intended to provide guidance on event analysis, the derivation of event statistics, and the estimation of model parameters. CCF events do often contribute significantly to the PSA results and it is necessary to have the best estimates possible. Qualitative work areas: Provide insights into the plant design and operation; allow credit for existing plant defenses in PSA work; support inspection and operation in assessing plant status with regard to CCF defenses. Qualitative classification. (author)

  12. Moisture Monitoring at Area G, Technical Area 54, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2016 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitt, Daniel Glenn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Birdsell, Kay Hanson [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jennings, Terry L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); French, Sean B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-17

    Hydrological characterization and moisture monitoring activities provide data required for evaluating the transport of subsurface contaminants in the unsaturated and saturated zones beneath Area G, and for the Area G Performance Assessment and Composite Analysis. These activities have been ongoing at Area G, Technical Area 54 of the Los Alamos National Laboratory since waste disposal operations began in 1957. This report summarizes the hydrological characterization and moisture monitoring activities conducted at Area G. It includes moisture monitoring data collected from 1986 through 2016 from numerous boreholes and access tubes with neutron moisture meters, as well as data collected by automated dataloggers for water content measurement sensors installed in a waste disposal pit cover, and buried beneath the floor of a waste disposal pit. This report is an update of a nearly identical report by Levitt et al., (2015) that summarized data collected through early 2015; this report includes additional moisture monitoring data collected at Pit 31 and the Pit 38 extension through December, 2016. It also includes information from the Jennings and French (2009) moisture monitoring report and includes all data from Jennings and French (2009) and the Draft 2010 Addendum moisture monitoring report (Jennings and French, 2010). For the 2015 version of this report, all neutron logging data, including neutron probe calibrations, were investigated for quality and pedigree. Some data were recalculated using more defensible calibration data. Therefore, some water content profiles are different from those in the Jennings and French (2009) report. All of that information is repeated in this report for completeness. Monitoring and characterization data generally indicate that some areas of the Area G vadose zone are consistent with undisturbed conditions, with water contents of less than five percent by volume in the top two layers of the Bandelier tuff at Area G. These data also

  13. Outcomes, challenges and prospects for the Nordic network regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrell, Per J.; Koivuranta, Kari; Lorenz, Mathias

    2005-01-01

    The deregulation of the electricity sector in the NordPool area has largely been a success story in terms of market organization and responsiveness. The joint market and the tight cooperation among the TSOs serve as an international benchmark in terms of transparency and market efficiency. However, the regulation models for the residual distribution network monopolies are surprisingly heterogeneous in terms of character, instruments and application. For primarily historical and institutional reasons, the Nordic countries have chosen different methods to regulate the sector, with interesting differences also in industrial structure. Whereas Finland and Sweden long maintained a 'light-handed' ex post approach based on enforced self-regulation, Norway adopted an ex ante increasingly high-powered revenue cap regime based on frontier analysis methods (DEA). Denmark, where the sector is dominated by cooperatively owned distributors, opted for high-powered model based on simple regression tools (COLS). In this paper, we present findings from a joint Nordic study on the challenges to the heterogeneous regulation models in the presence of increasing consolidation and supra-national regulatory convergence from the IEM directives. Based on an analysis based on surveys among stakeholders in the four countries, we investigate the feasibility and potential properties of a common Nordic regulation model. The paper is illustrated with a new Nordic operating efficiency analysis for the area, based on frontier analysis, showing the relative and absolute cost differences in the current decentralized regime. (Author)

  14. [Effect of balanced diet on the nutrition status of schoolchildren in the mountain area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Wang, Yin; Wu, Jie-Shu; Zhu, Ran-Feng; Zhao, Xian-feng; Wang, Zhi-xu; Yin, Shi-an

    2006-09-01

    To study the effect of balanced diet on the nutrition status of primary schoolchildren in the mountain area in November 2004. All the subjects aged 7-9 years old were divided into intervention group and control group. The balanced diet was provided for the intervention group and the control group was maintained on their usual diet for 30 days in December. The anthropometric and nutritional status of the subjects were checked before and after the study. The growth and nutritional status of the intervention group improved significantly. However the unbalanced diet in the control group affects the normal growth of the children because the usual diet can not meet the nutrient requirement. The nutrition intervention can improve the growth and nutritional status of the primary schoolchildren in the mountain area.

  15. Why Aren't All Children in the Nordic Countries Bilingual?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove

    1984-01-01

    Examines three Nordic bilingual programs: (1) immersion, where majority children with a high status mother tongue learn a second language; (2) submersion, where minority children with a low status mother tongue are forced to learn the majority language; and (3) language shelter, where minority children learn the majority language as a second…

  16. Benefits from coordinating congestion management-The Nordic power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorndal, Mette; Joernsten, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    We consider the possibility of improving the utilization of the capacity of the Nordic transmission grid, by improving on the methods for congestion management. We use a simplified model of the Nordic power market, and different load-scenarios are developed in order to illustrate the effects. By improving the coordination of the system operator function, we may achieve that the actual bottlenecks, both as regards to the location and capacity, form the basis for the definition of price areas. This may result in a better partition of the grid, not necessarily following the borders between the control areas of today's system operators. We also consider solving intra zonal bottlenecks 'directly', through the area prices and 'indirectly' by 'moving' internal capacity constraints to the borders between price areas. The examples illustrate that this 'indirect' congestion management may be costly, and result in larger price differences than necessary

  17. Naturally occurring radioactivity in the Nordic countries. Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In the publication 'Naturally Occurring Radiation in the Nordic Countries - Recommendations' published in 1986 the radiation protection authorities in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden gave radiation protection recommendations for natural radiation in the Nordic countries. The exposure of the populations in the Nordic countries to natural radiation sources is among the highest in the world and much effort has been devoted during the last 10 to 20 years to characterising, assessing and, where feasible, to reduce these exposures. The exposure of workers to natural radiation sources has also been an important area of work in the same period. During this period the international recommendations on radiation protection policy have been further developed with ICRP Publication 60: '1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection', and ICRP Publication 65: 'Protection Against Radon-222 at Home and at Work'. The European Basic Safety Standards Directive from 1996 (96/29/EURATOM), which is based on the ICRP recommendations, differs from the earlier versions in that special provisions have been laid down concerning exposure to natural radiation sources. As Denmark, Finland and Sweden are members of European Union and the EFTA-countries (Iceland and Norway) have close co-operation with the EU, the practical implementation of the EU-BSS will play an important role in all the Nordic countries. In November 1998, a new Drinking Water Directive, 98/83/EC, was adopted. The directive also includes radioactivity in drinking water, excluding potassium-40, radon, and radon decay products. Altogether this means that the Nordic recommendations from 1986 for natural radiation needed to be updated. The Nordic Radiation Protection Authorities therefore decided to set up a working group with the aim of revising the recommendations from 1986. The new revised recommendations will, as before, only deal with the components of the exposure to natural

  18. Nordic walking and chronic low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsø, Lars; Hartvigsen, Jan; Puggaard, Lis

    2006-01-01

    activity provide similar benefits. Nordic Walking is a popular and fast growing type of exercise in Northern Europe. Initial studies have demonstrated that persons performing Nordic Walking are able to exercise longer and harder compared to normal walking thereby increasing their cardiovascular metabolism....... Until now no studies have been performed to investigate whether Nordic Walking has beneficial effects in relation to low back pain. The primary aim of this study is to investigate whether supervised Nordic Walking can reduce pain and improve function in a population of chronic low back pain patients...... when compared to unsupervised Nordic Walking and advice to stay active. In addition we investigate whether there is an increase in the cardiovascular metabolism in persons performing supervised Nordic Walking compared to persons who are advised to stay active. Finally, we investigate whether...

  19. Ten perspectives on Nordic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennbakk, Berit

    2006-10-15

    Summary: Perspective no. 1: Costly early learning from the EU ETS - Unforeseen price levels hit industries hard; Perspective no. 2: Market based support schemes - Do they work as intended? Perspective no. 3: New decade in the Nordic energy markets. Perspective no. 4: Reduced CO{sub 2} emissions and more renewables - Are we getting there or not? Perspective no. 5: Interpretation of financial requirements - An impediment to sound investments? Perspective no. 6: Who should invest in infrastructure - Public or private investors? Perspective no. 7: Re regulation is not the answer - Need for coordination calls for a visible hand? Perspective no. 8: Increased infrastructure investments - Due to EU ETS and support schemes for RES. Perspective no. 9: Energy, welfare and industry - Complex links make policy making difficult. Perspective no. 10 'Fuel' for an energy policy discussion - A Nordic energy policy agenda? (AG)

  20. German versus Nordic Board Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Board structure is an important component of the individual governance of firms, and the appropriateness of the various models is one of the most debated issues in corporate governance today. A comparison of the Nordic and German approaches to the structure of corporate boards reveals stark...... conceptual differences, as emphasized by the 2014 Lekvall Report on the Nordic Corporate Governance Model. This article provides a conceptual comparison between the two approaches to board structure and confirms the fundamental divergence between both models. However, relying on a number of recent legal...... changes and developments in business practice, the article argues that board practices in the two systems effectively blur the structural distinction, and that board organization is converging in practice. It thereby contributes to the broader debates on functionality and comparative corporate law...

  1. The Nordic Chernobyl data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walmod-Larsen, O.

    1990-01-01

    The NORDIC CHERNOBYL DATA BASE (NCDB) is established for scientific purposes. The aim is to collect valid data on radiation and radioactivity resulting from measurements made in the Nordic countries particularly after the Chernobyl accident. All information is stored in the so called C-base data system, which can handle input from a variety of sources, including multiple information on each sample. The system permits output to various other computer programs for furhter data treatment. The data base can be used from personal computers and as well as from VAX-computers. Data can be displayed in time- or geographical scales and they can be arranged so as to fit different system for statistical analysis. (author)

  2. E-learning Nordic 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sanya Gertsen

    2006-01-01

    E-learning Nordic 2006 er den første fællesnordiske undersøgelse, som specifikt fokuserer på effekten af it i uddannelsessektoren. Studiet er gennemført i Finland, Sverige, Norge og Danmark og mere end 8000 personer (elever, lærere, forældre og skoleledere i grundskoler og på de gymnasiale...... ungdomsuddannelser) har deltaget. Dette studie giver en række svar på centrale spørgsmål såsom: Hvad har vi fået ud af satsningen på it i uddannelsessektoren indtil nu? Og hvilke udfordringer inden for uddannelsessektoren står de nordiske lande foran i en globaliseret verden? E-learning Nordic 2006 er designet og...

  3. The modernisation of Nordic eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lotte; Ekström, Marianne Pipping; Gronow, Jukka

    2012-01-01

    It is often claimed that in post-industrial societies eating is characterised by the dissolution of traditional cultural patterns regarding eating rhythms, the structure of meals and the social context of eating. This paper presents results from a Nordic quantitative and comparative study which...... was conducted in 1997 based on interviews with almost 5000 individuals from four nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden). The study showed that even through some flexibility was evident, eating was characterized by nationally different, but socially coordinated rhythms. Two distinct meal patterns...... were identified, a "western" pattern with one daily hot meal (Denmark, Norway), and an "eastern" patterns with two, daily hot meals (Finalnad, Sweden). Even though a lot of eating took place in solitude, eating was most often a social activity. It is concluded that daily eating patterns are still...

  4. Innovating and re-branding Nordic wellbeing tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne-Mette; Konu, H.; Huijbens., E.H.

    2011-01-01

    Driving forces behind the successful development of coherent wellbeing tourism in the Nordic region. An innovation perspective on developing a particular Nordic content of wellbeing offered by tourism enterprises and destinations across the five Nordic countries...

  5. Nordic society for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soegaard-Hansen, J.; Damkjaer, A.

    1999-11-01

    The key themes of teh 12th ordinary general meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection were: RADIATION - ENVIRONMENT - INFORMATION. A number of outstanding international experts accepted to contribute on the meetings first day with invited presentations, which focussed on these themes. In all 38 oral presentations and 28 posters are included in the present Proceedings, which furthermore contains a resume of discussions from the special session on 'Controllable Dose'. (EHS)

  6. The Nordic programme for nuclear safety 1990-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    The status report concerning the Nordic Nuclear Safety Programme for 1990-1993 contains a summary of the current situation regarding research projects, presented by the four coordinators, and a survey of the related economy. It is stated that all seventeen projects are running satisfactorily and a number of working descriptions have been published. Project leaders work with contracts with consultant firms, research organizations and individuals, contact meetings including lectures and discussions, mini-seminars where participants actually work at the same time, coordination of nationally financed research projects and individual contributions. Problems related to a certain lack of qualified persons for whom it is possible to coordinate this Nordic work with their daily responsibilities have led to delays in relation to the working plans and this has resulted in the fact that not all the grants have been utilized as yet. Sub-programmes are dealt with individually, and lists of publications are presented. (AB) (10 refs.)

  7. Adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations in a Nordic population with metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Svandis Erna; Brader, Lea; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg

    2013-01-01

    The Nordic countries collaborate in setting recommendations for intake of nutrients by publishing the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR). Studies exploring how well the Nordic population adheres to the NNR are limited and none are available for the metabolic syndrome (MetS) subgroup...

  8. Model of Nordic energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjelsvik, E.; Johnsen, T.; Mysen, H.T.

    1992-01-01

    Simulation results are given of the consumption of electricity and oil in Denmark, Norway and Sweden based on the demand section of a Nordic energy market model which is in the process of being developed in Oslo under the auspices of the Nordic Council of Ministers. The model incorporates supply, and trade between countries so that it can be analyzed how trading can contribute to goals within energy and environmental policies and to cost effective activities aimed at reducing pollution. The article deals in some detail with the subject of how taxation on carbon dioxide emission can influence pollution abatement and with energy consumption development within individual sectors in individual Northern countries. The model of energy demand is described with emphasis on the individual sectors of industry, transport, service and private households. Simulation results giving the effects of energy consumption and increased taxation on fossil fuels are given. On this background the consequences of the adaption of power plants is discussed and a sketch is given of a Nordic electric power market incorporating trading. (AB) (15 refs.)

  9. Dispersion prognoses and consequences in the environment. A Nordic development and harmonization effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1994-01-01

    The project 'BER-1, Dispersion prognoses and environmental consequences' is described. The report describes the work performed and the results obtained. The bulk of the report is concerned with the first subject area, atmospheric dispersion models. The world-wide status of long-range atmospheric dispersion models at the start of the project period is described, descriptions are given of the models in use at the Nordic meteorological institutes, and validation/verification and intercomparison efforts that have been performed within the project are described. The main results of this work have been published separately. All aspects of environmental impact of releases to the atmosphere have been treated, and the end product of this part of the project is a computerized 'handbook' giving easy access to data on e.g. deposition, shielding, filtering, weathering, radionuclide transfer via all possible exposure pathways. (au)

  10. Nuclear threats in the vicinity of the Nordic countries. Supplementary final report of the Nordic Nuclear Safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikelmann, I.M.H.

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to continue the cross-disciplinary study SBA-1 'base of knowledge' in the NKS research program 1998-2001 regarding possible nuclear threats in the vicinity of the Nordic countries. The main task for the project was to expand and envelope this database. Finding information to be placed in the database and identifying and filling gaps in knowledge were prioritised. This is a continuous process which extends beyond the end of this project, in order to have an operating and updated database also in the years to come. In this project work has been done making information systems in Norway that can take care of the database in the future. The scope of the preceding project was to prepare a base of knowledge regarding possible nuclear threats in the vicinity of the Nordic countries. The database, including a literature database, is presented on the website 'Nuclear threats in the vicinity of the Nordic Countries'. The utilisation of modern information technology gives the user of the database easy access to information on different types of nuclear installations and threats. The project focused on potential events at nuclear installations and the consequences for the Nordic countries, especially with regards to vulnerable food chains, doses to man, environmental contamination and emergency preparedness systems. The geographical area dealt with includes North-west Russia and the Baltic states and the nuclear installations investigated are nuclear power plants, ship reactors and storage and handling of used fuel and radioactive waste. (au)

  11. Effects of school meals with weekly fish servings on vitamin D status in Danish children: secondary outcomes from the OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke A.; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    ), osteocalcin (OC), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), bone mineral content (BMC), bone area (BA), bone mineral density (BMD), dietary intake and physical activity were assessed. School meals increased vitamin D intake by 0·9 (95 % CI 0·7, 1·1) μg/d. No consistent effects were found on 25(OH)D, BMC, BA, BMD......Children's vitamin D intake and status can be optimised to meet recommendations. We investigated if nutritionally balanced school meals with weekly fish servings affected serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and markers related to bone in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. We conducted......·29) pmol/l) compared with habitual lunch. Small increases in dietary vitamin D might hold potential to mitigate the winter nadir in Danish children's 25(OH)D status while higher increases appear necessary to affect status throughout the year. More trials on effects of vitamin D intake from natural foods...

  12. Nordic Analysis of Climate Friendly Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Inger; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wahlstrøm, Åsa

    This report summarizes the findings of the work conducted within the project “Nordic Analysis of Climate Friendly Buildings”, financed by the Nordic Council of Ministers. The main goal of the project was to establish a knowledge and decision base for a Nordic innovation program that will promote...... the development and demonstration of low energy and climate friendly buildings. The innovation program should support a development that brings the Nordic countries to an international forefront with respect to business strongholds and market penetration of low energy and climate friendly buildings....

  13. Nordic Corporate Governance and Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    to the international audience. This paper therefore reviews the Nordic corporate governance model with special emphasis on a unique ownership structure, industrial foundations (foundations that own business companies). Rather than a meticulous description of details it emphasizes the Nordic model as a mode......The Nordic countries have attracted considerable attention in recent years as a benchmark for good governance. However, while the political governance characteristics of the Nordic model – particularly the welfare state - are well understood, its corporate governance characteristics remain elusive...

  14. Patenting activity in biotechnology and pharmaceuticals: a comparative analysis of the Nordic Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Enrico Sorisio

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to study innovative activity, as measured by patent indicators, in pharmaceutical and biotechnological sectors in the Nordic Countries. The biotech sector in general and pharmaceutical in particular is one of the areas selected for strategic investments in every Nordic country. In terms of patents granted by country of inventors Denmark plays a leading role followed by Sweden, while patenting activity in Finland and Norway is lower. A concentration of patents tow...

  15. Diet-induced changes in iron and n-3 fatty acid status and associations with cognitive performance in 8-11-year-old Danish children: secondary analyses of the Optimal Well-Being, Development and Health for Danish Children through a Healthy New Nordic Diet School Meal Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Bergmann; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    Fe and n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA) have both been associated with cognition, but evidence remains inconclusive in well-nourished school-aged children. In the Optimal Well-Being, Development and Health for Danish Children through a Healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study, the 3-month...... intervention increased reading performance, inattention, impulsivity and dietary intake of fish and Fe. This study investigated whether the intervention influenced n-3 LCPUFA and Fe status and, if so, explored how these changes correlated with the changes in cognitive performance. The study was a cluster...... analysis of test performances (n 644), which showed two main patterns: 'school performance' and 'reading comprehension'. The latter indicated that children with good reading comprehension were also more inattentive and impulsive (i.e. higher d2-test error%). The intervention improved 'school performance...

  16. Rubidium contents in erythrocyte of children, rice and soil in the areas with different selenium status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Nianqing; Zhao Shunying; Qian Qinfang; Zhu Lianzhen; Piao Jianhua

    1997-01-01

    Rubidium concentration of erythrocyte of healthy children aged from 6-11 years living in four areas of Sichuan Province with different selenium status was measured by PIXE and the results show that the Rb concentration in erythrocyte for the Keshan Disease area is two times more than other three areas. Meanwhile the glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activity of erythrocyte was determined and the results confirm that children in the Keshan Disease area are really with selenium deficiency. The Rb contents in rice and soil samples from the Keshan Disease area and the Se-deficiency area but with Se-supplementation to the inhabitants, were tested by INNA. It was found that Rb contents in rice and soil from the former area were much higher than those from the latter. This result indicates that Rb in erythrocyte of children is mainly taken from staple food (rice) and that a higher Rb level in soil is probably another environmental factor causing the Keshan Disease

  17. The glycemic status of diabetes in an urban area of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chang Hee; Kim, Kwang Joon; Lee, Yun-Kyu; Kwon, Jin-Hyun; Lee, Byung Wan; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Park, Joong-Yeol; Khun, Touch; Cha, Bong-Yun; Cho, Nam H

    2014-05-01

    Recently the Korea Diabetes Association participated in the 'Cambodia-Korea Twinning Project' to help Cambodia establish its own modernized diabetes center and to raise awareness of the seriousness of diabetes. Here we report the status of diabetes in an urban area of Cambodia as obtained through this project. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Status of parasitism in donkeys of project and control areas in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was undertaken with the aim of comparing the status of parasitism in donkeys in the Donkey Health and welfare Project intervention (Bereh, Ada and Boset) and Control (Yekaduda, Gerado and Meki) areas of, Central Ethiopia, in 2005. Parasites are prime problem of donkeys among other problems including ...

  19. Household food waste in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Gaiani, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    such as climate change and unjust distribution of food resources, needs to be based on an appreciative and relational understanding of nature and food and not only on economic and moralizing arguments. This is done by drawing on an ecocentric perspective where food is seen as one of the areas where new narratives......This study focuses on food waste generated by households in four Nordic countries: Finland, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Based on existing literature we present (A) comparable data on amounts and monetary value of food waste; (B) explanations for food waste at household level; (C) a number...... of public and private initiatives at national levels aiming to reduce food waste; and (D) a discussion of ethical issues related to food waste with a focus on possible contributions from ecocentric ethics. We argue that reduction of food waste at household level, which has an impact on issues...

  20. Maternal deaths in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangen, Siri; Bødker, Birgit; Ellingsen, Liv

    2017-01-01

    reporting from hospitals. Each case was then assessed to determine the cause of death, and level of care provided. Potential improvements to care were evaluated. RESULTS: We registered 168 maternal deaths, 90 direct and 78 indirect cases. The maternal mortality ratio was 7.2/100 000 live births ranging from......INTRODUCTION: Despite the seriousness of the event, maternal deaths are substantially underreported. There is often a missed opportunity to learn from such tragedies. The aim of the study was to identify maternal deaths in the five Nordic countries, to classify causes of death based...... on internationally acknowledged criteria, and to identify areas that would benefit from further teaching, training or research to possibly reduce the number of maternal deaths. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We present data for the years 2005-2013. National audit groups collected data by linkage of registers and direct...

  1. Child poverty in the Nordic countries: Definitions, measures and consequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson Bodil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nordic countries are highly ranked in different statistical surveys on welfare and policy on a fairer distribution of income among different groups in the society. In social policy we talk about a Scandinavian model aiming to give the citizens basic economic and social security to reduce poverty. This model includes general and selective policies in areas as housing, income and social issues. The state is the main deliver of welfare services, even if private providers funded by the state are taking a bigger part of the delivery today. There are transfer payment to different groups, as families with children who get child allowances. The aim is to create good living conditions with equal opportunities to education and future life. During the last decade the welfare policy has been questioned and we have seen a development towards a more restricted welfare policy. Different statistics point at rising gaps of income between social groups in the Nordic societies. During an expert seminar on child poverty in the Nordic countries in the end of 2009, organized by the Swedish National Committee of the International Council of Social Welfare (ICSW, scholars and representatives from authorities and NGOs from the Nordic member organizations met in order to compare the situation in their respectively country. One topic of discussion was how to measure child poverty and what impact different measures have. In this article I will use this conference as a starting point when I discuss different definitions of child poverty and the prevalence of child poverty in the Nordic countries.

  2. Body image and weight status of children from rural areas of Valparaíso, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizana, Pablo A; Simpson, Cristina; Yáñez, Lily; Saavedra, Karime

    2014-11-30

    To determine the relation between the perceived and the real nutritional status in children from rural areas. The study comprehends 206 students from first to eighth year of primary school from rural institutions of the Valparaiso region, Chile (43% females). The real nutritional status was measured using the Body Mass Index (BMI), and the perceived status by means of corporeal figures. The Socioeconomic Status (SES) was determined using the modified Graffar scale. The analysis was carried out using the concordance correlation coefficient kappa, and the chi-square test was used for the association of variables. The subjects are concentrated in the low SES (82% male; 72% female). 49.5% of the students present overweight and obesity. Boys show higher prevalence of obesity (29%) than girls (20%). 62.5% of the females underestimate their weight, which surpasses the percentage of males (52.5%). 98.10% of the obese individuals underestimate their weight, as well as the 100% of the evaluated children with an overweight condition. Boys and girls from rural areas in conditions of overweight and obesity present a higher prevalence rate of an inappropriate perception of body image (underestimation), which has an important impact when recognizing their own condition of over nutrition. This status can have significant repercussions in public health, since it can be maintained to adult life and develop non-transmissible chronic diseases. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. The Nordic power exchange Nord pool and the Nordic model for a liberalised power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houmoller, A. P.

    2000-01-01

    As the first countries in the world, the Nordic countries Norway, Sweden, Finland and denmark have established a common, multinational power exchange. By means of this common power exchange, these countries also have established a common power market. this is also the first - and for the time being - the only place in the world, where you can find a multinational, truly competitive power market. This Nordic model has attracted much interest from other countries in Europe, Asia, North America and South America. The presentation will explain, how the common power exchange makes it possible for the four countries and the five system operators in Scandinavia physically and financially to operate a common, multinational, competitive power market. The presentation will explain how this systems works in the Nordic countries by discussion the following items: - The non-commercial players: The Transmission System Operators and the local grid operators; - The market players: the producers, the retailers, the traders, the brokers and the end users; - The access to the grid: The point tariff system; - The fairness towards the market players and the security of supply: The balancing power and the regulating power; - The power exchange handles bottlenecks in the grid. The presentation will explain how this is done and will demonstrate how this gives the power market a bottleneck handing method which:- Is neutral and fair towards all the market players, - Ensures that all the capacity of any bottleneck is utilised during every hour of operation, - Is extremely easy to use for the Transmission System Operators - also if the bottleneck is cross-border bottleneck; - The Nord Pool spot market Elspot; - The Nord Pool futures market Eltermin; - Area prices; - How financial contracts replace physical contracts when the power market is liberalised; - The day-to-day market and the market for long-term contracts in a liberalised power market; - How to eliminate the c ounter party risk

  4. Dietary behaviors and nutritional status of adolescents in a remote rural area of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areekul, Wirote; Viravathana, Nantaporn; Aimpun, Pote; Watthanakijthavongkul, Khanin; Khruacharooen, Jakkapong; Awaiwanont, Abhinant; Khumtuikhrua, Chaowanan; Silsrikul, Pichayen; Nilrat, Pawarid; Saksoong, Saksit; Watthanatham, Jirawat; Suwannahitatorn, Picha; Sirimaneethum, Pornsirin; Meeprom, Natee; Somboonruangsri, Wuttiwong; Pongmanee, Koonphol; Rangsin, Ram

    2005-11-01

    Nutritional status among adolescents is an important health indicator. The up-to-date information about nutritional status and food consumption pattern in the remote rural area is required for the effective public health intervention in the rural area of the country. The present study aimed to demonstrate the prevalence of malnutrition, eating behavior and nutritional knowledge among secondary school students in a remote rural area in Thailand. Body weight and height data were collected from 298 secondary school students for nutritional status calculation using the Institute of Nutrition Research, Mahidol University, INMU-Thaigrowth program. Eating behavior and nutritional knowledge were observed by self-administrated questionnaires. The prevalence low height-for-age (instant noodles (64.4%). The prevalence of malnutrition was low among this population. The studied population had a fair knowledge about nutrition. The authoes found that regular consumption of highly commercialized snack products especially salted chips and instant noodles were at a high level in this remote rural area of Thailand. The pattern of nutritional problems in Thailand may have changed in which a public health program for children in rural areas of the country should recognize this transition.

  5. Technical basis for removal of 221-T tunnel from airborne radiological area status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geuther, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    This document provides the technical basis for removal of the 221-T Tunnel from airborne radiological control. T Plant Radiological Control has evaluated air sampling data and engineering controls, and determined the necessary administrative controls to make this transition. With these administrative controls (specified within document) in place, the tunnel can be removed from Airborne Radioactive Area status. The removal of the tunnel from airborne status will allow work to be performed within the tunnel under controlled conditions, as outlined in this technical basis, without the use of respiratory protection equipment

  6. Nordic Seas nutrients data in CARINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Olafsson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Water column data of carbon and carbon relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 cruises in the Arctic, Atlantic, and Southern Ocean have been assembled and the collection merged into a new database: CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic. The data have been subject to rigorous quality control (QC in order to ensure highest possible quality and consistency. The data for most of the parameters included were examined in order to quantify systematic biases in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Significant biases have been corrected for in the data products, i.e. the three merged files with measured, calculated and interpolated values for each of the three CARINA regions; the Arctic Mediterranean Seas (AMS, the Atlantic (ATL and the Southern Ocean (SO. With the adjustments, the CARINA database is consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP (Key et al., 2004 and is suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories and uptake rates, and for model validation. The Arctic Mediterranean Seas is the collective term for the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, and the quality control was carried out separately in these two areas. This contribution presents an account of the quality control of the nutrients (nitrate, phosphate, and silicate data from the Nordic Seas in CARINA. Out of the 35 cruises from the Nordic Seas included in CARINA, 33 had nutrients data. The nitrate data from 4 of these appeared to be of so poor quality that they should not be used, for phosphate this number is 7 and for silicate it is 3. We also recommend that the nitrate data from 4 of the cruises should be adjusted, for phosphate and silicate only data from one cruise should be adjusted. The final data appears consistent to 5% based on evaluation of deep data. For nitrate this corresponds to 0.6 μmol kg−1, and for phosphate and silicate it corresponds to 0.04 and 0.6 μmol kg−1, respectively.

  7. The New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micheelsen, Arun

    and gender (women are more accepting than men). Higher levels of education and income also appeared to be relevant factors. In contrast, men, those living in less urbanised and rural areas, those with preferences for ‘traditional’ dishes, and those not inclined to consume seasonal, organic food or healthy...... demands of their lives. Cultural factors associated with acceptance of the NND were interest in cooking, eating habits that embrace ‘feminine’ tastes, ‘modern’ dishes and healthy foods, as well as preferences for consuming organic and seasonal foods. Social factors were high level of urbanisation...

  8. Occupation and leukemia in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talibov, Madar; Kautiainen, Susanna; Martinsen, Jan Ivar

    2012-01-01

    We studied occupational variation of the risk of acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and other leukemia in Nordic countries.......We studied occupational variation of the risk of acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and other leukemia in Nordic countries....

  9. Radiation protection legislation in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1992-01-01

    A close collaboration exists in the Nordic countries in the field of radiation protection. The radiation protection authorities attach major importance to a uniform interpretation of the international recommendations. The legal situation of the Nordic countries in the radiation protection field will be reviewed with the main emphasis on the new Swedish and Finnish laws. (author)

  10. An Overview of Nordic Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Bryde; Runesson, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This essay is published as the opening chapter in a book that celebrates the 100 year anniversary of the uniform Nordic Contracts Acts. It introduces some of the main concepts, main rules and lines of argumentation that you will find in Nordic contract law. Thereby it introduces the reader...

  11. Experiences from Nordic research collaboration in linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge Sandøy

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The project “Modern loanwords in the languages of the Nordic countries (MIN – Moderne importord i språka i Norden” was the first large-scale collaborative project between linguists in the Nordic countries. This article presents both the aim of the project and some experiences from the work with respect to project design, financing and networking.

  12. Nordic exchange of students and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsson, A.

    2012-04-01

    Since the end of 2010 and until the summer of 2011 two upper secondary schools in Höyanger, Norway and Ronneby, Sweden had the possibility to take part in a project called Nordplus junior. The main aims of the program are: • To promote Nordic languages and culture and mutual Nordic-Baltic linguistic and cultural understanding. • To contribute to the development of quality and innovation in the educational systems for life-long learning in the participating countries by means of educational cooperation, development projects, exchanges and networking. • To support, develop, draw benefit from and spread innovative products and processes in education through systematic exchange of experiences and best practice. • To strengthen and develop Nordic educational cooperation and contribute to the establishment of a Nordic-Baltic educational area. The students did research on climate change and the impact on local and regional areas. Many questions had to be answered, giving an explanation to what happens if the climate changes. Questions related to Höyanger, Norway What happens to life in Norwegian fiords? Which attitudes do youngsters and adults have about climate change and what actions do they take? What does a rise in sea level mean for Höyanger? How are different tourist attractions affected in western Norway? Questions related to Ronneby, Sweden How is the regional fauna and flora affected? What will happen to agriculture and forestry? What do adults and youngsters know about consequences of a possible climate change? What happens to the people of Ronneby if the sea level rises? Are there any positive outcomes if the climate changes? Conclusions In Norwegian fiords there could be benefits because fish are growing faster in the winter because of an increased temperature. At the same time there could be an imbalance in the ecosystem because of a change in the living ranges of different species. Most of the young boys and girls in Höyanger, Norway were

  13. Who are private alcohol importers in the Nordic countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grittner Ulrike

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims - The high price of alcohol in the Nordic countries has been a long-standing policy to curb consumption, which has led consumers to importing alcohol from countries with lower prices. This paper seeks to develop a profile of alcohol importers in four Nordic countries. Methods - Cross-sectional data from general population surveys in Denmark (2003-2006, Norway (2004, Sweden (2003-2006 and Finland (2005-2006 were analysed by multiple logistic and linear regression. Independent variables included region, socio-demographics, drinking indicators and alcohol-related problems. Outcome variables were importer status and amount of imported alcohol. Results - People living in regions close to countries with lower alcohol prices were more often importers and imported higher amounts than people living in other regions. Higher educated persons were more likely to be importers, but the amounts imported were smaller than those by people with lower education. Persons with higher incomes were also more likely to be importers and they also imported larger amounts than people with lower incomes. In Sweden and Denmark regional differences of importer rates were more pronounced for persons of lower incomes. Age, risky single-occasion drinking, risky drinking and alcohol problems were positively related to the amounts of imported alcohol. Conclusions - Private importers in the Nordic countries are an integrated yet heavy drinking segment of society and do not appear to be located on the fringes of society

  14. Nordic Noir - Location, Identity and Emotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and discussing the impact of the Nordic element in ‘Nordic Noir’ is the main purpose of this article. This is pursued by tracing the concepts of location, identity and emotion in selected episodes of TV series and serials representative of Nordic Noir – Wallander (2005-) Forbrydelsen...... the Nordic countries traditionally see each other are therefore investigated – with Denmark and Sweden in the main roles. In terms of theory, the concept of emotions as “structures of feeling” (Raymond Williams 1978) has recently been revived, paving the way for studies of the relationship between culture...... and emotion (Sharma & Dahl 2013, Tygstrup 2013, Pribram 2011, Laine 2011). Their concepts are applied in the analyses. The article concludes with a perspective considering the role of Nordic Noir vis-à-vis international TV drama productions....

