WorldWideScience

Sample records for noon local time

  1. Plasma and magnetic field characteristics of the distant polar cusp near local noon: The entry layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschmann, G.; Haerendel, G.; Sckopke, N.; Rosenbauer, H.; Hedgecock, P.C.

    1976-01-01

    Heos 2 plasma and magnetic field measurements in the distant polar cusp region reveal the existence of a plasma layer on day side field lines just inside the magnetopause. Density and temperature in this layer are nearly the same as they are in the adjacent magnetosheath, but the flow lacks the order existing both in the magnetosheath and in the plasma mantle. Flow directions toward and away from the sun but, in general, parallel to the field lines have been found. The magnetopause (as defined by a sudden rotation of the magnetic field vector) mostly coincides with the transition to ordered magnetosheath flow. The inner boundary of the layer is located just within the outer boundary of the hot ring current plasma. In the region of overlap the hot electrons have the signature of trapped particles, though often at reduced intensity. The magnetic field is strongly fluctuating in magnitude, while its orientation is more stable, consistent with a connection to the earth, but is systematically distorted out of the meridian plane. The layer is thought to be a consequence of the entry of magnetosheath plasma, which does not appear to be unobstructed, as has been claimed in the concept of a magnetospheric cleft. The magnetopause has a cusplike indentation which is elongated in local time. The existence of field-aligned currents (total strength approx. =10 6 A) and their location of flow in the inner part of the entry layer (into the ionosphere before noon and out of it after noon) are inferred from the systematic bending of field lines. It is proposed that the dynamo of the related current system is provided by the transfer of perpendicular momentum resulting from the plasma entry into the layer. The essential features of the entry layer might be compatible with the model of plasma flow through the magnetopause of Levy et al. (1964) if a 'dam' effect caused by the cusp geometry were added

  2. First ground-based optical analysis of Hβ Doppler profiles close to local noon in the cusp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Robertson

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Observations of hydrogen emissions along the magnetic zenith at Longyearbyen (78.2 N, 15.8 E geographic are used to investigate the energy and source of protons precipitating into the high latitude region. During the hours around local solar noon (11:00 UT, measurements of the hydrogen Balmer β line are severely affected by sunlight, such that most data until now have been disregarded during these times. Here we use a simple technique to subtract sunlight contamination from such spectral data. An example is shown in which the removal of twilight contamination reveals a brightening of Hβ aurora over Svalbard on 27 November 2000 between 08:00 UT and 10:00 UT, which is centred on magnetic noon (08:48 UT. These data were measured by the High Throughput Imaging Echelle Spectrograph (HiTIES, one instrument on the Southampton-UCL Spectrographic Imaging Facility (SIF. Data from the IMAGE satellite confirms the location of a cusp "spot" over Svalbard at the time of the ground-based measurements, which moved in response to changes in the IMF conditions. A coincident pass of the DMSP F12 satellite provided input spectra for modelling studies of the Hβ profiles, which confirm that the method for removing the twilight contamination is robust. The results described here are the first ground-based optical measurements of Hβ Doppler profiles from the cusp region close to local solar noon, when scattered sunlight swamps the raw data.

  3. A NOON TIME IN YENISEHIR
    YENİŞEHİR’DE BİR ÖĞLE VAKTİ

    OpenAIRE

    Sefa YÜCE

    2010-01-01

    The novel by Sevgi Soysal, titled “Yenişehir’de Bir Öğle Vakti” (A Noon Time in Yenisehir), tells the fall of the poplar tree which is the symbol of Ankara identity on the poor community. Ankara citizens in daily rush are not aware of many things. The author discusses the new development in Ankara through social, cultural and political dimensions based on the daily lives. She also questions the rapidly developing and changing life style with the establishment of Republic. According to Soysal,...

  4. TOMS/Earth Probe UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Earth Probe UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Monthly L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. (The...

  5. TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 UV-B Erythemal Local Noon Irradiance Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. The Total Ozone...

  6. Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Bénédicte; Mienert, Jürgen; Winther, Svein; Hageberg, Anne; Rune Godoe, Olav; Partners, Noon

    2010-05-01

    The Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON) is led by the University of Tromsø and collaborates with the Universities of Oslo and Bergen, UniResearch, Institute of Marine Research, Christian Michelsen Research and SINTEF. It is supported by the Research Council of Norway and oil and gas (O&G) industries like Statoil to develop science, technology and new educational programs. Main topics relate to ocean climate and environment as well as marine resources offshore Norway from the northern North Atlantic to the Arctic Ocean. NOON's vision is to bring Norway to the international forefront in using cable based ocean observatory technology for marine science and management, by establishing an infrastructure that enables real-time and long term monitoring of processes and interactions between hydrosphere, geosphere and biosphere. This activity is in concert with the EU funded European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) roadmap and European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observation (EMSO) project to attract international leading research developments. NOON envisions developing towards a European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC). Beside, the research community in Norway already possesses a considerable marine infrastructure that can expand towards an international focus for real-time multidisciplinary observations in times of rapid climate change. PIC The presently established cable-based fjord observatory, followed by the establishment of a cable-based ocean observatory network towards the Arctic from an O&G installation, will provide invaluable knowledge and experience necessary to make a successful larger cable-based observatory network at the Norwegian and Arctic margin (figure 1). Access to large quantities of real-time observation from the deep sea, including high definition video, could be used to provide the public and future recruits to science a fascinating insight into an almost unexplored part of the Earth beyond the Arctic Circle

  7. Le grammaire du noon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wane, M.H.

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a grammatical description of Noon, an Atlantic language spoken by fewer than 32,000 people in 33 villages and neighborhoods in the outskirts of Thiès. The study, based primarily on new data collected by the author, provides an analysis on phonology, morphology, nominal

  8. Le grammaire du noon

    OpenAIRE

    Wane, M.H.

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a grammatical description of Noon, an Atlantic language spoken by fewer than 32,000 people in 33 villages and neighborhoods in the outskirts of Thiès. The study, based primarily on new data collected by the author, provides an analysis on phonology, morphology, nominal classification, verbal system, ideophones, interjections and linguistic routines, syntax and divination systems. This work constitutes an important step forward in the nominal classification system. There are...

  9. A NOON TIME IN YENISEHIR YENİŞEHİR’DE BİR ÖĞLE VAKTİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa YÜCE

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The novel by Sevgi Soysal, titled “Yenişehir’de Bir Öğle Vakti” (A Noon Time in Yenisehir, tells the fall of the poplar tree which is the symbol of Ankara identity on the poor community. Ankara citizens in daily rush are not aware of many things. The author discusses the new development in Ankara through social, cultural and political dimensions based on the daily lives. She also questions the rapidly developing and changing life style with the establishment of Republic. According to Soysal, Ankara changes rapidly. However, nobody is aware of this change. As a result of this, the one grow in old Ankara has some difficulties in keeping up with the new Ankara. There occurs a new life style and a new concept in the city. The most distinctive characteristic of this new concept is that the American culture becomes prevalent and a new Americanophile population is occurs. This population makes shopping in American Bazaars and gets dressed in American style. They speak English; they think they climb the social ladder by doing so. The mindset change of the teenagers becomes clear through political differentiation. In this novel, Ali is the typical example of these teens. Ali claims that the ordinance should change. Therefore he supports labor movements and strikes. However he could not have the power to change the ordinance.Fashion passion is become prevalent among the teens in Ankara. The competition of wearing brands starts. Some teenagers start to tease their social status and family. The family relations and social solidarity get weak with the change of value judgments. The collective assistance disappears. Ulus loses its importance, Kızılay become the city centrum. Most of the teens and middle aged population start spending time in Kızılay. Fashion and change is followed in Kızılay. New settlement units are constructed. Especially Kavaklıdere, Gaziosmanpaşa and Çankaya stand out as favorite places. The rich and classy population of

  10. Coordinated ground-based, low altitude satellite and Cluster observations on global and local scales during a transient post-noon sector excursion of the magnetospheric cusp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opgenoorth, H.J.; Lockwood, M.; Alcayde, D.

    2001-01-01

    On 14 January 2001, the four Cluster spacecraft passed through the northern magnetospheric mantle in close conjunction to the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR) and approached the post-noon dayside magnetopause over Greenland between 13:00 and 14:00 UT During that interval, a sudden reorganisation of th...

  11. Coordinated ground-based, low altitude satellite and Cluster observations on global and local scales during a transient post-noon sector excursion of the magnetospheric cusp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Opgenoorth

    Full Text Available On 14 January 2001, the four Cluster spacecraft passed through the northern magnetospheric mantle in close conjunction to the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR and approached the post-noon dayside magnetopause over Green-land between 13:00 and 14:00 UT. During that interval, a sudden reorganisation of the high-latitude dayside convection pattern occurred after 13:20 UT, most likely caused by a direction change of the Solar wind magnetic field. The result was an eastward and poleward directed flow-channel, as monitored by the SuperDARN radar network and also by arrays of ground-based magnetometers in Canada, Greenland and Scandinavia. After an initial eastward and later poleward expansion of the flow-channel between 13:20 and 13:40 UT, the four Cluster spacecraft, and the field line footprints covered by the eastward looking scan cycle of the Söndre Strömfjord incoherent scatter radar were engulfed by cusp-like precipitation with transient magnetic and electric field signatures. In addition, the EISCAT Svalbard Radar detected strong transient effects of the convection reorganisation, a poleward moving precipitation, and a fast ion flow-channel in association with the auroral structures that suddenly formed to the west and north of the radar. From a detailed analysis of the coordinated Cluster and ground-based data, it was found that this extraordinary transient convection pattern, indeed, had moved the cusp precipitation from its former pre-noon position into the late post-noon sector, allowing for the first and quite unexpected encounter of the cusp by the Cluster spacecraft. Our findings illustrate the large amplitude of cusp dynamics even in response to moderate solar wind forcing. The global ground-based data proves to be an invaluable tool to monitor the dynamics and width of the affected magnetospheric regions.

    Key words. Magnetospheric cusp, ionosphere, reconnection, convection flow-channel, Cluster, ground-based observations

  12. On determining the noon polar cap boundary from SuperDARN HF radar backscatter characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pinnock

    Full Text Available Previous work has shown that ionospheric HF radar backscatter in the noon sector can be used to locate the footprint of the magnetospheric cusp particle precipitation. This has enabled the radar data to be used as a proxy for the location of the polar cap boundary, and hence measure the flow of plasma across it to derive the reconnection electric field in the ionosphere. This work used only single radar data sets with a field of view limited to ~2 h of local time. In this case study using four of the SuperDARN radars, we examine the boundary determined over 6 h of magnetic local time around the noon sector and its relationship to the convection pattern. The variation with longitude of the latitude of the radar scatter with cusp characteristics shows a bay-like feature. It is shown that this feature is shaped by the variation with longitude of the poleward flow component of the ionospheric plasma and may be understood in terms of cusp ion time-of-flight effects. Using this interpretation, we derive the time-of-flight of the cusp ions and find that it is consistent with approximately 1 keV ions injected from a subsolar reconnection site. A method for deriving a more accurate estimate of the location of the open-closed field line boundary from HF radar data is described.

    Key words: Ionosphere (ionosphere–magnetosphere interactions; plasma convection · Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause · cusp · and boundary layers

  13. Applications of EPR steering in quantum teleportation and NOON states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate, Laura Rosales

    2018-04-01

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering refers to the type of correlations described in the EPR paradox, where one observer seems to affect ("steer") the state of other observer by using local measurements. There have been several works regarding characterization and quantification of EPR steering. One characteristic of this non-local correlation is that it can be asymmetric, while entanglement is symmetric. This asymmetric property is relevant for potential applications of EPR steering to quantum information, in particular to quantum cryptography and quantum teleportation. This latter refers to the process where one observer sends an unknown quantum state to Bob, who is in a different location. They communicate by classical means. Here we will show that EPR steering is a necessary resource to obtain secure continuous variable teleportation. We will also consider NOON states, which is an example of an entangled state. For this state, we will present a steering signature. This contribution reviews the work derived in Refs. [1] and [2], which was presented as an invited talk in ELAF 2017.

  14. The generation of post noon F3 layers over the dip equatorial location of Thiruvananthapuram- A new perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mridula, N.; Pant, Tarun Kumar

    2018-05-01

    In the present paper, occurrence of post noon F3 layers over Thiruvananthapuram (8.5°N; 77°E; dip latitude ∼ 1.5 °N), a dip equatorial station in India have been investigated. F3 layers that occur beyond 13 IST and as observed using ground based ionosonde, for the years 2004-2008 have been studied. Our analysis shows that post noon F3 layers occur mostly on CEJ days around 16 IST to 18 IST. It is found that the time of the ionospheric E-region electric field reversal as inferred from collocated ground based magnetometer observations plays a crucial role in the generation of post noon F3 layers. In fact an early reversal of electric field emerged to be the necessary condition for the formation of post noon F3 layers. A time delay of three to 4 h is observed between the electric field reversal and the formation of F3 layer. It is proposed that this early reversal causes enhanced ionization over dip equatorial region, providing an additional ion drag to the flow of thermospheric zonal wind. This leads to accumulation of more ionization and neutrals culminating in the generation of post noon F3 layers as in the case of pre noon F3 layers. These results reveal that the generation of post noon F3 layers over the dip equatorial region is a natural consequence of the variability associated with the spatio-temporal evolution of EIA and prevailing thermospheric and ionospheric dynamics, and adds a new perspective to the present understanding.

  15. Pre-1947 Greenwich Mean Noon Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Effort of the US Weather Bureau to collect observations from ships at precisely the same time all across the globe. The goal was to present a complete picture of...

  16. Between Good and Evil: Deconstructive Interpretation of "Noon Wine"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ru; Tian, Yunyun

    2016-01-01

    Katherine Anne Porter (1890-1980) is an eminent novelist in the history of American literature, especially famous for her short novels. "Noon Wine" is her important masterpiece, its plot and motif always lead to reader's deep meditation, and researches focus more on its narrative art, myth archetypes and themes. This paper tries to…

  17. Generation of Bell, NOON and W states via atom interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Rameez-ul; Saif, Farhan [Department of Electronics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Khosa, Ashfaq H [Centre for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2008-02-14

    We propose atom interferometric techniques for the generation of Bell, NOON and W states of an electromagnetic field in high-Q cavities. The fundamental constituent of these techniques is off-resonant Bragg diffraction of atomic de Broglie waves. We show good success probabilities for these schemes under the currently available experimental environment of atom interferometry.

  18. SSC-excited pulsations recorded near noon on GEOS 2 and on the ground (CDAW 6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedeken, U.; Voelker, H.; Knott, K.; Lester, M.

    1986-01-01

    The SSC occurring on March 22, 1979, at 0826 UT had an unusually sharp onset in Scandinavia, in Middle Europe and in experiments on the geostationary satellite GEOS 2, which was near noon, local magnetic time. The ground magnetometer stations showed a small preimpuse which started approx.5 s before the main impulse. Both impulses needed approx.2 s to ''propagate'' from ground stations at L = 6.3-4.6. Search coil magnetometers indicate a very small precursor in northern Finland (Lapprox.4.4-6.0) which started approx.15-20 s before the main impulse. This small precursor also occurred close to the time of the SSC onset at GEOS 2. We interpret this precursor as an effect of precipitating electrons changing the ionospheric conductivity in a localized region. The main impulse triggered damped magnetic pulsations (Psc) with periods near 160 s and 50 s visible in northern Scandinavia and the electric field detector on GEOS 2. Furthermore, the magnetic field and the energetic ions at GEOS observed pulsations with periods near 80 s, but these could only be observed at the northernmost ground stations. There are several indications that the first three harmonics of standing hydromagnetic waves are detected. They may correspond to periodic oscillations of the subsolar point or eigenperiods of the SSC-excited fast mode (compressional cavity resonance). The tentatively identified second harmonic wave (period approx.80 s) is indicative of a bounce resonance of ring current protons. Inside the plasmasphere the dominant period of a superimposed Psc 4 event increased with latitude for the H component indicating several toroidal eigenoscillations

  19. Weak measurements and quantum weak values for NOON states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Zárate, L.; Opanchuk, B.; Reid, M. D.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum weak values arise when the mean outcome of a weak measurement made on certain preselected and postselected quantum systems goes beyond the eigenvalue range for a quantum observable. Here, we propose how to determine quantum weak values for superpositions of states with a macroscopically or mesoscopically distinct mode number, that might be realized as two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate or photonic NOON states. Specifically, we give a model for a weak measurement of the Schwinger spin of a two-mode NOON state, for arbitrary N . The weak measurement arises from a nondestructive measurement of the two-mode occupation number difference, which for atomic NOON states might be realized via phase contrast imaging and the ac Stark effect using an optical meter prepared in a coherent state. The meter-system coupling results in an entangled cat-state. By subsequently evolving the system under the action of a nonlinear Josephson Hamiltonian, we show how postselection leads to quantum weak values, for arbitrary N . Since the weak measurement can be shown to be minimally invasive, the weak values provide a useful strategy for a Leggett-Garg test of N -scopic realism.

  20. Minkowski space-time is locally extendible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beem, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    An example of a real analytic local extension of Minkowski space-time is given in this note. This local extension is not across points of the b-boundary since Minkowski space-time has an empty b-boundary. Furthermore, this local extension is not across points of the causal boundary. The example indicates that the concept of local inextendibility may be less useful than originally envisioned. (orig.)

  1. Local-time survey of plasma at low altitudes over the auroral zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, L. A.; Ackerson, K. L.

    1972-01-01

    Local-time survey of the low-energy proton and electron intensities precipitated into the earth's atmosphere over the auroral zones during periods of magnetic quiescence. This survey was constructed by selecting a typical individual satellite crossing of this region in each of eight local-time sectors from a large library of similar observations with the polar-orbiting satellite Injun 5. The trapping boundary for more-energetic electron intensities, E greater than 45 keV, was found to be a 'natural coordinate' for delineating the boundary between the two major types of lower-energy, 50 less than or equal to E less than or equal to 15,000 eV, electron precipitation commonly observed over the auroral zones at low altitudes. Poleward of this trapping boundary inverted 'V' electron precipitation bands are observed in all local-time sectors. These inverted 'V' electron bands in the evening and midnight sectors are typically more energetic and have greater latitudinal widths than their counterparts in the noon and morning sectors. In general, the main contributors to the electron energy influx into the earth's atmosphere over the auroral zones are the electron inverted 'V' precipitation poleward of the trapping boundary in late evening, the plasma-sheet electron intensities equatorward of this boundary in early morning, and both of these precipitation events near local midnight.

  2. Ordinary differential equation for local accumulation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M

    2011-08-21

    Cell differentiation in a developing tissue is controlled by the concentration fields of signaling molecules called morphogens. Formation of these concentration fields can be described by the reaction-diffusion mechanism in which locally produced molecules diffuse through the patterned tissue and are degraded. The formation kinetics at a given point of the patterned tissue can be characterized by the local accumulation time, defined in terms of the local relaxation function. Here, we show that this time satisfies an ordinary differential equation. Using this equation one can straightforwardly determine the local accumulation time, i.e., without preliminary calculation of the relaxation function by solving the partial differential equation, as was done in previous studies. We derive this ordinary differential equation together with the accompanying boundary conditions and demonstrate that the earlier obtained results for the local accumulation time can be recovered by solving this equation. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  3. Continuity of Local Time: An applied perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Jorge M.; Waymire, Edward C.; Thomann, Enrique A.

    2015-01-01

    Continuity of local time for Brownian motion ranks among the most notable mathematical results in the theory of stochastic processes. This article addresses its implications from the point of view of applications. In particular an extension of previous results on an explicit role of continuity of (natural) local time is obtained for applications to recent classes of problems in physics, biology and finance involving discontinuities in a dispersion coefficient. The main theorem and its corolla...

  4. Smartphones and Time Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, William; Secrest, Jeffery; Padgett, Clifford; Johnson, Wayne; Hagrelius, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Using the Sun to tell time is an ancient idea, but we can take advantage of modern technology to bring it into the 21st century for students in astronomy, physics, or physical science classes. We have employed smartphones, Google Earth, and 3D printing to find the moment of local noon at two widely separated locations. By reviewing GPS…

  5. Space-time and Local Gauge Symmetries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 2. Symmetries of Particle Physics: Space-time and Local Gauge Symmetries. Sourendu Gupta. General Article Volume 6 Issue 2 February 2001 pp 29-38. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  6. Local and nonlocal space-time singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinov, M.Yu.

    1985-01-01

    The necessity to subdivide the singularities into two classes: local and nonlocal, each of them to be defined independently, is proved. Both classes of the singularities are defined, and the relation between the definitions introduced and the standard definition of singularities, based on space-time, incompleteness, is established. The relation between definitions introduced and theorems on the singularity existence is also established

  7. Costationarity of Locally Stationary Time Series Using costat

    OpenAIRE

    Cardinali, Alessandro; Nason, Guy P.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the R package costat. This package enables a user to (i) perform a test for time series stationarity; (ii) compute and plot time-localized autocovariances, and (iii) to determine and explore any costationary relationship between two locally stationary time series. Two locally stationary time series are said to be costationary if there exists two time-varying combination functions such that the linear combination of the two series with the functions produces another time...

  8. Real Time Localization for Mobile Robot

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Věchet, S.; Krejsa, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 12, A 1 (2005), s. 3-10 ISSN 1210-2717. [Mechatronics, Robotics and Biomechanics 2005. Třešť, 26.09.2005-29.09.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : localization * mobile robot Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics

  9. Local Identity in Times of Jurisdictional Consolidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sune Welling; Kjær, Ulrik

    of a dataset which consists of large scale citizen surveys conducted in 2001, 2009 and 2013, combined with register data on the Danish municipalities (the two surveys in 2001 and 2009 even have a panel structure). Our paper contributes to the existing literature on local identity by examining the influence......Reforming the public sector has become increasingly popular. Some of the reforms have been jurisdictional consolidations of subnational authorities such as regions and municipalities. One question which remains unanswered is whether such consolidations affect citizens’ local identity? We take...... a first step towards providing an answer by examining whether citizens’ affective attachment to their municipality – and other administrative and geographical areas – declined or flourished in connection with a large-scale municipal reform implemented in Denmark in 2007. Empirically, we make use...

  10. Mining CANDELS for Tidal Features to Constrain Major Merging During Cosmic Noon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Daniel H.; Mantha, Kameswara; Ciaschi, Cody; Evan, Rubyet A.; Fries, Logan B.; Landry, Luther; Thompson, Scott E.; Snyder, Gregory; Guo, Yicheng; Ceverino, Daniel; Häuβler, Boris; Primack, Joel; Simons, Raymond C.; Zheng, Xianzhong; Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) Team

    2018-01-01

    The role of major merging in the rapid buildup and development of massive galaxies at z>1 remains an open question. New theories and observations suggest that non-merging processes like violent disk instabilities may be more vital than previously thought at assembling bulges, producing clumps, and inducing morphological disturbances that may be misinterpreted as the product of major merging. We will present initial results on a systematic search for hallmark tidal indicators of major merging in a complete sample of nearly 6000 massive z>1 galaxies from CANDELS (Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey), the premiere HST/WFC3 Treasury program. We have visually inspected published GALFIT F160W residual (image-model) maps and produced a comprehensive new catalog of Sersic residual characteristics based on a variety of natural features and poor-fit artifacts. Using this catalog, we find the frequency of galaxies with tidal signatures is very small in CANDELS data. Accounting for the brief time scale associated with faint transient tidal features, our preliminary finding indicates that merger fractions derived from the CANDELS morphological classification efforts are substantially overestimated. We are using the database of residual classifications as a baseline to (1) produce improved multi-component residual maps using GALFIT_M, (2) automatically extract and quantify plausible tidal indicators and substructures (clumps vs. multiple nuclei), (3) develop a new deep-learning classification pipeline to robustly identify merger indicators in imaging data, and (4) inform the systematic analyses of synthetic mock (CANDELized) images from zoom-in hydrodynamic simulations to thoroughly quantify the impacts of cosmological dimming, and calibrate the observability timescale of tidal feature detections. Our study will ultimately yield novel constraints on merger rates at z>1 and a definitive census of massive high-noon galaxies with tidal and double

  11. On Real-Time Systems Using Local Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    87-35 July, 1987 CS-TR-1892 On Real - Time Systems Using Local Area Networks*I VShem-Tov Levi Department of Computer Science Satish K. Tripathit...1892 On Real - Time Systems Using Local Area Networks* Shem-Tov Levi Department of Computer Science Satish K. Tripathit Department of Computer Science...constraints and the clock systems that feed the time to real - time systems . A model for real-time system based on LAN communication is presented in

  12. High-resolution seismic wave propagation using local time stepping

    KAUST Repository

    Peter, Daniel; Rietmann, Max; Galvez, Percy; Ampuero, Jean Paul

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution seismic wave simulations often require local refinements in numerical meshes to accurately capture e.g. steep topography or complex fault geometry. Together with explicit time schemes, this dramatically reduces the global time step

  13. Automatic traveltime picking using local time-frequency maps

    KAUST Repository

    Saragiotis, Christos; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Fomel, Sergey B.

    2011-01-01

    The arrival times of distinct and sufficiently concentrated signals can be computed using Fourier transforms. In real seis- mograms, however, signals are far from distinct. We use local time-frequency maps of the seismograms and its frequency

  14. Tackling Complex Inequalities and Ecuador's Buen Vivir: Leaving No-one Behind and equality in diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Radcliffe, Sarah Anne

    2017-01-01

    Ecuador's postneoliberal policy of Buen Vivir seeks to reduce social inequality and tackle complex disadvantages associated with gender, location, race-ethnicity and other social differences. The paper analyses governmental Buen Vivir policy thinking and institutional arrangements to explore how Buen Vivir frameworks approach the constitutional commitment to equality in diversity, in light of the global Sustainable Development Goal of "Leaving No-one Behind" (LNOB). In many respects Ecuador ...

  15. High-resolution seismic wave propagation using local time stepping

    KAUST Repository

    Peter, Daniel

    2017-03-13

    High-resolution seismic wave simulations often require local refinements in numerical meshes to accurately capture e.g. steep topography or complex fault geometry. Together with explicit time schemes, this dramatically reduces the global time step size for ground-motion simulations due to numerical stability conditions. To alleviate this problem, local time stepping (LTS) algorithms allow an explicit time stepping scheme to adapt the time step to the element size, allowing nearoptimal time steps everywhere in the mesh. This can potentially lead to significantly faster simulation runtimes.

  16. Time signal filtering by relative neighborhood graph localized linear approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    1994-01-01

    A time signal filtering algorithm based on the relative neighborhood graph (RNG) used for localization of linear filters is proposed. The filter is constructed from a training signal during two stages. During the first stage an RNG is constructed. During the second stage, localized linear filters...

  17. Time scales of tunneling decay of a localized state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Yue; Muga, J. G.; Sherman, E. Ya.; Buettiker, M.

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by recent time-domain experiments on ultrafast atom ionization, we analyze the transients and time scales that characterize, aside from the relatively long lifetime, the decay of a localized state by tunneling. While the tunneling starts immediately, some time is required for the outgoing flux to develop. This short-term behavior depends strongly on the initial state. For the initial state, tightly localized so that the initial transients are dominated by over-the-barrier motion, the time scale for flux propagation through the barrier is close to the Buettiker-Landauer traversal time. Then a quasistationary, slow-decay process follows, which sets ideal conditions for observing diffraction in time at longer times and distances. To define operationally a tunneling time at the barrier edge, we extrapolate backward the propagation of the wave packet that escaped from the potential. This extrapolated time is considerably longer than the time scale of the flux and density buildup at the barrier edge.

  18. The Relationship between Language Functions and Character Types in "Noon- Valghalam" by Jalal-Ale-Ahmad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. S. A. Parsa

    Full Text Available Making harmony among language functions of story characters with their character types, is one of the characteristics and advantages of modern and successful story writing. In traditional storied literature in Iran (prose and verse, this point is not considered important and story characters, generally, tell in narrator or writers way of speaking and since there is the narrators statement, they are not the representativeness of their class and character type. Not paying attention to this subject, causes disorder in either making supposition of reality or personifying, which are both important principals of story telling. This study, identifies the story of " Noon Val Ghalam" of Jalal- Ale- Ahmad who is a contemporary writer aspect. The methodology is qualitative, and data collection is based on content–analysis and document- analysis. As Ale- Ahmad was one of the Iranian contemporary writers and was familiar with western and Iranian writers, he was expected that the language and way of describing story characters he made, be based on the social class. But this study, by stating different proofs, shows that, this writer ignores the relationship necessary for language functions and character type among characters in the story and because of the imposition of his knowledge, statement and political and social view, the independence of the protagonists in his story is not well-concidered. The inflection of political and social thoughts of each writer among his works, is not a shortfall by it self, but representing of speeches in protagonists, in the way which is not in harmony with their characters, lowering the importance of then is based or an instrument for specific social and political representatives. This action not only shows the character. The specific characters, but also disorders the processing of one important issue in story conversation. Since in each language people from different social groups, use almost the same vocabularies that

  19. Narração e Storytelling em Mysterious Object at Noon, de Apichatpong Weerasethakul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bértolo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay is a close analysis of Mysterious Object at Noon, directed by Apichatpong Weerasethakul, in which are considered questions of narration motivated by the central place the act of storytelling holds in the film structure. Problems such as the nonexistence of a script and the way the film seems structured by oral narration, in loco, as if the film were being written as it is told, will be analyzed. Finally, I describe how, through this structure, the film reflects upon the specificity of cinema as a way of telling/showing stories.

  20. Real Time Indoor Robot Localization Using a Stationary Fisheye Camera

    OpenAIRE

    Delibasis , Konstantinos ,; Plagianakos , Vasilios ,; Maglogiannis , Ilias

    2013-01-01

    Part 7: Intelligent Signal and Image Processing; International audience; A core problem in robotics is the localization of a mobile robot (determination of the location or pose) in its environment, since the robot’s behavior depends on its position. In this work, we propose the use of a stationary fisheye camera for real time robot localization in indoor environments. We employ an image formation model for the fisheye camera, which is used for accelerating the segmentation of the robot’s top ...

  1. Local time and cutoff rigidity dependences of storm time increase associated with geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, S.; Wada, M.; Tanskanen, P.; Kodama, M.

    1987-01-01

    The cosmic ray increases due to considerable depressions of cosmic ray cutoff rigidity during large geomagnetic storms are investigated. Data from a worldwide network of cosmic ray neutron monitors are analyzed for 17 geomagnetic storms which occurred in the quiet phase of the solar activity cycle during 1966-1978. As expected from the longitudinal asymmetry of the low-altitude geomagnetic field during large geomagnetic storms, a significant local time dependence of the increment in the cosmic ray during large geomagnetic storms, a significant local time dependence of the increment in the cosmic ray intensity is obtained. It is shown that the maximum phases of the local time dependence occur at around 1800 LT and that the amplitudes of the local time dependence are consistent with presently available theoretical estimates. The dependence of the increment on the cutoff rigidity is obtained for both the local time dependent part and the local time independent part of the storm time increase. The local time independent part, excluding the randomizing local time dependent part, shows a clear-cut dependence on cutoff rigidity which is consistent with theoretical estimates

  2. The short time Fourier transform and local signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Shuhei

    In this thesis, I examine the theoretical properties of the short time discrete Fourier transform (STFT). The STFT is obtained by applying the Fourier transform by a fixed-sized, moving window to input series. We move the window by one time point at a time, so we have overlapping windows. I present several theoretical properties of the STFT, applied to various types of complex-valued, univariate time series inputs, and their outputs in closed forms. In particular, just like the discrete Fourier transform, the STFT's modulus time series takes large positive values when the input is a periodic signal. One main point is that a white noise time series input results in the STFT output being a complex-valued stationary time series and we can derive the time and time-frequency dependency structure such as the cross-covariance functions. Our primary focus is the detection of local periodic signals. I present a method to detect local signals by computing the probability that the squared modulus STFT time series has consecutive large values exceeding some threshold after one exceeding observation following one observation less than the threshold. We discuss a method to reduce the computation of such probabilities by the Box-Cox transformation and the delta method, and show that it works well in comparison to the Monte Carlo simulation method.

  3. Motion and time study analysis of wooden locally manufactured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were carried out on time-and-motion-economy of wooden locally manufactured duplicating machines. Two versions of the machine were used for the study, viz: standard version and semi-mechanized version. Working with both auxiliary and routine operations, the standard duplicator produced printed paper at an ...

  4. Energy–momentum localization in Marder space–time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    January 2007 physics pp. 21–30. Energy–momentum localization in Marder space–time. S AYGÜN, M AYGÜN and I TARHAN. Department of Physics, Art and Science Faculty, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University,. 17020 Çanakkale, Turkey and Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Astrophysics Research. Center, Çanakkale ...

  5. Time-dependent reflection at the localization transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipetrov, Sergey E.; Sinha, Aritra

    2018-03-01

    A short quasimonochromatic wave packet incident on a semi-infinite disordered medium gives rise to a reflected wave. The intensity of the latter decays as a power law, 1 /tα , in the long-time limit. Using the one-dimensional Aubry-André model, we show that in the vicinity of the critical point of Anderson localization transition, the decay slows down, and the power-law exponent α becomes smaller than both α =2 found in the Anderson localization regime and α =3 /2 expected for a one-dimensional random walk of classical particles.

  6. Low-latitude boundary layer near noon: An open field line model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, L. R.; Schulz, M.; Pridmore-Brown, D. C.; Roeder, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    We propose that many features of the cusp and low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL) observed near noon MLT can be explained by interpreting the LLBL as being on open lines with an inner boundary at the separatrix between open and closed magnetic field lines. This interpretation places the poleward boundary of the LLBL and equatorward boundary of the cusp along the field line that bifurcates at the cusp neutral point. The interpretation accounts for the abrupt boundary of magnetosheath particles at the inner edge of the LLBL, a feature that is inconsistent with LLBL formation by diffusion onto closed field lines, and for the distribution of magnetosheath particles appearing more as one continuous region than as two distinct regions across the noon cusp/LLBL boundary. Furthermore, we can explain the existence of energetic radiation belt electrons and protons with differing pitch angle distributions within the LLBL and their abrupt cutoff at the poleward boundary of the LLBL. By modeling the LLBL and cusp region quantitatively, we can account for a hemispherical difference in the location of the equatorial boundary of the cusp that is observed to be dependent on the dipole tilt angle but not on the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) x component. We also find important variations and hemispherical differences in that the size of the LLBL that should depend strongly upon the x component of the IMF. This prediction is observationally testable. Finally, we find that when the IMF is strongly northward, the LLBL may include a narrow region adjacent to the magnetopause where field lines are detached (i.e., have both ends connected to the IMF).

  7. Newmark local time stepping on high-performance computing architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Rietmann, Max

    2016-11-25

    In multi-scale complex media, finite element meshes often require areas of local refinement, creating small elements that can dramatically reduce the global time-step for wave-propagation problems due to the CFL condition. Local time stepping (LTS) algorithms allow an explicit time-stepping scheme to adapt the time-step to the element size, allowing near-optimal time-steps everywhere in the mesh. We develop an efficient multilevel LTS-Newmark scheme and implement it in a widely used continuous finite element seismic wave-propagation package. In particular, we extend the standard LTS formulation with adaptations to continuous finite element methods that can be implemented very efficiently with very strong element-size contrasts (more than 100×). Capable of running on large CPU and GPU clusters, we present both synthetic validation examples and large scale, realistic application examples to demonstrate the performance and applicability of the method and implementation on thousands of CPU cores and hundreds of GPUs.

  8. Newmark local time stepping on high-performance computing architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rietmann, Max, E-mail: max.rietmann@erdw.ethz.ch [Institute for Computational Science, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano (Switzerland); Institute of Geophysics, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Grote, Marcus, E-mail: marcus.grote@unibas.ch [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Basel (Switzerland); Peter, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.peter@kaust.edu.sa [Institute for Computational Science, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano (Switzerland); Institute of Geophysics, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Schenk, Olaf, E-mail: olaf.schenk@usi.ch [Institute for Computational Science, Università della Svizzera italiana, Lugano (Switzerland)

    2017-04-01

    In multi-scale complex media, finite element meshes often require areas of local refinement, creating small elements that can dramatically reduce the global time-step for wave-propagation problems due to the CFL condition. Local time stepping (LTS) algorithms allow an explicit time-stepping scheme to adapt the time-step to the element size, allowing near-optimal time-steps everywhere in the mesh. We develop an efficient multilevel LTS-Newmark scheme and implement it in a widely used continuous finite element seismic wave-propagation package. In particular, we extend the standard LTS formulation with adaptations to continuous finite element methods that can be implemented very efficiently with very strong element-size contrasts (more than 100x). Capable of running on large CPU and GPU clusters, we present both synthetic validation examples and large scale, realistic application examples to demonstrate the performance and applicability of the method and implementation on thousands of CPU cores and hundreds of GPUs.

  9. Newmark local time stepping on high-performance computing architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Rietmann, Max; Grote, Marcus; Peter, Daniel; Schenk, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    In multi-scale complex media, finite element meshes often require areas of local refinement, creating small elements that can dramatically reduce the global time-step for wave-propagation problems due to the CFL condition. Local time stepping (LTS) algorithms allow an explicit time-stepping scheme to adapt the time-step to the element size, allowing near-optimal time-steps everywhere in the mesh. We develop an efficient multilevel LTS-Newmark scheme and implement it in a widely used continuous finite element seismic wave-propagation package. In particular, we extend the standard LTS formulation with adaptations to continuous finite element methods that can be implemented very efficiently with very strong element-size contrasts (more than 100×). Capable of running on large CPU and GPU clusters, we present both synthetic validation examples and large scale, realistic application examples to demonstrate the performance and applicability of the method and implementation on thousands of CPU cores and hundreds of GPUs.

  10. Local Social Services in Nordic countries in Times of Disaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eydal, Guðný Björk; Ómarsdóttir, Ingibjörg Lilja; Dahlberg, Rasmus

    of such disasters is on the rise according to forecasts. In order to enhance resilience and preparedness of those most vulnerable in disasters, the involvement of local social services in the emergency management system is of vital importance. The literature shows how social services can enhance social and human......The project focused on the emergency management systems in the five Nordic countries. It investigated whether local social services have a formal role in the contingency planning of the systems. The project was part of The Nordic Welfare Watch research project during the Icelandic Presidency...... Program in the Nordic Council of Ministers 2014-2016. The council financed the project. The main findings show that Finland, Norway and Sweden specifically address the role of social services in times of disaster in their legal frameworks on emergency management. Finland and Norway also address the role...

  11. Constructing pairs of dual bandlimited framelets with desired time localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvig, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    combination of dilations of ψ with explicitly given coefficients. The result allows a simple construction procedure for pairs of dual wavelet frames whose generators have compact support in the Fourier domain and desired time localization. The construction is based on characteriszing equations for dual......For sufficiently small translation parameters, we prove that any bandlimited function ψ, for which the dilations of its Fourier transform form a partition of unity, generates a wavelet frame with a dual frame also having the wavelet structure. This dual frame is generated by a finite linear...

  12. Constructing pairs of dual bandlimited framelets with desired time localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvig, Jakob

    combination of dilations of ψ with explicitly given coefficients. The result allows a simple construction procedure for pairs of dual wavelet frames whose generators have compact support in the Fourier domain and desired time localization. The construction is based on characteriszing equations for dual......For sufficiently small translation parameters, we prove that any bandlimited function ψ, for which the dilations of its Fourier transform form a partition of unity, generates a wavelet frame with a dual frame also having the wavelet structure. This dual frame is generated by a finite linear...

  13. Automatic traveltime picking using local time-frequency maps

    KAUST Repository

    Saragiotis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    The arrival times of distinct and sufficiently concentrated signals can be computed using Fourier transforms. In real seis- mograms, however, signals are far from distinct. We use local time-frequency maps of the seismograms and its frequency derivatives to obtain frequency-dependent (instantaneous) traveltimes. A smooth division is utilized to control the resolution of the instantaneous traveltimes to allow for a trade-off between resolution and stability. We average these traveltimes over the frequency band which is data-dependent. The resulting traveltime attribute is used to isolate different signals in seismic traces. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this automatic method for picking arrivals by applying it on synthetic and real data. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  14. Linear Time Local Approximation Algorithm for Maximum Stable Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Király

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider a two-sided market under incomplete preference lists with ties, where the goal is to find a maximum size stable matching. The problem is APX-hard, and a 3/2-approximation was given by McDermid [1]. This algorithm has a non-linear running time, and, more importantly needs global knowledge of all preference lists. We present a very natural, economically reasonable, local, linear time algorithm with the same ratio, using some ideas of Paluch [2]. In this algorithm every person make decisions using only their own list, and some information asked from members of these lists (as in the case of the famous algorithm of Gale and Shapley. Some consequences to the Hospitals/Residents problem are also discussed.

  15. Time-localized wavelet multiple regression and correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Macho, Javier

    2018-02-01

    This paper extends wavelet methodology to handle comovement dynamics of multivariate time series via moving weighted regression on wavelet coefficients. The concept of wavelet local multiple correlation is used to produce one single set of multiscale correlations along time, in contrast with the large number of wavelet correlation maps that need to be compared when using standard pairwise wavelet correlations with rolling windows. Also, the spectral properties of weight functions are investigated and it is argued that some common time windows, such as the usual rectangular rolling window, are not satisfactory on these grounds. The method is illustrated with a multiscale analysis of the comovements of Eurozone stock markets during this century. It is shown how the evolution of the correlation structure in these markets has been far from homogeneous both along time and across timescales featuring an acute divide across timescales at about the quarterly scale. At longer scales, evidence from the long-term correlation structure can be interpreted as stable perfect integration among Euro stock markets. On the other hand, at intramonth and intraweek scales, the short-term correlation structure has been clearly evolving along time, experiencing a sharp increase during financial crises which may be interpreted as evidence of financial 'contagion'.

  16. Intersection local times, loop soups and permanental Wick powers

    CERN Document Server

    Jan, Yves Le; Rosen, Jay

    2017-01-01

    Several stochastic processes related to transient Lévy processes with potential densities u(x,y)=u(y-x), that need not be symmetric nor bounded on the diagonal, are defined and studied. They are real valued processes on a space of measures \\mathcal{V} endowed with a metric d. Sufficient conditions are obtained for the continuity of these processes on (\\mathcal{V},d). The processes include n-fold self-intersection local times of transient Lévy processes and permanental chaoses, which are `loop soup n-fold self-intersection local times' constructed from the loop soup of the Lévy process. Loop soups are also used to define permanental Wick powers, which generalizes standard Wick powers, a class of n-th order Gaussian chaoses. Dynkin type isomorphism theorems are obtained that relate the various processes. Poisson chaos processes are defined and permanental Wick powers are shown to have a Poisson chaos decomposition. Additional properties of Poisson chaos processes are studied and a martingale extension is obt...

  17. Universal and local time components in Schumann resonance intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Nickolaenko

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We extend the technique suggested by Sentman and Fraser (1991 and discussed by Pechony and Price (2006, the technique for separating the local and universal time variations in the Schumann resonance intensity. Initially, we simulate the resonance oscillations in a uniform Earth-ionosphere cavity with the distribution of lightning strokes based on the OTD satellite data. Different field components were used in the Dayside source model for the Moshiri (Japan, geographic coordinates: 44.365° N, 142.24° E and Lehta (Karelia, Russia, 64.427° N, 33.974° E observatories. We use the extended Fourier series for obtaining the modulating functions. Simulations show that the algorithm evaluates the impact of the source proximity in the resonance intensity. Our major goal was in estimating the universal alteration factors, which reflect changes in the global thunderstorm activity. It was achieved by compensating the local factors present in the initial data. The technique is introduced with the model Schumann resonance data and afterwards we use the long-term experimental records at the above sites for obtaining the diurnal/monthly variations of the global thunderstorms.

  18. Identification of local myocardial repolarization time by bipolar electrode potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, Tsunetoyo; Todo, Takahiro; Yao, Takenori; Ashihara, Takashi; Haraguchi, Ryo; Nakazawa, Kazuo; Ikeda, Takanori; Ohe, Tohru

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether bipolar electrode potentials (BEPs) reflect local myocardial repolarization dynamics, using computer simulation. Simulated action potential and BEP mapping of myocardial tissue during fibrillation was performed. The BEP was modified to make all the fluctuations have the same polarity. Then, the modified BEP (mBEP) was transformed to "dynamic relative amplitude" (DRA) designed to make all the fluctuations have the similar amplitude. The repolarization end point corresponded to the end of the repolarization-related small fluctuation that clearly appeared in the DRA of mBEP. Using the DRA of mBEP, we could reproduce the repolarization dynamics in the myocardial tissue during fibrillation. The BEP may facilitate identifying the repolarization time. Furthermore, BEP mapping has the possibility that it would be available for evaluating repolarization behavior in myocardial tissue even during fibrillation. The accuracy of activation-recovery interval was also reconfirmed.

  19. Parareal algorithms with local time-integrators for time fractional differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Lin; Zhou, Tao

    2018-04-01

    It is challenge work to design parareal algorithms for time-fractional differential equations due to the historical effect of the fractional operator. A direct extension of the classical parareal method to such equations will lead to unbalance computational time in each process. In this work, we present an efficient parareal iteration scheme to overcome this issue, by adopting two recently developed local time-integrators for time fractional operators. In both approaches, one introduces auxiliary variables to localized the fractional operator. To this end, we propose a new strategy to perform the coarse grid correction so that the auxiliary variables and the solution variable are corrected separately in a mixed pattern. It is shown that the proposed parareal algorithm admits robust rate of convergence. Numerical examples are presented to support our conclusions.

  20. Energy-time entanglement, elements of reality, and local realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogenfors, Jonathan; Larsson, Jan-Åke

    2014-10-01

    The Franson interferometer, proposed in 1989 (Franson 1989 Phys. Rev. Lett. 62 2205-08), beautifully shows the counter-intuitive nature of light. The quantum description predicts sinusoidal interference for specific outcomes of the experiment, and these predictions can be verified in experiment. In the spirit of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen it is possible to ask if the quantum-mechanical description (of this setup) can be considered complete. This question will be answered in detail in this paper, by delineating the quite complicated relation between energy-time entanglement experiments and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) elements of reality. The mentioned sinusoidal interference pattern is the same as that giving a violation in the usual Bell experiment. Even so, depending on the precise requirements made on the local realist model, this can imply (a) no violation, (b) smaller violation than usual, or (c) full violation of the appropriate statistical bound. Alternatives include (a) using only the measurement outcomes as EPR elements of reality, (b) using the emission time as EPR element of reality, (c) using path realism, or (d) using a modified setup. This paper discusses the nature of these alternatives and how to choose between them. The subtleties of this discussion needs to be taken into account when designing and setting up experiments intended to test local realism. Furthermore, these considerations are also important for quantum communication, for example in Bell-inequality-based quantum cryptography, especially when aiming for device independence. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’.

  1. Energy-time entanglement, elements of reality, and local realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jogenfors, Jonathan; Larsson, Jan-Åke

    2014-01-01

    The Franson interferometer, proposed in 1989 (Franson 1989 Phys. Rev. Lett. 62 2205–08), beautifully shows the counter-intuitive nature of light. The quantum description predicts sinusoidal interference for specific outcomes of the experiment, and these predictions can be verified in experiment. In the spirit of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen it is possible to ask if the quantum-mechanical description (of this setup) can be considered complete. This question will be answered in detail in this paper, by delineating the quite complicated relation between energy-time entanglement experiments and Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen (EPR) elements of reality. The mentioned sinusoidal interference pattern is the same as that giving a violation in the usual Bell experiment. Even so, depending on the precise requirements made on the local realist model, this can imply (a) no violation, (b) smaller violation than usual, or (c) full violation of the appropriate statistical bound. Alternatives include (a) using only the measurement outcomes as EPR elements of reality, (b) using the emission time as EPR element of reality, (c) using path realism, or (d) using a modified setup. This paper discusses the nature of these alternatives and how to choose between them. The subtleties of this discussion needs to be taken into account when designing and setting up experiments intended to test local realism. Furthermore, these considerations are also important for quantum communication, for example in Bell-inequality-based quantum cryptography, especially when aiming for device independence. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (paper)

  2. Timing of Clinical Billing Reimbursement for a Local Health Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, J Mac

    2016-01-01

    A major responsibility of a local health department (LHD) is to assure public health service availability throughout its jurisdiction. Many LHDs face expanded service needs and declining budgets, making billing for services an increasingly important strategy for sustaining public health service provision. Yet, little practice-based data exist to guide practitioners on what to expect financially, especially regarding timing of reimbursement receipt. This study provides results from one LHD on the lag from service delivery to reimbursement receipt. Reimbursement records for all transactions at Maricopa County Department of Public Health immunization clinics from January 2013 through June 2014 were compiled and analyzed to determine the duration between service and reimbursement. Outcomes included daily and cumulative revenues received. Time to reimbursement for Medicaid and private payers was also compared. Reimbursement for immunization services was received a median of 68 days after service. Payments were sometimes taken back by payers through credit transactions that occurred a median of 333 days from service. No differences in time to reimbursement between Medicaid and private payers were found. Billing represents an important financial opportunity for LHDs to continue to sustainably assure population health. Yet, the lag from service provision to reimbursement may complicate budgeting, especially in initial years of new billing activities. Special consideration may be necessary to establish flexibility in the budget-setting processes for services with clinical billing revenues, because funds for services delivered in one budget period may not be received in the same period. LHDs may also benefit from exploring strategies used by other delivery organizations to streamline billing processes.

  3. Investment timing under hybrid stochastic and local volatility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Lee, Min-Ku; Sohn, So Young

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of hybrid stochastic volatility on real option prices are studied. • The stochastic volatility consists of a fast mean-reverting component and a CEV type one. • A fast mean-reverting factor lowers real option prices and investment thresholds. • The increase of elasticity raises real option prices and investment thresholds. • The effects of the addition of a slowly varying factor depend upon the project value. - Abstract: We consider an investment timing problem under a real option model where the instantaneous volatility of the project value is given by a combination of a hidden stochastic process and the project value itself. The stochastic volatility part is given by a function of a fast mean-reverting process as well as a slowly varying process and the local volatility part is a power (the elasticity parameter) of the project value itself. The elasticity parameter controls directly the correlation between the project value and the volatility. Knowing that the project value represents the market price of a real asset in many applications and the value of the elasticity parameter depends on the asset, the elasticity parameter should be treated with caution for investment decision problems. Based on the hybrid structure of volatility, we investigate the simultaneous impact of the elasticity and the stochastic volatility on the real option value as well as the investment threshold

  4. Using time-of-flight for WLAN localization: feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavitha Muthukrishnan, K.; Koprinkov, G.T.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Lijding, M.E.M.

    Although signal strength based techniques are widely employed for WLAN localization, they generally suffer from providing highly accurate location information. In this paper, we first present the general shortcomings of the signal strength based approaches used for WLANbased localization and then

  5. Local models violating Bell's inequality by time delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalera, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of ensemble averages is neither a sufficient nor a necessary condition to avoid Bell's inequality violations characteristic of nonergodic systems. Slight modifications of a local nonergodic logical model violating Bell's inequality produce a stochastic model exactly fitting the quantum-mechanical correlation function. From these considerations is appears evident that the last experiments on the existence of local hidden variables are not conclusive

  6. Astrometric and Timing Effects of Gravitational Waves from Localized Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Kopeikin, Sergei M.; Schafer, Gerhard; Gwinn, Carl R.; Eubanks, T. Marshall

    1998-01-01

    A consistent approach for an exhaustive solution of the problem of propagation of light rays in the field of gravitational waves emitted by a localized source of gravitational radiation is developed in the first post-Minkowskian and quadrupole approximation of General Relativity. We demonstrate that the equations of light propagation in the retarded gravitational field of an arbitrary localized source emitting quadrupolar gravitational waves can be integrated exactly. The influence of the gra...

  7. Local dimension and finite time prediction in coupled map lattices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Forecasting, for obvious reasons, often become the most important goal to be achieved. For spatially extended systems (e.g. atmospheric system) where the local nonlinearities lead to the most unpredictable chaotic evolution, it is highly desirable to have a simple diagnostic tool to identify regions of predictable behaviour.

  8. Time dependency of local cerebral blood flow measurements caused by regional variations in tissue transit time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lear, J.L.; Kasliwal, R.; Feyerabend, A.