  15. Obesity Prevention in the Nordic Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockmarr, Anders; Hejgaard, Tatjana; Matthiessen, Jeppe

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that mean BMI and prevalences of overweight/obesity and obesity have increased over the last decades in the Nordic countries, despite highly regulated societies with a focus on obesity prevention. We review recent overweight/obesity and obesity prevention initiatives within four of the five Nordic countries: Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland. Moreover, we analyze the current situation based on monitoring data on BMI collected in 2011 and 2014, and obtain overall estimates of overweight/obesity and obesity prevalences for the Nordic Region. Data analysis shows that obesity in adults has increased from 2011 to 2014, while no significant changes were found for children. No significant increases were found for mean BMI and overweight/obesity prevalence. Obesity prevention initiatives among the Nordic countries are highly similar although minor differences are present, which is rooted in transnational Nordic cooperation and comparable societal structures.

  16. Technology foresight in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eerola, A.; Jørgensen, Birte Holst

    2002-01-01

    and the society at large at the sametime. The report recommends: 1. The establishment of a Nordic forum for technology foresight practitioners and researchers. 2. The creation of a common follow-up system for relevant international technology foresight exercises. 3. The realisation oftechnology foresight......Technology foresight (TF) is increasingly used by governments, funding agencies, R&D institutions and private companies as a tool for strategy development, prioritisation of R&D funds, and learning. Although the Nordic Council of Ministers aims at"developing Nordic region in next 10 years...... and social differences among the Nordic countries. Nordic foresight cooperation may alsoremain as a distant academic exercise if proper links to political and economic decisions cannot be made and maintained. A technology foresight exercise might serve different institutions of the innovation system...

  17. Nordic eHealth Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyppönen, Hannele; Faxvaag, Arild; Gilstad, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    eHealth indicator and benchmarking activities are rapidly increasing nationally and internationally. The work is rarely based on a transparent methodology for indicator definition. This article describes first results of testing an indicator methodology for defining eHealth indicators, which...... was reported at the Medical Informatics Europe conference in 2012. The core elements of the methodology are illustrated, demonstrating validation of each of them in the context of Nordic eHealth Indicator work. Validation proved the importance of conducting each of the steps of the methodology, with several...

  18. Nordic seminar on energy taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Taxes on energy contribute considerably to a State's income, it is stated. This form of taxation also influences the consumer prices of energy products significantly. Taxation is an important means of political control within the energy sector, it is also a powerful means of controlling a country's environmental policy. The seminar's aim was to study the theoretical background for energy taxation and to provide information on how the standard system for taxation has changed in the various Nordic countries, and the need for a renewal of energy taxation. Seven papers presented at the seminar are presented. (AB)

  19. Sustainable Energy Future - Nordic Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This invited paper first outlines the methodologies applied in analysing the energy savings potentials, as applied to a Nordic and a European case study. Afterwards are shown results for how a high quality of life can be achieved with an energy consumption only a small fraction of the present in ...... in Europe. The energy policy in Denmark since 1973 is outlined, including the activities and the roles of NGOs. Finally are described some of the difficulties of implementing energy saving policies, especially in combination with increasing liberalization of the energy market....

  20. Nordic MCL2 trial update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, Christian H; Kolstad, Arne; Laurell, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a heterogenic non-Hodgkin lymphoma entity, with a median survival of about 5 years. In 2008 we reported the early - based on the median observation time of 4 years - results of the Nordic Lymphoma Group MCL2 study of frontline intensive induction immunochemotherapy...... and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT), with more than 60% event-free survival at 5 years, and no subsequent relapses reported. Here we present an update after a median observation time of 6·5 years. The overall results are still excellent, with median overall survival and response duration longer than...

  1. Nutritional Status in Community-Dwelling Elderly in France in Urban and Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Marion J.; Dorigny, Béatrice; Kuhn, Mirjam; Berr, Claudine; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Letenneur, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Malnutrition is a frequent condition in elderly people, especially in nursing homes and geriatric wards. Its frequency is less well known among elderly living at home. The objective of this study was to describe the nutritional status evaluated by the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) of elderly community-dwellers living in rural and urban areas in France and to investigate its associated factors. Methods Subjects aged 65 years and over from the Approche Multidisciplinaire Intégrée (AMI) cohort (692 subjects living in a rural area) and the Three-City (3C) cohort (8,691 subjects living in three large urban zones) were included. A proxy version of the MNA was reconstructed using available data from the AMI cohort. Sensitivity and specificity were used to evaluate the agreement between the proxy version and the standard version in AMI. The proxy MNA was computed in both cohorts to evaluate the frequency of poor nutritional status. Factors associated with this state were investigated in each cohort separately. Results In the rural sample, 38.0% were females and the mean age was 75.5 years. In the urban sample, 60.3% were females and the mean age was 74.1 years. Among subjects in living in the rural sample, 7.4% were in poor nutritional status while the proportion was 18.5% in the urban sample. Female gender, older age, being widowed, a low educational level, low income, low body mass index, being demented, having a depressive symptomatology, a loss of autonomy and an intake of more than 3 drugs appeared to be independently associated with poor nutritional status. Conclusion Poor nutritional status was commonly observed among elderly people living at home in both rural and urban areas. The associated factors should be further considered for targeting particularly vulnerable individuals. PMID:25133755

  2. Nutritional status in community-dwelling elderly in France in urban and rural areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion J Torres

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is a frequent condition in elderly people, especially in nursing homes and geriatric wards. Its frequency is less well known among elderly living at home. The objective of this study was to describe the nutritional status evaluated by the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA of elderly community-dwellers living in rural and urban areas in France and to investigate its associated factors.Subjects aged 65 years and over from the Approche Multidisciplinaire Intégrée (AMI cohort (692 subjects living in a rural area and the Three-City (3C cohort (8,691 subjects living in three large urban zones were included. A proxy version of the MNA was reconstructed using available data from the AMI cohort. Sensitivity and specificity were used to evaluate the agreement between the proxy version and the standard version in AMI. The proxy MNA was computed in both cohorts to evaluate the frequency of poor nutritional status. Factors associated with this state were investigated in each cohort separately.In the rural sample, 38.0% were females and the mean age was 75.5 years. In the urban sample, 60.3% were females and the mean age was 74.1 years. Among subjects in living in the rural sample, 7.4% were in poor nutritional status while the proportion was 18.5% in the urban sample. Female gender, older age, being widowed, a low educational level, low income, low body mass index, being demented, having a depressive symptomatology, a loss of autonomy and an intake of more than 3 drugs appeared to be independently associated with poor nutritional status.Poor nutritional status was commonly observed among elderly people living at home in both rural and urban areas. The associated factors should be further considered for targeting particularly vulnerable individuals.

  3. Assessing the role of GPs in Nordic health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaye, Randolph K

    2016-05-03

    Purpose This paper examines the changing role of general practitioners (GPs) in Nordic countries of Sweden, Norway and Denmark. It aims to explore the "gate keeping" role of GPs in the face of current changes in the health care delivery systems in these countries. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from existing literature, interviews with GPs, hospital specialists and representatives of Danish regions and Norwegian Medical Association. Findings The paper contends that in all these changes, the position of the GPs in the medical division of labor has been strengthened, and patients now have increased and broadened access to choice. Research limitations/implications Health care cost and high cancer mortality rates have forced Nordic countries of Sweden, Norway and Denmark to rethink their health care systems. Several attempts have been made to reduce health care cost through market reform and by strenghtening the position of GPs. The evidence suggests that in Norway and Denmark, right incentives are in place to achieve this goal. Sweden is not far behind. The paper has limitations of a small sample size and an exclusive focus on GPs. Practical implications Anecdotal evidence suggests that physicians are becoming extremely unhappy. Understanding the changing status of primary care physicians will yield valuable information for assessing the effectiveness of Nordic health care delivery systems. Social implications This study has wider implications of how GPs see their role as potential gatekeepers in the Nordic health care systems. The role of GPs is changing as a result of recent health care reforms. Originality/value This paper contends that in Norway and Denmark, right incentives are in place to strengthen the position of GPs.

  4. Introduction of human papillomavirus vaccination in Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Bente Braad; Rebolj, Matejka; Valentiner-Branth, Palle; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2012-02-14

    Cervical screening has helped decrease the incidence of cervical cancer, but the disease remains a burden for women. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is now a promising tool for control of cervical cancer. Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) are relatively wealthy with predominantly publicly paid health care systems. The aim of this paper was to provide an update of the current status of introduction of HPV vaccine into the childhood vaccination programs in this region. Data on cervical cancer, cervical screening programs, childhood immunization and HPV vaccination programs for Nordic countries were searched via PubMed and various organizations. We furthermore contacted selected experts for information. The incidence of cervical cancer is highest in Greenland (25 per 100,000, age standardized, World Standard Population, ASW) and lowest in Finland (4 per 100,000 ASW) and rates in the other Nordic countries vary between 7 and 11 per 100,000 ASW. Greenland and Denmark were first to introduce HPV vaccination, followed by Norway. Vaccination programs are underway in Sweden and Iceland, while Finland has just recently recommended introduction of vaccination. HPV vaccination has been intensively debated, in particular in Denmark and Norway. In Nordic countries with a moderate risk of cervical cancer and a publicly paid health care system, the introduction of HPV vaccination was a priority issue. Many players became active, from the general public to health professionals, special interest groups, and the vaccine manufacturers. These seemed to prioritize different health care needs and weighed differently the uncertainty about the long-term effects of the vaccine. HPV vaccination posed a pressure on public health authorities to consider the evidence for and against it, and on politicians to weigh the wish for cervical cancer protection against other pertinent health issues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Status of compost usage and its performance on vegetable production in Monga areas of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    G.K.M.M. Rahman

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the existing status of compost usage on vegetable production and determine the overall effect of household waste compost (HWC) on growth and yield of vegetables and enhancement of soil fertility in the monga areas of Bangladesh. A field survey was conducted on 152 sampled farmers during 2010 to 2011. Questionnaire containing both closed and open-ended questions were used to assess existing production practices of vegetables using compost in both hom...

  6. Natural radionuclides in meadow and pasture land in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, K.; Gutierrez Villanueva, J.-L.; Sundell-Bergman, S.

    2012-06-01

    The amount of natural radionuclides in the environment differs between the Nordic countries as shown by previous investigations and also by this study. Agricultural areas of high natural background are predominantly found in Sweden, Southern Finland and Norway while low background areas are typical for Iceland and Denmark. Thus, this study offers possibilities for studying behaviour of natural radionuclides under different conditions such as the influence of different soil types as well as the husbandry. Furthermore the areas also enable studying environmental behaviour of radium and other natural radionuclides under seemingly steady state conditions. However, migration and accumulation of natural radionuclides in cultivated soil is complex involving various processes. Thus, a long term goal of this study was to identify the implications of some of these processes by determining the soil to plant transfer for pasture land under the different conditions that prevail in the Nordic countries. The potential health hazards due to chronic ingestion of low concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides are fairly unknown but the results of this study may provide valuable background information for assessing these radiation risks. The aim of this project has been to gain knowledge on the status of natural radionuclides in meadow and pasture land and in grassland plants in different Nordic countries and on the transfer of these radionuclides from soil/water to man via the milk/food chain (soil- meadow/pasture grass -cow-milk). Limited data are available on the mobility and the transfer of naturally occurring radionuclides in the ecosystems of the agricultural land. In addition, information concerning the concentrations in meat and dairy products is of interest for assessing exposures of humans to natural radionuclides. Soil characteristics are known to have significant impact on the mobility and uptake of natural radionuclides. Therefore, the uptake in relation to

  7. Natural radionuclides in meadow and pasture land in the Nordic countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, K.; Gutierrez Villanueva, J.-L.; Sundell-Bergman, S. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) (Sweden)] [and others

    2012-06-15

    The amount of natural radionuclides in the environment differs between the Nordic countries as shown by previous investigations and also by this study. Agricultural areas of high natural background are predominantly found in Sweden, Southern Finland and Norway while low background areas are typical for Iceland and Denmark. Thus, this study offers possibilities for studying behaviour of natural radionuclides under different conditions such as the influence of different soil types as well as the husbandry. Furthermore the areas also enable studying environmental behaviour of radium and other natural radionuclides under seemingly steady state conditions. However, migration and accumulation of natural radionuclides in cultivated soil is complex involving various processes. Thus, a long term goal of this study was to identify the implications of some of these processes by determining the soil to plant transfer for pasture land under the different conditions that prevail in the Nordic countries. The potential health hazards due to chronic ingestion of low concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides are fairly unknown but the results of this study may provide valuable background information for assessing these radiation risks. The aim of this project has been to gain knowledge on the status of natural radionuclides in meadow and pasture land and in grassland plants in different Nordic countries and on the transfer of these radionuclides from soil/water to man via the milk/food chain (soil- meadow/pasture grass -cow-milk). Limited data are available on the mobility and the transfer of naturally occurring radionuclides in the ecosystems of the agricultural land. In addition, information concerning the concentrations in meat and dairy products is of interest for assessing exposures of humans to natural radionuclides. Soil characteristics are known to have significant impact on the mobility and uptake of natural radionuclides. Therefore, the uptake in relation to

  8. Design of New Nordic Pasta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mai; Fisker, Anna Marie

    The wave The Danish nature is characterized by the rough oceans that capture Denmark, which has been an inspiration for this pasta-design. The Wave is supposed to be the base of a new Nordic meal that creates experiences and surprises on the journey through the meal. The Boiled sweet The pasta...... captures the the experience of taste in each single piece of the boiled sweet, that associates to pearls in a row. It creates a meal that is divided sharply into pieces and creates a simplicity and pureness on the plate like the Nordic designers like it. The colors of the stuffing are struggling to get out...... through the holes in the pasta which makes the guests interested and curious in the meal. Dualism This pasta-design is based on the clash between the Italian and the Danish culture. The simplicity and sharpness of the Danish design meets the soft and curved Italian design with the sharp edge and the soft...

  9. Personal piety in Nordic heathenism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åke V. Ström

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually, Nordic heathenism is thought of as a fairy-tale or as an impersonal, collective event. Sacrifice (blót and ethics appear to be the main facts. Was there anything at all like piety, and could it, in this case, be spoken of as personal? The inhabitant of the North stands out as a more collectively thinking person, attached to dynasty, housecarls and family. However, there are a couple of examples in the texts of a "personal faith" and an interest in "the individual or his soul or destiny". It is quite clear, that the collective and impersonal traits in old Norse religion were far more prominent than in the religious currents of today, but there was in Nordic paganism a personal piety, too. It appeared not only in personal opinion and personal means of expression, but also in daily life as well. The single peasant, Viking, fisherman, artisan, housewife, was in his or her everyday work totally dependent on the blessing of the gods and on protection from the attacks of the demons. He who succeeded enjoyed this personal success because of personal sacrifices, personal fortune and personal blessing.

  10. How to encourage road noise abatement in Nordic municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2008-01-01

    Road noise nuisance is a huge problem in the Nordic countries, and it seems diffi cult for Nordic countries to meet national targets for its reduction. One reason for this is the lack of municipal activities in the fi eld. Th us the research question that this article seeks to answer in relation...... to already existing residential areas and roads is: which conditions in the municipal organisation and its institutional environment contribute to making municipalities provide and implement noise abatement measures? Th e assumption is that three factors infl uence how the municipalities prioritize among...... political issues: the municipal organisation itself, the local institutional environment (citizens, business and NGOs), and the state and trans-municipal networks. A study of the anatomy of municipal road noise abatement policy shows that conditions for implementing road noise abatement in existing...

  11. The Danish apprenticeship system and the Nordic model of education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    during the latest decades. This is seen especially in three areas: VET as an instrument for social inclusion of disadvantaged youth, the state initiative to establish school-based training (training centres) and an initiative for unification of vocational and general education (the eux programme)......The paper examines the development of initial vocational education and training (VET) in Denmark in relation to the Nordic model of education. The egalitarian ideal of this model is to provide equal opportunities for education for all at all levels. This ideal has been pursued by policies in all...... the Nordic countries to establish public, free and comprehensive schooling. Key principles are the equal access for all regardless of social background and gender, and full permeability from the lowest to the highest levels with no dead ends in the education system (Blossing et al., 2014). This implies...

  12. Summary of third Nordic symposium on digital pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Claes; Waltersson, Marie; Persson, Anders; Treanor, Darren

    2016-01-01

    Cross-disciplinary and cross-sectorial collaboration is a key success factor for turning the promise of digital pathology into actual clinical benefits. The Nordic symposium on digital pathology (NDP) was created to promote knowledge exchange in this area, among stakeholders in health care, industry, and academia. This article is a summary of the third NDP symposium in Linkφping, Sweden. The Nordic experiences, including several hospitals using whole-slide imaging for substantial parts of their primary reviews, formed a fertile base for discussions among the 190 NDP attendees originating from 15 different countries. This summary also contains results from a survey on adoption and validation aspects of clinical digital pathology use.

  13. Summary of third Nordic symposium on digital pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Lundstrom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-disciplinary and cross-sectorial collaboration is a key success factor for turning the promise of digital pathology into actual clinical benefits. The Nordic symposium on digital pathology (NDP was created to promote knowledge exchange in this area, among stakeholders in health care, industry, and academia. This article is a summary of the third NDP symposium in Linkφping, Sweden. The Nordic experiences, including several hospitals using whole-slide imaging for substantial parts of their primary reviews, formed a fertile base for discussions among the 190 NDP attendees originating from 15 different countries. This summary also contains results from a survey on adoption and validation aspects of clinical digital pathology use.

  14. First results of the Nordic and Baltic GNSS Analysis Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahtinen, Sonja; Pasi, Häkli; Jivall, Lotti; Kempe, Christina; Kollo, Karin; Kosenko, Ksenija; Pihlak, Priit; Prizginiene, Dalia; Tangen, Oddvar; Weber, Mette; Paršeliūnas, Eimuntas; Baniulis, Rimvydas; Galinauskas, Karolis

    2018-03-01

    The Nordic Geodetic Commission (NKG) has launched a joint NKG GNSS Analysis Centre that aims to routinely produce high qualityGNSS solutions for the common needs of the NKG and the Nordic and Baltic countries. A consistent and densified velocity field is needed for the constraining of the gla-cial isostatic adjustment (GIA) modelling that is a key component of maintaining the national reference frame realisations in the area. We described the methods of the NKG GNSS Analysis Centre including the defined processing setup for the local analysis centres (LAC) and for the combination centres.We analysed the results of the first 2.5 years (2014.5-2016). The results showed that different subnets were consistent with the combined solution within 1-2 mm level. We observed the so called network effect affecting our reference frame alignment. However, the accuracy of the reference frame alignment was on a few millimetre level in the area of the main interest (Nordic and Baltic Countries). TheNKGGNSS AC was declared fully operational in April 2017.

  15. Proceedings of the 1st Nordic Optimization Symposium - 10th Nordic MPS meeting, Copenhagen 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens; Jørgensen, Rene Munk; Kohl, Niklas

    2006-01-01

    , Operations Research and Mathematical Programming. Finally we would like to thank our sponsors and supporter for their contributions. It has among other things made it possible to give free registration to a number of researchers from the Baltic countries and Ph.D. students in general. We wish you all......On behalf of the Technical University of Denmark, the Danish Operations Research Society and the Nordic Section of the Mathematical Programming Society we welcome you to Copenhagen and the 1st Nordic Optimization Symposium - the 10th meeting of the Nordic MPS. The meetings of the Nordic MPS have...... to add a new title, that reflects the much broader field that is our playground at these meetings. Still the odd trustworthy title “Meeting of the Nordic MPS” has been maintained to demonstrate the origin of the symposium. It is our hope that future Nordic MPS meetings will carry on using this “double...

  16. SOCIAL AND PROFESSIONAL STATUS OF WOMEN IN THE PROCESS OF TRANSFORMATIONS IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Sikora

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a characterisation of socio-professional status and socio-political activity of women in rural areas in Poland. Traditional, stereotypical approach was compared to the contemporary perception of the social roles performed by women in the countryside, and the results of recent empirical studies concerning the problems discussed were presented. The causes of the lack of socio-professional and political activity were discussed. The opportunities for the support that helps improve social activity of women from rural areas were also presented. The analysis carried out in the study revealed that the status of women in contemporary rural areas is close to traditional stereotypes used in this social category. The need for inclusion of the analysis of socio-professional situation of women in socio-economic strategies of development of rural areas was emphasized. The basis for writing the paper was analysis of the related literature and the results obtained in a national-level empirical research.

  17. Nordic and Celtic: religion in southern Scandinavia during the late bronze age and early iron age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Görman

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of modern archeological research it is today possible to gain much information even from non-written material, This paper covers the late bronze age and early iron age, ca. 1000 B.C. —O. It is based on material from Denmark, the Southwest of Sweden, and the Southeast of Norway. This region formed a cultural unity since the sea bound the area together. Our main sources of knowledge of Nordic religion during this time span are votive offerings and rock-carvings. During the bronze age and early iron age the Nordic peasant population had intensive contacts with the Southeastern and Centralparts of Europe. A great quantity of imported objects bear evidence of widespread connections. The inhabitants of the Nordic area not only brought home objects, but also ideas and religious conceptions. This is clearly reflected in the iconography. The cultures with which connections were upheld and from which ideas were introduced were those of Hallstatt and La Tène. They were both Celtic iron age cultures prospering in Central Europe at the same time as the late bronze age and early iron age in the Nordic area. This means that the new symbols in the Nordic area come from a Celtic environment. Consequently, Celtic religion such as it may be found in the pre-Roman period, can clarify the meaning of the conceptions, linked with these symbols.

  18. CISG Part II in Nordic Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In 2015, as the Nordic countries celebrate the 100th anniversary of the Nordic Contract Act (NCA), there is also good reason to celebrate the fact that - due to recent developments - the original field of NCA application has been narrowed in one important respect. In particular, the contract...... formation rules in NCA Chapter I – which for nearly 100 years applied by default to all contracts – no longer apply to contracts for the international sale of goods. As regards this latter significant contract category, Chapter I of the NCA has (except for inter-Nordic sales) been pre-empted, i.e. replaced...

  19. Diet-induced changes in iron and n-3 fatty acid status and associations with cognitive performance in 8-11-year-old Danish children: secondary analyses of the Optimal Well-Being, Development and Health for Danish Children through a Healthy New Nordic Diet School Meal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Louise Bergmann; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Petersen, Rikke Agnete; Egelund, Niels; Dyssegaard, Camilla Brørup; Stark, Ken D; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim Fleisher; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2015-11-28

    Fe and n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA) have both been associated with cognition, but evidence remains inconclusive in well-nourished school-aged children. In the Optimal Well-Being, Development and Health for Danish Children through a Healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study, the 3-month intervention increased reading performance, inattention, impulsivity and dietary intake of fish and Fe. This study investigated whether the intervention influenced n-3 LCPUFA and Fe status and, if so, explored how these changes correlated with the changes in cognitive performance. The study was a cluster-randomised cross-over trial comparing school meals with packed lunch (control). At baseline and after each treatment, we measured serum ferritin, whole-blood n-3 LCPUFA and Hb, and performance in reading, mathematics and d2-test of attention. Data were analysed using mixed models (n 726) and principal component analysis of test performances (n 644), which showed two main patterns: 'school performance' and 'reading comprehension'. The latter indicated that children with good reading comprehension were also more inattentive and impulsive (i.e. higher d2-test error%). The intervention improved 'school performance' (P=0·015), 'reading comprehension' (P=0·043) and EPA+DHA status 0·21 (95% CI 0·15, 0·27) w/w % (Pschool performance' in girls, but with better 'reading comprehension' in both boys and girls. Both baseline EPA+DHA status and the intervention-induced increase in EPA+DHA status was positively associated with 'school performance', suggesting that n-3 LCPUFA could potentially explain approximately 20 % of the intervention effect. These exploratory associations indicate that increased fish intake might explain some of the increase in reading performance and inattention in the study.

  20. Questionnaire use among nordic neuropsychologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeland, Jens; Norup, Anne; Persson, Bengt A.

    2017-01-01

    The core method of neuropsychologists has been to collect structured samples of behavior through standardized tests. Information that cannot be elicited through tests may be gathered by questionnaires asking questions about behavior. Tests may deconstruct cognitive function precisely, but lack...... the ecological validity of questionnaires. Thus, many neuropsychologists have advocated more use of questionnaires, but it is not known whether professional practice has changed. Until recently, personality instruments were the only widespread questionnaires in frequent use among neuropsychologists. We studied...... the inventory use of 702 Nordic neuropsychologists. The most used questionnaires are listed, and differences between countries are analyzed. In addition, the questionnaires are grouped with regard to whether they map cognition, behavior not observable during consultations, emotional symptoms, personality...

  1. The Nordic concept of 'faellesskab'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, P

    1991-01-01

    The complex of cultural, political and societal affiliations, both in a historic and a contemporary perspective, is expressed by a special term in the Nordic languages, 'faellesskab', often with the addition of 'folkelig', as 'folkeligt faellesskab', where 'folkelig' means of the people. No corresponding term exists in English. For medical ethics the concept 'faellesskab', or whatever wording is chosen to serve the semantics of this term, is vital. In research ethics and clinical decision-making complex ethical analyses and normative evaluations are necessary. They cannot be based solely on moral relativism, whether being based on results of opinion polls or on a widespread 'every man minds his own business' concept. 'Faellesskab' possesses the necessary base of common values. PMID:2033630

  2. Partnering models in Nordic construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    of local research and industry partners including major building clients. Data were collected by means of national reviews of partnering policies and practices, thematic analyses, and case studies. The concept partnering was introduced in a Nordic context in the 1990s and has since then been implemented...... in a large number of projects. Clients sought to establish a culture of openness and trust within the project and tried promoting this with various kinds of incentives. In some countries the move towards voluntary collaboration was, paradoxically, strongly advocated by public authorities. Generally, however......Traditionally, procurement and contractual policies adopted by building and construction clients produce a system in which clients procure design services separately from construction services, while operation and maintenance have been subject to further, separate procurement actions...

  3. Nordic Summer School on Parallel Computing in Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Pardalos, Panos; Storøy, Sverre

    1997-01-01

    During the last three decades, breakthroughs in computer technology have made a tremendous impact on optimization. In particular, parallel computing has made it possible to solve larger and computationally more difficult prob­ lems. This volume contains mainly lecture notes from a Nordic Summer School held at the Linkoping Institute of Technology, Sweden in August 1995. In order to make the book more complete, a few authors were invited to contribute chapters that were not part of the course on this first occasion. The purpose of this Nordic course in advanced studies was three-fold. One goal was to introduce the students to the new achievements in a new and very active field, bring them close to world leading researchers, and strengthen their competence in an area with internationally explosive rate of growth. A second goal was to strengthen the bonds between students from different Nordic countries, and to encourage collaboration and joint research ventures over the borders. In this respect, the course bui...

  4. Nordic Nuclear Materials Forum for Generation IV Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anghel, C.; Penttilae, S.

    2010-03-01

    A network for material issues for Generation IV nuclear power has been initiated within the Nordic countries. The objectives of the Generation IV Nordic Nuclear Materials Forum (NOMAGE4) are to put the basis of a sustainable forum for Gen IV issues, especially focussing on fuels, cladding, structural materials and coolant interaction. Other issues include reactor physics, dynamics and diagnostics, core and fuel design. The present report summarizes the work performed during the year 2009. The efforts made include identification of organisations involved in Gen IV issues in the Nordic countries, update of the forum website, http://www.studsvik.se/GenerationIV, and investigation of capabilities for research within the area of Gen IV. Within the NOMAGE4 project a seminar on Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems has been organized during 15-16th of October 2009. The aim of the seminar was to provide a forum for exchange of information, discussion on future research needs and networking of experts on Generation IV reactor concepts. As an outcome of the NOMAGE4, a few collaboration project proposals have been prepared/planned in 2009. The network was welcomed by the European Commission and was mentioned as an exemplary network with representatives from industries, universities, power companies and research institutes. NOMAGE4 has been invited to participate to the 'European Energy Research Alliance, EERA, workshop for nuclear structural materials' http://www.eera-set.eu/index.php?index=41 as external observers. Future plans include a new Nordic application for continuation of NOMAGE4 network. (author)

  5. Nordic Nuclear Materials Forum for Generation IV Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anghel, C. (Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)); Penttilae, S. (Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland))

    2010-03-15

    A network for material issues for Generation IV nuclear power has been initiated within the Nordic countries. The objectives of the Generation IV Nordic Nuclear Materials Forum (NOMAGE4) are to put the basis of a sustainable forum for Gen IV issues, especially focussing on fuels, cladding, structural materials and coolant interaction. Other issues include reactor physics, dynamics and diagnostics, core and fuel design. The present report summarizes the work performed during the year 2009. The efforts made include identification of organisations involved in Gen IV issues in the Nordic countries, update of the forum website, http://www.studsvik.se/GenerationIV, and investigation of capabilities for research within the area of Gen IV. Within the NOMAGE4 project a seminar on Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems has been organized during 15-16th of October 2009. The aim of the seminar was to provide a forum for exchange of information, discussion on future research needs and networking of experts on Generation IV reactor concepts. As an outcome of the NOMAGE4, a few collaboration project proposals have been prepared/planned in 2009. The network was welcomed by the European Commission and was mentioned as an exemplary network with representatives from industries, universities, power companies and research institutes. NOMAGE4 has been invited to participate to the 'European Energy Research Alliance, EERA, workshop for nuclear structural materials' http://www.eera-set.eu/index.php?index=41 as external observers. Future plans include a new Nordic application for continuation of NOMAGE4 network. (author)

  6. Nordic study on reactor waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    In 1981, 14 nuclear power reactors are in operation and 2 under construction in the Nordic countries. So far, the reactor waste originating from day-to-day operation of these plants has been stored in solidified form at the reactor sites. Within a few years a satisfactory disposal procedure needs to be established. While the main R and D effects in the waste field have earlier been devoted to the question of irradiated fuel and waste from reprocessing, there is therefore now an increased interest in reactor waste with its much lower radioactivity but somewhat larger volumes. Since 1977, efforts have been made in a joint Nordic study to examine which facts need to be known in order to perform a comprehensive safety assessment of a reactor waste management system. In the present study a Reference system related to the waste generated over 30 years from six 500 MW-reactors is examined. The dominating radionuclides during storage and transportation accident scenarios are Cs-134, Cs-137 and Co-60. For most of the release scenarios from repositories Cs-137 and Sr-90 are dominating. Some scenarios are, however, dominated by the very longlived nuclides I-129 and C-14. A closer examination of the concentration in the waste of these nuclides and of their leaching properties indicates that their small - but significant - influence, as calculated, is probably grossly overestimated. The mechanical stability obtained in routine solidification processes of reactor waste products in conjunction with the outer container (steel drum, transport container, etc.) turns out to be sufficient. Difficulties were encountered in applying ICRP methodology and available dose calculation methods to calculation of population doses due to small activity releases, and effects extending into the far future. (EG)

  7. Changes in Area-level Socioeconomic Status and Oral Health of Indigenous Australian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Diep H; Do, Loc G; Luzzi, Liana; Mejia, Gloria C; Jamieson, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Dental diseases have shown to be influenced by area-level socioeconomic status. This study aims to assess the effects of change in area-level SES on the oral health of Australian Indigenous children. Data were collected from a national surveillance survey for children's dental health at two points of time (2000-2002/2007-2010). The study examines caries experienced by area-level SES and whether changes in area-level SES (stable-high, upwardly-mobile, downwardly-mobile and stable low) affects caries experience. Dental caries in both the deciduous and permanent dentition increased significantly among Indigenous children during the study period. In stable low-SES areas, the experience of decayed, missing and overall dmft/DMFT in both dentitions was highest compared with other groups at both Time 1(2.15 vs 1.61, 1.77, 1.87 and 0.86 vs 0.55, 0.67, 0.70 respectively) and Time 2 (3.23 vs 2.08, 2.17, 2.02 and 1.49 vs 1.18, 1.21 respectively). A change in area-level SES was associated with experience of dental disease among Indigenous Australian children.

  8. Time for a Nordic Business History Initiative?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekberg, Espen; Iversen, Martin Jes

    2018-01-01

    The current state of Nordic business history is by certain estimates better than ever. Nordic business historians publish extensively in leading international journals and have a strong presence at international business history conferences. Still, in this discussion article we raise a yellow flag...... of warning for the future of Nordic business history. We argue that the subject field is challenged along three important dimensions: (i) lack of relevant teaching, (ii) continued reliance on commissioned history and (iii) limited recruitment. The article discusses these challenges and seeks to place them...... grounds for the development of such projects, The Scandinavian Society for Economic and Social History – the formal collaborative body for Nordic economic historians and the owner of Scandinavian Economic History Review – should be reinvigorated....

  9. Nordic Approaches to Peace Operations (in Korean)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    operations. First, it demolishes the widely held view that the Nordic countries remain a bastion of traditional Cold War peacekeeping with little relevance for contemporary operations. Second, it constitutes the first systematic overview of the reforms undertaken by the four Nordic countries since the end......A new examination of Nordic approaches to peace operations after the Cold War. It shows how the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) remain relevant for the study and practice of post-Cold War peace operations. This unique study is structured around eleven success conditions...... derived from an analysis of the lessons learned since the early 1990s, ensuring that the results of the case studies are directly comparable. These case studies are supplemented by an analysis of Nordics’ collective efforts to replace their old Cold War peacekeeping model with a new one that meets...

  10. The Wage Curve in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Albæk, K.; Asplund, R.

    regions in the long run. One explanation put forward for this slow speed of regional wage adjustment is the rather centralized bargaining system on the labour market in the Nordic countries. Wages are set according to the average unemployment rate for the economy as a whole, and differences in regional...... for researchers or civil servants with a deeper interest in labour market problems. The main result from this study is that the wage formation at the regional level is rather inflexible in the short run in all five Nordic countries, with no effect from changes in local unemployment on the local wage level......This report focusses on wage formation in the Nordic countries with a special attention to the effect from changes in local unemployment on the local wage level. The book gives a comprehensive and comparable study of this topic in the five Nordic countries which may be of great value...

  11. Obesity Prevention in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockmarr, Anders; Hejgaard, Tatjana; Matthiessen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that mean BMI and prevalences of overweight/obesity and obesity have increased over the last decades in the Nordic countries, despite highly regulated societies with a focus on obesity prevention. We review recent overweight/obesity and obesity prevention initiatives...... that obesity in adults has increased from 2011 to 2014, while no significant changes were found for children. No significant increases were found for mean BMI and overweight/obesity prevalence. Obesity prevention initiatives among the Nordic countries are highly similar although minor differences are present...... within four of the five Nordic countries: Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland. Moreover, we analyze the current situation based on monitoring data on BMI collected in 2011 and 2014, and obtain overall estimates of overweight/obesity and obesity prevalences for the Nordic Region. Data analysis shows...

  12. Changing health inequalities in the Nordic countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahelma, E; Lundberg, O; Manderbacka, K; Roos, E

    2001-01-01

    The Nordic countries, referring here to Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, have often been viewed as a group of countries with many features in common, such as geographical location, history, culture, religion, language, and economic and political structures. It has also been habitual to refer to a "Nordic model" of welfare states comprising a large public sector, active labour market policies, high costs for social welfare as well as high taxes, and a general commitment to social equality. Recent research suggests that much of this "Nordicness" appears to remain despite the fact that the Nordic countries have experienced quite different changes during the 1980s and 1990s. How this relates to changes in health inequalities is in the focus of this supplement.

  13. Sea-ice cover in the Nordic Seas and the sensitivity to Atlantic water temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mari F.; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.; Spall, Michael A.

    2017-04-01

    Changes in the sea-ice cover of the Nordic Seas have been proposed to play a key role for the dramatic temperature excursions associated with the Dansgaard-Oeschger events during the last glacial. However, with its proximity to the warm Atlantic water, how a sea-ice cover can persist in the Nordic Seas is not well understood. In this study, we apply an eddy-resolving configuration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model with an idealized topography to study the presence of sea ice in a Nordic Seas-like domain. We assume an infinite amount of warm Atlantic water present in the south by restoring the southern area to constant temperatures. The sea-surface temperatures are restored toward cold, atmospheric temperatures, and as a result, sea ice is present in the interior of the domain. However, the sea-ice cover in the margins of the Nordic Seas, an area with a warm, cyclonic boundary current, is sensitive to the amount of heat entering the domain, i.e., the restoring temperature in the south. When the temperature of the warm, cyclonic boundary current is high, the margins are free of sea ice and heat is released to the atmosphere. We show that with a small reduction in the temperature of the incoming Atlantic water, the Nordic Seas-like domain is fully covered in sea ice. Warm water is still entering the Nordic Seas, however, this happens at depths below a cold, fresh surface layer produced by melted sea ice. Consequently, the heat release to the atmosphere is reduced along with the eddy heat fluxes. Results suggest a threshold value in the amount of heat entering the Nordic Seas before the sea-ice cover disappears in the margins. We study the sensitivity of this threshold to changes in atmospheric temperatures and vertical diffusivity.

  14. Status of external breath functions of the Northern Kazakhstan residents from a uranium mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajnabekova, B.A.; Mukhambetov, D.D.; Sutyusheva, G.R.; Braun, M.A.; Sarzhanova, A.N.; Rutenko, N.A.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present study is the external breath functions status in population of the Northern Kazakhstan uranium-miming areas. During the obtained data analysis it was revealed, that the indexes both the volume forced breathing-out behind the first wall and the vital lung capacity were low in residents are living at the mines more than 10 years, than in ones are living less than 10 years. The obtained data could not evidencing about reliable influence of low ionizing radiation dose on the bronchus permeability indexes. Presumably, that a possible reason for the reveled breath functions destabilization formation is the dust factor action

  15. A Nordic view on perspectives for radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.P.

    2002-01-01

    At the turn of millennium, several scientists have expressed their thoughts on the future of radioecology and related topics in the Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. These contributions are listed and commented upon. The role of radioecology in the 6th Euratom Framework Programme (2002-2006) is discussed. Previous Nordic radioecology seminars are summarised and trends identified, and suggestions are given for future Nordic activities and developments in the field of environmental radioactivity. (au)

  16. Occupational Science in a Nordic perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Tove; Bendixen, HJ; Frydendal, E

    The book is anthology and the first of its kind to be publiched in the Nordic countries. It comprices contributions from Sweden, Norway and Denmark. The authors write from respective fields of interest, research perspectives and personal experiences. The overall goal is to present a vision and im...... and importance of Occupational Science in a Nordic perspective, in responce to the American understanding. The anthology comprise 14 articles and adresses all with an interest in research in human activity and social participation....

  17. A Nordic view on perspectives for radioecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, S P [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2002-04-01

    At the turn of millennium, several scientists have expressed their thoughts on the future of radioecology and related topics in the Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. These contributions are listed and commented upon. The role of radioecology in the 6th Euratom Framework Programme (2002-2006) is discussed. Previous Nordic radioecology seminars are summarised and trends identified, and suggestions are given for future Nordic activities and developments in the field of environmental radioactivity. (au)

  18. Information Society Visions in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Kristensen, Thomas Myrup

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyses the information society visions put forward by the governments/administrations of the Nordic countries and compares them to the visions advanced at the EU-level. The paper suggests that the information society visions constitute a kind of common ideology for almost the whole...... political spectrum although it is characterised by a high degree of neo-liberal thinking. It is further argued that there is no distinctly Nordic model for an information society....

  19. Suboptimal Iodine Status among Pregnant Women in the Oslo Area, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henjum, Sigrun; Aakre, Inger; Lilleengen, Anne Marie; Garnweidner-Holme, Lisa; Borthne, Sandra; Pajalic, Zada; Blix, Ellen; Gjengedal, Elin Lovise Folven; Brantsæter, Anne Lise

    2018-02-28

    Norway has been considered iodine replete for decades; however, recent studies indicate reemergence of inadequate iodine status in different population groups. We assessed iodine status in pregnant women based on urinary iodine concentration (UIC), urinary iodine excretion (UIE), and iodine intake from food and supplements. In 804 pregnant women, 24-h iodine intakes from iodine-rich foods and iodine-containing supplements were calculated. In 777 women, iodine concentration was measured in spot urine samples by inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In addition, 49 of the women collected a 24-h urine sample for assessment of UIE and iodine intake from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Median UIC was 92 µg/L. Fifty-five percent had a calculated iodine intake below estimated average requirement (EAR) (160 µg/day). Iodine intake from food alone did not provide the amount of iodine required to meet maternal and fetal needs during pregnancy. In multiple regression models, hypothyroidism, supplemental iodine and maternal age were positively associated with UIC, while gestational age and smoking were negatively associated, explaining 11% of the variance. This study clearly shows that pregnant women in the Oslo area are mild to moderate iodine deficient and public health strategies are needed to improve and secure adequate iodine status.

  20. Improving nutritional status of children under 6 through nutrition counseling in rural area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minaei, Mina; Zarei, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Nutrition counseling is one of the nutritional activities for improving child nutrition. It is the best way for decreasing malnutrition in children. Goal: To improve nutritional status of children under 6 through nutrition counseling in rural area with high prevalence of malnutrition. Methods: An international study with a total of 660 children with their mothers and with duration of seven months started in Lali district (in Khozestan province of Iran). Data gathered with using a demographic questionnaire and anthropometric measurements in children. Afterwards, malnourished children determined and referred to nutrition counseling centers. After training mothers, planning a diet and monitoring nutritional status were determined. Results: The prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight in studied children at the beginning of the study were 9.6%, 6.2% and 4.8% respectively, which reached 8.7%, 3.3% and 2.4% by the end of the project (P<0.05). The intervention was most efficient in children suffering growth retardation, with a cure rate of 91%; only 48.6% of malnourished children referred to the center health were cured. Conclusion: Results obtained from this study showed that over 90% of children suffering growth retardation were cured. This means establishing nutrition counseling centers to encourage proper nutrition behaviors, evaluate current issues and find possible solutions, persuade mothers to improve child nutrition status making use of practical and specific methods appropriate with the tradition of the region has had an important role in improving the nutrition status of the children in the region. (author)

  1. Nutrition status in residents in the high background radiation area of Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Shujie; Li Xiaojuan; Sun Quanfu; Wei Lvxin; Gen Jiwu; Wen Cuiju; Tan Huizhen; Zou Jianmin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the current status of nutrition and examine the difference between inhabitants in the high background radiation area (HBRA) and the control area (CA). Methods: Sixty and sixty-five male farmers aged 50 and over were randomly selected from HBRA and CA, respectively. Information on dwelling history, history of disease, medical treatment and X-ray examination were collected by interview. Body height and weight were measured, and BMIs were calculated. Serum levels of total protein, albumin and globulin, triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low- density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), Apo A1 and Apo B were measured. Results: There was difference in BMI distribution between the two groups. Averages of total biochemistry indexes measured were in normal range in the two groups. With adjustment to age distribution, the serum levels of total protein, albumin and triacylglycerol (TG) of residents in CA were higher than those in HBRA; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was higher in HBRA than that in CA. Conclusions: This serum assay of nutrients in HBRA and CA residents confirmed the results obtained from previous surveys. Both HBRA and CA residents have similar nutrition status, residents in CA consumed more animal protein and fat compared with those in HBRA. (authors)

  2. A Nordic perspective on career competences and guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rie

    This concept note reflects an initiative within the Nordic ELPGN group, in partnership with the Nordic network for adult learning (NVL), to investigate the possibilities for collaboration between the Nordic countries in developing a number of joint documents on career competences and....../or a competence framework for career learning in the Nordic countries. The objective for this concept note is to contribute to a shared Nordic frame of understanding for career competences which can be used in the ongoing development of guidance in the Nordic countries. The intended audience is guidance...... professionals, teachers, researchers, managers, policy makers and clients....

  3. Green Nanotechnology in Nordic Construction - Eco-innovation strategies and Dynamics in nordic Window Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch; Sandén, Björn A.; Palmberg, Christopher

    This project analyzes Nordic trends in the development and industrial uptake of green nanotechno-logy in construction. The project applies an evolutionary economic perspective in analyzing the innovation dynamics and firm strategies in the window value chains in three Nordic countries, Denmark......, Finland and Sweden. Hence the project investigates two pervasive parallel market trends: The emergence of the green market and the emergence of nanotechnology. The analysis investigates how a traditional economic sector such as the construction sector reacts to such major trends. Conclusions are multiple...... of nanotechnology in the construction sector in the Nordic countries we do find quite a high number of nanotech applications in the Nordic window chains. Eco-innovation is influencing strongly on the nanotech development. We see several examples of nano-enabled smart, multifunctional green solutions in the Nordic...

  4. Green nanotechnology in Nordic Construction: Eco-innovation strategies and Dynamics in Nordic Window Value Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch

    2010-01-01

    This project analyzes Nordic trends in the development and industrial uptake of green nanotechno-logy in construction. The project applies an evolutionary economic perspective in analyzing the innovation dynamics and firm strategies in the window value chains in three Nordic countries, Denmark......, Finland and Sweden. Hence the project investigates two pervasive parallel market trends: The emergence of the green market and the emergence of nanotechnology. The analysis investigates how a traditional economic sector such as the construction sector reacts to such major trends. Conclusions are multiple...... of nanotechnology in the construction sector in the Nordic countries we do find quite a high number of nanotech applications in the Nordic window chains. Eco-innovation is influencing strongly on the nanotech development. We see several examples of nano-enabled smart, multifunctional green solutions in the Nordic...

  5. NKS - The Nordic region's cooperative network for addressing challenges in nuclear safety and emergency preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K.G. [NKS/Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Andgren, K. [NKS/Vattenfall R and D (Sweden); Leino, K. [NKS/Fortum Power and Heat Oy (Finland); Magnusson, S. [NKS/Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority (Iceland); Physant, F. [NKS/FRIT, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2014-07-01

    Based on the foundation of a common cultural and historical heritage and a long tradition of collaboration, NKS aims to facilitate a common Nordic view on nuclear and radiation safety. A common understanding of rules, practice and measures, and national differences in this context, is here an essential requirement. Problems can generally be tackled quicker, more efficiently, more consistently and at a lower cost through collaboration, bearing in mind that key competencies are not equally distributed in the different Nordic countries. For instance common Nordic challenges emerge in relation to nuclear installations, where nuclear power plants are in operation in Finland and Sweden, and research reactors have been operated in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. There is an obvious benefit in exchanging ideas and technologies in relation to plant operation, and since a number of reactors in different Nordic countries are under decommissioning, a collaborative benefit can also be realised in that context. Sweden also has a nuclear fuel production plant, and its collaboration with other Nordic nuclear installations can also be beneficial. Further, a number of large radiological installations are projected in Nordic areas (e.g., the MAX-LAB/MAX IV synchrotron radiation source and the European spallation source ESS), where Nordic organisations are collaborating in addressing, e.g., potential environmental implications. On the emergency preparedness side, the Fukushima accident in March 2011 was a reminder that large accidents at nuclear installations can lead to widespread radioactive contamination in the environment. In order to respond to nuclear or radiological emergencies, should they affect Nordic populations, it is necessary to maintain an operational emergency preparedness. By continuously improving detection, response and decision aiding tools while maintaining an informal collaborative network between relevant stakeholders in the Nordic countries (including

  6. New Nordic comics—a question of promotion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Platz Cortsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history, the cultures of the Nordic countries have at certain points been seen through a lense that stresses regional commonality, most recently with terms like “New Nordic Cooking” or “Nordic Noir.” In this article, we examine the possibility of a common concept of “New Nordic Comics” by analyzing a number of Nordic comics anthologies. We discuss in what way Nordic comics might be said to be new and how they can be considered to be Nordic. We state that the comics in the collections are not identifiable as particularly Nordic based on their themes or the stylistic or visual repertoires. In these respects, Nordic comics are part of a broader transnational comics culture. The comics, however, occasionally bear witness to a Nordic background or heritage, for instance, in the form of words in Finnish or the Scandinavian languages, names of characters or the milieux in the comics. On the whole, Nordicness in comics is variable and diverse, and rather than a phenomenon based on inherent quality or aesthetic commonality, new Nordic comics are a result of promotional strategies, cultural policies, and transnational connections between Nordic actors in the comics field.

  7. Comparison of Nordic dose models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thykier-Nielsen, S.

    1978-04-01

    A comparison is made between the models used in the four Nordic countries, Finland, Norway, Sweden and Denmark, for calculation of concentrations and doses from releases of radioactive material to the atmosphere. The comparison is limited to the near-zone models, i.e. the models for calculation of concentrations and doses within 50 km from the release point, and it comprises the following types of calculation: a. Concentrations of airborne material, b. External gamma doses from a plume, c. External gamma doses from radioactive material deposited on the ground. All models are based on the gaussian dispersion model (the gaussian plume model). Unit releases of specific isotopes under specific meteorological conditions are assumed. On the basis of the calculation results from the models, it is concluded that there are no essential differences. The difference between the calculation results only exceeds a factor of 3 in special cases. It thus lies within the known limits of uncertainty for the gaussian plume model. (author)

  8. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.L.; DeWitt, L.M.; Darnell, R.

    1993-08-01

    The Final Waste Forms (FWF) Technical Area Status Report (TASR) Working Group, the Vitrification Working Group (WG), and the Performance Standards Working Group were established as subgroups to the FWF Technical Support Group (TSG). The FWF TASR WG is comprised of technical representatives from most of the major DOE sites, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the EPA Office of Solid Waste, and the EPA's Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL). The primary activity of the FWF TASR Working Group was to investigate and report on the current status of FWFs for LLNM in this TASR. The FWF TASR Working Group determined the current status of the development of various waste forms described above by reviewing selected articles and technical reports, summarizing data, and establishing an initial set of FWF characteristics to be used in evaluating candidate FWFS; these characteristics are summarized in Section 2. After an initial review of available information, the FWF TASR Working Group chose to study the following groups of final waste forms: hydraulic cement, sulfur polymer cement, glass, ceramic, and organic binders. The organic binders included polyethylene, bitumen, vinyl ester styrene, epoxy, and urea formaldehyde. Section 3 provides a description of each final waste form. Based on the literature review, the gaps and deficiencies in information were summarized, and conclusions and recommendations were established. The information and data presented in this TASR are intended to assist the FWF Production and Assessment TSG in evaluating the Technical Task Plans (TTPs) submitted to DOE EM-50, and thus provide DOE with the necessary information for their FWF decision-making process. This FWF TASR will also assist the DOE and the MWIP in establishing the most acceptable final waste forms for the various LLMW streams stored at DOE facilities

  9. Poor nutritional status of schoolchildren in urban and peri-urban areas of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delisle Hélène F

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition is still highly prevalent in developing countries. Schoolchildren may also be at high nutritional risk, not only under-five children. However, their nutritional status is poorly documented, particularly in urban areas. The paucity of information hinders the development of relevant nutrition programs for schoolchildren. The aim of this study carried out in Ouagadougou was to assess the nutritional status of schoolchildren attending public and private schools. Methods The study was carried out to provide baseline data for the implementation and evaluation of the Nutrition Friendly School Initiative of WHO. Six intervention schools and six matched control schools were selected and a sample of 649 schoolchildren (48% boys aged 7-14 years old from 8 public and 4 private schools were studied. Anthropometric and haemoglobin measurements, along with thyroid palpation, were performed. Serum retinol was measured in a random sub-sample of children (N = 173. WHO criteria were used to assess nutritional status. Chi square and independent t-test were used for proportions and mean comparisons between groups. Results Mean age of the children (48% boys was 11.5 ± 1.2 years. Micronutrient malnutrition was highly prevalent, with 38.7% low serum retinol and 40.4% anaemia. The prevalence of stunting was 8.8% and that of thinness, 13.7%. The prevalence of anaemia (p = 0.001 and vitamin A deficiency (p Conclusion This study shows that malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are also widely prevalent in schoolchildren in cities, and it underlines the need for nutrition interventions to target them.

  10. Technical area status report for low-level mixed waste final waste forms. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.L.; DeWitt, L.M. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Darnell, R. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1993-08-01

    The Final Waste Forms (FWF) Technical Area Status Report (TASR) Working Group, the Vitrification Working Group (WG), and the Performance Standards Working Group were established as subgroups to the FWF Technical Support Group (TSG). The FWF TASR WG is comprised of technical representatives from most of the major DOE sites, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the EPA Office of Solid Waste, and the EPA`s Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL). The primary activity of the FWF TASR Working Group was to investigate and report on the current status of FWFs for LLNM in this TASR. The FWF TASR Working Group determined the current status of the development of various waste forms described above by reviewing selected articles and technical reports, summarizing data, and establishing an initial set of FWF characteristics to be used in evaluating candidate FWFS; these characteristics are summarized in Section 2. After an initial review of available information, the FWF TASR Working Group chose to study the following groups of final waste forms: hydraulic cement, sulfur polymer cement, glass, ceramic, and organic binders. The organic binders included polyethylene, bitumen, vinyl ester styrene, epoxy, and urea formaldehyde. Section 3 provides a description of each final waste form. Based on the literature review, the gaps and deficiencies in information were summarized, and conclusions and recommendations were established. The information and data presented in this TASR are intended to assist the FWF Production and Assessment TSG in evaluating the Technical Task Plans (TTPs) submitted to DOE EM-50, and thus provide DOE with the necessary information for their FWF decision-making process. This FWF TASR will also assist the DOE and the MWIP in establishing the most acceptable final waste forms for the various LLMW streams stored at DOE facilities.

  11. Ten Perspectives on Nordic Energy. Final report for the first phase of the Nordic Energy Perspectives project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryden, Bo

    2006-09-01

    Nordic Energy Perspectives is an interdisciplinary energy research project which, from a holistic perspective, analyses and creates new insights into the consequences for energy markets and energy systems of the goals and instruments of energy policy in the light of new conditions. The project's aim is to provide better bases for decisions on energy and environmental policy at both national and international levels. It is intended to contribute to constructive dialogue between researchers, politicians, authorities and actors on the energy markets. A first phase of the project has been carried out during Apr 2005 - Sep 2006. This report summarises the most important results. Around fifteen current research issues have been analysed. Some of these issues have been analysed in detail, while others have been studied more generally. This means that we can present a comprehensive flora of results in a number of areas, whereas in regard to other questions the analysis is less deep and the conclusions are not as firmly grounded. We have nonetheless chosen to present the entire range of results in this final report. An objective of Nordic Energy Perspectives has been to create a forum for fact-based discussion and dialogue between decision-makers and other energy actors from different disciplines and different countries. Today this forum is fully active. We are very eager that the forum should survive and that the discussion should continue concerning the themes treated by Nordic Energy Perspectives. Hence, for each of the chapters 1-17 below, we identify the researchers whom the reader can contact for further dialogue. The ten perspectives, which are based on contributions from the whole research group, have the following headlines: Costly early learnings from the first year of EU ETS: Unforeseen price levels hit industries hard; Market based support schemes - do they really work as intended; New decade in the Nordic energy markets; Reduced CO 2 emissions and more

  12. Nutritional status of under-fives in rural area of South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathad, Vijayashree; Metgud, Chandra; Mallapur, M D

    2011-04-01

    Malnutrition is widely recognized as a major health problem in developing countries. It is wide spread in rural, tribal and urban slum areas. Growing children are most vulnerable to its consequences. Anthropometry is a simple field technique for evaluating physical growth and nutritional status of the children. To assess the nutritional status of under-fives'. This cross sectional study was conducted in Kakati-A sub-centre, under Primary Health Centre Vantamuri of Belgaum district. The sample size was 290. Data collection was done using pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Distribution of variables was assessed and comparison was done using chi square test and P value. The prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting was observed to be 26.55%, 31.38% and 7.59%, while severe degree of underweight, stunting and wasting was observed in 5.86%, 27.24% and 6.51% respectively according to World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 classification. According to the Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) classification the prevalence of Grade I malnutrition was 121 (47.10%), Grade II was 29 (10.00%) and Grade III and IV were 4 (1.40%). Majority of the children's diet was not adequate for calories and proteins as per Indian Council for Medical Research (ICMR) guidelines. Less than half of children were underweight, nearly one third were stunted and one fifth of children were wasted. No child was found to be overweight or obese.

  13. Iodine status and thyroid function of Boston-area vegetarians and vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Angela M; Lamar, Andrew; He, Xuemei; Braverman, Lewis E; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2011-08-01

    Adequate dietary iodine is required for normal thyroid function. The iodine status and thyroid function of U.S. vegetarians and vegans have not been previously studied. Environmental perchlorate and thiocyanate (inhibitors of thyroid iodine uptake) exposures may adversely affect thyroid function. The objective of the study was to assess the iodine status and thyroid function of U.S. vegetarians (consume plant based products, eggs, milk; abstain from meat, poultry, fish, shellfish) and vegans (avoid all animal products) and whether these may be affected by environmental perchlorate and thiocyanate exposures. This was a cross-sectional assessment of urinary iodine, perchlorate, and thiocyanate concentrations and serum thyroid function in Boston-area vegetarians and vegans. One hundred forty-one subjects (78 vegetarians, 63 vegans) were recruited; one vegan was excluded. Median urinary iodine concentration of vegans (78.5 μg/liter; range 6.8-964.7 μg/liter) was lower than vegetarians (147.0 μg/liter; range 9.3-778.6 μg/liter) (P vegans (630 μg/liter; range 108-3085 μg/liter) was higher than vegetarians (341 μg/liter; range 31-1963 μg/liter) (P vegans may be at risk for low iodine intake, and vegan women of child-bearing age should supplement with 150 μg iodine daily. Environmental perchlorate and thiocyanate exposures are not associated with thyroid dysfunction in these groups.

  14. Evaluation report of the Nordic emergency exercise Odin - November 26, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    An evaluation of the second phase, ODIN, of an emergency exercise which is related to the late phase of a hypothetical nuclear accident outside, but close to the Nordic countries. This phase, in contrast to the first one (NORA) during the course of which it was found that strong national ways of thinking unfluenced decision-making, was carried out on the same day in all five Nordic countries in order to enable contact between them. The main argument in favour of a coordinated approach in the intervention policy in this area is that it is likely that the public in each of these countries would be unable to understand or accept very different levels of ambition with regard to their protection. The main objective of ODIN was to add to the knowledge and increase the capability of those responsible in the Nordic countries for handling a situation of deposition following a nuclear accident to improve provisions for Nordic coordination of the overall decision-making and to reach a joint Nordic view of emergency response. The organization of the evaluation, the methodology of the exercise and the evaluation itself covering, amongst other aspects, responses by emergency organizations to the check lists on actions, the decision-making process, international communication, public information and technical facilities are dealt with. (AB)

  15. Influence of settings management and protection status on recreational uses and pressures in marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonson, Charles; Pelletier, Dominique; Alban, Frederique; Giraud-Carrier, Charlotte; Ferraris, Jocelyne

    2017-09-15

    Coastal populations and tourism are growing worldwide. Consequently outdoor recreational activity is increasing and diversifying. While Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are valuable for mitigating anthropogenic impacts, recreational uses are rarely monitored and studied, resulting in a lack of knowledge on users' practices, motivation and impacts. Based on boat counts and interview data collected in New Caledonia, we i) explored factors affecting user practices and motivations, ii) constructed fine-scale pressure indices covering activities and associated behaviors, and iii) assessed the relationships between user practices and site selection. User practices were found to depend on protection status, boat type and user characteristics. Pressure indices were higher within no-take MPAs, except for fishing. We found significant relationships between user practices and settings characteristics. In the context of increasing recreational uses, these results highlight options for managing such uses through settings management without jeopardizing the social acceptance of MPAs or the attainment of conservation goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Interim Status Closure Plan Open Burning Treatment Unit Technical Area 16-399 Burn Tray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-07

    This closure plan describes the activities necessary to close one of the interim status hazardous waste open burning treatment units at Technical Area (TA) 16 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Facility), hereinafter referred to as the 'TA-16-399 Burn Tray' or 'the unit'. The information provided in this closure plan addresses the closure requirements specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 265, Subparts G and P for the thermal treatment units operated at the Facility under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. Closure of the open burning treatment unit will be completed in accordance with Section 4.1 of this closure plan.

  17. Psoriatic arthritis mutilans (PAM) in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudbjornsson, B; Ejstrup, L; Gran, J T

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of psoriatic arthritis mutilans (PAM) in the Nordic countries.......To determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of psoriatic arthritis mutilans (PAM) in the Nordic countries....

  18. Ownership structure and market power in the nordic power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amundsen, E.S.; Bergman, L.

    1999-01-01

    The opening of Nord Pool in 1996 seriously constrained the power companies' ability to exercise market power within their national borders. Currently there is an integration process going on among the power companies in the Nord Pool area. It manifest itself in terms of take-over and reciprocal acquisition of shares in the power companies - nationally and abroad. This process may undo what the introduction of the common power market achieved in curtailing market power. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effects on market power of increased cross- ownership in the Nordic power market. (au)

  19. Cohort Fertility Patterns in the Nordic Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Andersson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous analyses of period fertility suggest that the trends of the Nordic countries are sufficiently similar to speak of a common "Nordic fertility regime". We investigate whether this assumption can be corroborated by comparing cohort fertility patterns in the Nordic countries. We study cumulated and completed fertility of Nordic birth cohorts based on the childbearing histories of women born in 1935 and later derived from the population registers of Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. We further explore childbearing behaviour by women's educational attainment. The results show remarkable similarities in postponement and recuperation between the countries and very small differences in completed fertility across educational groups. Median childbearing age is about 2-3 years higher in the 1960-64 cohort than in the 1950-54 cohort, but the younger cohort recuperates the fertility level of the older cohort at ages 30 and above. A similar pattern of recuperation can be observed for highly educated women as compared to women with less education. An interesting finding is that of a positive relationship between educational level and the final number of children when women who become mothers at similar ages are compared. Country differences in fertility outcome are generally rather low. Childlessness is highest in Finland and lowest in Norway, and the educational differentials are largest in Norway. Despite such differences, the cohort analyses in many ways support the notion of a common Nordic fertility regime.

  20. Dermatological moulage collections in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worm, A-M; Sinisalo, H; Eilertsen, G; Åhrén, E; Meyer, I

    2018-04-01

    The art of producing and acquiring dermatological wax models, moulages, flourished all over Europe in the beginning of the twentieth century, whereas very little is known about the existence of moulage collections in the Nordic countries. The aim of this study was to elucidate the presence, the origin, the production place, the use and the condition of dermatological moulage collections in the Nordic countries. In each Nordic country, an extensive survey was undertaken during spring 2016. Dermatological departments, museums with medical collections, persons assumed to have specific information about wax moulages as well as secondary sources were contacted and interviewed. Several hitherto undescribed collections have survived in each country, most, however, damaged and in disrepair. One Danish and part of a Finnish collection have been restored. Only few moulages are exhibited and some have been photographed and digitalized. Denmark and Sweden have had a local moulage production. Responses to the survey indicate that the result covers all collections of dermatological moulages in the Nordic countries, though some moulages may remain in private collections unknown to the authors, or uncatalogued in museums. Moulages are medical gems from bygone days before modern technology facilitated new means of communication. Restoration and appropriate storing should be considered for at least selected items from the Nordic collections. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  1. Nordic nuclear emergency exercises. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennerstedt, T.; Stranden, E.; Salo, A.

    1995-01-01

    In all Nordic countries, nuclear emergency provisions have been revised following the Chernobyl accident. Local and national exercises are carried out regularly in each country. Several actions have been taken to harmonize the emergency approaches of the Nordic countries. In order to further promote consistent decisions in an emergency situation, two Nordic exercises were conducted in 1993. It was important to see if all five countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) responded in a similar way to a given situation, as far as risk assessment and protective measures were concerned. The exercises were mainly aimed at decision makers and advisers of the five national emergency organizations. Thus, the exercises did not include comparison of underlying calculations on, e.g., atmospheric trajectories or transfer of radioactive material from air to ground. Such functions were tested separately in drills that also formed part of the Nordic emergency preparedness program. The exercises included an acute-phase situation (NORA), and a late-phase situation (ODIN). The Nordic exercises aroused international interest, and hence observers from IAEA, OECD/NEA and the European Union were invited to the exercises. NORA was observed by representatives from IAEA (in Finland) and OECD/NEA (in Sweden). ODIN was attended by IAEA (in Sweden) and the European Union (in Norway). Generally speaking, regional exercises such as NORA and ODIN help improve national emergency preparedness planning, organization and operations as well as international coordination. (EG)

  2. Reinterpreting the Historicity of the Nordic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauli Kettunen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In conventional images of the so-called Nordic model, the strong state is opposed to markets or civil society and co-operation is opposed to conflict. These opposites appear problematic if one takes seriously the Nordic market- and interest-centered language used for the practices of social regulation, including the stubborn use of “labor market parties” instead of the EU concept “social partners”. Applying an approach sensitive to the historical and political aspects of language and concepts, the paper argues that a particular notion of social citizenship developed in the Nordic countries, in which interests rather than rights were put into the center. Such a notion of social citizenship was associated with two intertwined ideas, important in the development of the Nordic pattern of social reform: the idea of symmetry between workers and employers and the idea of a virtuous circle between divergent interests. With these ideas democracy and citizenship were combined with paid work and conflicting interests. This combination has been questioned by the projects for competitive national (and European communities, responding to globalized and financialized capitalism. The vigorous comparisons of “models”, and the popularity of the concept of “the Nordic model”, can be seen as an aspect of this current transformation.

  3. Trading electricity outside the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The subject of transborder trade of electricity between the Nordic countries and other North-European countries is dealt with. A detailed comparison of generating capacity, generating costs as well as electricity prices, market structure and national and international regulations is given. This shows that generating costs in the Nordic countries in general are lower than those in other North-European countries. This indicates a potential for transborder trade. Norway has a potential for exporting power while Denmark and Sweden have a potential for energy exports due to current excess capacity. Transmission capacity from the Nordic countries to Germany is limited. As access to the German transmission network is restricted, conditions for trade depend on differences between marginal cost. After transmission cost, those differences do not finance larger investments in further capacity. A change in the market structure in Germany with third party access to the transmission network will allow major consumers to buy directly from producers in the Nordic countries. An opening up of the market should reduce the price load in Germany. This could cause price increases in the Nordic countries. (AB)

  4. A nordic charter for universal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Evastina

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the result of a pioneer project; A Nordic Charter for Universal Design, which was initiated by the Norwegian Directorate for Children, Youth and Family Affairs in 2011. The purpose of the Charter was to present rationales that stated prerequisites for successful investment in Universal Design, and to establish a platform for further research and good practice. It was also meant to contribute to spreading of information and knowledge about the importance of guidance by the concept of Universal Design of initiatives with effects on the public arena. A Nordic group of researchers and professionals in the field ended up after 8 months of work with a written document: "A Nordic Charter for Universal Design", which was presented at the International Conference in Universal Design in Oslo, Norway (UD 2012). A Nordic Charter for Universal Design. Persons with disabilities often experience the public arenas environments, products and services as poorly-designed to fit their abilities and/or their needs. Together with the demographic changes in the Nordic societies with an increasing number of elderly people, it needs initiatives to improve independence, accessibility and participation in society. A strategy which aims to make design and composition of different environments, products, communication, information technology and services accessible, usable and understandable to as many as possible is Universal Design.

  5. Effects of school meals with weekly fish servings on vitamin D status in Danish children: secondary outcomes from the OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke A.; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    Children's vitamin D intake and status can be optimised to meet recommendations. We investigated if nutritionally balanced school meals with weekly fish servings affected serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and markers related to bone in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. We conducted an explorat......Children's vitamin D intake and status can be optimised to meet recommendations. We investigated if nutritionally balanced school meals with weekly fish servings affected serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and markers related to bone in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. We conducted...

  6. Nordic Narratives of the Second World War : National Historiographies Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    How have the dramatic events of the Second World War been viewed in the Nordic countries? In Nordic Narratives of the Second World War, leading Nordic historians analyse post-war memory and historiography. They explore the relationship between scholarly and public understandings of the war. How have national interpretations been shaped by official security-policy doctrines? And in what way has the end of the Cold War affected the Nordic narratives? The authors not only present the ...

  7. Market design : Common Nordic end-user market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    No later than 2015, suppliers in the Nordic countries should be able to offer electricity to consumers in any Nordic country on equal terms. In this report NordREG has analyzed the present situation in the Nordic countries and identified the issues that should be harmonised in order to establish a common Nordic end-user market. In this report NordREG also suggests an indicative road map for the implementation process. (Author)

  8. Sedation practice in Nordic and non-Nordic ICUs: a European survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerod, Ingrid; Albarran, John W; Ring, Mette; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2013-07-01

    A trend towards lighter sedation has been evident in many intensive care units (ICUs). The aims of the survey were to describe sedation practice in European ICUs and to compare sedation practice in Nordic and non-Nordic countries. A cross-sectional survey of ICU nurses attending the fourth European federation of Critical Care Nursing associations (EfCCNa) in Denmark, 2011. Data included use of protocols; sedation, pain and delirium assessment tools; collaborative decision-making; sedation and analgesic medications; and educational preparation related to sedation. Response rate was 42% (n = 291) from 22 countries where 53% (n = 148) used sedation protocols. Nordic nurses reported greater use of sedation (91% versus 67%, p Nordic nurses. Decision-making on sedation was more inter-professionally collaborative in Nordic ICUs (83% versus 61%, p Nordic nurses reported greater consistency in maintaining circadian rhythm (66% versus 49%, p Nordic context might be more germane to the goal of lighter sedation and better pain management. Our study raises awareness of current sedation practice, paving the way towards optimized ICU sedation management. © 2013 The Authors. Nursing in Critical Care © 2013 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  9. Aspects of nuclear waste management after a 4-year Nordic programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moberg, L.