    1990-01-01

    Calculated values of local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) using the diffusible tracer model are assumed to be independent of time as long as experiments are brief enough to prevent tissue saturation. This paper investigates the effects of CTT variation on LCBF measurements. Using double-label quantitative digital autoradiography, we compared iodoantipyrine (IAP)-based LCBF measurements obtained with tracer infusions of different lengths of time. Lightly anesthetized rats were given simultaneous ramp infusions of C-14 IAP (45 seconds) and I-123 IAP (15 seconds) and immediately sacrificed. Two autoradiograms of each brain section, one representing I-123 and the other representing C-14, were produced, digitized, and converted into images of LCBF based on the 15- and 45-second infusion periods. The LCBF image pairs were compared on a pixel-by-pixel basis

  9. What affects local community hospitals' survival in turbulent times?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hung-Che; Wang, Shiow-Ing

    2015-06-01

    Hospital closures became a prevalent phenomenon in Taiwan after the implementation of a national health insurance program. A wide range of causes contributes to the viability of hospitals, but little is known about the situation under universal coverage health systems. The purpose of present study is to recognize the factors that may contribute to hospital survival under the universal coverage health system. This is a retrospective case-control study. Local community hospitals that contracted with the Bureau of National Health Insurance in 1998 and remained open during the period 1998-2011 are the designated cases. Controls are local community hospitals that closed during the same period. Using longitudinal representative health claim data, 209 local community hospitals that closed during 1998-2011 were compared with 165 that remained open. Variables related to institutional characteristics, degree of competition, characteristics of patients and financial performance were analyzed by logistic regression models. Hospitals' survival was positively related to specialty hospital, the number of respiratory care beds, the physician to population ratio, the number of clinics in the same region, a highly competitive market and the occupancy rate of elderly patients in the hospital. Teaching hospitals, investor-owned hospitals, the provision of obstetrics services or home care, and the number of medical centers or other local community hospitals may jeopardize the chance of survival. Factors-enhanced local hospitals to survive under the universal coverage health system have been identified. Hospital managers could manipulate these findings and adapt strategies for subsistence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  10. Tracking time-varying parameters with local regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Alfred Karsten; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov

    2000-01-01

    This paper shows that the recursive least-squares (RLS) algorithm with forgetting factor is a special case of a varying-coe\\$cient model, and a model which can easily be estimated via simple local regression. This observation allows us to formulate a new method which retains the RLS algorithm, bu......, but extends the algorithm by including polynomial approximations. Simulation results are provided, which indicates that this new method is superior to the classical RLS method, if the parameter variations are smooth....

  11. Local unemployment and the timing of post-secondary schooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sievertsen, Hans Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Using Danish administrative data on all high school graduates from 1984 to 1992, I show that local unemployment has both a short- and a long-run effect on school enrollment and completion. The short-run effect causes students to advance their enrollment, and consequently their completion, of addi......, of additional schooling. The long-run effect causes students who would otherwise never have enrolled to enroll and complete schooling. The effects are strongest for children of parents with no higher education....

  12. 5 CFR 1601.32 - Timing and posting dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... participant service representative at the participant's request, at or before 12:00 noon eastern time of any... after 12:00 noon eastern time of any business day will ordinarily be posted on the next business day. (2... ordinarily be posted under the rules in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, based on when the TSP record keeper...

  13. Top-level design and local-level paralysis: Local politics in times of political centralisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stepan, M.; Ahlers, A.L.; Heilmann, S.; Stepan, M.

    2016-01-01

    China’s leadership under Xi has reinforced the party’s hierarchical command structures, demonstrated through its top-down campaigns, focusing on austerity, anti-corruption efforts and party discipline. It has reinvigorated sanctioning and incentive mechanisms for local cadres, with unknown effects

  14. Cycling of clock genes entrained to the solar rhythm enables plants to tell time: data from arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Yeang, Hoong-Yeet

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims An endogenous rhythm synchronized to dawn cannot time photosynthesis-linked genes to peak consistently at noon since the interval between sunrise and noon changes seasonally. In this study, a solar clock model that circumvents this limitation is proposed using two daily timing references synchronized to noon and midnight. Other rhythmic genes that are not directly linked to photosynthesis, and which peak at other times, also find an adaptive advantage in entrainment to the...

  15. Real time magnetic resonance guided endomyocardial local delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, R; Badimon, J; Mizsei, G; Macaluso, F; Lee, M; Licato, P; Viles-Gonzalez, J F; Fuster, V; Sherman, W

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of targeting various areas of left ventricle myocardium under real time magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with a customised injection catheter equipped with a miniaturised coil. Design: A needle injection catheter with a mounted resonant solenoid circuit (coil) at its tip was designed and constructed. A 1.5 T MR scanner with customised real time sequence combined with in-room scan running capabilities was used. With this system, various myocardial areas within the left ventricle were targeted and injected with a gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and Indian ink mixture. Results: Real time sequencing at 10 frames/s allowed clear visualisation of the moving catheter and its transit through the aorta into the ventricle, as well as targeting of all ventricle wall segments without further image enhancement techniques. All injections were visualised by real time MR imaging and verified by gross pathology. Conclusion: The tracking device allowed real time in vivo visualisation of catheters in the aorta and left ventricle as well as precise targeting of myocardial areas. The use of this real time catheter tracking may enable precise and adequate delivery of agents for tissue regeneration. PMID:15710717

  16. Recovery time after localized perturbations in complex dynamical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Chiranjit; Kittel, Tim; Choudhary, Anshul; Kurths, Jürgen; Donner, Reik V.

    2017-10-01

    Maintaining the synchronous motion of dynamical systems interacting on complex networks is often critical to their functionality. However, real-world networked dynamical systems operating synchronously are prone to random perturbations driving the system to arbitrary states within the corresponding basin of attraction, thereby leading to epochs of desynchronized dynamics with a priori unknown durations. Thus, it is highly relevant to have an estimate of the duration of such transient phases before the system returns to synchrony, following a random perturbation to the dynamical state of any particular node of the network. We address this issue here by proposing the framework of single-node recovery time (SNRT) which provides an estimate of the relative time scales underlying the transient dynamics of the nodes of a network during its restoration to synchrony. We utilize this in differentiating the particularly slow nodes of the network from the relatively fast nodes, thus identifying the critical nodes which when perturbed lead to significantly enlarged recovery time of the system before resuming synchronized operation. Further, we reveal explicit relationships between the SNRT values of a network, and its global relaxation time when starting all the nodes from random initial conditions. Earlier work on relaxation time generally focused on investigating its dependence on macroscopic topological properties of the respective network. However, we employ the proposed concept for deducing microscopic relationships between topological features of nodes and their respective SNRT values. The framework of SNRT is further extended to a measure of resilience of the different nodes of a networked dynamical system. We demonstrate the potential of SNRT in networks of Rössler oscillators on paradigmatic topologies and a model of the power grid of the United Kingdom with second-order Kuramoto-type nodal dynamics illustrating the conceivable practical applicability of the proposed

  17. Recovery time after localized perturbations in complex dynamical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Chiranjit; Kittel, Tim; Kurths, Jürgen; Donner, Reik V; Choudhary, Anshul

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining the synchronous motion of dynamical systems interacting on complex networks is often critical to their functionality. However, real-world networked dynamical systems operating synchronously are prone to random perturbations driving the system to arbitrary states within the corresponding basin of attraction, thereby leading to epochs of desynchronized dynamics with a priori unknown durations. Thus, it is highly relevant to have an estimate of the duration of such transient phases before the system returns to synchrony, following a random perturbation to the dynamical state of any particular node of the network. We address this issue here by proposing the framework of single-node recovery time (SNRT) which provides an estimate of the relative time scales underlying the transient dynamics of the nodes of a network during its restoration to synchrony. We utilize this in differentiating the particularly slow nodes of the network from the relatively fast nodes, thus identifying the critical nodes which when perturbed lead to significantly enlarged recovery time of the system before resuming synchronized operation. Further, we reveal explicit relationships between the SNRT values of a network, and its global relaxation time when starting all the nodes from random initial conditions. Earlier work on relaxation time generally focused on investigating its dependence on macroscopic topological properties of the respective network. However, we employ the proposed concept for deducing microscopic relationships between topological features of nodes and their respective SNRT values. The framework of SNRT is further extended to a measure of resilience of the different nodes of a networked dynamical system. We demonstrate the potential of SNRT in networks of Rössler oscillators on paradigmatic topologies and a model of the power grid of the United Kingdom with second-order Kuramoto-type nodal dynamics illustrating the conceivable practical applicability of the proposed

  18. INDONESIA AND LGBT: IS IT TIME TO APPRECIATE LOCAL VALUE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Yuwana YUSTIKANINGRUM

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the issue on why Indonesian people cannot accept Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (“LGBT”. Further, it also illustrates the reflection on how the society changes paradox in the era of globalisation. More concretely, which shows its willingness to uniform the social structure, at the same time attempts to preserve their own distinctive identity. Indonesian people who uphold Pancasila or five national ideologies would be a perfect example in this case. Pancasila, in this case, is a crystallization form of the values such as religious, social, and cultural realm which live within Indonesian society. As time passes, Pancasila is often grounded and contrasted to western cultural values like LGBT. The influx of LGBT thoughts which relies on the human rights concept spread a long time ago in Indonesia. However, this issue reemerges into the air, at the same time in different places and countries, becomes the vast spread of LGBT legalization such as in Europe and America. The resistance against Indonesian people, who mostly anti LGBT concept, is sparked by the influence of international human right law. These are recorded several times in Indonesia’s history. Attempts such as submitting judicial review in the Constitutional Court about the offense of adultery contained in the criminal law case, establishing the pro-LGBT legal communities, and gathering social supports are also conducted to convince Indonesian people to accept LGBT in the society. However, both society and government agree to take steps and synergize to stand firmly to drown this effort. Then, this article will also expose some scholars’ arguments, cases, jurisprudence, and journals to show the authors’ standing in this context.

  19. Maximal Increments of Local Time of a Random Walk

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Naresh C.; Pruitt, William E.

    1987-01-01

    Let $(S_j)$ be a lattice random walk, i.e., $S_j = X_1 + \\cdots + X_j$, where $X_1, X_2,\\ldots$ are independent random variables with values in $\\mathbb{Z}$ and common nondegenerate distribution $F$. Let $\\{t_n\\}$ be a nondecreasing sequence of positive integers, $t_n \\leq n$, and $L^\\ast_n = \\max_{0\\leq j\\leq n-t_n}(L_{j+t_n} - L_j)$, where $L_n = \\sum^n_{j=1}1_{\\{0\\}}(S_j)$, the number of times zero is visited by the random walk by time $n$. Assuming that the random walk is recurrent and sa...

  20. Extreme localization of electrons in space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommelhoff, Peter; Kealhofer, Catherine; Aghajani-Talesh, Anoush; Sortais, Yvan R P; Foreman, Seth M; Kasevich, Mark A

    2009-04-01

    Electron emission from sharp metal tips can take place on sub-femtosecond time scales if the emission is driven by few cycle femtosecond laser pulses. Here we outline the experimental prerequisites in detail, discuss emission regimes and relate them to recent experiments in the gas phase (attosecond physics). We present a process that leads to single atom tip emitters that are stable under laser illumination and conclude with a discussion of how to achieve short electron pulses at a target.

  1. Spike-timing-based computation in sound localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan F M Goodman

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Spike timing is precise in the auditory system and it has been argued that it conveys information about auditory stimuli, in particular about the location of a sound source. However, beyond simple time differences, the way in which neurons might extract this information is unclear and the potential computational advantages are unknown. The computational difficulty of this task for an animal is to locate the source of an unexpected sound from two monaural signals that are highly dependent on the unknown source signal. In neuron models consisting of spectro-temporal filtering and spiking nonlinearity, we found that the binaural structure induced by spatialized sounds is mapped to synchrony patterns that depend on source location rather than on source signal. Location-specific synchrony patterns would then result in the activation of location-specific assemblies of postsynaptic neurons. We designed a spiking neuron model which exploited this principle to locate a variety of sound sources in a virtual acoustic environment using measured human head-related transfer functions. The model was able to accurately estimate the location of previously unknown sounds in both azimuth and elevation (including front/back discrimination in a known acoustic environment. We found that multiple representations of different acoustic environments could coexist as sets of overlapping neural assemblies which could be associated with spatial locations by Hebbian learning. The model demonstrates the computational relevance of relative spike timing to extract spatial information about sources independently of the source signal.

  2. Position-dependent radiative transfer as a tool for studying Anderson localization: Delay time, time-reversal and coherent backscattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tiggelen, B. A.; Skipetrov, S. E.; Page, J. H.

    2017-05-01

    Previous work has established that the localized regime of wave transport in open media is characterized by a position-dependent diffusion coefficient. In this work we study how the concept of position-dependent diffusion affects the delay time, the transverse confinement, the coherent backscattering, and the time reversal of waves. Definitions of energy transport velocity of localized waves are proposed. We start with a phenomenological model of radiative transfer and then present a novel perturbational approach based on the self-consistent theory of localization. The latter allows us to obtain results relevant for realistic experiments in disordered quasi-1D wave guides and 3D slabs.

  3. Discrete-Time Local Value Iteration Adaptive Dynamic Programming: Admissibility and Termination Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qinglai; Liu, Derong; Lin, Qiao

    In this paper, a novel local value iteration adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) algorithm is developed to solve infinite horizon optimal control problems for discrete-time nonlinear systems. The focuses of this paper are to study admissibility properties and the termination criteria of discrete-time local value iteration ADP algorithms. In the discrete-time local value iteration ADP algorithm, the iterative value functions and the iterative control laws are both updated in a given subset of the state space in each iteration, instead of the whole state space. For the first time, admissibility properties of iterative control laws are analyzed for the local value iteration ADP algorithm. New termination criteria are established, which terminate the iterative local ADP algorithm with an admissible approximate optimal control law. Finally, simulation results are given to illustrate the performance of the developed algorithm.In this paper, a novel local value iteration adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) algorithm is developed to solve infinite horizon optimal control problems for discrete-time nonlinear systems. The focuses of this paper are to study admissibility properties and the termination criteria of discrete-time local value iteration ADP algorithms. In the discrete-time local value iteration ADP algorithm, the iterative value functions and the iterative control laws are both updated in a given subset of the state space in each iteration, instead of the whole state space. For the first time, admissibility properties of iterative control laws are analyzed for the local value iteration ADP algorithm. New termination criteria are established, which terminate the iterative local ADP algorithm with an admissible approximate optimal control law. Finally, simulation results are given to illustrate the performance of the developed algorithm.

  4. Transitioning from a noon conference to an academic half-day curriculum model: effect on medical knowledge acquisition and learning satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Duc; Faulx, Michael; Isada, Carlos; Kattan, Michael; Yu, Changhong; Olender, Jeff; Nielsen, Craig; Brateanu, Andrei

    2014-03-01

    The academic half-day (AHD) curriculum is an alternative to the traditional noon conference in graduate medical education, yet little is known regarding its effect on knowledge acquisition and resident satisfaction. We investigated the association between the 2 approaches for delivering the curriculum and knowledge acquisition, as reflected by the Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (IM-ITE) scores and assessed resident learning satisfaction under both curricula. The Cleveland Clinic Internal Medicine Residency Program transitioned from the noon conference to the AHD curriculum in 2011. Covariates for residents enrolled from 2004 to 2011 were age; sex; type of medical degree; United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1, 2 Clinical Knowledge; and IM-ITE-1 scores. We performed univariable and multivariable linear regressions to investigate the association between covariates and IM-ITE-2 and IM-ITE-3 scores. Residents also were surveyed about their learning satisfaction in both curricula. Of 364 residents, 112 (31%) and 252 (69%) were exposed to the AHD and the noon conference curriculum, respectively. In multivariable analyses, the AHD curriculum was associated with higher IM-ITE-3 (regression coefficient, 4.8; 95% confidence interval 2.9-6.6) scores, and residents in the AHD curriculum had greater learning satisfaction compared with the noon conference cohort (Likert, 3.4 versus 3.0; P  =  .003). The AHD curriculum was associated with improvement in resident medical knowledge acquisition and increased learner satisfaction.

  5. The necessity for a time local dimension in systems with time-varying attractors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Særmark, Knud H; Ashkenazy, Y; Levitan, J

    1997-01-01

    We show that a simple non-linear system for ordinary differential equations may possess a time-varying attractor dimension. This indicates that it is infeasible to characterize EEG and MEG time series with a single time global dimension. We suggest another measure for the description of non...

  6. Characterizing Time Irreversibility in Disordered Fermionic Systems by the Effect of Local Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardhan, Shreya; De Tomasi, Giuseppe; Heyl, Markus; Heller, Eric J.; Pollmann, Frank

    2017-07-01

    We study the effects of local perturbations on the dynamics of disordered fermionic systems in order to characterize time irreversibility. We focus on three different systems: the noninteracting Anderson and Aubry-André-Harper (AAH) models and the interacting spinless disordered t -V chain. First, we consider the effect on the full many-body wave functions by measuring the Loschmidt echo (LE). We show that in the extended or ergodic phase the LE decays exponentially fast with time, while in the localized phase the decay is algebraic. We demonstrate that the exponent of the decay of the LE in the localized phase diverges proportionally to the single-particle localization length as we approach the metal-insulator transition in the AAH model. Second, we probe different phases of disordered systems by studying the time expectation value of local observables evolved with two Hamiltonians that differ by a spatially local perturbation. Remarkably, we find that many-body localized systems could lose memory of the initial state in the long-time limit, in contrast to the noninteracting localized phase where some memory is always preserved.

  7. Scheduled MAC in Beacon Overlay Networks for Underwater Localization and Time-Synchronization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kleunen, W.A.P.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we introduce a MAC protocol designed for underwater localization and time-synchronisation. The MAC protocol assumes a network of static reference nodes and allows blind nodes to be localized by listening-only to the beacon messages. Such a system is known to be very scalable. We show

  8. Robot Mapping With Real-Time Incremental Localization Using Expectation Maximization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Owens, Kevin L

    2005-01-01

    This research effort explores and develops a real-time sonar-based robot mapping and localization algorithm that provides pose correction within the context of a singe room, to be combined with pre...

  9. Dynamical pruning of static localized basis sets in time-dependent quantum dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCormack, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the viability of dynamical pruning of localized basis sets in time-dependent quantum wave packet methods. Basis functions that have a very small population at any given time are removed from the active set. The basis functions themselves are time independent, but the set of active

  10. The detection of local irreversibility in time series based on segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yue; Shang, Pengjian

    2018-06-01

    We propose a strategy for the detection of local irreversibility in stationary time series based on multiple scale. The detection is beneficial to evaluate the displacement of irreversibility toward local skewness. By means of this method, we can availably discuss the local irreversible fluctuations of time series as the scale changes. The method was applied to simulated nonlinear signals generated by the ARFIMA process and logistic map to show how the irreversibility functions react to the increasing of the multiple scale. The method was applied also to series of financial markets i.e., American, Chinese and European markets. The local irreversibility for different markets demonstrate distinct characteristics. Simulations and real data support the need of exploring local irreversibility.

  11. The Existence of Local Wisdom Value Through Minangkabau Dance Creation Representation in Present Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrayuda Indrayuda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aiming at revealing the existence of local wisdom values in Minangkabau through the representation of Minangkabau dance creation at present time in West Sumatera. The existence of the dance itself gives impact to the continuation of the existence of local value in West Sumatera. The research method was qualitative which was used to analyze local wisdom values in the present time Minangkabu dance creation representation through the touch of reconstruction and acculturation as the local wisdom continuation. Besides, this study employs multidisciplinary study as the approach of the study by implementing the sociology anthropology of dance and the sociology and anthropology of culture. Object of the research was Minangkabau dance creation in present time, while the data was collected through interview and direct observation, as well as documentation. The data was analyzed by following the technique delivered by Miles and Huberman. Research results showed that Minangkabau dance creation was a reconstruction result of the older traditional dance, and through acculturation which contains local wisdom values. The existence of Mianngkabau dance creation can affect the continuation of local wisdom values in Minangkabau society in West Sumatera. The existence of dance creation has maintained the Minangkabau local wisdom values in present time.

  12. Real-Time Multi-Target Localization from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the reconnaissance efficiency of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV electro-optical stabilized imaging systems, a real-time multi-target localization scheme based on an UAV electro-optical stabilized imaging system is proposed. First, a target location model is studied. Then, the geodetic coordinates of multi-targets are calculated using the homogeneous coordinate transformation. On the basis of this, two methods which can improve the accuracy of the multi-target localization are proposed: (1 the real-time zoom lens distortion correction method; (2 a recursive least squares (RLS filtering method based on UAV dead reckoning. The multi-target localization error model is established using Monte Carlo theory. In an actual flight, the UAV flight altitude is 1140 m. The multi-target localization results are within the range of allowable error. After we use a lens distortion correction method in a single image, the circular error probability (CEP of the multi-target localization is reduced by 7%, and 50 targets can be located at the same time. The RLS algorithm can adaptively estimate the location data based on multiple images. Compared with multi-target localization based on a single image, CEP of the multi-target localization using RLS is reduced by 25%. The proposed method can be implemented on a small circuit board to operate in real time. This research is expected to significantly benefit small UAVs which need multi-target geo-location functions.

  13. Time-dependent local-to-normal mode transition in triatomic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Hans; Bermúdez-Montaña, Marisol; Lemus, Renato

    2018-01-01

    Time-evolution of the vibrational states of two interacting harmonic oscillators in the local mode scheme is presented. A local-to-normal mode transition (LNT) is identified and studied from temporal perspective through time-dependent frequencies of the oscillators. The LNT is established as a polyad-breaking phenomenon from the local standpoint for the stretching degrees of freedom in a triatomic molecule. This study is carried out in the algebraic representation of bosonic operators. The dynamics of the states are determined via the solutions of the corresponding nonlinear Ermakov equation and a local time-dependent polyad is obtained as a tool to identify the LNT. Applications of this formalism to H2O, CO2, O3 and NO2 molecules in the adiabatic, sudden and linear regime are considered.

  14. Sibling Position and Marriage Timing in the Netherlands, 1840-1922: A Comparison across Social Classes, Local Contexts, and Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suanet, B.; Bras, H.

    2014-01-01

    Research on the effects of sibling position on marriage timing has produced ambivalent findings, suggesting that birth order effects were contingent on social, local, and historical contexts. Based on a large database of marriage certificates from five Dutch provinces between 1840 and 1922, we

  15. Time to institutional review board approval with local versus central review in a multicenter pragmatic trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Mark D; Gaskins, Lakisha J; Ziolek, Tracy

    2018-02-01

    Central institutional review board (IRB) review will be required for National Institutes of Health-funded multisite human subjects research as of January 2018, with similar requirements extending to most US multisite human research in 2020. Nonetheless, little is known regarding the relative efficiency of central versus local IRB review for multicenter studies. We compared the amount of time required for central versus local IRB review and approval for sites in one ongoing multicenter randomized trial. The REGAIN Trial (Regional versus General Anesthesia for Promoting Independence after Hip Fracture; clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT02507505) is an ongoing randomized trial comparing standard-care spinal anesthesia to standard-care general anesthesia for patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. After approval of the protocol by the sponsor IRB, each participating US site opted either to submit the protocol for local IRB review or to designate the sponsor IRB as the IRB of record (i.e. central IRB) via an authorization agreement after a limited local review. For each US REGAIN site approved through 18 April 2017, we assessed (1) the time in calendar days from protocol receipt to IRB submission, (2) the time in calendar days from IRB submission to IRB approval, and (3) the total time in calendar days from protocol receipt to IRB approval (i.e. time from protocol receipt to IRB submission plus time from IRB submission to IRB approval). The main study protocol was submitted to the sponsor IRB on 25 May 2015 and approved on 8 July 2015 (44 days). Out of 34 sites, 9 received initial approval from the central (sponsor) IRB; 25 sought initial approval via local review. The median time from protocol receipt to IRB submission was 39 days for sites approved by the central IRB (interquartile range: 35-134) versus 58 days for sites approved via local review (interquartile range: 41-105; p = 0.711). The median time from IRB submission to IRB approval for sites approved by

  16. Moving source localization with a single hydrophone using multipath time delays in the deep ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Rui; Yang, Kunde; Ma, Yuanliang; Yang, Qiulong; Li, Hui

    2014-08-01

    Localizing a source of radial movement at moderate range using a single hydrophone can be achieved in the reliable acoustic path by tracking the time delays between the direct and surface-reflected arrivals (D-SR time delays). The problem is defined as a joint estimation of the depth, initial range, and speed of the source, which are the state parameters for the extended Kalman filter (EKF). The D-SR time delays extracted from the autocorrelation functions are the measurements for the EKF. Experimental results using pseudorandom signals show that accurate localization results are achieved by offline iteration of the EKF.

  17. Joint Testlet Cognitive Diagnosis Modeling for Paired Local Item Dependence in Response Times and Response Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peida Zhan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In joint models for item response times (RTs and response accuracy (RA, local item dependence is composed of local RA dependence and local RT dependence. The two components are usually caused by the same common stimulus and emerge as pairs. Thus, the violation of local item independence in the joint models is called paired local item dependence. To address the issue of paired local item dependence while applying the joint cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs, this study proposed a joint testlet cognitive diagnosis modeling approach. The proposed approach is an extension of Zhan et al. (2017 and it incorporates two types of random testlet effect parameters (one for RA and the other for RTs to account for paired local item dependence. The model parameters were estimated using the full Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC method. The 2015 PISA computer-based mathematics data were analyzed to demonstrate the application of the proposed model. Further, a brief simulation study was conducted to demonstrate the acceptable parameter recovery and the consequence of ignoring paired local item dependence.

  18. Using an ACTIVE teaching format versus a standard lecture format for increasing resident interaction and knowledge achievement during noon conference: a prospective, controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Sawatsky, Adam P; Berlacher, Kathryn; Granieri, Rosanne

    2014-01-01

    Background The traditional lecture is used by many residency programs to fulfill the mandate for regular didactic sessions, despite limited evidence to demonstrate its effectiveness. Active teaching strategies have shown promise in improving medical knowledge but have been challenging to implement within the constraints of residency training. We developed and evaluated an innovative structured format for interactive teaching within the residency noon conference. Methods We developed an ACTIVE...

  19. The brief time-reversibility of the local Lyapunov exponents for a small chaotic Hamiltonian system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldner, Franz; Hoover, William G.; Hoover, Carol G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •We consider the local Lyapunov spectrum for a four-dimensional Hamilton system. •Its stable periodic motion can be reversed for long times. •In the chaotic motion, time reversal occurs only for a short time. •Perturbations will change this short unstable case into a different stable case. •These observations might relate chaos to the Second Law of Thermodynamics. - Abstract: We consider the local (instantaneous) Lyapunov spectrum for a four-dimensional Hamiltonian system. Its stable periodic motion can be reversed for long times. Its unstable chaotic motion, with two symmetric pairs of exponents, cannot. In the latter case reversal occurs for more than a thousand fourth-order Runge–Kutta time steps, followed by a transition to a new set of paired Lyapunov exponents, unrelated to those seen in the forward time direction. The relation of the observed chaotic dynamics to the Second Law of Thermodynamics is discussed

  20. Indoor Localization of a Quadrotor Based on WSN: A Real-Time Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Rullan-Lara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A real-time localization algorithm is presented in this paper. The algorithm presented here uses an extended Kalman filter and is based on Time Difference Of Arrivals (TDOA measurements of radio signal. The position and velocity of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV are successfully estimated in closed-loop in real-time, both in hover and path following flights. Relatively small position errors obtained from the experiments prove the good performance of the proposed algorithm.

  1. Local normalization: Uncovering correlations in non-stationary financial time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Rudi; Guhr, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    The measurement of correlations between financial time series is of vital importance for risk management. In this paper we address an estimation error that stems from the non-stationarity of the time series. We put forward a method to rid the time series of local trends and variable volatility, while preserving cross-correlations. We test this method in a Monte Carlo simulation, and apply it to empirical data for the S&P 500 stocks.

  2. local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abílio Amiguinho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-educational territorialisation in rural contexts is the topic of this text. The theme corresponds to a challenge to address it having as main axis of discussion either the problem of social exclusion or that of local development. The reasons to locate the discussion in this last field of analysis are discussed in the first part of the text. Theoretical and political reasons are there articulated because the question is about projects whose intentions and practices call for the political both in the theoretical debate and in the choices that anticipate intervention. From research conducted for several years, I use contributions that aim at discuss and enlighten how school can be a potential locus of local development. Its identification and recognition as local institution (either because of those that work and live in it or because of those that act in the surrounding context are crucial steps to progressively constitute school as a partner for development. The promotion of the local values and roots, the reconstruction of socio-personal and local identities, the production of sociabilities and the equation and solution of shared problems were the dimensions of a socio-educative intervention, markedly globalising. This scenario, as it is argued, was also, intentionally, one of transformation and of deliberate change of school and of the administration of the educative territoires.

  3. A Framework for Similarity Search with Space-Time Tradeoffs using Locality Sensitive Filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiani, Tobias Lybecker

    2017-01-01

    that satisfies certain locality-sensitivity properties, we can construct a dynamic data structure that solves the approximate near neighbor problem in $d$-dimensional space with query time $dn^{\\rho_q + o(1)}$, update time $dn^{\\rho_u + o(1)}$, and space usage $dn + n^{1 + \\rho_u + o(1)}$ where $n$ denotes......We present a framework for similarity search based on Locality-Sensitive Filtering~(LSF),generalizing the Indyk-Motwani (STOC 1998) Locality-Sensitive Hashing~(LSH) framework to support space-time tradeoffs. Given a family of filters, defined as a distribution over pairs of subsets of space...... the number of points in the data structure.The space-time tradeoff is tied to the tradeoff between query time and update time (insertions/deletions), controlled by the exponents $\\rho_q, \\rho_u$ that are determined by the filter family. \\\\ Locality-sensitive filtering was introduced by Becker et al. (SODA...

  4. Locally-adaptive Myriad Filters for Processing ECG Signals in Real Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Tulyakova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The locally adaptive myriad filters to suppress noise in electrocardiographic (ECG signals in almost in real time are proposed. Statistical estimates of efficiency according to integral values of such criteria as mean square error (MSE and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR for the test ECG signals sampled at 400 Hz embedded in additive Gaussian noise with different values of variance are obtained. Comparative analysis of adaptive filters is carried out. High efficiency of ECG filtering and high quality of signal preservation are demonstrated. It is shown that locally adaptive myriad filters provide higher degree of suppressing additive Gaussian noise with possibility of real time implementation.

  5. New prediction of chaotic time series based on local Lyapunov exponent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong

    2013-01-01

    A new method of predicting chaotic time series is presented based on a local Lyapunov exponent, by quantitatively measuring the exponential rate of separation or attraction of two infinitely close trajectories in state space. After reconstructing state space from one-dimensional chaotic time series, neighboring multiple-state vectors of the predicting point are selected to deduce the prediction formula by using the definition of the local Lyapunov exponent. Numerical simulations are carried out to test its effectiveness and verify its higher precision over two older methods. The effects of the number of referential state vectors and added noise on forecasting accuracy are also studied numerically. (general)

  6. From the Weyl theory to a theory of locally anisotropic space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogoslovsky, G.Yu.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that Weyl ideas, pertaining to local conformal invariance, find natural embodiment within the framework of a relativistic theory based on a viable Finslerian model of space-time. This is associated with the peculiar property of the conformal invariant Finslerian metric which describes a locally anisotropic space of events. The local conformal transformations of the Riemannian metric tensor leave invariant rest masses as well as all observables and thus appear as local gauge transformations. The corresponding Finslerian theory of gravitation turns out, as a result, to be an Abelian gauge theory. It satisfies the principle of correspondence with Einstein theory and predicts a number of nontrivial physical effects accessible for experimental test under laboratory conditions. 13 refs

  7. Time and Frequency Localized Pulse Shape for Resolution Enhancement in STFT-BOTDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linqing Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-Time Fourier Transform-Brillouin Optical Time-Domain Reflectometry (STFT-BOTDR implements STFT over the full frequency spectrum to measure the distributed temperature and strain along the optic fiber, providing new research advances in dynamic distributed sensing. The spatial and frequency resolution of the dynamic sensing are limited by the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR and the Time-Frequency (T-F localization of the input pulse shape. T-F localization is fundamentally important for the communication system, which suppresses interchannel interference (ICI and intersymbol interference (ISI to improve the transmission quality in multicarrier modulation (MCM. This paper demonstrates that the T-F localized input pulse shape can enhance the SNR and the spatial and frequency resolution in STFT-BOTDR. Simulation and experiments of T-F localized different pulses shapes are conducted to compare the limitation of the system resolution. The result indicates that rectangular pulse should be selected to optimize the spatial resolution and Lorentzian pulse could be chosen to optimize the frequency resolution, while Gaussian shape pulse can be used in general applications for its balanced performance in both spatial and frequency resolution. Meanwhile, T-F localization is proved to be useful in the pulse shape selection for system resolution optimization.

  8. Real time object localization based on histogram of s-RGB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudjirahardjo, Panca; Suyono, Hadi; Setyawan, Raden Arief

    2017-09-01

    Object localization is the first task in pattern detection and recognition. This task is very important due to it reduces the searching time to the interest object. In this paper we introduce our novel method of object localization based on color feature. Our novel method is a histogram of s-RGB. This histogram is used in the training phase to determine the color dominant in the initial Region of Interest (ROI). Then this information is used to label the interest object. To reduce noise and localize the interest object, we apply the row and column density function of pixels. The comparison result with some processes, our system gives a best result and takes a short computation time of 26.56 ms, in the video rate of 15 frames per second (fps).

  9. Observing electron localization in a dissociating H2+ molecule in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H; Li, Zhichao; He, Feng; Wang, X; Atia-Tul-Noor, A; Kielpinski, D; Sang, R T; Litvinyuk, I V

    2017-06-16

    Dissociation of diatomic molecules with odd number of electrons always causes the unpaired electron to localize on one of the two resulting atomic fragments. In the simplest diatomic molecule H 2 + dissociation yields a hydrogen atom and a proton with the sole electron ending up on one of the two nuclei. That is equivalent to breaking of a chemical bond-the most fundamental chemical process. Here we observe such electron localization in real time by performing a pump-probe experiment. We demonstrate that in H 2 + electron localization is complete in just 15 fs when the molecule's internuclear distance reaches 8 atomic units. The measurement is supported by a theoretical simulation based on numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. This observation advances our understanding of detailed dynamics of molecular dissociation.

  10. Exact solutions to the time-fractional differential equations via local fractional derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guner, Ozkan; Bekir, Ahmet

    2018-01-01

    This article utilizes the local fractional derivative and the exp-function method to construct the exact solutions of nonlinear time-fractional differential equations (FDEs). For illustrating the validity of the method, it is applied to the time-fractional Camassa-Holm equation and the time-fractional-generalized fifth-order KdV equation. Moreover, the exact solutions are obtained for the equations which are formed by different parameter values related to the time-fractional-generalized fifth-order KdV equation. This method is an reliable and efficient mathematical tool for solving FDEs and it can be applied to other non-linear FDEs.

  11. Constraint Programming based Local Search for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows

    OpenAIRE

    Sala Reixach, Joan

    2012-01-01

    El projecte es centra en el "Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows". Explora i testeja un mètode basat en una formulació del problema en termes de programació de restriccions. Implementa un mètode de cerca local amb la capacitat de fer grans moviments anomenat "Large Neighbourhood Search".

  12. Covariance of time-ordered products implies local commutativity of fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, O.W.

    2006-01-01

    We formulate Lorentz covariance of a quantum field theory in terms of covariance of time-ordered products (or other Green's functions). This formulation of Lorentz covariance implies spacelike local commutativity or anticommutativity of fields, sometimes called microscopic causality or microcausality. With this formulation microcausality does not have to be taken as a separate assumption

  13. Asymptotic behavior of local times of compound Poisson processes with drift in the infinite variance case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambert, A.; Simatos, F.

    2015-01-01

    Consider compound Poisson processes with negative drift and no negative jumps, which converge to some spectrally positive Lévy process with nonzero Lévy measure. In this paper, we study the asymptotic behavior of the local time process, in the spatial variable, of these processes killed at two

  14. Asymptotic behavior of local times of compound Poisson processes with drift in the infinite variance case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambert, A.; Simatos, F.

    2012-01-01

    Consider compound Poisson processes with negative drift and no negative jumps, which converge to some spectrally positive L\\'evy process with non-zero L\\'evy measure. In this paper we study the asymptotic behavior of the local time process, in the spatial variable, of these processes killed at two

  15. A uniform law for convergence to the local times of linear fractional stable motions

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, James A.

    2016-01-01

    We provide a uniform law for the weak convergence of additive functionals of partial sum processes to the local times of linear fractional stable motions, in a setting sufficiently general for statistical applications. Our results are fundamental to the analysis of the global properties of nonparametric estimators of nonlinear statistical models that involve such processes as covariates.

  16. Magnetic local time dependence of geomagnetic disturbances contributing to the AU and AL indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomita, S; Nose´, M; Iyemori, T

    2010-01-01

    activity in the auroral zone. In the present study, we examine magnetic local time (MLT) dependence of geomagnetic field variations contributing to the AU and AL indices. We use 1-min geomagnetic field data obtained in 2003. It is found that both AU and AL indices have two ranges of MLT (AU: 15:00-22:00MLT...

  17. Local Times of Galactic Cosmic Ray Intensity Maximum and Minimum in the Diurnal Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yeon Oh

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The Diurnal variation of galactic cosmic ray (GCR flux intensity observed by the ground Neutron Monitor (NM shows a sinusoidal pattern with the amplitude of 1sim 2 % of daily mean. We carried out a statistical study on tendencies of the local times of GCR intensity daily maximum and minimum. To test the influences of the solar activity and the location (cut-off rigidity on the distribution in the local times of maximum and minimum GCR intensity, we have examined the data of 1996 (solar minimum and 2000 (solar maximum at the low-latitude Haleakala (latitude: 20.72 N, cut-off rigidity: 12.91 GeV and the high-latitude Oulu (latitude: 65.05 N, cut-off rigidity: 0.81 GeV NM stations. The most frequent local times of the GCR intensity daily maximum and minimum come later about 2sim3 hours in the solar activity maximum year 2000 than in the solar activity minimum year 1996. Oulu NM station whose cut-off rigidity is smaller has the most frequent local times of the GCR intensity maximum and minimum later by 2sim3 hours from those of Haleakala station. This feature is more evident at the solar maximum. The phase of the daily variation in GCR is dependent upon the interplanetary magnetic field varying with the solar activity and the cut-off rigidity varying with the geographic latitude.

  18. Enforcing the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition in explicitly conservative local time stepping schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Semenov, Vadim A.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2018-04-01

    An optimally efficient explicit numerical scheme for solving fluid dynamics equations, or any other parabolic or hyperbolic system of partial differential equations, should allow local regions to advance in time with their own, locally constrained time steps. However, such a scheme can result in violation of the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition, which is manifestly non-local. Although the violations can be considered to be "weak" in a certain sense and the corresponding numerical solution may be stable, such calculation does not guarantee the correct propagation speed for arbitrary waves. We use an experimental fluid dynamics code that allows cubic "patches" of grid cells to step with independent, locally constrained time steps to demonstrate how the CFL condition can be enforced by imposing a constraint on the time steps of neighboring patches. We perform several numerical tests that illustrate errors introduced in the numerical solutions by weak CFL condition violations and show how strict enforcement of the CFL condition eliminates these errors. In all our tests the strict enforcement of the CFL condition does not impose a significant performance penalty.

  19. Obtaining local reflectivity at two-way travel time by filtering acoustic reflection data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob, E.C.; Zhang, L.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Mihai Popovici, A.; Fomel, S.

    2017-01-01

    A modified implementation of Marchenko redatuming leads to a filter that removes internal multiples from reflection data. It produces local reflectivity at two-way travel time. The method creates new primary reflections resulting from emitted events that eliminate internal multiples. We call these

  20. Impact localization on composite structures using time difference and MUSIC approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yongteng; Xiang, Jiawei

    2017-05-01

    1-D uniform linear array (ULA) has the shortcoming of the half-plane mirror effect, which does not allow discriminating between a target placed above the array and a target placed below the array. This paper presents time difference (TD) and multiple signal classification (MUSIC) based omni-directional impact localization on a large stiffened composite structure using improved linear array, which is able to perform omni-directional 360° localization. This array contains 2M+3 PZT sensors, where 2M+1 PZT sensors are arranged as a uniform linear array, and the other two PZT sensors are placed above and below the array. Firstly, the arrival times of impact signals observed by the other two sensors are determined using the wavelet transform. Compared with each other, the direction range of impact source can be decided in general, 0°to 180° or 180°to 360°. And then, two dimensional multiple signal classification (2D-MUSIC) based spatial spectrum formula using the uniform linear array is applied for impact localization by the general direction range. When the arrival times of impact signals observed by upper PZT is equal to that of lower PZT, the direction can be located in x axis (0°or 180°). And time difference based MUSIC method is present to locate impact position. To verify the proposed approach, the proposed approach is applied to a composite structure. The localization results are in good agreement with the actual impact occurring positions.

  1. Effects of Storage Time on the Quality of Local Chicken Meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out to investigate the proximate composition and effects of aging time on local chicken meat quality. For proximate analysis, 24 male and 24 female breast, thigh and drumstick samples from one half of the carcass were skinned, de-boned and frozen at -20oC. The samples were minced through a ...

  2. Contributed Review: Source-localization algorithms and applications using time of arrival and time difference of arrival measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xinya [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA; Rauchenstein, Lynn T. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA; Carlson, Thomas J. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA

    2016-04-01

    Locating the position of fixed or mobile sources (i.e., transmitters) based on received measurements from sensors is an important research area that is attracting much research interest. In this paper, we present localization algorithms using time of arrivals (TOA) and time difference of arrivals (TDOA) to achieve high accuracy under line-of-sight conditions. The circular (TOA) and hyperbolic (TDOA) location systems both use nonlinear equations that relate the locations of the sensors and tracked objects. These nonlinear equations can develop accuracy challenges because of the existence of measurement errors and efficiency challenges that lead to high computational burdens. Least squares-based and maximum likelihood-based algorithms have become the most popular categories of location estimators. We also summarize the advantages and disadvantages of various positioning algorithms. By improving measurement techniques and localization algorithms, localization applications can be extended into the signal-processing-related domains of radar, sonar, the Global Positioning System, wireless sensor networks, underwater animal tracking, mobile communications, and multimedia.

  3. The Relationship between Language Functions and Character Types in Noon val-Ghalam by Jalal Al Ahmad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadi Haji

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Making harmony among language functions of story characters with their character types is one of the characteristics and advantages of modern and successful story writing. In traditional fictional literature in Iran (prose and verse, this point is not considered important and story characters, generally, speak in the voice of narrator or writer since there is the narrators statement on their speech, they are not the representative of their class and character type. Not paying attention to this subject, causes disorder in either making supposition of reality or personifying, which are both important principals of story telling. This study views from this point the story of Noon val-Ghalam of Jalal Al Ahmad who is a contemporary writer. The methodology is qualitative, and data collection is based on content–analysis and document- analysis. As Al Ahmad was one of the Iranian contemporary writers and was familiar with western and Iranian writers, it is expected that the language and way of describing story characters he made, be based on their social classes. But this study, by stating different proofs, shows that this writer ignores the relationship necessary for language functions and character type among characters in the story and because of the imposition of his knowledge, statement and political and social view, the independence of the protagonists in his story is not well-considered.  The inflection of political and social thoughts of each writer among his works, is not a shortfall by itself, but representing of speeches in protagonists, in the way which is not in harmony with their characters, underestimates them as an instrument for specific social and political representatives. This not only displays the character like a personified ideas, but also distructs processing of fictional dialogue as an important element in storytelling . Since in each language people from different social groups, use almost the same vocabularies

  4. The Relationship between Language Functions and Character Types in Noon val-Ghalam by Jalal Al Ahmad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Ahmad Parsa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Making harmony among language functions of story characters with their character types is one of the characteristics and advantages of modern and successful story writing. In traditional fictional literature in Iran (prose and verse, this point is not considered important and story characters, generally, speak in the voice of narrator or writer since there is the narrators statement on their speech, they are not the representative of their class and character type. Not paying attention to this subject, causes disorder in either making supposition of reality or personifying, which are both important principals of story telling. This study views from this point the story of Noon val-Ghalam of Jalal Al Ahmad who is a contemporary writer. The methodology is qualitative, and data collection is based on content–analysis and document- analysis. As Al Ahmad was one of the Iranian contemporary writers and was familiar with western and Iranian writers, it is expected that the language and way of describing story characters he made, be based on their social classes. But this study, by stating different proofs, shows that this writer ignores the relationship necessary for language functions and character type among characters in the story and because of the imposition of his knowledge, statement and political and social view, the independence of the protagonists in his story is not well-considered.  The inflection of political and social thoughts of each writer among his works, is not a shortfall by itself, but representing of speeches in protagonists, in the way which is not in harmony with their characters, underestimates them as an instrument for specific social and political representatives. This not only displays the character like a personified ideas, but also distructs processing of fictional dialogue as an important element in storytelling . Since in each language people from different social groups, use almost the same vocabularies that

  5. Three-dimensional localization of low activity gamma-ray sources in real-time scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Manish K., E-mail: mksrkf@mst.edu; Alajo, Ayodeji B.; Lee, Hyoung K.

    2016-03-21

    Radioactive source localization plays an important role in tracking radiation threats in homeland security tasks. Its real-time application requires computationally efficient and reasonably accurate algorithms even with limited data to support detection with minimum uncertainty. This paper describes a statistic-based grid-refinement method for backtracing the position of a gamma-ray source in a three-dimensional domain in real-time. The developed algorithm used measurements from various known detector positions to localize the source. This algorithm is based on an inverse-square relationship between source intensity at a detector and the distance from the source to the detector. The domain discretization was developed and implemented in MATLAB. The algorithm was tested and verified from simulation results of an ideal case of a point source in non-attenuating medium. Subsequently, an experimental validation of the algorithm was performed to determine the suitability of deploying this scheme in real-time scenarios. Using the measurements from five known detector positions and for a measurement time of 3 min, the source position was estimated with an accuracy of approximately 53 cm. The accuracy improved and stabilized to approximately 25 cm for higher measurement times. It was concluded that the error in source localization was primarily due to detection uncertainties. In verification and experimental validation of the algorithm, the distance between {sup 137}Cs source and any detector position was between 0.84 m and 1.77 m. The results were also compared with the least squares method. Since the discretization algorithm was validated with a weak source, it is expected that it can localize the source of higher activity in real-time. It is believed that for the same physical placement of source and detectors, a source of approximate activity 0.61–0.92 mCi can be localized in real-time with 1 s of measurement time and same accuracy. The accuracy and computational

  6. Least-squares reverse time migration with local Radon-based preconditioning

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Gaurav

    2017-03-08

    Least-squares migration (LSM) can produce images with better balanced amplitudes and fewer artifacts than standard migration. The conventional objective function used for LSM minimizes the L2-norm of the data residual between the predicted and the observed data. However, for field-data applications in which the recorded data are noisy and undersampled, the conventional formulation of LSM fails to provide the desired uplift in the quality of the inverted image. We have developed a leastsquares reverse time migration (LSRTM) method using local Radon-based preconditioning to overcome the low signal-tonoise ratio (S/N) problem of noisy or severely undersampled data. A high-resolution local Radon transform of the reflectivity is used, and sparseness constraints are imposed on the inverted reflectivity in the local Radon domain. The sparseness constraint is that the inverted reflectivity is sparse in the Radon domain and each location of the subsurface is represented by a limited number of geologic dips. The forward and the inverse mapping of the reflectivity to the local Radon domain and vice versa is done through 3D Fourier-based discrete Radon transform operators. The weights for the preconditioning are chosen to be varying locally based on the relative amplitudes of the local dips or assigned using quantile measures. Numerical tests on synthetic and field data validate the effectiveness of our approach in producing images with good S/N and fewer aliasing artifacts when compared with standard RTM or standard LSRTM.

  7. Local Stability of AIDS Epidemic Model Through Treatment and Vertical Transmission with Time Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novi W, Cascarilla; Lestari, Dwi

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to explain stability of the spread of AIDS through treatment and vertical transmission model. Human with HIV need a time to positively suffer AIDS. The existence of a time, human with HIV until positively suffer AIDS can be delayed for a time so that the model acquired is the model with time delay. The model form is a nonlinear differential equation with time delay, SIPTA (susceptible-infected-pre AIDS-treatment-AIDS). Based on SIPTA model analysis results the disease free equilibrium point and the endemic equilibrium point. The disease free equilibrium point with and without time delay are local asymptotically stable if the basic reproduction number is less than one. The endemic equilibrium point will be local asymptotically stable if the time delay is less than the critical value of delay, unstable if the time delay is more than the critical value of delay, and bifurcation occurs if the time delay is equal to the critical value of delay.

  8. Controlling of merging electric field and IMF magnitude on storm-time changes in thermospheric mass density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The controls of merging electrical field, Em, and IMF (interplanetary magnetic field magnitude, B, on the storm-time changes in upper thermospheric mass density are statistically investigated using GRACE accelerometer observations and the OMNI data of solar wind and IMF for 35 great storms during 2002–2006. It reveals the following: (1 The correlation coefficients between the air mass density changes and the parameters of Em and B are generally larger at lower latitudes than at higher latitudes, and larger in noon and midnight sectors than in dawn and dusk. (2 The most likely delay time (MLDT of mass density changes in respect to Em is about 1.5 h (4.5 h at high (low latitudes, having no distinct local time dependence, while it is 6 h at middle latitudes in all the local time sectors except for noon, which is longer than at low latitudes. A similar fact of longer delay time at mid-latitude is also seen for B. The MLDTs for B at various latitudes are all local time dependent distinctly with shorter delay time in noon/midnight sector and larger in dawn/dusk. Despite of widely spread of the delay time, IMF B exhibits still larger correlation coefficients with mass density changes among the interplanetary parameters. (3 The linear control factor of B on the density changes increases for large B, in contrast to somewhat saturation trend for larger Em. (4 The influence of B and Em on the mass densities shows different behavior for different types of storms. The influence intensity of Em is much stronger for CIR-driven than for CME-driven storm, while it is not so distinct for B. On the local time asymmetry of the influence, both Em and B have largest influence at noon sector for CME-driven storms, while an obviously larger intensification of the influence is found in dawn/dusk sector during CIR storms, especially for parameter Em.

  9. A Non-invasive Real-time Localization System for Enhanced Efficacy in Nasogastric Intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhenglong; Foong, Shaohui; Maréchal, Luc; Tan, U-Xuan; Teo, Tee Hui; Shabbir, Asim

    2015-12-01

    Nasogastric (NG) intubation is one of the most commonly performed clinical procedures. Real-time localization and tracking of the NG tube passage at the larynx region into the esophagus is crucial for safety, but is lacking in current practice. In this paper, we present the design, analysis and evaluation of a non-invasive real-time localization system using passive magnetic tracking techniques to improve efficacy of the clinical NG intubation process. By embedding a small permanent magnet at the insertion tip of the NG tube, a wearable system containing embedded sensors around the neck can determine the absolute position of the NG tube inside the body in real-time to assist in insertion. In order to validate the feasibility of the proposed system in detecting erroneous tube placement, typical reference intubation trajectories are first analyzed using anatomically correct models and localization accuracy of the system are evaluated using a precise robotic platform. It is found that the root-mean-squared tracking accuracy is within 5.3 mm for both the esophagus and trachea intubation pathways. Experiments were also designed and performed to demonstrate that the system is capable of tracking the NG tube accurately in biological environments even in presence of stationary ferromagnetic objects (such as clinical instruments). With minimal physical modification to the NG tube and clinical process, this system allows accurate and efficient localization and confirmation of correct NG tube placement without supplemental radiographic methods which is considered the current clinical standard.

  10. Effect of wave-function localization on the time delay in photoemission from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, C.-H.; Thumm, U.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate streaking time delays in the photoemission from a solid model surface as a function of the degree of localization of the initial-state wave functions. We consider a one-dimensional slab with lattice constant a latt of attractive Gaussian-shaped core potentials of width σ. The parameter σ/a latt thus controls the overlap between adjacent core potentials and localization of the electronic eigenfunctions on the lattice points. Small values of σ/a latt latt > or approx 0.4. By numerically solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation, we calculate photoemission spectra from which we deduce a characteristic bimodal shape of the band-averaged photoemission time delay: as the slab eigenfunctions become increasingly delocalized, the time delay quickly decreases near σ/a latt =0.3 from relatively large values below σ/a latt ∼0.2 to much smaller delays above σ/a latt ∼0.4. This change in wave-function localization facilitates the interpretation of a recently measured apparent relative time delay between the photoemission from core and conduction-band levels of a tungsten surface.

  11. Wide localized solutions of the parity-time-symmetric nonautonomous nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, L. E. Arroyo; Dutra, A. de Souza; Hott, M. B.; Roy, P.

    2015-01-01

    By using canonical transformations we obtain localized (in space) exact solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) with cubic and quintic space and time modulated nonlinearities and in the presence of time-dependent and inhomogeneous external potentials and amplification or absorption (source or drain) coefficients. We obtain a class of wide localized exact solutions of NLSE in the presence of a number of non-Hermitian parity-time (PT )-symmetric external potentials, which are constituted by a mixing of external potentials and source or drain terms. The exact solutions found here can be applied to theoretical studies of ultrashort pulse propagation in optical fibers with focusing and defocusing nonlinearities. We show that, even in the presence of gain or loss terms, stable solutions can be found and that the PT symmetry is an important feature to guarantee the conservation of the average energy of the system.