    1990-01-01

    Six areas of concern in nuclear waste management have been dealt with in a four-year Nordic research programme. They include work in two international projects, Hydrocoin dealing with modelling of groundwater flow in crystalline rock, and Biomovs, concerned with biosphere models. Geologic questions of importance to the prediction of future behaviour are examined. Waste quantities from the decommissioning of nuclear power stations are estimated, and total amounts of waste to be transported in the Nordic countries are evaluated. Waste amounts from a hypothetical reactor accident are also calculated. (author)

  10. Market power in the Nordic electricity wholesale market: A survey of the empirical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridolfsson, Sven-Olof; Tangeras, Thomas P.

    2009-01-01

    We review the recent empirical research assessing market power on the Nordic wholesale market for electricity, Nord Pool. The studies find no evidence of systematic exploitation of system level market power on Nord Pool. Local market power arising from transmission constraints seems to be more problematic in some price areas across the Nordic countries. Market power can manifest itself in a number of ways that have so far escaped empirical scrutiny. We discuss investment incentives, vertical integration and buyer power, as well as withholding of base-load (nuclear) capacity.

  11. Radiological and environmental consequences. Final report of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research project BOK-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palsson, S.E.

    2002-11-01

    Final report of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research project BOK-2, Radiological and Environmental Consequences. The project was carried out 1998-2001 with participants from all the Nordic countries. Representatives from the Baltic States were also invited to some of the meetings and seminars. The project consisted of work on terrestrial and marine radioecology and had a broad scope in order to enable participation of research groups with various fields of interest. This report focuses on the project itself and gives a general summary of the studies undertaken. A separate technical report summarises the work done by each research group and gives references to papers published in scientific journals. The topics in BOK-2 included improving assessment of old and recent fallout, use of radionuclides as tracers in Nordic marine areas, improving assessment of internal doses and use of mass spectrometry in radioecology. (au)

  12. Turning Weaknesses into Strengths: Nordic Tourism, Potentials for Growth and Major Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhet Genc

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Nordic region is a geographical area which is characterized by a combination of nature, culture, history and technology and regarded as a common entity in political, economical and historical sense. Although rich in its resources, Nordic tourism has not actualized its potential in full. The present paper aims to identify weaknesses of the region, to outline a new set of directions for improving Nordic tourism and to delineate major challenges. Its geographical and natural beauties, cultural characteristics, technological advancement and policy development are identified as assets for tourism advancement in the region. Winter tourism, adventure tourism, nature-based tourism and cultural tourism are demonstrated as potential routes of growth. Marketing strategies and changing trends are discussed as major challenges, with suggestions for implementation.

  13. Thyroid status and urinary iodine levels in women of endemic goiter area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, S.; Shabbir, I.; Hussain, R.; Islam, M.U.; Aasim, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To determine the thyroid function tests and urinary iodine levels in women belonging to goiter endemic area. Study type and settings: Descriptive study conducted in women of goiter endemic area in Saggian Lahore. Subjects and Methods: Saggian Lahore is a goiter endemic area. A total of 293 women between the ages of 18-45 years residing in the area were clinically screened for goiter. Of them 73 women having goiter were recruited for the study. Information regarding demographic profile clinical presentation and physical examination of the goiter was recorded on a questionnaire. The goiter size was graded according to WHO, UNICEF and the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorder. About 5ml of blood sample was drawn from each women and run for thyroid function tests i.e. T3 T4 and TSH using Elisa kits (Human scientific Co. Germany). Urinary iodine was checked by chemical method. Results: Mean age of 73 women was 28.5 years. Marital status showed that 48(65.7%) were married and 25(34.3%) were unmarried. Visible diffuse goiter was seen in 56(77%) cases. Pressure symptoms as cough and shortness of breath was seen in 30(41%) and 31(42.5%) women respectively. Among the 73 women 24.6% (18 cases) took treatment for goiter. Adverse pregnancy outcome secondary to goiter was seen in 58% (28 cases) out of 48 married women. Thyroid function tests result showed that 72% (53 cases) were euthyroid, 18% (13 cases) were hypothyroid, and 10% (7 cases) were hyperthyroid. Urinary iodine levels showed that 99% women were iodine deficient. Conclusions: Thyroid functions do not indicate iodine deficiency in all cases of goiter, therefore, Urinary iodine levels need be estimated while investigating goiter cases. Policy message: Iodine deficiency should be diagnosed and treated on priority basis. (author)

  14. Effect of variable consumption habits in the Nordic populations on ECOSYS model predictions of ingestion dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Sven P.; Andersson, Kasper G.; Hansen, Hanne S.; Thoerring, Haavard; Joensen, Hans P.; Isaksson, Mats; Kostiainen, Eila; Suolanen, Vesa; Sigurgeirsson, Magnus A.; Palsson, Sigurour E.

    2008-01-01

    the northernmost areas used for grain crops, the crops are entirely spring grain crops, whereas in Denmark and Germany, winter crops are dominant. This gives large deviations in growth periods and development stages of the crops, particularly in the spring. This implies that first year doses from the same contaminant plume can be very different in different Nordic countries. Thus we conclude that the food habits of the population in the Nordic countries affected the calculated ingestion dose significantly. Also it is important to ascertain the use of state-of-the-art data for the more generic model parameters and to test the effect of other parameters to improve the decision support system used in the Nordic countries. (author)

  15. Effects of school meals with weekly fish servings on vitamin D status in Danish children: secondary outcomes from the OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke A.; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    Children's vitamin D intake and status can be optimised to meet recommendations. We investigated if nutritionally balanced school meals with weekly fish servings affected serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and markers related to bone in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. We conducted an explorat...

  16. A comparative study on Nutritional status of Preschool children in Kekirawa Divisional Secretariat area and Gampaha Divisional Secretariat area in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, Kanattage Piumi Dananga Chamari; Weerasooriya, W.M.B.; Liyanage, Janitha A.

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Nutritional status is one of the most important indicators of the overall well being of population. According to Ayurveda Wellbeing of Physical, Mental & Spiritual status is known as health. This refers the definition of health defined by World Health Organization (WHO). Underweight, Stunting, Wasting and Overweight are important status of nutrition declared by the WHO. Height for age ≤ -2SD from the mean, Weight for height ≤ -2SD from the mean and Weight for age ≤ -2SD were defined as Stunting, Wasting and Underweight respectively. Results of a Survey carried out in 2007 in Sri Lanka were highlighted that, 21.1% are underweight, 14.7% were wasting and 17.3% were stunting among the under five year children. Under nutrition has been identified as a major problem among the preschool children in Sri Lanka. With this background, a preliminary survey was designed to identify the nutritional status of selected areas. Collecting Anthropometric measurements such as height & weight and evaluating the nutritional status of Preschool children were the objectives of the study. The study was carried out in the Kekirawa divisional secretariat division of the Anuradhapura district and Gampaha divisional secretariat division of the Gampaha district. Five preschools in Kekirawa division and two preschools in Gampaha division were randomly selected and 100 preschool children from each division were subjected to the survey. Under the permission of Preschool teachers, mothers of the Preschool children’s were instructed to meet Ayurveda Medical Officer in scheduled date with their children to take anthropometric measurements. Then heights and weight of children were measured using Stadiometer and scale with digital display. Recorded data were processed using WHO Anthro software - 2011. Age distribution of the sample was identified as 36-47 months and 48-60 months. Results of Prevalence of nutritional status revealed that 32.4% wasting, 24.5% stunting and 42

  17. Dermatological moulage collections in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, A M.; Sinisalo, H.; Eilertsen, G.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The art of producing and acquiring dermatological wax models, moulages, flourished all over Europe in the beginning of the twentieth century, whereas very little is known about the existence of moulage collections in the Nordic countries. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to elucidate...... the presence, the origin, the production place, the use and the condition of dermatological moulage collections in the Nordic countries. METHODS: In each Nordic country, an extensive survey was undertaken during spring 2016. Dermatological departments, museums with medical collections, persons assumed to have...... specific information about wax moulages as well as secondary sources were contacted and interviewed. RESULTS: Several hitherto undescribed collections have survived in each country, most however damaged and in disrepair. One Danish and part of a Finnish collection have been restored. Only few moulages...

  18. Control mechanisms for Nordic ship emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsen, K. [DNV, Oslo (Norway); Torvanger, A. [Cicero, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-04-15

    Shipping today operates under a complex set of international and domestic regulations. However, the environmental regulations have lagged behind those of other industries. This situation is now changing quite dramatically. The increased focus on environmental issues, combined with the growing realisation of the actual pollution burden imposed by shipping, has led to an upsurge in both international and national regulations. Some are ready and will enter into force in the near future, while others are still being developed. On behalf of the Nordic Council of Ministers DNV has carried out a study on possible control mechanisms for Nordic ship emission. The aim is to assess the baseline shipping emissions and reduction potential and the possible controlling mechanisms (both incentives and regulations) available for reducing the emissions to air from shipping within the Nordic region. (Author)

  19. Challenges for Nordic VET-systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    2015-01-01

    , this challenge is not new. It has been on the agenda since the late 1960s following the crisis for apprenticeship and the growing demand for equal access to all levels of education. What is new, however, is that the challenge has intensified and the solutions developed since the 1970s don’t appear tenable today......The systems of vocational education and training (VET) in the Nordic Countries all face a similar challenge: to offer double qualifications. The Nordic VET-systems are expected to give access not only to skilled employment, but also to higher education. As an increasing share of young people....... This situation calls for new solutions to tackle the challenge of double qualifications. The question, which I will examine in this chapter, is how the Nordic VET-systems have handled this challenge in different ways and what these systems can learn from Switzerland, which is often highlighted as a model...

  20. Conceptions of "Nordic Democracy" and European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe

    Reluctance towards European integration in the Nordic countries is doubtlessly more connected to ideas on democracy than elsewhere. This goes not only for the (empirical) practicability of democracy but also for the (normative) desirability of democracy in the EU. After the Second World War, when...... and reborn after the Second World War as genuine democracy. However, a third narrative developed in which democracy was seen as having its roots in the Nordic countries dating back to the Viking Age or earlier. In the period from the 1940s to the 1980s, a number of Nordic anthologies contained articles...... the process of contemporary European integration was approaching, and the concept of democracy at the same time was heavily contested in public debates and among academics, two conceptions of democracy were struggling: On one hand, democracy was recognized as a European value developing in the form...

  1. Challenges to nordic teacher education programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Dorf, Hans

    2010-01-01

    and subjects in the Finnish teacher education program (pedagogical studies, quality of practice teaching, research base) and its strong focus on training future teachers for the teacher profession and a professional community play an important role in respect to recruitment and low drop-out rates.......  This article resumes a comparative study on the Nordic teacher education programs in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden (Nordisk Ministerråd/Nordic Council of Ministers, 2008). By focusing on the part of the study which is occupied with the structure and organisation of the Nordic...... teacher education programs it tries to find explanations for the fact that only the Finnish teacher education does not suffer from a decreasing number of applicants, from high drop-out rates, and from low retention rates. It is claimed that the strong emphasis on specific professional elements...

  2. Performance management in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mads Bøge

    -specific perspective, I analyze variations and similarities among countries and agencies in their development of a performance measurement system and the incorporation and use of performance information. Empirically the study shows that some patterns can be discerned but they also seem to be rather complex. Starting......This paper reports a study of performance management in practice in three tasks (Food safety, Meteorology and Prisons) across the three Scandinavian countries Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The paper examines how the system of performance management in Denmark, Norway and Sweden (Management...... from this analysis I discuss, whether it is possible to identify a Nordic model of performance management? Whether we should distinguish between an East Nordic and a West Nordic model? Should we rather talk about a Danish model, a Swedish model and a Norwegian model, or are the differences within...

  3. Living with the New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micheelsen, Arun; Holm, Lotte; Jensen, Katherine O'Doherty

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Based on New Nordic Cuisine and Nordic dietary recommendations, the research centre OPUS has developed a healthy, sustainable and tasty New Nordic Diet (NND) with the goal of improving public health in Denmark. In order to determine the health potential of the NND, a six-month, controlled...... dietary intervention trial was conducted, in which participants procured NND foods at a specially designed intervention supermarket and prepared and consumed NND meals in their homes. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative sociological study was conducted among...... indicate that while the taste of the NND is likely to appeal to wider groups of consumers, the tasks of food procurement and preparation are likely to constitute barriers to its adoption. The strictly controlled intervention setting enabled participants to learn how to comply with dietary composition...

  4. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, J F; Ulbak, Kaare; Dreyer, L

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our...... malignant melanomas arising in the Nordic populations around the year 2000 will be due to exposure to natural ultraviolet radiation, equivalent to an annual number of about 4700 cases, with 2100 in men and 2600 in women, or some 4% of all cancers notified. Exposure to ionizing radiation in the Nordic...... and building materials, the man-made sources are dominated by the diagnostic and therapeutic use of ionizing radiation. On the basis of measured levels of radon in Nordic dwellings and associated risk estimates for lung cancer derived from well-conducted epidemiological studies, we estimated that about 180...

  5. Nordic Model of Subregional Co-Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzela Joanna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nordic co-operation is renowned throughout the world and perceived as the collaboration of a group of countries which are similar in their views and activities. The main pillars of the Nordic model of co-operation are the tradition of constitutional principles, activity of public movements and organisations, freedom of speech, equality, solidarity, and respect for the natural environment. In connection with labour and entrepreneurship, these elements are the features of a society which favours efficiency, a sense of security and balance between an individual and a group. Currently, the collaboration is a complex process, including many national, governmental and institutional connections which form the “Nordic family”.

  6. Effects of a healthy Nordic diet on plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in subjects with metabolic syndrome: a randomized, [corrected] controlled trial (SYSDIET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brader, Lea; Rejnmark, Lars; Carlberg, Carsten; Schwab, Ursula; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Rosqvist, Fredrik; Cloetens, Lieselotte; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Poutanen, Kaisa S; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Risérus, Ulf; Savolainen, Markku J; Thorsdottir, Inga; Uusitupa, Matti; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2014-06-01

    At northern latitudes, vitamin D is not synthesized endogenously during winter, causing low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of a healthy Nordic diet based on Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR) on plasma 25(OH)D and explored its dietary predictors. In a Nordic multi-centre trial, subjects (n = 213) with metabolic syndrome were randomized to a control or a healthy Nordic diet favouring fish (≥300 g/week, including ≥200 g/week fatty fish), whole-grain products, berries, fruits, vegetables, rapeseed oil and low-fat dairy products. Plasma 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone were analysed before and after 18- to 24-week intervention. At baseline, 45 % had vitamin D inadequacy (healthy Nordic diet (P healthy Nordic and the control diet reduced the prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy by 42 % (P healthy Nordic diet. Predictors for 25(OH)D were intake of vitamin D, eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA), docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), vitamin D supplement, plasma EPA and plasma DHA. Nevertheless, only vitamin D intake and season predicted the 25(OH)D changes. Consuming a healthy Nordic diet based on NNR increased vitamin D intake but not plasma 25(OH)D concentration. The reason why fish consumption did not improve vitamin D status might be that many fish are farmed and might contain little vitamin D or that frying fish may result in vitamin D extraction. Additional ways to improve vitamin D status in Nordic countries may be needed.

  7. Drinking and drinking patterns and health status in the general population of five areas of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wei; Su, Zhonghua; Liu, Binglun; Zhang, Kui; Yang, Hanqing; Chen, Shaozhong; Biao, Meizi; Cui, Chun

    2004-01-01

    To understand drinking patterns, health status related to drinking and the level of unrecorded alcoholic beverage consumption for the general population living in five areas of China in 2001. By cluster sampling, 24992 community residents aged 15 years or older were interviewed by trained psychiatrists using structured questionnaires provided by WHO. The 1-year drinking rate was 59.0%, and the point prevalence rate of dependence was 3.8%. The average annual consumption of pure alcohol was 4.47 l. The 1-year morbidity from gastritis/ulcer in the whole sample was 7.9%, which associated nonlinearly to alcohol intake, and heart disease and cerebral infarction/cerebral haemorrhage showed V-shaped curve relationships. The rate of alcohol use was higher in men than in women, and the annual alcohol consumption per capita was higher than that in the 1990s in the selected areas. Alcohol consumption plays a role in the development of alcohol-related physical diseases.

  8. Safety research in the field of energy production. Plan for continued Nordic projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstroem, P E [Statens Vattenfallsverk, Stockholm (Sweden); Berg, J [Institutt for Atomenergi, Kjeller (Norway); Eckered, T [Statens Kaernkraftinspektion, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1980-01-01

    NGS, an ad hoc group of the Nordic Co-ordination Committee for Atomic Energy, has prepared this survey of proposed cooperative projects as a continuation of previous projects. New areas to be given priority are:- reactor safety, environmental effects in energy production and human reliability. Continued projects are:- quality assurance, radioactive waste and radioecology. (JIW)

  9. Vocational education in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    a common heritage in education policy. This volume will help strengthen the knowledge base required for transnational policy learning, and for developing vocational education internationally for the future. As a result, the book will be of interest to researchers, academics and postgraduate students......Vocational Education in the Nordic Countries: Learning from Diversity is the second of two books that disseminates new and systematic knowledge on the strengths and weaknesses of the different models of vocational education and training (VET) in four Nordic countries. Vocational education in Europe...... involved in the study of vocational education, educational studies and educational policy, as well as policy makers....

  10. The Thrill of the Nordic Kill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    prey. The manhunt movie is a subgenre of the Hollywood thriller which joins two elements: big-game sport hunting and hunting humans. Sport hunting stirs up themes of nature and culture, morals and ethics, masculinity, and, finally, civilization. Here, we will ask what happens when the subgenre is used...... in the Nordic thriller. The chapter has three aims: First, it establishes the central generic traits of the manhunt movie. Second, it sets up a theoretical framework of sociobiological and ecological theories with hunting as a reference point. And, third, it examines the Nordic version of the manhunt movie...

  11. CISG Nordic: www.cisgnordic.net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    CISG Nordic er en forskningsdatabase hvor den seneste information om den internationale købelovs anvendelse i de Nordiske lande offentliggøres. På hjemmesiden indgår retsafgørelser, bibliografiske noter, FN dokumenter m.m.......CISG Nordic er en forskningsdatabase hvor den seneste information om den internationale købelovs anvendelse i de Nordiske lande offentliggøres. På hjemmesiden indgår retsafgørelser, bibliografiske noter, FN dokumenter m.m....

  12. CISG Nordic: www.cisgnordic.net

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    CISG Nordic er en forskningsdatabase hvor den seneste information om den internationale købelovs anvendelse i de Nordiske lande offentliggøres. På hjemmesiden indgår retsafgørelser, bibliografiske noter, FN dokumenter m.m.......CISG Nordic er en forskningsdatabase hvor den seneste information om den internationale købelovs anvendelse i de Nordiske lande offentliggøres. På hjemmesiden indgår retsafgørelser, bibliografiske noter, FN dokumenter m.m....

  13. Reinterpreting the Historicity of the Nordic Model

    OpenAIRE

    Pauli Kettunen

    2012-01-01

    In conventional images of the so-called Nordic model, the strong state is opposed to markets or civil society and co-operation is opposed to conflict. These opposites appear problematic if one takes seriously the Nordic market- and interest-centered language used for the practices of social regulation, including the stubborn use of “labor market parties” instead of the EU concept “social partners”. Applying an approach sensitive to the historical and political aspects of language and concepts...

  14. Nuclear threats in the vicinity of the Nordic countries. Final report of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research project SBA-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikelmann, I.M.H.

    2002-11-01

    The acute phase of a nuclear accident and the possibility of high exposure of the populations are always the most important threats in the emergency preparedness work. Radioactive contamination from an accident can however also cause long term effects for land use and enhanced doses to special population groups and economic problems for agriculture, reindeer industry, hunting, tourism and recreation. For planning purposes it is always valuable to be aware of surrounding radiation hazards and other potential threats. Thus, mapping such threats in a Nordic context is an important factor in emergency preparedness in the area. This report presents a cross-disciplinary study from the NKS research program 1998-2001.The scope of the project was to prepare a 'base of knowledge' regarding possible nuclear threats in the vicinity of the Nordic countries. This base of knowledge will, by modere information technology as different websites, be made available to authorities, media and the population. The users of the websites can easily get information on different types of nuclear installations and threats. The users can get an overview of the situation and, if they so wish, make their own judgements. The project dealt with a geographical area including North-west Russia and the Baltic states. The results from the different activities in the project were generated in a web based database called the 'the base of knowledge'. Key words Nuclear threats, Nordic countries, nuclear power plants, nuclear ship, nuclear waste, literature database, base of knowledge, webaccessed information, atmospheric transport, decommissioning of submarines, nuclear installations, waste management, radioactive contamination in marine environment, radioactive sources, criticality analysis. (au)

  15. Nuclear threats in the vicinity of the Nordic countries. Final report of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research project SBA-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eikelmann, I.M.H. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)

    2002-11-01

    The acute phase of a nuclear accident and the possibility of high exposure of the populations are always the most important threats in the emergency preparedness work. Radioactive contamination from an accident can however also cause long term effects for land use and enhanced doses to special population groups and economic problems for agriculture, reindeer industry, hunting, tourism and recreation. For planning purposes it is always valuable to be aware of surrounding radiation hazards and other potential threats. Thus, mapping such threats in a Nordic context is an important factor in emergency preparedness in the area. This report presents a cross-disciplinary study from the NKS research program 1998-2001.The scope of the project was to prepare a 'base of knowledge' regarding possible nuclear threats in the vicinity of the Nordic countries. This base of knowledge will, by modere information technology as different websites, be made available to authorities, media and the population. The users of the websites can easily get information on different types of nuclear installations and threats. The users can get an overview of the situation and, if they so wish, make their own judgements. The project dealt with a geographical area including North-west Russia and the Baltic states. The results from the different activities in the project were generated in a web based database called the 'the base of knowledge'. Key words Nuclear threats, Nordic countries, nuclear power plants, nuclear ship, nuclear waste, literature database, base of knowledge, webaccessed information, atmospheric transport, decommissioning of submarines, nuclear installations, waste management, radioactive contamination in marine environment, radioactive sources, criticality analysis. (au)

  16. Intersection of neighborhood dynamics and socioeconomic status in small-area walkability: the Heart Healthy Hoods project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullón, Pedro; Bilal, Usama; Cebrecos, Alba; Badland, Hannah M; Galán, Iñaki; Franco, Manuel

    2017-06-06

    Previous studies found a complex relationship between area-level socioeconomic status (SES) and walkability. These studies did not include neighborhood dynamics. Our aim was to study the association between area-level SES and walkability in the city of Madrid (Spain) evaluating the potential effect modification of neighborhood dynamics. All census sections of the city of Madrid (n = 2415) were included. Area-level SES was measured using a composite index of 7 indicators in 4 domains (education, wealth, occupation and living conditions). Two neighborhood dynamics factors were computed: gentrification, proxied by change in education levels in the previous 10 years, and neighborhood age, proxied by median year of construction of housing units in the area. Walkability was measured using a composite index of 4 indicators (Residential Density, Population Density, Retail Destinations and Street Connectivity). We modeled the association using linear mixed models with random intercepts. Area-level SES and walkability were inversely and significantly associated. Areas with lower SES showed the highest walkability. This pattern did not hold for areas with an increase in education level, where the association was flat (no decrease in walkability with higher SES). Moreover, the association was attenuated in newly built areas: the association was stronger in areas built before 1975, weaker in areas built between 1975 and 1990 and flat in areas built from 1990 on. Areas with higher neighborhood socioeconomic status had lower walkability in Madrid. This disadvantage in walkability was not present in recently built or gentrified areas.

  17. Assessment of Carbon Status in Marine Protected Area of Payung Island Waters, South Sumatera Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ida Sunaryo Purwiyanto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available CO2 is a greenhouse gas that receive more attention than the other gases because the properties of carbon easily deformed and diffuseed. Changes in the concentration of CO2 in the water will impact on changes in the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere that affect sea surface temperatures. It continuously will result in a change of marine capture fisheries. Payung Island is one of the important areas in South Sumatra that acts as the provider of the fishery. This because Payung Island is located in the mouth of Musi and Telang River covered by mangrove, has a very important ecological function. However, the condition of the carbon in the waters of the Payung Island has not explored further. This elementary study is to determine status on Payung Island waters as a sink or source of CO2. The study was conducted in June until August 2015. The research stages include surface water sampling, measurement of the CO2 in the atmosphere, the analysis of the concentration of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC and Total Alkalinity (TA, and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 calculation.  Atmospheric CO2 were measured insitu, while the DIC and TA were analyzed using titration methods. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 obtained from the calculation using the software CO2Calc using data of  DIC, TA, nutrients and atmospheric CO2. The results showed that the content of DIC and TA on the Payung Island waters has similar distribution pattern  i.e. high in areas close to the river, and getting lower in the area which were closer to the sea. The comparisons between pCO2 atmosphere and pCO2 waters showed that Payung Island waters generally act as a carbon sink in area towards the sea but however, in the territorial waters adjacent to the river as a source of carbon.   Keywords: carbon, marine protected area, Payung Island waters

  18. Vocational education and training in the Nordic countries:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    2018-01-01

    countries and the historical development of each of the four VET systems. This is followed by an examination of the role of VET in relation to the Nordic model of education and the Nordic labour market model. Finally, the position of VET in the Nordic transition systems is considered.......The chapter examines the systems of vocational education and training (VET) in four Nordic countries, Sweden, Finland, Norway and Denmark. First, it identifies the common political challenges for VET, which the following chapters of the book examine. Next, it outlines shared qualities of the Nordic...

  19. Demand response in liberalized electricity markets - the Nordic case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerndal, Mette; Lund, Arne-Christian; Rud, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The liberalization of the Nordic electricity markets started with the deregulation of the Norwegian market, and the later inclusion of Sweden, Denmark and Finland in The Nord Pool area has provided a truly international marketplace, where prices are quoted for all the Nordic countries except Iceland. The structure of the Norwegian supply side was a favorable starting point for the liberalization process with many independent (hydropower) producers and, following the Energy Act of 1991, the vertical separation of competitive production on the one hand and regulated transmission / distribution one the other hand (implemented as a requirement of separation of financial accounts). Moreover, since the mid 1990s (unregulated) retail competition has provided market based price-signals to customers, even to individual households. In this paper we will focus on the potential benefits of demand flexibility in order to enhance the performance of the electricity market in attaining optimal operation and development of the electricity system. These benefits will depend on the price elasticity of the demand. However, whether it is possible to act on price changes also depends on the information provided to and from the customers. Especially for short run flexibility, this may require two way communication devises for larger customer groups, which raises questions like who is to pay for the investments needed, and who will benefit from them. Demand response also depends on the marginal signals resulting from the different contracts offered to the customers. Today this includes ''variable'' price, spot price (based on Nord Pool Elspot) and fixed price contracts. Customer flexibility depends on the possibility of substitution for instance to other fuels / alternative energy provisions. Finally, flexibility will differ between customer classes, for instance households, industry, power intensive industry etc. In this paper we investigate demand response and customer flexibility in

  20. The Nordic electricity market and how it can be improved

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togeby, M.

    2012-05-15

    The Nordic electricity market is acknowledged worldwide as being successful. However, the market is not perfect. In this report we emphasise the consumer perspective of the electricity market - it seems clear that further development is required here. Challenges to the Nordic electricity market include: 1) Efficient involvement of the consumer in the market and consumer trust in the market. 2) Efficient integration of large scale renewable energy - e.g. 15,000 MW wind power in 2020. 3) Limited competition in peak load situations, in situations with little hydro availability and in situations with congestions in the transmission system. This analysis recommends three areas as focus points for future market development: 4) Ways to radically increase the volume of demand response. 5) Ways to improve the system of default suppliers. 6) Ways to improve the regulation of distribution companies. The issues related to these three focus points differ from country to country, but the overarching issues are relevant in all market areas. (Author)

  1. A System of Oceanic Reanalysis (SOR) fot the Nordic Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pnyushkov, A.

    2009-04-01

    A system of oceanic reanalysis of the Nordic seas (Norwegian, Greenland and Barents seas) directed to the investigations of long period changes in the oceanic climate of the Arctic sub-polar seas was developed. The system of oceanic reanalysys (SOR) includes hybrid coordinate 22-th level ocean model HYCOM [Bleck,2002] and modern oceanographic data assimilation technique based on spectral nudging method. A series of test experiments was carried out and optimal parameters for assimilation routine were choused. These parameters take into account the accuracy of spatial restoring by means objective analysis procedure and phase distortion in modeling fields during monotonous assimilation of monthly distributions. On the basis of modeling results a set of monthly mean hydrological distributions of thermohaline parameters was created for the Nordic seas that was used for climatic field compilations on the standard levels for period 1957-1990. The data of reanalysis system projections allow us to restore the information about structure and dynamic of oceanographic fields for the periods and areas with a small number of direct measurements, for example East-Greenland currents area, north and north-east parts of the Barents sea. A series of additional experiments with SOR were performed directed to the simple assimilation of sea ice concentration data. A significant improvement of the system of objectively analyzed field preparation was done during 2008 including additional validation procedure of gridded arrays with using the direct data of oceanographic stations. This work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant 07-05-00393).

  2. Status of compost usage and its performance on vegetable production in Monga areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.K.M.M. Rahman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to assess the existing status of compost usage on vegetable production and determine the overall effect of household waste compost (HWC on growth and yield of vegetables and enhancement of soil fertility in the monga areas of Bangladesh. A field survey was conducted on 152 sampled farmers during 2010 to 2011. Questionnaire containing both closed and open-ended questions were used to assess existing production practices of vegetables using compost in both homestead and field conditions. Three field trials at Badargonj and Kawnia upazilas of Rangpur district were conducted taking four treatments i.e. control, recommended doses (RD of fertilizers, HWC at the rate of 10 tha-1, and HWC 10 t ha-1 plus RD as IPNS based with Lal shak, Palong shak, Pui shak and Tomato. Base line survey results indicated inadequate knowledge of the farmers on use and preparation of the household waste compost. Yield data of all vegetables i.e. Tomato, Lal shak, Palong shak and Pui shak indicated that the combined application of nutrients using organic and inorganic sources were significantly better than that of solitary application of inorganic fertilizers. The potential of household waste compost applied @ 10 t ha-1 along with inorganic fertilizers applied was found highly satisfactory in producing Tomato, where yield was recorded 75 t ha-1 in the study area. The fresh yield of Palong shak was found 16 t ha-1 when recommended doses of inorganic fertilizers were applied, but it was about 19 t ha-1 under combined application of HWC @ 10 t ha-1 and inorganic fertilizers following IPNS concept. The fresh yield of Pui shak was found about 49 t ha-1 under combined application of organic and inorganic nutrients. Considering the availability and costs of different composts, it is evinced that HWC contained good amount of NPK which indicates its potentiality to be used as a soil amendment, improving soil fertility and crop productivity. It can be

  3. The impact of Nordic adult education ideas on the development of a democratic society in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresevičienė, Margarita; Trepulė, Elena; Trečiokienė, Edita

    2017-02-01

    This article analyses the role of the cooperation with and the influence of the Nordic countries on the development of a democratic society in Lithuania through adult education since the reinstatement of its independence from Soviet regime in March 1990 to the present. The authors focus on three main areas: (1) the training of Lithuanian adult educators; (2) the establishment and development of NGOs; and (3) the implications for a Lithuanian policy of adult education. Within the framework of Nordic-Baltic cooperation established among five Nordic and three Baltic countries (NB8) in 1992, Lithuanian adult educators seized the opportunity to visit Scandinavian institutions and projects. Experiencing Nordic adult education ideas has resulted in a marked shift in Lithuanian adult educators' values, methodology and careers; and in the establishment of a series of very influential umbrella associations as well as hundreds of NGOs in Lithuania which work with adults and support functioning democratic values in society. This shift is related to the civic responsibility and active participation growing out of the bottom-up approaches of group work, cooperation, discussions and learning circles which are so inherent in the Nordic tradition of adult education. The internalisation of new democratic values was more complicated than expected for many Lithuanian politicians, adult educators and NGO leaders in terms of how political decisions were perceived and implemented. Furthermore, the influence of the Nordic-Baltic cooperation in adult education may also be traced in adult education policy implications in Lithuania. Some changes in the policies of contemporary Lithuania have not been successful and even failed to promote a democratic society.

  4. Indicators of deprivation, voting patterns, and health status at area level in the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, C; Timoney, A; Friel, S; McKeown, D

    2002-01-01

    To determine what relation, if any, exists between mortality patterns, indicators of deprivation, general lifestyle and social attitudes, as exemplified by general election voting pattern, in the Republic of Ireland. A relation has been demonstrated previously between voting and mortality patterns in the United Kingdom. Cross sectional ecological study using three data sources. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were based on mortality rates at county level and 1996 census data from the Central Statistics Office, 1997 general election first preference voting data in all 41 constituencies were aggregated to county level. Selected reported measures of health status, lifestyle and social circumstances are from the first ever National survey on lifestyles, attitudes and nutrition (SLAN). This study comprised adults over 18 years sampled by post using the electoral register from 273 representative district electoral divisions. Univariate inter-relations were examined at individual level for the dataset as a whole, adjusting for age and at aggregated level for 26 county borough areas, which included the two largest cities and for 22 county areas, which afforded correlation with voting pattern, using the method of Pearson's correlation coefficient. 1,806,932 votes were cast nationally at the 1997 general election, representing a voter turnout of 65.92 %. There was an overall response rate of 62% to SLAN comprising 6539 adults (47% male). The demographic pattern of survey respondents was consistent with that of the general population over 18 years. At individual level there was a large number of highly significant inter-relations between indicators of deprivation, various measures of self rated health status and lifestyle factors. Aggregated at 26 county level percentage unemployed (r=0.408, p=0.038), and level of education (r=0.475, p=0.014) related significantly to SMR and inversely to both fruit and vegetable consumption (r= -0.672, p=0.001) and excess alcohol

  5. A comparative study of gender pay gaps in nordic countries and eastern european countries

    OpenAIRE

    Weng, Linling

    2007-01-01

    Under the compressed wage structure and generous family policies, Nordic countries have been regarded as leaders of gender equality in terms of low gender pay gaps and high rates of female labor force participation; after the fundamental restructuring of the economic system in Eastern European countries, women have experienced a remarkable change with respect to the labor market positions and economic status facing the increased wage inequality and significant declines in labor force particip...