  12. Elastic scattering dynamics of cavity polaritons: Evidence for time-energy uncertainty and polariton localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2002-01-01

    The directional dynamics of the resonant Rayleigh scattering from a semiconductor microcavity is investigated. When optically exciting the lower polariton branch, the strong dispersion results in a directional emission on a ring. The coherent emission ring shows a reduction of its angular width...... for increasing time after excitation, giving direct evidence for the time-energy uncertainty in the dynamics of the scattering by disorder. The ring width converges with time to a finite value, a direct measure of an intrinsic momentum broadening of the polariton states localized by multiple disorder scattering....

  13. Real-time image dehazing using local adaptive neighborhoods and dark-channel-prior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, Jesus A.; Díaz-Ramírez, Víctor H.; Kober, Vitaly; Hernandez, Enrique

    2015-09-01

    A real-time algorithm for single image dehazing is presented. The algorithm is based on calculation of local neighborhoods of a hazed image inside a moving window. The local neighborhoods are constructed by computing rank-order statistics. Next the dark-channel-prior approach is applied to the local neighborhoods to estimate the transmission function of the scene. By using the suggested approach there is no need for applying a refining algorithm to the estimated transmission such as the soft matting algorithm. To achieve high-rate signal processing the proposed algorithm is implemented exploiting massive parallelism on a graphics processing unit (GPU). Computer simulation results are carried out to test the performance of the proposed algorithm in terms of dehazing efficiency and speed of processing. These tests are performed using several synthetic and real images. The obtained results are analyzed and compared with those obtained with existing dehazing algorithms.

  14. Augmented Lagrange Programming Neural Network for Localization Using Time-Difference-of-Arrival Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zifa; Leung, Chi Sing; So, Hing Cheung; Constantinides, Anthony George

    2017-08-15

    A commonly used measurement model for locating a mobile source is time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA). As each TDOA measurement defines a hyperbola, it is not straightforward to compute the mobile source position due to the nonlinear relationship in the measurements. This brief exploits the Lagrange programming neural network (LPNN), which provides a general framework to solve nonlinear constrained optimization problems, for the TDOA-based localization. The local stability of the proposed LPNN solution is also analyzed. Simulation results are included to evaluate the localization accuracy of the LPNN scheme by comparing with the state-of-the-art methods and the optimality benchmark of Cramér-Rao lower bound.

  15. Time distributions of recurrences of immunogenic and nonimmunogenic tumors following local irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suit, H.D.; Sedlacek, R.; Fagundes, L.; Goitein, M.; Rothman, K.J.

    1978-01-01

    Three hundred and fourteen mice received single-dose irradiation of the right leg and thigh as treatment of an 8-mm mammary carcinoma isotransplant, and were then observed until death, usually by 1000 days. The time distributions of death due to local recurrence, radiation-induced sarcoma, distant metastasis in the absence of local regrowth, second primary, intercurrent disease, and unknown causes have been evaluated. The times for the transplant tumor inoculum to grow to an 8-mm tumor and the times of death due to local regrowth, distant metastasis, or induced tumor were all approximately log-normally distributed. Of the 128 recurrences, the latest-appearing 3 were at 300, 323, and 436 days; no recurrences were noted during the time period from 436 to 1000 days. These findings have been interpreted to mean that in some cases absolute cure of mice of the tumor in the leg was achieved by radiation alone at the dose levels employed. Radiation-induced sarcomas began to appear after 300 days. The time of appearance of the radiation-induced tumors was inversely related to radiation dose. Similar data for an immunogenic fibrosarcoma show that recurrences appeared earlier and were more closely bunched with respect to time than the recurrences of mammary carcinoma. The time distribution of the development of radiation-induced tumors in non-tumor-bearing animals was also approximately long-normally distributed; the slope of the time distribution curve was the same as that for radiation-induced tumors in mice which had been treated for tumor

  16. Local and global dynamics of Ramsey model: From continuous to discrete time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzowska, Malgorzata; Michetti, Elisabetta

    2018-05-01

    The choice of time as a discrete or continuous variable may radically affect equilibrium stability in an endogenous growth model with durable consumption. In the continuous-time Ramsey model [F. P. Ramsey, Econ. J. 38(152), 543-559 (1928)], the steady state is locally saddle-path stable with monotonic convergence. However, in the discrete-time version, the steady state may be unstable or saddle-path stable with monotonic or oscillatory convergence or periodic solutions [see R.-A. Dana et al., Handbook on Optimal Growth 1 (Springer, 2006) and G. Sorger, Working Paper No. 1505 (2015)]. When this occurs, the discrete-time counterpart of the continuous-time model is not consistent with the initial framework. In order to obtain a discrete-time Ramsey model preserving the main properties of the continuous-time counterpart, we use a general backward and forward discretisation as initially proposed by Bosi and Ragot [Theor. Econ. Lett. 2(1), 10-15 (2012)]. The main result of the study here presented is that, with this hybrid discretisation method, fixed points and local dynamics do not change. For what it concerns global dynamics, i.e., long-run behavior for initial conditions taken on the state space, we mainly perform numerical analysis with the main scope of comparing both qualitative and quantitative evolution of the two systems, also varying some parameters of interest.

  17. Real-time prediction of respiratory motion based on local regression methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, D; Fessler, J A; Balter, J M

    2007-01-01

    Recent developments in modulation techniques enable conformal delivery of radiation doses to small, localized target volumes. One of the challenges in using these techniques is real-time tracking and predicting target motion, which is necessary to accommodate system latencies. For image-guided-radiotherapy systems, it is also desirable to minimize sampling rates to reduce imaging dose. This study focuses on predicting respiratory motion, which can significantly affect lung tumours. Predicting respiratory motion in real-time is challenging, due to the complexity of breathing patterns and the many sources of variability. We propose a prediction method based on local regression. There are three major ingredients of this approach: (1) forming an augmented state space to capture system dynamics, (2) local regression in the augmented space to train the predictor from previous observation data using semi-periodicity of respiratory motion, (3) local weighting adjustment to incorporate fading temporal correlations. To evaluate prediction accuracy, we computed the root mean square error between predicted tumor motion and its observed location for ten patients. For comparison, we also investigated commonly used predictive methods, namely linear prediction, neural networks and Kalman filtering to the same data. The proposed method reduced the prediction error for all imaging rates and latency lengths, particularly for long prediction lengths

  18. A local-to-global singularity theorem for quantum field theory on curved space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radzikowski, M.J.; York Univ.

    1996-01-01

    We prove that if a reference two-point distribution of positive type on a time orientable curved space-time (CST) satisfies a certain condition on its wave front set (the ''class P M,g condition'') and if any other two-point distribution (i) is of positive type, (ii) has the same antisymmetric part as the reference modulo smooth function and (iii) has the same local singularity structure, then it has the same global singularity structure. In the proof we use a smoothing, positivity-preserving pseudo-differential operator the support of whose symbol is restricted to a certain conic region which depends on the wave front set of the reference state. This local-to-global theorem, together with results published elsewhere, leads to a verification of a conjecture by Kay that for quasi-free states of the Klein-Gordon quantum field on a globally hyperbolic CST, the local Hadamard condition implies the global Hadamard condition. A counterexample to the local-to-global theorem on a strip in Minkowski space is given when the class P M,g condition is not assumed. (orig.)

  19. Non-local effect in Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer based on Raman amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Xinhong; Rao Yunjiang; Wang Zinan; Zhang Weili; Ran Zengling; Deng Kun; Yang Zixin

    2012-01-01

    Compared with conventional Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer (BOTDA), the BOTDA based on Raman amplification allows longer sensing range, higher signal-to-noise ratio and higher measurement accuracy. However, the non-local effect induced by pump depletion significantly restricts the probe optical power injected to sensing fiber, thereby limiting the further extension for sensing distance. In this paper, the coupled equations including the interaction of probe light, Brillouin and Raman pumps are applied to the study on the non-local characteristics of BOTDA based on Raman amplification. The results show that, the system error induced by non-local effect worsens with increased powers of probe wave and Raman pump. The frequency-division-multiplexing (cascading the fibers with various Brillouin frequency shifts) and time-division-multiplexing (modulating both of the Brillouin pump and probe lights) technologies are efficient approaches to suppress the non-local effect, through shortening the effective interaction range between Brillouin pump and probe lights. (authors)

  20. Local temperature fine-tunes the timing of spring migration in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttrup, Anders P.; Rainio, Kalle; Coppack, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    and predict consequences of climatic change for migratory birds. In order to better understand migration phenology and adaptation in environmental changes, we here assess the scale at which weather affects timing of spring migration in passerine birds. We use three commonly used proxies of spring......-time climatic conditions: (1) vegetation "greenness" (NDVI) in Europe, (2) local spring temperatures in northern Europe, and (3) the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAO) as predictors of the phenology of avian migration as well as the strength of their effect on different subsets of populations...... breeding area. Local temperature was the best single predictor of phenology with the highest explanatory power achieved in combination with NAO. Furthermore, early individuals are more affected by climatic variation compared to individuals on later passage, indicating that climatic change affects subsets...

  1. Self-Intersection Local Times of Generalized Mixed Fractional Brownian Motion as White Noise Distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryawan, Herry P.; Gunarso, Boby

    2017-01-01

    The generalized mixed fractional Brownian motion is defined by taking linear combinations of a finite number of independent fractional Brownian motions with different Hurst parameters. It is a Gaussian process with stationary increments, posseses self-similarity property, and, in general, is neither a Markov process nor a martingale. In this paper we study the generalized mixed fractional Brownian motion within white noise analysis framework. As a main result, we prove that for any spatial dimension and for arbitrary Hurst parameter the self-intersection local times of the generalized mixed fractional Brownian motions, after a suitable renormalization, are well-defined as Hida white noise distributions. The chaos expansions of the self-intersection local times in the terms of Wick powers of white noises are also presented. (paper)

  2. Digital Sequences and a Time Reversal-Based Impact Region Imaging and Localization Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Mei, Hanfei; Qian, Weifeng

    2013-01-01

    To reduce time and cost of damage inspection, on-line impact monitoring of aircraft composite structures is needed. A digital monitor based on an array of piezoelectric transducers (PZTs) is developed to record the impact region of impacts on-line. It is small in size, lightweight and has low power consumption, but there are two problems with the impact alarm region localization method of the digital monitor at the current stage. The first one is that the accuracy rate of the impact alarm region localization is low, especially on complex composite structures. The second problem is that the area of impact alarm region is large when a large scale structure is monitored and the number of PZTs is limited which increases the time and cost of damage inspections. To solve the two problems, an impact alarm region imaging and localization method based on digital sequences and time reversal is proposed. In this method, the frequency band of impact response signals is estimated based on the digital sequences first. Then, characteristic signals of impact response signals are constructed by sinusoidal modulation signals. Finally, the phase synthesis time reversal impact imaging method is adopted to obtain the impact region image. Depending on the image, an error ellipse is generated to give out the final impact alarm region. A validation experiment is implemented on a complex composite wing box of a real aircraft. The validation results show that the accuracy rate of impact alarm region localization is approximately 100%. The area of impact alarm region can be reduced and the number of PZTs needed to cover the same impact monitoring region is reduced by more than a half. PMID:24084123

  3. Locally Rotationally Symmetric Bianchi Type-I Model with Time Varying Λ Term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, R. K.; Jha, Navin Kumar

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) Bianchi type-I cosmological model for stiff matter and a vacuum solution with a cosmological term proportional to R −m (R is the scale factor and m is a positive constant). The cosmological term decreases with time. We obtain that for both the cases the present universe is accelerating with a large fraction of cosmological density in the form of a cosmological term

  4. Energy decay of a variable-coefficient wave equation with nonlinear time-dependent localized damping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieqiong Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the energy decay for the Cauchy problem of the wave equation with nonlinear time-dependent and space-dependent damping. The damping is localized in a bounded domain and near infinity, and the principal part of the wave equation has a variable-coefficient. We apply the multiplier method for variable-coefficient equations, and obtain an energy decay that depends on the property of the coefficient of the damping term.

  5. Real Time Vision System for Obstacle Detection and Localization on FPGA

    OpenAIRE

    Alhamwi , Ali; Vandeportaele , Bertrand; Piat , Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Obstacle detection is a mandatory function for a robot navigating in an indoor environment especially when interaction with humans is done in a cluttered environment. Commonly used vision-based solutions like SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) or optical flow tend to be computation intensive and require powerful computation resources to meet low speed real-time constraints. Solutions using LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) sensors are more robust but not co...

  6. Deep Learning for Real-Time Capable Object Detection and Localization on Mobile Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particke, F.; Kolbenschlag, R.; Hiller, M.; Patiño-Studencki, L.; Thielecke, J.

    2017-10-01

    Industry 4.0 is one of the most formative terms in current times. Subject of research are particularly smart and autonomous mobile platforms, which enormously lighten the workload and optimize production processes. In order to interact with humans, the platforms need an in-depth knowledge of the environment. Hence, it is required to detect a variety of static and non-static objects. Goal of this paper is to propose an accurate and real-time capable object detection and localization approach for the use on mobile platforms. A method is introduced to use the powerful detection capabilities of a neural network for the localization of objects. Therefore, detection information of a neural network is combined with depth information from a RGB-D camera, which is mounted on a mobile platform. As detection network, YOLO Version 2 (YOLOv2) is used on a mobile robot. In order to find the detected object in the depth image, the bounding boxes, predicted by YOLOv2, are mapped to the corresponding regions in the depth image. This provides a powerful and extremely fast approach for establishing a real-time-capable Object Locator. In the evaluation part, the localization approach turns out to be very accurate. Nevertheless, it is dependent on the detected object itself and some additional parameters, which are analysed in this paper.

  7. Local time, substorm, and seasonal dependence of electron precipitation at L≅4 inferred from riometer measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, T.J.; Dudeney, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    We have examined the variations of electron precipitation at L≅4 as inferred from riometer measurements of cosmic radio noise absorption made during 1975 at Siple Station and Halley Bay, Antarctica. The results are presented in the form of annual and seasonal averages of 1/2-hourly values for two geomagnetic activity subsets, AE>140 nT (disturbed) and AE≤ 140 nT (quiet). Monthly quiet day curves were used to remove the diurnal and seasonal variations in the background noise levels. Generally, the local time characteristics of the absorption were the same at both stations; the highest absorption occurred in the 0400--1600 MLT sector during disturbed conditions and in the 1200--2000 MLT sector during quiet conditions. For high AE, the highest correlation was obtained at a lag equal to the magnetic local time difference (1.5 hours) between the two stations. On the other hand, for low AE, the highest correlation occurred for a lag of 3.0 hours, nearer the local solar time difference (3.8 hours). Consistently higher absorption was measured at Halley on the average during both levels of magnetic disturbance and in all seasons. At both locations, and for both geomagnetic activity subsets, more absorption was observed in summer and equinox than in winter. This is in contrast to earlier studies for L≥6, and suggests that a meridional reversal of seasonal behavior occurs between L = 4 and L = 6

  8. Latitudinal dynamics of SAR-arcs relative to the local time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, V.N.; Ievenko, I.B.

    1991-01-01

    In November-December, 1988, January-April, 1989-1990, at the Maymaga station in Yakutia according to spectrophotometric data 47 events of the occurrence of red stable middle-latitudinal arcs (SAR-arcs) were recorded. On the basis of these data the latitudinal dynamics of SAR-arcs was studied depending on the local time and geomagnetic disturbance level. The uniform equatorial shift of SAR arcs in the night time is noticed, and a sharp increase of the speed of this motion can be caused by the nonstationary character of the magnetospheric activity

  9. On timing and modality choice with local danger warnings for drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Y.; Castronovo, Sandro; Mahr, Angela; Müller, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We present an experimental study on the effectiveness of five modality variants (speech, text-only, icon-only, two combinations of text and icons) for presenting local danger warnings for drivers. Hereby, we focus on sudden appearing road obstacles within a maximum up-to-date scenario as it is envisaged in Car2Car communication research. The effectiveness is measured by the minimum time necessary for fully interpreting the content. Results show that text-only requires the most time while icon...

  10. Local wavelet correlation: applicationto timing analysis of multi-satellite CLUSTER data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Soucek

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-spacecraft space observations, such as those of CLUSTER, can be used to infer information about local plasma structures by exploiting the timing differences between subsequent encounters of these structures by individual satellites. We introduce a novel wavelet-based technique, the Local Wavelet Correlation (LWC, which allows one to match the corresponding signatures of large-scale structures in the data from multiple spacecraft and determine the relative time shifts between the crossings. The LWC is especially suitable for analysis of strongly non-stationary time series, where it enables one to estimate the time lags in a more robust and systematic way than ordinary cross-correlation techniques. The technique, together with its properties and some examples of its application to timing analysis of bow shock and magnetopause crossing observed by CLUSTER, are presented. We also compare the performance and reliability of the technique with classical discontinuity analysis methods. Key words. Radio science (signal processing – Space plasma physics (discontinuities; instruments and techniques

  11. A systematic method for constructing time discretizations of integrable lattice systems: local equations of motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new method for discretizing the time variable in integrable lattice systems while maintaining the locality of the equations of motion. The method is based on the zero-curvature (Lax pair) representation and the lowest-order 'conservation laws'. In contrast to the pioneering work of Ablowitz and Ladik, our method allows the auxiliary dependent variables appearing in the stage of time discretization to be expressed locally in terms of the original dependent variables. The time-discretized lattice systems have the same set of conserved quantities and the same structures of the solutions as the continuous-time lattice systems; only the time evolution of the parameters in the solutions that correspond to the angle variables is discretized. The effectiveness of our method is illustrated using examples such as the Toda lattice, the Volterra lattice, the modified Volterra lattice, the Ablowitz-Ladik lattice (an integrable semi-discrete nonlinear Schroedinger system) and the lattice Heisenberg ferromagnet model. For the modified Volterra lattice, we also present its ultradiscrete analogue.

  12. Iterated local search algorithm for solving the orienteering problem with soft time windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghezzaf, Brahim; Fahim, Hassan El

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the orienteering problem with time windows (OPTW) and the impact of relaxing the time windows on the profit collected by the vehicle. The way of relaxing time windows adopted in the orienteering problem with soft time windows (OPSTW) that we study in this research is a late service relaxation that allows linearly penalized late services to customers. We solve this problem heuristically by considering a hybrid iterated local search. The results of the computational study show that the proposed approach is able to achieve promising solutions on the OPTW test instances available in the literature, one new best solution is found. On the newly generated test instances of the OPSTW, the results show that the profit collected by the OPSTW is better than the profit collected by the OPTW.

  13. Estimating the Counterparty Risk Exposure by Using the Brownian Motion Local Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonollo Michele

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the counterparty credit risk measure, namely the default risk in over-the-counter (OTC derivatives contracts, has received great attention by banking regulators, specifically within the frameworks of Basel II and Basel III. More explicitly, to obtain the related risk figures, one is first obliged to compute intermediate output functionals related to the mark-to-market position at a given time no exceeding a positive and finite time horizon. The latter implies an enormous amount of computational effort is needed, with related highly time consuming procedures to be carried out, turning out into significant costs. To overcome the latter issue, we propose a smart exploitation of the properties of the (local time spent by the Brownian motion close to a given value.

  14. Scrambling time from local perturbations of the eternal BTZ black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caputa, Paweł [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University,Roslagstullsbacken 23, Stockholm, SE-106 91 (Sweden); Simón, Joan; Štikonas, Andrius [School of Mathematics and Maxwell Institute for Mathematical Sciences, University of Edinburgh,King’s Buildings, Edinburgh, EH9 3FD (United Kingdom); Takayanagi, Tadashi [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,Kitashirakawa Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, The University of Tokyo,5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, 277-8583 (Japan); Watanabe, Kento [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,Kitashirakawa Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan)

    2015-08-04

    We compute the mutual information between finite intervals in two non-compact 2d CFTs in the thermofield double formulation after one of them has been locally perturbed by a primary operator at some time t{sub ω} in the large c limit. We determine the time scale, called the scrambling time, at which the mutual information vanishes and the original entanglement between the thermofield double gets destroyed by the perturbation. We provide a holographic description in terms of a free falling particle in the eternal BTZ black hole that exactly matches our CFT calculations. Our results hold for any time t{sub ω}. In particular, when the latter is large, they reproduce the bulk shock-wave propagation along the BTZ horizon description.

  15. Localization in nonuniform media: Exponential decay of the late-time Ginzburg-Landau impulse response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    1998-01-01

    Instanton methods have been used, in the context of a classical Ginzburg-Landau field theory, to compute the averaged density of states and probability Green close-quote s function for electrons scattered by statistically uniform site energy perturbations. At tree level, all states below some critical energy appear localized, and all states above extended. The same methods are applied here to macroscopically nonuniform systems, for which it is shown that localized and extended states can be coupled through a tunneling barrier created by the instanton background. Both electronic and acoustic systems are considered. An incoherent exponential decay is predicted for the late-time impulse response in both cases, valid for long-wavelength nonuniformity, and scaling relations are derived for the decay time constant as a function of energy or frequency and spatial dimension. The acoustic results are found to lie within a range of scaling relations obtained empirically from measurements of seismic coda, suggesting a connection between the universal properties of localization and the robustness of the observed scaling. The relation of instantons to the acoustic coherent-potential approximation is demonstrated in the recovery of the uniform limit. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  16. Is the local linearity of space-time inherited from the linearity of probabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Markus P.; Carrozza, Sylvain; Höhn, Philipp A.

    2017-02-01

    The appearance of linear spaces, describing physical quantities by vectors and tensors, is ubiquitous in all of physics, from classical mechanics to the modern notion of local Lorentz invariance. However, as natural as this seems to the physicist, most computer scientists would argue that something like a ‘local linear tangent space’ is not very typical and in fact a quite surprising property of any conceivable world or algorithm. In this paper, we take the perspective of the computer scientist seriously, and ask whether there could be any inherently information-theoretic reason to expect this notion of linearity to appear in physics. We give a series of simple arguments, spanning quantum information theory, group representation theory, and renormalization in quantum gravity, that supports a surprising thesis: namely, that the local linearity of space-time might ultimately be a consequence of the linearity of probabilities. While our arguments involve a fair amount of speculation, they have the virtue of being independent of any detailed assumptions on quantum gravity, and they are in harmony with several independent recent ideas on emergent space-time in high-energy physics.

  17. Transient local heat fluxes during the entire vapor bubble life time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephan, P.; Fuchs, T; Wagner, E.; Schweizer, N. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany). Technical Thermodynamics], e-mail: pstephan@ttd.tu-darmstadt.de

    2009-07-01

    Recent experimental and numerical investigations of the nucleate boiling heat transfer process at a single active nucleation site are presented and used for an evaluation of the local heat fluxes during the entire life time of a vapor bubble from its nucleation to the rise through the thermal boundary layer. In a special boiling cell, vapor bubbles are generated at a single nucleation site on a 20 {mu}m thin stainless steel heating foil. An infrared camera captures the temperature distribution at the wall with high temporal and spatial resolution. The bubble shape is recorded with a high-speed camera. Measurements were conducted with the pure fluids FC-84 and FC-3284 and with its binary mixtures. For pure fluids, up to 50-60% of the latent heat flows through the three-phase-contact line region. For mixtures, this ratio is clearly reduced. These observations are in agreement with the numerical model of the author's group. The fully transient model contains a multi scale approach ranging from the nanometer to the millimeter scale for the detailed description of the relevant local and global phenomena. It describes the transient heat and fluid flow during the entire periodic cycle of a growing, detaching and rising bubble including the waiting time between two successive bubbles from a single nucleation site. The detailed analysis of the computed transient temperature profiles in wall and fluid give accurate information about the heat supply, temporal energy storage and local evaporation rates. (author)

  18. Is the local linearity of space-time inherited from the linearity of probabilities?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Markus P; Carrozza, Sylvain; Höhn, Philipp A

    2017-01-01

    The appearance of linear spaces, describing physical quantities by vectors and tensors, is ubiquitous in all of physics, from classical mechanics to the modern notion of local Lorentz invariance. However, as natural as this seems to the physicist, most computer scientists would argue that something like a ‘local linear tangent space’ is not very typical and in fact a quite surprising property of any conceivable world or algorithm. In this paper, we take the perspective of the computer scientist seriously, and ask whether there could be any inherently information-theoretic reason to expect this notion of linearity to appear in physics. We give a series of simple arguments, spanning quantum information theory, group representation theory, and renormalization in quantum gravity, that supports a surprising thesis: namely, that the local linearity of space-time might ultimately be a consequence of the linearity of probabilities. While our arguments involve a fair amount of speculation, they have the virtue of being independent of any detailed assumptions on quantum gravity, and they are in harmony with several independent recent ideas on emergent space-time in high-energy physics. (paper)

  19. Seasonal and local time variability of ripples from airglow imager observations in US and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yue

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ripples as seen in airglow imagers are small wavy structures with short horizontal wavelengths (<15 km. Ripples are thought to form as the result of local instabilities, which are believed to occur when the amplitude of gravity waves becomes large enough. We have investigated ripple formation based on years of airglow imager observations located at Fort Collins, Colorado (41° N, 105° W and Misato Observatory, Japan (34° N, 135° E/Shigaraki MU Observatory (35° N, 136° E. Na temperature-wind lidar observations are employed to detect convective and dynamic instabilities in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT region over Fort Collins, Colorado. Seasonal variation of the ripple occurrence in Colorado is compared to that of the lidar-measured instability. The occurrence frequency of ripples varies semiannually, with maxima occurring during solstices and minima during equinoxes in both Colorado and Japan. However, the probability of convective and dynamic instabilities varies annually with a peak in Colorado winter. The seasonal variation of the occurrence frequency of ripples correlates with that of the gravity wave variances in the MLT. Ripple occurrence over Colorado also shows strong local time dependence, but it bears little resemblance to the local time dependence of instability probability.

  20. Transient local heat fluxes during the entire vapor bubble life time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, P.; Fuchs, T; Wagner, E.; Schweizer, N.

    2009-01-01

    Recent experimental and numerical investigations of the nucleate boiling heat transfer process at a single active nucleation site are presented and used for an evaluation of the local heat fluxes during the entire life time of a vapor bubble from its nucleation to the rise through the thermal boundary layer. In a special boiling cell, vapor bubbles are generated at a single nucleation site on a 20 μm thin stainless steel heating foil. An infrared camera captures the temperature distribution at the wall with high temporal and spatial resolution. The bubble shape is recorded with a high-speed camera. Measurements were conducted with the pure fluids FC-84 and FC-3284 and with its binary mixtures. For pure fluids, up to 50-60% of the latent heat flows through the three-phase-contact line region. For mixtures, this ratio is clearly reduced. These observations are in agreement with the numerical model of the author's group. The fully transient model contains a multi scale approach ranging from the nanometer to the millimeter scale for the detailed description of the relevant local and global phenomena. It describes the transient heat and fluid flow during the entire periodic cycle of a growing, detaching and rising bubble including the waiting time between two successive bubbles from a single nucleation site. The detailed analysis of the computed transient temperature profiles in wall and fluid give accurate information about the heat supply, temporal energy storage and local evaporation rates. (author)

  1. Contributed Review: Source-localization algorithms and applications using time of arrival and time difference of arrival measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinya; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel; Rauchenstein, Lynn T.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2016-04-01

    Locating the position of fixed or mobile sources (i.e., transmitters) based on measurements obtained from sensors (i.e., receivers) is an important research area that is attracting much interest. In this paper, we review several representative localization algorithms that use time of arrivals (TOAs) and time difference of arrivals (TDOAs) to achieve high signal source position estimation accuracy when a transmitter is in the line-of-sight of a receiver. Circular (TOA) and hyperbolic (TDOA) position estimation approaches both use nonlinear equations that relate the known locations of receivers and unknown locations of transmitters. Estimation of the location of transmitters using the standard nonlinear equations may not be very accurate because of receiver location errors, receiver measurement errors, and computational efficiency challenges that result in high computational burdens. Least squares and maximum likelihood based algorithms have become the most popular computational approaches to transmitter location estimation. In this paper, we summarize the computational characteristics and position estimation accuracies of various positioning algorithms. By improving methods for estimating the time-of-arrival of transmissions at receivers and transmitter location estimation algorithms, transmitter location estimation may be applied across a range of applications and technologies such as radar, sonar, the Global Positioning System, wireless sensor networks, underwater animal tracking, mobile communications, and multimedia.

  2. On the impact of topography and building mask on time varying gravity due to local hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, S.; Jacob, T.; Chéry, J.; Champollion, C.

    2013-01-01

    We use 3 yr of surface absolute gravity measurements at three sites on the Larzac plateau (France) to quantify the changes induced by topography and the building on gravity time-series, with respect to an idealized infinite slab approximation. Indeed, local topography and buildings housing ground-based gravity measurement have an effect on the distribution of water storage changes, therefore affecting the associated gravity signal. We first calculate the effects of surrounding topography and building dimensions on the gravity attraction for a uniform layer of water. We show that a gravimetric interpretation of water storage change using an infinite slab, the so-called Bouguer approximation, is generally not suitable. We propose to split the time varying gravity signal in two parts (1) a surface component including topographic and building effects (2) a deep component associated to underground water transfer. A reservoir modelling scheme is herein presented to remove the local site effects and to invert for the effective hydrological properties of the unsaturated zone. We show that effective time constants associated to water transfer vary greatly from site to site. We propose that our modelling scheme can be used to correct for the local site effects on gravity at any site presenting a departure from a flat topography. Depending on sites, the corrected signal can exceed measured values by 5-15 μGal, corresponding to 120-380 mm of water using the Bouguer slab formula. Our approach only requires the knowledge of daily precipitation corrected for evapotranspiration. Therefore, it can be a useful tool to correct any kind of gravimetric time-series data.

  3. Continuity and change in local immigrant policies in times of austerity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Maria; Hackett, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    European cities are increasingly being recognised for the role they play in devising and implementing their own migration, integration and diversity policies. Yet very little is known about the local dimension of immigrant policymaking in crisis contexts. This introductory piece offers a rationale for analysing city-level immigrant policies in times of crisis and the salience of using crisis as a metaphor for the state of things, and outlines key scholarly works, debates, concepts and theories. It provides a range of historical and contemporary examples and considerations, and introduces an empirical city case study that is published as part of this mini-symposium. It argues that a crisis lens leads to a systematic understanding of local-level immigrant policymaking in recent and contemporary Western Europe. The mini-symposium's focus and findings should be relevant to both on-going academic and policy debates.

  4. Up-to-date, real-time localized ITS services provided on a mobile platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadayoni, Reza; Kloch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    and connection to the mobile platform, the smart phone provides the technologies and power to become the platform to provide and access up-to-date, real time infor-mation as requested by the drivers and becomes a central point for networking and coordinated actions. The purpose of this paper is to provide......-to-date infrastructure technology and is carried by lay-mans, like the smart-phones (with GPS receiver, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, high speed cellular data connection and a large touch screen). With an 18 month replacement rate [1], and possibilities of combining navigational system, one-to-one communication, broadcast receiver...... in order to avoid local based solutions and to avoid proprietary solutions, a support that also shall be supported by political willingness above local level in order to realize the benefit of ITS....

  5. Mercury localization in mouse kidney over time: autoradiography versus silver staining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodier, P.M.; Kates, B.; Simons, R.

    1988-01-01

    Several methods of silver staining have been employed to localize mercury in tissue, under the assumption that the techniques represent total Hg, but recent reports have suggested that these stains are specific for a limited fraction of the Hg present in some samples. Magos et al. hypothesized that the stains actually vary with inorganic mercury content. The purpose of the present study was to compare localization by radiolabeling to localization by one silver stain, the photoemulsion histochemical technique, in tissues prepared to contain a range of levels of total Hg and a range of levels of inorganic Hg. Mice dosed with 8 mg Hg/kg as MeHg were killed 24 hr, 1 week, or 2 weeks after exposure, to allow a decrease in total Hg and an increase in the proportion of demethylated Hg over time. Mice dosed with 4 mg Hg/kg as HgCl 2 provided samples in which all the Hg present was in the inorganic form. Atomic absorption of kidneys of mice dosed with MeHg showed that total Hg fell from 55 micrograms/g to 39 to 25 over 2 weeks, while the inorganic fraction climbed from about 2 to 27 to 35%. Grain counts from autoradiographs of 203 Hg-labeled sections correlated with total Hg content at +0.88, but silver staining was correlated with inorganic Hg content, appearing only at late termination times in MeHg-exposed animals, but soon after dosing in mice exposed to inorganic Hg. The photoemulsion histochemical technique revealed a substance strictly localized in the proximal tubules, while autoradiographs and grain counts showed total Hg to be present throughout the kidney tissue. These results support the contention that silver stains are selective for inorganic Hg

  6. String Chopping and Time-ordered Products of Linear String-localized Quantum Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Lucas T.; Mund, Jens; Várilly, Joseph C.

    2018-03-01

    For a renormalizability proof of perturbative models in the Epstein-Glaser scheme with string-localized quantum fields, one needs to know what freedom one has in the definition of time-ordered products of the interaction Lagrangian. This paper provides a first step in that direction. The basic issue is the presence of an open set of n-tuples of strings which cannot be chronologically ordered. We resolve it by showing that almost all such string configurations can be dissected into finitely many pieces which can indeed be chronologically ordered. This fixes the time-ordered products of linear field factors outside a nullset of string configurations. (The extension across the nullset, as well as the definition of time-ordered products of Wick monomials, will be discussed elsewhere).

  7. Optical eye tracking system for real-time noninvasive tumor localization in external beam radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Riccardo; Fassi, Aurora; Fattori, Giovanni; Fontana, Giulia; Pella, Andrea; Tagaste, Barbara; Riboldi, Marco; Ciocca, Mario; Orecchia, Roberto; Baroni, Guido

    2015-05-01

    External beam radiotherapy currently represents an important therapeutic strategy for the treatment of intraocular tumors. Accurate target localization and efficient compensation of involuntary eye movements are crucial to avoid deviations in dose distribution with respect to the treatment plan. This paper describes an eye tracking system (ETS) based on noninvasive infrared video imaging. The system was designed for capturing the tridimensional (3D) ocular motion and provides an on-line estimation of intraocular lesions position based on a priori knowledge coming from volumetric imaging. Eye tracking is performed by localizing cornea and pupil centers on stereo images captured by two calibrated video cameras, exploiting eye reflections produced by infrared illumination. Additionally, torsional eye movements are detected by template matching in the iris region of eye images. This information allows estimating the 3D position and orientation of the eye by means of an eye local reference system. By combining ETS measurements with volumetric imaging for treatment planning [computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR)], one is able to map the position of the lesion to be treated in local eye coordinates, thus enabling real-time tumor referencing during treatment setup and irradiation. Experimental tests on an eye phantom and seven healthy subjects were performed to assess ETS tracking accuracy. Measurements on phantom showed an overall median accuracy within 0.16 mm and 0.40° for translations and rotations, respectively. Torsional movements were affected by 0.28° median uncertainty. On healthy subjects, the gaze direction error ranged between 0.19° and 0.82° at a median working distance of 29 cm. The median processing time of the eye tracking algorithm was 18.60 ms, thus allowing eye monitoring up to 50 Hz. A noninvasive ETS prototype was designed to perform real-time target localization and eye movement monitoring during ocular radiotherapy treatments. The

  8. Optical eye tracking system for real-time noninvasive tumor localization in external beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Via, Riccardo; Fassi, Aurora; Fattori, Giovanni; Fontana, Giulia; Pella, Andrea; Tagaste, Barbara; Ciocca, Mario; Riboldi, Marco; Baroni, Guido; Orecchia, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: External beam radiotherapy currently represents an important therapeutic strategy for the treatment of intraocular tumors. Accurate target localization and efficient compensation of involuntary eye movements are crucial to avoid deviations in dose distribution with respect to the treatment plan. This paper describes an eye tracking system (ETS) based on noninvasive infrared video imaging. The system was designed for capturing the tridimensional (3D) ocular motion and provides an on-line estimation of intraocular lesions position based on a priori knowledge coming from volumetric imaging. Methods: Eye tracking is performed by localizing cornea and pupil centers on stereo images captured by two calibrated video cameras, exploiting eye reflections produced by infrared illumination. Additionally, torsional eye movements are detected by template matching in the iris region of eye images. This information allows estimating the 3D position and orientation of the eye by means of an eye local reference system. By combining ETS measurements with volumetric imaging for treatment planning [computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR)], one is able to map the position of the lesion to be treated in local eye coordinates, thus enabling real-time tumor referencing during treatment setup and irradiation. Experimental tests on an eye phantom and seven healthy subjects were performed to assess ETS tracking accuracy. Results: Measurements on phantom showed an overall median accuracy within 0.16 mm and 0.40° for translations and rotations, respectively. Torsional movements were affected by 0.28° median uncertainty. On healthy subjects, the gaze direction error ranged between 0.19° and 0.82° at a median working distance of 29 cm. The median processing time of the eye tracking algorithm was 18.60 ms, thus allowing eye monitoring up to 50 Hz. Conclusions: A noninvasive ETS prototype was designed to perform real-time target localization and eye movement monitoring

  9. Time-localized projectors in string field theory with an E-field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maccaferri, C.; Scherer Santos, R.J.; Tolla, D.D.

    2005-01-01

    We extend the analysis of Bonora et al. [hep-th/0409063] to the case of a constant electric field turned on the world volume and on a transverse direction of a D-brane. We show that time localization is still obtained by inverting the discrete eigenvalues of the lump solution. The lifetime of the unstable soliton is shown to depend on two free parameters: the b parameter and the value of the electric field. As a by-product, we construct the normalized diagonal basis of the star algebra in the B μν -field background

  10. Local time asymmetry of Pc 4--5 pulsations and associated particle modulations at synchronous orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokubun, S.; Erickson, K.N.; Fritz, T.A.; McPherron, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic field and particle flux observations on board ATS 6 at synchronous altitude are used to examine the dawn-dusk asymmetry of characteristics of Pc 4--5 waves and associated particle flux modulation. Most waves at synchronous orbit having ground correlations are polarized in the azimuthal direction (A class) and are usually detected in the dawn sector. Waves with a radially oriented polarization ellipse (R-class) are almost never observed near the subsatellite point on the ground, except for the regular pulsations known as giant pulsation Pg, observed in the early morning. R class Pc 4 waves occur at all local times and have an occurrence peak in the afternoon

  11. Application of empirical mode decomposition with local linear quantile regression in financial time series forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Abobaker M; Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Altaher, Alsaidi M

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly forecasts the daily closing price of stock markets. We propose a two-stage technique that combines the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) with nonparametric methods of local linear quantile (LLQ). We use the proposed technique, EMD-LLQ, to forecast two stock index time series. Detailed experiments are implemented for the proposed method, in which EMD-LPQ, EMD, and Holt-Winter methods are compared. The proposed EMD-LPQ model is determined to be superior to the EMD and Holt-Winter methods in predicting the stock closing prices.

  12. Hitting times of local and global optima in genetic algorithms with very high selection pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremeev Anton V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to upper bounds on the expected first hitting times of the sets of local or global optima for non-elitist genetic algorithms with very high selection pressure. The results of this paper extend the range of situations where the upper bounds on the expected runtime are known for genetic algorithms and apply, in particular, to the Canonical Genetic Algorithm. The obtained bounds do not require the probability of fitness-decreasing mutation to be bounded by a constant which is less than one.

  13. Quantum eraser and the decoherence time of a local measurement process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abranyos, Y.; Jakob, M.; Bergou, J.

    1998-01-01

    We propose an implementation of the quantum eraser, based on a recent experimental scheme by Eichmann et al. involving two four-level atoms. In our version a continuous broad band excitation field drives the two trapped atoms and information about which atom scattered the light is stored in the internal degrees of freedom of the atoms. Entanglement of the two atoms after the detection of the photon is intimately connected to the availability of this 'which path' information. We also show that the quantum eraser can be used to measure the decoherence time of a local measurement process. (author)

  14. Local inertial oscillations in the surface ocean generated by time-varying winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shengli; Polton, Jeff A.; Hu, Jianyu; Xing, Jiuxing

    2015-12-01

    A new relationship is presented to give a review study on the evolution of inertial oscillations in the surface ocean locally generated by time-varying wind stress. The inertial oscillation is expressed as the superposition of a previous oscillation and a newly generated oscillation, which depends upon the time-varying wind stress. This relationship is employed to investigate some idealized wind change events. For a wind series varying temporally with different rates, the induced inertial oscillation is dominated by the wind with the greatest variation. The resonant wind, which rotates anti-cyclonically at the local inertial frequency with time, produces maximal amplitude of inertial oscillations, which grows monotonically. For the wind rotating at non-inertial frequencies, the responses vary periodically, with wind injecting inertial energy when it is in phase with the currents, but removing inertial energy when it is out of phase. The wind rotating anti-cyclonically with time is much more favorable to generate inertial oscillations than the cyclonic rotating wind. The wind with a frequency closer to the inertial frequency generates stronger inertial oscillations. For a diurnal wind, the induced inertial oscillation is dependent on latitude and is most significant at 30 °. This relationship is also applied to examine idealized moving cyclones. The inertial oscillation is much stronger on the right-hand side of the cyclone path than on the left-hand side (in the northern hemisphere). This is due to the wind being anti-cyclonic with time on the right-hand side, but cyclonic on the other side. The inertial oscillation varies with the cyclone translation speed. The optimal translation speed generating the greatest inertial oscillations is 2 m/s at the latitude of 10 ° and gradually increases to 6 m/s at the latitude of 30 °.

  15. Real-time network traffic classification technique for wireless local area networks based on compressed sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balouchestani, Mohammadreza

    2017-05-01

    Network traffic or data traffic in a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) is the amount of network packets moving across a wireless network from each wireless node to another wireless node, which provide the load of sampling in a wireless network. WLAN's Network traffic is the main component for network traffic measurement, network traffic control and simulation. Traffic classification technique is an essential tool for improving the Quality of Service (QoS) in different wireless networks in the complex applications such as local area networks, wireless local area networks, wireless personal area networks, wireless metropolitan area networks, and wide area networks. Network traffic classification is also an essential component in the products for QoS control in different wireless network systems and applications. Classifying network traffic in a WLAN allows to see what kinds of traffic we have in each part of the network, organize the various kinds of network traffic in each path into different classes in each path, and generate network traffic matrix in order to Identify and organize network traffic which is an important key for improving the QoS feature. To achieve effective network traffic classification, Real-time Network Traffic Classification (RNTC) algorithm for WLANs based on Compressed Sensing (CS) is presented in this paper. The fundamental goal of this algorithm is to solve difficult wireless network management problems. The proposed architecture allows reducing False Detection Rate (FDR) to 25% and Packet Delay (PD) to 15 %. The proposed architecture is also increased 10 % accuracy of wireless transmission, which provides a good background for establishing high quality wireless local area networks.

  16. On the Laws of Total Local Times for -Paths and Bridges of Symmetric Lévy Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Hayashi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The joint law of the total local times at two levels for -paths of symmetric Lévy processes is shown to admit an explicit representation in terms of the laws of the squared Bessel processes of dimensions two and zero. The law of the total local time at a single level for bridges is also discussed.

  17. Time-division optical interconnects for local-area and micro-area networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Mark F.; Boncek, Raymond K.; Johns, Steven T.; Stacy, John L.

    1991-12-01

    This report describes the development of an optical Time-Division Multiple-Access (TDMA) interconnect suitable for applications in local-area and micro-area networks. The advantages of using time-division techniques instead of frequency-division, wavelength-division, or code-division techniques in a shared-medium environment are discussed in detail. Furthermore, a detailed description of the TDMA architecture is presented along with various experiments pertaining to the actual components needed to implement the system. Finally, experimental data is presented for an actual optical TDMA test bed. The experimental data demonstrates the feasibility of the architecture, and shows that currently the system has the capability to accommodate up to 50 channels. The bit-error-rate per channel was measured to be less than 10(exp -9) for pseudo-random bit-sequences.

  18. Out-of-equilibrium dynamics driven by localized time-dependent perturbations at quantum phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelissetto, Andrea; Rossini, Davide; Vicari, Ettore

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the quantum dynamics of many-body systems subject to local (i.e., restricted to a limited space region) time-dependent perturbations. If the system crosses a quantum phase transition, an off-equilibrium behavior is observed, even for a very slow driving. We show that, close to the transition, time-dependent quantities obey scaling laws. In first-order transitions, the scaling behavior is universal, and some scaling functions can be computed exactly. For continuous transitions, the scaling laws are controlled by the standard critical exponents and by the renormalization-group dimension of the perturbation at the transition. Our protocol can be implemented in existing relatively small quantum simulators, paving the way for a quantitative probe of the universal off-equilibrium scaling behavior, without the need to manipulate systems close to the thermodynamic limit.

  19. Automated localization of the prostate at the time of treatment using implanted radiopaque markers: technical feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balter, James M.; Kwok, L. Lam; Sandler, Howard M.; Littles, J. Fred; Bree, Robert L.; Ten Haken, Randall K.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Prostate movement is a major consideration in the formation of target volumes for conformal radiation therapy of prostate cancer. The goal of this study was to determine the technical feasibility of using implanted radiopaque markers and digital imaging to localize the prostate at the time of treatment, thus allowing for reduction of the margin required for uncertainty in target position. Methods and Materials: Radiopaque markers implanted around the prostate prior to treatment are visible on electronic radiographs generated with a portal imager or diagnostic imaging device. The locations of the images of these markers on the digital radiographs were automatically determined by a template-matching algorithm. The coordinates of the markers were found by projecting rays through the marker locations on orthogonal radiographs using a three-dimensional (3D) point-matching algorithm. Prostate and/or patient movement was inferred from the marker displacements. Images generated from known movements of a phantom with implanted markers were tested with this algorithm. Locations of markers from daily images of patients with implanted markers were determined by both manual and automatic techniques to determine the efficacy of automated localization on typical clinical images. Results: Prostate movements can be automatically detected in a phantom using low-energy photons within 30 s after image acquisition and with a precision of better than 1 mm in translation and 1 deg. in rotation (indistinguishable from the uncertainty in measuring precision). Conclusion: The studies show that on-line repositioning of the patient based on localization of the markers at the time of treatment is feasible, and may reduce the uncertainty in prostate location when combined with practical on-line repositioning techniques

  20. Effect of time, dose and fractionation on local control of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Anne W.M.; Chan, David K.K.; Poon, Y.F.; Foo, William; Law, Stephen C.K.; O, S.K.; Tung, Stewart Y.; Fowler, Jack F.; Chappell, Rick

    1995-01-01

    To study the effect of radiation factors on local control of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, 1008 patients with similarly staged T1N0-3M0 disease (Ho's classification) were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were treated by megavoltage irradiation alone using the same technique. Four different fractionation schedules had been used sequentially during 1976-1985: with total dose ranging from 45.6 to 60 Gy and fractional dose from 2.5 to 4.2 Gy. The median overall time was 39 days (range = 38-75 days). Both for the whole series and 763 patients with nodal control, total dose was the most important radiation factor. The hazard of local failure decreased by 9% per additional Gy (p < 0.01). Biological equivalents expressed in terms of Biologically Effective Dose or Nominal Standard Dose also showed strong correlation. Fractional dose had no significant impact. The effect of overall treatment time was insignificant for the whole series, but almost reached statistical significance for those with nodal control (p = 0.06). Further study is required for elucidation, as 85% of patients completed treatment within a very narrow range (38-42 days), and the possible hazard is clinically too significant to be ignored

  1. Influence of fractionation and time on local control of T1 and T2 glottic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Quynh-Thu; Krieg, Richard M.; Quivey, Jeanne M.; Fu, Karen K.; Meyler, Thomas S.; Stuart, Alex A.; Phillips, Theodore L.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of fraction size and overall time on local control of T1 and T2 glottic carcinoma Methods and Materials: Between 1956 and 1995, 318 consecutive patients with early glottic carcinoma (250 T1, 68 T2) were treated with definitive megavoltage radiotherapy at UCSF. Treatment was delivered using conventional fractionation at one fraction/day, 5 days/week. Minimum tumor dose ranged from 50 to 81Gy (median: 61Gy). The fraction size was 200cGy. Conclusions: Risk of tumor recurrence increased with higher T-stage, smaller fraction size, and longer overall time. Our results suggest that for optimal local control, radiotherapy for early glottic carcinoma should be completed as soon as possible, preferably within 6 weeks, using a fraction size ≥ 225cGy. Our current policy is to treat T1 and T2 vocal cord carcinomas with 225cGy/fraction/day, 5 days/week to a total dose of 63-65Gy

  2. Relativistic time-dependent local-density approximation theory and applications to atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parpia, F.Z.

    1984-01-01

    A time-dependent linear-response theory appropriate to the relativistic local-density approximation (RLDA) to quantum electrodynamics (QED) is developed. The resulting theory, the relativistic time-dependent local-density approximation (RTDLDA) is specialized to the treatment of electric excitations in closed-shell atoms. This formalism is applied to the calculation of atomic photoionization parameters in the dipole approximation. The static-field limit of the RTDLDA is applied to the calculation of dipole polarizabilities. Extensive numerical calculations of the photoionization parameters for the rare gases neon, argon, krypton, and xenon, and for mercury from the RTDLDA are presented and compared in detail with the results of other theories, in particular the relativistic random-phase approximation (RRPA), and with experimental measurements. The predictions of the RTDLDA are comparable with the RRPA calculations made to date. This is remarkable in that the RTDLDA entails appreciably less computational effort. Finally, the dipole polarizabilities predicted by the static-field RTDLDA are compared with other determinations of these quantities. In view of its simplicity, the static-field RTDLDA demonstrates itself to be one of the most powerful theories available for the calculation of dipole polarizabilities

  3. Effect of tumor dose, volume and overall treatment time on local control after radiochemotherapy including MRI guided brachytherapy of locally advanced cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Kari; Fokdal, Lars Ulrik; Sturdza, Alina

    2016-01-01

    -center patient series (retroEMBRACE). Materials and methods This study analyzed 488 locally advanced cervical cancer patients treated with external beam radiotherapy ± chemotherapy combined with IGABT. Brachytherapy contouring and reporting was according to ICRU/GEC-ESTRO recommendations. The Cox Proportional...... Hazards model was applied to analyze the effect on local control of dose-volume metrics as well as overall treatment time (OTT), dose rate, chemotherapy, and tumor histology. Results With a median follow up of 46 months, 43 local failures were observed. Dose (D90) to the High Risk Clinical Target Volume...

  4. The Sun in Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Bero, Elizabeth; Sever, Thomas L.

    1999-01-01

    Leveraging funds from NASA's Initiative to Develop Education through Astronomy and Space Science (IDEAS) program, we combined the expertise of an archaeoastronomer, a solar scientist, and a teacher to trace humankind's view of the Sun and how that has changed, from the time of Stonehenge in about 1800 B.C.E., to the time of the Maya in 700 C.E., up to the modem era. Our program was aimed at middle-school students in an attempt to explain not only how science is done today, but how science has evolved from the observations of ancient societies. From these varied cultures, we touched on methods of observing the Sun, ideas of the composition of the Sun, and the relationship of the Sun to everyday life. Further, using the von Braun Astronomical Society's Planetarium in Huntsville, Alabama as a test-bed for the program, we illustrated concepts such as solstices, equinoxes, and local noon with approximately 800 eighth grade students from the local area. Our presentation to SEPA will include a description of NASA's IDEAS program and how to go about partnering with a NASA astronomer, some slides from our planetarium program and web-site, and some hands-on activities.

  5. Influence of tumor grade on time to progression after irradiation for localized ependymoma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchant, Thomas E.; Jenkins, Jesse J.; Burger, Peter C.; Sanford, Robert A.; Sherwood, Scot H.; Jones-Wallace, Dana; Heideman, Richard L.; Thompson, Stephen J.; Helton, Kathleen J.; Kun, Larry E.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of histologic grade on progression-free survival (PFS) after irradiation (RT) for pediatric patients with localized ependymoma. Methods and Materials: Fifty patients with localized ependymoma (median age 3.6 years, range 1-18 years at the time of RT) were treated with RT between December 1982 and June 1999. Anaplastic features were identified in 14 of 50 patients. The extent of resection was characterized as gross-total in 36 patients, near-total in 5, and subtotal in 9. The median dose to the primary site was 54 Gy. Of the 50 patients, 23 received pre-RT chemotherapy. Results: Thirty-nine patients were alive at a median follow-up of 46 months (range 21-214) from diagnosis. Thirty-four patients remained progression free at a median follow-up of 35 months (range 13-183) after the initiation of RT. Progression occurred in 16 patients (12 local and 4 local and distant), with a median time to failure of 21.2 months (range 4.6-65.0). The tumor grade significantly influenced the PFS after RT (p<0.0005). The estimated 3-year PFS rate was 28%±14% for patients with anaplastic ependymoma compared with 84% ± 8% for patients with differentiated ependymoma. These results remained significant when corrected for age at diagnosis (<3 years), pre-RT chemotherapy, and extent of resection. Patients who received pre-RT chemotherapy had an inferior 3-year PFS estimate after RT (49±12%) compared with those who did not (84%±10%; p=0.056). Anaplastic ependymoma was found more frequently in the supratentorial brain (p=0.002). Six of 12 patients with supratentorial tumor developed recurrence; recurrence was restricted to patients with anaplastic ependymoma. Conclusion: Tumor grade influences outcome for patients with ependymoma independent of other factors and should be considered in the design and analysis of prospective trials involving pediatric patients treated with RT. Chemotherapy before RT influences the PFS and overall survival after RT. The

  6. Real-time ultrasound image classification for spine anesthesia using local directional Hadamard features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesteie, Mehran; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Ashab, Hussam Al-Deen; Lessoway, Victoria A; Massey, Simon; Gunka, Vit; Rohling, Robert N

    2015-06-01

    Injection therapy is a commonly used solution for back pain management. This procedure typically involves percutaneous insertion of a needle between or around the vertebrae, to deliver anesthetics near nerve bundles. Most frequently, spinal injections are performed either blindly using palpation or under the guidance of fluoroscopy or computed tomography. Recently, due to the drawbacks of the ionizing radiation of such imaging modalities, there has been a growing interest in using ultrasound imaging as an alternative. However, the complex spinal anatomy with different wave-like structures, affected by speckle noise, makes the accurate identification of the appropriate injection plane difficult. The aim of this study was to propose an automated system that can identify the optimal plane for epidural steroid injections and facet joint injections. A multi-scale and multi-directional feature extraction system to provide automated identification of the appropriate plane is proposed. Local Hadamard coefficients are obtained using the sequency-ordered Hadamard transform at multiple scales. Directional features are extracted from local coefficients which correspond to different regions in the ultrasound images. An artificial neural network is trained based on the local directional Hadamard features for classification. The proposed method yields distinctive features for classification which successfully classified 1032 images out of 1090 for epidural steroid injection and 990 images out of 1052 for facet joint injection. In order to validate the proposed method, a leave-one-out cross-validation was performed. The average classification accuracy for leave-one-out validation was 94 % for epidural and 90 % for facet joint targets. Also, the feature extraction time for the proposed method was 20 ms for a native 2D ultrasound image. A real-time machine learning system based on the local directional Hadamard features extracted by the sequency-ordered Hadamard transform for

  7. Faster onset time of supraclavicular brachial plexus block using local anesthetic diluted with dextrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hong Jin; Hasan, Mohd Shahnaz; Chinna, Karuthan

    2016-01-01

    A high sodium concentration is known to antagonize local anesthetics when infiltrated around neural tissue. Thus, we hypothesized that the onset time for sensory and motor blockade, in supraclavicular brachial plexus block using ropivacaine diluted with dextrose would be shorter than with saline. Patients scheduled for upper limb surgery were randomized to receive ultrasound guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block with 0.5% ropivacaine. Evaluation of sensory and motor blockade was performed every 5min for 60min. Patients were followed-up on postoperative day 1, and between days 7 and 10 for the presence of any complications. Twenty-five patients in each group were analyzed. Mean time for onset of analgesia for the dextrose group was 37.6±12.9min while the mean time for the saline group was 45.2±13.9min with a p-value of 0.05. The effect size was 0.567, which was moderate to large. No major complications were observed. We conclude that there was a decrease in onset time of analgesia when dextrose was used as a diluent instead of saline for ultrasound guided supraclavicular block. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Faster onset time of supraclavicular brachial plexus block using local anesthetic diluted with dextrose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Jin Lim

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: A high sodium concentration is known to antagonize local anesthetics when infiltrated around neural tissue. Thus, we hypothesized that the onset time for sensory and motor blockade, in supraclavicular brachial plexus block using ropivacaine diluted with dextrose would be shorter than with saline. Methods: Patients scheduled for upper limb surgery were randomized to receive ultrasound guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block with 0.5% ropivacaine. Evaluation of sensory and motor blockade was performed every 5 min for 60 min. Patients were followed-up on postoperative day 1, and between days 7 and 10 for the presence of any complications. Twenty-five patients in each group were analyzed. Results: Mean time for onset of analgesia for the dextrose group was 37.6 ± 12.9 min while the mean time for the saline group was 45.2 ± 13.9 min with a p-value of 0.05. The effect size was 0.567, which was moderate to large. No major complications were observed. Conclusion: We conclude that there was a decrease in onset time of analgesia when dextrose was used as a diluent instead of saline for ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

  9. Floor Covering and Surface Identification for Assistive Mobile Robotic Real-Time Room Localization Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gillham

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Assistive robotic applications require systems capable of interaction in the human world, a workspace which is highly dynamic and not always predictable. Mobile assistive devices face the additional and complex problem of when and if intervention should occur; therefore before any trajectory assistance is given, the robotic device must know where it is in real-time, without unnecessary disruption or delay to the user requirements. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel robust method for determining room identification from floor features in a real-time computational frame for autonomous and assistive robotics in the human environment. We utilize two inexpensive sensors: an optical mouse sensor for straightforward and rapid, texture or pattern sampling, and a four color photodiode light sensor for fast color determination. We show how data relating floor texture and color obtained from typical dynamic human environments, using these two sensors, compares favorably with data obtained from a standard webcam. We show that suitable data can be extracted from these two sensors at a rate 16 times faster than a standard webcam, and that these data are in a form which can be rapidly processed using readily available classification techniques, suitable for real-time system application. We achieved a 95% correct classification accuracy identifying 133 rooms’ flooring from 35 classes, suitable for fast coarse global room localization application, boundary crossing detection, and additionally some degree of surface type identification.

  10. A time-localized response of wave growth process under turbulent winds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ge

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Very short time series (with lengths of approximately 40 s or 5~7 wave periods of wind velocity fluctuations and wave elevation were recorded simultaneously and investigated using the wavelet bispectral analysis. Rapid changes in the wave and wind spectra were detected, which were found to be intimately related to significant energy transfers through transient quadratic wind-wave and wave-wave interactions. A possible pattern of energy exchange between the wind and wave fields was further deduced. In particular, the generation and variation of the strong wave-induced perturbation velocity in the wind can be explained by the strengthening and diminishing of the associated quadratic interactions, which cannot be unveiled by linear theories. On small time scales, the wave-wave quadratic interactions were as active and effective in transferring energy as the wind-wave interactions. The results also showed that the wind turbulence was occasionally effective in transferring energy between the wind and the wave fields, so that the background turbulence in the wind cannot be completely neglected. Although these effects are all possibly significant over short times, the time-localized growth of the wave spectrum may not considerably affect the long-term process of wave development.

  11. Monitoring substrate enables real-time regulation of a protein localization pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Koreaki; Mori, Hiroyuki; Chiba, Shinobu

    2018-06-01

    Protein localization machinery supports cell survival and physiology, suggesting the potential importance of its expression regulation. Here, we summarize a remarkable scheme of regulation, which allows real-time feedback regulation of the machinery expression. A class of regulatory nascent polypeptides, called monitoring substrates, undergoes force-sensitive translation arrest. The resulting ribosome stalling on the mRNA then affects mRNA folding to expose the ribosome-binding site of the downstream target gene and upregulate its translation. The target gene encodes a component of the localization machinery, whose physical action against the monitoring substrate leads to arrest cancellation. Thus, this scheme of feedback loop allows the cell to adjust the amount of the machinery to correlate inversely with the effectiveness of the process at a given moment. The system appears to have emerged late in evolution, in which a narrow range of organisms selected a distinct monitoring substrate-machinery combination. Currently, regulatory systems of SecM-SecA, VemP-SecDF2 and MifM-YidC2 are known to occur in different bacterial species.

  12. Using an ACTIVE teaching format versus a standard lecture format for increasing resident interaction and knowledge achievement during noon conference: a prospective, controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The traditional lecture is used by many residency programs to fulfill the mandate for regular didactic sessions, despite limited evidence to demonstrate its effectiveness. Active teaching strategies have shown promise in improving medical knowledge but have been challenging to implement within the constraints of residency training. We developed and evaluated an innovative structured format for interactive teaching within the residency noon conference. Methods We developed an ACTIVE teaching format structured around the following steps: assemble (A) into groups, convey (C) learning objectives, teach (T) background information, inquire (I) through cases and questions, verify (V) understanding, and explain (E) answer choices and educate on the learning points. We conducted a prospective, controlled study of the ACTIVE teaching format versus the standard lecture format, comparing resident satisfaction, immediate knowledge achievement and long-term knowledge retention. We qualitatively assessed participating faculty members’ perspectives on the faculty development efforts and the feasibility of teaching using the ACTIVE format. Results Sixty-nine internal medicine residents participated in the study. Overall, there was an improvement in perceived engagement using the ACTIVE teaching format (4.78 vs. 3.80, P teaching format (overall absolute score increase of 11%, P = 0.04) and a trend toward improvement in long-term knowledge retention. Faculty members felt adequately prepared to use the ACTIVE teaching format, and enjoyed teaching with the ACTIVE teaching format more than the standard lecture. Conclusions A structured ACTIVE teaching format improved resident engagement and initial knowledge, and required minimal resources. The ACTIVE teaching format offers an exciting alternative to the standard lecture for resident noon conference and is easy to implement. PMID:24985781

  13. The time-local view of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. I. Linear theory of transport and relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    der, R.

    1987-01-01

    The various approaches to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics may be subdivided into convolution and convolutionless (time-local) ones. While the former, put forward by Zwanzig, Mori, and others, are used most commonly, the latter are less well developed, but have proven very useful in recent applications. The aim of the present series of papers is to develop the time-local picture (TLP) of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics on a new footing and to consider its physical implications for topics such as the formulation of irreversible thermodynamics. The most natural approach to TLP is seen to derive from the Fourier-Laplace transformwidetilde{C}(z)) of pertinent time correlation functions, which on the physical sheet typically displays an essential singularity at z=∞ and a number of macroscopic and microscopic poles in the lower half-plane corresponding to long- and short-lived modes, respectively, the former giving rise to the autonomous macrodynamics, whereas the latter are interpreted as doorway modes mediating the transfer of information from relevant to irrelevant channels. Possible implications of this doorway mode concept for socalled extended irreversible thermodynamics are briefly discussed. The pole structure is used for deriving new kinds of generalized Green-Kubo relations expressing macroscopic quantities, transport coefficients, e.g., by contour integrals over current-current correlation functions obeying Hamiltonian dynamics, the contour integration replacing projection. The conventional Green-Kubo relations valid for conserved quantities only are rederived for illustration. Moreover,widetilde{C}(z) may be expressed by a Laurent series expansion in positive and negative powers of z, from which a rigorous, general, and straightforward method is developed for extracting all macroscopic quantities from so-called secularly divergent expansions ofwidetilde{C}(z) as obtained from the application of conventional many-body techniques to the calculation

  14. Prospective phase II study of image-guided local boost using a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy (RTRT) system for locally advanced bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishioka, Kentaro; Shimizu, Shinichi; Shinohara, Nobuo

    2014-01-01

    The real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system with fiducial markers has the advantage that it can be used to verify the localization of the markers during radiation delivery in real-time. We conducted a prospective Phase II study of image-guided local-boost radiotherapy for locally advanced bladder cancer using a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system for positioning, and here we report the results regarding the safety and efficacy of the technique. Twenty patients with a T2-T4N0M0 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder who were clinically inoperable or refused surgery were enrolled. Transurethral tumor resection and 40 Gy irradiation to the whole bladder was followed by the transurethral endoscopic implantation of gold markers in the bladder wall around the primary tumor. A boost of 25 Gy in 10 fractions was made to the primary tumor while maintaining the displacement from the planned position at less than ±2 mm during radiation delivery using a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system. The toxicity, local control and survival were evaluated. Among the 20 patients, 14 were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. The median follow-up period was 55.5 months. Urethral and bowel late toxicity (Grade 3) were each observed in one patient. The local-control rate, overall survival and cause-specific survival with the native bladder after 5 years were 64, 61 and 65%. Image-guided local-boost radiotherapy using a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy system can be safely accomplished, and the clinical outcome is encouraging. A larger prospective multi-institutional study is warranted for more precise evaluations of the technological efficacy and patients' quality of life. (author)

  15. Using a "time machine" to test for local adaptation of aquatic microbes to temporal and spatial environmental variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jeremy W; Harder, Lawrence D

    2015-01-01

    Local adaptation occurs when different environments are dominated by different specialist genotypes, each of which is relatively fit in its local conditions and relatively unfit under other conditions. Analogously, ecological species sorting occurs when different environments are dominated by different competing species, each of which is relatively fit in its local conditions. The simplest theory predicts that spatial, but not temporal, environmental variation selects for local adaptation (or generates species sorting), but this prediction is difficult to test. Although organisms can be reciprocally transplanted among sites, doing so among times seems implausible. Here, we describe a reciprocal transplant experiment testing for local adaptation or species sorting of lake bacteria in response to both temporal and spatial variation in water chemistry. The experiment used a -80°C freezer as a "time machine." Bacterial isolates and water samples were frozen for later use, allowing transplantation of older isolates "forward in time" and newer isolates "backward in time." Surprisingly, local maladaptation predominated over local adaptation in both space and time. Such local maladaptation may indicate that adaptation, or the analogous species sorting process, fails to keep pace with temporal fluctuations in water chemistry. This hypothesis could be tested with more finely resolved temporal data. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. STAR: a local network system for real-time management of imagery data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuan-lin Wu; Tse-yun Feng; Min-chang Lin

    1982-10-01

    Overall architecture of a local computer network, STAR, is described. The objective is to accomplish a cost-effective system which provides multiple users a real-time service of manipulating very large volume imagery information and data. STAR consists of a reconfigurable communication subnet (starnet), heterogeneous resource units, and distributed-control software entities. Architectural aspects of a fault-tolerant communication subnet, distributed database management, and a distributed scheduling strategy for configuring desirable computation topology are exploited. A model for comparing cost-effectiveness among starnet, crossbar, and multiple buses is included. It is concluded that starnet outperforms the other two when the number of units to be connected is larger than 64. This project serves as a research tool for using current and projected technology to innovate better schemes for parallel image processing. 30 references.

  17. Localization Framework for Real-Time UAV Autonomous Landing: An On-Ground Deployed Visual Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Weiwei; Hu, Tianjiang; Zhang, Daibing; Shen, Lincheng; Zhang, Jianwei

    2017-06-19

    [-5]One of the greatest challenges for fixed-wing unmanned aircraft vehicles (UAVs) is safe landing. Hereafter, an on-ground deployed visual approach is developed in this paper. This approach is definitely suitable for landing within the global navigation satellite system (GNSS)-denied environments. As for applications, the deployed guidance system makes full use of the ground computing resource and feedbacks the aircraft's real-time localization to its on-board autopilot. Under such circumstances, a separate long baseline stereo architecture is proposed to possess an extendable baseline and wide-angle field of view (FOV) against the traditional fixed baseline schemes. Furthermore, accuracy evaluation of the new type of architecture is conducted by theoretical modeling and computational analysis. Dataset-driven experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the developed approach.

  18. Local Adaptive Control of Solar Photovoltaics and Electric Water Heaters for Real-time Grid Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Mendaza, Iker Diaz de Cerio; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    Overvoltage (OV) in a low voltage distribution network is one of the foremost issues observed even under moderate penetration of rooftop solar photovoltaics (PVs). Similarly, grid under-voltage (UV) is foreseen as a potential issue resulting from increased integration of large flexible loads......, such as electric vehicles, electric water heaters (EWHs) etc. An adaptive control using only local measurements for the EWHs and PVs is proposed in this study to alleviate OV as well as UV issues. The adaptive control is designed such that it monitors the voltage at the point of connection and adjusts active...... and reactive power injection/consumptions of the EWHs and PVs following the voltage violations. To effectively support the network in real-time, the controller allows EWHs to operate prior to PVs in OV and after the PVs in UV violations. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is demonstrated...

  19. Localized diffusive motion on two different time scales in solid alkane nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.-K.; Mamontov, Eugene; Bai, M.; Hansen, F.Y.; Taub, H.; Copley, J.R.D.; Garcia Sakai, V.; Gasparovic, Goran; Jenkins, Timothy; Tyagi, M.; Herwig, Kenneth W.; Neumann, D.A.; Montfrooij, W.; Volkmann, U.G.

    2010-01-01

    High-energy-resolution quasielastic neutron scattering on three complementary spectrometers has been used to investigate molecular diffusive motion in solid nano- to bulk-sized particles of the alkane n-C32H66. The crystalline-to-plastic and plastic-to-fluid phase transition temperatures are observed to decrease as the particle size decreases. In all samples, localized molecular diffusive motion in the plastic phase occurs on two different time scales: a 'fast' motion corresponding to uniaxial rotation about the long molecular axis; and a 'slow' motion attributed to conformational changes of the molecule. Contrary to the conventional interpretation in bulk alkanes, the fast uniaxial rotation begins in the low-temperature crystalline phase.

  20. Localization Framework for Real-Time UAV Autonomous Landing: An On-Ground Deployed Visual Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Kong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available [-5]One of the greatest challenges for fixed-wing unmanned aircraft vehicles (UAVs is safe landing. Hereafter, an on-ground deployed visual approach is developed in this paper. This approach is definitely suitable for landing within the global navigation satellite system (GNSS-denied environments. As for applications, the deployed guidance system makes full use of the ground computing resource and feedbacks the aircraft’s real-time localization to its on-board autopilot. Under such circumstances, a separate long baseline stereo architecture is proposed to possess an extendable baseline and wide-angle field of view (FOV against the traditional fixed baseline schemes. Furthermore, accuracy evaluation of the new type of architecture is conducted by theoretical modeling and computational analysis. Dataset-driven experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the developed approach.

  1. Time domain localization technique with sparsity constraint for imaging acoustic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padois, Thomas; Doutres, Olivier; Sgard, Franck; Berry, Alain

    2017-09-01

    This paper addresses source localization technique in time domain for broadband acoustic sources. The objective is to accurately and quickly detect the position and amplitude of noise sources in workplaces in order to propose adequate noise control options and prevent workers hearing loss or safety risk. First, the generalized cross correlation associated with a spherical microphone array is used to generate an initial noise source map. Then a linear inverse problem is defined to improve this initial map. Commonly, the linear inverse problem is solved with an l2 -regularization. In this study, two sparsity constraints are used to solve the inverse problem, the orthogonal matching pursuit and the truncated Newton interior-point method. Synthetic data are used to highlight the performances of the technique. High resolution imaging is achieved for various acoustic sources configurations. Moreover, the amplitudes of the acoustic sources are correctly estimated. A comparison of computation times shows that the technique is compatible with quasi real-time generation of noise source maps. Finally, the technique is tested with real data.

  2. High-speed railway real-time localization auxiliary method based on deep neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongjie; Zhang, Wensheng; Yang, Yang

    2017-11-01

    High-speed railway intelligent monitoring and management system is composed of schedule integration, geographic information, location services, and data mining technology for integration of time and space data. Assistant localization is a significant submodule of the intelligent monitoring system. In practical application, the general access is to capture the image sequences of the components by using a high-definition camera, digital image processing technique and target detection, tracking and even behavior analysis method. In this paper, we present an end-to-end character recognition method based on a deep CNN network called YOLO-toc for high-speed railway pillar plate number. Different from other deep CNNs, YOLO-toc is an end-to-end multi-target detection framework, furthermore, it exhibits a state-of-art performance on real-time detection with a nearly 50fps achieved on GPU (GTX960). Finally, we realize a real-time but high-accuracy pillar plate number recognition system and integrate natural scene OCR into a dedicated classification YOLO-toc model.

  3. CFD simulation of local and global mixing time in an agitated tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liangchao; Xu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    The Issue of mixing efficiency in agitated tanks has drawn serious concern in many industrial processes. The turbulence model is very critical to predicting mixing process in agitated tanks. On the basis of computational fluid dynamics(CFD) software package Fluent 6.2, the mixing characteristics in a tank agitated by dual six-blade-Rushton-turbines(6-DT) are predicted using the detached eddy simulation(DES) method. A sliding mesh(SM) approach is adopted to solve the rotation of the impeller. The simulated flow patterns and liquid velocities in the agitated tank are verified by experimental data in the literature. The simulation results indicate that the DES method can obtain more flow details than Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes(RANS) model. Local and global mixing time in the agitated tank is predicted by solving a tracer concentration scalar transport equation. The simulated results show that feeding points have great influence on mixing process and mixing time. Mixing efficiency is the highest for the feeding point at location of midway of the two impellers. Two methods are used to determine global mixing time and get close result. Dimensionless global mixing time remains unchanged with increasing of impeller speed. Parallel, merging and diverging flow pattern form in the agitated tank, respectively, by changing the impeller spacing and clearance of lower impeller from the bottom of the tank. The global mixing time is the shortest for the merging flow, followed by diverging flow, and the longest for parallel flow. The research presents helpful references for design, optimization and scale-up of agitated tanks with multi-impeller.

  4. The inner magnetosphere ion composition and local time distribution over a solar cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, L. M.; Mouikis, C. G.

    2016-03-01

    Using the Cluster/Composition and Distribution Function (CODIF) analyzer data set from 2001 to 2013, a full solar cycle, we determine the ion distributions for H+, He+, and O+ in the inner magnetosphere (L < 12) over the energy range 40 eV to 40 keV as a function magnetic local time, solar EUV (F10.7), and geomagnetic activity (Kp). Concentrating on L = 6-7 for comparison with previous studies at geosynchronous orbit, we determine both the average flux at 90° pitch angle and the pitch angle anisotropy as a function of energy and magnetic local time. We clearly see the minimum in the H+ spectrum that results from the competition between eastward and westward drifts. The feature is weaker in O+ and He+, leading to higher O+/H+ and He+/H+ ratios in the affected region, and also to a higher pitch angle anisotropy, both features expected from the long-term effects of charge exchange. We also determine how the nightside L = 6-7 densities and temperatures vary with geomagnetic activity (Kp) and solar EUV (F10.7). Consistent with other studies, we find that the O+ density and relative abundance increase significantly with both Kp and F10.7. He+ density increases with F10.7, but not significantly with Kp. The temperatures of all species decrease with increasing F10.7. The O+ and He+ densities increase from L = 12 to L ~ 3-4, both absolutely and relative to H+, and then drop off sharply. The results give a comprehensive view of the inner magnetosphere using a contiguous long-term data set that supports much of the earlier work from GEOS, ISEE, Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers, and Polar from previous solar cycles.

  5. Think Local-Act Local: Is It Time to Slow Down the Accelerated Move to Global Marketing?

    OpenAIRE

    Schuiling, Isabelle

    2001-01-01

    In view of the accelerated move of great corporations towards global marketing, the strategic changes of such companies raise interesting questions. Is marketing globalization reaching its limits after years of implementation? Is it time for companies to rethink their strategies and move back, like Coca-Cola, to a multi-domestic marketing approach?

  6. Wide variation of prostate-specific antigen doubling time of untreated, clinically localized, low-to-intermediate grade, prostate carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Richard; Klotz, Laurence; Deboer, Gerrit; Danjoux, Cyril; Morton, Gerard C

    2004-08-01

    To assess the prostate specific antigen (PSA) doubling time of untreated, clinically localized, low-to-intermediate grade prostate carcinoma. A prospective single-arm cohort study has been in progress since November 1995 to assess the feasibility of a watchful-observation protocol with selective delayed intervention for clinically localized, low-to-intermediate grade prostate adenocarcinoma. The PSA doubling time was estimated from a linear regression of ln(PSA) against time, assuming a simple exponential growth model. As of March 2003, 231 patients had at least 6 months of follow-up (median 45) and at least three PSA measurements (median 8, range 3-21). The distribution of the doubling time was: 50 years, 56. The median doubling time was 7.0 years; 42% of men had a doubling time of >10 years. The doubling time of untreated clinically localized, low-to-intermediate grade prostate cancer varies widely.

  7. Local and Community History: Some Cautionary Remarks on an Idea Whose Time Has Returned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, David A.

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes past local history movements and addresses benefits and problems for historical studies and history teaching in the current upsurge of interest in local and community history. Concludes that local history must transcend parochialism in order to see the larger picture. (KC)

  8. Time variations in the mechanical characteristics of local crustal segments according to seismic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocharyan, G. G.; Gamburtseva, N. G.; Sanina, I. A.; Danilova, T. V.; Nesterkina, M. A.; Gorbunova, E. M.; Ivanchenko, G. N.

    2011-04-01

    The results of the seismic observations made with two different experimental setups are presented. In the first case, the signals produced by underground nuclear explosions at the Semipalatinsk Test Site were measured on a linear profile, which allowed one to definitely outline the areas where the mechanical properties of rocks experienced considerable time variations. In the second case, the waves excited by the open-pit mine blasts recorded at a small-aperture seismic array at the Mikhnevo Geophysical Station (Institute of Geosphere Dynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences) on the East European Platform favored the estimation of variations in the integral characteristics of the seismic path. Measurements in aseismic regions characterized by diverse geological structure and different tectonic conditions revealed similar effects of the strong dependency of seismic parameters on the time of explosions. Here, the variations experienced by the maximum amplitudes of oscillations and irrelevant to seasonal changes or local conditions reached a factor of two. The generic periods of these variations including the distinct annual rhythm are probably the fragments of a lower-frequency process. The obtained results suggest that these variations are due to changes in the stressstrain state of active fault zones, which, in turn, can be associated with the macroscale motion of large blocks triggered by tidal strains, tectonic forces and, possibly, variations in the rate of the Earth's rotation.

  9. An innovative application of time-domain spectroscopy on localized surface plasmon resonance sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Chi; Chang, Ying-Feng; Wang, Huai-Yi; Lin, Yu-Xen; Kuo, Chien-Cheng; Annie Ho, Ja-An; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Su, Li-Chen

    2017-03-01

    White-light scanning interferometry (WLSI) is often used to study the surface profiles and properties of thin films because the strength of the technique lies in its ability to provide fast and high resolution measurements. An innovative attempt is made in this paper to apply WLSI as a time-domain spectroscopic system for localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensing. A WLSI-based spectrometer is constructed with a breadboard of WLSI in combination with a spectral centroid algorithm for noise reduction and performance improvement. Experimentally, the WLSI-based spectrometer exhibits a limit of detection (LOD) of 1.2 × 10-3 refractive index units (RIU), which is better than that obtained with a conventional UV-Vis spectrometer, by resolving the LSPR peak shift. Finally, the bio-applicability of the proposed spectrometer was investigated using the rs242557 tau gene, an Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease biomarker. The LOD was calculated as 15 pM. These results demonstrate that the proposed WLSI-based spectrometer could become a sensitive time-domain spectroscopic biosensing platform.

  10. Uncertainty Quantification of the Reverse Taylor Impact Test and Localized Asynchronous Space-Time Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subber, Waad; Salvadori, Alberto; Lee, Sangmin; Matous, Karel

    2017-06-01

    The reverse Taylor impact is a common experiment to investigate the dynamical response of materials at high strain rates. To better understand the physical phenomena and to provide a platform for code validation and Uncertainty Quantification (UQ), a co-designed simulation and experimental paradigm is investigated. For validation under uncertainty, quantities of interest (QOIs) within subregions of the computational domain are introduced. For such simulations where regions of interest can be identified, the computational cost for UQ can be reduced by confining the random variability within these regions of interest. This observation inspired us to develop an asynchronous space and time computational algorithm with localized UQ. In the region of interest, the high resolution space and time discretization schemes are used for a stochastic model. Apart from the region of interest, low spatial and temporal resolutions are allowed for a stochastic model with low dimensional representation of uncertainty. The model is exercised on the linear elastodynamics and shows a potential in reducing the UQ computational cost. Although, we consider wave prorogation in solid, the proposed framework is general and can be used for fluid flow problems as well. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (PSAAP-II).

  11. Quadratic obstructions to small-time local controllability for scalar-input systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchard, Karine; Marbach, Frédéric

    2018-03-01

    We consider nonlinear finite-dimensional scalar-input control systems in the vicinity of an equilibrium. When the linearized system is controllable, the nonlinear system is smoothly small-time locally controllable: whatever m > 0 and T > 0, the state can reach a whole neighborhood of the equilibrium at time T with controls arbitrary small in Cm-norm. When the linearized system is not controllable, we prove that: either the state is constrained to live within a smooth strict manifold, up to a cubic residual, or the quadratic order adds a signed drift with respect to it. This drift holds along a Lie bracket of length (2 k + 1), is quantified in terms of an H-k-norm of the control, holds for controls small in W 2 k , ∞-norm and these spaces are optimal. Our proof requires only C3 regularity of the vector field. This work underlines the importance of the norm used in the smallness assumption on the control, even in finite dimension.

  12. Local and Global Distinguishability in Quantum Interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durkin, Gabriel A.; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2007-01-01

    A statistical distinguishability based on relative entropy characterizes the fitness of quantum states for phase estimation. This criterion is employed in the context of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and used to interpolate between two regimes of local and global phase distinguishability. The scaling of distinguishability in these regimes with photon number is explored for various quantum states. It emerges that local distinguishability is dependent on a discrepancy between quantum and classical rotational energy. Our analysis demonstrates that the Heisenberg limit is the true upper limit for local phase sensitivity. Only the ''NOON'' states share this bound, but other states exhibit a better trade-off when comparing local and global phase regimes

  13. Real-Time Counting People in Crowded Areas by Using Local Empirical Templates and Density Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Dao-Huu; Hsu, Gee-Sern; Chung, Sheng-Luen; Saito, Hideo

    In this paper, a fast and automated method of counting pedestrians in crowded areas is proposed along with three contributions. We firstly propose Local Empirical Templates (LET), which are able to outline the foregrounds, typically made by single pedestrians in a scene. LET are extracted by clustering foregrounds of single pedestrians with similar features in silhouettes. This process is done automatically for unknown scenes. Secondly, comparing the size of group foreground made by a group of pedestrians to that of appropriate LET captured in the same image patch with the group foreground produces the density ratio. Because of the local scale normalization between sizes, the density ratio appears to have a bound closely related to the number of pedestrians who induce the group foreground. Finally, to extract the bounds of density ratios for groups of different number of pedestrians, we propose a 3D human models based simulation in which camera viewpoints and pedestrians' proximity are easily manipulated. We collect hundreds of typical occluded-people patterns with distinct degrees of human proximity and under a variety of camera viewpoints. Distributions of density ratios with respect to the number of pedestrians are built based on the computed density ratios of these patterns for extracting density ratio bounds. The simulation is performed in the offline learning phase to extract the bounds from the distributions, which are used to count pedestrians in online settings. We reveal that the bounds seem to be invariant to camera viewpoints and humans' proximity. The performance of our proposed method is evaluated with our collected videos and PETS 2009's datasets. For our collected videos with the resolution of 320x240, our method runs in real-time with good accuracy and frame rate of around 30 fps, and consumes a small amount of computing resources. For PETS 2009's datasets, our proposed method achieves competitive results with other methods tested on the same

  14. Real-Time Ligand Binding Pocket Database Search Using Local Surface Descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikhi, Rayan; Sael, Lee; Kihara, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    Due to the increasing number of structures of unknown function accumulated by ongoing structural genomics projects, there is an urgent need for computational methods for characterizing protein tertiary structures. As functions of many of these proteins are not easily predicted by conventional sequence database searches, a legitimate strategy is to utilize structure information in function characterization. Of a particular interest is prediction of ligand binding to a protein, as ligand molecule recognition is a major part of molecular function of proteins. Predicting whether a ligand molecule binds a protein is a complex problem due to the physical nature of protein-ligand interactions and the flexibility of both binding sites and ligand molecules. However, geometric and physicochemical complementarity is observed between the ligand and its binding site in many cases. Therefore, ligand molecules which bind to a local surface site in a protein can be predicted by finding similar local pockets of known binding ligands in the structure database. Here, we present two representations of ligand binding pockets and utilize them for ligand binding prediction by pocket shape comparison. These representations are based on mapping of surface properties of binding pockets, which are compactly described either by the two dimensional pseudo-Zernike moments or the 3D Zernike descriptors. These compact representations allow a fast real-time pocket searching against a database. Thorough benchmark study employing two different datasets show that our representations are competitive with the other existing methods. Limitations and potentials of the shape-based methods as well as possible improvements are discussed. PMID:20455259

  15. Local activation time sampling density for atrial tachycardia contact mapping: how much is enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Steven E; Harrison, James L; Chubb, Henry; Whitaker, John; Kiedrowicz, Radek; Rinaldi, Christopher A; Cooklin, Michael; Wright, Matthew; Niederer, Steven; O'Neill, Mark D

    2018-02-01

    Local activation time (LAT) mapping forms the cornerstone of atrial tachycardia diagnosis. Although anatomic and positional accuracy of electroanatomic mapping (EAM) systems have been validated, the effect of electrode sampling density on LAT map reconstruction is not known. Here, we study the effect of chamber geometry and activation complexity on optimal LAT sampling density using a combined in silico and in vivo approach. In vivo 21 atrial tachycardia maps were studied in three groups: (1) focal activation, (2) macro-re-entry, and (3) localized re-entry. In silico activation was simulated on a 4×4cm atrial monolayer, sampled randomly at 0.25-10 points/cm2 and used to re-interpolate LAT maps. Activation patterns were studied in the geometrically simple porcine right atrium (RA) and complex human left atrium (LA). Activation complexity was introduced into the porcine RA by incomplete inter-caval linear ablation. In all cases, optimal sampling density was defined as the highest density resulting in minimal further error reduction in the re-interpolated maps. Optimal sampling densities for LA tachycardias were 0.67 ± 0.17 points/cm2 (focal activation), 1.05 ± 0.32 points/cm2 (macro-re-entry) and 1.23 ± 0.26 points/cm2 (localized re-entry), P = 0.0031. Increasing activation complexity was associated with increased optimal sampling density both in silico (focal activation 1.09 ± 0.14 points/cm2; re-entry 1.44 ± 0.49 points/cm2; spiral-wave 1.50 ± 0.34 points/cm2, P density (0.61 ± 0.22 points/cm2 vs. 1.0 ± 0.34 points/cm2, P = 0.0015). Optimal sampling densities can be identified to maximize diagnostic yield of LAT maps. Greater sampling density is required to correctly reveal complex activation and represent activation across complex geometries. Overall, the optimal sampling density for LAT map interpolation defined in this study was ∼1.0-1.5 points/cm2. Published on behalf of the European Society of

  16. Three-dimensional crustal structure for the Mendocino Triple Junction region from local earthquake travel times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonck, D.; Zandt, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-10

    The large-scale, three-dimensional geometry of the Mendocino Triple Junction at Cape Mendocino, California, was investigated by inverting nearly 19,000 P wave arrival times from over 1400 local earthquakes to estimate the three-dimensional velocity structure and hypocentral parameters. A velocity grid 175 km (N-S) by 125 km (E-W) centered near Garberville, California, was constructed with 25 km horizontal and 5 km vertical node spacing. The model was well resolved near Cape Mendocino, where the earthquakes and stations are concentrated. At about 40.6{degrees}N latitude a high-velocity gradient between 6.5 and 7.5 km/s dips gently to the south and east from about 15 km depth near the coast. Relocated hypocenters concentrate below this high gradient which the authors interpret as the oceanic crust of the subducted Gorda Plate. Therefore the depth to the top of the Gorda Plate near Cape Mendocino is interpreted to be {approximately} 15 km. The Gorda Plate appears intact and dipping {approximately}8{degrees} eastward due to subduction and flexing downward 6{degrees}-12{degrees} to the south. Both hypocenters and velocity structure suggest that the southern edge of the plate intersects the coastline at 40.3{degrees}N latitude and maintains a linear trend 15{degrees} south of east to at least 123{degrees}W longitude. The top of a large low-velocity region at 20-30 km depth extends about 50 km N-S and 75 km E-W (roughly between Garberville and Covelo) and is located above and south of the southern edge of the Gorda Plate. The authors interpret this low velocity area to be locally thickened crust (8-10 km) due to either local compressional forces associated with north-south compression caused by the northward impingement of the rigid Pacific Plate or by underthrusting of the base of the accretionary subduction complex at the southern terminous of the Cascadia Subduction Zone. 66 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Travel time tomography with local image regularization by sparsity constrained dictionary learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, M.; Gerstoft, P.

    2017-12-01

    We propose a regularization approach for 2D seismic travel time tomography which models small rectangular groups of slowness pixels, within an overall or `global' slowness image, as sparse linear combinations of atoms from a dictionary. The groups of slowness pixels are referred to as patches and a dictionary corresponds to a collection of functions or `atoms' describing the slowness in each patch. These functions could for example be wavelets.The patch regularization is incorporated into the global slowness image. The global image models the broad features, while the local patch images incorporate prior information from the dictionary. Further, high resolution slowness within patches is permitted if the travel times from the global estimates support it. The proposed approach is formulated as an algorithm, which is repeated until convergence is achieved: 1) From travel times, find the global slowness image with a minimum energy constraint on the pixel variance relative to a reference. 2) Find the patch level solutions to fit the global estimate as a sparse linear combination of dictionary atoms.3) Update the reference as the weighted average of the patch level solutions.This approach relies on the redundancy of the patches in the seismic image. Redundancy means that the patches are repetitions of a finite number of patterns, which are described by the dictionary atoms. Redundancy in the earth's structure was demonstrated in previous works in seismics where dictionaries of wavelet functions regularized inversion. We further exploit redundancy of the patches by using dictionary learning algorithms, a form of unsupervised machine learning, to estimate optimal dictionaries from the data in parallel with the inversion. We demonstrate our approach on densely, but irregularly sampled synthetic seismic images.

  18. Time and frequency-dependent modulation of local field potential synchronization by deep brain stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clinton B McCracken

    Full Text Available High-frequency electrical stimulation of specific brain structures, known as deep brain stimulation (DBS, is an effective treatment for movement disorders, but mechanisms of action remain unclear. We examined the time-dependent effects of DBS applied to the entopeduncular nucleus (EP, the rat homolog of the internal globus pallidus, a target used for treatment of both dystonia and Parkinson's disease (PD. We performed simultaneous multi-site local field potential (LFP recordings in urethane-anesthetized rats to assess the effects of high-frequency (HF, 130 Hz; clinically effective, low-frequency (LF, 15 Hz; ineffective and sham DBS delivered to EP. LFP activity was recorded from dorsal striatum (STR, ventroanterior thalamus (VA, primary motor cortex (M1, and the stimulation site in EP. Spontaneous and acute stimulation-induced LFP oscillation power and functional connectivity were assessed at baseline, and after 30, 60, and 90 minutes of stimulation. HF EP DBS produced widespread alterations in spontaneous and stimulus-induced LFP oscillations, with some effects similar across regions and others occurring in a region- and frequency band-specific manner. Many of these changes evolved over time. HF EP DBS produced an initial transient reduction in power in the low beta band in M1 and STR; however, phase synchronization between these regions in the low beta band was markedly suppressed at all time points. DBS also enhanced low gamma synchronization throughout the circuit. With sustained stimulation, there were significant reductions in low beta synchronization between M1-VA and STR-VA, and increases in power within regions in the faster frequency bands. HF DBS also suppressed the ability of acute EP stimulation to induce beta oscillations in all regions along the circuit. This dynamic pattern of synchronizing and desynchronizing effects of EP DBS suggests a complex modulation of activity along cortico-BG-thalamic circuits underlying the therapeutic

  19. A Novel Real-Time Coal Miner Localization and Tracking System Based on Self-Organized Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of information technology, we envision that the key of improving coal mine safety is how to get real-time positions of miners. In this paper, we propose a prototype system for real-time coal miner localization and tracking based on self-organized sensor networks. The system is composed of hardware and software platform. We develop a set of localization hardware devices with the Safety Certificate of Approval for Mining Products include miner node, wired fixed access station, and base with optical port. On the software side, we develop a layered software architecture of node application, server management, and information dissemination and broadcasting. We also develop three key localization technologies: an underground localization algorithm using received signal strength indication- (RSSI- verifying algorithm to reduce the influence of the severe environment in a coal mine; a robust fault-tolerant localization mechanism to improve the inherent defect of instability of RSSI localization; an accurate localization algorithm based on Monte Carlo localization (MCL to adapt to the underground tunnel structure. In addition, we conduct an experimental evaluation based on a real prototype implementation using MICA2 motes. The results show that our system is more accurate and more adaptive in general than traditional localization algorithms.

  20. Local time variations of the middle atmosphere of Venus: Solar-related structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasova, L.; Khatountsev, I. V.; Ignatiev, N. I.; Moroz, V. I.

    Three-dimensional fields (latitude — altitude — local time) of temperature and aerosol in the upper clouds, obtained from the Venera-15 IR spectrometry data, were studied to search for the solar-related structures. The temperature variation at the isobaric levels vs. solar longitude was presented as a superposition of the cosines with periods of 1, 1/2, 1/3 and 1/4 Venusian days. At low latitudes the diurnal tidal component reaches a maximum above 0.2 mb (92km) level. At high latitudes it dominates at P> 50 mb (68 km) in the cold collar, being roughly twice as much as the semidiurnal one and passing through the maximum of 13 K at 400 mb (57 km). The semidiurnal tidal amplitude exceeds the diurnal one below 90 km (where its maximum locates near 83 km), and also in the upper clouds, above 58 km. At low latitudes the 1/3 days component predominates at 10 - 50 mb (68-76 km). In the upper clouds, where most of the solar energy, absorbed in the middle atmosphere, deposits, all four tidal components, including wavenumbers 3 and 4, have significant amplitudes. A position of the upper boundary of the clouds depends on local time in such a way that the lowest height of the clouds is observed in the morning at all selected latitude ranges. At low latitudes the highest position of the upper boundary of the clouds (at 1218 cm -1) is found at 8 - 9 PM, whereas the lowest one is near the morning terminator. At high latitudes the lowest position of the upper boundary of the clouds shifts towards the dayside being at 10:30 AM at 75° in the cold collar and the highest one shifts to 4 PM. The zonal mean altitude of the upper boundary of the clouds decreases from 69 km at 15° to 59 km at 75°. The diurnal tidal component has the highest amplitude in the cold collar (1.5 km). At low latitudes both amplitudes, diurnal and semidiurnal, reach the values 0.8 - 1 km.

  1. A method for detecting crack wave arrival time and crack localization in a tunnel by using moving window technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Chul; Park, Tae Jin [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Source localization in a dispersive medium has been carried out based on the time-of-arrival-differences (TOADs) method: a triangulation method and a circle intersection technique. Recent signal processing advances have led to calculation TOAD using a joint time-frequency analysis of the signal, where a short-time Fourier transform(STFT) and wavelet transform can be included as popular algorithms. The time-frequency analysis method is able to provide various information and more reliable results such as seismic-attenuation estimation, dispersive characteristics, a wave mode analysis, and temporal energy distribution of signals compared with previous methods. These algorithms, however, have their own limitations for signal processing. In this paper, the effective use of proposed algorithm in detecting crack wave arrival time and source localization in rock masses suggest that the evaluation and real-time monitoring on the intensity of damages related to the tunnels or other underground facilities is possible. Calculation of variances resulted from moving windows as a function of their size differentiates the signature from noise and from crack signal, which lead us to determine the crack wave arrival time. Then, the source localization is determined to be where the variance of crack wave velocities from real and virtual crack localization becomes a minimum. To validate our algorithm, we have performed experiments at the tunnel, which resulted in successful determination of the wave arrival time and crack localization.

  2. From localized to extended states in a time-dependent quantum model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jose, J.V.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of a particle inside a rigid box with one of the walls oscillating periodically in time is studied quantum mechanically. In the classical limit, this model was introduced by Fermi in the context of cosmic ray physics. The classical solutions can go from being quasiperiodic to chaotic, as a function of the amplitude of the wall oscillation. In the quantum case, the authors calculate the spectral properties of the corresponding evolution operator, i.e.: the quasi-energy eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The specific form of the wall oscillation, e.g. iota(t) = √ 1 + 2δabsolute value of t, with absolute value of t ≤ 1/2, and iota(t + 1) = iota(t), is essential to the solutions presented here. It is found that as h increases with δ fixed, the nearest neighbor separation between quasi-energy eigenvalues changes from showing no energy level repulsion to energy level repulsion. This transition, from Poisson-like statistics to Gaussian-Orthogonal-Ensemble-like statistics is tested by looking at the distribution of quasi-energy level nearest neighbor separations and the Δ/sub e/(L) statistics. these results are also correlated to a transition between localized to extended states in energy space. The possible relevance of the results presented here to experiments in quasi-one-dimensional atoms is also discussed

  3. Determining if pretreatment PSA doubling time predicts PSA trajectories after radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, Daniel E.; Andridge, Rebecca R.; Pan, Charlie C.; Williams, Scott G.; Taylor, Jeremy M.G.; Sandler, Howard M.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: To determine if pretreatment PSA doubling time (PSA-DT) can predict post-radiation therapy (RT) PSA trajectories for localized prostate cancer. Materials and methods: Three hundred and seventy-five prostate cancer patients treated with external beam RT without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) were identified with an adequate number of PSA values. We utilized a linear mixed model (LMM) analysis to model longitudinal PSA data sets after definitive treatment. Post-treatment PSA trajectories were allowed to depend on the pre-RT PSA-DT, pre-RT PSA (iPSA), Gleason score (GS), and T-stage. Results: Pre-RT PSA-DT had a borderline impact on predicting the rate of PSA rise after nadir (p = 0.08). For a typical low risk patient (T1, GS ≤ 6, iPSA 10), the predicted PSA-DT post-nadir was 21% shorter for pre-RT PSA-DT 24 month (19 month vs. 24 month). Additional significant predictors of post-RT PSA rate of rise included GS (p < 0.0001), iPSA (p < 0.0001), and T-stage (p = 0.02). Conclusions: We observed a trend between rapidly rising pre-RT PSA and the post-RT post-nadir PSA rise. This effect appeared to be independent of iPSA, GS, or T-stage. The results presented suggest that pretreatment PSA-DT may help predict post-RT PSA trajectories

  4. Monsoon rainfall behaviour in recent times on local/regional scale in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Surender; Rao, V.U.M.; Singh, Diwan

    2002-08-01

    An attempt has been made here to investigate the local/regional monsoon rainfall behaviour in the meteorological sub-division no. 13 comprising the areas of Haryana, Delhi and Chandigarh in India. The monthly monsoon rainfall data of 30 years (1970-99) of different locations in the region were used for the investigation. All locations except Delhi received more rainfall in monsoon season during the decade (1990-99) showing general increasing trend in the rainfall behaviour in recent times. The mean monsoon rainfall at various locations ranged between 324.8 mm at Sirsa and 974.9 mm at Chandigarh. The major amount of monsoon rainfall occurred during the month of July and August in the entire region. Monthly mean rainfall ranged between 37.5 to 144.9 mm (June), 130.6 to 298.2 mm (July), 92.6 to 313.6 mm (August) and 44.0 to 149.4mm (September) at different locations. All the locations in the region exhibited overall increasing trend in monsoon rainfall over the period under study. All locations in the region received their lowest monsoon rainfall in the year 1987 which was a drought year and the season's rainfall ranged between 56.1 mm (Sirsa) and 290.0 mm (Delhi) during this year. Many of the locations observed clusters of fluctuations in their respective monsoon rainfall. The statistical summaries of historical data series (1970-99) gave rainfall information on various time scale. Such information acquires value through its influence on the decision making of the ultimate users. (author)

  5. Oscillatory dynamics of vasoconstriction and vasodilation identified by time-localized phase coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, L W; McClintock, P V E; Stefanovska, A; Vuksanovic, V

    2011-01-01

    We apply wavelet-based time-localized phase coherence to investigate the relationship between blood flow and skin temperature, and between blood flow and instantaneous heart rate (IHR), during vasoconstriction and vasodilation provoked by local cooling or heating of the skin. A temperature-controlled metal plate (∼10 cm 2 ) placed on the volar side of the left arm was used to provide the heating and cooling. Beneath the plate, the blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry and the adjacent skin temperature by a thermistor. Two 1 h datasets were collected from each of the ten subjects. In each case a 30 min basal recording was followed by a step change in plate temperature, to either 24 deg. C or 42 deg. C. The IHR was derived from simultaneously recorded ECG. We confirm the changes in the energy and frequency of blood flow oscillations during cooling and heating reported earlier. That is, during cooling, there was a significant decrease in the average frequency of myogenic blood flow oscillations (p < 0.05) and the myogenic spectral peak became more prominent. During heating, there was a significant (p < 0.05) general increase in spectral energy, associated with vasodilation, except in the myogenic interval. Weak phase coherence between temperature and blood flow was observed for unperturbed skin, but it increased in all frequency intervals as a result of heating. It was not significantly affected by cooling. We also show that significant (p < 0.05) phase coherence exists between blood flow and IHR in the respiratory and myogenic frequency intervals. Cooling did not affect this phase coherence in any of the frequency intervals, whereas heating enhanced the phase coherence in the respiratory and myogenic intervals. This can be explained by the reduction in vascular resistance produced by heating, a process where myogenic mechanisms play a key role. We conclude that the mechanisms of vasodilation and vasoconstriction, in response to temperature change, are

  6. Local to Global Scale Time Series Analysis of US Dryland Degradation Using Landsat, AVHRR, and MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington-Allen, R. A.; Ramsey, R. D.; West, N. E.; Kulawardhana, W.; Reeves, M. C.; Mitchell, J. E.; Van Niel, T. G.

    2011-12-01

    Drylands cover 41% of the terrestrial land surface and annually generate $1 trillion in ecosystem goods and services for 38% of the global population, yet estimates of the global extent of Dryland degradation is uncertain with a range of 10 - 80%. It is currently understood that Drylands exhibit topological complexity including self-organization of parameters of different levels-of-organization, e.g., ecosystem and landscape parameters such as soil and vegetation pattern and structure, that gradually or discontinuously shift to multiple basins of attraction in response to herbivory, fire, and climatic drivers at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Our research has shown that at large geographic scales, contemporaneous time series of 10 to 20 years for response and driving variables across two or more spatial scales is required to replicate and differentiate between the impact of climate and land use activities such as commercial grazing. For example, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is a major driver of Dryland net primary productivity (NPP), biodiversity, and ecological resilience with a 10-year return interval, thus 20 years of data are required to replicate its impact. Degradation is defined here as a change in physiognomic composition contrary to management goals, a persistent reduction in vegetation response, e.g., NPP, accelerated soil erosion, a decline in soil quality, and changes in landscape configuration and structure that lead to a loss of ecosystem function. Freely available Landsat, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradimeter (MODIS) archives of satellite imagery exist that provide local to global spatial coverage and time series between 1972 to the present from which proxies of land degradation can be derived. This paper presents time series assessments between 1972 and 2011 of US Dryland degradation including early detection of dynamic regime shifts in the Mojave and landscape pattern and

  7. Effect of time interval between capecitabine intake and radiotherapy on local recurrence-free survival in preoperative chemoradiation for locally advanced rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeon Joo; Kim, Jong Hoon; Yu, Chang Sik; Kim, Tae Won; Jang, Se Jin; Choi, Eun Kyung; Kim, Jin Cheon [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Won Sik [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The concentration of capecitabine peaks at 1–2 hours after administration. We therefore assumed that proper timing of capecitabine administration and radiotherapy would maximize radiosensitization and influence survival among patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. We retrospectively reviewed 223 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who underwent preoperative chemoradiation, followed by surgery from January 2002 to May 2006. All patients underwent pelvic radiotherapy (50 Gy/25 fractions) and received capecitabine twice daily at 12-hour intervals (1,650 mg/m2/day). Patients were divided into two groups according to the time interval between capecitabine intake and radiotherapy. Patients who took capecitabine 1 hour before radiotherapy were classified as Group A (n = 109); all others were classified as Group B (n = 114). The median follow-up period was 72 months (range, 7 to 149 months). Although Group A had a significantly higher rate of good responses (44% vs. 25%; p = 0.005), the 5-year local recurrence-free survival rates of 93% in Group A and 97% in Group B did not differ significantly (p = 0.519). The 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival rates were also comparable between the groups. Despite the better pathological response in Group A, the time interval between capecitabine and radiotherapy administration did not have a significant effect on survivals. Further evaluations are needed to clarify the interaction of these treatment modalities.