  6. Geriatric work-up in the Nordic countries. The Nordic approach to comprehensive geriatric assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sletvold, O; Tilvis, R; Jonsson, A

    1996-01-01

    A group established by the Nordic professors of geriatrics has developed a position document presenting a shared and updated review of geriatric work-up as a way of comprehensive geriatric assessment in the Nordic countries. The main intention is that the document will serve as support and help f...... languages, and the translated versions should ideally have been subjected to validity and reliability testing. However, so far no scale meets these demands regarding all the five Nordic languages.......A group established by the Nordic professors of geriatrics has developed a position document presenting a shared and updated review of geriatric work-up as a way of comprehensive geriatric assessment in the Nordic countries. The main intention is that the document will serve as support and help...... for the clinician concerned with hospital based geriatric medicine. It may also be useful for quality control and teaching. Not least, it may be useful for health professionals other than geriatricians. To some extent, the position of geriatric medicine in the Nordic countries varies between the countries. However...

  7. Health status of school children in rural area of coastal Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muralidhar M Kulkarni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children are the foundation of a strong and healthy nation. Morbidity among school-going children adversely affects their normal growth and development and hence is a major public health concern. School health program was started as an important component of total health care delivery system in the country with a purpose of addressing the health needs of children. Aim: To assess the morbidity pattern and nutritional status among school children. Materials and Methods: Study design: A cross-sectional study. Study period: 1-year from 1 st July 2012 to 30 th June 2013. Study setting: 14 schools with a total strength of 909 children in a rural area of coastal Karnataka. Data collection: Health examination of the school children was carried out by a trained team. Data regarding anthropometric measurements, refractory error, medical problems and minor ailments were collected using a predesigned proforma. Results: A total of 797 children were examined. Dental caries was the most common ailment observed in 31.86% of children 43.32% of the children were underweight, 53.03% were normal, and 3.65% were overweight for age. Conclusion: The school health program provides a good opportunity to screen, identify and impart education regarding health related issues. The common morbidities found were dental caries, pallor, upper respiratory tract infection and refractory error. Overweight was also observed in the school children and needs to be addressed. There is a scope of providing comprehensive school health services by incorporating dental care.

  8. DIFFICULTIES IN INTERNATIONAL TRAVELLING FOR RESIDENTS OF AREAS WITH UNDEFINED POLITICAL STATUS. CASE STUDY: CRIMEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ștefan Constantin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In March 2014 a change took place on Europe's political map. The Crimean Peninsula became part of Russia, switching sovereignty after more than 20 years during which it was part of Ukraine. This took place following a Russian military intervention and a referendum. A majority of the world's countries however, do not recognize the Russian control of Crimea and still consider it a part of Ukraine, rendering the territory an area with undefined political status. Shortly after the sovereignty change, the region and its population started experiencing all kinds of hardships. An often neglected type of hardship Crimeans are experiencing is the difficulty of obtaining visas. Following the referendum, many diplomatic missions in Russia have instituted a policy of not issuing visas to residents of Crimea who apply with Russian-issued documents. This article shall make a summary of EU and Schengen countries' positions regarding this issue, as these are the biggest groups of countries that requires both Russians and Ukrainians to obtain visas before travelling there. This research was made mostly directly, by requesting each country's diplomatic mission in Moscow to give an official position. The research had the purpose of verifying the information that certain countries do issue visas to Crimeans with Russian documents and also to give a more general and complex picture on the matter of visas for residents of Crimea. This theme is important as a policy of not issuing visas has significant repercussions on the region's economy and on the freedom of movement of its citizens.

  9. IRON STATUS OF WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE LIVING IN PEARL MILLET CONSUMING AREAS OF BANASKANTHA, GUJARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanisha S Nambiar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is a major health problem in India, especially among women and children (NFHS III, 2006.  The Indian Council of medical Research study reported the prevalence of anemia among pregnant women was 84.9% and in adolescent girls was 90.1% based on their study from 16 districts of India (Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 2006.   Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (Bajra, grown extensively in the arid and semi-arid tropical regions of the world, is one of the most important cereals for food security and consumed as a staple food for rural and tribal population dwelling in this area. Pearl millet has high amounts of iron (8mg/100g, NIN 2010 along with several other factors such as phytates, oxalates and polyphones, which may decrease the bio available iron. IFPRI (Pray and Nagarjan, 2009 has identified Banaskantha, district in Gujarat as one of the important pearl millet producing belts of India. The present study aimed to assess the background information, morbidity profile and dietary intake focusing on the pearl millet consumption of women residing in the pearl millet producing belts of Banaskantha and to assess the status and immunity profile from a subsample of this population.

  10. REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF GIRL STUDENTS IN AN URBAN AREA OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahera Parvin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess status of reproductive health and nutrition amongst girls attending high school in an urban area of Bangladesh. Methods: This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in four selected girl’s high schools. A structured pre-tested questionnaire and a checklist were used to collect data through face-to-face interview and anthropometry. Results: A total of 360 adolescents girls were interviewed. The mean age at menarche of the respondents was found to be 12.4 years. More than half (54.2% of the respondents were malnourished (BMI < 18.5. More than four-fifths (83% were found to be suffering from reproductive health problems during or after menstruation. The most common complain (60% disclosed by the adolescent girls was dysmenorrhoea. Majority (300 of the respondents acknowledged practicing unhygienic protective measures during menstruation. Conclusion: More than half of the adolescents were malnourished, practiced unhygienic protective measures during menstruation and disclosed different types of reproductive health complaints. Findings of the study strongly recommend that adolescent girls of urban Bangladesh need proper and appropriate management of their reproductive health problems. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2008; 2(1: 9-11

  11. Undocumented immigration status and diabetes care among Mexican immigrants in two immigration "sanctuary" areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iten, A Elizabeth; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Lahiff, Maureen; Fernández, Alicia

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between immigration status and the patient experience of health care, diabetes self-management, and clinical outcomes among Mexican immigrants with diabetes receiving health care in two immigration sanctuary cities. We used data from the Immigration, Culture and Health Care study, a cross-sectional survey and medical record study of low-income patients with diabetes recruited from public hospitals and community clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area and Chicago. Undocumented Mexican, documented Mexican immigrants, and US-born Mexican-Americans' health care experiences, diabetes self-management, and clinical outcomes were compared using multivariate linear and logistic regressions. We found no significant differences in reports of physician communication, or in measures of diabetes management between undocumented and documented immigrants. All three groups had similar clinical outcomes in glycemic, systolic blood pressure, and lipid control. These results indicate that, at least in some settings, undocumented Mexican immigrants with diabetes can achieve similar clinical outcomes and report similar health care experiences as documented immigrants and US-born Mexican-Americans.

  12. IRON STATUS OF WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE LIVING IN PEARL MILLET CONSUMING AREAS OF BANASKANTHA, GUJARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanisha S Nambiar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is a major health problem in India, especially among women and children (NFHS III, 2006.  The Indian Council of medical Research study reported the prevalence of anemia among pregnant women was 84.9% and in adolescent girls was 90.1% based on their study from 16 districts of India (Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 2006. Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (Bajra, grown extensively in the arid and semi-arid tropical regions of the world, is one of the most important cereals for food security and consumed as a staple food for rural and tribal population dwelling in this area. Pearl millet has high amounts of iron (8mg/100g, NIN 2010 along with several other factors such as phytates, oxalates and polyphones, which may decrease the bio available iron. IFPRI (Pray and Nagarjan, 2009 has identified Banaskantha, district in Gujarat as one of the important pearl millet producing belts of India. The present study aimed to assess the background information, morbidity profile and dietary intake focusing on the pearl millet consumption of women residing in the pearl millet producing belts of Banaskantha and to assess the status and immunity profile from a subsample of this population.

  13. Telehealth ICT Infrastructures in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Daniel Bjerring; Hallenborg, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview and recommendations of ICT infrastructures and reference architectures for telehealth in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). This study shows that so far only Denmark has designed a complete reference architecture, and by the end...

  14. Carbon leakage from a Nordic perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naess-Schmidt, S.; Hansen, Martin Bo; Sand Kirk, J. [Copenhagen Economics, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-02-15

    Carbon pricing is generally considered a highly effective tool in reducing carbon emissions. Putting a price on carbon provides incentives for users and producers of fossil fuels to reduce consumption and develop low carbon products and processes. However, pursuing an ambitious climate policy can lead to carbon leakage, which refers to a situation where unilateral or regional climate change policy drives the relocation of industry investments and installations, and associated emissions, to third countries. This report by Copenhagen Economics has been commissioned by the Nordic Council of Ministers to give an overview of the industries at risk of carbon leakage in the Nordic countries, and estimate the expected extent of carbon leakage from unilateral climate policies in the Nordic countries. The report also assesses available policy options that may reduce the risk of carbon leakage, such as exemptions from energy tax and exemptions from quota obligations under green certificate schemes. The key drivers of carbon leakage are identified, which include energy intensity, product differentiation, transportation costs and capital intensity. The analysis suggests that industries such as paper and pulp, iron and steel, aluminium, cement, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and fertilizers are most at risk of carbon leakage in the Nordic manufacturing sector. (Author)

  15. Regulated and unregulated Nordic retail prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, Tor Arnt, E-mail: tor.a.johnsen@bi.no [Norwegian School of Management BI, NO-0442 Oslo (Norway); Olsen, Ole Jess, E-mail: ojo@ruc.dk [Department of Environmental, Social and Spatial Change (ENSPAC), Roskilde University, Building 10.1, Universitetsvej 1, DK-4000, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2011-06-15

    Nordic residential electricity consumers can now choose among a number of contracts and suppliers. A large number of households have continued to purchase electricity from the incumbent supplier at default contract terms. In this paper, we compare the situation for such passive customers. Danish default prices are regulated whereas default prices in the other countries are unregulated. Systematic price differences exist among the Nordic countries. However, as wholesale prices sometimes differ the gross margin is a more relevant indicator. Regulated gross margins are lower in Denmark than in Sweden but higher than in Norway and Finland. Because of market design Norwegian default contracts are competitive whereas Swedish contracts provide the retailer with some market power. We interpret the low Finnish margins as a result of municipal retailers continuing traditional pricing from the monopoly period. Danish margins are higher than the competitive Norwegian margins but are earned from a much lower level of consumption. The annually margins earned per consumer are very close in the two countries, which indicates that the Danish regulation is achieving its objective of approaching competitive prices. - Highlights: > Prices of active and passive Nordic residential electricity consumers are compared. > Active consumers get lower prices in Sweden but not in Norway. > Prices of passive consumers differ considerably among the four Nordic countries. > Danish regulated prices compare well with unregulated prices in the other countries. > Passive consumers in Finland have low prices compared with the other countries.

  16. Facilities Management research in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2011-01-01

    to the establishment of the Centre for Facilities Management – Realdania Research (CFM), and updated information from keynote contributions to CFM’s Nordic FM Conference on 22-23 August 2011 by Suvi Nenonen (Finland), Jan Bröchner (Sweden), Geir K Hansen (Norway) and Per Anker Jensen (Denmark)....

  17. Assessing Children in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Hjörne, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Recent tendencies within assessment in comprehensive school in Nordic countries raise the question of the role of different practices of assessments, on how assessments are being used, for which purposes and the consequences of this. Assessments can be considered to be an integrated part of forma...

  18. Regulated and unregulated Nordic retail prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsen, Tor Arnt; Olsen, Ole Jess

    2011-01-01

    Nordic residential electricity consumers can now choose among a number of contracts and suppliers. A large number of households have continued to purchase electricity from the incumbent supplier at default contract terms. In this paper, we compare the situation for such passive customers. Danish default prices are regulated whereas default prices in the other countries are unregulated. Systematic price differences exist among the Nordic countries. However, as wholesale prices sometimes differ the gross margin is a more relevant indicator. Regulated gross margins are lower in Denmark than in Sweden but higher than in Norway and Finland. Because of market design Norwegian default contracts are competitive whereas Swedish contracts provide the retailer with some market power. We interpret the low Finnish margins as a result of municipal retailers continuing traditional pricing from the monopoly period. Danish margins are higher than the competitive Norwegian margins but are earned from a much lower level of consumption. The annually margins earned per consumer are very close in the two countries, which indicates that the Danish regulation is achieving its objective of approaching competitive prices. - Highlights: → Prices of active and passive Nordic residential electricity consumers are compared. → Active consumers get lower prices in Sweden but not in Norway. → Prices of passive consumers differ considerably among the four Nordic countries. → Danish regulated prices compare well with unregulated prices in the other countries. → Passive consumers in Finland have low prices compared with the other countries.

  19. Radiation protection laws in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Lars

    1991-01-01

    Sweden has since 1988 a totally revised radiation protection law and Finland has recently enacted a new law. The legal situation of the Nordic countries in the radiation protection field is reviewed with the main emphasis on the Swedish law. (author)

  20. Nordic Energy Outlook 2012. Proceedings; Energiutblick 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    Conference arenas: Effective energy use, Energy and market, Future energy, Technology for growth, as well as Open arena. The Open arena gives other actors in the energy sector the opportunity to host their own activities as a side event to Nordic Energy Outlook.

  1. Values Education in Nordic Preschools: A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The six papers in this special issue focus on how values and values education are embedded in the everyday life at Nordic preschools. The studies in this special issue provide stimulating theoretical and methodological knowledge to inform further study of values education internationally. A key contribution of the papers is that there is…

  2. Nordita. Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report covers the period from January 1st to December 31st, 1990. The purpose of Nordita is to encourage scientific collaboration between the Nordic countries within scientific and basic nuclear physics. The scientific programme at Nordita covers astrophysics, elementary particle physics, solid state physics and nuclear physics. The scientific work is published or otherwise made public. (author)

  3. Grazing management for Nordic organic dairy farming

    OpenAIRE

    Kuusela, Eeva

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this study were to identify limiting factors and to develop adjusted grazing management for Nordic organic dairy farming conditions. The focus was to combine the aspects of plant, animal and organic production, as they are all involved in organic dairy pastures.

  4. Access to Information in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Oluf

    Access to Information in the Nordic Countries explains and compares the legal rules determining public access to documents and data in Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Norway, and Iceland. In addition, international rules emanating from the United Nations, the Council of Europe and the European Union...

  5. Designing Nordic Technology-Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerratto-Pargman, Teresa; Jarvela, Sanna M.; Milrad, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    The latest developments of information and communication technologies (ICT) and its large penetration in different sectors of our society pose new challenges and demands in the field of education. This special issue entitled "Designing Nordic technology-enhanced learning (TEL)", presents and discusses how researchers in the Nordic…

  6. Redefining External Stakeholders in Nordic Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musial, Kazimierz

    2010-01-01

    Present higher education reforms in the Nordic countries diminish the role and influence of the state on the governance of higher education institutions. While still providing a framework for the management of higher education, in general, the state supervises rather than controls higher education institutions (HEIs). The rhetoric of change…

  7. Lacplesa Alus, Gutta bought by Nordic investors

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    The danish Brewery Group ostis enamuse Läti õlletehase Lacplesa Alus aktsiatest, Lätis registreeritud Islandi kapitaliga firma Nordic Partners ostis mahlatootja Gutta. Lisa: Läti kaubamärgid, mis müüdud 2004. a.

  8. Reforms and innovations in Nordic vocational education:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    2018-01-01

    The chapter examines policy reforms and innovations in the Nordic vocational education and training systems (VET) related to two challenges. The first is to improve the links of the VET system to the labour market and to ease the students’ transition to employment. It examines three new types...

  9. Sound insulation requirements in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    All Nordic countries have sound insulation requirements for housing and sound classification schemes originating from a common INSTA‐proposal in the mid 90’s, but unfortunately being increasingly diversified since then. The present situation impedes development and create barriers for trade and e...

  10. Nordic energy technology scoreboard. Full version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiltkou, Antje; Iversen, Eric; Scortato, Lisa

    2010-07-01

    The Nordic Energy Technology Scoreboard provides a tool for understanding the state of low-carbon energy technology development in the Nordic region. It assesses the five Nordic countries of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, alongside reference countries and regions including: The United Kingdom, Germany, Spain, Portugal, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Austria, USA, Japan and the EU 27. It focuses on five low-carbon energy technologies: Wind, photovoltaic (PV) solar, bio-fuels, geothermal, and carbon capture and storage (CCS). This scoreboard was developed as a pilot project with a limited scope of technologies, countries and indicators. In addition to providing a tool for decision-makers, it aimed to act as a catalyst for the future development of scoreboards and a vehicle to promote better data collection. Low-carbon energy technologies are not easy to measure. This is due to a variety of factors that much be kept in account when developing scoreboards for this purpose. Many low-carbon technologies are still at immature stages of development. Sound comparable data requires common definitions and standards to be adopted before collection can even take place. This process often lags behind the development of low-carbon technologies, and there are therefore considerable data availability and categorisation issues. The diversity of technologies and their different stages of development hamper comparability. The IEA classifies low-carbon technologies into three categories. The most mature includes hydropower, onshore wind, biomass CHP, and geothermal energy, the second most mature includes PV solar and offshore wind power, while the least mature includes concentrating solar power, CCS and ocean energy. This is problematic as less mature technologies are underrepresented in later stages of the innovation system. Many low-carbon technologies are systemic, meaning progress in developing one technology may hinge on developments in a connected technology

  11. Milestones in Nordic Health Promotion research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Bo J A; Tillgren, Per

    2018-02-01

    Based on the storytelling tradition and analyses of conference material, this article provides an overview of the evolving Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN) and its conferences over the last 20 years. The story goes from the planning of the first conference in Bergen, Norway, back in 1996 to the eighth conference in Jyväskylä, Finland, in 2016. There have been three phases of development. During the first phase, 1996-2007, the five first conferences were initiated and implemented by departments of public health in the Nordic countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) collaborative centres of Health Promotion in Bergen University and a group at Karolinska Institute, Department of Social Medicine, creating supportive environments for health in Stockholm played key roles in initiating and supporting NHPRN. During the second phase, 2007-2014, the network was strengthened and supported by the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) in Gothenburg. The third phase started when NHV closed down in 2015 and networking activities were transferred to the European Office of WHO in Copenhagen. The Nordic Health Promotion Research Conference series has served several purposes and will continue to do so. They are important Nordic meeting places, stimulating Health Promotion research, as well as explicitly managing ongoing concerns in the international Health Promotion community. This is reflected in the shift of foci over time. The content of the conferences has been highly responsive to whatever challenges are particularly relevant at different points in time, while also contributing to developing Health Promotion as a discipline, given that every conference has built on the previous ones.

  12. Nutritional status of preschool children in semi-urban Area of Benue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess the nutritional status of preschool children under-5 years in Benue state Nigeria. in order to establish and provide baseline information on the health and nutritional status of the target group. The study was carried out using anthropometric measurements (weights and heights) which were ...

  13. Pricing of Contracts for Difference in the Nordic market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristiansen, T.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give an introduction to, and a pricing analysis of a new forward locational price differential product, Contracts for Difference (CfD), introduced the 17th of November 2000 at Nord Pool - the Nordic electricity exchange. To our knowledge there is no literature available of how the Nordic CfDs are priced. The CfD is a forward market product with reference to the difference between the future seasonal Area Price and System Price. By using available historical trading prices and spot prices for four seasonal contracts and one yearly contract, we analyze the relationships between the contract prices and the value of the underlying asset. For the first four seasonal contracts it appears that CfDs traded at Nord Pool are mostly over-priced relative to the underlying asset. Pricing theory for forward contracts explains this by the presence of a majority of risk-averse consumers who are willing to pay a risk premium for receiving the future price differential. We utilize statistical analysis with regard to the contract prices and the underlying asset, and find some interesting relationships. The analysis is preliminary due to the fact that the CfD market is relatively new. (Author)

  14. Sound classification of dwellings in the Nordic countries – Differences and similarities between the five national schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    having several similarities. In 2012, status is that number and denotations of classes for dwellings are identical in the Nordic countries, but the structures of the standards and several details are quite different. Also the issues dealt with are different. Examples of differences are sound insulation...... for classification of such buildings. This paper presents and compares the main class criteria for sound insulation of dwellings and summarizes differences and similarities in criteria and in structures of standards. Classification schemes for dwellings also exist in several other countries in Europe......In all five Nordic countries, sound classification schemes for dwellings have been published in national standards being implemented and revised gradually since the late 1990s. The national classification criteria for dwellings originate from a common Nordic INSTA-B proposal from the 1990s, thus...

  15. Young children in urban areas: links among neighborhood characteristics, weight status, outdoor play, and television watching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara

    2011-03-01

    Although research consistently demonstrates a link between residential context and physical activity for adults and adolescents, less is known about young children's physical activity. Using data from the U.S. Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=1822, 51% male), we explored whether outdoor play and television watching were associated with children's body mass indexes (BMIs) at age five using OLS regression models, controlling for a wide array of potential confounders, including maternal BMI. We also tested whether subjective and objective neighborhood measures - socioeconomic status (from U.S. Census tract data), type of dwelling, perceived collective efficacy, and interviewer-assessed physical disorder of the immediate environment outside the home - were associated with children's activities, using negative binomial regression models. Overall, 19% of the sample were overweight (between the 85th and 95th percentiles), and 16% were obese (≥ 95th percentile). Hours of outdoor play were negatively associated with BMI, and hours of television were positively associated with BMI. Moreover, a ratio of outdoor play to television time was a significant predictor of BMI. Higher maternal perceptions of neighborhood collective efficacy were associated with more hours of outdoor play, fewer hours of television viewing, and more trips to a park or playground. In addition, we found that neighborhood physical disorder was associated with both more outdoor play and more television watching. Finally, contrary to expectations, we found that children living in public housing had significantly more hours of outdoor play and watched more television, than other children. We hypothesize that poorer children may have more unstructured time, which they fill with television time but also with outdoor play time; and that children in public housing may be likely to have access to play areas on the grounds of their housing facilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  16. Young children in urban areas: Links among neighborhood characteristics, weight status, outdoor play, and television watching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Although research consistently demonstrates a link between residential context and physical activity for adults and adolescents, less is known about young children’s physical activity. Using data from the U.S. Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=1822, 51% male), we explored whether outdoor play and television watching were associated with children’s body mass indexes (BMIs) at age five using OLS regression models, controlling for a wide array of potential confounders, including maternal BMI. We also tested whether subjective and objective neighborhood measures - socioeconomic status (from U.S. Census tract data), type of dwelling, perceived collective efficacy, and interviewer-assessed physical disorder of the immediate environment outside the home -were associated with children’s activities, using negative binomial regression models. Overall, 19% of the sample were overweight (between the 85th and 95th percentiles), and 16% were obese (≥95th percentile). Hours of outdoor play were negatively associated with BMI, and hours of television were positively associated with BMI. Moreover, a ratio of outdoor play to television time was a significant predictor of BMI. Higher maternal perceptions of neighborhood collective efficacy were associated with more hours of outdoor play, fewer hours of television viewing, and more trips to a park or playground. In addition, we found that neighborhood physical disorder was associated with both more outdoor play and more television watching. Finally, contrary to expectations, we found that children living in public housing had significantly more hours of outdoor play and watched more television, than other children. We hypothesize that poorer children may have more unstructured time, which they fill with television time but also with outdoor play time; and that children in public housing may be likely to have access to play areas on the grounds of their housing facilities. PMID:21324574

  17. Hedging local volume risk using forward markets: Nordic case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Rune Ramsdal; Boomsma, Trine Krogh; Tegner, Martin

    2017-01-01

    With focus on the Nordic electricity market, this paper develops hedging strategies for an electricity distributor who manages price and volume risk from fixed price agreements on stochastic electricity load. Whereas the distributor trades in the spot market at area prices, the financial contracts......, and we suggest various strategies for hedging in the presence of local volume risk. We benchmark against a strategy that ignores correlation and hedges at expected load, as is common practice in the industry. Using data from 2013 and 2014 for two Danish bidding areas, we show that our best hedging...... strategy reduces gross loss by 5.8% and 13.6% and increases gross profit by 3.8% and 9.5%, respectively. Although this is partly due to the inclusion of correlation, we show that performance improvement is mainly driven by the choice of risk measure....

  18. Consequences of severe radioactive releases to Nordic Marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iosjpe, M. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) (Norway); Isaksson, M. [Univ. of Gothenburg (Sweden); Joensen, H.P. [Froskaparsetur Foeroya. Faroe Islands, Torshavn (Denmark); Lahtinen, J. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland); Logemann, K. [Univ. of Iceland (Iceland); Palsson, S.E. [Geislavarnir Rikisins (Iceland); Roos, P. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark); Suolanen, V. [Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)

    2013-02-15

    In the report, consequences of hypothetical severe nuclear accidents releases to Nordic marine environment are preliminary considered. The considered marine area comprises the Baltic Sea (Sweden, Denmark, Finland) and the North Atlantic (Iceland, Faroes, Norway) areas. The hypothetical severe nuclear accidents can be related to nuclear power plants, nuclear powered submarines or ice-breakers. Quite comprehensive survey on radioactive source terms of extremely severe nuclear power and submarine accidents has been done. This enables to estimate more realistically possible radioactive releases of various elements and nuclides to marine environment. One recent reference is of course the Fukushima accident and estimated releases there. The marine flows and dilution circumstances around the Nordic nuclear power plants and in the Baltic Sea area in general, has been studied. Respectively marine flows related to Iceland and Faroes coasts are considered with measured data and with preliminary 3D-model simulations. The substantial depth of sea water in the North Atlantic affect vertical concentration profiles to some extent. At Icelandic or Faroese waters, a potential submarine accident would likely occur in a well defined water mass, and radioactivity from the accident would be detected and spread with the flow regime of the water mass in the world ocean. Based on hypothetical severe accidents scenarios, preliminary consequence calculations has been done. It should be emphasised that the considered severe accident cases, considered in this study, do not directly attach any specific Nordic nuclear power plant or any specific submarine type. The considered radioactive releases will, however, provide specified references for more extensive consideration of environmental consequences of severe - or minor - radioactive releases to Nordic marine environment. As a reference, the release amounts from a 3000 MW{sub th} reactor size were used. Based on source term analyses, the

  19. Consequences of severe radioactive releases to Nordic Marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iosjpe, M.; Isaksson, M.; Joensen, H.P.; Lahtinen, J.; Logemann, K.; Palsson, S.E.; Roos, P.; Suolanen, V.

    2013-02-01

    In the report, consequences of hypothetical severe nuclear accidents releases to Nordic marine environment are preliminary considered. The considered marine area comprises the Baltic Sea (Sweden, Denmark, Finland) and the North Atlantic (Iceland, Faroes, Norway) areas. The hypothetical severe nuclear accidents can be related to nuclear power plants, nuclear powered submarines or ice-breakers. Quite comprehensive survey on radioactive source terms of extremely severe nuclear power and submarine accidents has been done. This enables to estimate more realistically possible radioactive releases of various elements and nuclides to marine environment. One recent reference is of course the Fukushima accident and estimated releases there. The marine flows and dilution circumstances around the Nordic nuclear power plants and in the Baltic Sea area in general, has been studied. Respectively marine flows related to Iceland and Faroes coasts are considered with measured data and with preliminary 3D-model simulations. The substantial depth of sea water in the North Atlantic affect vertical concentration profiles to some extent. At Icelandic or Faroese waters, a potential submarine accident would likely occur in a well defined water mass, and radioactivity from the accident would be detected and spread with the flow regime of the water mass in the world ocean. Based on hypothetical severe accidents scenarios, preliminary consequence calculations has been done. It should be emphasised that the considered severe accident cases, considered in this study, do not directly attach any specific Nordic nuclear power plant or any specific submarine type. The considered radioactive releases will, however, provide specified references for more extensive consideration of environmental consequences of severe - or minor - radioactive releases to Nordic marine environment. As a reference, the release amounts from a 3000 MW th reactor size were used. Based on source term analyses, the chosen

  20. oral hygiene status of adolescents in a local government area of oyo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Physical examination was carried out in the oral cavity of adolescents in Ibadan North LGA of. Oyo State Nigeria in ... physical and mental wellbeing, appearance and interpersonal .... More females than male had poor oral hygiene status and.

  1. Nordic registry-based cohort studies: Possibilities and pitfalls when combining Nordic registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maret-Ouda, John; Tao, Wenjing; Wahlin, Karl; Lagergren, Jesper

    2017-07-01

    All five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) have nationwide registries with similar data structure and validity, as well as personal identity numbers enabling linkage between registries. These resources provide opportunities for medical research that is based on large registry-based cohort studies with long and complete follow-up. This review describes practical aspects, opportunities and challenges encountered when setting up all-Nordic registry-based cohort studies. Relevant articles describing registries often used for medical research in the Nordic countries were retrieved. Further, our experiences of conducting this type of study, including planning, acquiring permissions, data retrieval and data cleaning and handling, and the possibilities and challenges we have encountered are described. Combining data from the Nordic countries makes it possible to create large and powerful cohorts. The main challenges include obtaining all permissions within each country, usually in the local language, and retrieving the data. These challenges emphasise the importance of having experienced collaborators within each country. Following the acquisition of data, data management requires the understanding of the differences between the variables to be used in the various countries. A concern is the long time required between initiation and completion. Nationwide Nordic registries can be combined into cohorts with high validity and statistical power, but the considerable expertise, workload and time required to complete such cohorts should not be underestimated.

  2. Security Policy at Road’s End? The Roles of Sweden and Finland in the Nordic-Baltic Defence Cooperation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnerstig Mike

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses a number of questions related to Nordic and to an extent also Nordic-Baltic defence cooperation. First of all, how far has Nordic and Nordic-Baltic defence cooperation come today? Secondly, what are the differences in the approaches of Sweden and Finland when it comes to defence cooperation, especially regarding NATO, in the Nordic-Baltic area? As a first analytical result, it is apparent that the rhetorical standing of the Nordic and Nordic-Baltic defence cooperation process is greater than its real achievements, especially in terms of defence integration. Secondly, it seems also to be clear that the defence and security policy debates of Sweden and Finland are quite different. Some problems identified in the debates within the two countries, respectively, are very similar although the suggested solutions vary very remarkably. Regarding the key issue of NATO membership, the developments of the last few years suggest that the Swedish political establishment, as well as the general public, might be closer to a substantial discussion of NATO membership than their Finnish equivalents.

  3. The Nordic nuclear safety research 1990-93. Evalution and executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, F.

    1994-11-01

    A four-year Nordic research programme in the field of nuclear safety was carried through from 1990 through 1993, performed under the auspices of the Nordic Committee for Nuclear Safety Research, NKS. The aim has been to increase knowledge required to judge the safety of nuclear installations in and around the Nordic areas, and to improve and harmonize emergency preparedness. There were 19 individual projects within the four main section of the programme: Emergency preparedness, Waste and decommissioning, Radioecology, and Reactor safety. The programme was evaluated in 1994 by five evaluators, and the main emphasis was on general questions. The evaluators recommend that project plans are revised at mid-term, for updating. During the project period, NKS should use specified criteria to judge progress and success. Time tables must be adhered to. Recommendations deal with reporting and presentation of results, project leaders must disseminate information at the professional level and organize seminars. The NKS annual reports should be conceived so that they can also be used for external information. NKS should establish a policy aimed at enhanced information on its projects. Final reports should contain conclusions and recommendations which can subsequently be followed up. Directors of the competent authorities in the Nordic countries should be requested to give their views on the recommendations, and also industry, on the usefulness of results. It is proposed that NKS consider presentation of the outcome to responsible ministers and their staff. These recommendations were taken into account during 1994. (AB)

  4. Analysis of stimulant drugs in the wastewater of five Nordic capitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löve, Arndís Sue Ching; Baz-Lomba, Jose Antonio; Reid, Malcolm J; Kankaanpää, Aino; Gunnar, Teemu; Dam, Maria; Ólafsdóttir, Kristín; Thomas, Kevin V

    2018-06-15

    Wastewater-based epidemiology is an efficient way to assess illicit drug use, complementing currently used methods retrieved from different data sources. The aim of this study is to compare stimulant drug use in five Nordic capital cities that include for the first time wastewater samples from Torshavn in the Faroe Islands. Currently there are no published reports that compare stimulant drug use in these Nordic capitals. All wastewater samples were analyzed using solid phase extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The results were compared with data published by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction based on illicit drugs in wastewater from over 50 European cities. Confirming previous reports, the results showed high amphetamine loads compared with other European countries. Very little apparent abuse of stimulant drugs was detected in Torshavn. Methamphetamine loads were the highest from Helsinki of the Nordic countries, indicating substantial fluctuations in the availability of the drug compared with previous studies. Methamphetamine loads from Oslo confirmed that the use continues to be high. Estimated cocaine use was found to be in the lower range compared with other cities in the southern and western part of Europe. Ecstasy and cocaine showed clear variations between weekdays and weekends, indicating recreational use. This study further demonstrates geographical trends in the stimulant drug market in five Nordic capitals, which enables a better comparison with other areas of the continent. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Status, Restrictions and Suggested Approaches in Wastewater Management in Rural Areas of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fahiminia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Please cite this article as: Fahiminia M, Farrokhi M, Talebi M, Memary G, Fazlzadeh Davil M. Status, restrictions and suggested approaches in wastewater management in rural areas of Iran. Arch Hyg Sci 2012;1(1:12-9. Aims of the Study: The objective of this study was to appraise wastewater management approaches in rural areas of Iran, restrictions, effects on environment and also definition of suitable management approaches in wastewater for future. Materials & Methods: This descriptive study was performed in 2010 in rural areas of Iran. A questionnaire was prepared with subjects such as available management approaches on wastewater, suggested approaches on collecting wastewater and its final disposal and was sent to rural area’s wastewater companies in each province. Study results of 4588 rural areas of Iran (with above 200 families were collected. Results were analyzed using mean and percentage. Results: The current available management systems were mainly based on absorption wells. The main problem in this system was high ground water levels, and low permeability of soil. The most important current problem of the absorbing wells was considerable damaging effects on surface and ground water. Conclusions: The current wastewater management in rural areas especially in the field of wastewater collection was improper and undesirable. To overcome the current problem, it is necessary to use collecting methods relative to that of region. Considerable attention is required for the application of reused wastewater in agriculture. References: 1. Wilderer PA, Schreff D. Decentralized and centralized wastewater management: a challenge for technology developers. Wat Sci Tech 2000; 41(1:1-8. 2. Jackson HB. Global needs and developments in urban sanitation. in: Mara D, editor. Low-Cost sewerage. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons; 1996. p. 77-90. 3. UNEP/GPA. Strategy options for sewage management to protect the marine environment. The Netherlands: UNEP

  6. The Nordic difference: Job quality in Europe 1995–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Oinas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous empirical research has pointed out that Nordic countries are distinguished from the rest of Europe in terms of job quality. On the other hand, it has been debated whether, in the longer run, the Nordic welfare state is able to insulate workers from globalization effects. This article investigates whether Nordic countries have retained their advantageous position concerning job quality compared with other EU countries. Empirical analyses are based on the European Working Conditions Survey collected in 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010. We use data on employees in the 15 member states of the EU prior to enlargement in 2004 (n = 61,457. The results partly confirm previous findings of high job quality in the Nordic countries. However, there are clear differences between Nordic countries. To be precise, Denmark stands out from the rest of Europe and other Nordic countries with its higher level of job quality.