  8. Locally covariant quantum field theory and the problem of formulating the same physics in all space-times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewster, Christopher J

    2015-08-06

    The framework of locally covariant quantum field theory is discussed, motivated in part using 'ignorance principles'. It is shown how theories can be represented by suitable functors, so that physical equivalence of theories may be expressed via natural isomorphisms between the corresponding functors. The inhomogeneous scalar field is used to illustrate the ideas. It is argued that there are two reasonable definitions of the local physical content associated with a locally covariant theory; when these coincide, the theory is said to be dynamically local. The status of the dynamical locality condition is reviewed, as are its applications in relation to (i) the foundational question of what it means for a theory to represent the same physics in different space-times and (ii) a no-go result on the existence of natural states. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. The Magnetic Local Time Distribution of Energetic Electrons in the Radiation Belt Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    Using fourteen years of electron flux data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES), a statistical study of the magnetic local time (MLT) distribution of the electron population is performed across a range of activity levels, defined by AE, AE*, Kp, solar wind velocity (Vsw), and VswBz. Three electron energies (>30, >100, and >300 keV) are considered. Dawn-dusk flux asymmetries larger than order of magnitude were observed for >30 and >100 keV electrons. For >300 keV electrons, dawn-dusk asymmetries were primarily due to a decrease in the average dusk-side flux beyond L* ˜ 4.5 that arose with increasing activity. For the >30 keV population, substorm injections enhance the dawn-side flux, which may not reach the dusk-side as the electrons can be on open drift paths and lost to the magnetopause. The asymmetries in the >300 keV population are attributed to the combination of magnetopause shadowing and >300 keV electron injections by large electric fields. We suggest that 3D radiation belt models could set the minimum energy boundary (Emin) to 30 keV or above at L* ˜6 during periods of low activity. However, for more moderate conditions, Emin should be larger than 100 keV and, for very extreme activities, ˜300 keV. Our observations show the extent that in-situ electron flux readings may vary during active periods due to the MLT of the satellite and highlight the importance of 4D radiation belt models to fully understand radiation belt processes.

  10. Local time distribution of the SSC-associated HF-Doppler frequency shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, T.; Sugiuchi, H.; Ishimine, T.

    1985-01-01

    The HF-Doppler frequency shift observed at the storm's sudden commencement is composed of a frequency increase (+) and decrease (-), and classified into four types, SCF(+ -), SCF(- +), SCF(+) and SCF(-). Since the latter two types are special cases of the former two types, two different kinds of electrical field exist in the F region and cause the ExB drift motion of plasma. HUANG (1976) interpreted the frequency increase of SCF(+ -) as due to the westward induction electric field proportional to delta H/ delta t and the succeeding frequency decrease due to the eastward conduction electric field which produces ionospheric currents responsible for the magnetic increase on the ground. In spite of his success in interpreting the SCF(+ -), some other interpretations are needed for the explanation of the whole set of SCF's, particularly SCF(- +). Local time distributions of the SCF's are derived from 41 SCF's which are observed on the HF standard signal (JJY) as received in Okinawa (path length =1600 km) and Kokubunji (60 km). It is shown that the SCF(+ -) appears mainly during the day, whereas the SCF(- +) is observed during the night. The results indicate that the preliminary frequency shift (+) of SCF(+ -) and (-) of SCF(- +) is caused by a westward electric field in the dayside hemisphere, while by an eastward electric field in the nightside hemisphere. The main frequency shift (-) of SCF(+ -) and (+) of SCF(- +) is caused by the reversed electric field. Consequently, the preliminary frequency shift is caused by the dusk-to-dawn electric field, while the main frequency shift by the dawn-to-dusk electric field

  11. Drought timing and local climate determine the sensitivity of eastern temperate forests to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orangeville, Loïc; Maxwell, Justin; Kneeshaw, Daniel; Pederson, Neil; Duchesne, Louis; Logan, Travis; Houle, Daniel; Arseneault, Dominique; Beier, Colin M; Bishop, Daniel A; Druckenbrod, Daniel; Fraver, Shawn; Girard, François; Halman, Joshua; Hansen, Chris; Hart, Justin L; Hartmann, Henrik; Kaye, Margot; Leblanc, David; Manzoni, Stefano; Ouimet, Rock; Rayback, Shelly; Rollinson, Christine R; Phillips, Richard P

    2018-02-20

    Projected changes in temperature and drought regime are likely to reduce carbon (C) storage in forests, thereby amplifying rates of climate change. While such reductions are often presumed to be greatest in semi-arid forests that experience widespread tree mortality, the consequences of drought may also be important in temperate mesic forests of Eastern North America (ENA) if tree growth is significantly curtailed by drought. Investigations of the environmental conditions that determine drought sensitivity are critically needed to accurately predict ecosystem feedbacks to climate change. We matched site factors with the growth responses to drought of 10,753 trees across mesic forests of ENA, representing 24 species and 346 stands, to determine the broad-scale drivers of drought sensitivity for the dominant trees in ENA. Here we show that two factors-the timing of drought, and the atmospheric demand for water (i.e., local potential evapotranspiration; PET)-are stronger drivers of drought sensitivity than soil and stand characteristics. Drought-induced reductions in tree growth were greatest when the droughts occurred during early-season peaks in radial growth, especially for trees growing in the warmest, driest regions (i.e., highest PET). Further, mean species trait values (rooting depth and ψ 50 ) were poor predictors of drought sensitivity, as intraspecific variation in sensitivity was equal to or greater than interspecific variation in 17 of 24 species. From a general circulation model ensemble, we find that future increases in early-season PET may exacerbate these effects, and potentially offset gains in C uptake and storage in ENA owing to other global change factors. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Asymmetric continuous-time neural networks without local traps for solving constraint satisfaction problems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botond Molnár

    Full Text Available There has been a long history of using neural networks for combinatorial optimization and constraint satisfaction problems. Symmetric Hopfield networks and similar approaches use steepest descent dynamics, and they always converge to the closest local minimum of the energy landscape. For finding global minima additional parameter-sensitive techniques are used, such as classical simulated annealing or the so-called chaotic simulated annealing, which induces chaotic dynamics by addition of extra terms to the energy landscape. Here we show that asymmetric continuous-time neural networks can solve constraint satisfaction problems without getting trapped in non-solution attractors. We concentrate on a model solving Boolean satisfiability (k-SAT, which is a quintessential NP-complete problem. There is a one-to-one correspondence between the stable fixed points of the neural network and the k-SAT solutions and we present numerical evidence that limit cycles may also be avoided by appropriately choosing the parameters of the model. This optimal parameter region is fairly independent of the size and hardness of instances, this way parameters can be chosen independently of the properties of problems and no tuning is required during the dynamical process. The model is similar to cellular neural networks already used in CNN computers. On an analog device solving a SAT problem would take a single operation: the connection weights are determined by the k-SAT instance and starting from any initial condition the system searches until finding a solution. In this new approach transient chaotic behavior appears as a natural consequence of optimization hardness and not as an externally induced effect.

  13. Local time distribution of the SSC-associated HF-Doppler frequency shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, T.; Sugiuchi, H.; Ishimine, T.

    1985-01-01

    The HF-Doppler frequency shift observed at the storm's sudden commencement is composed of a frequency increase (+) and decrease (-), and classified into four types, SCF(+ -), SCF(- +), SCF(+) and SCF(-). Since the latter two types are special cases of the former two types, two different kinds of electrical field exist in the F region and cause the ExB drift motion of plasma. HUANG (1976) interpreted the frequency increase of SCF(+ -) as due to the westward induction electric field proportional to delta H/ delta t and the succeeding frequency decrease due to the eastward conduction electric field which produces ionospheric currents responsible for the magnetic increase on the ground. In spite of his success in interpreting the SCF(+ -), some other interpretations are needed for the explanation of the whole set of SCF's, particularly SCF(- +). Local time distributions of the SCF's are derived from 41 SCF's which are observed on the HF standard signal (JJY) as received in Okinawa (path length =1600 km) and Kokubunji (60 km). It is shown that the SCF(+ -) appears mainly during the day, whereas the SCF(- +) is observed during the night. The results indicate that the preliminary frequency shift (+) of SCF(+ -) and (-) of SCF(- +) is caused by a westward electric field in the dayside hemisphere, while by an eastward electric field in the nightside hemisphere. The main frequency shift (-) of SCF(+ -) and (+) of SCF(- +) is caused by the reversed electric field. Consequently, the preliminary frequency shift is caused by the dusk-to-dawn electric field, while the main frequency shift by the dawn-to-dusk electric field.

  14. Time-dependent fiber bundles with local load sharing. II. General Weibull fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, S Leigh; Newman, William I

    2009-12-01

    Fiber bundle models (FBMs) are useful tools in understanding failure processes in a variety of material systems. While the fibers and load sharing assumptions are easily described, FBM analysis is typically difficult. Monte Carlo methods are also hampered by the severe computational demands of large bundle sizes, which overwhelm just as behavior relevant to real materials starts to emerge. For large size scales, interest continues in idealized FBMs that assume either equal load sharing (ELS) or local load sharing (LLS) among fibers, rules that reflect features of real load redistribution in elastic lattices. The present work focuses on a one-dimensional bundle of N fibers under LLS where life consumption in a fiber follows a power law in its load, with exponent rho , and integrated over time. This life consumption function is further embodied in a functional form resulting in a Weibull distribution for lifetime under constant fiber stress and with Weibull exponent, beta. Thus the failure rate of a fiber depends on its past load history, except for beta=1 . We develop asymptotic results validated by Monte Carlo simulation using a computational algorithm developed in our previous work [Phys. Rev. E 63, 021507 (2001)] that greatly increases the size, N , of treatable bundles (e.g., 10(6) fibers in 10(3) realizations). In particular, our algorithm is O(N ln N) in contrast with former algorithms which were O(N2) making this investigation possible. Regimes are found for (beta,rho) pairs that yield contrasting behavior for large N. For rho>1 and large N, brittle weakest volume behavior emerges in terms of characteristic elements (groupings of fibers) derived from critical cluster formation, and the lifetime eventually goes to zero as N-->infinity , unlike ELS, which yields a finite limiting mean. For 1/21 but with 0

  15. Experimental Evidence on the Dependence of the Standard GPS Phase Scintillation Index on the Ionospheric Plasma Drift Around Noon Sector of the Polar Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Zhang, Q.-H.; Jayachandran, P. T.; Moen, J.; Xing, Z.-Y.; Chadwick, R.; Ma, Y.-Z.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Lester, M.

    2018-03-01

    First experimental proof of a clear and strong dependence of the standard phase scintillation index (σφ) derived using Global Positioning System measurements on the ionospheric plasma flow around the noon sector of polar ionosphere is presented. σφ shows a strong linear dependence on the plasma drift speed measured by the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network radars, whereas the amplitude scintillation index (S4) does not. This observed dependence can be explained as a consequence of Fresnel frequency dependence of the relative drift and the used constant cutoff frequency (0.1 Hz) to detrend the data for obtaining standard σφ. The lack of dependence of S4 on the drift speed possibly eliminates the plasma instability mechanism(s) involved as a cause of the dependence. These observations further confirm that the standard phase scintillation index is much more sensitive to plasma flow; therefore, utmost care must be taken when identifying phase scintillation (diffractive phase variations) from refractive (deterministic) phase variations, especially in the polar region where the ionospheric plasma drift is much larger than in equatorial and midlatitude regions.

  16. Global processing takes time: A meta-analysis on local-global visual processing in ASD

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Hallen, Ruth; Evers, Kris; Brewaeys, K.; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Wagemans, Johan

    2015-01-01

    What does an individual with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) perceive first: the forest or the trees? In spite of 30 years of research and influential theories like the weak central coherence (WCC) theory and the enhanced perceptual functioning (EPF) account, the interplay of local and global visual processing in ASD remains only partly understood. Research findings vary in indicating a local processing bias or a global processing deficit, and often contradict each other. We have applied a for...

  17. Minor parties and independents in times of change: Scottish local elections 1974 to 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Bochel, Hugh; Denver, David

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the electoral performance of minor party and Independent candidates in Scottish local elections from 1974 to 2007. This is a period which began with a major restructuring of local government and ended with a change in the electoral system from first-past-the-post to the single transferable vote. It encompasses a second restructuring in the 1990s, the consolidation of the Scottish National Party as an electoral force, and the creation of the Scottish Parliament. Throughou...

  18. The storm-time ring current: a statistical analysis at two widely separated low-latitude stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Francia

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a statistical analysis of the geomagnetic field variations during the storm main phase at two low-latitude stations, separated by several hours in magnetic local time, in order to investigate the asymmetry and longitudinal extent of the storm-time ring current. The results show evidence for an asymmetric current which typically extends from evening to noon and, during moderate solar wind electric field conditions, up to the early morning, confirming the important role of the magnetospheric convection in the ring current energization. We also analyzed a possible relationship between the local current intensity during the storm main phase and the substorm activity observed at different time delays τ with respect to the storm onset. The results show a significant anticorrelation for τ =-1h, indicating that if the substorm activity is high just before the storm, a weaker ring current develops.

  19. Software for real-time localization of baleen whale calls using directional sonobuoys: A case study on Antarctic blue whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian S; Calderan, Susannah; Gillespie, Douglas; Weatherup, Graham; Leaper, Russell; Collins, Kym; Double, Michael C

    2016-03-01

    Directional frequency analysis and recording (DIFAR) sonobuoys can allow real-time acoustic localization of baleen whales for underwater tracking and remote sensing, but limited availability of hardware and software has prevented wider usage. These software limitations were addressed by developing a module in the open-source software PAMGuard. A case study is presented demonstrating that this software provides greater efficiency and accessibility than previous methods for detecting, localizing, and tracking Antarctic blue whales in real time. Additionally, this software can easily be extended to track other low and mid frequency sounds including those from other cetaceans, pinnipeds, icebergs, shipping, and seismic airguns.

  20. Global processing takes time: A meta-analysis on local-global visual processing in ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Hallen, Ruth; Evers, Kris; Brewaeys, Katrien; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Wagemans, Johan

    2015-05-01

    What does an individual with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) perceive first: the forest or the trees? In spite of 30 years of research and influential theories like the weak central coherence (WCC) theory and the enhanced perceptual functioning (EPF) account, the interplay of local and global visual processing in ASD remains only partly understood. Research findings vary in indicating a local processing bias or a global processing deficit, and often contradict each other. We have applied a formal meta-analytic approach and combined 56 articles that tested about 1,000 ASD participants and used a wide range of stimuli and tasks to investigate local and global visual processing in ASD. Overall, results show no enhanced local visual processing nor a deficit in global visual processing. Detailed analysis reveals a difference in the temporal pattern of the local-global balance, that is, slow global processing in individuals with ASD. Whereas task-dependent interaction effects are obtained, gender, age, and IQ of either participant groups seem to have no direct influence on performance. Based on the overview of the literature, suggestions are made for future research. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. 'Gay times': identity, locality, memory, and the Brixton squats in 1970's London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Through a thick description of a gay squatting community in south London in the 1970s, this piece explores the ways in which local histories complicate broader accounts of gay life, politics, and culture. Such a focus alerts us to the impact of personal encounters, of local politics, and material circumstances, of coincident local communities, of jobs (or the lack of them), and of major local events (like the Brixton riots of 1981). The local focus and the oral history sources also illuminate the complex ways in which unspoken and often unconscious imperatives associated with ethnicity, class, and the familial, social, and cultural contexts of our upbringings are played out under new and changing circumstances. Taking this approach fractures homogenizing assumptions about gay identity and community--even of a self-identified gay community like this squatting collective. It can also decentre sexuality as a primary category of identity and analysis as other factors come into sharper focus and shed light on the ebb and flow of identification and on the ways in which broader histories are woven into everyday lives. The piece thus considers different scales of analysis, the limits of identification, the inclusions and exclusions enacted when communities come together and identities coalesce, the continuities and discontinuities between broader and counter cultures (especially in relation to ideas and lived experiences of home), and the way memories of the squats and of the 1970s are modulated by subsequent national and gay politics, by AIDS, and by a profound sense of loss.

  2. A Real-Time Localization System for an Endoscopic Capsule Using Magnetic Sensors †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Duc Minh; Aziz, Syed Mahfuzul

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic sensing technology offers an attractive alternative for in vivo tracking with much better performance than RF and ultrasound technologies. In this paper, an efficient in vivo magnetic tracking system is presented. The proposed system is intended to localize an endoscopic capsule which delivers biomarkers around specific locations of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. For efficiently localizing a magnetic marker inside the capsule, a mathematical model has been developed for the magnetic field around a cylindrical magnet and used with a localization algorithm that provides minimum error and fast computation. The proposed tracking system has much reduced complexity compared to the ones reported in the literature to date. Laboratory tests and in vivo animal trials have demonstrated the suitability of the proposed system for tracking a magnetic marker with expected accuracy. PMID:25379813

  3. The Progenitors of Local Ultra-massive Galaxies Across Cosmic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchesini, Danilo; Muzzin, Adam; Stefanon, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    in age of $z=0$ UMGs as derived from their fossil records. The progenitors of local UMGs, including the star-forming ones, never lived on the blue cloud since $z=3$. We propose an alternative path for the formation of local UMGs that refines previously proposed pictures and that is fully consistent......-forming galaxies progressively increases, with the progenitors at $2z 1$, whereas the remaining was assembled via merging from $z\\sim 1$ to the present. Most of the quenching of the star-forming progenitors happened between $z=2.75$ and $z=1.25$, in good agreement with the typical formation redshift and scatter...

  4. SU-F-R-20: Image Texture Features Correlate with Time to Local Failure in Lung SBRT Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, M; Abazeed, M; Woody, N; Stephans, K; Videtic, G; Xia, P; Zhuang, T

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To explore possible correlation between CT image-based texture and histogram features and time-to-local-failure in early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT).Methods and Materials: From an IRB-approved lung SBRT registry for patients treated between 2009–2013 we selected 48 (20 male, 28 female) patients with local failure. Median patient age was 72.3±10.3 years. Mean time to local failure was 15 ± 7.1 months. Physician-contoured gross tumor volumes (GTV) on the planning CT images were processed and 3D gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) based texture and histogram features were calculated in Matlab. Data were exported to R and a multiple linear regression model was used to examine the relationship between texture features and time-to-local-failure. Results: Multiple linear regression revealed that entropy (p=0.0233, multiple R2=0.60) from GLCM-based texture analysis and the standard deviation (p=0.0194, multiple R2=0.60) from the histogram-based features were statistically significantly correlated with the time-to-local-failure. Conclusion: Image-based texture analysis can be used to predict certain aspects of treatment outcomes of NSCLC patients treated with SBRT. We found entropy and standard deviation calculated for the GTV on the CT images displayed a statistically significant correlation with and time-to-local-failure in lung SBRT patients.

  5. SU-F-R-20: Image Texture Features Correlate with Time to Local Failure in Lung SBRT Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, M; Abazeed, M; Woody, N; Stephans, K; Videtic, G; Xia, P; Zhuang, T [The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To explore possible correlation between CT image-based texture and histogram features and time-to-local-failure in early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT).Methods and Materials: From an IRB-approved lung SBRT registry for patients treated between 2009–2013 we selected 48 (20 male, 28 female) patients with local failure. Median patient age was 72.3±10.3 years. Mean time to local failure was 15 ± 7.1 months. Physician-contoured gross tumor volumes (GTV) on the planning CT images were processed and 3D gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) based texture and histogram features were calculated in Matlab. Data were exported to R and a multiple linear regression model was used to examine the relationship between texture features and time-to-local-failure. Results: Multiple linear regression revealed that entropy (p=0.0233, multiple R2=0.60) from GLCM-based texture analysis and the standard deviation (p=0.0194, multiple R2=0.60) from the histogram-based features were statistically significantly correlated with the time-to-local-failure. Conclusion: Image-based texture analysis can be used to predict certain aspects of treatment outcomes of NSCLC patients treated with SBRT. We found entropy and standard deviation calculated for the GTV on the CT images displayed a statistically significant correlation with and time-to-local-failure in lung SBRT patients.

  6. Extended local similarity analysis (eLSA) of microbial community and other time series data with replicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Li C; Steele, Joshua A; Cram, Jacob A; Cardon, Zoe G; Simmons, Sheri L; Vallino, Joseph J; Fuhrman, Jed A; Sun, Fengzhu

    2011-01-01

    The increasing availability of time series microbial community data from metagenomics and other molecular biological studies has enabled the analysis of large-scale microbial co-occurrence and association networks. Among the many analytical techniques available, the Local Similarity Analysis (LSA) method is unique in that it captures local and potentially time-delayed co-occurrence and association patterns in time series data that cannot otherwise be identified by ordinary correlation analysis. However LSA, as originally developed, does not consider time series data with replicates, which hinders the full exploitation of available information. With replicates, it is possible to understand the variability of local similarity (LS) score and to obtain its confidence interval. We extended our LSA technique to time series data with replicates and termed it extended LSA, or eLSA. Simulations showed the capability of eLSA to capture subinterval and time-delayed associations. We implemented the eLSA technique into an easy-to-use analytic software package. The software pipeline integrates data normalization, statistical correlation calculation, statistical significance evaluation, and association network construction steps. We applied the eLSA technique to microbial community and gene expression datasets, where unique time-dependent associations were identified. The extended LSA analysis technique was demonstrated to reveal statistically significant local and potentially time-delayed association patterns in replicated time series data beyond that of ordinary correlation analysis. These statistically significant associations can provide insights to the real dynamics of biological systems. The newly designed eLSA software efficiently streamlines the analysis and is freely available from the eLSA homepage, which can be accessed at http://meta.usc.edu/softs/lsa.

  7. Classification of windfields: a diagnostic tool for real-time determination of local air pollution dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graber, W.K.; Buerki, D. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    In the framework of the project `WINDBANK unteres Aaretal` local winds over complex terrain were measured over a 4 month period and a cluster analysis is used to identify 13 different typical wind fields. A subset of representative stations is established to identify the classes for future applications in emergency planning. (author) 4 figs., 3 refs.

  8. Least-squares reverse time migration with local Radon-based preconditioning

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Gaurav; Giboli, Matteo; Agut, Cyril; Williamson, Paul; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2017-01-01

    amplitudes of the local dips or assigned using quantile measures. Numerical tests on synthetic and field data validate the effectiveness of our approach in producing images with good S/N and fewer aliasing artifacts when compared with standard RTM or standard

  9. Toward fast feature adaptation and localization for real-time face recognition systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuo, F.; With, de P.H.N.; Ebrahimi, T.; Sikora, T.

    2003-01-01

    In a home environment, video surveillance employing face detection and recognition is attractive for new applications. Facial feature (e.g. eyes and mouth) localization in the face is an essential task for face recognition because it constitutes an indispensable step for face geometry normalization.

  10. Dynamics of Choice: Relative Rate and Amount Affect Local Preference at Three Different Time Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Carlos F.; Baum, William M.

    2009-01-01

    To examine extended control over local choice, the present study investigated preference in transition as food-rate ratio provided by two levers changed across seven components within daily sessions, and food-amount ratio changed across phases. Phase 1 arranged a food-amount ratio of 4:1 (i.e., the left lever delivered four pellets and the right…

  11. A multi-tiered time-series modelling approach to forecasting respiratory syncytial virus incidence at the local level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaeder, M C; Fackler, J C

    2012-04-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of documented viral respiratory infections, and the leading cause of hospitalization, in young children. We performed a retrospective time-series analysis of all patients aged Forecasting models of weekly RSV incidence for the local community, inpatient paediatric hospital and paediatric intensive-care unit (PICU) were created. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals calculated around our models' 2-week forecasts were accurate to ±9·3, ±7·5 and ±1·5 cases/week for the local community, inpatient hospital and PICU, respectively. Our results suggest that time-series models may be useful tools in forecasting the burden of RSV infection at the local and institutional levels, helping communities and institutions to optimize distribution of resources based on the changing burden and severity of illness in their respective communities.

  12. Time-resolved cathodoluminescence microscopy with sub-nanosecond beam blanking for direct evaluation of the local density of states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerland, R.J.; Weppelman, I.G.C.; Garming, M.W.H.; Kruit, P.; Hoogenboom, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    We show cathodoluminescence-based time-resolved electron beam spectroscopy in order to directly probe the spontaneous emission decay rate that is modified by the local density of states in a nanoscale environment. In contrast to dedicated laser-triggered electron-microscopy setups, we use commercial

  13. Reliability of Interaural Time Difference-Based Localization Training in Elderly Individuals with Speech-in-Noise Perception Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delphi, Maryam; Lotfi, M-Yones; Moossavi, Abdollah; Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Banimostafa, Maryam

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that interaural-time-difference (ITD) training can improve localization ability. Surprisingly little is, however, known about localization training vis-à-vis speech perception in noise based on interaural time difference in the envelope (ITD ENV). We sought to investigate the reliability of an ITD ENV-based training program in speech-in-noise perception among elderly individuals with normal hearing and speech-in-noise disorder. The present interventional study was performed during 2016. Sixteen elderly men between 55 and 65 years of age with the clinical diagnosis of normal hearing up to 2000 Hz and speech-in-noise perception disorder participated in this study. The training localization program was based on changes in ITD ENV. In order to evaluate the reliability of the training program, we performed speech-in-noise tests before the training program, immediately afterward, and then at 2 months' follow-up. The reliability of the training program was analyzed using the Friedman test and the SPSS software. Significant statistical differences were shown in the mean scores of speech-in-noise perception between the 3 time points (P=0.001). The results also indicated no difference in the mean scores of speech-in-noise perception between the 2 time points of immediately after the training program and 2 months' follow-up (P=0.212). The present study showed the reliability of an ITD ENV-based localization training in elderly individuals with speech-in-noise perception disorder.

  14. Detection of Local Temperature Change on HTS Cables via Time-Frequency Domain Reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Su Sik; Lee, Geon Seok; Kwon, Gu-Young; Lee, Yeong Ho; Ji, Gyeong Hwan; Sohn, Songho; Park, Kijun; Shin, Yong-June

    2017-07-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) cables are drawing attention as transmission and distribution cables in future grid, and related researches on HTS cables have been conducted actively. As HTS cables have come to the demonstration stage, failures of cooling systems inducing quench phenomenon of the HTS cables have become significant. Several diagnosis of the HTS cables have been developed but there are still some limitations of the experimental setup. In this paper, a non-destructive diagnostic technique for the detection of the local temperature change point is proposed. Also, a simulation model of HTS cables with a local temperature change point is suggested to verify the proposed diagnosis. The performance of the diagnosis is checked by comparative analysis between the proposed simulation results and experiment results of a real-world HTS cable. It is expected that the suggested simulation model and diagnosis will contribute to the commercialization of HTS cables in the power grid.

  15. Construction Time of Three Wall Types Made of Locally Sourced Materials: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciech Drozd; Agnieszka Leśniak; Sebastian Zaworski

    2018-01-01

    Similarly to any other industry, the construction sector puts emphasis on innovativeness, unconventional thinking, and alternative ideas. At present, when sustainable development, ecology, and awareness of people’s impact on the environment grow in importance, low impact buildings can become an innovative alternative construction technology for the highly industrialized construction sector. The paper presents a comparative study of three walls made of available materials used locally, which c...

  16. Real time network traffic monitoring for wireless local area networks based on compressed sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balouchestani, Mohammadreza

    2017-05-01

    A wireless local area network (WLAN) is an important type of wireless networks which connotes different wireless nodes in a local area network. WLANs suffer from important problems such as network load balancing, large amount of energy, and load of sampling. This paper presents a new networking traffic approach based on Compressed Sensing (CS) for improving the quality of WLANs. The proposed architecture allows reducing Data Delay Probability (DDP) to 15%, which is a good record for WLANs. The proposed architecture is increased Data Throughput (DT) to 22 % and Signal to Noise (S/N) ratio to 17 %, which provide a good background for establishing high qualified local area networks. This architecture enables continuous data acquisition and compression of WLAN's signals that are suitable for a variety of other wireless networking applications. At the transmitter side of each wireless node, an analog-CS framework is applied at the sensing step before analog to digital converter in order to generate the compressed version of the input signal. At the receiver side of wireless node, a reconstruction algorithm is applied in order to reconstruct the original signals from the compressed signals with high probability and enough accuracy. The proposed algorithm out-performs existing algorithms by achieving a good level of Quality of Service (QoS). This ability allows reducing 15 % of Bit Error Rate (BER) at each wireless node.

  17. Target Localization by Resolving the Time Synchronization Problem in Bistatic Radar Systems Using Space Fast-Time Adaptive Processor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Madurasinghe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposed technique allows the radar receiver to accurately estimate the range of a large number of targets using a transmitter of opportunity as long as the location of the transmitter is known. The technique does not depend on the use of communication satellites or GPS systems, instead it relies on the availability of the direct transmit copy of the signal from the transmitter and the reflected paths off the various targets. An array-based space-fast time adaptive processor is implemented in order to estimate the path difference between the direct signal and the delayed signal, which bounces off the target. This procedure allows us to estimate the target distance as well as bearing.

  18. Accurate and Integrated Localization System for Indoor Environments Based on IEEE 802.11 Round-Trip Time Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Bahillo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of (Non line of Sight NLOS propagation paths has been considered the main drawback for localization schemes to estimate the position of a (Mobile User MU in an indoor environment. This paper presents a comprehensive wireless localization system based on (Round-Trip Time RTT measurements in an unmodified IEEE 802.11 wireless network. It overcomes the NLOS impairment by implementing the (Prior NLOS Measurements Correction PNMC technique. At first, the RTT measurements are performed with a novel electronic circuit avoiding the need for time synchronization between wireless nodes. At second, the distance between the MU and each reference device is estimated by using a simple linear regression function that best relates the RTT to the distance in (Line of Sight LOS. Assuming that LOS in an indoor environment is a simplification of reality hence, the PNMC technique is applied to correct the NLOS effect. At third, assuming known the position of the reference devices, a multilateration technique is implemented to obtain the MU position. Finally, the localization system coupled with measurements demonstrates that the system outperforms the conventional time-based indoor localization schemes without using any tracking technique such as Kalman filters or Bayesian methods.

  19. Functional localization of a "Time Keeper" function separate from attentional resources and task strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, J I; Faro, S H; Mohamed, F B; Pinsk, M; Pinus, A

    2000-03-01

    The functional neuroanatomy of time estimation has not been well-documented. This research investigated the fMRI measured brain response to an explicit, prospective time interval production (TIP) task. The study tested for the presence of brain activity reflecting a primary time keeper function, distinct from the brain systems involved either in conscious strategies to monitor time or attentional resource and other cognitive processes to accomplish the task. In the TIP task participants were given a time interval and asked to indicate when it elapsed. Two control tasks (counting forwards, backwards) were administered, in addition to a dual task format of the TIP task. Whole brain images were collected at 1.5 Tesla. Analyses (n = 6) yielded a statistical parametric map (SPM ¿z¿) reflecting time keeping and not strategy (counting, number manipulation) or attention resource utilization. Additional SPM ¿z¿s involving activation associated with the accuracy and magnitude the of time estimation response are presented. Results revealed lateral cerebellar and inferior temporal lobe activation were associated with primary time keeping. Behavioral data provided evidence that the procedures for the explicit time judgements did not occur automatically and utilized controlled processes. Activation sites associated with accuracy, magnitude, and the dual task provided indications of the other structures involved in time estimation that implemented task components related to controlled processing. The data are consistent with prior proposals that the cerebellum is a repository of codes for time processing, but also implicate temporal lobe structures for this type of time estimation task. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  20. An unconventional canonical quantization of local scalar fields over quantum space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banai, M.

    1985-12-01

    An unconventional extension of the canonical quantization method is presented for a classical local field theory. The proposed canonical commutation relations have a solution in the A-valued Hilbert space where A is the algebra of the bounded operators of the Hilbert space Lsup(2) (IRsup(3)). The canonical equations as operator equations are equivalent formally with the classical field equations, and are well defined for interacting systems, too. This model of quantized field lacks some of the difficulties of the conventional approach. Examples satisfying the asymptotic condition provide examples for Haag-Kastler's axioms, however, they satisfy Wightman's axioms only partially. (author)

  1. Daily rhythmicity of the thermoregulatory responses of locally adapted Brazilian sheep in a semiarid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Wilma Emanuela; Leite, Jacinara Hody Gurgel Morais; de Sousa, José Ernandes Rufino; Costa, Wirton Peixoto; da Silva, Wallace Sostene Tavares; Guilhermino, Magda Maria; Asensio, Luis Alberto Bermejo; Façanha, Débora Andréa Evangelista

    2017-07-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the daily rhythmicity of the thermoregulatory responses of Morada Nova ewes that were raised in a semiarid environment. The experiment was conducted during the dry season. Data were collected from 5:00 a.m. to 4:00 a.m.. Samples were taken over the course of 8 days, with a 1-week interval between sampling periods. During each day that the data were collected, animals were measured once an hour for 24 h in an area directly exposed to solar radiation. The environment was characterized by measuring the following variables: air temperature (TA), relative humidity (RH), Black Globe Humidity Index (BGHI), radiant heat load (RHL), and wind speed (WS). Physiological variables that were measured included rectal temperature (RT, °C), respiratory rate (RR, breaths/min), surface temperature (ST, °C), and sweating rate (SR, g m2 h-1). We observed that RT, RR, and ST increased as environmental conditions became more stressful. Specifically, environmental conditions became more stressful as RHL, air temperature, and BGHI increased, while RH decreased. All physiological variables of the animals were strongly affected by the time of the day: environmental variables changed drastically between nighttime and noon. Physiological parameters increased sharply from the morning (7:00 a.m.-10:00 a.m.) until noon (11:00 a.m.-2:00 p.m.), except for sweating rate. After noon, these variables began to drop until nighttime (11:00 p.m.-6:00 am), and values of the main physiological indexes were stable during this period. The Morada Nova breed exhibited daily cyclic variations in thermoregulatory responses. Evaporative heat loss mechanisms were triggered during the most stressful times of the day. The first mechanism that animals used was panting, which was an immediate response to environmental heat stress. Cutaneous evaporation had a slower response mechanism to environmental heat stress. Homeothermy conditions were restored to the animals at

  2. Using CNLS-net [Connectionist Normalized Local Spline-network] to predict the Mackey-Glass chaotic time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, W.C.; Jones, R.D.; Barnes, C.W.; Lee, L.A.; O'Rourke, M.K.; Lee, Y.C.; Flake, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    We use the Connectionist Normalized Local Spline (CNLS) network to learn the dynamics of the Mackey-Glass time-delay differential equation, for the case τ = 30. We show the optimum network operating mode and determine the accuracy and robustness of predictions. We obtain pedictions of varying accuracy using some 2--120 minutes of execution time on a Sun SPARC-1 workstation. CNLS-net is capable of very good performance in predicting the Mackey-Glass time series. 11 refs., 4 figs

  3. Nonlinear Localized Dissipative Structures for Long-Time Solution of Wave Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    are described in this chapter. These details are required to compute interference. WC can be used to generate constant arrival time ( Eikonal phase...complicated using Eikonal schemes. Some recent developments in Eikonal methods [2] can treat multiple arrival times but, these methods require extra

  4. Damage localization of marine risers using time series of vibration signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Yang, Hezhen; Liu, Fushun

    2014-10-01

    Based on dynamic response signals a damage detection algorithm is developed for marine risers. Damage detection methods based on numerous modal properties have encountered issues in the researches in offshore oil community. For example, significant increase in structure mass due to marine plant/animal growth and changes in modal properties by equipment noise are not the result of damage for riser structures. In an attempt to eliminate the need to determine modal parameters, a data-based method is developed. The implementation of the method requires that vibration data are first standardized to remove the influence of different loading conditions and the autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model is used to fit vibration response signals. In addition, a damage feature factor is introduced based on the autoregressive (AR) parameters. After that, the Euclidean distance between ARMA models is subtracted as a damage indicator for damage detection and localization and a top tensioned riser simulation model with different damage scenarios is analyzed using the proposed method with dynamic acceleration responses of a marine riser as sensor data. Finally, the influence of measured noise is analyzed. According to the damage localization results, the proposed method provides accurate damage locations of risers and is robust to overcome noise effect.

  5. Effect of overall treatment time on local control in radical radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajanti, Mikael; Kaleta, Remigiusz; Kankaanranta, Leena; Muhonen, Timo; Holsti, Lars

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effect of overall treatment time on local control in radical radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus. Methods and Materials: Three hundred and fifty-three patients with inoperable esophageal cancer (tumor length ≤ 10 cm in all cases) treated during 1963-1988 by radical radiotherapy alone either as continuous or split-course therapy. The overall treatment time varied from 35 to 55 days and the total dosage from 50 to 71 Gy in the continuous therapy group (n = 138), and in the split-course group (n = 215) with a planned 3-week rest interval in the middle of the treatment from 56 to 70 days and from 55 to 70 Gy, respectively. The logit method of the linear-quadratic formula for local control at 1 year was used to examine the effect of treatment time on local control. All patients were pooled to obtain a wide range of overall treatment times. Results: The 1-, 2-, and 5-year actuarial survival rates according to the T-stage in the continuous therapy group from the first day of the radiotherapy were: 57%, 32%, and 10% for the T1 tumors and 23%, 8%, and 5% for the T2 tumors. The corresponding figures for the split-course group were: 50%, 19%, and 4% for the T1 tumors and 17%, 6%, and 3% for the T2 tumors. The 1-year local control rate was 56% for the T1 tumors and 15% for the T2 tumors in the continuous therapy group and 48% for the T1 tumors and 10% for the T2 tumors in the split-course group. The results of the logit method did not fit well with the T1 tumors. For the T2 tumors, they showed Dprolif to be about 0.24 Gy/day for local control at 1 year. As a consequence, protraction of overall time by 1 week should be compensated by increasing the total dose by 1.8 Gy for 1 year local control. Conclusions: More attention should be focused on repopulation. Shortening of overall treatment time might be beneficial for the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus

  6. Radiation therapy for T1,2 glottic carcinoma: impact of overall treatment time on local control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Yasumasa; Nagata, Yasushi; Okajima, Kaoru; Mitsumori, Michihide; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Masunaga, Shin-ichirou; Ono, Koji; Shoji, Kazuhiko; Kojima, Hisayosi

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Local control probabilities of T1,2 glottic laryngeal cancer were evaluated in relation to dose and fractionation of radiation therapy (RT). Materials and methods: Between 1975 and 1993, 96 T1N0M0 glottic cancers and 32 T2N0M0 glottic cancers were treated with definitive RT. Total RT dose was 60-66 Gy/2 Gy for most of the T1 and T2 tumors, although 10 T2 tumors were treated with hyperfractionation (72-74.4 Gy/1.2 Gy bid). Of the 128 patients, 90 T1 glottic tumors and 30 T2 glottic tumors were followed for >2 years after treatment. Multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model and a logistic regression analysis were performed to evaluate the significance of prognostic variables on local control. Results: The 5-year local control probability for T1 tumors was 85%, whereas that for T2 tumors was 71%. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that only overall treatment time (OTT) was a significant variable for local control. Total RT dose, normalized total doses at a fraction size of 2 Gy, and fraction size were not significant. Local control probability of T1 tumors with an OTT of 42-49 days was significantly higher than that of tumors with an OTT of >49 days (P < 0.02). Only a 1-week interruption of RT, due to holidays, significantly reduced the 5-year local control probability of T1 glottic tumors from 89 to 74% (P < 0.05). Conclusions: These results indicate that OTT is a significant prognostic factor for local control of T1 glottic tumors

  7. 3D tumor localization through real-time volumetric x-ray imaging for lung cancer radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruijiang; Lewis, John H; Jia, Xun; Gu, Xuejun; Folkerts, Michael; Men, Chunhua; Song, William Y; Jiang, Steve B

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate an algorithm for real-time 3D tumor localization from a single x-ray projection image for lung cancer radiotherapy. Recently, we have developed an algorithm for reconstructing volumetric images and extracting 3D tumor motion information from a single x-ray projection [Li et al., Med. Phys. 37, 2822-2826 (2010)]. We have demonstrated its feasibility using a digital respiratory phantom with regular breathing patterns. In this work, we present a detailed description and a comprehensive evaluation of the improved algorithm. The algorithm was improved by incorporating respiratory motion prediction. The accuracy and efficiency of using this algorithm for 3D tumor localization were then evaluated on (1) a digital respiratory phantom, (2) a physical respiratory phantom, and (3) five lung cancer patients. These evaluation cases include both regular and irregular breathing patterns that are different from the training dataset. For the digital respiratory phantom with regular and irregular breathing, the average 3D tumor localization error is less than 1 mm which does not seem to be affected by amplitude change, period change, or baseline shift. On an NVIDIA Tesla C1060 graphic processing unit (GPU) card, the average computation time for 3D tumor localization from each projection ranges between 0.19 and 0.26 s, for both regular and irregular breathing, which is about a 10% improvement over previously reported results. For the physical respiratory phantom, an average tumor localization error below 1 mm was achieved with an average computation time of 0.13 and 0.16 s on the same graphic processing unit (GPU) card, for regular and irregular breathing, respectively. For the five lung cancer patients, the average tumor localization error is below 2 mm in both the axial and tangential directions. The average computation time on the same GPU card ranges between 0.26 and 0.34 s. Through a comprehensive evaluation of our algorithm, we have established its accuracy in 3D

  8. Sound localization in common vampire bats: Acuity and use of the binaural time cue by a small mammal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Rickye S.; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Henry E.

    2015-01-01

    Passive sound-localization acuity and the ability to use binaural time and intensity cues were determined for the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus). The bats were tested using a conditioned suppression/avoidance procedure in which they drank defibrinated blood from a spout in the presence of sounds from their right, but stopped drinking (i.e., broke contact with the spout) whenever a sound came from their left, thereby avoiding a mild shock. The mean minimum audible angle for three bats for a 100-ms noise burst was 13.1°—within the range of thresholds for other bats and near the mean for mammals. Common vampire bats readily localized pure tones of 20 kHz and higher, indicating they could use interaural intensity-differences. They could also localize pure tones of 5 kHz and lower, thereby demonstrating the use of interaural time-differences, despite their very small maximum interaural distance of 60 μs. A comparison of the use of locus cues among mammals suggests several implications for the evolution of sound localization and its underlying anatomical and physiological mechanisms. PMID:25618037

  9. The canonical quantization of local scalar fields over quantum space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banai, M.

    1983-05-01

    Canonical quantization of a classical local field theory (CLFT) consisting of N real scalar fields is formulated in the Hilbert space over the sup(*)-algebra A of linear operators of L 2 (R 3 ). The canonical commutation relations (CCR) have an irreducible solution, unique up to A-unitary equivalence. The canonical equations as operator equations are equivalent to the classical (c) field equations. The interaction picture can be introduced in a well-defined manner. The main adventage of this treatment is that the corresponding S-matrix is free of divergences. The Feynman's graph technique is adaptable in a straightforward manner. This approach is a natural extension of the conventional canonical quantization method of quantum mechanics. (author)

  10. Study and realization of a parallel plate avalanche counter used for time of flight and localization measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrin, P.O.

    1985-01-01

    A parallel Plates Avalanche Counter (P.P.A.C.) allowing high resolution training and localization is studied. It is designed to be placed on the beam trajectory-including the magnetic spectrometer of SARA accelerator at ISN Grenoble. Two purposes are searched: firstly to improve the time-of-flight measurement due to the very high intrinsic time resolution (it can be less than 150 ps), secondly to measure with accuracy the scattering angle of the particle on the target, due to its localization. The detector thickness has been reduced to set aside as unimportant the disturbance produced on the particle trajectory. The theoretical aspect of the detector operation and a quantitative study of the disturbances it causes on particle energy are presented. The set-up and its necessary surroundings are described with experimental results of its characteristics [fr

  11. Assessment of externalities related to global and local air pollutants with the NEEDS-TIMES Italy model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrapertosa, F.; Cosmi, C.; Loperte, S.; Salvia, M.; Cuomo, V. [National Research Council, Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis, C.da S. Loja, I-85050 Tito Scalo (PZ) (Italy); Di Leo, S. [University of Basilicata, Dept. of Environmental Engineering and Physics, C.da Macchia Romana, I-85100 Potenza (Italy); Macchiato, M. [Federico II University, Dept. of Physical Sciences, Via Cintia, I-80126 Naples (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    This work is aimed to illustrate the potentiality of the multi-region NEEDS-TIMES modelling platform, in the economic evaluation of the environmental damages due to air pollution. In particular the effects of external costs on the least-cost optimised energy system configuration were analysed in a national case study with the NEEDS-TIMES Italy model, considering the externalities related to local and global air pollutants (NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, VOC, particulates and GHGs). Different scenarios were compared to emphasise the role of external costs in the achievement of strategic environmental targets. The main results obtained are discussed, focusing on the changes in energy fuel mix as well as in local air pollutants and GHG emissions, highlighting the main conclusions in terms of policy strategies. (author)

  12. Real-time approaches to the estimation of local wind velocity for a fixed-wing unmanned air vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, W L; Lee, C S; Hsiao, F B

    2011-01-01

    Three real-time approaches to estimating local wind velocity for a fixed-wing unmanned air vehicle are presented in this study. All three methods work around the navigation equations with added wind components. The first approach calculates the local wind speed by substituting the ground speed and ascent rate data given by the Global Positioning System (GPS) into the navigation equations. The second and third approaches utilize the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the unscented Kalman filter (UKF), respectively. The results show that, despite the nonlinearity of the navigation equations, the EKF performance is proven to be on a par with the UKF. A time-varying noise estimation method based on the Wiener filter is also discussed. Results are compared with the average wind speed measured on the ground. All three approaches are proven to be reliable with stated advantages and disadvantages

  13. Visual simultaneous localization and mapping (VSLAM) methods applied to indoor 3D topographical and radiological mapping in real-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautot, F.; Dubart, P.; Chagneau, B.; Bacri, C.O.; Abou-Khalil, R.

    2017-01-01

    New developments in the field of robotics and computer vision enable to merge sensors to allow fast real-time localization of radiological measurements in the space/volume with near real-time radioactive sources identification and characterization. These capabilities lead nuclear investigations to a more efficient way for operators' dosimetry evaluation, intervention scenarios and risks mitigation and simulations, such as accidents in unknown potentially contaminated areas or during dismantling operations. This paper will present new progresses in merging RGB-D camera based on SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) systems and nuclear measurement in motion methods in order to detect, locate, and evaluate the activity of radioactive sources in 3-dimensions

  14. Dependence of ionospheric response on the local time of sudden commencement and the intensity of geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balan, N.; Rao, P.B.

    1990-01-01

    A study has been designed specifically to investigate the dependence of the ionospheric response on the time of occurrence of sudden commencement (SC) and the intensity of the magnetic storms for a low- and a mid-latitude station by considering total electron content and peak electron density data for more than 60 SC-type geomagnetic storms. The nature of the response, whether positive or negative, is found to be determined largely by the local time of SC, although there is a local time shift of about six hours between low- and mid-latitudes. The time delays associated with the positive responses are low for daytime SCs and high for night-time SCs, whereas the opposite applies for negative responses. The time delays are significantly shorter for mid-latitudes than for low-latitudes and, at both latitudes, are inversely related to the intensity of the storm. There is a positive correlation between the intensity of the ionospheric response and that of the magnetic storm, the correlation being greater at mid-latitudes. The results are discussed in the light of the possible processes which might contribute to the storm-associated ionospheric variations. (author)

  15. Reliability of Interaural Time Difference-Based Localization Training in Elderly Individuals with Speech-in-Noise Perception Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Delphi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown that interaural-time-difference (ITD training can improve localization ability. Surprisingly little is, however, known about localization training vis-à-vis speech perception in noise based on interaural time difference in the envelope (ITD ENV. We sought to investigate the reliability of an ITD ENV-based training program in speech-in-noise perception among elderly individuals with normal hearing and speech-in-noise disorder. Methods: The present interventional study was performed during 2016. Sixteen elderly men between 55 and 65 years of age with the clinical diagnosis of normal hearing up to 2000 Hz and speech-in-noise perception disorder participated in this study. The training localization program was based on changes in ITD ENV. In order to evaluate the reliability of the training program, we performed speech-in-noise tests before the training program, immediately afterward, and then at 2 months’ follow-up. The reliability of the training program was analyzed using the Friedman test and the SPSS software. Results: Significant statistical differences were shown in the mean scores of speech-in-noise perception between the 3 time points (P=0.001. The results also indicated no difference in the mean scores of speech-in-noise perception between the 2 time points of immediately after the training program and 2 months’ follow-up (P=0.212. Conclusion: The present study showed the reliability of an ITD ENV-based localization training in elderly individuals with speech-in-noise perception disorder.

  16. Visual Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (VSLAM) methods applied to indoor 3D topographical and radiological mapping in real-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautot, Felix; Dubart, Philippe; Bacri, Charles-Olivier; Chagneau, Benjamin; Abou-Khalil, Roger

    2017-09-01

    New developments in the field of robotics and computer vision enables to merge sensors to allow fast realtime localization of radiological measurements in the space/volume with near-real time radioactive sources identification and characterization. These capabilities lead nuclear investigations to a more efficient way for operators' dosimetry evaluation, intervention scenarii and risks mitigation and simulations, such as accidents in unknown potentially contaminated areas or during dismantling operations

  17. Influence of time presetting procedure for rapid local heat;.ng on brazing temperature conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lezhnin, G.P.; Tul'skikh, V.E.

    1985-01-01

    Correlation of known and suggested presetting procedures for heating period during induction brazing was conducted. It is shown that brazing time must be established considering heat propagation during heating in order to obtain the assigned joint temperature regardless of heating rate change. Methods for temperature calculation in assigned zones of the joint are suggested. The suggested presetting procedure for heating time was applied for induction vacuum brazing of a tube of 12Kh18N10T steel to a pipe connection of VT20 alloy

  18. A Bayesian approach to real-time 3D tumor localization via monoscopic x-ray imaging during treatment delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ruijiang; Fahimian, Benjamin P.; Xing, Lei

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Monoscopic x-ray imaging with on-board kV devices is an attractive approach for real-time image guidance in modern radiation therapy such as VMAT or IMRT, but it falls short in providing reliable information along the direction of imaging x-ray. By effectively taking consideration of projection data at prior times and/or angles through a Bayesian formalism, the authors develop an algorithm for real-time and full 3D tumor localization with a single x-ray imager during treatment delivery. Methods: First, a prior probability density function is constructed using the 2D tumor locations on the projection images acquired during patient setup. Whenever an x-ray image is acquired during the treatment delivery, the corresponding 2D tumor location on the imager is used to update the likelihood function. The unresolved third dimension is obtained by maximizing the posterior probability distribution. The algorithm can also be used in a retrospective fashion when all the projection images during the treatment delivery are used for 3D localization purposes. The algorithm does not involve complex optimization of any model parameter and therefore can be used in a ''plug-and-play'' fashion. The authors validated the algorithm using (1) simulated 3D linear and elliptic motion and (2) 3D tumor motion trajectories of a lung and a pancreas patient reproduced by a physical phantom. Continuous kV images were acquired over a full gantry rotation with the Varian TrueBeam on-board imaging system. Three scenarios were considered: fluoroscopic setup, cone beam CT setup, and retrospective analysis. Results: For the simulation study, the RMS 3D localization error is 1.2 and 2.4 mm for the linear and elliptic motions, respectively. For the phantom experiments, the 3D localization error is < 1 mm on average and < 1.5 mm at 95th percentile in the lung and pancreas cases for all three scenarios. The difference in 3D localization error for different scenarios is small and is not

  19. Analysis of local ionospheric time varying characteristics with singular value decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jakob Anders; Knudsen, Per; Jensen, Anna B. O.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a time series from 1999 to 2007 of absolute total electron content (TEC) values has been computed and analyzed using singular value decomposition (SVD). The data set has been computed using a Kalman Filter and is based on dual frequency GPS data from three reference stations in Den...

  20. Localization by interaural time difference (ITD): Effects of interaural frequency mismatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonham, B.H.; Lewis, E.R.

    1999-01-01

    A commonly accepted physiological model for lateralization of low-frequency sounds by interaural time delay (ITD) stipulates that binaural comparison neurons receive input from frequency-matched channels from each ear. Here, the effects of hypothetical interaural frequency mismatches on this model are reported. For this study, the cat close-quote s auditory system peripheral to the binaural comparison neurons was represented by a neurophysiologically derived model, and binaural comparison neurons were represented by cross-correlators. The results of the study indicate that, for binaural comparison neurons receiving input from one cochlear channel from each ear, interaural CF mismatches may serve to either augment or diminish the effective difference in ipsilateral and contralateral axonal time delays from the periphery to the binaural comparison neuron. The magnitude of this increase or decrease in the effective time delay difference can be up to 400 μs for CF mismatches of 0.2 octaves or less for binaural neurons with CFs between 250 Hz and 2.5 kHz. For binaural comparison neurons with nominal CFs near 500 Hz, the 25-μs effective time delay difference caused by a 0.012-octave CF mismatch is equal to the ITD previously shown to be behaviorally sufficient for the cat to lateralize a low-frequency sound source. copyright 1999 Acoustical Society of America.

  1. Local time stepping with the discontinuous Galerkin method for wave propagation in 3D heterogeneous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minisini, S.; Zhebel, E.; Kononov, A.; Mulder, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Modeling and imaging techniques for geophysics are extremely demanding in terms of computational resources. Seismic data attempt to resolve smaller scales and deeper targets in increasingly more complex geologic settings. Finite elements enable accurate simulation of time-dependent wave propagation

  2. Echoes from the deep - Communication scheduling, localization and time-synchronization in underwater acoustic sensor networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kleunen, W.A.P.