  7. Coordination of Nordic system operators in the electric power market - profit from improved capacity utilization and a more flexible division into price zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerndal, Mette; Joernsten, Kurt

    2001-08-01

    This report evaluates the possible profits of establishing a common system operator function in the Nordic electric power market. The main focus is placed on how to deal with congestion in the transmission grid. To estimate possible profits from a better utilization of the resources in the Nordic grid, the authors have analyzed socio-economic profits for several load scenarios. A simplified model of the Nordic stock area was used in the calculations. The existence of two methods of dealing with congestion in the grid may lead to reduced capacity utilization and to greater price differences than necessary. The examples show that ''indirect'' congestion control may be very expensive and that considerable cost reduction can be achieved by improved exploitation of congestion. This implies that if the Nordic area is divided into price zones, it is advantageous to regard the grid as an entity independent of national borders and system operators and to let the real transmission limitations determine the price zoning

  8. Signs of climate change in Nordic nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Maria; Jensen, Trine Susanne; Normander, Bo

    on population size and range of the polar bear, for example, are scarce, whereas data on the pollen season are extensive. Each indicator is evaluated using a number of quality criteria, including sensitivity to climate change, policy relevance and methodology. Although the indicator framework presented here has......Not only is the Earth's climate changing, our natural world is also being affected by the impact of rising temperatures and changes in climatic conditions. In order to track climate-related changes in Nordic ecosystems, we have identified a number of climate change sensitive indicators. We present...... a catalogue of 14 indicator-based signs that demonstrate the impact of climate change on terrestrial, marine and freshwater ecosystems in the different bio-geographical zones of the Nordic region. The indicators have been identified using a systematic and quality, criteria based approach to discern and select...

  9. The Nordic electricity market towards 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, Finn Roar; Johnsen, Tor Arnt

    2001-01-01

    This article opens by examining the development of the Nordic power market in the 1990s. It tries to establish that the power market is a complex one. The market conditions vary greatly from one region to another and over time, and there is varying degree of integration among the regional markets. Thus, analyses of policy and political measures must be based on a detailed computational tool. In the SAMRAM project ''Power trade and Transmission'', such a computational model has been established, Normod-T. The article describes the principle features of the model and uses it to study the development of the Nordic power market toward the year 2010. It further analyses the impact of building gas power plants in Norway and of establishing a new cable for transmission of electric power between Norway and Germany

  10. The Invention of the Nordic Cuisine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Mangiapane

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes an analysis of the success of the restaurant Noma in Copenhagen. In order to achieve this goal, it focuses on the viewpoint of its chef, René Redzepi and analyses the new trending culinary movement known as New Nordic Cuisine. Behind the success of the restaurant Noma, a deep reconfiguration of the Northern European culinary culture can be recognized which is not limited to food but claims for a general turnover of the entire Scandinavian identity. The article enlightens a deep connection between the story of the fictional character Babette (protagonist of both the short novel and the movie “Babette’s Feast” and the shift led by the New Nordic Cuisine’s movement over the identity of Northern Europe. Also, it shows how this new foundation represents a contemporary attempt of “reinvention” of the tradition, being built through aesthetic and semiotic tools turned into gastronomic actions.

  11. Nordic Working Life Research - Continuity and Renewal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Helge Søndergaard; Bergholm, Tapio; Gonäs, Lena

    2011-01-01

    Working life research does not have clear boundaries; however its focus is quite clear: Changes in working life and how these changes affect qualifications, health, occupations, innovation, the economy, identity, social orientation and culture. The density of working life research is quite high...... in the Nordic countries, and this research has always been involved in the development of the Nordic welfare societies in which the development of work has been one important factor. In this article working life research is presented in its historical contexts, emphasizing the welfare challenges to which...... the research has been related. The challenges and tensions related to the research are not presented as being simply internal to the research work, they also reflect challenges and tensions in working life and institutions that are supposed to support working life. Current controversies in working life...

  12. Cultural Protestantism and Nordic Religious Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchardt, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Is there a Nordic model for Religious Education? The article explores how Cultural Protestantism and Liberal Theology influenced the ways in which Religious Education developed in Sweden, Denmark and Norway from the late 19th century until the mid-20th century as part of the transformation...... of the relations between church and state. Situated between history of education and curriculum, church history and transnational welfare state history, the article focuses on three transnationally acting theologians, early historians and psychologists of religion and public debaters who involved themselves...... in the question of education, namely Nathan Söderblom (1866-1931), Edvard Lehmann (1862-1930) and Eivind Berggrav (1884-1959), who serve as prisms for the transnational historical analysis of what takes place between states and social fields. The article suggests that Nordic Cultural Protestantism contributed...

  13. General practice in the Nordic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Rose Olsen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: General practice systems in the Nordic countries share certain common features. The sector is based on the Nordic model of a tax-financed supply of services with a political objective of equal access for all. The countries also share the challenges of increased political expectations to deliver primary prevention and increased workload as patients from hospital care are discharged earlier. However, within this common framework, primary care is organized differently. This is particularly in relation to the private-public mix, remuneration systems and the use of financial and non-financial incentives. Objective: The objective of this paper is to compare the differences and similarities in primary care among the Nordic countries, to create a mapping of the future plans and reforms linked to remuneration and incentives schemes, and to discuss the pros and cons for these plans with reference to the literature. An additional objective is to identify gaps in the literature and future research opportunities. Results/Conclusions: Despite the many similarities within the Nordic health care systems, the primary care sectors function under highly different arrangements. Most important are the differences in the gate-keeping function, private versus salaried practices, possibilities for corporate ownership, skill-mix and the organisational structure. Current reforms and political agendas appear to focus on the side effects of the individual countries’ specific systems. For example, countries with salaried systems with geographical responsibility are introducing incentives for private practice and more choices for patients. Countries with systems largely based on private practice are introducing more monitoring and public regulation to control budgets. We also see that new governments tends to bring different views on the future organisation of primary care, which provide considerable political tension but few actual changes. Interestingly

  14. Online development in the Nordic countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mickos, Elisabet (ed.); Lamvik, Aud (ed.); Retlev, Ulla (ed.); Wallin, Marie (ed.); Oker-Blom, Teodora (ed.)

    2007-01-01

    This is a collection of some of the articles that will form the e-book “Online development in the Nordic countries”. The e-book will contain the chapters: Introduction - Information policy - The infrastructure - Information systems and databases - Users - The online market in perspective. The final version of the e-book will include more articles, more pictures and information about the authors.

  15. Nordita. Nordic Institute for Theoretical Atomic Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report covers the period from January 1st to December 31st, 1989. The purpose of Nordita is to encourage scientific collaboration between the Nordic countries within scientific and basic nuclear physics. The scientific programme at Nordita covers astrophysics, elementary particle physics, solid state physics and nuclear physics. The scientific work is published or otherwise made public. The research at Nordita is performed in close cooperation with the Niels Bohr Institute, Denmark. (author)

  16. Power engineers of the Nordic and Baltic countries in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veski, Rein

    1999-01-01

    The Estonian delegation had been invited by Helsinki Energy to participate in the Nordic-Baltic District Heating Symposium. Distance heating enjoys a wide popularity in the Nordic countries. For heating purposes the use of biofuels, incl. peat, is highly recommended. Biofuels have found wide use in the Nordic countries, the share of peat being more considerable in Finland. The Estonians attended also the MODIS Workshop and made a visit to heat enterprises. (author)

  17. Migrants and Health in the Nordic welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2016-01-01

    This article probes into the health of migrants with a focus on the situation in the Nordic universal welfare states. The Nordic welfare states are further compared to each other with a comparison to the EU28 if possible, including investigation of the differences among the four Nordic countries...... socioeconomic factors, such as the impact of economic inequality. Moreover, the healthy migrant paradox cannot be confirmed....

  18. Natural Radionuclides in Meadow and Pasture land in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosén, Klas; Villanueva, José - Luis Gutiérrez; Sundell-Bergman, Synnöve

    transfer for pasture land under the different conditions that prevail in the Nordic countries. The potential health hazards due to chronic ingestion of low concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides are fairly unknown but the results of this study may provide valuable background information...... for assessing these radiation risks. The aim of this project has been to gain knowledge on the status of natural radionuclides in meadow and pasture land and in grassland plants in different Nordic countries and on the transfer of these radionuclides from soil/water to man via the milk/food chain (soil- meadow/pasture...... grass –cow-milk). Limited data are available on the mobility and the transfer of naturally occurring radionuclides in the ecosystems of the agricultural land. In addition, information concerning the concentrations in meat and dairy products is of interest for assessing exposures of humans to natural...

  19. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Occupation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, L; Andersen, A; Pukkala, E

    1997-01-01

    million people (3.7 million men and 0.2 million women) in the Nordic countries were potentially exposed to above-average levels of one or more verified industrial carcinogens. It is expected that these exposures will result in a total of about 1,900 new cases of cancer every year in the Nordic countries...... around the year 2000, with 1,890 among men and fewer than 25 among women. The proportions that could be avoided if industrial carcinogens were eliminated would be 70% of mesotheliomas, 20% of cancers of the nasal cavity and sinuses, 12% of lung cancers, 5% of laryngeal cancers, 2% of urinary bladder...... cancers, 1% of the leukaemias, and 1% of renal cancers. Overall, it is estimated that verified industrial carcinogens will account for approximately 3% of all cancers in men and less than 0.1% of all cancers in women in the Nordic countries around the year 2000. No attempt was made to estimate...

  20. Trading electricity in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    An open market for electric power in the Nordic countries will require extensive common solutions of a range of economic, technical and political problems as a consequence of the natural monopoly of the transmission and distribution grid, and the need for supply reliability. The main objective is to establish and effective framework for competition in buying and selling electricity, both nationally and in a Nordic context, and to secure optimal resource allocation. The key participants are owners of the high-voltage grid and of the international grid connections. The objective should be to develop a 'point-tariff' system, a system for effective handling of bottlenecks, and an optimisation of further developments in the common high-voltage grid. Effective routines for measurement of the trade across the borders should be established. Institutions for power-trading should be developed, such as organised spot markets which should be established in Sweden and Finland. Transaction costs for trade between the spot markets in the different countries should be low. Until spot markets are established in Sweden and Finland, Statnett Marked should be made available for Sweden and Finish consumers and producers. Abuse of a domimant market position in a common market should be firmly discouraged. Different competition policies in the Nordic countries may give participants unequal possibilities to compete. (AB)

  1. Nordic co-operation in the field of nuclear safety research, thoughts on the future NKS program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksonen, Jukka

    1998-01-01

    Some general objectives for the Nordic co-operation stay for the foreseeable future. Maybe the most important of the objectives is building and maintaining a strong Nordic network between experts who work in this area. This network must be extended to the working level and to the young generation. Younger people must have similar opportunities to the co-operation as the older generation which is now in leading positions, and which to day has many other mutual contacts besides the Nordic frame. Another important objective is to build common Nordic views and to promote together our ideas in wider circles such as EU. Together we would be more influential than separately. In some fields, especially in the radioecology and emergency planning, joining the forces and sharing the common work in a co-ordinated manner could increase productivity and help to avoid overlapping work. The emphasis should be in production, communication, and systematic presentation of the research results, rather than making joint policy or common recommendations. Although the Nordic technology and the Nordic culture have similarities as compared with the rest of the world, there are differences which do not permit easy adoption of common rules and regulations. For instance, the relations between nuclear industry and nuclear regulators are not similar in Sweden and in Finland, and the entire regulatory approach is based on different philosophies. The regulatory organisations of each Nordic country are arranged and attached to the national government structure in a different way. Attempts towards harmonisation should be continued, but it is not the task of the research community and certainly not the objective of the NKS. (EG)

  2. Nuclear threats in the vicinity of the Nordic countries. A database, Nordic Nuclear Safety Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margrethe, I.; Eikelmann, H.

    2003-01-01

    The acute phase of an accident and the possibility of high exposure of the populations are always the most important threats in the emergency preparedness work. Radioactive contamination from an accident can however also cause long time effects for land use and enhanced doses to special population groups and economic problems for agriculture, grazing animals, reindeer industry, hunting, freshwater fishing, tourism and recreation. For planning purposes it is always valuable to be aware of potential radiation hazard and other potential threats in the vicinity of the Nordic countries. Thus, mapping such threats in a Nordic context is an important factor in emergency preparedness in the Nordic countries. The project has dealt with threats from the north west of Russia and the Baltic states. The results from the different activities in the project is generated in a web based database called the 'the base of knowledge'. (orig.)

  3. Social Policy and Economic Development in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kangas, Olli; Palme, Joakim

    between democratization and social policy, drawing attention to the role of the state and non-governmental organizations. Social Policy and Economic Development in Nordic Countries examines Nordic social policies on unemployment, social care, family, education and health care policies, and reviews future......This volume examines the relationship between Nordic social policy and economic development from a comparative perspective. It identifies the driving forces behind the development of the Nordic welfare model and the problems and dilemmas the model is facing at present. The book also traces the link...

  4. Proceedings of the joint Nordic spring meeting '92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgaard, P.-A.

    1992-05-01

    Proceedings in the form of extended abstracts of the Joint Nordic Spring Meeting '92 including the 3rd Nordic Conference on Surface Science, the 6th Nordic Symposium on Computer Simulation, and 3rd Nordic Symposium on Superconductivity. In addition there are contributions from workshops on the Physics of Small Cluster, on Soft Condensed Matter Physics and from an Electronic Properties Workshop. The proceedings constrain over 300 contributions on the mentioned subjects. Further, there are several contributions on general solid state subjects, magnetism, semiconductors etc. (au) (4 tabs., 187 ills., 931 refs.)

  5. Nuclear threats in the vicinity of the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikelmann, I.M.H.; Moeller, B.

    1999-01-01

    This project is one of the new cross-disciplinary studies in the NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety) research program 1998-2001. The main task for the project is to aggregate knowledge of nuclear threats in the vicinity of the Nordic countries, a 'base of knowledge', and make this available for the Nordic authorities as a supplement for the national emergency preparedness work. The project will focus on potential events in nuclear installations and the consequences for the Nordic countries especially on: vulnerable food chains; doses to man; environmental contamination; the emergency preparedness system. (au)

  6. Implementation Plan for a Common Nordic Retail Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-09-15

    For several years NordREG has been working to promote and facilitate a common Nordic end user market. Given the political support that was expressed at the meeting of the Nordic energy ministers in the autumn of 2009, the work has become even more concrete. With this implementation plan, NordREG outlines what should be done, by whom and when in order to create a common Nordic end user market over the coming years. As the plan shows the need for contributed efforts from all stakeholders will be vital in the coming years in order to make a reality of the plans of creating a common Nordic end user market. The transition from national retail markets to a single Nordic market will take a great deal of work from regulators, DSOs, suppliers and TSOs. The benefits that a single Nordic end user market will bring will however make it worthwhile. In the long run, the integrated Nordic end user market will be a more efficient solution than keeping the four national markets. This is also a step towards the integration of European markets. The process of creating a single Nordic market also brings a unique opportunity to find new efficient solutions on different issues. Hence, the goal is not only to integrate the Nordic end user markets, but rather to develop a more customer oriented market with a high degree of competition between the suppliers

  7. Selenium status, thyroid volume, and multiple nodule formation in an area with mild iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Schomburg, Lutz; Kohrle, Josef

    2011-01-01

    ) introduction of iodine fortification. Serum selenium concentration and urinary iodine were measured, and the thyroid gland was examined by ultrasonography in the same subjects. Associations between serum selenium concentration and thyroid parameters were examined in multiple linear regression models...... or logistic regression models.Results: Serum selenium concentration was found to be significantly, negatively associated with thyroid volume (P=0.006), and a low selenium status significantly increased the risk for thyroid enlargement (P=0.007). Furthermore, low serum selenium status had a tendency...

  8. Prevalence of childhood Riboflavin deficiency and nutritional status; a study in rural area in Kerman province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabatabai Sh

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of riboflavin deficiency is high in women and children in developing countries and the deficiency almost invariably occurs in combination with deficiencies of other water soluble vitamins. The objective of this study was the assessment of riboflavin status of rural school children in Kerman province and its relationship with riboflavin, protein and energy intake. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 327 primary school children were randomly selected by the stratified multistage cluster sampling method. Variables for classifications were sex and socio-economic status (according to the educational level. This study was conducted by the Department of Nutrition and Biochemistry of School of Public Health in Tehran University in the winter of 2001. A twenty-four hour recall questionnaire was completed by and 5 cc of venous blood was taken from each student. Riboflavin status was assessed by measuring the glutathione reductase activity coefficient (EGR – AC of the red blood cells. Chi-Square and Pearson’s correlation coefficient tests were used to determine correlations. Student’s t–test was used to show the differences in the mean of EGR – AC between the classifications of independent factors. Results: The relationship between riboflavin status and its independent variables including the status of riboflavin, protein and calorie intake were assessed. Outputs of the study indicated that 39.7% of the boys and 43.6% of the girls (41.8% together were marginally riboflavin deficient. Furthermore, 37.7% of the boys, 33.4% of the girls (35.4% together were frankly riboflavin deficient. An average of 67.2% of the children (70.1% boys, 63.7% girls had enough intake of riboflavin, and 76.2% of the children (79.9%, boys, 72.5% girls had adequate intake of protein. However, only 22% of the children (24.5% boys, 19.3% girls had sufficient caloric intake. Outputs of this dietary evaluation reveal that there is a relationship

  9. Return to sender - American Images of the Nordic Welfare States and Nordic Welfare State Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marklund, C.; Petersen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we study the relationship between the United States of America and Norden, first showing how images of the Nordic model were constructed and reproduced in the United States from the 1920s until the 1960s. We find both utopias and dystopias in these narratives. Second, the article...... argues that these American images, narratives, and stereotypes did not only fulfill a function in the American debate, but were also relayed back to Norden, and affected debate, nation-branding strategies, and self-understandings there. During the Cold War, furthermore, the Nordic welfare state image...

  10. The Thrill of the Nordic Kill:The Manhunt Movie in the Nordic Thriller

    OpenAIRE

    Schubart, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    chapter in Nordic Genre Film: Small Nation Film Cultures in the Global Marketplace, eds Tommy Gustafsson and Pietari Kääpä. The chapter has three aims: First, it establishes the central generic traits of themanhunt movie. Second, it sets up a theoretical framework of sociobiological andecological theories with hunting as a reference point. And, third, it examines theNordic version of the manhunt movie focusing on the themes of hunting, nature,social standing, and civilization. I look at the D...

  11. Nordic walking jako szansa aktywizowania społeczeństwa = Nordic walking as a chance for the elicitation of the society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Jarecka

    2016-10-01

      Słowa kluczowe: aktywizacja społeczeństwa, nordic walking Key words: elicitation of the society, nordic walking   Streszczenie W ciągu ostatniej dekady można zaobserwować wzrost zainteresowania aktywny mi fizycznie formami wypoczynku. Odpowiadając na te potrzeby urzędy miast, gmin, a także samorządy lokalne zaczęły wspierać i prowadzić różnego rodzaju projekty czy programy aktywizujące społeczeństwo w obszarze kultury fizycznej zapewniające możliwość bezpłatnego uczestnictwa. Jeden z obszarów tych inicjatyw dotyczy także popularyzowania nordic walking. W opinii autorów opracowania inicjatywy te zasługują na uznanie. Należy podkreślić, iż zgodnie z intencją ich pomysłodawców mają one służyć realizacji dwóch  głównych założeń, jakimi są: popularyzacja nordic walking w Polsce oraz jednocześnie aktywizacja społeczeństwa opierająca się na kształtowaniu kultury fizycznej. Na podstawie przeprowadzonej analizy należy stwierdzić, że wypełniają te właśnie cele oraz są podstawą w wyznaczaniu nowych kierunków zmian. Abstract Over the last decade, increased interest in physically active forms of rest could be observed. Responding to these needs city halls and local governments started to run and support various projects and programs eliciting society, while not requiring payment from participants. One of the areas of these initiatives refer also to popularization of nordic walking. In the opinion of the study’s authors those initiatives deserve appreciation. It has to be pointed out, that in accordance to the intention of their originators, they should serve to achieve two main objectives: popularization of nordic walking in Poland and elicitation of society based on the development of the physical culture. Based on the analysis it can be said, that these initiatives fulfill those very goals. They are also fundamental thing to make chancing.

  12. Parents' labour market participation as a predictor of children's health and wellbeing: a comparative study in five Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt Pedersen, C; Madsen, M

    2002-11-01

    To study the association between parents' labour market participation and children's health and wellbeing. Parent reported data on health and wellbeing among their children from the survey Health and welfare among children and adolescents in the Nordic countries, 1996. A cross sectional study of random samples of children and their families in five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). A total of 10 317 children aged 2-17 years. Children in families with no parents employed in the past six months had higher prevalence of recurrent psychosomatic symptoms (odds ratio 1.67, 95% confidence intervals 1.16 to 2.40), chronic illness (odds ratio 1.35, 95% confidence intervals 1.00 to 1.84), and low wellbeing (odds ratio 1.47, 95% confidence intervals 1.12 to 1.94). Social class, family type, parents' immigrant status, gender and age of the child, respondent, and country were included as confounders. When social class, family type and the parents' immigrant status (one or more born in the Nordic country versus both born elsewhere) were introduced into the model, the odds ratios were reduced but were still statistically significant. Health outcomes and parents' labour market participation were associated in all five countries. Children in families with no parents employed in the past six months had higher prevalence of ill health and low wellbeing in the five Nordic countries despite differences in employment rates and social benefits.

  13. Histochemical and functional parameters in Nordic combination athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matolín, S; Vaverka, F; Lunák, J; Novák, J; Horák, V; Krejcí, P

    1994-01-01

    Bioptic samples from the vastus lateralis muscle were analyzed in a group of Czechoslovak representatives in the Nordic combination (ski-jumping and 15 km cross-country skiing). The distribution of individual muscle fibre types (FG, FOG and SO) was detected and correlated with values obtained by motor and functional performance tests. Histochemical analysis of the bioptic samples revealed a considerably heterogeneous distribution of muscle fibre types in the group studied. No typical profilation for this sport discipline was found. Weak correlation between the proportion of fast muscle fibres and explosive strength parameters was ascertained. The correlation between the proportion of slow muscle fibres and the capacity of O2 utilization (VO2max) was statistically significant. Strong correlation between the proportion of fast twitch fibres and relative maximal strength of knee extensors (N/kg) was disclosed. A non-linear relation between the area of fast twitch fibres and vigour of take-off was found.

  14. Power system economics : the Nordic electricity market. 2nd ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangensteen, Ivar

    2012-01-01

    This book written as a textbook for students of engineering is designed for the Norwegian Power Markets course which is part of the Energy and Environment Master's Program and the recently established international MSc program in Electric Power Engineering. As the title indicates, the book deals with both power system economics in general and the practical implementation and experience from the Nordic market. Areas of coverage include: -- Restructuring/deregulation of the power supply system -- Grid access including tariffs and congestion management -- Generation planning -- Market modeling -- Ancillary services -- Regulation of grid monopolies. Although Power Systems Economics is written primarily as a textbook for students, other readers will also find the book interesting. It deals with problems that have been subject of considerable attention in the power sector for some years and it addresses issues that are still relevant and important. (au)

  15. Agricultural countermeasures in the Nordic countries after a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brink, M.; Lauritzen, B.

    2001-12-01

    This report by the NKSBOK-1.4 project group describes agricultural countermeasures after a nuclear accident, aiming at the reduction of radiation doses to man from the ingestion of foodstuffs. The intention has been to collect information based on common understanding that can be used as a Nordic handbook and in further developments of the national preparedness systems. The report covers two areas: the gathering and dissemination of information before and during a nuclear emergency, and the development of a countermeasures strategy. A number of factors are discussed, which will affect the choice of countermeasure(s), and as a case study, a technical cost-benefit assessment of a specific countermeasure is described. (au)

  16. Power system economics : the Nordic electricity market. 2nd ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangensteen, Ivar

    2012-07-01

    This book written as a textbook for students of engineering is designed for the Norwegian Power Markets course which is part of the Energy and Environment Master's Program and the recently established international MSc program in Electric Power Engineering. As the title indicates, the book deals with both power system economics in general and the practical implementation and experience from the Nordic market. Areas of coverage include: -- Restructuring/deregulation of the power supply system -- Grid access including tariffs and congestion management -- Generation planning -- Market modeling -- Ancillary services -- Regulation of grid monopolies. Although Power Systems Economics is written primarily as a textbook for students, other readers will also find the book interesting. It deals with problems that have been subject of considerable attention in the power sector for some years and it addresses issues that are still relevant and important. (au)

  17. PREFACE: 16th Nordic Semiconductor Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétur Gíslason, Hafliði; Guðmundsson, Viðar

    1994-01-01

    Some 30 years ago an informal meeting of the few Nordic specialists in semiconductor physics marked the beginning of what has become a biannual meeting of some hundred physicists and physics students from all the Nordic countries. The 16th Nordic Semiconductor Meeting took place at Laugarvatn, Iceland, June 12-15,1994. As a regional meeting the Nordic Semiconductor meeting has three characteristic features all of which distinguish it from more traditional international meetings in the field. First, it has the purpose of promoting Nordic cooperation in the international field of semiconductor physics. Research in the fields of advanced science and technology in the Nordic countries is likely to benefit from joining national forces before participating in the increasing European integration. Second, there is an unusually large fraction of graduate students amongst the participants of the Nordic Semiconductor Meeting. In fact, attending this conference is traditionally a part of the graduate program in seniconductor physics and technology. The Nordic Semiconductor Meeting is often the first conference of international character that graduate students attend in order to present a paper of poster. Third, there is an interdisciplinary quality of the meeting which is normally not the case for meetings of this size. In particular, the number of professional scientists from industry is comparable to the number of their academic colleagues. This is important for both groups, but perhaps the graduate students benefit most from presenting their results to both groups. The 16th Nordic Semiconductor Meeting, the first one in this series held in Iceland, attracted 129 active participants. The scientific programme was divided in twelve oral sessions. A novelty of this meeting was the emphasis on more fundamental physics in one of the two parallel sessions but more applied topics in the other, although the distinction was sometimes a matter of predilection. A poster session

  18. Half a Century of Nordic Nuclear Co-operation - An Insider's Recollections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, Bruce A.

    1999-01-01

    This is a book review. This is the story of one of the most enduring instances of cooperation among different countries in any field in the twentieth century. Specifically, it describes efforts at coordination and integration in the area of nuclear development between Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden starting after World War II and continuing through the present. The Nordic countries had an early interest in nuclear activities, in part because of informal contacts based on influential individuals such as Niels Bohr. Their common history, environment, and culture led to common interests in developing nuclear power, and the precedent of the creation of the Scandinavian Airlines Systems (SAS) in 1946 showed that international initiatives could actually work. Efforts in the 1950s lead to establishment of a joint institute for theoretical atomic physics, a liaison committee to follow developments in the nuclear filed, and a Nordic group on radiation protection. Nordic electric utilities also began working together. In the mid-1960s, a Nordic Coordination Committee for Atomic Energy was established, as well as a Contact Group of members of national ministries, which generated a number of active initiatives. These groups helped direct research and development, by influencing government funding programs, through the 1960s and 1970s. Following the Three Mile Island accident in 1979, the thrust changed to nuclear waste management and safety research. In the immediate aftermath of the Chernobyl accident, the close working relations allowed quick communication of data and recommendations throughout the various countries. As time passed and regulatory programs became more formalized, the ad hoc groups were replaced with more bureaucratic structures, which were in turn threatened by funding shortfalls. A series of Nordic Committee for Nuclear Safety Research initiatives continued well into the mid-1990s

  19. Nutritional status of alcoholics in Peri-urban areas of the greater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alcoholism is a common problem in developing countries. Epidemiological studies on the relationship among excessive alcohol consumption, malnutrition and anaemia are inconclusive. The present study examined the association between alcohol intake and nutritional status of alcoholics in the Greater Accra Region of ...

  20. Elderly Hygiene Status in Rural Areas of Golestan Province in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Heshmati

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate elderly "hygienestatus" in Golestan provice (MaravehTapeh in Iranian ordertoapply such information for health policy makers toplan appropriate health programs. Methods & Materials: In This descriptive-analyticalstudy, 119 males and females rural elderly over 60 years of age (mean 67.53±5.64 were selected through multi-stage sampling. Mean scores of hygiene status obtained on the basis of current questionnaire. Data were collected, completed through home interviews and analyzed via SPSS 17. Results: The mean age was 67.53±5.64 years. Score mean of “hygiene” status on the basis of current questionnaire was 60.59±16 (out of 100.There were not statistically significant relation between "hygiene status" and age, gender, education, job and living conditions But there was statistically significant difference between “hygiene status” and marital status. Conclusion: Present “hygiene status” of elderly is not desirable. As elderly population is growing more and more, undesirable hygiene and its consequences will create health problems. Appropriate educational planning initiations from health policy makers should be considered for such tar get population in Iran.

  1. [Infestation status Aedes albopictus and related mosquito-borne infectious disease risk in central urban area in Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Q; Xiong, C L; Zhou, Y B; Cao, H; Jiang, Q W

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate Aedes albopictus infestation status in the central urban area of Shanghai, and analyze the related epidemic risk of mosquito-borne infectious disease. Consecutive mosquito surveillance was conducted in the green lands and residential areas in the central urban area of Shanghai during 2012-2014, the Aedes albopictus density and its seasonal fluctuation were observed; the sequence of Aedes albopictus in Shanghai was aligned with that in other epidemic area abroad, and the susceptibility of Aedes albopictus to mosquito-borne virus and endemic risk were analyzed. No Aedes aegypti was found in the central urban area of Shanghai. As predominant species in both the residential area and the green lands, the proportion of Aedes albopictus in the residential area was significantly higher than that in the green lands(78.53% vs. 19.99%, χ(2) =15 525.168, PAedes albopictus in Shanghai and Aedes albopictus in Africa was quite far. No Aedes aegypti was found in Shanghai and its surrounding areas, while Aedes albopictus infestation in the central urban area of Shanghai was serious. Strict measures should be taken to reduce the Aedes albopictus density for the effective control Zika virus spread.

  2. Optimal planning of the Nordic transmission system with 100% electric vehicle penetration of passenger cars by 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graabak, Ingeborg; Wu, Qiuwei; Warland, Leif; Liu, Zhaoxi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the optimal planning of the Nordic backbone transmission system with 100% electric vehicle penetration of passenger cars by 2050. Electric vehicles will play an important role in the future energy systems and can reduce the greenhouse gas emission from the transport sector. However, the electric vehicles will increase the electricity consumption and might induce congestions in the transmission systems. In order to deal with the electricity consumption increase from the electric vehicle integration into the power system and maximize the social welfare, the optimal investments of the Nordic transmission system are studied. Case studies were conducted using the market simulation model EMPS (Efi's multi-area power market simulator) and two electric vehicle charging scenarios: a spot price based scenario and a dumb charging scenario. The electric vehicle charging power is assumed to be 3.68 kW with 1 phase 16 A. The complete electrification of the private passenger fleet increases the yearly power demand in the Nordic region with ca 7.5%. The profitable increases in transmission capacities are highest for dumb charging, but are very low for both dumb and spot price based charging compared to a Reference case. - Highlights: • The electric vehicle distribution is done using population and car statistics. • The 100% penetration electric vehicle demand is obtained for Nordic countries. • The optimal investments in the Nordic transmission system with electric vehicles are studied.

  3. The Nordic EIA-effectiveness workshop. A contribution to the international study of effectiveness of environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilden, M.; Laitinen, R. [eds.

    1995-09-01

    The Nordic EIA-effectiveness (Environmental Impact Assessment) workshop met in Tuusula, Finland 10-12 april 1994. EIA-experts from all Nordic countries and Canada discussed cases in which environmental impact assessment procedures had been applied with varying success. Nordic cases are included in the proceedings as separate chapters. The problems and successes of diverse cases allowed experts to identify key issues and avenues for future development. The reports of the working groups cover all stages of the EIA-process and provide reference material for future studies. `How can we ensure that EIA, which now has legal backing in all Nordic countries, becomes an efficient way to improve public participation and to avoid deleterious changes in the environment?` is the basic theme. Several recommendations were put forward for building on the results of the workshop, i.e. to: 1) elaborate and consolidate the criteria developed by the working groups and cross reference with the results of other international workshops; 2) review their application of EIA capacity building in countries with transitional economies; 3) test the proposed guidelines of good practice in EIAs in Nordic countries and disseminate the results; establish ecosystem specific approaches for sensitive and distinctive bioregions; and 5) focus on the Arctic as a priority area shared by eight northern countries and covered by a regional environmental strategy. (AB)

  4. A cross sectional study on health status of infants in rural areas of Kamrup, Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhur Borah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  Infancy is the period of growth and development of a child. Inadequate care, malnutrition and infections in this crucial period lead to high neonatal and infant deaths and also high prevalence of morbidities. But data on childhood and infant mortality and morbidities are still not adequate in North Eastern part of India, so this cross sectional study was initiated. Objectives: To assess the nutritional status and morbidity profile of infants and to study the associated socio-economic factors. Material and methods: Total 450 singleton infants under 1 year of age in 30 cluster villages were selected for the study. Data collected about socioeconomic condition of the family, infants’ nutrition and morbidity status and anthropometric measurements were done. Results: Out of 450 infants 24% were found to be underweight while 13.3% were stunted and 7.1% were wasted. Female infants were found to be more malnourished. A statistically significant association was found between gender and nutritional status. ARI (20% and Diarrhoea (14% were the most common morbidities among the study population and 6 to 8 months age group was the most vulnerable for these common morbidities. Conclusion: the study revealed that high percentages of the infants were suffering from malnutrition with female predominance and respiratory diseases, diarrhoea and malnutrition were the major causes of morbidity during the first year of life.