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) caused a shift in the way things are monitored. While traditional monitoring was coarse-grained and offline, using WSNs allows fine-grained and real-time monitoring. While radio-based WSNs are growing out of the stage of research to commercialization and widespread

  3. Selecting local constraint for alignment of batch process data with dynamic time warping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spooner, Max Peter; Kold, David; Kulahci, Murat

    2017-01-01

    ” may be interpreted as a progress signature of the batch which may be appended to the aligned data for further analysis. For the warping function to be a realistic reflection of the progress of a batch, it is necessary to impose some constraints on the dynamic time warping algorithm, to avoid...

  4. Radiotherapy beyond cancer: Target localization in real-time MRI and treatment planning for cardiac radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipsen, S.; Blanck, O.; Rades, D.; Oborn, B.; Bode, F.; Liney, G.; Hunold, P.; Schweikard, A.; Keall, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Atrial fibrillation (AFib) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia that affects millions of patients world-wide. AFib is usually treated with minimally invasive, time consuming catheter ablation techniques. While recently noninvasive radiosurgery to the pulmonary vein antrum (PVA) in the left atrium has been proposed for AFib treatment, precise target location during treatment is challenging due to complex respiratory and cardiac motion. A MRI linear accelerator (MRI-Linac) could solve the problems of motion tracking and compensation using real-time image guidance. In this study, the authors quantified target motion ranges on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and analyzed the dosimetric benefits of margin reduction assuming real-time motion compensation was applied. Methods: For the imaging study, six human subjects underwent real-time cardiac MRI under free breathing. The target motion was analyzed retrospectively using a template matching algorithm. The planning study was conducted on a CT of an AFib patient with a centrally located esophagus undergoing catheter ablation, representing an ideal case for cardiac radiosurgery. The target definition was similar to the ablation lesions at the PVA created during catheter treatment. Safety margins of 0 mm (perfect tracking) to 8 mm (untracked respiratory motion) were added to the target, defining the planning target volume (PTV). For each margin, a 30 Gy single fraction IMRT plan was generated. Additionally, the influence of 1 and 3 T magnetic fields on the treatment beam delivery was simulated using Monte Carlo calculations to determine the dosimetric impact of MRI guidance for two different Linac positions. Results: Real-time cardiac MRI showed mean respiratory target motion of 10.2 mm (superior–inferior), 2.4 mm (anterior–posterior), and 2 mm (left–right). The planning study showed that increasing safety margins to encompass untracked respiratory motion leads to overlapping structures even in the

  5. Radiotherapy beyond cancer: Target localization in real-time MRI and treatment planning for cardiac radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ipsen, S. [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia and Institute for Robotics and Cognitive Systems, University of Luebeck, Luebeck 23562 (Germany); Blanck, O.; Rades, D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Luebeck and University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck 23562 (Germany); Oborn, B. [Illawarra Cancer Care Centre (ICCC), Wollongong, New South Wales 2500, Australia and Centre for Medical Radiation Physics (CMRP), University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Bode, F. [Medical Department II, University of Luebeck and University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck 23562 (Germany); Liney, G. [Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool, New South Wales 2170 (Australia); Hunold, P. [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Luebeck and University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck 23562 (Germany); Schweikard, A. [Institute for Robotics and Cognitive Systems, University of Luebeck, Luebeck 23562 (Germany); Keall, P. J., E-mail: paul.keall@sydney.edu.au [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: Atrial fibrillation (AFib) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia that affects millions of patients world-wide. AFib is usually treated with minimally invasive, time consuming catheter ablation techniques. While recently noninvasive radiosurgery to the pulmonary vein antrum (PVA) in the left atrium has been proposed for AFib treatment, precise target location during treatment is challenging due to complex respiratory and cardiac motion. A MRI linear accelerator (MRI-Linac) could solve the problems of motion tracking and compensation using real-time image guidance. In this study, the authors quantified target motion ranges on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and analyzed the dosimetric benefits of margin reduction assuming real-time motion compensation was applied. Methods: For the imaging study, six human subjects underwent real-time cardiac MRI under free breathing. The target motion was analyzed retrospectively using a template matching algorithm. The planning study was conducted on a CT of an AFib patient with a centrally located esophagus undergoing catheter ablation, representing an ideal case for cardiac radiosurgery. The target definition was similar to the ablation lesions at the PVA created during catheter treatment. Safety margins of 0 mm (perfect tracking) to 8 mm (untracked respiratory motion) were added to the target, defining the planning target volume (PTV). For each margin, a 30 Gy single fraction IMRT plan was generated. Additionally, the influence of 1 and 3 T magnetic fields on the treatment beam delivery was simulated using Monte Carlo calculations to determine the dosimetric impact of MRI guidance for two different Linac positions. Results: Real-time cardiac MRI showed mean respiratory target motion of 10.2 mm (superior–inferior), 2.4 mm (anterior–posterior), and 2 mm (left–right). The planning study showed that increasing safety margins to encompass untracked respiratory motion leads to overlapping structures even in the

  6. Radiotherapy beyond cancer: target localization in real-time MRI and treatment planning for cardiac radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipsen, S; Blanck, O; Oborn, B; Bode, F; Liney, G; Hunold, P; Rades, D; Schweikard, A; Keall, P J

    2014-12-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AFib) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia that affects millions of patients world-wide. AFib is usually treated with minimally invasive, time consuming catheter ablation techniques. While recently noninvasive radiosurgery to the pulmonary vein antrum (PVA) in the left atrium has been proposed for AFib treatment, precise target location during treatment is challenging due to complex respiratory and cardiac motion. A MRI linear accelerator (MRI-Linac) could solve the problems of motion tracking and compensation using real-time image guidance. In this study, the authors quantified target motion ranges on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and analyzed the dosimetric benefits of margin reduction assuming real-time motion compensation was applied. For the imaging study, six human subjects underwent real-time cardiac MRI under free breathing. The target motion was analyzed retrospectively using a template matching algorithm. The planning study was conducted on a CT of an AFib patient with a centrally located esophagus undergoing catheter ablation, representing an ideal case for cardiac radiosurgery. The target definition was similar to the ablation lesions at the PVA created during catheter treatment. Safety margins of 0 mm (perfect tracking) to 8 mm (untracked respiratory motion) were added to the target, defining the planning target volume (PTV). For each margin, a 30 Gy single fraction IMRT plan was generated. Additionally, the influence of 1 and 3 T magnetic fields on the treatment beam delivery was simulated using Monte Carlo calculations to determine the dosimetric impact of MRI guidance for two different Linac positions. Real-time cardiac MRI showed mean respiratory target motion of 10.2 mm (superior-inferior), 2.4 mm (anterior-posterior), and 2 mm (left-right). The planning study showed that increasing safety margins to encompass untracked respiratory motion leads to overlapping structures even in the ideal scenario, compromising

  7. Horizons and non-local time evolution of quantum mechanical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casadio, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    According to general relativity, trapping surfaces and horizons are classical causal structures that arise in systems with sharply defined energy and corresponding gravitational radius. The latter concept can be extended to a quantum mechanical matter state simply by means of the spectral decomposition, which allows one to define an associated ''horizon wave-function''. Since this auxiliary wave-function contains crucial information about the causal structure of space-time, a new proposal is formulated for the time evolution of quantum systems in order to account for the fundamental classical property that outer observers cannot receive signals from inside a horizon. The simple case of a massive free particle at rest is used throughout the paper as a toy model to illustrate the main ideas. (orig.)

  8. Real-time prediction of respiratory motion based on a local dynamic model in an augmented space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S-M; Jung, B-H; Ruan, D

    2011-03-21

    Motion-adaptive radiotherapy aims to deliver ablative radiation dose to the tumor target with minimal normal tissue exposure, by accounting for real-time target movement. In practice, prediction is usually necessary to compensate for system latency induced by measurement, communication and control. This work focuses on predicting respiratory motion, which is most dominant for thoracic and abdominal tumors. We develop and investigate the use of a local dynamic model in an augmented space, motivated by the observation that respiratory movement exhibits a locally circular pattern in a plane augmented with a delayed axis. By including the angular velocity as part of the system state, the proposed dynamic model effectively captures the natural evolution of respiratory motion. The first-order extended Kalman filter is used to propagate and update the state estimate. The target location is predicted by evaluating the local dynamic model equations at the required prediction length. This method is complementary to existing work in that (1) the local circular motion model characterizes 'turning', overcoming the limitation of linear motion models; (2) it uses a natural state representation including the local angular velocity and updates the state estimate systematically, offering explicit physical interpretations; (3) it relies on a parametric model and is much less data-satiate than the typical adaptive semiparametric or nonparametric method. We tested the performance of the proposed method with ten RPM traces, using the normalized root mean squared difference between the predicted value and the retrospective observation as the error metric. Its performance was compared with predictors based on the linear model, the interacting multiple linear models and the kernel density estimator for various combinations of prediction lengths and observation rates. The local dynamic model based approach provides the best performance for short to medium prediction lengths under relatively

  9. Optimal timing of early versus delayed adjuvant radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy for locally advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Keith J; Gu, Xiangmei; Nguyen, Paul L; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Lynch, John H; Collins, Sean P; Hu, Jim C

    2014-04-01

    Although post-radical prostatectomy (RP) adjuvant radiation therapy (ART) benefits disease that is staged as pT3 or higher, the optimal ART timing remains unknown. Our objective is to characterize the outcomes and optimal timing of early vs. delayed ART. From the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare data from 1995 to 2007, we identified 963 men with pT3N0 disease receiving early (statistic approach to determine at what time post-RP ART had the most significant effect on outcomes of interest in men with pT3N0 disease. When compared with delayed ART in men with pT3 disease, early ART was associated with improved PCSM (0.47 vs. 1.02 events per 100 person-years; P = 0.038) and less salvage hormonal therapy (2.88 vs. 4.59 events per 100 person-years; P = 0.001). Delaying ART beyond 5 months is associated with worse PCSM (hazard ratio [HR] 2.3; P = 0.020), beyond 3 months is associated with more BRE (HR 1.6; P = 0.025), and beyond 4 months is associated higher rates of salvage hormonal therapy (HR 1.6; P = 0.002). ART performed after 9 months was associated with fewer urethral strictures (HR 0.6; P = 0.042). Initiating ART less than 5 months after RP for pT3 is associated with improved PCSM. Early ART is also associated with fewer BRE and less use of salvage hormonal therapy if administered earlier than 3 and 4 months after RP, respectively. However, ART administered later than 9 months after RP is associated with fewer urethral strictures. Our population-based findings complement randomized trials designed with fixed ART timing. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy in symbiosis with time reversal for localization of defects: TR-NEWS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dos Santos, S.; Vejvodová, Šárka; Převorovský, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2009), s. 14-14 ISSN 1213-3825. [NDT in PROGRESS. 12.11.2009-14.11.2009, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/07/1393; GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI1/274 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy (NEWS) * ESAM * time reversal (TR) * TR-NEWS imaging * tomography * DORT Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  11. Lead-time reduction utilizing lean tools applied to healthcare: the inpatient pharmacy at a local hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Araidah, Omar; Momani, Amer; Khasawneh, Mohammad; Momani, Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    The healthcare arena, much like the manufacturing industry, benefits from many aspects of the Toyota lean principles. Lean thinking contributes to reducing or eliminating nonvalue-added time, money, and energy in healthcare. In this paper, we apply selected principles of lean management aiming at reducing the wasted time associated with drug dispensing at an inpatient pharmacy at a local hospital. Thorough investigation of the drug dispensing process revealed unnecessary complexities that contribute to delays in delivering medications to patients. We utilize DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control) and 5S (Sort, Set-in-order, Shine, Standardize, Sustain) principles to identify and reduce wastes that contribute to increasing the lead-time in healthcare operations at the pharmacy understudy. The results obtained from the study revealed potential savings of > 45% in the drug dispensing cycle time.

  12. Gamma-Ray Burst Arrival Time Localizations: Simultaneous Observations by Pioneer Venus Orbiter, Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, and Ulysses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laros, J.G.; Hurley, K.C.; Fenimore, E.E.; Klebesadel, R.W.; Briggs, M.S.; Kouveliotou, C.; McCollough, M.L.; Fishman, G.J.; Meegan, C.A.; Cline, T.L.; Boer, M.; Niel, M.

    1998-01-01

    Between the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) launch in 1991 April and the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) demise in 1992 October, concurrent coverage by CGRO, PVO, and Ulysses was obtained for several hundred gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Although most of these were below the PVO and Ulysses thresholds, 37 were positively detected by all three spacecraft, with data quality adequate for quantitative localization analysis. All were localized independently to ∼2 degree accuracy by the CGRO Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), and three were also localized by COMPTEL. We computed arrival-time error boxes, whose larger dimensions range from about 2' to several degrees and whose smaller dimensions are in the arcminute range. Twelve have areas less than 10 arcmin 2 , and only four have areas greater than 1 deg 2 . The area of the smallest box is 0.44 arcmin 2 . We find that the overall BATSE localization accuracy for these events is consistent with the most recent stated uncertainties. This work indicates that the ROSAT soft X-ray source found within a preliminary IPN error box for GB920501 (Trig 1576) (Hurley et al.) is less likely to be the GRB counterpart than previously reported. copyright copyright 1998. The American Astronomical Society

  13. Local study of pollutants dispersion by a real time tracer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faivre-Pierret, R.X.; Sestier-Carlin, R.; Berne, P.

    1992-01-01

    It is possible to use a Gaussian mathematical model of atmospheric dispersion for calculating atmospheric transfer coefficient (ATC) in long range model, but for proximity models, an experimental model using a tracer technic has to take in account ground effects and natural or artificial obstacles. SF 6 tracer method gives the true plume ground trace in real time. The measured ATC shows a larger ground trace, lower concentration in the axis, and a displacement of the maximum concentration with regard to wind axis in comparison with the calculated ATC. (A.B.). 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  14. Indian Handicrafts in Globalization Times: An analysis of Global-Local Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar Jena

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization – which refers to the growing integration of societies, economies and cultures around the world, has become one of the most hotly-debated topics and key area of research among the policy makers, statesmen, corporate, politicians and academia respectively over the past few years. As India opens up her doors to the multinationals during the era of economic reform and liberalized market, putting an end to the ‘license raj’, it is not only the economies that often meet in the global market sphere, but also the people and cultures, which bring a new dimension to the multi-cultural setting. What we can see in present day modern world is that there is always a cross-cultural interaction between the ‘local’ and ‘global’ and the much discussed ‘global village’, is now not just a possibility but a reality despite many contradictions. Talking about Indian Handicrafts, which constitutes a significant segment of the decentralized sector of the economy, its export has reached at a commendable height. Indian folk art and crafts which are the integral parts of the Indian culture and tradition, are in high demand among the western consumers. Again, foreign fashion industry borrows a great deal from Indian appliquéd motifs Saree designs, an ethnic Indian wear. Needless to say, the borders between the world cultures are now eroding out and becoming irrelevant, therefore prompting to call it as a deterritorialized world.But notwithstanding, the real concern for many of us is that, can the ‘local’ really meet with the ‘global’ by truly sustaining its localness? The biggest problem in the Indian Handicraft industry is that the village craftsmen remain concerned that with free trade and mass production, hand-made products from other parts of the world will out price the products of their hard labour. So the basic question arises, is globalization a panacea for every human problems that the mother earth is facing now? With a

  15. Emergence of Space-Time Localization and Cosmic Decoherence:. More on Irreversible Time, Dark Energy, Anti-Matter and Black-Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnon, Anne

    2005-04-01

    A non geometric cosmology is presented, based on logic of observability, where logical categories of our perception set frontiers to comprehensibility. The Big-Bang singularity finds here a substitute (comparable to a "quantum jump"): a logical process (tied to self-referent and divisible totality) by which information emerges, focalizes on events and recycles, providing a transition from incoherence to causal coherence. This jump manufactures causal order and space-time localization, as exact solutions to Einstein's equation, where the last step of the process disentangles complex Riemann spheres into real null-cones (a geometric overturning imposed by self-reference, reminding us of our ability to project the cosmos within our mental sphere). Concepts such as antimatter and dark energy (dual entities tied to bifurcations or broken symmetries, and their compensation), are presented as hidden in the virtual potentialities, while irreversible time appears with the recycling of information and related flow. Logical bifurcations (such as the "part-totality" category, a quantum of information which owes its recycling to non localizable logical separations, as anticipated by unstability or horizon dependence of the quantum vacuum) induce broken symmetries, at the (complex or real) geometric level [eg. the antiselfdual complex non linear graviton solutions, which break duality symmetry, provide a model for (hidden) anti-matter, itself compensated with dark-energy, and providing, with space-time localization, the radiative gravitational energy (Bondi flux and related bifurcations of the peeling off type), as well as mass of isolated bodies]. These bifurcations are compensated by inertial effects (non geometric precursors of the Coriolis forces) able to explain (on logical grounds) the cosmic expansion (a repulsion?) and critical equilibrium of the cosmic tissue. Space-time environment, itself, emerges through the jump, as a censor to totality, a screen to incoherence (as

  16. Real-Time Localization of Moving Dipole Sources for Tracking Multiple Free-Swimming Weakly Electric Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, James Jaeyoon; Longtin, André; Maler, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    In order to survive, animals must quickly and accurately locate prey, predators, and conspecifics using the signals they generate. The signal source location can be estimated using multiple detectors and the inverse relationship between the received signal intensity (RSI) and the distance, but difficulty of the source localization increases if there is an additional dependence on the orientation of a signal source. In such cases, the signal source could be approximated as an ideal dipole for simplification. Based on a theoretical model, the RSI can be directly predicted from a known dipole location; but estimating a dipole location from RSIs has no direct analytical solution. Here, we propose an efficient solution to the dipole localization problem by using a lookup table (LUT) to store RSIs predicted by our theoretically derived dipole model at many possible dipole positions and orientations. For a given set of RSIs measured at multiple detectors, our algorithm found a dipole location having the closest matching normalized RSIs from the LUT, and further refined the location at higher resolution. Studying the natural behavior of weakly electric fish (WEF) requires efficiently computing their location and the temporal pattern of their electric signals over extended periods. Our dipole localization method was successfully applied to track single or multiple freely swimming WEF in shallow water in real-time, as each fish could be closely approximated by an ideal current dipole in two dimensions. Our optimized search algorithm found the animal’s positions, orientations, and tail-bending angles quickly and accurately under various conditions, without the need for calibrating individual-specific parameters. Our dipole localization method is directly applicable to studying the role of active sensing during spatial navigation, or social interactions between multiple WEF. Furthermore, our method could be extended to other application areas involving dipole source

  17. Real-Time Localization of Moving Dipole Sources for Tracking Multiple Free-Swimming Weakly Electric Fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Jaeyoon Jun

    Full Text Available In order to survive, animals must quickly and accurately locate prey, predators, and conspecifics using the signals they generate. The signal source location can be estimated using multiple detectors and the inverse relationship between the received signal intensity (RSI and the distance, but difficulty of the source localization increases if there is an additional dependence on the orientation of a signal source. In such cases, the signal source could be approximated as an ideal dipole for simplification. Based on a theoretical model, the RSI can be directly predicted from a known dipole location; but estimating a dipole location from RSIs has no direct analytical solution. Here, we propose an efficient solution to the dipole localization problem by using a lookup table (LUT to store RSIs predicted by our theoretically derived dipole model at many possible dipole positions and orientations. For a given set of RSIs measured at multiple detectors, our algorithm found a dipole location having the closest matching normalized RSIs from the LUT, and further refined the location at higher resolution. Studying the natural behavior of weakly electric fish (WEF requires efficiently computing their location and the temporal pattern of their electric signals over extended periods. Our dipole localization method was successfully applied to track single or multiple freely swimming WEF in shallow water in real-time, as each fish could be closely approximated by an ideal current dipole in two dimensions. Our optimized search algorithm found the animal's positions, orientations, and tail-bending angles quickly and accurately under various conditions, without the need for calibrating individual-specific parameters. Our dipole localization method is directly applicable to studying the role of active sensing during spatial navigation, or social interactions between multiple WEF. Furthermore, our method could be extended to other application areas involving dipole

  18. Real-Time Implementation of a GIS-Based Localization System for Intelligent Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Bonnifait

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a loosely coupled fusion approach that merges GPS data, dead-reckoned sensors, and GIS (geographical information system data. The GPS latency is compensated for by the DR sensors and the use of an xPPS signal. The fusion of the estimate with the map data is spatial-triggered, while the fusion with the GPS is time-triggered. We present a strategy that relies on pose tracking which is reinitialized when GPS data become incoherent. Particular attention is given to the representation of the road map and to the management of a cache memory for efficiency purposes. We report experiments carried out with our equipped car and a GIS whose characteristics are well adapted to embedded constraints.

  19. Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer All-Sky Monitor Localization of SGR 1627-41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald A.; Bradt, Hale V.; Levine, Alan M.

    1999-07-01

    The fourth unambiguously identified soft gamma repeater (SGR), SGR 1627-41, was discovered with the BATSE instrument on 1998 June 15. Interplanetary Network (IPN) measurements and BATSE data constrained the location of this new SGR to a 6° segment of a narrow (19") annulus. We present two bursts from this source observed by the All-Sky Monitor (ASM) on the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer. We use the ASM data to further constrain the source location to a 5' long segment of the BATSE/IPN error box. The ASM/IPN error box lies within 0.3 arcmin of the supernova remnant G337.0-0.1. The probability that a supernova remnant would fall so close to the error box purely by chance is ~5%.

  20. Local differential geometry of null curves in conformally flat space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbantke, H.

    1989-01-01

    The conformally invariant differential geometry of null curves in conformally flat space-times is given, using the six-vector formalism which has generalizations to higher dimensions. This is then paralleled by a twistor description, with a twofold merit: firstly, sometimes the description is easier in twistor terms, sometimes in six-vector terms, which leads to a mutual enlightenment of both; and secondly, the case of null curves in timelike pseudospheres or 2+1 Minkowski space we were only able to treat twistorially, making use of an invariant differential found by Fubini and Cech. The result is the expected one: apart from stated exceptional cases there is a conformally invariant parameter and two conformally invariant curvatures which, when specified in terms of this parameter, serve to characterize the curve up to conformal transformations. 12 refs. (Author)

  1. Time-dependent local potential in a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamar, Naushad Ahmad; Giamarchi, Thierry

    2017-12-01

    We study the energy deposition in a one-dimensional interacting quantum system with a pointlike potential modulated in amplitude. The pointlike potential at position x =0 has a constant part and a small oscillation in time with a frequency ω . We use bosonization, renormalization group, and linear response theory to calculate the corresponding energy deposition. It exhibits a power law behavior as a function of the frequency that reflects the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL) nature of the system. Depending on the interactions in the system, characterized by the TLL parameter K of the system, a crossover between weak and strong coupling for the backscattering due to the potential is possible. We compute the frequency scale ω*, at which such crossover exists. We find that the energy deposition due to the backscattering shows different exponents for K >1 and K <1 . We discuss possible experimental consequences, in the context of cold atomic gases, of our theoretical results.

  2. Real-Time Implementation of a GIS-Based Localization System for Intelligent Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnifait Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a loosely coupled fusion approach that merges GPS data, dead-reckoned sensors, and GIS (geographical information system data. The GPS latency is compensated for by the DR sensors and the use of an xPPS signal. The fusion of the estimate with the map data is spatial-triggered, while the fusion with the GPS is time-triggered. We present a strategy that relies on pose tracking which is reinitialized when GPS data become incoherent. Particular attention is given to the representation of the road map and to the management of a cache memory for efficiency purposes. We report experiments carried out with our equipped car and a GIS whose characteristics are well adapted to embedded constraints.

  3. Optimal time interval between capecitabine intake and radiotherapy in preoperative chemoradiation for locally advanced rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Chang Sik; Kim, Tae Won; Kim, Jong Hoon; Choi, Won Sik; Kim, Hee Cheol; Chang, Heung Moon; Ryu, Min Hee; Jang, Se Jin; Ahn, Seung Do; Lee, Sang-wook; Shin, Seong Soo; Choi, Eun Kyung; Kim, Jin Cheon

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Capecitabine and its metabolites reach peak plasma concentrations 1 to 2 hours after a single oral administration, and concentrations rapidly decrease thereafter. We performed a retrospective analysis to find the optimal time interval between capecitabine administration and radiotherapy for rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: The time interval between capecitabine intake and radiotherapy was measured in patients who were treated with preoperative radiotherapy and concurrent capecitabine for rectal cancer. Patients were classified into the following groups. Group A1 included patients who took capecitabine 1 hour before radiotherapy, and Group B1 included all other patients. Group B1 was then subdivided into Group A2 (patients who took capecitabine 2 hours before radiotherapy) and Group B2. Group B2 was further divided into Group A3 and Group B3 with the same method. Total mesorectal excision was performed 6 weeks after completion of chemoradiation and the pathologic response was evaluated. Results: A total of 200 patients were enrolled in this study. Pathologic examination showed that Group A1 had higher rates of complete regression of primary tumors in the rectum (23.5% vs. 9.6%, p = 0.01), good response (44.7% vs. 25.2%, p = 0.006), and lower T stages (p = 0.021) compared with Group B1; however, Groups A2 and A3 did not show any improvement compared with Groups B2 and B3. Multivariate analysis showed that increases in primary tumors in the rectum and good response were only significant when capecitabine was administered 1 hour before radiotherapy. Conclusion: In preoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer, the pathologic response could be improved by administering capecitabine 1 hour before radiotherapy

  4. Real-Time and Accurate Indoor Localization with Fusion Model of Wi-Fi Fingerprint and Motion Particle Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinlong Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the development of Indoor Location Based Service (Indoor LBS, a timely localization and smooth tracking with high accuracy are desperately needed. Unfortunately, any single method cannot meet the requirement of both high accuracy and real-time ability at the same time. In this paper, we propose a fusion location framework with Particle Filter using Wi-Fi signals and motion sensors. In this framework, we use Extreme Learning Machine (ELM regression algorithm to predict position based on motion sensors and use Wi-Fi fingerprint location result to solve the error accumulation of motion sensors based location occasionally with Particle Filter. The experiments show that the trajectory is smoother as the real one than the traditional Wi-Fi fingerprint method.

  5. The analysis of space-time structure in QCD vacuum, I: localization vs global behavior in local observables and Dirac eigenmodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    The structure of QCD vacuum can be studied from first principles using lattice-regularized theory. This line of research entered a qualitatively new phase recently, wherein the space-time structure (at least for some quantities) can be directly observed in configurations dominating the QCD path integral, i.e., without any subjective processing of typical configurations. This approach to QCD vacuum structure does not rely on any proposed picture of QCD vacuum but rather attempts to characterize this structure in a model-independent manner, so that a coherent physical picture of the vacuum can emerge when such unbiased numerical information accumulates to a sufficient degree. An important part of this program is to develop a set of suitable quantitative characteristics describing the space-time structure in a meaningful and physically relevant manner. One of the basic pertinent issues here is whether QCD vacuum dynamics can be understood in terms of localized vacuum objects, or whether such objects behave as inherently global entities. The first direct studies of vacuum structure strongly support the latter. In this paper, we develop a formal framework which allows to answer this question in a quantitative manner. We discuss in detail how to apply this approach to Dirac eigenmodes and to basic scalar and pseudoscalar composites of gauge fields (action density and topological charge density). The approach is illustrated numerically on overlap Dirac zero modes and near-zero modes. This illustrative data provides direct quantitative evidence supporting our earlier arguments for the global nature of QCD Dirac eigenmodes

  6. Pinsker estimators for local helioseismology: inversion of travel times for mass-conserving flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, Damien; Holzke, Martin; Hohage, Thorsten; Gizon, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    A major goal of helioseismology is the three-dimensional reconstruction of the three velocity components of convective flows in the solar interior from sets of wave travel-time measurements. For small amplitude flows, the forward problem is described in good approximation by a large system of convolution equations. The input observations are highly noisy random vectors with a known dense covariance matrix. This leads to a large statistical linear inverse problem. Whereas for deterministic linear inverse problems several computationally efficient minimax optimal regularization methods exist, only one minimax-optimal linear estimator exists for statistical linear inverse problems: the Pinsker estimator. However, it is often computationally inefficient because it requires a singular value decomposition of the forward operator or it is not applicable because of an unknown noise covariance matrix, so it is rarely used for real-world problems. These limitations do not apply in helioseismology. We present a simplified proof of the optimality properties of the Pinsker estimator and show that it yields significantly better reconstructions than traditional inversion methods used in helioseismology, i.e. regularized least squares (Tikhonov regularization) and SOLA (approximate inverse) methods. Moreover, we discuss the incorporation of the mass conservation constraint in the Pinsker scheme using staggered grids. With this improvement we can reconstruct not only horizontal, but also vertical velocity components that are much smaller in amplitude. (paper)

  7. Local Duck Fanning At Paddy Three Times Planting Areas ("IP Padi 300"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setioko A.R

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of duck husbandry in Indonesia is still run traditionally, herded in rice field or in the swampy area. This kind of husbandry seemed to be much preferred by farmers as they thought it was a simple and did not need high skill and high capital "IP padi 300" was a term of rice planting system tree times instead of twice in a year. This kind of changing might have significantly affected duck faming. The objective of the study was to observe the interactively effect of "IP padi 300" to duck husbandry at the same area. Two locations were choosen (Subang, West Jawa and Pemalang, Central Java with 5 farmers at each location to be involved in the study. As many as 1200 laying pullet ducks were distributed to 10 farmers at two locations. The farmers were suggested to raise laying ducks with their own systems (fully intensive, semi intensive and fully herded and were observed for 6 months. Biota was observed on both field and in the crop of the laying ducks. There was an interactive effect of "IP padi 300" and the duck farming on the same area. The availability of feed was increased on the "IP padi 300", which gave benefit to duck farming especially fue herded system, not to go far from owner's home base. Whilst the benefit to "IP padi 300" was assumed to the reduction of pest and desease, which was frequently attacked the rice field. The production of egg from herded duck was very fluctuative due to the movement and feed availability in the rice field. Field biota in Subang and Pemalang was very much the same in profile, although "golden snail" was only found in Subang. Ducks' crop content seemed to be very much similar with the profile of field biota, although rice grain was the most in the crop. Thus, it was found that field biota was not reduced by "IP padi 300", in fact it was rather increased.

  8. The relative roles of local climate adaptation and phylogeny in determining leaf-out timing of temperate tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Desnoues

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Leaf out times of temperate forest trees are a prominent determinant of global carbon dynamics throughout the year. Abiotic cues of leaf emergence are well studied but investigation of the relative roles of shared evolutionary history (phylogeny and local adaptation to climate in determining the species-level responses to these cues is needed to better apprehend the effect of global change on leaf emergence. We explored the relative importance of phylogeny and climate in determining the innate leaf out phenology across the temperate biome. Methods We used an extensive dataset of leaf-out dates of 1126 temperate woody species grown in eight Northern Hemisphere common gardens. For these species, information on the native climate and phylogenetic position was collected. Using linear regression analyses, we examine the relative effect of climate variables and phylogeny on leaf out variation among species. Results Climate variables explained twice as much variation in leaf out timing as phylogenetic information, a process that was driven primarily by the complex interactive effects of multiple climate variables. Although the primary climate factors explaining species-level variation in leaf-out timing varied drastically across different families, our analyses reveal that local adaptation plays a stronger role than common evolutionary history in determining tree phenology across the temperate biome. Conclusions In the long-term, the direct effects of physiological adaptation to abiotic effects of climate change on forest phenology are likely to outweigh the indirect effects mediated through changes in tree species composition.

  9. Constraints on the crustal structure beneath the Sinai subplate, SE Mediterranean, from analysis of local and regional travel times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed K. Salah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Sinai Peninsula has been recognized as a subplate of the African Plate located at the triple junction of the Gulf of Suez rift, the Dead Sea Transform fault, and the Red Sea rift. The upper and lower crustal structures of this tectonically active, rapidly developing region are yet poorly understood because of many limitations. For this reason, a set of P- and S-wave travel times recorded at 14 seismic stations belonging to the Egyptian National Seismographic Network (ENSN from 111 local and regional events are analyzed to investigate the crustal structures and the locations of the seismogenic zones beneath central and southern Sinai. Because the velocity model used for routine earthquake location by ENSN is one-dimensional, the travel-time residuals will show lateral heterogeneity of the velocity structures and unmodeled vertical structures. Seismic activity is strong along the eastern and southern borders of the study area but low to moderate along the northern boundary and the Gulf of Suez to the west. The crustal Vp/Vs ratio is 1.74 from shallow (depth ≤ 10 km earthquakes and 1.76 from deeper (depth > 10 km crustal events. The majority of the regional and local travel-time residuals are positive relative to the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM, implying that the seismic stations are located above widely distributed, tectonically-induced low-velocity zones. These low-velocity zones are mostly related to the local crustal faults affecting the sedimentary section and the basement complex as well as the rifting processes prevailing in the northern Red Sea region and the ascending of hot mantle materials along crustal fractures. The delineation of these low-velocity zones and the locations of big crustal earthquakes enable the identification of areas prone to intense seismotectonic activities, which should be excluded from major future development projects and large constructions in central and southern Sinai.

  10. Local flow management/profile descent algorithm. Fuel-efficient, time-controlled profiles for the NASA TSRV airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groce, J. L.; Izumi, K. H.; Markham, C. H.; Schwab, R. W.; Thompson, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The Local Flow Management/Profile Descent (LFM/PD) algorithm designed for the NASA Transport System Research Vehicle program is described. The algorithm provides fuel-efficient altitude and airspeed profiles consistent with ATC restrictions in a time-based metering environment over a fixed ground track. The model design constraints include accommodation of both published profile descent procedures and unpublished profile descents, incorporation of fuel efficiency as a flight profile criterion, operation within the performance capabilities of the Boeing 737-100 airplane with JT8D-7 engines, and conformity to standard air traffic navigation and control procedures. Holding and path stretching capabilities are included for long delay situations.

  11. Local Fractional Operator for a One-Dimensional Coupled Burger Equation of Non-Integer Time Order Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday O. Edeki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, approximate solutions of a system of time-fractional coupled Burger equations were obtained by means of a local fractional operator (LFO in the sense of the Caputo derivative. The LFO technique was built on the basis of the standard differential transform method (DTM. Illustrative examples used in demonstrating the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method show that the solution method is very efficient and reliable as – unlike the variational iteration method – it does not depend on any process of identifying Lagrange multipliers, even while still maintaining accuracy.

  12. Localized surface plasmon resonance in silver nanoparticles: Atomistic first-principles time-dependent density-functional theory calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Kuisma, Mikael; Sakko, Arto; Rossi, Tuomas P.; Larsen, Ask H.; Enkovaara, Jussi; Lehtovaara, Lauri; Rantala, Tapio T.

    2015-01-01

    We observe using ab initio methods that localized surface plasmon resonances in icosahedral silver nanoparticles enter the asymptotic region already between diameters of 1 and 2 nm, converging close to the classical quasistatic limit around 3.4 eV. We base the observation on time-dependent density-functional theory simulations of the icosahedral silver clusters Ag$_{55}$ (1.06 nm), Ag$_{147}$ (1.60 nm), Ag$_{309}$ (2.14 nm), and Ag$_{561}$ (2.68 nm). The simulation method combines the adiabat...

  13. Development and validation of a local time stepping-based PaSR solver for combustion and radiation modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Kar Mun; Ivarsson, Anders; Haider, Sajjad

    2013-01-01

    In the current work, a local time stepping (LTS) solver for the modeling of combustion, radiative heat transfer and soot formation is developed and validated. This is achieved using an open source computational fluid dynamics code, OpenFOAM. Akin to the solver provided in default assembly i...... library in the edcSimpleFoam solver which was introduced during the 6th OpenFOAM workshop is modified and coupled with the current solver. One of the main amendments made is the integration of soot radiation submodel since this is significant in rich flames where soot particles are formed. The new solver...

  14. Solution of the two-dimensional space-time reactor kinetics equation by a locally one-dimensional method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.S.; Christenson, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present some initial results from an investigation of the application of a locally one-dimensional (LOD) finite difference method to the solution of the two-dimensional, two-group reactor kinetics equations. Although the LOD method is relatively well known, it apparently has not been previously applied to the space-time kinetics equations. In this investigation, the LOD results were benchmarked against similar computational results (using the same computing environment, the same programming structure, and the same sample problems) obtained by the TWIGL program. For all of the problems considered, the LOD method provided accurate results in one-half to one-eight of the time required by the TWIGL program

  15. A New Local Bipolar Autoassociative Memory Based on External Inputs of Discrete Recurrent Neural Networks With Time Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Caigen; Zeng, Xiaoqin; Luo, Chaomin; Zhang, Huaguang

    In this paper, local bipolar auto-associative memories are presented based on discrete recurrent neural networks with a class of gain type activation function. The weight parameters of neural networks are acquired by a set of inequalities without the learning procedure. The global exponential stability criteria are established to ensure the accuracy of the restored patterns by considering time delays and external inputs. The proposed methodology is capable of effectively overcoming spurious memory patterns and achieving memory capacity. The effectiveness, robustness, and fault-tolerant capability are validated by simulated experiments.In this paper, local bipolar auto-associative memories are presented based on discrete recurrent neural networks with a class of gain type activation function. The weight parameters of neural networks are acquired by a set of inequalities without the learning procedure. The global exponential stability criteria are established to ensure the accuracy of the restored patterns by considering time delays and external inputs. The proposed methodology is capable of effectively overcoming spurious memory patterns and achieving memory capacity. The effectiveness, robustness, and fault-tolerant capability are validated by simulated experiments.

  16. Identification of spikes associated with local sources in continuous time series of atmospheric CO, CO2 and CH4

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Yazidi, Abdelhadi; Ramonet, Michel; Ciais, Philippe; Broquet, Gregoire; Pison, Isabelle; Abbaris, Amara; Brunner, Dominik; Conil, Sebastien; Delmotte, Marc; Gheusi, Francois; Guerin, Frederic; Hazan, Lynn; Kachroudi, Nesrine; Kouvarakis, Giorgos; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Rivier, Leonard; Serça, Dominique

    2018-03-01

    This study deals with the problem of identifying atmospheric data influenced by local emissions that can result in spikes in time series of greenhouse gases and long-lived tracer measurements. We considered three spike detection methods known as coefficient of variation (COV), robust extraction of baseline signal (REBS) and standard deviation of the background (SD) to detect and filter positive spikes in continuous greenhouse gas time series from four monitoring stations representative of the European ICOS (Integrated Carbon Observation System) Research Infrastructure network. The results of the different methods are compared to each other and against a manual detection performed by station managers. Four stations were selected as test cases to apply the spike detection methods: a continental rural tower of 100 m height in eastern France (OPE), a high-mountain observatory in the south-west of France (PDM), a regional marine background site in Crete (FKL) and a marine clean-air background site in the Southern Hemisphere on Amsterdam Island (AMS). This selection allows us to address spike detection problems in time series with different variability. Two years of continuous measurements of CO2, CH4 and CO were analysed. All methods were found to be able to detect short-term spikes (lasting from a few seconds to a few minutes) in the time series. Analysis of the results of each method leads us to exclude the COV method due to the requirement to arbitrarily specify an a priori percentage of rejected data in the time series, which may over- or underestimate the actual number of spikes. The two other methods freely determine the number of spikes for a given set of parameters, and the values of these parameters were calibrated to provide the best match with spikes known to reflect local emissions episodes that are well documented by the station managers. More than 96 % of the spikes manually identified by station managers were successfully detected both in the SD and the

  17. Identification of spikes associated with local sources in continuous time series of atmospheric CO, CO2 and CH4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. El Yazidi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the problem of identifying atmospheric data influenced by local emissions that can result in spikes in time series of greenhouse gases and long-lived tracer measurements. We considered three spike detection methods known as coefficient of variation (COV, robust extraction of baseline signal (REBS and standard deviation of the background (SD to detect and filter positive spikes in continuous greenhouse gas time series from four monitoring stations representative of the European ICOS (Integrated Carbon Observation System Research Infrastructure network. The results of the different methods are compared to each other and against a manual detection performed by station managers. Four stations were selected as test cases to apply the spike detection methods: a continental rural tower of 100 m height in eastern France (OPE, a high-mountain observatory in the south-west of France (PDM, a regional marine background site in Crete (FKL and a marine clean-air background site in the Southern Hemisphere on Amsterdam Island (AMS. This selection allows us to address spike detection problems in time series with different variability. Two years of continuous measurements of CO2, CH4 and CO were analysed. All methods were found to be able to detect short-term spikes (lasting from a few seconds to a few minutes in the time series. Analysis of the results of each method leads us to exclude the COV method due to the requirement to arbitrarily specify an a priori percentage of rejected data in the time series, which may over- or underestimate the actual number of spikes. The two other methods freely determine the number of spikes for a given set of parameters, and the values of these parameters were calibrated to provide the best match with spikes known to reflect local emissions episodes that are well documented by the station managers. More than 96 % of the spikes manually identified by station managers were successfully detected both in

  18. Genetic architecture of local adaptation in lunar and diurnal emergence times of the marine midge Clunio marinus (Chironomidae, Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Tobias S; Heckel, David G

    2012-01-01

    Circadian rhythms pre-adapt the physiology of most organisms to predictable daily changes in the environment. Some marine organisms also show endogenous circalunar rhythms. The genetic basis of the circalunar clock and its interaction with the circadian clock is unknown. Both clocks can be studied in the marine midge Clunio marinus (Chironomidae, Diptera), as different populations have different local adaptations in their lunar and diurnal rhythms of adult emergence, which can be analyzed by crossing experiments. We investigated the genetic basis of population variation in clock properties by constructing the first genetic linkage map for this species, and performing quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis on variation in both lunar and diurnal timing. The genome has a genetic length of 167-193 centimorgans based on a linkage map using 344 markers, and a physical size of 95-140 megabases estimated by flow cytometry. Mapping the sex determining locus shows that females are the heterogametic sex, unlike most other Chironomidae. We identified two QTL each for lunar emergence time and diurnal emergence time. The distribution of QTL confirms a previously hypothesized genetic basis to a correlation of lunar and diurnal emergence times in natural populations. Mapping of clock genes and light receptors identified ciliary opsin 2 (cOps2) as a candidate to be involved in both lunar and diurnal timing; cryptochrome 1 (cry1) as a candidate gene for lunar timing; and two timeless (tim2, tim3) genes as candidate genes for diurnal timing. This QTL analysis of lunar rhythmicity, the first in any species, provides a unique entree into the molecular analysis of the lunar clock.

  19. Prognostic Value of Triple-Negative Phenotype at the Time of Locally Recurrent, Conservatively Treated Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, Rahul R.; Housman, Douglas; Yang Qifeng; Toppmeyer, Deborah; Wilson, Lynn D.; Haffty, Bruce G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic value of triple-negative (TN) ER, PR, Her2/neu basal-like carcinoma of the breast, at the time of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) after conservative surgery and radiation treatment (RT). Methods and Materials: A tissue microarray was constructed of 47 IBTR specimens of patients who experienced an IBTR after conservative surgery and RT that were processed and stained for ER, PR, and HER2/neu. Results: At a median post-recurrence follow-up of 7.5 years, the 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease metastasis-free survival (DMFS) after IBTR were 91.4% and 83.0%, respectively. Median time to tumor recurrence (TTR) and IBTR was shorter in the TN phenotype (3.88 vs. 5.00 years; p = 0.09). The TN tumors were not associated with size of local recurrence or recurrence elsewhere in the breast. Despite administration of standard chemotherapy at the time of IBTR, the 5-year DMFS and 5-year OS for the TN cohort were 48.6% and 72.7%, respectively. The 5-year DMFS was 48.6% for TN tumors and 90.8% for non-TN tumors (p < 0.01). By univariate analysis, significant factors associated with poor 5-year DMFS and OS after IBTR included: TN phenotype (p < 0.01), TTR 3 years or less (p < 0.01), local recurrence at or near the original tumor site (p = 0.08). In multivariate analysis, TN was a significant independent predictor of poorer 5-year DMFS (relative risk, 5.91; 95% confidence interval, 1.83-19.01; p < 0.01) after IBTR. Conclusions: Although patients experiencing an IBTR have a relatively favorable prognosis, those with IBTR events of the TN phenotype had a rather poor prognosis despite receiving standard chemotherapy. Strategies with novel systemic therapies to improve outcomes in patients experiencing IBTR of the TN phenotype are warranted

  20. SU-G-BRA-01: A Real-Time Tumor Localization and Guidance Platform for Radiotherapy Using US and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednarz, B; Culberson, W; Bassetti, M; McMillan, A; Matrosic, C; Shepard, A; Zagzebski, J; Smith, S; Lee, W; Mills, D; Cao, K; Wang, B; Fiveland, E; Darrow, R; Foo, T

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and validate a real-time motion management platform for radiotherapy that directly tracks tumor motion using ultrasound and MRI. This will be a cost-effective and non-invasive real-time platform combining the excellent temporal resolution of ultrasound with the excellent soft-tissue contrast of MRI. Methods: A 4D planar ultrasound acquisition during the treatment that is coupled to a pre-treatment calibration training image set consisting of a simultaneous 4D ultrasound and 4D MRI acquisition. The image sets will be rapidly matched using advanced image and signal processing algorithms, allowing the display of virtual MR images of the tumor/organ motion in real-time from an ultrasound acquisition. Results: The completion of this work will result in several innovations including: a (2D) patch-like, MR and LINAC compatible 4D planar ultrasound transducer that is electronically steerable for hands-free operation to provide real-time virtual MR and ultrasound imaging for motion management during radiation therapy; a multi- modal tumor localization strategy that uses ultrasound and MRI; and fast and accurate image processing algorithms that provide real-time information about the motion and location of tumor or related soft-tissue structures within the patient. Conclusion: If successful, the proposed approach will provide real-time guidance for radiation therapy without degrading image or treatment plan quality. The approach would be equally suitable for image-guided proton beam or heavy ion-beam therapy. This work is partially funded by NIH grant R01CA190298

  1. SU-G-BRA-01: A Real-Time Tumor Localization and Guidance Platform for Radiotherapy Using US and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bednarz, B; Culberson, W; Bassetti, M; McMillan, A; Matrosic, C; Shepard, A; Zagzebski, J [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Smith, S; Lee, W; Mills, D; Cao, K; Wang, B; Fiveland, E; Darrow, R; Foo, T [GE Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop and validate a real-time motion management platform for radiotherapy that directly tracks tumor motion using ultrasound and MRI. This will be a cost-effective and non-invasive real-time platform combining the excellent temporal resolution of ultrasound with the excellent soft-tissue contrast of MRI. Methods: A 4D planar ultrasound acquisition during the treatment that is coupled to a pre-treatment calibration training image set consisting of a simultaneous 4D ultrasound and 4D MRI acquisition. The image sets will be rapidly matched using advanced image and signal processing algorithms, allowing the display of virtual MR images of the tumor/organ motion in real-time from an ultrasound acquisition. Results: The completion of this work will result in several innovations including: a (2D) patch-like, MR and LINAC compatible 4D planar ultrasound transducer that is electronically steerable for hands-free operation to provide real-time virtual MR and ultrasound imaging for motion management during radiation therapy; a multi- modal tumor localization strategy that uses ultrasound and MRI; and fast and accurate image processing algorithms that provide real-time information about the motion and location of tumor or related soft-tissue structures within the patient. Conclusion: If successful, the proposed approach will provide real-time guidance for radiation therapy without degrading image or treatment plan quality. The approach would be equally suitable for image-guided proton beam or heavy ion-beam therapy. This work is partially funded by NIH grant R01CA190298.

  2. Modulation of functionally localized right insular cortex activity using real-time fMRI-based neurofeedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D Berman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The capacity for subjects to learn to volitionally control localized brain activity using neurofeedback is actively being investigated. We aimed to investigate the ability of healthy volunteers to quickly learn to use visual feedback during real-time functional MRI (rtfMRI to modulate brain activity within their anterior right insular cortex (RIC localized during a blink suppression task, an approach of possible interest in the use of rtfMRI to reduce urges. The RIC region of interest (RIC-ROI was functionally localized using a blink suppression task, and BOLD signal changes within RIC-ROI used to create a constantly updating display fed back to the subject in the scanner. Subjects were instructed to use emotional imagery to try and increase activity within RIC-ROI during four feedback training runs (FB1–FB4. A ‘control’ run (CNTRL before training and a ‘transfer’ run (XSFR after training were performed without feedback to assess for baseline abilities and learning effects. Fourteen participants completed all neurofeedback training runs. At the group level, increased BOLD activity was seen in the anterior RIC during all the FB runs, but a significant increase in the functionally defined RIC-ROI was only attained during FB2. In atlas-defined insular cortex ROIs, significant increases were seen bilaterally during the CNTRL, FB1, FB2, and FB4 runs. Increased activity within the insular cortices did not show lateralization. Training did, however, result in a significant increase in functional connectivity between the RIC-ROI and the medial frontal gyrus when comparing FB4 to FB1. Since neurofeedback training did not lead to an increase in BOLD signal across all feedback runs, we suggest that learning to control one’s brain activity in this fashion may require longer or repeated rtfMRI training sessions.

  3. Timed Synaptic Inhibition Shapes NMDA Spikes, Influencing Local Dendritic Processing and Global I/O Properties of Cortical Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Doron

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The NMDA spike is a long-lasting nonlinear phenomenon initiated locally in the dendritic branches of a variety of cortical neurons. It plays a key role in synaptic plasticity and in single-neuron computations. Combining dynamic system theory and computational approaches, we now explore how the timing of synaptic inhibition affects the NMDA spike and its associated membrane current. When impinging on its early phase, individual inhibitory synapses strongly, but transiently, dampen the NMDA spike; later inhibition prematurely terminates it. A single inhibitory synapse reduces the NMDA-mediated Ca2+ current, a key player in plasticity, by up to 45%. NMDA spikes in distal dendritic branches/spines are longer-lasting and more resilient to inhibition, enhancing synaptic plasticity at these branches. We conclude that NMDA spikes are highly sensitive to dendritic inhibition; sparse weak inhibition can finely tune synaptic plasticity both locally at the dendritic branch level and globally at the level of the neuron’s output.

  4. Integration of FULLSWOF2D and PeanoClaw: Adaptivity and Local Time-Stepping for Complex Overland Flows

    KAUST Repository

    Unterweger, K.

    2015-01-01

    © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. We propose to couple our adaptive mesh refinement software PeanoClaw with existing solvers for complex overland flows that are tailored to regular Cartesian meshes. This allows us to augment them with spatial adaptivity and local time-stepping without altering the computational kernels. FullSWOF2D—Full Shallow Water Overland Flows—here is our software of choice though all paradigms hold for other solvers as well.We validate our hybrid simulation software in an artificial test scenario before we provide results for a large-scale flooding scenario of the Mecca region. The latter demonstrates that our coupling approach enables the simulation of complex “real-world” scenarios.

  5. On the more accurate channel model and positioning based on time-of-arrival for visible light localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Changeez; Taherpour, Abbas; Khattab, Tamer; Gazor, Saeed

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an improved propagation channel model for the visible light in indoor environments. We employ this model to derive an enhanced positioning algorithm using on the relation between the time-of-arrivals (TOAs) and the distances for two cases either by assuming known or unknown transmitter and receiver vertical distances. We propose two estimators, namely the maximum likelihood estimator and an estimator by employing the method of moments. To have an evaluation basis for these methods, we calculate the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) for the performance of the estimations. We show that the proposed model and estimations result in a superior performance in positioning when the transmitter and receiver are perfectly synchronized in comparison to the existing state-of-the-art counterparts. Moreover, the corresponding CRLB of the proposed model represents almost about 20 dB reduction in the localization error bound in comparison with the previous model for some practical scenarios.

  6. TreeMAC: Localized TDMA MAC protocol for real-time high-data-rate sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.-Z.; Huang, R.; Shirazi, B.; Husent, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Earlier sensor network MAC protocols focus on energy conservation in low-duty cycle applications, while some recent applications involve real-time high-data-rate signals. This motivates us to design an innovative localized TDMA MAC protocol to achieve high throughput and low congestion in data collection sensor networks, besides energy conservation. TreeMAC divides a time cycle into frames and frame into slots. Parent determines children's frame assigmnent based on their relative bandwidth demand, and each node calculates its own slot assignment based on its hop-count to the sink. This innovative 2-dimensional frame-slot assignment algorithm has the following nice theory properties. Firstly, given any node, at any time slot, there is at most one active sender in its neighborhood (includ ing itself). Secondly, the packet scheduling with TreelMAC is bufferless, which therefore minimizes the probability of network congestion. Thirdly, the data throughput to gateway is at least 1/3 of the optimum assuming reliable links. Our experiments on a 24 node test bed demonstrate that TreeMAC protocol significantly improves network throughput and energy efficiency, by comparing to the TinyOS's default CSMA MAC protocol and a recent TDMA MAC protocol Funneling-MAC[8]. ?? 2009 IEEE.