  5. Development of a joint Nordic master in cold climate engineering within the Nordic five tech alliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Tuhkuri, Jukka; Høyland, Knut V.

    2017-01-01

    , Nordic Five Tech, which was established in 2006 with the goal of utilizing the shared and complementary strengths of the universities and creating synergies, also within education in the form of joint master programmes. The Cold Climate Engineering students study for one year at two of the universities...

  6. EDITORIAL The 23rd Nordic Semiconductor Meeting The 23rd Nordic Semiconductor Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ólafsson, Sveinn; Sveinbjörnsson, Einar

    2010-12-01

    A Nordic Semiconductor Meeting is held every other year with the venue rotating amongst the Nordic countries of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The focus of these meetings remains 'original research and science being carried out on semiconductor materials, devices and systems'. Reports on industrial activity have usually featured. The topics have ranged from fundamental research on point defects in a semiconductor to system architecture of semiconductor electronic devices. Proceedings from these events are regularly published as a topical issue of Physica Scripta. All of the papers in this topical issue have undergone critical peer review and we wish to thank the reviewers and the authors for their cooperation, which has been instrumental in meeting the high scientific standards and quality of the series. This meeting of the 23rd Nordic Semiconductor community, NSM 2009, was held at Háskólatorg at the campus of the University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland, 14-17 June 2009. Support was provided by the University of Iceland. Almost 50 participants presented a broad range of topics covering semiconductor materials and devices as well as related material science interests. The conference provided a forum for Nordic and international scientists to present and discuss new results and ideas concerning the fundamentals and applications of semiconductor materials. The meeting aim was to advance the progress of Nordic science and thus aid in future worldwide technological advances concerning technology, education, energy and the environment. Topics Theory and fundamental physics of semiconductors Emerging semiconductor technologies (for example III-V integration on Si, novel Si devices, graphene) Energy and semiconductors Optical phenomena and optical devices MEMS and sensors Program 14 June Registration 13:00-17:00 15 June Meeting program 09:30-17:00 and Poster Session I 16 June Meeting program 09:30-17:00 and Poster Session II 17 June Excursion and dinner

  7. Welfare Reform in the Nordic Countries in the 1990s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon

    This article uses a new method for policy analysis, fuzzy-set theory, which is a framework that allows for a precise operationalization of theoretical concepts. fuzzy-set theory is used to asses the conformity of the Nordic countries to a pre-conceptualized ideal-typical nordic welfare model...

  8. Radioecology in Nordic limnic systems - present knowledge and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report was compiled during a meeting within the aquatic group in the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Programme, in November 1990. It is a joint effort to summarize the results from post - Chernobyl research in Nordic limnic ecosystems. The most important pathways, processes and factors determining the 137 CS concentration in fish are identified and discussed. (au)

  9. Nordic Walking Practice Might Improve Plantar Pressure Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Soriano, Pedro; Llana-Belloch, Salvador; Martinez-Nova, Alfonso; Morey-Klapsing, G.; Encarnacion-Martinez, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Nordic walking (NW), characterized by the use of two walking poles, is becoming increasingly popular (Morgulec-Adamowicz, Marszalek, & Jagustyn, 2011). We studied walking pressure patterns of 20 experienced and 30 beginner Nordic walkers. Plantar pressures from nine foot zones were measured during trials performed at two walking speeds (preferred…

  10. Transboundary protected area proposals along the Southern Andes of Chile and Argentina: Status of current efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Keller

    2007-01-01

    An evolving network of protected areas along the southern Andes of Chile and Argentina-the heart of Patagonia-are in various stages of evaluation and potential Transboundary Protected Area designations. This paper examines three such efforts. The first proposal is the North Andean-Patagonia Regional Eco-Corridor, which was the subject of a recent bilateral meeting...

  11. Eating out in four Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Bøker; Kjærnes, U.; Holm, Lotte

    2017-01-01

    and restaurants is related to socio-demographic factors and factors relevant to the organization of daily life.We found that eating out is not a fundamental part of everyday eating. It is something which takes place occasionally. This may be taken to suggest that eating out in the Nordic countries is primarily...... lunches and dedicated public policies supporting the provisioning of lunches outside the home may have promoted eating out.Multivariate analysis revealed that eating out declines with age. An urbanization effect exists, as residence in a capital city increases the propensity to eat out. There were socio...

  12. Nordic fathers’ willingness to participate during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Helle; Persson, Eva K.; Stenback, Pernilla

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to illuminate expectant first-time fathers’ experiences of participation during pregnancy in three Nordic countries. Background: Fathers’ participation in pregnancy is associated with improved health for the family as a whole. Research so far has primarily explored...... the unborn child’, ‘Being included in the rites of motherhood,’ ‘Lacking full control’, ‘Compensating for lack of embodiment’ and ‘Adopting an active father role’. ‘Cementing the partnership’ encompassed the subcategories: ‘Strengthening the partner relationship’, ‘Meeting the professionals, ‘Sharing...

  13. Nordic wind power conference 2007. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutululis, Nicolaos; Soerensen, Poul

    2007-11-01

    This fourth Nordic Wind Power Conference was focused on power system integration and electrical systems of wind turbines and wind farms. NWPC presents the newest research results related to technical electrical aspects of wind power, spanning from power system integration to electrical design and control of wind turbines. The first NWPC was held in Trondheim (2000), Norway, the second in Gothenburg (2004), Sweden, and the third in Espoo (2006), Finland. Invited speakers, oral presentation of papers and poster sessions ensured this to be a valuable event for professionals and high-level students wanting to strengthen their knowledge on wind power integration and electrical systems. (au)

  14. Nordic wind power conference 2007. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutululis, N; Soerensen, P [eds.

    2007-11-15

    This fourth Nordic Wind Power Conference was focused on power system integration and electrical systems of wind turbines and wind farms. NWPC presents the newest research results related to technical electrical aspects of wind power, spanning from power system integration to electrical design and control of wind turbines. The first NWPC was held in Trondheim (2000), Norway, the second in Gothenburg (2004), Sweden, and the third in Espoo (2006), Finland. Invited speakers, oral presentation of papers and poster sessions ensured this to be a valuable event for professionals and high-level students wanting to strengthen their knowledge on wind power integration and electrical systems. (au)

  15. Joint balance handling in the Nordic Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    In September 2002 Nordel introduced new principles for disposing of regulation power for balancing production and consumption of electricity. The new principles imply that the regulation power in the joint Nordic power system is better utilized, and that the settlement of imbalances between the countries follows joint rules. The settlement of imbalances in the individual countries follows different principles but Nordel is looking into the possibilities of a harmonization. EU's most recent draft of a strategy report on development of the power market points among other things towards a joint regulation power market as a tool against misuse of market power. (BA)

  16. Health Effects of the New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg

    The health effects of the New Nordic Diet (NND) are investigated in a six month randomized controlled intervention, in which the NND was compared to the average Danish diet (ADD) among 181 adult participants. Foods were handed out free of charge from a study shop according to the ad libitum...... period. Based on this study, the health effects of the NND are considerable as shown by the lower body weight and lower blood pressure. The follow up period clearly illustrated the challenges related to the voluntary and self-administered adherence to new dietary guidelines but also supports thatthe NND...

  17. Regulated and unregulated Nordic retail prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole Jess; Johnsen, Tor Arnt

    2011-01-01

    in Sweden but higher than in Norway and Finland. Because of market design Norwegian default contracts are competitive whereas Swedish contracts provide the retailer with some market power. We interpret the low Finnish margins as a result of municipal retailers continuing traditional pricing from...... competitive prices....... default prices are regulated whereas default prices in the other countries are unregulated. Systematic price differences exist among the Nordic countries. However, as wholesale prices sometimes differ the gross margin is a more relevant indicator. Regulated gross margins are lower in Denmark than...

  18. Development of a healthy New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mithril, Charlotte Elisabeth

    Summary: Many of the diseases today are diet‐related, and recommendations for a healthy diet are one of the main challenges for public health today. At the same time, concern for the environment and the planet's health has developed to be an equally important challenge, and the circumstances call...... to define and test a New Nordic Diet (NND). The hypothesis is that an optimal diet composition, based on healthy, palatable meals, may not only contribute to the prevention of excessive weight gain, obesity, and other health disorders, but may also improve quality of life, learning ability, and mental...

  19. Overview of the Nordic Seas CARINA data and salinity measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Olsen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Water column data of carbon and carbon relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 previously non-publicly available cruises in the Arctic, Atlantic, and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged into a new database: CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic. The data have been subject to rigorous quality control (QC in order to ensure highest possible quality and consistency. The data for most of the parameters included were examined in order to quantify systematic biases in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Significant biases have been corrected for in the data products, i.e. the three merged files with measured, calculated and interpolated values for each of the three CARINA regions; the Arctic Mediterranean Seas (AMS, the Atlantic (ATL and the Southern Ocean (SO. With the adjustments the CARINA database is consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP (Key et al., 2004 and is suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories and uptake rates and for model validation. The Arctic Mediterranean Seas include the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, and the quality control was carried out separately in these two areas. This contribution provides an overview of the CARINA data from the Nordic Seas and summarises the findings of the QC of the salinity data. One cruise had salinity data that were of questionable quality, and these have been removed from the data product. An evaluation of the consistency of the quality controlled salinity data suggests that they are consistent to at least ±0.005.

  20. The freshwater fern Azolla (Azollaceae) from Eocene Arctic and Nordic Sea sediments: New species and their stratigraphic distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burgh, J.; Collinson, M.E.; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J.H.A.; Barke, J.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2013-01-01

    Three new species of the freshwater fern Azolla are described from Eocene marine deposits of the Arctic and Nordic seas, bringing the total number of species now documented from these areas to five. Azolla arctica Collinson et al., Azolla jutlandica Collinson et al., Azolla nova sp. nov. and Azolla

  1. European Standards and Guidelines in a Nordic Perspective: Joint Nordic Project 2005-2006. ENQA Occasional Papers 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinther-Jorgensen, Tue, Ed.; Hansen, Signe Ploug, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents the results of the joint 2005-06 project of the Nordic Quality Assurance Network in Higher Education (NOQA). The project focused on the European standards and guidelines for quality assurance agencies, examining them in a Nordic perspective. The project aimed at interpreting and clarifying the European standards and guidelines…

  2. A Study of Daily Living Dependency Status among Elderly in an Urban Slum area of Dehradun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Ohri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population aging is observed world-wide. As per Census 2011, elderly constitutes 7.4% population of India. It is expected to increase to 20% in 2050. This segment of population faces multiple medical and psychological problems. To address and solve these problems great effort from the country and the community is required. Objective: To assess the daily living dependency status among elderly. Method:  A cross sectional study was conducted in Dehradun, among 215 elderly people, using a pre-structured questionnaire. Their activities of daily living (ADL and Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL were recorded by observation and interviewing them with their families. Results: Out of total, 93% individuals were independent in their ADLs, with more dependence in the very old elderly. Maximum inability was found in Bathing and dressing. 70.7% elderly were dependent on one or more IADLs, female elderly being more dependent than male (p<0.05. However there was no significant difference of dependence in the male and female elderly in performing ADLs. Education and socio-economic status had a positive effect on independence in IADLs. Among all IADLs male elderly showed a maximum dependency for cooking and laundry while females showed a greater dependency in using telephone, managing money and travelling.

  3. A Study of Daily Living Dependency Status among Elderly in an Urban Slum area of Dehradun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Ohri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population aging is observed world-wide. As per Census 2011, elderly constitutes 7.4% population of India. It is expected to increase to 20% in 2050. This segment of population faces multiple medical and psychological problems. To address and solve these problems great effort from the country and the community is required. Objective: To assess the daily living dependency status among elderly. Method:  A cross sectional study was conducted in Dehradun, among 215 elderly people, using a pre-structured questionnaire. Their activities of daily living (ADL and Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL were recorded by observation and interviewing them with their families. Results: Out of total, 93% individuals were independent in their ADLs, with more dependence in the very old elderly. Maximum inability was found in Bathing and dressing. 70.7% elderly were dependent on one or more IADLs, female elderly being more dependent than male (p<0.05. However there was no significant difference of dependence in the male and female elderly in performing ADLs. Education and socio-economic status had a positive effect on independence in IADLs. Among all IADLs male elderly showed a maximum dependency for cooking and laundry while females showed a greater dependency in using telephone, managing money and travelling.

  4. Air quality status of an open pit mining area in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaulya, S K

    2005-06-01

    This investigation presents the assessment of ambient air quality carried out at an open pit coal mining area in Orissa state of India. The 24-h average concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM), respirable particulate matter (RPM, particles of less than 10 microm aerodynamic diameter), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) were determined at regular interval throughout one year at 13 monitoring stations in residential area and four stations in mining/industrial area. During the study period, the 24-h and annual average SPM and RPM concentrations exceeded the respective standards set in the Indian ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) protocol in most of the residential and industrial areas. However, the 24-h and annual average concentrations of SO2 and NO(x) were well within the prescribed limit of the NAAQS in both residential and industrial areas. A management strategy is formulated for effective control of particulate matter at source and other mitigative measures are recommended including implementation of green belts around the sensitive areas.

  5. No association between adherence to the healthy Nordic food index and cardiovascular disease amongst Swedish women: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, N; Sandin, S; Scragg, R; Löf, M; Skeie, G; Olsen, A; Adami, H-O; Weiderpass, E

    2015-11-01

    In several intervention trials, a healthy Nordic diet showed beneficial effects on markers of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the association between a healthy Nordic diet and clinical diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. Our aim was first to examine the association between a healthy Nordic food index (wholegrain bread, oatmeal, apples/pears, root vegetables, cabbages and fish) and the incidence of overall cardiovascular disease (ischaemic heart disease, stroke, arrhythmia, thrombosis and hypertensive disease), and secondly to test for possible effect modification by smoking, body mass index (BMI), alcohol consumption and age. We conducted an analysis of data from the prospective Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort, including 43 310 women who completed a food frequency questionnaire in 1991-1992, and followed up until 31 December 2012 through Swedish registries. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. During follow-up, 8383 women developed cardiovascular disease. We found no association between the healthy Nordic food index and overall cardiovascular disease risk or any of the subgroups investigated. There was a statistically significant interaction with smoking status (P = 0.02), with a beneficial effect only amongst former smokers (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.99 per 1-point increment). The present results do not support an association between a healthy Nordic food index and risk of cardiovascular disease in Swedish women. There was also no effect modification by alcohol intake, BMI or age. Our finding of an interaction with smoking status requires reproduction. © 2015 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  6. PREFACE: The 6th Nordic Meeting on Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvhøiden, G.; Thorsteinsen, T. F.; Vaagen, J. S.

    1990-01-01

    After an unintended time gap of five years, the series of regular Nordic meetings on nuclear physics was continued with the 6th Nordic Meeting, August 10-15, 1989. The site was Utgarden in the outskirts of Kopervik, the administration center for the Saga island of Karmøy on the west-coast of Norway. Utgarden, a "peoples high-school'' with a kitchen, housing facility and a neighboring modern gymnasium with fine lecture halls, proved to be an inexpensive and adequate site for the meeting. From the time of the Vikings, the sound between Karmøyy and the mainland has been a vital part of the way to the north. Mobility and international orientation is still a signature of an area where today essential parts of Norway's oil- and metal industry are located. The conference program included a session on nuclear physics in industry and society, with contributed talks from a number of companies and technology/research institutions, which also sponsored the meeting. Lunch visits to Hydro's aluminium plant on Karmøy or alternatively to Statoil's gas terminal on the mainland, were included in the program. The scientific program gives a cross section of nuclear physics activities in which researchers from the Nordic countries are involved nowadays. The spectrum is rich, and the emphasis has shifted to higher energies than was the case five years ago. We appreciate the possibility to present this overview in a separate volume of Physica Scripta. The present issue covers nearly all the talks given at the meeting. The order deviates, however, somewhat from that of the conference program. The organizing committee tried to encourage in various ways the participation of young physicists; this effort was truely rewarded. The young participants put their imprint on the activities in the lecture halls and even more on the soccer arena. The meeting was sponsored by The University of Bergen, The Nordic Accelerator Committee, NORDITA, The Norwegian Research Council for Science and the

  7. [Evaluation of the socioeconomic status in epidemiological surveys: hypotheses of research in the Brianza area MONICA project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesana, G C; Ferrario, M; De Vito, G; Sega, R; Grieco, A

    1995-01-01

    Socio-economic status (SES) has been reported as a causative factor of increasing health inequalities in industrialized countries. The phenomenon has been particularly investigated for job related diseases, including cardiovascular disease and risk. The group of occupational medicine specialists in the world wide MONItoring program of CARdiovascular disease (WHO-MONICA Project) is now producing a number of hypotheses about the application of internationally defined criteria and tools for SES evaluation in the Italian area of the Project, Area Brianza. After a short review of some main conceptual and methodological problems, a proposal is presented of an SES index, derived from the pooled data of two population surveys carried out in this area. From a randomized sample of 3200 residents, 25-64 years old, stratified by sex and age decade, 1731 subjects, 594 females and 1137 males, employed at the time of the screening were extracted. Four variables were considered: age, education, occupational level and job-strain (according to the Karasek-Theorell model) by which each subject was classified in three levels--high, medium, low--of education and occupation, whose combination was used to obtain as many levels of socio-economic status. This a method of building an SES index is based on a sequence of approximations following two essential criteria: limitation of the variables to be surveyed, through standardized procedures; ability to identify the "low" SES category, presumably more at risk for disease.

  8. The Nordic multiethnic rurality – one of the same thing or contextual?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søholt, Susanne; Stenbacka, Susanne; Nørgaard, Helle

    of the interaction between migration and the general transformation of the rural. The paper is based on a Nordic comparative study on how immigration influences rural places and processes of inclusion/exclusion of immigrants in central welfare arenas like the labour market, the housing market and in civil society......The Nordic multiethnic rurality – one of the same thing or contextual? Susanne Søholt, Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Norway Susanne Stenbacka, Department of Social and Economic Geography, Uppsala University, Sweden...... Helle Nørgaard, Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University Copenhagen, Denmark Increased international migration to rural areas raises questions concerning the impact on the rural places and for rurality as a phenomenon. In this paper, multiethnic ruralities in Norway, Denmark and Sweden...

  9. Bird numbers and distributions in the Horns Rev offshore wind farm area. Annual status report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krag Petersen, I.

    2005-07-01

    This report presents data from four aerial surveys of birds in the Horns Rev wind farm area in 2004. Three surveys from the winter and spring of 2004 are thoroughly reported here. The fourth survey of 9 September 2004 is reported in general terms, but not included in presentations of distribution and effect analyses of the wind farm. Data from this survey will be thoroughly dealt with in a future report. Including the four surveys of 2004, a total of 29 surveys have been performed in that area since August 1999. (au)

  10. Contribution of the Nordic School of Public Health to the public mental health research field: a selection of research initiatives, 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, Anna K; Fredén, Lars; Lindqvist, Rafael; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2015-08-01

    The field of public mental health has been defined by an expert group convened by the Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) as encompassing the experience, occurrence, distribution and trajectories of positive mental health and mental health problems and their determinants; mental health promotion and prevention of mental disorders; as well as mental health system policies, governance and organization. The mental health priorities of the Nordic Council of Ministers in 2010 signalled a mutual Nordic exchange of knowledge in the following thematic areas: child and adolescent mental health; working life and mental health; mental health in older people; strengthening the role of primary care in mental health service provision; stronger involvement of users and carers; and reduction of use of coercion in psychiatric care. Efforts to realize these priorities included commissioning the Nordic Research Academy for Mental Health, an NHV-based network of research institutions with a common interest in mental health research across the Nordic countries, to develop, organize and follow-up projects on public mental health. The research initiatives included mental health policy analysis, register-based research and research focused on the users' perspective in a Nordic context, as well as EU-level research policy analysis. The public mental health research conducted at the NHV highlighted the complexity of mental health and emphasized that the broad determinants of mental health need to be increasingly addressed in both public health research and practice. For example, health promotion actions, improved access to health care, a healthy alcohol policy and prevention of suicides and violence are all needed to reduce the life expectancy gap - a red flag indicator of public health inequalities. By exchanging knowledge and best practice, the collaboration between the Nordic countries contributes to the welfare of the region. The expertise and traditions developed at the NHV are of

  11. Bird numbers and distribution in the Horns Rev offshore wind farm area. Annual status report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This report presents data from six aerial surveys of birds in the Horns Rev wind farm area in 2003. Including 16 surveys conducted before construction of the wind farm started and three during the construction phase, a total of 25 surveys have been performed in the area since August 1999. Up until August 2002 the study area was surveyed from 26 north-south oriented, parallel transect lines. After that time four short transects were added eastwards from the previously easternmost transect. From August 2002 slight adjustments to the transect lines in the wind farm area had to be made in order to avoid collision, as survey altitude was 76 m and wind turbines are 110 m to highest wing tip. The six surveys in 2003 were performed on 13 February, 16 March, 23 April, 5 September, 4 and 30 December. The operational phase of the wind farm commenced in 2002. Hence the six surveys from 2003 are all considered post-construction data sets. A preliminary evaluation of the potential impact of the wind turbines on bird distributions has been carried out by comparison of these data to those from the 16 pre-construction surveys. (au)

  12. Selenium status, thyroid volume, and multiple nodule formation in an area with mild iodine deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Schomburg, Lutz; Köhrle, Josef

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to study the associations between serum selenium concentration and thyroid volume, as well as the association between serum selenium concentration and risk for an enlarged thyroid gland in an area with mild iodine deficiency before and after iodine fortification was introduced...

  13. System analysis and assessment of technological alternatives for Nordic H{sub 2} energy foresight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koljonen, T.; Pursiheimo, E. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Gether, K. [NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Joergensen, K. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)

    2004-12-01

    The hydrogen scenarios developed during the Nordic Hydrogen Foresight project was analysed using a energy system model, which was developed during the project. The aim of the systems analysis was to analyse the technical and economical potential of hydrogen society in the Nordic countries in quantitative terms as well as the competitiveness of the selected hydrogen based systems. Visions and scenarios of the future energy systems in the Nordic area were defined in the workshops of the project. As a result of these workshops three scenarios were selected to outline the future of Nordic energy. The scenarios included different energy policies; scenarios for fossil fuel prices; and hydrogen energy demands, which varied from 6% to 18% of the total energy demand in 2030 for transport sector, and from 3% to 9% in heat and power production. In the roadmap workshops, the most important hydrogen based systems were selected, which were also included in the model. These include steam reforming of natural gas, electrolysis with renewable electricity, and biomass gasification for hydrogen production. For stationary applications, fuel cells and gas engines were selected for power and heat production. In our scenario calculations, biomass gasification and steam reforming seem to be the most competitive technologies for hydrogen production. The competitiveness of biomass gasification is greatly affected by the biomass fuel price, which is a local energy source. Electrolysis seems to be most competitive in decentralized systems, if the electricity price is low enough. For stationary applications, CHP fuel cells seem to be the most competitive in the long term, if the technological development and the decrease in investment costs follow the assumed scenario. The approximated Nordic market sizes in 2030 for the base scenarios varied from 1000 ME to 3000 MEuro for hydrogen production, from 1000 to 4000 MEuro for stationary applications and 4000 MEuro to 12.000 MEuro for hydrogen

  14. Nordic H{sub 2} energy foresight action report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eerola, A [VTT Technology Studies (Finland)

    2004-11-01

    The Action Report is one of the intermediate outputs of the Nordic H{sub 2} Energy Foresight project. It pools together the results of the Action Workshop that was organised in Espoo, Finland, in March 2004. It includes the views of 28 Nordic experts representing research, industry, government and relevant associations. A number of challenges are faced when introducing hydrogen energy into the Nordic markets. The report discusses these generics and specific challenges concerning the entire hydrogen energy value chain - hydrogen production, hydrogen use in transport, the stationary use of hydrogen - and the required infrastructure. A multi-perspective approach is taken: techno-economic, infrastructural, geographical, ecological, environmental and socio-political issues are all paid attention to. Thereafter the actions needed to realize the Nordic hydrogen energy visions are discussed. The report suggests that the Nordic countries should take an active role in promoting the successful introduction of hydrogen energy and in exploiting the business opportunities provided by the new technology. The suggestions for actions provided by the Nordic experts can be classified into six categories: 1) informing decision-makers and the wider public, 2) carrying out relevant research and development, 3) creating appropriate strategies and policies, 4) obtaining financial support for the technological developments in the transition phase, 5) market creation and intervention, and 6) contribution to international agreements. The report lists a number of specific tasks within each category and identifies the key actors to be involved at Nordic, national and EU-levels. (au)

  15. The rise and fall of the New Nordic Cuisine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan Leer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a history of the New Nordic Cuisine—the ideology, the politics, the criticism, and the counter-reactions to it. The article has a particular focus on the Copenhagen restaurant scene which has been recognized as the epicenter of the movement, and it argues that after a decade of dominance of the strict Nordic locavorism, the dogmas of New Nordic Cuisine are being challenged from within by a generation of chefs who were brought up in New Nordic restaurants, but they are currently distancing themselves from the movement. A notable example of this new generation is Christian Puglisi, who while holding on to some of the core elements of the New Nordic Cuisine (particularly ideals of sound production and the focus on vegetables refuses the geographical dogmas of the movement and unfolds a cosmopolitan fusion kitchen. The article also discusses how different actors in different contexts have used the New Nordic Cuisine to position themselves in the culinary field either by adhering to or rejecting the concept, and how the example of the New Nordic Cuisine highlights the complex and often contradictory dynamics of the local/global dichotomy in contemporary food and consumer culture.

  16. Plan of Nordic research in nuclear safety 1994-97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    A new four-year Nordic research programme in the field of nuclear safety and radiation protection is to start in 1994 as a followup of several preceding Nordic programmes. It will include seven projects and a joint coordination function. The programme is intended to sustain a common understanding among safety authorities in the Nordic countries with respect to reactor safety and radiation protection. It mainly deals with questions that are actual within the Nordic region, but it may also include problems of concern to its eastern neighbours. Two of the projects deal with reactor safety, and one with radioactive waste. The other four projects are on environmental aspects: two of them deal with radioecology, and two with questions related to emergency preparedness. The programme is managed by the Nordic Committee for Safety Research, NKS, consisting of representatives from regulatory authorities, research bodies, and industry. Basic financing is provided by one consortium member from each of the five Nordic countries, whereby an annual budget of approximately 8 million Danish Kroner will be provided. Additional financing comes from sponsors interested in the programme as well as from those organizations taking part in the project work. Definite project plans are to be elaborated within the more general frames described in the present outline. The flexibility of the programme is enhanced by limiting the duration of individual activities to one or two years. This will make it possible to adjust the programme to actual needs in the Nordic countries. (au)

  17. Retail margins and the effects of an integrated Nordic end user market for electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damsgaard, Niclas; Roempoetti, Marie

    2007-09-15

    There is an ongoing discussion about the need for further and deeper integration of the Nordic electricity market. Following the Nordic Council of Minister's summit in Akureyri in 2004 this work has been intensified. NordREG and Nordel have produced several studies on the integration of the market. Work is currently being done on a Nordic common market platform for balancing services and a Nordic balancing agreement, the market design for a common market and a common model for supply switches and several other issues. This study should be seen in relationship with these other studies and we have deliberately aimed at avoiding overlaps. An integrated Nordic retail market for electricity would in principle imply a common market for 14 million customers served by several hundred retail companies. The question asked in this study is what are the benefits for the customers of such a development? In order to create a common Nordic market there are several barriers that needs to be overcome. There are technical barriers such as differences in IT-systems, regulatory barriers caused by differences in e.g. the responsibilities and the regulation of the DSOs and finally of course business barriers that exists for all cross-border businesses. A well-functioning Nordic retail market would lead to price equalisation - at least if the costs are equal. This would mean that particularly customers in areas with high retail margins could benefit from a joint Nordic market. Furthermore, dilution of market power could lead to more intense competition which in turn both could lead to lower costs and lower margins. In this report we focus on the possible direct effects on prices. In addition to this it is likely that there are efficiency gains, for instance through decreased costs in developing IT-systems etc. for a larger market which would decrease costs both for the suppliers and for DSOs. There might also be other economies-of-scales arising from a larger market. The possible

  18. MACROLEPIDOPTERA SPECIES WITH VULNERABLE STATUS AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE PROTECTED AREA OF DUMBRAVA SIBIULUI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina STANCĂ-MOISE

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a part of a complet study concerning of Macrolepidoptera from the forest “Dumbrava Sibiului” in the Sibiu county. They are presented only the species found by myself for the frist time from this area. I mention that these species were not found by me in the five collections of Lepidoptetra studied by me and preserved at the Natural Hystory Museum in Sibiu.

  19. Knowledge production status of Iranian researchers in the gastric cancer area: based on the medline database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad; Nasrolah-Zadeh, Raheleh; Bayat-Khajeh, Parvaneh; Piri, Reza; Mirnia, Keyvan; Azami-Aghdash, Saber

    2014-01-01

    Scientometrics is a useful method for management of financial and human resources and has been applied many times in medical sciences during recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the status of science production by Iranian scientists in the gastric cancer field based on the Medline database. In this descriptive-cross sectional study Iranian science production concerning gastric cancer during 2000-2011 was investigated based on Medline. After two stages of searching, 121 articles were found, then we reviewed publication date, authors names, journal title, impact factor (IF), and cooperation coefficient between researchers. SPSS.19 was used for statistical analysis. There was a significant increase in published articles about gastric cancer by Iranian researchers in Medline database during 2006-2011. Mean cooperation coefficient between researchers was 6.14±3.29 person per article. Articles of this field were published in 19 countries and 56 journals. Those basex in Thailand, England, and America had the most published Iranian articles. Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Mohammadreza Zali had the most outstanding role in publishing scientific articles. According to results of this study, improving cooperation of researchers in conducting research and scientometric studies about other fields may have an important role in increasing both quality and quantity of published studies.

  20. Status of children in blind schools in the northern areas of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmi, Hasan Sajid; Shah, Ashfaq Ali; Awan, Abdul Aziz; Khan, Jaffar; Siddiqui, Noman

    2007-01-01

    Prevalence of blindness in Pakistan is estimated to be 0.9%, which comes to about 1.25 million persons. A significant number of these are persons under 20 years of age. To make these children useful citizens in future, special facilities are to be provided to these children for their education and training. A study was done to find out the visual status of the students studying in a blind school in Abbottabad, Pakistan, the only such facility in the region. A total of 50 patients were examined during our visit to the blind school in Abbottabad. Age of the patients ranged from 6 to 27 years (mean: 12.32 years). All the students, who were otherwise healthy, were included in the study. The most common disorder identified was malformed globe or traumatic eyes (16 cases, 32%), in most of the cases, leading to phthisis bulbi. Other conditions noticed were Retinitis Pigmentosa (10 cases, 20%), Keratoconus, Optic atrophy, Buphthalmos (6 cases each, 12%), corneal opacity (4 cases, 8%) and retinal detachment (2 cases 4%). We should work towards betterment of these schools by providing them with more funds, equipment and manpower. Regular visits of Ophthalmologists to these schools may be helpful. Genetic counselling should be arranged for the families.

  1. Access to health care in relation to socioeconomic status in the Amazonian area of Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansson, Charlotte; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Access to affordable health care is limited in many low and middle income countries and health systems are often inequitable, providing less health services to the poor who need it most. The aim of this study was to investigate health seeking behavior and utilization of drug...... be indicated. Caregivers frequently paid for health services as well as antibiotics, even though all children in the study qualified for free health care and medicines. The implementation of the Seguro Integral de Salud health insurance must be improved.......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Access to affordable health care is limited in many low and middle income countries and health systems are often inequitable, providing less health services to the poor who need it most. The aim of this study was to investigate health seeking behavior and utilization of drugs...... in Yurimaguas and 793 children of the same age in Moyobamba were included in the study. Caregivers were interviewed on health care seeking strategies (public/private sectors; formal/informal providers), and medication for their children in relation to reported symptoms and socio-economic status. Self...

  2. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN URBAN AREA OF JHANSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Singh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to find out the nutritional status including anthropometric assessment. A cross -sectional study was conducted in primary section of two governments and Iwo convent schools of Jhansi city during the study period of march 1999 to feb2000.Selected school children (n=840 aged 5-11 years, 453 children from municipal school and 387 children from convent school comprised the study material. Following results were observed -out of total children surveyed, 52.98% were male and rests 4 7.02% were females. Hindu formed majority (70.90% of children in both types of schools. Mean height and weight of boys and girls were higher than ICMR standards in both type of school. The mean mid arm circumference of all girls and boys from both type of schools had higher value than the ICMR standards but did not come up to WOLANSKI standard. Statistical analysis-percentage, mean, chi-square test.

  3. Education status determines 10-year (2002-2012) survival from cardiovascular disease in Athens metropolitan area: the ATTICA study, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Georgousopoulou, Ekavi; Notara, Venetia; Pitaraki, Evangelia; Kokkou, Eleni; Chrysohoou, Christina; Skoumas, Yannis; Metaxa, Vassiliki; Pitsavos, Christos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2016-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and educational level seems to be an important determinant of the disease occurrence. The aim of this work was to investigate the association between education status and 10-year incidence of CVD, controlling for various socio-demographic lifestyle and clinical factors. From May 2001 to December 2002, 1514 men and 1528 women (>18 years) without any clinical evidence of CVD or any other chronic disease, at baseline, living in greater Athens area, Greece, were enrolled. In 2011-2012, the 10-year follow-up was performed in 2583 participants (15% of the participants were lost to follow-up). Incidence of fatal or non-fatal CVD was defined according to WHO-ICD-10 criteria. Education status was measured in years of schooling. The 10-year incidence of CVD was 15.7% [95% confidence intervals (CI) 14.1%-17.4%], 19.7% in men and 11.7% in women (Pgender education (education (>12 years of schooling). People in the low education group had higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidaemias, were more likely to be smokers and sedentary, had less healthy dietary habits, as compared with those in the high education group. When controlling for participants' medical history, smoking, dietary and lifestyle habits, low education was no longer significantly associated with CVD, illustrating the mediating effect of clinical and behavioural factors in the link between education and disease. It was of interest that low education status interacted with alcohol drinking, enhancing the adverse effect of low education on CVD risk (relative risk 1.44, 95% CI 0.94%-2.20%), after various adjustments made. In this study, it was concluded that low educational level was associated with increased CVD risk. This was mainly explained by the intermediate association of low education with unhealthy choices that consequently worsen clinical status. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Nordic Cuisine, but National Identities: Nordic Cuisines and the Gastronationalist Projects of Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuman, Nicklas; Leer, Jonatan

    2017-01-01

    This article is a cross-national comparison of how food is promoted on tourism websites offering information about Denmark and Sweden – two countries with big national projects targeting the promotion of culinary excellence, following the initiation of “New Nordic Cuisine” (NNC) in 2004. The aim...... is to study similarities and differences in the projects of these two countries, both quantitatively and qualitatively. 19 out of 32 (approx. 59%) Danish texts referred to a shared Nordic culinary identity, whereas this was only the case in five out 51 (approx. 10%) of the Swedish texts. Moreover......, the qualitative analysis also revealed that “Nordic” cuisine was almost interchangeably connected to Danish cuisine, while in Sweden NNC was more peripheral and culinary excellence was construed as specifically Swedish. We thus criticise the generally accepted idea that NNC is a post-national food movement...

  5. Zinc and copper status in childbearing age Tunisian women: Relation to age, residential area, socioeconomic situation and physiologic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ati-Hellal, Myriam; Doggui, Radhouene; Hedhili, Abderrazek; Traissac, Pierre; El Ati, Jalila

    2016-04-01

    Plasma zinc and copper status of 1689 non pregnant Tunisian women, aged 20-49 years old, was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. A multiple regression was run to predict plasma trace element concentrations from age, BMI, marital status, menopause, education level, professional activity, economic level and area of living. The mean zinc and copper values were similar to those measured among comparable populations in earlier studies. However, a high prevalence of low plasma zinc and copper concentrations was observed assuming that women at childbearing age are at high risk of zinc and copper deficiencies and specific intervention may be considered. In univariate analysis, the mean values of plasma zinc and copper were associated with sitting areas and professional activity. For only plasma copper levels, there was an increase with BMI and parity, and a decrease with increasing schooling level and economic score. After adjustment for all variables, profession and parity showed a significant relationship between plasma levels copper. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Current status of epilepsy treatment and efficacy of standard phenobarbital therapy in rural areas of Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinbei; Luo, Nan; Wang, Zan; Lin, Weihong

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the current status of epilepsy treatment and the efficacy and adverse effects of phenobarbital therapy in rural areas of Northern China. A total of 2192 patients diagnosed with convulsive epilepsy were recruited from seven different rural regions in Jilin Province, China to investigate the current status of epilepsy treatment, and 1379 of them were enrolled in a standard phenobarbital therapy trial. Patients were selected according to strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, and medical records for all patients were collected and analyzed before the standard treatment was started. Patients were followed up monthly, and efficacy in 1218 patients was analyzed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment. More patients had the initial seizure in juveniles than in adults, and 40.72% of the 2192 patients were not receiving any treatment before the treatment trial. The efficacy of phenobarbital increased and adverse effects decreased within the treatment period. Among the 349 patients who were followed up for 12 months from the beginning of the phenobarbital treatment, seizures were decreased by more than 75% in 71.3% of patients using a low-to-medium dose of phenobarbital. Major adverse effects of phenobarbital included mild exhaustion, drowsiness, dizziness and headache. Standardized long-term and regular administration of phenobarbital at a low-to-medium dose can be used as an effective, economic and safe treatment against epilepsy in rural areas.

  7. School meal provision, health, and cognitive function in a Nordic setting - the ProMeal-study: description of methodology and the Nordic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waling, Maria; Olafsdottir, Anna S; Lagström, Hanna; Wergedahl, Hege; Jonsson, Bert; Olsson, Cecilia; Fossgard, Eldbjørg; Holthe, Asle; Talvia, Sanna; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Hörnell, Agneta

    2016-01-01

    School meals, if both nutritious and attractive, provide a unique opportunity to improve health equality and public health. To describe the study rationale, data collection, and background of participants in the study 'Prospects for promoting health and performance by school meals in Nordic countries' (ProMeal). The general aim was to determine whether overall healthiness of the diet and learning conditions in children can be improved by school lunches, and to capture the main concerns regarding school lunches among children in a Nordic context. A cross-sectional, multidisciplinary study was performed in Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden on pupils (n=837) born in 2003. In total 3,928 pictures of school lunches were taken to capture pupils' school lunch intake. A mean of 85% of all parents responded to a questionnaire about socioeconomic background, dietary intake, and habitual physical activity at home. Cognitive function was measured on one occasion on 93% of the pupils during optimal conditions with a Stroop and a Child Operation Span test. A mean of 169 pupils also did an Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test after lunch over 3 days. In total, 37,413 10-sec observations of classroom learning behavior were performed. In addition, 753 empathy-based stories were written and 78 focus groups were conducted. The pupils had high socioeconomic status. This study will give new insights into which future interventions are needed to improve pupils' school lunch intake and learning. The study will provide valuable information for policy making, not least in countries where the history of school meals is shorter than in some of the Nordic countries.

  8. Nordic (cross-country) skiing injuries in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, E; Asquith, J

    1987-03-02

    A retrospective study of 88 nordic skiing injuries from the 1984 and 1985 skiing seasons in Australia is presented. To our knowledge, this is the largest study to date of such injuries. These injuries are compared with alpine skiing injuries from the same medical clinic for the 1985 skiing season. There was a much lower incidence of injury from nordic skiing; however, when injuries did occur, they tended to be more serious than those of alpine skiing and frequently required immediate evacuation to hospital for treatment. As the nordic skier is relatively isolated from medical services, these findings need to be considered in the future planning of rescue services for such skiers.

  9. Consumer acceptance of the New Nordic Diet. An exploratory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micheelsen, Arun; Holm, Lotte; Jensen, Katherine O’Doherty

    2013-01-01

    With direct reference to New Nordic Cuisine and Nordic dietary recommendations, the OPUS Research Centre in Denmark is developing and testing a healthy, regional New Nordic Diet (NND) that promises to have outstanding gastronomic properties. The NND is disseminated to Danish consumers with a view......, are positive towards the ideas underlying the development of this new diet and enjoy the taste and appearance of NND meals. Barriers to acceptance include the untraditional formats of NND meals, the time needed to prepare them, the unfamiliarity of ingredients, perceived problems regarding product availability...

  10. Challenges for future family policies in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    responsibility of parents, but also a responsibility to be shared with society. Moreover, the Nordic welfare model goes hand-in-hand with the women’s movement by offering opportunities for women, as well as men, to also participate in education and employment. The question remains how more recent trends...... such as New Public Management principles and increased focus on children’s positions and rights affect family policies in the Nordic countries? The authors, who come from all five Nordic countries, discuss the following topics: issues related to family demographics, children’s position in society...

  11. Deregulation of the Nordic power market and environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amundsen, E.S.; Nesse, A.; Tjoetta, S.

    1999-01-01

    A common Nordic power market will reduce total CO2 emissions in the Nordic countries as compared to a situation of autarky and, thus, reduce the aggregate cost of complying to strict national CO2 emission targets. A common market for CO2 emission permits may reduce the aggregate cost further, but this cost reduction will be smaller the harsher the CO2 emission constraints are. The economic gain of introducing a common Nordic power market will be particularly large in the case of a Swedish nuclear power phase out. In this case, the cost reduction of introducing a common market for CO2 emission permits will not be very large. 10 refs

  12. Greening of Nordic electricity industry: policy convergence and diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midttun, Atle; Gundersen, Mari Hegg; Koefoed, Anne Louise

    2004-01-01

    With a comparative focus on policy similarity and diversity, this article gives an overview of the main elements of electricity-related environmental policy in the Nordic countries, following the launching of a common electricity market in the 1990s. The article points out that the electricity related environmental policy positions of the Nordic countries showed a noticeable lack of coordination in the 1990s. Nordic divergence is observed both in terms of general policy orientations and at the instrument and incentive levels, in spite of the pioneering development of a common integrated electricity market and ambitious environmental policy goals. The article then highlights how the recent Swedish 'green' certificate market model has created a new momentum for market-based 'greening' with a potential for stronger convergence in Nordic renewable energy policy. In spite of signs of convergence, the article shows how the development of Nordic electricity-related environmental policy still contains considerable ambiguity: Unequal resource endowments, subject to simple resource-based interest formation, should indicate that there is little room for convergence in Nordic renewable energy policy. Shifting the environmental policy focus from existing technologies and resources to potential innovations, however provides a more open arena where the Nordic countries may see themselves served by the dynamic scope of a broader Nordic market based on a common policy approach, such as a green certificate market. In explaining why the Nordic arena may be an interesting locus for common renewable energy policy, the article points out that small countries may need an 'intermediary' arena to aggregate size and scope in order to generate a European momentum in regulatory competition with larger European states. Similarly, Nordic companies may consider the opportunity to gain first mover advantages by partnering with government as local experimentation may be seen as useful pilot

  13. A school and inquiry based project with Nordic student teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stougaard, Birgitte

    Álka is a framework involving teacher education institutions in the Nordic counties. This study describes the design of a module aiming at the establishment of a stronger nexus between research (theory) and teaching of science (practice) and to explore an issue relevant for the student teachers...... future professional life. The theme that was used for the research based project was: Nordic Children’s ideas about living things in the sea. Oral presentation at The 10th Nordic Research Symposium on Science Education (NFSUN), Linköbing, Sweden, June 2011....

  14. Policies and Initiatives for Carbon Neutrality in Nordic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Møller, Jakob Glarbo; Østergaard, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Policies and initiatives promoting carbon neutrality in the Nordic heating and transport systems are presented. The focus within heating systems is the promotion of HPs (heat pumps) while the focus within transport systems is initiatives regarding EVs (electric vehicles). It is found...... for the future heating and transport systems with the ambition of realizing carbon neutrality...... that the conversion to HPs in the Nordic region relies on both private economic and national economic incentives. Initiatives toward carbon neutrality in the transport system are mostly concentrated on research, development and demonstration for deployment of a large number of EVs. All Nordic countries have plans...

  15. Subspecialist training in surgical gynecological oncology in the nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsen, Sofie L; Avall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth; Salvesen, Helga B

    2011-01-01

    To survey the centers that can provide subspecialty surgical training and education in gynecological oncology in the Nordic countries we developed an online questionnaire in cooperation with the Nordic Society of Gynecological Oncology. The link to the survey was mailed to 22 Scandinavian...... (74%) centers were interested in being listed for exchange of fellows. Our data show a large Nordic potential and interest in improving the gynecologic oncology standards and can be used to enhance the awareness of gynecological oncology training in Scandinavia and to facilitate the exchange...

  16. New Nordic and Scandinavian Retro: reassessment of values and aesthetics in contemporary Nordic design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Peter Skou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The “New Nordic” label has spread in the design world since 2005, but it is quite difficult to distinguish from the image of “Scandinavian Design” and the heritage of values and aesthetics from the 1950s. Many designer statements and promotional texts are eager to mention both designations. This survey sketches the background and asks, “What is ‘New’?” and “What is ‘Nordic’?” with a focus on the Danish firm Muuto, which has been a central actor in establishing the term “New Nordic Design.” We focus on the interplay between the storytelling around the products and designers on webpages and in marketing, popular literature, etc., and the actual design objects. Reoccurring themes from the 1950s are how it relates to nature and climate, social models of welfare and equality, and pure, minimalist forms. They are, however, more present in the high expectations of an international audience and in promotions than in the objects themselves. The new products of Nordic Design are close to the current international neo-modernism in the form of digitally designed and industrially produced items in often thought-provoking minimalist forms and are directed at an elitist, international audience that wants to engage with these demanding aesthetics and the ideal picture of Nordic cultures—as a nice design and gourmet destination. New Nordic Design shows that the image and ideals of Scandinavian Modern are still living, as a subtle version of Scandinavian Retro, a reimagination of the lifestyle and values of Scandinavian Modern.

  17. GIS-BASED EXPERIENCE OF INVESTIGATING THE STATUS OF SPAWNING AREAS WITHIN THE UPPER SECTION OF THE TSIMLYANSK RESERVOIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Kalioujnaia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a GIS-based research approach to investigating the status and dynamics of spawning areas of the Tsimlyansk Reservoir (within Volgograd Region, one of the largest inland fishery water bodies in the South of Russia.The spawning areas were considered in terms of the concept of ecotone origin, of the highly dynamic aquatic-terrestrial transitional environment in which temporary flooding is the main factor determining the diversity of spawning habitats, recruitment conditions, as well as ecosystem productivity.The processing and interpretation of Landsat images for the spring and low-water seasons for years between 2005 and 2016, in combination with other data (large-scale topographic maps, fishery research, and scientific papers allowed revealing the location of main spawning areas within the reservoir’s Upper section and to calculate their areas.For three case study sites located on the left bank of the reservoir, the main natural and anthropogenic factors determining the spawning conditions were identified. Retrospective analysis and synthesis of data on young fish composition and abundance between 1980 and today confirmed the importance of these sites for fish recruitment as well as the opportunities for their improvement by means of restoration measures.The output maps present the spatial distribution of the spawning areas and the environmental factors directly or indirectly affecting fish recruitment conditions. The most impacted areas have been determined, including the areas affected by abrasion, siltation and eutrophication processes, as well as pollution of the aquatic zone and water protection zone of the reservoir.The results of the research are useful both for understanding the general environmental conditions of the Tsimlyansk Reservoir and for supporting management decisions towards its improvement. 

  18. Status of remedial investigation activities in the Hanford Site 300 Area groundwater operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulstrom, L.C.; Innis, B.E.; Frank, M.A.

    1993-09-01

    The Phase 1 remedial investigation (RI) and Phase 1 and 2 feasibility studies (FS) for the 300-FF-5 groundwater operable unit underlying the 300 Area on the Hanford Site have been completed. Analysis and evaluation of soil, sediment, and surface water, and biotic sampling data, groundwater chemistry, and radiological data gathered over the past 3 years has been completed. Risk assessment calculations have been performed. Use of the data gathered, coupled with information from an automated water level data collection system, has enabled engineers to track three plumes that represent the most significant contamination of the groundwater

  19. Anemia and nutritional status of schoolchildren living at Saudi high altitude area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Zeid, Alaa H.; Abdel-Fattah, Moataz M.; Hifnawy, Tamer M.; Al-Hassan, Sir-Alkhatima A.; A-Shehri, Abdul Salam A.

    2006-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and possible risk factors for anemia and abnormal anthropometric measurements among schoolchildren in Al-Hada Area, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We conducted the study between January and April, 2005 at Al-Hada area. A nested case-control study was conducted to estimate risk factors for anemia and abnormal anthropometric measurements. From 5 schools, 513 students were recruited. The mean hemoglobin concentration was 13.4+/-0.9 g/dL, while the prevalence of anemia was 11.6% and 15.5% based on hemoglobin and hematocrit values. At the same time, underweight affected 14.2% of the students, and stunting affected 12.2%. Moreover, 9.8% of the students were obese and 13.8% suffered from wasting. Most of the victims of anemia and erroneous anthropometric measurements were females, except for wasting which was more prevalent among males. Anemia is highly prevalent among these schoolchildren, which is seriously affecting the growth of 6-14 year-old children. Similarly, malnutrition seems to be a significant health problem among those children as estimated by anthropometric measurements, where all forms of abnormal body measurements affected at least 9.8% of the studied group. An in-depth investigation of the etiological factors of iron deficiency and malnutrition is urgently needed, and suitable nutrition-education and iron supplementation programs are recommended. (author)

  20. Abundance, distribution and conservation status of Siberian ibex, Marco Polo and Blue sheep in Karakoram-Pamir mountain area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babar Khan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate abundance, distribution, structure and conservation status of three major ungulate species viz., Capra sibirica, Pseudois nayaur and Ovis ammon polii, in the Karakoram-Pamir mountain area between China and Pakistan. Results showed that the entire study area had a scattered but worthwhile population of Siberian ibex, Blue sheep and Marco Polo sheep, except Khunjerab Pass, Koksil-Pateshek and Barkhun areas of Khunjerab National Park (KNP. Large groups of Blue sheep were sighted in Shimshal and Barkhun valleys (KNP but it did not show up in the Muztagh part of Taxkorgan Nature Reserve (TNR in China. Despite scarcity of natural vegetation and extreme climate, estimated abundance of ibex and Marco Polo sheep was not different from that in Protected Areas of Nepal, China, and India, except for Blue sheep. Marco Polo sheep, Blue sheep and Snow leopard roam across international borders among China, Pakistan and other adjacent countries. Illegal hunting and poaching, removal of natural vegetation for fodder and firewood, and over grazing of pastures by livestock were main habitat issues whereas, border fencing for security reasons, has been a major impediment restricting free movement of the wildlife across international borders. A science based conservation and development strategy is proposed to restore viable wildlife populations and maintain ecological flows of Karakoram Pamir Mountains to benefit both the wild species and the local human communities.

  1. Ecological status of soils in petroleum mining regions of North-Eastern area of Caspian Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenzhegaliev, A.K.; Asanbaev, I.K.; Auehzova, O.N.; Akasova, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Comprehensive monitoring of environment (air, water, soil) in populated area adjoining to the Kulsaryneft' deposit is carried out. Purposes of observations are warning and liquidation of petroleum leakages and emission of polluted substances in the case of maximum permissible concentration exceeding. Effectiveness of microbiological methods for liquidation of soils petroleum pollution is emphasized. Active carbon-hydrogen-oxidizing microorganisms for 14 deposits are separated, petroleum in these deposits has distinguished by its content. Researched cultures have tendency to gradual growth of petroleum utilization rate during from 1 up to 7 days. Qualitative changes of petroleum under action of these micro-organisms are determined by method of infrared spectroscopy. There are most typically figures: increase of oxygen containing structures of both the acid and the ether types, and sharp decrease of long-chain paraffins

  2. Nordic Seminar on Waste Problems in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneve, Malgorzata Karpow

    1999-01-01

    This presentation describes a Nordic seminar held in 1998 that focused on radioactive waste disposal in Northwest Russia and that gave special attention to a repository which planned on Novaya Zemlya. The existing plans originated in a programme formulated by the Russian Federation for the period 1996-2005 and titled The Federal Programme: The Management of Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel - Treatment and Final Disposal. The sea around Novaya Zemlya is important to the fishery industry in both Norway and Russia. And there is great Norwegian concern about the vulnerable Arctic environment. Geological conditions are of course crucial to waste disposal, and according to Russian experts, the permafrost bedrock on Novaya Zemlya will provide added safety. Permafrost is a source of a major complex of uncertainties, but there is Western expertise available that might provide international assessment of the construction plans

  3. Contraceptive use in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindh, Ingela; Skjeldestad, Finn E; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim was to compare contraceptive use in the Nordic countries and to assess compliance with recommendations from the European Medicines Agency regarding the use of combined oral contraception containing low-dose estrogen and levonorgestrel, norethisterone or norgestimate. MATERIAL...... AND METHODS: Data on hormonal contraceptive prescriptions and sales figures for copper intrauterine devices were obtained from national databases and manufacturers in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden in 2010-2013. RESULTS: Contraceptive use was highest in Denmark (42%) and Sweden (41%), followed...... by Finland (40%). Combined oral contraception was the most used method in all countries, with the highest use in Denmark (26%). The second most used method was the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system, with the highest use in Finland (15%) and ≈10% in the other countries. Copper intrauterine devices...

  4. Perception of health claims among Nordic consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Boztug, Yasemin

    2009-01-01

    . Claims were constructed from an underlying universe combining different active ingredients (familiar, unfamiliar), type of claim (combination of information about ingredient, physiological function and health benefit), framing (positive, negative) and use of qualifier (with, without 'may'). Across pairs...... of active ingredient, physiological function and health benefit, whereas the other prefers 'short' claims consisting of the health benefit only. Results also showed that the familiar ingredient is preferred to the unfamiliar one, whereas effects of positive vs. negative framing depended on the type......Health claim perception was investigated by a web-based instrument with a sample of 4612 respondents in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden). Respondents decided which of a pair of claims sounded better, was easier to understand, and was more convincing in their opinion...

  5. Electricity tax in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Norwegian power taxation system is different from the taxation systems in the other Nordic countries in that there is a tax on the economic rent in the hydroelectric power generation. Because of this tax Norwegian hydropower producers are facing a higher average tax rate than other hydropower producers. This is important for the accumulation of capital by Norwegian power producers, which in turn affects the companies' ability to finance acquisitions and major investment projects. The tax on the economic rent also affects the need for risk management and the investment incentives for hydropower producers, but it is not possible, as a matter of principle, to prove that these effects have any essential socio-economic significance

  6. Nordic campus retrofitting concepts - Scalable practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Robert; Nenonen, Suvi; Junghans, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Multidisciplinary collaboration and transformations in learning processes can be supported by activity-based campus retrofitting. The aim of this paper is to analyse the ongoing campus retrofitting processes at the three university campuses and to identify the elements of activity......-based retrofitting. We answer the questions “What kind of examples of retrofitting are there at Nordic Campuses?” and “What kind of elements are typical for activity-based retrofitting concepts?” The 3-level framework of campus retrofitting processes was employed when conducting the three case studies. The cases...... were about the new ways of researching, collaborating and learning with the concepts of Living lab, Creative community for innovation and entrepreneurship and Network of learning hubs. The cases provided the first insights on retrofitting based on users’ changing needs and the requirements of more...

  7. Reactor physics calculations in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeglund, R.

    1995-01-01

    The seventh biennial meeting on reactor physics calculations in the Nordic countries was arranged by VTT Energy on May 8-9, 1995. 26 papers on different subjects in the field of reactor physics were presented by 45 participants representing research establishments, technical universities, utilities, consultants and suppliers. Resent development and verification of the program systems of ABB Atom, Risoe, Scandpower, Studsvik and VTT Energy were the main topic of the meeting. Benchmarking of the two assembly codes CASMO-4 and HELIOS is proceeding. Cross section data calculated with CASMO-HEX have been validated for the Loviisa reactors. On core analysis ABB atom gives a description on its latest core simulator version POLCA7 with the calculation Core Master 2 and the BWR core supervision system Core Watch. Transient calculations with HEXTRAN, HEXTRAN- PLIM, TRAB, RAMONA, SIMULATE-3K and a code based on PRESTO II/POLCA7 were also presented

  8. Nuclear power in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Of the Nordic countries-Sweden, Finland, Denmark, and Norway-the first two have chosen nuclear energy to supply a large portion of their electrical generation requirements. Finland has opted for two Western-style boiling water reactors and two modified Russian-designed pressurized water reactors. The country has led the nuclear nations of the world in the 1990s with its capacity factor. Domestic reports state that nuclear is the lowest-cost electrical generation source, and Finland will need additional capacity by 2000. The country's nuclear waste storage facilities are in operation, with more under construction. In this, the second part of a two-part feature (the first part viewed Sweden's nuclear program), the attention is focused on Finland: its government, where it has positioned itself in the world economy, and the internal conflicts of how, or if, to add the needed electrical capacity

  9. Nordic Science and Technology Entrepreneurship Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warhuus, Jan P.; Basaiawmoit, Rajiv Vaid

    As a university discipline, entrepreneurship education (EEd) has moved from whether it can be taught, to what and how it should be taught (Kuratko 2005) and beyond the walls of the business school (Hindle 2007), where a need for a tailored, disciplinary approach is becoming apparent. Within science......, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) EEd, tacit knowledge of what works and why is growing, while reflections to activate this knowledge are often kept local or reported to the EEd community as single cases, which are difficult compare and contrast for the purpose of deriving cross-case patterns......, findings, and knowledge. The objective of this paper is to decode this tacit knowledge within Nordic science and technology institutions, and use it to provide guidance for future EEd program designs and improvements....

  10. Arterial roads and area socioeconomic status are predictors of fast food restaurant density in King County, WA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streichert Laura C

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fast food restaurants reportedly target specific populations by locating in lower-income and in minority neighborhoods. Physical proximity to fast food restaurants has been associated with higher obesity rates. Objective To examine possible associations, at the census tract level, between area demographics, arterial road density, and fast food restaurant density in King County, WA, USA. Methods Data on median household incomes, property values, and race/ethnicity were obtained from King County and from US Census data. Fast food restaurant addresses were obtained from Public Health-Seattle & King County and were geocoded. Fast food density was expressed per tract unit area and per capita. Arterial road density was a measure of vehicular and pedestrian access. Multivariate logistic regression models containing both socioeconomic status and road density were used in data analyses. Results Over one half (53.1% of King County census tracts had at least one fast food restaurant. Mean network distance from dwelling units to a fast food restaurant countywide was 1.40 km, and 1.07 km for census tracts containing at least one fast food restaurant. Fast food restaurant density was significantly associated in regression models with low median household income (p Conclusion No significant association was observed between census tract minority status and fast food density in King County. Although restaurant density was linked to low household incomes, that effect was attenuated by arterial road density. Fast food restaurants in King County are more likely to be located in lower income neighborhoods and higher traffic areas.

  11. Assessment of iodine status in children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women in iodine-replete areas of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangang Meng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD are widespread in China. Presently, IDD have been put under control by Universal Salt Iodisation (USI in China; however, there is a lack of evidence on whether the iodine status in adults, pregnant women and lactating women is optimal. This study was therefore conducted to assess the iodine nutrition and thyroid function of children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women residing in areas where the USI program is fully established. DESIGN: Six areas were selected according to the geographical regions in China. In each of these areas, we selected 4 distinct groups of subjects (children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women in regions where the coverage rate of iodised salt was more than 95% and the levels of iodine and fluoride in drinking water were less than or equal to 10 µg/L and 1 mg/L, respectively. We tested the iodine content of salt, urinary iodine (UI, free thyroxin (FT4, thyrotropin (TSH, thyroglobulin (Tg, thyroglobulin antibody (Tg-Ab and antimicrosomal antibody (TM-Ab in the 4 groups, and examined the thyroid volume in children. RESULTS: The median urinary iodine (MUI concentrations were 271.4 μg/L, 260.2 μg/L, 205.9 μg/L and 193.9 μg/L in children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women, respectively; MUI in children and adults were more than adequate. The goitre prevalence (GP in children was 6.70%. The odds ratios (OR of subclinical hypothyroidism in the Tg-Ab- or TM-Ab-positive groups were 3.80, 7.65, 2.01 and 7.47 for children, adults, pregnant women and lactating women, respectively, compared with the negative groups. CONCLUSIONS: The iodine status in children and adults is above the requirement, we should reduce their iodine intake. Subclinical hypothyroidism easily occurs in the Tg-Ab or TM-Ab positive groups.

  12. Asymmetry in convection and restratification in the Nordic Seas: an idealized model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ypma, Stefanie L.; Brüggemann, Nils; Pietrzak, Julie D.; Katsman, Caroline A.

    2017-04-01

    The Nordic Seas are an important production region for dense water masses that feed the lower limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. They display a pronounced hydrographic asymmetry, with a warm eastern basin, and a cold western basin. Previous studies have shown that this asymmetry is set by the interplay between large eddies shed near the coast of Norway where the continental slope steepens, and the Mohn-Knipovich ridge that separates the Lofoten Basin in the east from the Greenland Basin in the west. While it is known from earlier studies that eddies play a crucial role for the yearly cycle of wintertime convection and summertime restratification in marginal seas like the Labrador Sea, the situation in the Nordic Seas is different as the large eddies can only restratify the eastern part of the Nordic Seas due to the presence of the ridge. Possibly due to this asymmetry in eddy activity and a weaker stratification as a result, the western basin is more sensitive for intense deep convection. The question remains how this area is restratified after a deep convection event in the absence of large eddies and how the dense water is able to leave the basin. An high resolution, idealized model configuration of the MITgcm is used that reproduces the main characteristics of the Nordic Seas, including a warm cyclonic boundary current, a strong eddy field in the east and the hydrographic asymmetry between east and west. The idealized approach enables multiple sensitivity studies to changes in the eddy field and the boundary current and provides the possibility to investigate cause and effect, while keeping the set-up simple. We will present results of tracer studies where the sensitivity of the spreading and the restratification of dense water to the formation location in both basins is studied.

  13. Epidemiology and statistics at the Nordic School of Public Health: Teaching and research 1979-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Bo

    2015-08-01

    The Nordic School of Public Health (NHV) was jointly founded in 1953 by the Nordic countries. Until 1979, the school provided ad hoc courses on public health topics, using external teachers drawn mainly from the Nordic countries. At the time, the permanent staff of the school was small. In 1979, it began a Master's degree programme and a few academic positions were established and filled, to support these courses. The programme included four main areas: Epidemiology, Social Medicine, Environmental Health and Health Services Administration. Epidemiology was compulsory in all Master of Public Health (MPH) exams, but there were a handful of optional courses that could be substituted for the other subjects.This paper tells the story of Epidemiology at NHV from about 1980, up until closure of the school in 2014. The original MPH model ran until 1995. Nursing Science entered NHV from about 1985 and worked mainly with qualitative research that often focused on individual patients. The new methods attracted nurses, midwives, psychologists and other groups that previously had been less represented in NHV. Being quantitative and population oriented, Epidemiology lost its unique position as a mandatory subject for the MPH examination. In addition the 'New Public Health' proposed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) that advocated health promotion and the philosophy of salutogenesis became a challenge for the programme in epidemiology: pathogenesis no longer was of primary interest. From 1995, the MPH format changed repeatedly and a DrPH programme was begun. For the last 8 years of its existence, NHV offered a reasonably comprehensive, basic course in Epidemiology.Throughout the years, epidemiology training and research at NHV were very traditional. In being a relatively free institution in terms of academic choices, NHV should have contributed to the development and innovation of epidemiology in public health. For several reasons, this did not happen. © 2015 the Nordic

  14. Has streamflow changed in the Nordic countries?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisdal, Hege; Holmqvist, Erik; Jonsdottir, Jona Finndis; Jonsson, Pall; Kuusisto, Esko; Lindstroem, Goeran; Roald, Lars A.

    2010-01-15

    Climate change studies traditionally include elaboration of possible scenarios for the future and attempts to detect a climate change signal in historical data. This study focuses on the latter. A pan-Nordic dataset of more than 160 streamflow records was analysed to detect spatial and temporal changes in streamflow. The Mann-Kendall trend test was applied to study changes in annual and seasonal streamflow as well as floods and droughts for three periods: 1961-2000, 1941-2002 and 1920-2002. The period analysed and the selection of stations influenced the regional patterns found, but the overall picture was that trends towards increased streamflow were dominating for annual values and the winter and spring seasons. Trends in summer flow highly depended on the period analysed whereas no trend was found for the autumn season. A signal towards earlier snowmelt floods was clear and a tendency towards more severe summer droughts was found in southern Norway. A qualitative comparison of the findings to available streamflow scenarios for the region showed that the strongest trends found are coherent with changes expected in the scenario period, for example increased winter discharge and earlier snowmelt floods. However, there are also expected changes that are not reflected in the trends, such as the expected increase in autumn discharge in Norway. It can be concluded that the observed temperature increase has clearly affected the streamflow in the Nordic countries. These changes correspond well with the estimated consequences of a projected temperature increase. The effect of the observed and projected precipitation increase on streamflow is less clear.(Author)

  15. Marine litter in the Nordic Seas: Distribution composition and abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl-Mortensen, Lene; Buhl-Mortensen, Pål

    2017-12-15

    Litter has been found in all marine environments and is accumulating in seabirds and mammals in the Nordic Seas. These ecosystems are under pressure from climatic change and fisheries while the human population is small. The marine landscapes in the area range from shallow fishing banks to deep-sea canyons. We present density, distribution and composition of litter from the first large-scale mapping of sea bed litter in arctic and subarctic waters. Litter was registered from 1778 video transects, of which 27% contained litter. The background density of litter in the Barents Sea and Norwegian Sea is 202 and 279 items/km 2 respectively, and highest densities were found close to coast and in canyons. Most of the litter originated from the fishing industry and plastic was the second most common litter. Background levels were comparable to European records and areas with most littering had higher densities than in Europe. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Trading with electric power in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    During recent years Nordic cooperation has contributed to a greater integration of the Nordic electric power markets. This has been based on trade on a short-term basis. As a part of increased integration in Europe and the demand for more effective administration of Nordic energy resources, trade with electric power has become more significant. At the same time environmental challenges have lead to an increase in Nordic and European cooperation, also within the energy sector. The aim of the seminar held in Hankoe, Norway, on June 9-11, 1992 was to discuss the problems within this field. Both theoretical and practical aspects were dealt with and developments in Europe and environmental issues were in focus. The lectures given at the seminar are included in this publication. (AB)

  17. Monitoring and Benchmarking eHealth in the Nordic Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nøhr, Christian; Koch, Sabine; Vimarlund, Vivian; Gilstad, Heidi; Faxvaag, Arild; Hardardottir, Gudrun Audur; Andreassen, Hege K; Kangas, Maarit; Reponen, Jarmo; Bertelsen, Pernille; Villumsen, Sidsel; Hyppönen, Hannele

    2018-01-01

    The Nordic eHealth Research Network, a subgroup of the Nordic Council of Ministers eHealth group, is working on developing indicators to monitor progress in availability, use and outcome of eHealth applications in the Nordic countries. This paper reports on the consecutive analysis of National eHealth policies in the Nordic countries from 2012 to 2016. Furthermore, it discusses the consequences for the development of indicators that can measure changes in the eHealth environment arising from the policies. The main change in policies is reflected in a shift towards more stakeholder involvement and intensified focus on clinical infrastructure. This change suggests developing indicators that can monitor understandability and usability of eHealth systems, and the use and utility of shared information infrastructure from the perspective of the end-users - citizens/patients and clinicians in particular.

  18. The Nordic programme for nuclear safety 1990-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, H.C.

    1992-03-01

    The supplement contains a name-and-address list relevant to the Nordic Nuclear Safety Programme 1990-1993 and covering consortiums, reference groups, programme coordinators, project leaders and project participants. (AB)

  19. The Nordic programme for nuclear safety 1990-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, H.C.

    1993-04-01

    The supplement contains a name-and-address list relevant to the Nordic Nuclear Safety Programme 1990-1993 and covering consortiums, reference groups, programme coordinators, project leaders and project participants. (AB)

  20. Children's acceptance learning of New Nordic components and potential challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Ditte Luise

    that repeated exposure as well as food engagement constitute efficient methods to enhance the acceptance of Nordic foods. Furthermore the importance of follow-up tests and initial liking was highlighted. Many different factors affect acceptance and acceptance learning of food products, some of those may even......It has been suggested that dietary recommendations should be tailored to regional conditions to bridge gastronomi, health and sustainability. The New Nordic diet (NND) has been defined as part of the OPUS project:”Optimal well-being, development and health of school children through a New Nordic......’s food preferences. In the first part of the project it was investigated how a five week intervention with Nordic foods and food engagement affected the acceptance of sea-buckthorn berry products, not included in the intervention. The effect of the intervention was compared to the effect of eight product...