  7. Sensory information in local field potentials and spikes from visual and auditory cortices: time scales and frequency bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitski, Andrei; Panzeri, Stefano; Magri, Cesare; Logothetis, Nikos K; Kayser, Christoph

    2010-12-01

    Studies analyzing sensory cortical processing or trying to decode brain activity often rely on a combination of different electrophysiological signals, such as local field potentials (LFPs) and spiking activity. Understanding the relation between these signals and sensory stimuli and between different components of these signals is hence of great interest. We here provide an analysis of LFPs and spiking activity recorded from visual and auditory cortex during stimulation with natural stimuli. In particular, we focus on the time scales on which different components of these signals are informative about the stimulus, and on the dependencies between different components of these signals. Addressing the first question, we find that stimulus information in low frequency bands (50 Hz), in contrast, is scale dependent, and is larger when the energy is averaged over several hundreds of milliseconds. Indeed, combined analysis of signal reliability and information revealed that the energy of slow LFP fluctuations is well related to the stimulus even when considering individual or few cycles, while the energy of fast LFP oscillations carries information only when averaged over many cycles. Addressing the second question, we find that stimulus information in different LFP bands, and in different LFP bands and spiking activity, is largely independent regardless of time scale or sensory system. Taken together, these findings suggest that different LFP bands represent dynamic natural stimuli on distinct time scales and together provide a potentially rich source of information for sensory processing or decoding brain activity.

  8. Noise Reduction and Gap Filling of fAPAR Time Series Using an Adapted Local Regression Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Moreno

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Time series of remotely sensed data are an important source of information for understanding land cover dynamics. In particular, the fraction of absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (fAPAR is a key variable in the assessment of vegetation primary production over time. However, the fAPAR series derived from polar orbit satellites are not continuous and consistent in space and time. Filtering methods are thus required to fill in gaps and produce high-quality time series. This study proposes an adapted (iteratively reweighted local regression filter (LOESS and performs a benchmarking intercomparison with four popular and generally applicable smoothing methods: Double Logistic (DLOG, smoothing spline (SSP, Interpolation for Data Reconstruction (IDR and adaptive Savitzky-Golay (ASG. This paper evaluates the main advantages and drawbacks of the considered techniques. The results have shown that ASG and the adapted LOESS perform better in recovering fAPAR time series over multiple controlled noisy scenarios. Both methods can robustly reconstruct the fAPAR trajectories, reducing the noise up to 80% in the worst simulation scenario, which might be attributed to the quality control (QC MODIS information incorporated into these filtering algorithms, their flexibility and adaptation to the upper envelope. The adapted LOESS is particularly resistant to outliers. This method clearly outperforms the other considered methods to deal with the high presence of gaps and noise in satellite data records. The low RMSE and biases obtained with the LOESS method (|rMBE| < 8%; rRMSE < 20% reveals an optimal reconstruction even in most extreme situations with long seasonal gaps. An example of application of the LOESS method to fill in invalid values in real MODIS images presenting persistent cloud and snow coverage is also shown. The LOESS approach is recommended in most remote sensing applications, such as gap-filling, cloud-replacement, and observing temporal

  9. Local time dependences of electron flux changes during substorms derived from mulit-satellite observation at synchronous orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, T.

    1982-01-01

    Energetic electron (energy higher than 2 MeV) observation by a synchronous satellite chain (which consists of GOES 2, GOES 3, and GMS covering the local time extent of approximately 10 hr) have been used to study the large-scale characteristics of the dynamic behavior in the near-earth magnetosphere for substorms, in which low-latitude positive bay aspects are clearly seen in the ground magnetic data. Simultaneous multi-satellite observations have clearly demonstrated the local time dependence of electron flux changes during substorms and the longitudinal extent of electron flux variations. Before a ground substorm onset the energetic electron flux decreases in a wide longitudinal region of the nighttime and the flux decrease is seen even on the afternoonside. For the flux behavior associated with the onset of the substorm expansion phase, there exists a demarcation line, the LT position of which can be represented as LT = 24.3-1.5 K/sub p/. The flux shows a recovery to a normal level east of the demarcation line, and it shows a decrease west of the demarcation line. The region of the flux decrease during the expansion phase is restricted, and it is observed mainly on the afternoonside. The afternoonside flux decrease has a different characteristic from the nightside flux decrease preceding the expansion phase. The nighside flux decrease-recovery sequence is observed in a wide region of more than 6 hr in the nighttime and the center of this variation exists in the premidnight region. It should be noted that the afternoonside flux decrease is not observed for every substorm and the nightside signature noted that the afternoonside flux sometimes becomes a dominent feature even on the afternoonside

  10. Localized real-time information on outdoor air quality at kindergartens in Oslo, Norway using low-cost sensor nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Nuria; Schneider, Philipp; Grossberndt, Sonja; Fredriksen, Mirjam F; Sousa-Santos, Gabriela; Vogt, Mathias; Bartonova, Alena

    2018-08-01

    In Norway, children in kindergartens spend significant time outdoors under all weather conditions, and there is thus a natural concern about the quality of outdoor air. It is well known that air pollution is associated with a wide variety of adverse health impacts for children, with greater impact on children with asthma. Especially during winter and spring, kindergartens in Oslo that are situated close to streets with busy traffic, or in areas where wood burning is used for house heating, can experience many days with bad air quality. During these periods, updated information on air quality levels can help the kindergarten teachers to plan appropriate outdoor activities and thus protect children's health. We have installed 17 low-cost air quality nodes in kindergartens in Oslo. These nodes are smaller, cheaper and less complex to use than traditional equipment. Performance evaluation shows that while they are less accurate and suffer from higher uncertainty than reference equipment, they still can provide reliable coarse information about local pollution. The main challenge when using this technology is that calibration parameters might change with time depending on the atmospheric conditions. Thus, even if the sensors are calibrated a priori, once deployed, and especially if they are deployed for a long time, it is not possible to determine if a node is over- or under-estimating the concentration levels. To enhance the data from the sensors, we employed a data fusion technique that allows generating a detailed air quality map merging the data from the sensors and the data from an urban model, thus being able to offer air quality information to any location within Oslo. We arranged a focus group with the participation of local administration, kindergarten staff and parents to understand their opinion and needs related to the air quality information that was provided to the participant kindergartens. They expressed concern about the data quality but agree that

  11. Spectral narrowing and spin echo for localized carriers with heavy-tailed L evy distribution of hopping times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Z. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mkhitaryan, Vagharsh [Ames Lab. and Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Raikh, M. E. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-02-02

    We study analytically the free induction decay and the spin echo decay originating from the localized carriers moving between the sites which host random magnetic fields. Due to disorder in the site positions and energies, the on-site residence times, , are widely spread according to the L evy distribution. The power-law tail ∝ τ-1-∝ in the distribution of does not affect the conventional spectral narrowing for α > 2, but leads to a dramatic acceleration of the free induction decay in the domain 2 > α > 1. The next abrupt acceleration of the decay takes place as becomes smaller than 1. In the latter domain the decay does not follow a simple-exponent law. To capture the behavior of the average spin in this domain, we solve the evolution equation for the average spin using the approach different from the conventional approach based on the Laplace transform. Unlike the free induction decay, the tail in the distribution of the residence times leads to the slow decay of the spin echo. The echo is dominated by realizations of the carrier motion for which the number of sites, visited by the carrier, is minimal.

  12. Identifying interactions in the time and frequency domains in local and global networks - A Granger Causality Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Cunlu; Ladroue, Christophe; Guo, Shuixia; Feng, Jianfeng

    2010-06-21

    Reverse-engineering approaches such as Bayesian network inference, ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and information theory are widely applied to deriving causal relationships among different elements such as genes, proteins, metabolites, neurons, brain areas and so on, based upon multi-dimensional spatial and temporal data. There are several well-established reverse-engineering approaches to explore causal relationships in a dynamic network, such as ordinary differential equations (ODE), Bayesian networks, information theory and Granger Causality. Here we focused on Granger causality both in the time and frequency domain and in local and global networks, and applied our approach to experimental data (genes and proteins). For a small gene network, Granger causality outperformed all the other three approaches mentioned above. A global protein network of 812 proteins was reconstructed, using a novel approach. The obtained results fitted well with known experimental findings and predicted many experimentally testable results. In addition to interactions in the time domain, interactions in the frequency domain were also recovered. The results on the proteomic data and gene data confirm that Granger causality is a simple and accurate approach to recover the network structure. Our approach is general and can be easily applied to other types of temporal data.

  13. Identifying interactions in the time and frequency domains in local and global networks - A Granger Causality Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Shuixia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reverse-engineering approaches such as Bayesian network inference, ordinary differential equations (ODEs and information theory are widely applied to deriving causal relationships among different elements such as genes, proteins, metabolites, neurons, brain areas and so on, based upon multi-dimensional spatial and temporal data. There are several well-established reverse-engineering approaches to explore causal relationships in a dynamic network, such as ordinary differential equations (ODE, Bayesian networks, information theory and Granger Causality. Results Here we focused on Granger causality both in the time and frequency domain and in local and global networks, and applied our approach to experimental data (genes and proteins. For a small gene network, Granger causality outperformed all the other three approaches mentioned above. A global protein network of 812 proteins was reconstructed, using a novel approach. The obtained results fitted well with known experimental findings and predicted many experimentally testable results. In addition to interactions in the time domain, interactions in the frequency domain were also recovered. Conclusions The results on the proteomic data and gene data confirm that Granger causality is a simple and accurate approach to recover the network structure. Our approach is general and can be easily applied to other types of temporal data.

  14. Neural-Fuzzy Digital Strategy of Continuous-Time Nonlinear Systems Using Adaptive Prediction and Random-Local-Optimization Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ren Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A tracking problem, time-delay, uncertainty and stability analysis of a predictive control system are considered. The predictive control design is based on the input and output of neural plant model (NPM, and a recursive fuzzy predictive tracker has scaling factors which limit the value zone of measured data and cause the tuned parameters to converge to obtain a robust control performance. To improve the further control performance, the proposed random-local-optimization design (RLO for a model/controller uses offline initialization to obtain a near global optimal model/controller. Other issues are the considerations of modeling error, input-delay, sampling distortion, cost, greater flexibility, and highly reliable digital products of the model-based controller for the continuous-time (CT nonlinear system. They are solved by a recommended two-stage control design with the first-stage (offline RLO and second-stage (online adaptive steps. A theorizing method is then put forward to replace the sensitivity calculation, which reduces the calculation of Jacobin matrices of the back-propagation (BP method. Finally, the feedforward input of reference signals helps the digital fuzzy controller improve the control performance, and the technique works to control the CT systems precisely.

  15. The impact of treatment time and smoking on local control and complications in T1 glottic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voet, Johannes C.M. van der; Keus, Ronald B.; Hart, Augustinus A.M.; Hilgers, Frans J.M.; Bartelink, Harry

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To define the optimal treatment regimen, patients with T1N0M0 glottic larynx carcinoma were treated with six different radiotherapy (RT) schedules. To assess the influence of patient characteristics, complication rates, and to evaluate the overall larynx preservation. Methods and Materials: Out of a consecutive series of 383 patients treated for T1N0M0 glottic larynx carcinoma between 1965 and 1992, 352 evaluable patients were treated with six different 'standard' fractionation schedules: 65 Gy (20 x 3.25 Gy), 62 Gy (20 x 3.1 Gy), 61.6 Gy (22 x 2.8 Gy), 60 Gy (25 x 2.4 Gy), 66 Gy (33 x 2 Gy) and 60 Gy (30 x 2 Gy). The median follow-up of all patients was 89 months. Patient factors analyzed included: age, sex, concurrent illness, smoking habits, tumor localization and extension, tumor differentiation, the effect of tumor biopsy or stripping of the vocal cord, and the presence of visible tumor at the start of radiotherapy. Treatment parameters evaluated were: year of treatment, beam energy, treatment planning, field size, fractionation schedule, fraction size, number of fractions, total dose, treatment time and treatment gap, the use of wedges, and neck diameter. Results: The overall 5-year actuarial locoregional control was 89%, varying between 83 and 93% for the different schedules. Univariately, local control decreased with increasing treatment time. This could not be explained by the confounding variables sex, tumor extension, and field length (p = 0.0065). Adjusted for these variables, 5-year local control percentage decreased from 95% (SE 2%) for 22-29 days to 79% (SE 6%) for treatment time ≥ 40 days. The overall complication rate (grade I-IV) at 5 years was 15.3%, and varied between the different schedules, from 7 to 17%. No relation was found between complications and treatment factors. Patients who continued smoking had a higher complication rate than those who never smoked or stopped smoking, univariately as well as adjusted for tumor extension

  16. Value of overall treatment time on the effect of intensity-modulated radiotherapy for locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Shengfa; Lu Taixiang; Zhao Chong; Han Fei; Xiao Weiwei; Li Jiaxin; Chen Chunyan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prognostic value of overall treatment time (OTT) for locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods: From May 2001 to April 2007, 376 patients with locally advanced NPC treated with IMRT were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were divided into OTT≤45 days group and OTT >45 days group. The treatment outcomes between the two groups were analyzed. Results: Between the groups with OTT≤45 days and OTT > 45 days, the 2-year local control rate (LCR) was 94.9% and 93.1% (χ 2 = 2.83, P > 0.05) for all patients, 96.3% and 98.7% (χ 2 =2.83, P>0.05) for patients with T 3 disease, 92.2% and 83.1%(χ 2 = 6.30, P 4 , and 93.1% and 97.5% (χ 2 = 4.69, P = 0.030) when chemotherapy was concurrently administered.The 2-year LCR was 98%, 96% and 93% (χ 2 = 2.20, P = 0.531) for patients with treatment interruption before, within and after the 3rd week of IMRT, The Cox regression analysis found that OTT was an independent prognostic factor for LCR in T 4 disease.The Linear regression showed that the 2-year LCR was decreased by 2.7% per day of delay. Between the groups with OTT≤45 days and OTT >45 days, the 2-year estimated disease-specific survival (DSS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and overall survival (OS) were 84.1% vs.78.7% (χ 2 = 0.02, P = 0.881), 87.0% vs.86.1% (χ 2 = 0.85, P = 0.358), and 91.7% vs. 92.2% (χ 2 = 0.06, P = 0.806), respectively.The further stratified analysis found that the DSS, DMFS and OS were similar between the two groups in T 3 (83.7% vs. 83.2%, χ 2 =0.07, P=0.798; 86.6% vs. 85.7%, χ 2 =0.02, P = 0.898 ; and 93.7% vs. 94.8%, χ 2 =0.03, P=0.862) and T 4 disease (81.4% vs. 72.3%, χ 2 = 0.16, P = 0.687; 82.6% vs. 86.9%, χ 2 = 1.78, P =0.182; and 88.3% vs. 87.5%, χ 2 =0.60, P =0.438).In multivariate analysis, T-stage and N-stage were the independent prognostic factors for both DFS and OS, and N-stage was the independent prognostic

  17. Detailed Dayside Auroral Morphology as a Function of Local Time for southeast IMF Orientation: Implications for Solar Wind-Magnetosphere Coupling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sandholt, P. E; Farrugia, C. J; Denig, W. F

    2004-01-01

    ...:00 magnetic local time (MLT) and discuss the relationship of this structure to solar wind-magnetosphere interconnection topology and the different stages of evolution of open field lines in the Dungey convection cycle...

  18. Local time dependence of the thermal structure in the Venusian equatorial region revealed by Akatsuki radio occultation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, H.; Fukuhara, T.; Takagi, M.; Imamura, T.; Sugimoto, N.; Sagawa, H.

    2017-12-01

    The radio occultation technique is one of the most useful methods to retrieve vertical temperature profiles in planetary atmospheres. Ultra-Stable Oscillator (USO) onboard Venus Climate Orbiter, Akatsuki, enables us to investigate the thermal structure of the Venus atmosphere between about 40-90 km levels. It is expected that 35 temperature profiles will be obtained by the radio occultation measurements of Akatsuki until August 2017. Static stability derived from the temperature profiles shows its local time dependence above the cloud top level at low-latitudes equatorward of 25˚. The vertical profiles of the static stability in the dawn and dusk regions have maxima at 77 km and 82 km levels, respectively. A general circulation model (GCM) for the Venus atmosphere (AFES-Venus) reproduced the thermal structures above the cloud top qualitatively consistent with the radio occultation measurements; the maxima of the static stability are seen both in the dawn and dusk regions, and the local maximum of the static stability in the dusk region is located at a highler level than in the dawn region. Comparing the thermal structures between the radio occultation measurements and the GCM results, it is suggested that the distribution of the static stability above the cloud top could be strongly affected by the diurnal tide. The thermal tide influences on the thermal structure as well as atmospheric motions above the cloud level. In addition, it is shown that zonally averaged zonal wind at about 80 km altitude could be roughly estimated from the radio occultation measurements using the dispersion relation of the internal gravity wave.

  19. Local Recurrence in Women With Stage I Breast Cancer: Declining Rates Over Time in a Large, Population-Based Cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, Joycelin, E-mail: canavanjoycelin@gmail.com [Radiation Therapy Program and Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, University of British Columbia, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Truong, Pauline T.; Smith, Sally L. [Radiation Therapy Program and Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, University of British Columbia, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Lu, Linghong; Lesperance, Mary [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Olivotto, Ivo A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, University of Calgary (Canada)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether local recurrence (LR) risk has changed over time among women with stage I breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy. Methods and Materials: Subjects were 5974 women aged ≥50 years diagnosis with pT1N0 breast cancer from 1989 to 2006, treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy. Clinicopathologic characteristics, treatment, and LR outcomes were compared among 4 cohorts stratified by year of diagnosis: 1989 to 1993 (n=1077), 1994 to 1998 (n=1633), 1999 to 2002 (n=1622), and 2003 to 2006 (n=1642). Multivariable analysis was performed, with year of diagnosis as a continuous variable. Results: Median follow-up time was 8.6 years. Among patients diagnosed in 1989 to 1993, 1994 to 1998, 1999 to 2002, and 2003 to 2006, the proportions of grade 1 tumors increased (16% vs 29% vs 40% vs 39%, respectively, P<.001). Surgical margin clearance rates increased from 82% to 93% to 95% and 88%, respectively (P<.001). Over time, the proportions of unknown estrogen receptor (ER) status decreased (29% vs 10% vs 1.2% vs 0.5%, respectively, P<.001), whereas ER-positive tumors increased (56% vs 77% vs 86% vs 86%, respectively, P<.001). Hormone therapy use increased (23% vs 23% vs 62% vs 73%, respectively, P<.001), and chemotherapy use increased (2% vs 5% vs 10% vs 13%, respectively, P<.001). The 5-year cumulative incidence rates of LR over the 4 time periods were 2.8% vs 1.7% vs 0.9% vs 0.8%, respectively (Gray's test, P<.001). On competing risk multivariable analysis, year of diagnosis was significantly associated with decreased LR (hazard ratio, 0.92 per year, P=.0003). Relative to grade 1 histology, grades 2, 3, and unknown were associated with increased LR. Hormone therapy use was associated with reduced LR. Conclusion: Significant changes in the multimodality management of stage I breast cancer have occurred over the past 2 decades. More favorable-risk tumors were diagnosed, and margin clearance and systemic therapy use

  20. Local Recurrence in Women With Stage I Breast Cancer: Declining Rates Over Time in a Large, Population-Based Cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canavan, Joycelin; Truong, Pauline T.; Smith, Sally L.; Lu, Linghong; Lesperance, Mary; Olivotto, Ivo A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether local recurrence (LR) risk has changed over time among women with stage I breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy. Methods and Materials: Subjects were 5974 women aged ≥50 years diagnosis with pT1N0 breast cancer from 1989 to 2006, treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy. Clinicopathologic characteristics, treatment, and LR outcomes were compared among 4 cohorts stratified by year of diagnosis: 1989 to 1993 (n=1077), 1994 to 1998 (n=1633), 1999 to 2002 (n=1622), and 2003 to 2006 (n=1642). Multivariable analysis was performed, with year of diagnosis as a continuous variable. Results: Median follow-up time was 8.6 years. Among patients diagnosed in 1989 to 1993, 1994 to 1998, 1999 to 2002, and 2003 to 2006, the proportions of grade 1 tumors increased (16% vs 29% vs 40% vs 39%, respectively, P<.001). Surgical margin clearance rates increased from 82% to 93% to 95% and 88%, respectively (P<.001). Over time, the proportions of unknown estrogen receptor (ER) status decreased (29% vs 10% vs 1.2% vs 0.5%, respectively, P<.001), whereas ER-positive tumors increased (56% vs 77% vs 86% vs 86%, respectively, P<.001). Hormone therapy use increased (23% vs 23% vs 62% vs 73%, respectively, P<.001), and chemotherapy use increased (2% vs 5% vs 10% vs 13%, respectively, P<.001). The 5-year cumulative incidence rates of LR over the 4 time periods were 2.8% vs 1.7% vs 0.9% vs 0.8%, respectively (Gray's test, P<.001). On competing risk multivariable analysis, year of diagnosis was significantly associated with decreased LR (hazard ratio, 0.92 per year, P=.0003). Relative to grade 1 histology, grades 2, 3, and unknown were associated with increased LR. Hormone therapy use was associated with reduced LR. Conclusion: Significant changes in the multimodality management of stage I breast cancer have occurred over the past 2 decades. More favorable-risk tumors were diagnosed, and margin clearance and systemic therapy use

  1. A Microfluidic Chip Based on Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance for Real-Time Monitoring of Antigen-Antibody Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiep, Ha Minh; Nakayama, Tsuyoshi; Saito, Masato; Yamamura, Shohei; Takamura, Yuzuru; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2008-02-01

    Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) connecting to noble metal nanoparticles is an important issue for many analytical and biological applications. Therefore, the development of microfluidic LSPR chip that allows studying biomolecular interactions becomes an essential requirement for micro total analysis systems (µTAS) integration. However, miniaturized process of the conventional surface plasmon resonance system has been faced with some limitations, especially with the usage of Kretschmann configuration in total internal reflection mode. In this study, we have tried to solve this problem by proposing a novel microfluidic LSPR chip operated with a simple collinear optical system. The poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) based microfluidic chip was fabricated by soft-lithography technique and enables to interrogate specific insulin and anti-insulin antibody reaction in real-time after immobilizing antibody on its surface. Moreover, the sensing ability of microfluidic LSPR chip was also evaluated with various glucose concentrations. The kinetic constant of insulin and anti-insulin antibody was determined and the detection limit of 100 ng/mL insulin was archived.

  2. Safe Local Navigation for Visually Impaired Users With a Time-of-Flight and Haptic Feedback Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzschmann, Robert K; Araki, Brandon; Rus, Daniela

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents ALVU (Array of Lidars and Vibrotactile Units), a contactless, intuitive, hands-free, and discreet wearable device that allows visually impaired users to detect low- and high-hanging obstacles, as well as physical boundaries in their immediate environment. The solution allows for safe local navigation in both confined and open spaces by enabling the user to distinguish free space from obstacles. The device presented is composed of two parts: a sensor belt and a haptic strap. The sensor belt is an array of time-of-flight distance sensors worn around the front of a user's waist, and the pulses of infrared light provide reliable and accurate measurements of the distances between the user and surrounding obstacles or surfaces. The haptic strap communicates the measured distances through an array of vibratory motors worn around the user's upper abdomen, providing haptic feedback. The linear vibration motors are combined with a point-loaded pretensioned applicator to transmit isolated vibrations to the user. We validated the device's capability in an extensive user study entailing 162 trials with 12 blind users. Users wearing the device successfully walked through hallways, avoided obstacles, and detected staircases.

  3. Time-dependent opportunities in energy business. A comparative study of locally available renewable and conventional fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolis, Athanasios I.; Rentizelas, Athanasios A.; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P.

    2010-01-01

    This work investigates and compares energy-related, private business strategies, potentially interesting for investors willing to exploit either local biomass sources or strategic conventional fuels. Two distinct fuels and related power-production technologies are compared as a case study, in terms of economic efficiency: the biomass of cotton stalks and the natural gas. The carbon capture and storage option are also investigated for power plants based on both fuel types. The model used in this study investigates important economic aspects using a 'real options' method instead of traditional Discounted Cash Flow techniques, as it might handle in a more effective way the problems arising from the stochastic nature of significant cash flow contributors' evolution like electricity, fuel and CO 2 allowance prices. The capital costs have also a functional relationship with time, thus providing an additional reason for implementing 'real options' as well as the learning-curves technique. The methodology as well as the results presented in this work, may lead to interesting conclusions and affect potential private investment strategies and future decision making. This study indicates that both technologies lead to positive investment yields, with the natural gas being more profitable for the case study examined, while the carbon capture and storage does not seem to be cost efficient with the current CO 2 allowance prices. Furthermore, low interest rates might encourage potential investors to wait before actualising their business plans while higher interest rates favor immediate investment decisions. (author)

  4. Local time, seasonal, and solar cycle dependency of longitudinal variations of TEC along the crest of EIA over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunda, Surendra; Vyas, B. M.

    2013-10-01

    global wave number 4 structure in the Indian longitudinal region spanning from ~70 to 95°E forming the upward slope of the peak in the total electron content (TEC) are reported along the crest of equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA). The continuous and simultaneous measurements from five GPS stations of GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) network are used in this study. The long-term database (2004-2012) is utilized for examining the local time, seasonal, and solar cycle dependency on the longitudinal variations of TEC. Our results confirm the existence of longitudinal variations of TEC in accordance with wave number 4 longitudinal structure including its strength. The results suggest that these variations, in general, start to develop at ~09 LT, achieve maximum strength at 12-15 LT, and decay thereafter, the decay rate depending on the season. They are more pronounced in equinoctial season followed by summer and winter. The longitudinal variations persist beyond midnight in equinox seasons, whereas in winter, they are conspicuously absent. Interestingly, they also exhibit significant solar cycle dependence in the solstices, whereas in the equinoxes, they are independent of solar activity. The comparison of crest-to-trough ratio (CTR) in the eastern (92°E) and western (72°E) extreme longitudes reveals higher CTR on the eastern side than over the western extreme, suggesting the role of nonmigrating tides in modulating the ExB vertical drift and the consequential EIA crest formation.

  5. A Novel Differential Time-of-Arrival Estimation Technique for Impact Localization on Carbon Fiber Laminate Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Marino Merlo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Composite material structures are commonly used in many industrial sectors (aerospace, automotive, transportation, and can operate in harsh environments where impacts with other parts or debris may cause critical safety and functionality issues. This work presents a method for improving the accuracy of impact position determination using acoustic source triangulation schemes based on the data collected by piezoelectric sensors attached to the structure. A novel approach is used to estimate the Differential Time-of-Arrival (DToA between the impact response signals collected by a triplet of sensors, overcoming the limitations of classical methods that rely on amplitude thresholds calibrated for a specific sensor type. An experimental evaluation of the proposed technique was performed with specially made circular piezopolymer (PVDF sensors designed for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM applications, and compared with commercial piezoelectric SHM sensors of similar dimensions. Test impacts at low energies from 35 mJ to 600 mJ were generated in a laboratory by free-falling metal spheres on a 500 mm × 500 mm × 1.25 mm quasi-isotropic Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP laminate plate. From the analysis of many impact signals, the resulting localization error was improved for all types of sensors and, in particular, for the circular PVDF sensor an average error of 20.3 mm and a standard deviation of 8.9 mm was obtained.

  6. Climatology of the Occurrence Rate and Amplitudes of Local Time Distinguished Equatorial Plasma Depletions Observed by Swarm Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xin; Xiong, Chao; Rodriguez-Zuluaga, Juan; Kervalishvili, Guram N.; Stolle, Claudia; Wang, Hui

    2018-04-01

    In this study, we developed an autodetection technique for the equatorial plasma depletions (EPDs) and their occurrence and depletion amplitudes based on in situ electron density measurements gathered by Swarm A satellite. For the first time, comparisons are made among the detected EPDs and their amplitudes with the loss of Global Positioning System (GPS) signal of receivers onboard Swarm A, and the Swarm Level-2 product, Ionospheric Bubble Index (IBI). It has been found that the highest rate of EPD occurrence takes place generally between 2200 and 0000 magnetic local time (MLT), in agreement with the IBI. However, the largest amplitudes of EPD are detected earlier at about 1900-2100 MLT. This coincides with the moment of higher background electron density and the largest occurrence of GPS signal loss. From a longitudinal perspective, the higher depletion amplitude is always witnessed in spatial bins with higher background electron density. At most longitudes, the occurrence rate of postmidnight EPDs is reduced compared to premidnight ones; while more postmidnight EPDs are observed at African longitudes. CHAMP observations confirm this point regardless of high or low solar activity condition. Further by comparing with previous studies and the plasma vertical drift velocity from ROCSAT-1, we suggest that while the F region vertical plasma drift plays a key role in dominating the occurrence of EPDs during premidnight hours, the postmidnight EPDs are the combined results from the continuing of former EPDs and newborn EPDs, especially during June solstice. And these newborn EPDs during postmidnight hours seem to be less related to the plasma vertical drift.

  7. Timing of surgery following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer - A comparison of magnetic resonance imaging at two time points and histopathological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, M A; Dimitrov, B D; Moyses, H E; Kemp, G J; Loughney, L; White, D; Grocott, M P W; Jack, S; Brown, G

    2016-09-01

    There is wide inter-institutional variation in the interval between neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) and surgery for locally advanced rectal cancer. We aimed to assess the association of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 9 and 14 weeks post-NACRT; T-staging (ymrT) and post-NACRT tumour regression grading (ymrTRG) with histopathological outcomes; histopathological T-stage (ypT) and histopathological tumour regression grading (ypTRG) in order to inform decision-making about timing of surgery. We prospectively studied 35 consecutive patients (26 males) with MRI-defined resection margin threatened rectal cancer who had completed standardized NACRT. Patients underwent a MRI at Weeks 9 and 14 post-NACRT, and surgery at Week 15. Two readers independently assessed MRIs for ymrT, ymrTRG and volume change. ymrT and ymrTRG were analysed against histopathological ypT and ypTRG as predictors by logistic regression modelling and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. Thirty-five patients were recruited. Inter-observer agreement was good for all MR variables (Kappa > 0.61). Considering ypT as an outcome variable, a stronger association of favourable ymrTRG and volume change at Week 14 compared to Week 9 was found (ymrTRG - p = 0.064 vs. p = 0.010; Volume change - p = 0.062 vs. p = 0.007). Similarly, considering ypTRG as an outcome variable, a greater association of favourable ymrTRG and volume change at Week 14 compared to Week 9 was found (ymrTRG - p = 0.005 vs. p = 0.042; Volume change - p = 0.004 vs. 0.055). Following NACRT, greater tumour down-staging and volume reduction was observed at Week 14. Timing of surgery, in relation to NACRT, merits further investigation. NCT01325909. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Adaptations to "Thermal Time" Constraints in Papilio: Latitudinal and Local Size Clines Differ in Response to Regional Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriber, J Mark; Elliot, Ben; Maher, Emily; McGuire, Molly; Niblack, Marjie

    2014-01-21

    Adaptations to "thermal time" (=Degree-day) constraints on developmental rates and voltinism for North American tiger swallowtail butterflies involve most life stages, and at higher latitudes include: smaller pupae/adults; larger eggs; oviposition on most nutritious larval host plants; earlier spring adult emergences; faster larval growth and shorter molting durations at lower temperatures. Here we report on forewing sizes through 30 years for both the northern univoltine P. canadensis (with obligate diapause) from the Great Lakes historical hybrid zone northward to central Alaska (65° N latitude), and the multivoltine, P. glaucus from this hybrid zone southward to central Florida (27° N latitude). Despite recent climate warming, no increases in mean forewing lengths of P. glaucus were observed at any major collection location (FL to MI) from the 1980s to 2013 across this long latitudinal transect (which reflects the "converse of Bergmann's size Rule", with smaller females at higher latitudes). Unlike lower latitudes, the Alaska, Ontonogon, and Chippewa/Mackinac locations (for P. canadensis) showed no significant increases in D-day accumulations, which could explain lack of size change in these northernmost locations. As a result of 3-4 decades of empirical data from major collection sites across these latitudinal clines of North America, a general "voltinism/size/D-day" model is presented, which more closely predicts female size based on D-day accumulations, than does latitude. However, local "climatic cold pockets" in northern Michigan and Wisconsin historically appeared to exert especially strong size constraints on female forewing lengths, but forewing lengths quickly increased with local summer warming during the recent decade, especially near the warming edges of the cold pockets. Results of fine-scale analyses of these "cold pockets" are in contrast to non-significant changes for other Papilio populations seen across the latitudinal transect for P. glaucus

  9. Long-time Luminescence Kinetics of Localized excitons and conduction Band Edges Smearing in ZnSe(1-c)Tec Solid Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klochikhin, O.; Ogloblin, S. G.; Permogorov, S.

    2000-01-01

    It is shown that the integrated luminescence intensity of localized excitons in solid solutions ZnSe(1 - c)Tec has a component slowly decaying with time. After the excitation above the mobility threshold, the long-time intensity decreases exponentially, with a fractional exponent changing from...

  10. Changes in histopathology and cytokeratin AE1/AE3 expression in skin graft with different time on Indonesian local cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin; Etriwati; Gunanti; Handharyani, Ekowati; Noviana, Deni

    2017-06-01

    A good skin graft histopathology is followed by formation of hair follicle, sweat gland, sebaceous gland, blood vessel, lightly dense connective tissue, epidermis, and dermis layer. This research aimed to observe histopathology feature and cytokeratin AE1/AE3 expression on cat skin post skin grafting within a different period of time. Nine male Indonesian local cats aged 1-2 years old weighing 3-4 kg were separated into three groups. First surgery created defect wound of 2 cm × 2 cm in size to whole groups. The wounds were left alone for several days, differing in interval between each group, respectively: Group I (for 2 days), Group II (for 4 days), and Group III (for 6 days). The second surgery was done to each group which harvested skin of thoracic area and applied it on recipient wound bed. On day 24 th post skin graft was an examination of histopathology and cytokeratin AE1/AE3 immunohistochemistry. Group I donor skin's epidermis layer had not formed completely whereas epidermis of donor skin of Groups II and III had completely formed. In all group hair follicle, sweat gland, sebaceous gland, and neovascularization were found. The density of connective tissue in Group I was very solid than other groups. Cytokeratin AE1/AE3 expression was found on donor skin's epithelial cell in epidermis and dermis layer with very brown intensity for Group II, brown intensity for Group II, and lightly brown for Group I. Histopathological structure and cytokeratin AE1/AE3 expression post skin graft are better in Groups II and III compared to Group I.

  11. Real-time DNA barcoding in a rainforest using nanopore sequencing: opportunities for rapid biodiversity assessments and local capacity building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Aaron; Peñafiel, Nicolás; Arteaga, Alejandro; Bustamante, Lucas; Pichardo, Frank; Coloma, Luis A; Barrio-Amorós, César L; Salazar-Valenzuela, David; Prost, Stefan

    2018-04-01

    Advancements in portable scientific instruments provide promising avenues to expedite field work in order to understand the diverse array of organisms that inhabit our planet. Here, we tested the feasibility for in situ molecular analyses of endemic fauna using a portable laboratory fitting within a single backpack in one of the world's most imperiled biodiversity hotspots, the Ecuadorian Chocó rainforest. We used portable equipment, including the MinION nanopore sequencer (Oxford Nanopore Technologies) and the miniPCR (miniPCR), to perform DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction amplification, and real-time DNA barcoding of reptile specimens in the field. We demonstrate that nanopore sequencing can be implemented in a remote tropical forest to quickly and accurately identify species using DNA barcoding, as we generated consensus sequences for species resolution with an accuracy of >99% in less than 24 hours after collecting specimens. The flexibility of our mobile laboratory further allowed us to generate sequence information at the Universidad Tecnológica Indoamérica in Quito for rare, endangered, and undescribed species. This includes the recently rediscovered Jambato toad, which was thought to be extinct for 28 years. Sequences generated on the MinION required as few as 30 reads to achieve high accuracy relative to Sanger sequencing, and with further multiplexing of samples, nanopore sequencing can become a cost-effective approach for rapid and portable DNA barcoding. Overall, we establish how mobile laboratories and nanopore sequencing can help to accelerate species identification in remote areas to aid in conservation efforts and be applied to research facilities in developing countries. This opens up possibilities for biodiversity studies by promoting local research capacity building, teaching nonspecialists and students about the environment, tackling wildlife crime, and promoting conservation via research-focused ecotourism.

  12. Developing a local least-squares support vector machines-based neuro-fuzzy model for nonlinear and chaotic time series prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranian, A; Abdollahzade, M

    2013-02-01

    Local modeling approaches, owing to their ability to model different operating regimes of nonlinear systems and processes by independent local models, seem appealing for modeling, identification, and prediction applications. In this paper, we propose a local neuro-fuzzy (LNF) approach based on the least-squares support vector machines (LSSVMs). The proposed LNF approach employs LSSVMs, which are powerful in modeling and predicting time series, as local models and uses hierarchical binary tree (HBT) learning algorithm for fast and efficient estimation of its parameters. The HBT algorithm heuristically partitions the input space into smaller subdomains by axis-orthogonal splits. In each partitioning, the validity functions automatically form a unity partition and therefore normalization side effects, e.g., reactivation, are prevented. Integration of LSSVMs into the LNF network as local models, along with the HBT learning algorithm, yield a high-performance approach for modeling and prediction of complex nonlinear time series. The proposed approach is applied to modeling and predictions of different nonlinear and chaotic real-world and hand-designed systems and time series. Analysis of the prediction results and comparisons with recent and old studies demonstrate the promising performance of the proposed LNF approach with the HBT learning algorithm for modeling and prediction of nonlinear and chaotic systems and time series.

  13. WE-G-17A-05: Real-Time Catheter Localization Using An Active MR Tracker for Interstitial Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W; Damato, A; Viswanathan, A; Cormack, R [Dana Farber Cancer Institute / Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Penzkofer, T; Schmidt, E [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Pan, L; Gilson, W [Siemens Corporation, Corporate Technology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Seethamraju, R [Siemens Healthcare, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a novel active MR-tracking system which can provide accurate and rapid localization of brachytherapy catheters, and assess its reliability and spatial accuracy in comparison to standard catheter digitization using MR images. Methods: An active MR tracker for brachytherapy was constructed by adding three printed-circuit micro-coils to the shaft of a commercial metallic stylet. A gel phantom with an embedded framework was built, into which fifteen 14-Gauge catheters were placed, following either with parallel or crossed paths. The tracker was inserted sequentially into each catheter, with MR-tracking running continuously. Tracking was also performed during the tracker's removal from each catheter. Catheter trajectories measured from the insertion and the removal procedures using the same micro-coil were compared, as well as trajectories obtained using different micro-coils. A 3D high-resolution MR image dataset of the phantom was acquired and imported into a treatment planning system (TPS) for catheter digitization. A comparison between MR-tracked positions and positions digitized from MR images by TPS was performed. Results: The MR tracking shows good consistency for varying catheter paths and for all micro-coils (mean difference ∼1.1 mm). The average distance between the MR-tracking trajectory and catheter digitization from the MR images was 1.1 mm. Ambiguity in catheter assignment from images due to crossed paths was resolved by active tracking. When tracking was interleaved with imaging, real-time images were continuously acquired at the instantaneous tip positions and displayed on an external workstation. Conclusion: The active MR tracker may be used to provide an independent measurement of catheter location in the MR environment, potentially eliminating the need for subsequent CT. It may also be used to control realtime imaging of catheter placement. This will enable MR-based brachytherapy planning of interstitial implants without

  14. WE-G-17A-05: Real-Time Catheter Localization Using An Active MR Tracker for Interstitial Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W; Damato, A; Viswanathan, A; Cormack, R; Penzkofer, T; Schmidt, E; Pan, L; Gilson, W; Seethamraju, R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a novel active MR-tracking system which can provide accurate and rapid localization of brachytherapy catheters, and assess its reliability and spatial accuracy in comparison to standard catheter digitization using MR images. Methods: An active MR tracker for brachytherapy was constructed by adding three printed-circuit micro-coils to the shaft of a commercial metallic stylet. A gel phantom with an embedded framework was built, into which fifteen 14-Gauge catheters were placed, following either with parallel or crossed paths. The tracker was inserted sequentially into each catheter, with MR-tracking running continuously. Tracking was also performed during the tracker's removal from each catheter. Catheter trajectories measured from the insertion and the removal procedures using the same micro-coil were compared, as well as trajectories obtained using different micro-coils. A 3D high-resolution MR image dataset of the phantom was acquired and imported into a treatment planning system (TPS) for catheter digitization. A comparison between MR-tracked positions and positions digitized from MR images by TPS was performed. Results: The MR tracking shows good consistency for varying catheter paths and for all micro-coils (mean difference ∼1.1 mm). The average distance between the MR-tracking trajectory and catheter digitization from the MR images was 1.1 mm. Ambiguity in catheter assignment from images due to crossed paths was resolved by active tracking. When tracking was interleaved with imaging, real-time images were continuously acquired at the instantaneous tip positions and displayed on an external workstation. Conclusion: The active MR tracker may be used to provide an independent measurement of catheter location in the MR environment, potentially eliminating the need for subsequent CT. It may also be used to control realtime imaging of catheter placement. This will enable MR-based brachytherapy planning of interstitial implants without

  15. Classification of hydromagnetic emissions based on frequency--time spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunishi, H.; Toya, T.; Koike, K.; Kuwashima, M.; Kawamura, M.

    1981-01-01

    By using 3035 hydromagnetic emission events observed in the frequency range of 0.1--2.0 Hz at Syowa (Lapprox.6), HM emissions have been classified into eight subtypes based on their spectral structures, i.e., HM whistler, periodic HM emission, HM chorus, HM emission burst, IPDP, morning IPDP, Pc 1--2 band, and irregular HM emission. It is seen that each subtype has a preferential magnetic local time interval and also a frequency range for its occurrence. Morning IPDP events and irregular HM emissions occur in the magnetic morning hours, while dispersive periodic HM emissions and HM emission bursts occur around magnetic local noon, then HM chorus emissions occur in the afternoon hours and IPDP events occur in the evening hours. Furthermore, it is noticed that the mid-frequencies of these emissions vary from high frequencies in the morning hours to low frequencies in the afternoon hours. On the basis of these results, the generation mechanisms of each subtype are discussed

  16. Influence of Time-Series Normalization, Number of Nodes, Connectivity and Graph Measure Selection on Seizure-Onset Zone Localization from Intracranial EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mierlo, Pieter; Lie, Octavian; Staljanssens, Willeke; Coito, Ana; Vulliémoz, Serge

    2018-04-26

    We investigated the influence of processing steps in the estimation of multivariate directed functional connectivity during seizures recorded with intracranial EEG (iEEG) on seizure-onset zone (SOZ) localization. We studied the effect of (i) the number of nodes, (ii) time-series normalization, (iii) the choice of multivariate time-varying connectivity measure: Adaptive Directed Transfer Function (ADTF) or Adaptive Partial Directed Coherence (APDC) and (iv) graph theory measure: outdegree or shortest path length. First, simulations were performed to quantify the influence of the various processing steps on the accuracy to localize the SOZ. Afterwards, the SOZ was estimated from a 113-electrodes iEEG seizure recording and compared with the resection that rendered the patient seizure-free. The simulations revealed that ADTF is preferred over APDC to localize the SOZ from ictal iEEG recordings. Normalizing the time series before analysis resulted in an increase of 25-35% of correctly localized SOZ, while adding more nodes to the connectivity analysis led to a moderate decrease of 10%, when comparing 128 with 32 input nodes. The real-seizure connectivity estimates localized the SOZ inside the resection area using the ADTF coupled to outdegree or shortest path length. Our study showed that normalizing the time-series is an important pre-processing step, while adding nodes to the analysis did only marginally affect the SOZ localization. The study shows that directed multivariate Granger-based connectivity analysis is feasible with many input nodes (> 100) and that normalization of the time-series before connectivity analysis is preferred.

  17. A Hidden Markov Model Approach for Simultaneously Estimating Local Ancestry and Admixture Time Using Next Generation Sequence Data in Samples of Arbitrary Ploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett-Detig, Russell; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Admixture-the mixing of genomes from divergent populations-is increasingly appreciated as a central process in evolution. To characterize and quantify patterns of admixture across the genome, a number of methods have been developed for local ancestry inference. However, existing approaches have a number of shortcomings. First, all local ancestry inference methods require some prior assumption about the expected ancestry tract lengths. Second, existing methods generally require genotypes, which is not feasible to obtain for many next-generation sequencing projects. Third, many methods assume samples are diploid, however a wide variety of sequencing applications will fail to meet this assumption. To address these issues, we introduce a novel hidden Markov model for estimating local ancestry that models the read pileup data, rather than genotypes, is generalized to arbitrary ploidy, and can estimate the time since admixture during local ancestry inference. We demonstrate that our method can simultaneously estimate the time since admixture and local ancestry with good accuracy, and that it performs well on samples of high ploidy-i.e. 100 or more chromosomes. As this method is very general, we expect it will be useful for local ancestry inference in a wider variety of populations than what previously has been possible. We then applied our method to pooled sequencing data derived from populations of Drosophila melanogaster on an ancestry cline on the east coast of North America. We find that regions of local recombination rates are negatively correlated with the proportion of African ancestry, suggesting that selection against foreign ancestry is the least efficient in low recombination regions. Finally we show that clinal outlier loci are enriched for genes associated with gene regulatory functions, consistent with a role of regulatory evolution in ecological adaptation of admixed D. melanogaster populations. Our results illustrate the potential of local ancestry

  18. "Time Flies in California": Multiliteracies Bridging Local Diversity and Global Connectedness through a "Reggio"-Inspired Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesterman, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    A pedagogy of multiliteracies is based on the theoretical perspective that in order to find our way around our mass media, multimedia and electronic hypermedia communication environments and accommodate the realities of increasing local diversity and global connectedness, a broadened definition of literacy is required. New ways of making sense of…

  19. Statistical significance approximation in local trend analysis of high-throughput time-series data using the theory of Markov chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Li C; Ai, Dongmei; Cram, Jacob A; Liang, Xiaoyi; Fuhrman, Jed A; Sun, Fengzhu

    2015-09-21

    Local trend (i.e. shape) analysis of time series data reveals co-changing patterns in dynamics of biological systems. However, slow permutation procedures to evaluate the statistical significance of local trend scores have limited its applications to high-throughput time series data analysis, e.g., data from the next generation sequencing technology based studies. By extending the theories for the tail probability of the range of sum of Markovian random variables, we propose formulae for approximating the statistical significance of local trend scores. Using simulations and real data, we show that the approximate p-value is close to that obtained using a large number of permutations (starting at time points >20 with no delay and >30 with delay of at most three time steps) in that the non-zero decimals of the p-values obtained by the approximation and the permutations are mostly the same when the approximate p-value is less than 0.05. In addition, the approximate p-value is slightly larger than that based on permutations making hypothesis testing based on the approximate p-value conservative. The approximation enables efficient calculation of p-values for pairwise local trend analysis, making large scale all-versus-all comparisons possible. We also propose a hybrid approach by integrating the approximation and permutations to obtain accurate p-values for significantly associated pairs. We further demonstrate its use with the analysis of the Polymouth Marine Laboratory (PML) microbial community time series from high-throughput sequencing data and found interesting organism co-occurrence dynamic patterns. The software tool is integrated into the eLSA software package that now provides accelerated local trend and similarity analysis pipelines for time series data. The package is freely available from the eLSA website: http://bitbucket.org/charade/elsa.

  20. Localization and (semi-)quantification of fluorescent beads of 2 sizes in chickens over time after simultaneous intratracheal and cloacal administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghof, T.V.L.; Lai, T.L.H.; Lammers, A.; Vries Reilingh, de G.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Parmentier, H.K.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental particles enter the chicken via several routes. Entry via the respiratory and cloacal routes likely activates immune responses. We studied the localization of simultaneous intratracheally and cloacally applied beads of 2 sizes in the chicken body in time, and when possible,

  1. Restructuration de l’appareil productif local, articulations spatio-temporelles, identité et capacité collective d’agir Restructuring the local system of production, articulating time-and-space, identities and the collective ability to act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Garnier

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available La restructuration industrielle du Bassin minier de Provence est une transition complexe au cours de laquelle, pendant 25 ans, ont coexisté et interagi deux systèmes spatio-temporels respectivement associés à l’ancien appareil productif minier en déclin et au nouvel appareil productif de micro-électronique en expansion. Depuis longtemps soumise et stabilisée dans la continuité, la durée, les rythmes et les isochronies du temps industriel dominant associé à l’appareil minier, la société locale tend à se segmenter et se désintégrer désormais selon des discordances temporelles et spatiales nombreuses fortement associées aux stratégies et aux formes organisationnelles de l’appareil productif de micro-électronique. En analysant quelques-uns des effets de la coexistence et de la tension entre les deux systèmes spatio-temporels, l’article débouche sur une autre tension : celle qui s’instaure entre l’efficacité économique collective, l’identité sociale locale et la capacité collective à agir localement.The industrial restructuring of the Provence mining country (France represents a complex transition during which two time-and-space systems have coexisted and interacted for 25 years, the first being associated with the declining mining industry, the second with the new and expanding micro-electronics industry. For many years, dominated by the mine, local society remained stable and integrated according to the old industry’s continuity, rhythm and time, whereas now, it is on its way to fragmentation, destabilization and disintegration as discontinuity, short duration, erratic processes and the variety of time-and-space associated with micro-electronics take over. By analyzing some of the effects of the coexistence and tensions between the two systems, we discover in fact another source of tension, the one that exists between a local economic efficiency, a local social identity and a local collective ability to

  2. First time observation of local current shrinkage during the MARFE behavior on the J-TEXT tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peng; Zhuang, G.; Gentle, K.; Hu, Qiming; Chen, Jie; Li, Qiang; Liu, Yang; Gao, Li; Zhang, Xiaolong; Liu, Hai; Chen, Zhipeng; Zhu, Lizhi; Li, Fuming; Zhou, Yinan; Zeng, Zhong; Liu, Linzi; He, Jiyang

    2017-11-01

    Multifaceted asymmetric radiation as well as strong poloidal asymmetry of the electron density from the edge, dubbed as ‘MARFE’, has been observed in high electron density Ohmically heated plasmas on J-TEXT tokamak. Equilibrium reconstruction based on the measured data from the 17-channel FIR polarimeter-interferometer indicates that an asymmetric plasma current density distribution forms at the edge region and the plasma current shrinkage locates at the MARFE affected region. Furthermore, associated with the localized plasma current shrinkage, a locked mode MHD activity is excited, which then terminate the discharge with a major disruption. Localized plasma current shrinkage at the MARFE region is considered to be the direct cause for the density limit disruptions, and the proposed interpretation is consistent with the experimental observations.

  3. Love in the Time of Diaspora. Global Markets and Local Meanings in Prostitution, Marriage and Womanhood in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Kummels

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interrelations between the circulation of images concerning race and gender in the context of global hierarchies and new local forms and meanings of partnership and prostitution in Cuba have not been adequately understood until now. This is due to the image of a “sudden” revival of prostitution, after it had allegedly been eradicated in socialist Cuba. Exploring prostitution, marriage and womanhood in Havana from a historical perspective and examining jineterismo as part of the local ‘informal’ economy, this article demonstrates how these institutions were modified in a global context long before the 1990s. In the transcultural relations between foreigners and locals, models of womanhood, partnership and love were not merely ‘given’ by the social structure in the context of a globalized modernity. Instead they were to a large extent influenced by ideas concerning gender, race and morality, created and negotiated by agents as they interacted, Cuban women having resorted to these ideas and related institutions as arenas of empowerment.

  4. Characterizing Methane Emissions at Local Scales with a 20 Year Total Hydrocarbon Time Series, Imaging Spectrometry, and Web Facilitated Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Eliza Swan

    Methane is an important greenhouse gas for which uncertainty in local emission strengths necessitates improved source characterizations. Although CH4 plume mapping did not motivate the NASA Airborne Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) design and municipal air quality monitoring stations were not intended for studying marine geological seepage, these assets have capabilities that can make them viable for studying concentrated (high flux, highly heterogeneous) CH4 sources, such as the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field (˜0.015 Tg CH4 yr-1) offshore Santa Barbara, California. Hourly total hydrocarbon (THC) data, spanning 1990 to 2008 from an air pollution station located near COP, were analyzed and showed geologic CH4 emissions as the dominant local source. A band ratio approach was developed and applied to high glint AVIRIS data over COP, resulting in local-scale mapping of natural atmospheric CH4 plumes. A Cluster-Tuned Matched Filter (CTMF) technique was applied to Gulf of Mexico AVIRIS data to detect CH4 venting from offshore platforms. Review of 744 platform-centered CTMF subsets was facilitated through a flexible PHP-based web portal. This dissertation demonstrates the value of investigating municipal air quality data and imaging spectrometry for gathering insight into concentrated methane source emissions and highlights how flexible web-based solutions can help facilitate remote sensing research.

  5. SU-G-JeP1-01: A Combination of Real Time Electromagnetic Localization and Tracking with Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidhar, K Raja; Pangam, Suresh; Ponaganti, Srinivas; Krishna, Jayarama; Sujana, Kolla V; Komanduri, Priya K

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: 1. online verification of patient position during treatment using calypso electromagnetic localization and tracking system. 2. Verification and comparison of positional accuracy between cone beam computed tomography and calypso system. 3. Presenting the advantage of continuation localization in Stereotactic radiosurgery treatments. Methods: Ten brain tumor cases were taken for this study. Patients with head mask were under gone Computed Tomography (CT). Before scanning, mask was cut on the fore head area to keep surface beacons on the skin. Slice thickness of 0.65 mm were taken for this study. x, y, z coordinates of these beacons in TPS were entered into tracking station. Varian True Beam accelerator, equipped with On Board Imager was used to take Cone beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) to localize the patient. Simultaneously Surface beacons were used to localize and track the patient throughout the treatment. The localization values were compared in both systems. For localization CBCT considered as reference. Tracking was done throughout the treatment using Calypso tracking system using electromagnetic array. This array was in tracking position during imaging and treatment. Flattening Filter free beams of 6MV photons along with Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy was used for the treatment. The patient movement was observed throughout the treatment ranging from 2 min to 4 min. Results: The average variation observed between calypso system and CBCT localization was less than 0.5 mm. These variations were due to manual errors while keeping beacon on the patient. Less than 0.05 cm intra-fraction motion was observed throughout the treatment with the help of continuous tracking. Conclusion: Calypso target localization system is one of the finest tools to perform radiosurgery in combination with CBCT. This non radiographic method of tracking is a real beneficial method to treat patients confidently while observing real-time motion information of the patient.

  6. SU-G-JeP1-01: A Combination of Real Time Electromagnetic Localization and Tracking with Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Brain Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidhar, K Raja; Pangam, Suresh; Ponaganti, Srinivas; Krishna, Jayarama; Sujana, Kolla V; Komanduri, Priya K [American Oncology Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana (India)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: 1. online verification of patient position during treatment using calypso electromagnetic localization and tracking system. 2. Verification and comparison of positional accuracy between cone beam computed tomography and calypso system. 3. Presenting the advantage of continuation localization in Stereotactic radiosurgery treatments. Methods: Ten brain tumor cases were taken for this study. Patients with head mask were under gone Computed Tomography (CT). Before scanning, mask was cut on the fore head area to keep surface beacons on the skin. Slice thickness of 0.65 mm were taken for this study. x, y, z coordinates of these beacons in TPS were entered into tracking station. Varian True Beam accelerator, equipped with On Board Imager was used to take Cone beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) to localize the patient. Simultaneously Surface beacons were used to localize and track the patient throughout the treatment. The localization values were compared in both systems. For localization CBCT considered as reference. Tracking was done throughout the treatment using Calypso tracking system using electromagnetic array. This array was in tracking position during imaging and treatment. Flattening Filter free beams of 6MV photons along with Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy was used for the treatment. The patient movement was observed throughout the treatment ranging from 2 min to 4 min. Results: The average variation observed between calypso system and CBCT localization was less than 0.5 mm. These variations were due to manual errors while keeping beacon on the patient. Less than 0.05 cm intra-fraction motion was observed throughout the treatment with the help of continuous tracking. Conclusion: Calypso target localization system is one of the finest tools to perform radiosurgery in combination with CBCT. This non radiographic method of tracking is a real beneficial method to treat patients confidently while observing real-time motion information of the patient.

  7. An Improved Approach for RSSI-Based only Calibration-Free Real-Time Indoor Localization on IEEE 802.11 and 802.15.4 Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Passafiume

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Assuming a reliable and responsive spatial contextualization service is a must-have in IEEE 802.11 and 802.15.4 wireless networks, a suitable approach consists of the implementation of localization capabilities, as an additional application layer to the communication protocol stack. Considering the applicative scenario where satellite-based positioning applications are denied, such as indoor environments, and excluding data packet arrivals time measurements due to lack of time resolution, received signal strength indicator (RSSI measurements, obtained according to IEEE 802.11 and 802.15.4 data access technologies, are the unique data sources suitable for indoor geo-referencing using COTS devices. In the existing literature, many RSSI based localization systems are introduced and experimentally validated, nevertheless they require periodic calibrations and significant information fusion from different sensors that dramatically decrease overall systems reliability and their effective availability. This motivates the work presented in this paper, which introduces an approach for an RSSI-based calibration-free and real-time indoor localization. While switched-beam array-based hardware (compliant with IEEE 802.15.4 router functionality has already been presented by the author, the focus of this paper is the creation of an algorithmic layer for use with the pre-existing hardware capable to enable full localization and data contextualization over a standard 802.15.4 wireless sensor network using only RSSI information without the need of lengthy offline calibration phase. System validation reports the localization results in a typical indoor site, where the system has shown high accuracy, leading to a sub-metrical overall mean error and an almost 100% site coverage within 1 m localization error.

  8. An Improved Approach for RSSI-Based only Calibration-Free Real-Time Indoor Localization on IEEE 802.11 and 802.15.4 Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passafiume, Marco; Maddio, Stefano; Cidronali, Alessandro

    2017-03-29

    Assuming a reliable and responsive spatial contextualization service is a must-have in IEEE 802.11 and 802.15.4 wireless networks, a suitable approach consists of the implementation of localization capabilities, as an additional application layer to the communication protocol stack. Considering the applicative scenario where satellite-based positioning applications are denied, such as indoor environments, and excluding data packet arrivals time measurements due to lack of time resolution, received signal strength indicator (RSSI) measurements, obtained according to IEEE 802.11 and 802.15.4 data access technologies, are the unique data sources suitable for indoor geo-referencing using COTS devices. In the existing literature, many RSSI based localization systems are introduced and experimentally validated, nevertheless they require periodic calibrations and significant information fusion from different sensors that dramatically decrease overall systems reliability and their effective availability. This motivates the work presented in this paper, which introduces an approach for an RSSI-based calibration-free and real-time indoor localization. While switched-beam array-based hardware (compliant with IEEE 802.15.4 router functionality) has already been presented by the author, the focus of this paper is the creation of an algorithmic layer for use with the pre-existing hardware capable to enable full localization and data contextualization over a standard 802.15.4 wireless sensor network using only RSSI information without the need of lengthy offline calibration phase. System validation reports the localization results in a typical indoor site, where the system has shown high accuracy, leading to a sub-metrical overall mean error and an almost 100% site coverage within 1 m localization error.

  9. Time resolved X-ray micro-diffraction measurements of the dynamic local layer response to electric field in antiferroelectric liquid crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Yumiko; Iida, Atuso E-mail: atsuo.iida@kek.jp; Takanishi, Yoichi; Ogasawara, Toyokazu; Takezoe, Hideo

    2001-07-21

    The time-resolved synchrotron X-ray microbeam diffraction experiment has been carried out to reveal the local layer response to the electric field in the antiferroelectric liquid crystal. The X-ray microbeam of a few {mu}m spatial resolution was obtained with Kirkpatrick-Baez optics. The time-resolved small angle diffraction experiment was performed with a time resolution ranging from 10 {mu}s to a few ms. The reversible local layer change between the horizontal chevron and the quasi-bookshelf structure was confirmed by the triangular wave form. The transient layer response for the step form electric field was observed. The layer response closely related with an electric field induced antiferroelectric to ferroelectric phase transition.

  10. Time resolved X-ray micro-diffraction measurements of the dynamic local layer response to electric field in antiferroelectric liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yumiko; Iida, Atuso; Takanishi, Yoichi; Ogasawara, Toyokazu; Takezoe, Hideo

    2001-01-01

    The time-resolved synchrotron X-ray microbeam diffraction experiment has been carried out to reveal the local layer response to the electric field in the antiferroelectric liquid crystal. The X-ray microbeam of a few μm spatial resolution was obtained with Kirkpatrick-Baez optics. The time-resolved small angle diffraction experiment was performed with a time resolution ranging from 10 μs to a few ms. The reversible local layer change between the horizontal chevron and the quasi-bookshelf structure was confirmed by the triangular wave form. The transient layer response for the step form electric field was observed. The layer response closely related with an electric field induced antiferroelectric to ferroelectric phase transition

  11. The progenitors of local ultra-massive galaxies across cosmic time: from dusty star-bursting to quiescent stellar populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesini, Danilo; Marsan, Cemile Z. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Muzzin, Adam; Franx, Marijn [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Stefanon, Mauro [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Brammer, Gabriel G. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Vulcani, Benedetta [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8582 (Japan); Fynbo, J. P. U.; Milvang-Jensen, Bo [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Dunlop, James S.; Buitrago, Fernando [SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-10

    Using the UltraVISTA catalogs, we investigate the evolution in the 11.4 Gyr since z = 3 of the progenitors of local ultra-massive galaxies (log (M {sub star}/M {sub ☉}) ≈ 11.8; UMGs), providing a complete and consistent picture of how the most massive galaxies at z = 0 have assembled. By selecting the progenitors with a semi-empirical approach using abundance matching, we infer a growth in stellar mass of 0.56{sub −0.25}{sup +0.35} dex, 0.45{sub −0.20}{sup +0.16} dex, and 0.27{sub −0.12}{sup +0.08} dex from z = 3, z = 2, and z = 1, respectively, to z = 0. At z < 1, the progenitors of UMGs constitute a homogeneous population of only quiescent galaxies with old stellar populations. At z > 1, the contribution from star-forming galaxies progressively increases, with the progenitors at 2 < z < 3 being dominated by massive (M {sub star} ≈ 2 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}), dusty (A {sub V} ∼ 1-2.2 mag), star-forming (SFR ∼ 100-400 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) galaxies with a large range in stellar ages. At z = 2.75, ∼15% of the progenitors are quiescent, with properties typical of post-starburst galaxies with little dust extinction and strong Balmer break, and showing a large scatter in color. Our findings indicate that at least half of the stellar content of local UMGs was assembled at z > 1, whereas the remaining was assembled via merging from z ∼ 1 to the present. Most of the quenching of the star-forming progenitors happened between z = 2.75 and z = 1.25, in good agreement with the typical formation redshift and scatter in age of z = 0 UMGs as derived from their fossil records. The progenitors of local UMGs, including the star-forming ones, never lived on the blue cloud since z = 3. We propose an alternative path for the formation of local UMGs that refines previously proposed pictures and that is fully consistent with our findings.

  12. Towards a Synesthesia Laboratory: Real-time Localization and Visualization of a Sound Source for Virtual Reality Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kose, Ahmet; Tepljakov, Aleksei; Astapov, Sergei; Draheim, Dirk; Petlenkov, Eduard; Vassiljeva, Kristina

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present our findings related to the problem of localization and visualization of a sound source placed in the same room as the listener. The particular effect that we aim to investigate is called synesthesia—the act of experiencing one sense modality as another, e.g., a person may vividly experience flashes of colors when listening to a series of sounds. Towards that end, we apply a series of recently developed methods for detecting sound source in a three-dimensional space ...

  13. The prothrombin time/international normalised ratio (PT/INR) line: derivation of local INR with commercial thromboplastins and coagulometers – two independent studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poller, Leon; Ibrahim, S.; Keown, M.

    2011-01-01

    reagents, and from 7.0% to 2.6% with rabbit reagents. In the second study, deviation was reduced from 11.2% to 0.4% with human reagents by both local ISI calibration and the PT/INR Line. With rabbit reagents, 10.4% deviation was reduced to 1.1% with both procedures; 4.9% deviation was reduced to 0.5......Background: The WHO scheme for prothrombin time (PT) standardization has been limited in application, because of its difficulties in implementation, particularly the need for mandatory manual PT testing and for local provision of thromboplastin international reference preparations (IRP). Methods...... thromboplastins and coagulometers. INRs were compared with manual certified values with thromboplastin IRP from expert centres and in the second study also with INRs from local ISI calibrations. Results: In the first study with the PT/INR Line, 8.7% deviation from certified INRs was reduced to 1.1% with human...

  14. Foehn-induced effects on local dust pollution, frontal clouds and solar radiation in the Dead Sea valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishcha, Pavel; Starobinets, Boris; Savir, Amit; Alpert, Pinhas; Kaplan, Michael

    2018-06-01

    Despite the long history of investigation of foehn phenomena, there are few studies of the influence of foehn winds on air pollution and none in the Dead Sea valley. For the first time the foehn phenomenon and its effects on local dust pollution, frontal cloudiness and surface solar radiation were analyzed in the Dead Sea valley, as it occurred on 22 March 2013. This was carried out using both numerical simulations and observations. The foehn winds intensified local dust emissions, while the foehn-induced temperature inversion trapped dust particles beneath this inversion. These two factors caused extreme surface dust concentration in the western Dead Sea valley. The dust pollution was transported by west winds eastward, to the central Dead Sea valley, where the speed of these winds sharply decreased. The transported dust was captured by the ascending airflow contributing to the maximum aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the central Dead Sea valley. On the day under study, the maximum surface dust concentration did not coincide with the maximum AOD: this being one of the specific effects of the foehn phenomenon on dust pollution in the Dead Sea valley. Radar data showed a passage of frontal cloudiness through the area of the Dead Sea valley leading to a sharp drop in noon solar radiation. The descending airflow over the downwind side of the Judean Mountains led to the formation of a cloud-free band followed by only the partial recovery of solar radiation because of the extreme dust pollution caused by foehn winds.

  15. Fatigue life evaluation of 42CrMo4 nitrided steel by local approach: Equivalent strain-life-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terres, Mohamed Ali; Sidhom, Habib

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → Ion nitriding treatment of 42CrMo4 steel improves their fatigue strength by 32% as compared with the untreated state. → This improvement is the result of the beneficial effects of the superficial work- hardening and of the stabilized compressive residual stress. → The notch region is found to be the fatigue crack nucleation site resulting from a stress concentration (Kt = 1.6). → The local equivalent strain-fatigue life method was found to be an interesting predictive fatigue life method for nitrided parts. -- Abstract: In this paper, the fatigue resistance of 42CrMo4 steel in his untreated and nitrided state was evaluated, using both experimental and numerical approaches. The experimental assessment was conducted using three points fatigue flexion tests on notched specimens at R = 0.1. Microstructure analysis, micro-Vickers hardness test, and scanning electron microscope observation were carried out for evaluating experiments. In results, the fatigue cracks of nitrided specimens were initiated at the surface. The fatigue life of nitrided specimens was prolonged compared to that of the untreated. The numerical method used in this study to predict the nucleation fatigue life was developed on the basis of a local approach, which took into account the applied stresses and stabilized residual stresses during the cyclic loading and the low cyclic fatigue characteristics. The propagation fatigue life was calculated using fracture mechanics concepts. It was found that the numerical results were well correlated with the experimental ones.

  16. A novel local recycling mechanism that enhances enteric bioavailability of flavonoids and prolongs their residence time in the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bijun; Zhou, Qiong; Zheng, Zhijie; Ye, Ling; Hu, Ming; Liu, Zhongqiu

    2012-11-05

    Recycling in the gastrointestinal tract is important for endogenous substances such as bile acids and for xenobiotics such as flavonoids. Although both enterohepatic and enteric recycling mechanisms are well recognized, no one has discussed the third recycling mechanism for glucuronides: local recycling. The intestinal absorption and metabolism of wogonin and wogonoside (wogonin-7-glucuronide) was characterized by using a four-site perfused rat intestinal model, and hydrolysis of wogonoside was measured in various enzyme preparations. In the perfusion model, the wogonoside and wogonin were interconverted in all four perfused segments. Absorption of wogonoside and conversion to its aglycon at the upper small intestine was inhibited in the presence of a glucuronidase inhibitor (saccharolactone) but was not inhibited by lactase phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) inhibitor gluconolactone or antibiotics. Further investigation indicated that hydrolysis of wogonoside in the blank intestinal perfusate was not correlated with bacterial counts. Kinetic studies indicated that K(m) values from blank duodenal and jejunal perfusate were essentially identical to the K(m) values from intestinal S9 fraction but were much higher (>2-fold) than those from the microbial enzyme extract. Lastly, jejunal perfusate and S9 fraction share the same optimal pH, which was different from those of fecal extract. In conclusion, local recycling of wogonin and wogonoside is the first demonstrated example that this novel mechanism is functional in the upper small intestine without significant contribution from bacteria β-glucuronidase.

  17. “A time of fear”: local, national, and international responses to a large Ebola outbreak in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinsman John

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper documents and analyses some of the responses to the largest Ebola outbreak on record, which took place in Uganda between September 2000 and February 2001. Four hundred and twenty five people developed clinical symptoms in three geographically distinct parts of the country (Gulu, Masindi, and Mbarara, of whom 224 (53% died. Given the focus of previous social scientific Ebola research on experiences in communities that have been directly affected, this article expands the lens to include responses to the outbreak in local, national, and international contexts over the course of the outbreak. Methods Responses to the outbreak were gauged through the articles, editorials, cartoons, and letters that were published in the country’s two main English language daily national newspapers: the New Vision and the Monitor (now the Daily Monitor. All the relevant pieces from these two sources over the course of the epidemic were cut out, entered onto a computer, and the originals filed. The three a priori codes, based on the local, national, and international levels, were expanded into six, to include issues that emerged inductively during analysis. The data within each code were subsequently worked into coherent, chronological narratives. Results A total of 639 cuttings were included in the analysis. Strong and varied responses to the outbreak were identified from across the globe. These included, among others: confusion, anger, and serious stigma in affected communities; medical staff working themselves to exhaustion, with some quitting their posts; patients fleeing from hospitals; calls on spiritual forces for protection against infection; a well-coordinated national control strategy; and the imposition of some international travel restrictions. Responses varied both quantitatively and qualitatively according to the level (i.e. local, national, or international at which they were manifested. Conclusions The Ugandan

  18. 4-D imaging of seepage in earthen embankments with time-lapse inversion of self-potential data constrained by acoustic emissions localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittgers, J. B.; Revil, A.; Planes, T.; Mooney, M. A.; Koelewijn, A. R.

    2015-02-01

    New methods are required to combine the information contained in the passive electrical and seismic signals to detect, localize and monitor hydromechanical disturbances in porous media. We propose a field experiment showing how passive seismic and electrical data can be combined together to detect a preferential flow path associated with internal erosion in a Earth dam. Continuous passive seismic and electrical (self-potential) monitoring data were recorded during a 7-d full-scale levee (earthen embankment) failure test, conducted in Booneschans, Netherlands in 2012. Spatially coherent acoustic emissions events and the development of a self-potential anomaly, associated with induced concentrated seepage and internal erosion phenomena, were identified and imaged near the downstream toe of the embankment, in an area that subsequently developed a series of concentrated water flows and sand boils, and where liquefaction of the embankment toe eventually developed. We present a new 4-D grid-search algorithm for acoustic emissions localization in both time and space, and the application of the localization results to add spatially varying constraints to time-lapse 3-D modelling of self-potential data in the terms of source current localization. Seismic signal localization results are utilized to build a set of time-invariant yet spatially varying model weights used for the inversion of the self-potential data. Results from the combination of these two passive techniques show results that are more consistent in terms of focused ground water flow with respect to visual observation on the embankment. This approach to geophysical monitoring of earthen embankments provides an improved approach for early detection and imaging of the development of embankment defects associated with concentrated seepage and internal erosion phenomena. The same approach can be used to detect various types of hydromechanical disturbances at larger scales.

  19. Impact of overall treatment time on local control of slow growing human GL squamous cell carcinoma in nude mice treated by fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, M.; Petersen, C.; Schulz, P.; Baisch, H.

    1999-01-01

    Background and purpose: The impact of overall treatment time of fractionated irradiation on local control of slow growing human GL squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was determined. Materials and methods: Moderately well differentiated and keratinizing human GL SCC with a volume doubling time of 8 days were transplanted subcutaneously into the right hindleg of NMRI (nu/nu) mice and irradiated with 30 fractions under ambient conditions over 2, 3, 4.5, 6 and 10 weeks. Endpoint of the experiments was local tumor control at day 180 after end of treatment.Results: The tumor control dose 50% (TCD 50) increased from 40 to 57 Gy when the treatment time was extended from 2 to 10 weeks. The data can be well described by a linear increase in TCD 50 with time. The recovered dose per day (D r ) was 0.28 Gy (95% confidence interval 0.06; 0.48). The fit to the data was not significantly improved by assuming a biphasic (dog-leg) time course with constant TCD 50 values in the initial part of treatment followed by a more rapid increase of TCD 50 thereafter.Conclusions: D r in GL SCC was significantly less than the value of 1.0 Gy (0.7; 1.3 ) previously reported for poorly differentiated, non-keratinizing and fast growing human FaDu SCC (Baumann M, Liertz C, Baisch H, Wiegel T, Lorenzen J, Arps H. Impact of overall treatment time of fractionated irradiation on local control of human FaDu squamous cell carcinoma in nude mice. Radiother. Oncol. 1994;32:137-143), indicating important heterogeneity of the time factor between different tumors of the same histological type. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Development of real-time measurement of methanol-concentration in polymer electrolyte membrane using a local NMR sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Kuniyasu; Ito, Kohei; Haishi, Tomoyuki

    2007-01-01

    A real-time sensor to measure methanol concentration in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) was developed for reducing methanol cross-over in Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC). The principle of the methanol sensor is based on the chemical shift of CH and OH species under high magnetic field. The sensor consists of a planar surface coil of 1.3 mm outside diameter. NMR signal from PEM being exposed to CH3OH solvent was measured using NMR sensor. Time-dependence changes of methanol concentration in PEM were obtained from analyzing spectrum of NMR signal. (author)

  1. : Signal Decomposition of High Resolution Time Series River data to Separate Local and Regional Components of Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signal processing techniques were applied to high-resolution time series data obtained from conductivity loggers placed upstream and downstream of a wastewater treatment facility along a river. Data was collected over 14-60 days, and several seasons. The power spectral densit...

  2. Signal Decomposition of High Resolution Time Series River Data to Separate Local and Regional Components of Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signal processing techniques were applied to high-resolution time series data obtained from conductivity loggers placed upstream and downstream of an oil and gas wastewater treatment facility along a river. Data was collected over 14-60 days. The power spectral density was us...

  3. Modeling of time dependent localized flow shear stress and its impact on cellular growth within additive manufactured titanium implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziyu; Yuan, Lang; Lee, Peter D; Jones, Eric; Jones, Julian R

    2014-11-01

    Bone augmentation implants are porous to allow cellular growth, bone formation and fixation. However, the design of the pores is currently based on simple empirical rules, such as minimum pore and interconnects sizes. We present a three-dimensional (3D) transient model of cellular growth based on the Navier-Stokes equations that simulates the body fluid flow and stimulation of bone precursor cellular growth, attachment, and proliferation as a function of local flow shear stress. The model's effectiveness is demonstrated for two additive manufactured (AM) titanium scaffold architectures. The results demonstrate that there is a complex interaction of flow rate and strut architecture, resulting in partially randomized structures having a preferential impact on stimulating cell migration in 3D porous structures for higher flow rates. This novel result demonstrates the potential new insights that can be gained via the modeling tool developed, and how the model can be used to perform what-if simulations to design AM structures to specific functional requirements. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Subjective and objective observation of skin graft recovery on Indonesian local cat with different periods of transplantation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin; Gunanti; Handharyani, Ekowati; Noviana, Deni

    2016-05-01

    The success of a skin graft in a cat is highly dependent on the granulation formed by the base of recipient bed. Granulation by the base of recipient bed will form after several days after injury. This research aimed to observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats with different periods of donor skin placement. Nine male Indonesian local cats aged 1-2 years old, weighing 3-4 kg were divided into three groups. The first surgery for creating defect wound of 2 cm×2 cm in size was performed in the whole group. The wound was left for several days with the respective interval for each group, respectively: Group I (for 2 days), Group II (for 4 days), and Group III (for 6 days). In the whole group, the second surgery was done by the harvesting skin of thoracic area which then applied on recipient bed of respective groups. The donor skin on Group II was accepted faster compared to Group I and Group III. The donor skin did not show color differences compared to surrounding skin, painless, bright red in bleeding test had faster both hair growth and drug absorption. Test toward the size of donor skin and the effect of drugs did not show a significant difference between each group. The observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats on Group II were accepted faster compared to Group I and III.

  5. Correlation of carrier localization with relaxation time distribution and electrical conductivity relaxation in silver-nanoparticle-embedded moderately doped polypyrrole nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Swarup; Dutta, Bula; Bhattacharya, Subhratanu

    2014-02-01

    The electrical conductivity relaxation in moderately doped polypyrrole and its nanocomposites reinforced with different proportion of silver nanoparticles was investigated in both frequency and time domain. An analytical distribution function of relaxation times is constructed from the results obtained in the frequency domain formalism and is used to evaluate the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) type decay function in the time domain. The thermal evolution of different relaxation parameters was analyzed. The temperature-dependent dc electrical conductivity, estimated from the average conductivity relaxation time is observed to depend strongly on the nanoparticle loading and follows Mott three-dimensional variable range hopping (VRH) conduction mechanism. The extent of charge carrier localization calculated from the VRH mechanism is well correlated to the evidences obtained from the structural characterizations of different nanostructured samples.

  6. Subjective and objective observation of skin graft recovery on Indonesian local cat with different periods of transplantation time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The success of a skin graft in a cat is highly dependent on the granulation formed by the base of recipient bed. Granulation by the base of recipient bed will form after several days after injury. This research aimed to observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats with different periods of donor skin placement. Materials and Methods: Nine male Indonesian local cats aged 1-2 years old, weighing 3-4 kg were divided into three groups. The first surgery for creating defect wound of 2 cm×2 cm in size was performed in the whole group. The wound was left for several days with the respective interval for each group, respectively: Group I (for 2 days, Group II (for 4 days, and Group III (for 6 days. In the whole group, the second surgery was done by the harvesting skin of thoracic area which then applied on recipient bed of respective groups. Result: The donor skin on Group II was accepted faster compared to Group I and Group III. The donor skin did not show color differences compared to surrounding skin, painless, bright red in bleeding test had faster both hair growth and drug absorption. Test toward the size of donor skin and the effect of drugs did not show a significant difference between each group. Conclusion: The observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats on Group II were accepted faster compared to Group I and III.

  7. A near-optimal low complexity sensor fusion technique for accurate indoor localization based on ultrasound time of arrival measurements from low-quality sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitilineos, Stelios A.; Argyreas, Nick D.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2009-05-01

    A fusion-based localization technique for location-based services in indoor environments is introduced herein, based on ultrasound time-of-arrival measurements from multiple off-the-shelf range estimating sensors which are used in a market-available localization system. In-situ field measurements results indicated that the respective off-the-shelf system was unable to estimate position in most of the cases, while the underlying sensors are of low-quality and yield highly inaccurate range and position estimates. An extensive analysis is performed and a model of the sensor-performance characteristics is established. A low-complexity but accurate sensor fusion and localization technique is then developed, which consists inof evaluating multiple sensor measurements and selecting the one that is considered most-accurate based on the underlying sensor model. Optimality, in the sense of a genie selecting the optimum sensor, is subsequently evaluated and compared to the proposed technique. The experimental results indicate that the proposed fusion method exhibits near-optimal performance and, albeit being theoretically suboptimal, it largely overcomes most flaws of the underlying single-sensor system resulting in a localization system of increased accuracy, robustness and availability.

  8. Muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with external beam radiation: influence of total dose, overall treatment time, and treatment interruption on local control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moonen, L.; Voet, H. van der; Nijs, R. de; Horenblas, S.; Hart, A.A.M.; Bartelink, H.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and eventually quantify a possible influence of tumor proliferation during the external radiation course on local control in muscle invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: The influence of total dose, overall treatment time, and treatment interruption has retrospectively been analyzed in a series of 379 patients with nonmetastasized, muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. All patients received external beam radiotherapy at the Netherlands Cancer Institute between 1977 and 1990. Total dose varied between 50 and 75 Gy with a mean of 60.5 Gy and a median of 60.4 Gy. Overall treatment time varied between 20 and 270 days with a mean of 49 days and a median of 41 days. Number of fractions varied between 17 and 36 with a mean of 27 and a median of 26. Two hundred and forty-four patients had a continuous radiation course, whereas 135 had an intended split course or an unintended treatment interruption. Median follow-up was 22 months for all patients and 82 months for the 30 patients still alive at last follow-up. A stepwise procedure using proportional hazard regression has been used to identify prognostic treatment factors with respect to local recurrence as sole first recurrence. Results: One hundred and thirty-six patients experienced a local recurrence and 120 of these occurred before regional or distant metastases. The actuarial local control rate was 40.3% at 5 years and 32.3% at 10 years. In a multivariate analysis total dose showed a significant association with local control (p 0.0039), however in a markedly nonlinear way. In fact only those patients treated with a dose below 57.5 Gy had a significant higher bladder relapse rate, whereas no difference in relapse rate was found among patients treated with doses above 57.5 Gy. This remained the case even after adjustment for overall treatment time and all significant tumor and patient characteristics. The Normalized Tumor Dose (NTD) (α/β = 10) and NTD (

  9. Time-dependent density-functional theory simulation of local currents in pristine and single-defect zigzag graphene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Shenglai, E-mail: shenglai.he@vanderbilt.edu; Russakoff, Arthur; Li, Yonghui; Varga, Kálmán, E-mail: kalman.varga@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)

    2016-07-21

    The spatial current distribution in H-terminated zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) under electrical bias is investigated using time-dependent density-functional theory solved on a real-space grid. A projected complex absorbing potential is used to minimize the effect of reflection at simulation cell boundary. The calculations show that the current flows mainly along the edge atoms in the hydrogen terminated pristine ZGNRs. When a vacancy is introduced to the ZGNRs, loop currents emerge at the ribbon edge due to electrons hopping between carbon atoms of the same sublattice. The loop currents hinder the flow of the edge current, explaining the poor electric conductance observed in recent experiments.

  10. Impact of time-of-flight PET on whole-body oncologic studies: a human observer lesion detection and localization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surti, Suleman; Scheuermann, Joshua; El Fakhri, Georges; Daube-Witherspoon, Margaret E; Lim, Ruth; Abi-Hatem, Nathalie; Moussallem, Elie; Benard, Francois; Mankoff, David; Karp, Joel S

    2011-05-01

    Phantom studies have shown improved lesion detection performance with time-of-flight (TOF) PET. In this study, we evaluate the benefit of fully 3-dimensional, TOF PET in clinical whole-body oncology using human observers to localize and detect lesions in realistic patient anatomic backgrounds. Our hypothesis is that with TOF imaging we achieve improved lesion detection and localization for clinically challenging tasks, with a bigger impact in large patients. One hundred patient studies with normal (18)F-FDG uptake were chosen. Spheres (diameter, 10 mm) were imaged in air at variable locations in the scanner field of view corresponding to lung and liver locations within each patient. Sphere data were corrected for attenuation and merged with patient data to produce fused list-mode data files with lesions added to normal-uptake scans. All list files were reconstructed with full corrections and with or without the TOF kernel using a list-mode iterative algorithm. The images were presented to readers to localize and report the presence or absence of a lesion and their confidence level. The interpretation results were then analyzed to calculate the probability of correct localization and detection, and the area under the localized receiver operating characteristic (LROC) curve. The results were analyzed as a function of scan time per bed position, patient body mass index (BMI patient sizes. With TOF imaging, there was a bigger increase in the area under the LROC curve for larger patients (BMI ≥ 26). Finally, we saw smaller differences in the area under the LROC curve for large and small patients when longer scan times were combined with TOF imaging. A combination of longer scan time (3 min in this study) and TOF imaging provides the best performance for imaging large patients or a low-uptake lesion in small or large patients. This imaging protocol also provides similar performance for all patient sizes for lesions in the same organ type with similar relative uptake

  11. Real time recording system of radioisotopes by local area network (LAN) computer system and user input processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Kunio; Ito, Atsushi; Kawaguchi, Hajime; Yanase, Makoto; Uno, Kiyoshi.

    1991-01-01

    A computer-assisted real time recording system was developed for management of radioisotopes. The system composed of two personal computers forming LAN, identification-card (ID-card) reader, and electricity-operating door-lock. One computer is operated by radiation safety staffs and stores the records of radioisotopes. The users of radioisotopes are registered in this computer. Another computer is installed in front of the storage room for radioisotopes. This computer is ready for operation by a registered ID-card and is input data by the user. After the completion of data input, the door to the storage room is unlocked. The present system enables us the following merits: Radiation safety staffs can easily keep up with the present states of radioisotopes in the storage room and save much labor. Radioactivity is always corrected. The upper limit of radioactivities in use per day is automatically checked and users are regulated when they input the amounts to be used. Users can obtain storage records of radioisotopes any time. In addition, the system is applicable to facilities which have more than two storage rooms. (author)

  12. Thermospheric O/N2 ratio observations obtained over more than four years with the GUVI instrument in the TIMED spacecraft mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, J. D.; Christensen, A. B.; Paxton, L. J.; Strickland, D. J.

    2006-12-01

    GUVI observations of the thermospheric column density ratio, O/N2, in the sunlit hemisphere have been made continuously from about Day 50 of 2002 to the present as part of the TIMED spacecraft mission. From these observations have been created organized databases to be used in the creation of analytic models for this parameter. Undesirable attributes within the GUVI data are being eliminated; sun glint at particular solar orientations and penetrating radiation from the South Atlantic magnetic anomaly. The large-scale basic spatial structure includes variations with local time (greater values before local noon), Universal Time (modulation at high latitudes as the dayside auroral oval varies in solar zenith angle due to the offset magnetic dipole), and season (greater values in the local winter hemisphere). Superposed on this well- behaved background structure are the complex, transient perturbations of auroral substorm and geomagnetic storm driven heating events at the high latitudes. These are more difficult to analyze, but are of great interest, as changes in neutral composition, for example, drive changes in ionospheric electron density. The current state of these efforts is to be presented.

  13. Common time-frequency analysis of local field potential and pyramidal cell activity in seizure-like events of the rat hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotic, M.; Chiu, A. W. L.; Jahromi, S. S.; Carlen, P. L.; Bardakjian, B. L.

    2011-08-01

    To study cell-field dynamics, physiologists simultaneously record local field potentials and the activity of individual cells from animals performing cognitive tasks, during various brain states or under pathological conditions. However, apart from spike shape and spike timing analyses, few studies have focused on elucidating the common time-frequency structure of local field activity relative to surrounding cells across different periods of phenomena. We have used two algorithms, multi-window time frequency analysis and wavelet phase coherence (WPC), to study common intracellular-extracellular (I-E) spectral features in spontaneous seizure-like events (SLEs) from rat hippocampal slices in a low magnesium epilepsy model. Both algorithms were applied to 'pairs' of simultaneously observed I-E signals from slices in the CA1 hippocampal region. Analyses were performed over a frequency range of 1-100 Hz. I-E spectral commonality varied in frequency and time. Higher commonality was observed from 1 to 15 Hz, and lower commonality was observed in the 15-100 Hz frequency range. WPC was lower in the non-SLE region compared to SLE activity; however, there was no statistical difference in the 30-45 Hz band between SLE and non-SLE modes. This work provides evidence of strong commonality in various frequency bands of I-E SLEs in the rat hippocampus, not only during SLEs but also immediately before and after.

  14. Localized superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, M.; Lee, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    We study the effects of Anderson localization on superconductivity by using a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS)-type trial wave function which pairs electrons in exact time-reversed eigenstates of the single-particle Hamiltonian. Within this approximation, and neglecting localization effects on the effective Coulomb repulsion and the electron-phonon coupling, we find that superconductivity persists below the mobility edge. In fact, Anderson's theorem is valid in the localized phase as long as rhoΔ 0 L/sup d/ > 1 (rho is the density of states averaged over +- Δ 0 of the Fermi energy, Δ 0 the BCS gap parameter, and L the localization length). Hence the gap order parameter Δ(r) remains uniform in space at the BCS value Δ 0 . The superfluid density and response to electromagnetic perturbations, however, show marked differences from the ''dirty superconductor'' regime. For rhoΔ 0 L/sup d/ < 1, Δ(r) fluctuates spatially and eventually drops to zero. In the limit when states are site localized, the system crosses over into the ''Anderson negative-U glass.'' Considerations beyond the trial wave-function approximation will speed up the destruction of superconductivity. The superconductor formed from localized states has the property that its quasiparticle excitations are also localized. Such excitations can be probed by observing the normal current in a tunneling junction

  15. Real-time volumetric image reconstruction and 3D tumor localization based on a single x-ray projection image for lung cancer radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruijiang; Jia, Xun; Lewis, John H; Gu, Xuejun; Folkerts, Michael; Men, Chunhua; Jiang, Steve B

    2010-06-01

    To develop an algorithm for real-time volumetric image reconstruction and 3D tumor localization based on a single x-ray projection image for lung cancer radiotherapy. Given a set of volumetric images of a patient at N breathing phases as the training data, deformable image registration was performed between a reference phase and the other N-1 phases, resulting in N-1 deformation vector fields (DVFs). These DVFs can be represented efficiently by a few eigenvectors and coefficients obtained from principal component analysis (PCA). By varying the PCA coefficients, new DVFs can be generated, which, when applied on the reference image, lead to new volumetric images. A volumetric image can then be reconstructed from a single projection image by optimizing the PCA coefficients such that its computed projection matches the measured one. The 3D location of the tumor can be derived by applying the inverted DVF on its position in the reference image. The algorithm was implemented on graphics processing units (GPUs) to achieve real-time efficiency. The training data were generated using a realistic and dynamic mathematical phantom with ten breathing phases. The testing data were 360 cone beam projections corresponding to one gantry rotation, simulated using the same phantom with a 50% increase in breathing amplitude. The average relative image intensity error of the reconstructed volumetric images is 6.9% +/- 2.4%. The average 3D tumor localization error is 0.8 +/- 0.5 mm. On an NVIDIA Tesla C1060 GPU card, the average computation time for reconstructing a volumetric image from each projection is 0.24 s (range: 0.17 and 0.35 s). The authors have shown the feasibility of reconstructing volumetric images and localizing tumor positions in 3D in near real-time from a single x-ray image.

  16. Tracer test modeling for characterizing heterogeneity and local scale residence time distribution in an artificial recharge site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valhondo, Cristina; Martinez-Landa, Lurdes; Carrera, Jesús; Hidalgo, Juan J.; Ayora, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Artificial recharge of aquifers (AR) is a standard technique to replenish and enhance groundwater resources, that have widely been used due to the increasing demand of quality water. AR through infiltration basins consists on infiltrate surface water, that might be affected in more or less degree by treatment plant effluents, runoff and others undesirables water sources, into an aquifer. The water quality enhances during the passage through the soil and organic matter, nutrients, organic contaminants, and bacteria are reduced mainly due to biodegradation and adsorption. Therefore, one of the goals of AR is to ensure a good quality status of the aquifer even if lesser quality water is used for recharge. Understand the behavior and transport of the potential contaminants is essential for an appropriate management of the artificial recharge system. The knowledge of the flux distribution around the recharge system and the relationship between the recharge system and the aquifer (area affected by the recharge, mixing ratios of recharged and native groundwater, travel times) is essential to achieve this goal. Evaluate the flux distribution is not always simple because the complexity and heterogeneity of natural systems. Indeed, it is not so much regulate by hydraulic conductivity of the different geological units as by their continuity and inter-connectivity particularly in the vertical direction. In summary for an appropriate management of an artificial recharge system it is needed to acknowledge the heterogeneity of the media. Aiming at characterizing the residence time distribution (RTDs) of a pilot artificial recharge system and the extent to which heterogeneity affects RTDs, we performed and evaluated a pulse injection tracer test. The artificial recharge system was simulated as a multilayer model which was used to evaluate the measured breakthrough curves at six monitoring points. Flow and transport parameters were calibrated under two hypotheses. The first

  17. Time reversal optical tomography and decomposition methods for detection and localization of targets in highly scattering turbid media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Binlin

    New near-infrared (NIR) diffuse optical tomography (DOT) approaches were developed to detect, locate, and image small targets embedded in highly scattering turbid media. The first approach, referred to as time reversal optical tomography (TROT), is based on time reversal (TR) imaging and multiple signal classification (MUSIC). The second approach uses decomposition methods of non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) and principal component analysis (PCA) commonly used in blind source separation (BSS) problems, and compare the outcomes with that of optical imaging using independent component analysis (OPTICA). The goal is to develop a safe, affordable, noninvasive imaging modality for detection and characterization of breast tumors in early growth stages when those are more amenable to treatment. The efficacy of the approaches was tested using simulated data, and experiments involving model media and absorptive, scattering, and fluorescent targets, as well as, "realistic human breast model" composed of ex vivo breast tissues with embedded tumors. The experimental arrangements realized continuous wave (CW) multi-source probing of samples and multi-detector acquisition of diffusely transmitted signal in rectangular slab geometry. A data matrix was generated using the perturbation in the transmitted light intensity distribution due to the presence of absorptive or scattering targets. For fluorescent targets the data matrix was generated using the diffusely transmitted fluorescence signal distribution from the targets. The data matrix was analyzed using different approaches to detect and characterize the targets. The salient features of the approaches include ability to: (a) detect small targets; (b) provide three-dimensional location of the targets with high accuracy (~within a millimeter or 2); and (c) assess optical strength of the targets. The approaches are less computation intensive and consequently are faster than other inverse image reconstruction methods that

  18. [Modelling the effect of local climatic variability on dengue transmission in Medellin (Colombia) by means of time series analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rúa-Uribe, Guillermo L; Suárez-Acosta, Carolina; Chauca, José; Ventosilla, Palmira; Almanza, Rita

    2013-09-01

    Dengue fever is a major impact on public health vector-borne disease, and its transmission is influenced by entomological, sociocultural and economic factors. Additionally, climate variability plays an important role in the transmission dynamics. A large scientific consensus has indicated that the strong association between climatic variables and disease could be used to develop models to explain the incidence of the disease. To develop a model that provides a better understanding of dengue transmission dynamics in Medellin and predicts increases in the incidence of the disease. The incidence of dengue fever was used as dependent variable, and weekly climatic factors (maximum, mean and minimum temperature, relative humidity and precipitation) as independent variables. Expert Modeler was used to develop a model to better explain the behavior of the disease. Climatic variables with significant association to the dependent variable were selected through ARIMA models. The model explains 34% of observed variability. Precipitation was the climatic variable showing statistically significant association with the incidence of dengue fever, but with a 20 weeks delay. In Medellin, the transmission of dengue fever was influenced by climate variability, especially precipitation. The strong association dengue fever/precipitation allowed the construction of a model to help understand dengue transmission dynamics. This information will be useful to develop appropriate and timely strategies for dengue control.

  19. Optimization of Acquisition time of 68Ga-PSMA-Ligand PET/MRI in Patients with Local and Metastatic Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütje, Susanne; Blex, Sebastian; Gomez, Benedikt; Schaarschmidt, Benedikt M; Umutlu, Lale; Forsting, Michael; Jentzen, Walter; Bockisch, Andreas; Poeppel, Thorsten D; Wetter, Axel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this optimization study was to minimize the acquisition time of 68Ga-HBED-CC-PSMA positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) in patients with local and metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) to obtain a sufficient image quality and quantification accuracy without any appreciable loss. Twenty patients with PCa were administered intravenously with the 68Ga-HBED-CC-PSMA ligand (mean activity 99 MBq/patient, range 76-148 MBq) and subsequently underwent PET/MRI at, on average, 168 min (range 77-320 min) after injection. PET and MR imaging data were acquired simultaneously. PET acquisition was performed in list mode and PET images were reconstructed at different time intervals (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 min). Data were analyzed regarding radiotracer uptake in tumors and muscle tissue and PET image quality. Tumor uptake was quantified in terms of the maximum and mean standardized uptake value (SUVmax, SUVmean) within a spherical volume of interest (VOI). Reference VOIs were drawn in the gluteus maximus muscle on the right side. PET image quality was evaluated by experienced nuclear physicians/radiologists using a five-point ordinal scale from 5-1 (excellent-insufficient). Lesion detectability linearly increased with increasing acquisition times, reaching its maximum at PET acquisition times of 4 min. At this image acquisition time, tumor lesions in 19/20 (95%) patients were detected. PET image quality showed a positive correlation with increasing acquisition time, reaching a plateau at 4-6 min image acquisition. Both SUVmax and SUVmean correlated inversely with acquisition time and reached a plateau at acquisition times after 4 min. In the applied image acquisition settings, the optimal acquisition time of 68Ga-PSMA-ligand PET/MRI in patients with local and metastatic PCa was identified to be 4 min per bed position. At this acquisition time, PET image quality and lesion detectability reach a maximum while SUVmax and SUVmean do not change

  20. Optimization of Acquisition time of 68Ga-PSMA-Ligand PET/MRI in Patients with Local and Metastatic Prostate Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Lütje

    Full Text Available The aim of this optimization study was to minimize the acquisition time of 68Ga-HBED-CC-PSMA positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI in patients with local and metastatic prostate cancer (PCa to obtain a sufficient image quality and quantification accuracy without any appreciable loss.Twenty patients with PCa were administered intravenously with the 68Ga-HBED-CC-PSMA ligand (mean activity 99 MBq/patient, range 76-148 MBq and subsequently underwent PET/MRI at, on average, 168 min (range 77-320 min after injection. PET and MR imaging data were acquired simultaneously. PET acquisition was performed in list mode and PET images were reconstructed at different time intervals (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 min. Data were analyzed regarding radiotracer uptake in tumors and muscle tissue and PET image quality. Tumor uptake was quantified in terms of the maximum and mean standardized uptake value (SUVmax, SUVmean within a spherical volume of interest (VOI. Reference VOIs were drawn in the gluteus maximus muscle on the right side. PET image quality was evaluated by experienced nuclear physicians/radiologists using a five-point ordinal scale from 5-1 (excellent-insufficient.Lesion detectability linearly increased with increasing acquisition times, reaching its maximum at PET acquisition times of 4 min. At this image acquisition time, tumor lesions in 19/20 (95% patients were detected. PET image quality showed a positive correlation with increasing acquisition time, reaching a plateau at 4-6 min image acquisition. Both SUVmax and SUVmean correlated inversely with acquisition time and reached a plateau at acquisition times after 4 min.In the applied image acquisition settings, the optimal acquisition time of 68Ga-PSMA-ligand PET/MRI in patients with local and metastatic PCa was identified to be 4 min per bed position. At this acquisition time, PET image quality and lesion detectability reach a maximum while SUVmax and SUVmean do not change

  1. The meshless local Petrov-Galerkin method based on moving Kriging interpolation for solving the time fractional Navier-Stokes equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamareerat, N; Luadsong, A; Aschariyaphotha, N

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a numerical scheme used to solve the nonlinear time fractional Navier-Stokes equations in two dimensions. We first employ the meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) method based on a local weak formulation to form the system of discretized equations and then we will approximate the time fractional derivative interpreted in the sense of Caputo by a simple quadrature formula. The moving Kriging interpolation which possesses the Kronecker delta property is applied to construct shape functions. This research aims to extend and develop further the applicability of the truly MLPG method to the generalized incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Two numerical examples are provided to illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed algorithm. Very good agreement between the numerically and analytically computed solutions can be observed in the verification. The present MLPG method has proved its efficiency and reliability for solving the two-dimensional time fractional Navier-Stokes equations arising in fluid dynamics as well as several other problems in science and engineering.

  2. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations reveal localization and time evolution dynamics of an excess electron in heterogeneous CO{sub 2}–H{sub 2}O systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ping; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Jinxiang; Zhang, Meng; Bu, Yuxiang, E-mail: byx@sdu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China)

    2014-01-28

    In view of the important implications of excess electrons (EEs) interacting with CO{sub 2}–H{sub 2}O clusters in many fields, using ab initio molecular dynamics simulation technique, we reveal the structures and dynamics of an EE associated with its localization and subsequent time evolution in heterogeneous CO{sub 2}–H{sub 2}O mixed media. Our results indicate that although hydration can increase the electron-binding ability of a CO{sub 2} molecule, it only plays an assisting role. Instead, it is the bending vibrations that play the major role in localizing the EE. Due to enhanced attraction of CO{sub 2}, an EE can stably reside in the empty, low-lying π{sup *} orbital of a CO{sub 2} molecule via a localization process arising from its initial binding state. The localization is completed within a few tens of femtoseconds. After EE trapping, the ∠OCO angle of the core CO{sub 2}{sup −} oscillates in the range of 127°∼142°, with an oscillation period of about 48 fs. The corresponding vertical detachment energy of the EE is about 4.0 eV, which indicates extreme stability of such a CO{sub 2}-bound solvated EE in [CO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub n}]{sup −} systems. Interestingly, hydration occurs not only on the O atoms of the core CO{sub 2}{sup −} through formation of O⋯H–O H–bond(s), but also on the C atom, through formation of a C⋯H–O H–bond. In the latter binding mode, the EE cloud exhibits considerable penetration to the solvent water molecules, and its IR characteristic peak is relatively red-shifted compared with the former. Hydration on the C site can increase the EE distribution at the C atom and thus reduce the C⋯H distance in the C⋯H–O H–bonds, and vice versa. The number of water molecules associated with the CO{sub 2}{sup −} anion in the first hydration shell is about 4∼7. No dimer-core (C{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup −}) and core-switching were observed in the double CO{sub 2} aqueous media. This work provides molecular dynamics

  3. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations reveal localization and time evolution dynamics of an excess electron in heterogeneous CO2-H2O systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Jinxiang; Zhang, Meng; Bu, Yuxiang

    2014-01-28

    In view of the important implications of excess electrons (EEs) interacting with CO2-H2O clusters in many fields, using ab initio molecular dynamics simulation technique, we reveal the structures and dynamics of an EE associated with its localization and subsequent time evolution in heterogeneous CO2-H2O mixed media. Our results indicate that although hydration can increase the electron-binding ability of a CO2 molecule, it only plays an assisting role. Instead, it is the bending vibrations that play the major role in localizing the EE. Due to enhanced attraction of CO2, an EE can stably reside in the empty, low-lying π(*) orbital of a CO2 molecule via a localization process arising from its initial binding state. The localization is completed within a few tens of femtoseconds. After EE trapping, the ∠OCO angle of the core CO2 (-) oscillates in the range of 127°∼142°, with an oscillation period of about 48 fs. The corresponding vertical detachment energy of the EE is about 4.0 eV, which indicates extreme stability of such a CO2-bound solvated EE in [CO2(H2O)n](-) systems. Interestingly, hydration occurs not only on the O atoms of the core CO2 (-) through formation of O⋯H-O H-bond(s), but also on the C atom, through formation of a C⋯H-O H-bond. In the latter binding mode, the EE cloud exhibits considerable penetration to the solvent water molecules, and its IR characteristic peak is relatively red-shifted compared with the former. Hydration on the C site can increase the EE distribution at the C atom and thus reduce the C⋯H distance in the C⋯H-O H-bonds, and vice versa. The number of water molecules associated with the CO2 (-) anion in the first hydration shell is about 4∼7. No dimer-core (C2O4 (-)) and core-switching were observed in the double CO2 aqueous media. This work provides molecular dynamics insights into the localization and time evolution dynamics of an EE in heterogeneous CO2-H2O media.

  4. Numerical method for time-dependent localized corrosion analysis with moving boundaries by combining the finite volume method and voxel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Yuki; Takiyasu, Jumpei; Amaya, Kenji; Yakuwa, Hiroshi; Hayabusa, Keisuke

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel numerical method to analyze time dependent localized corrosion is developed. ► It takes electromigration, mass diffusion, chemical reactions, and moving boundaries. ► Our method perfectly satisfies the conservation of mass and electroneutrality. ► The behavior of typical crevice corrosion is successfully simulated. ► Both verification and validation of our method are carried out. - Abstract: A novel numerical method for time-dependent localized corrosion analysis is presented. Electromigration, mass diffusion, chemical reactions, and moving boundaries are considered in the numerical simulation of localized corrosion of engineering alloys in an underwater environment. Our method combines the finite volume method (FVM) and the voxel method. The FVM is adopted in the corrosion rate calculation so that the conservation of mass is satisfied. A newly developed decoupled algorithm with a projection method is introduced in the FVM to decouple the multiphysics problem into the electrostatic, mass transport, and chemical reaction analyses with electroneutrality maintained. The polarization curves for the corroding metal are used as boundary conditions for the metal surfaces to calculate the corrosion rates. The voxel method is adopted in updating the moving boundaries of cavities without remeshing and mesh-to-mesh solution mapping. Some modifications of the standard voxel method, which represents the boundaries as zigzag-shaped surfaces, are introduced to generate smooth surfaces. Our method successfully reproduces the numerical and experimental results of a capillary electrophoresis problem. Furthermore, the numerical results are qualitatively consistent with the experimental results for several examples of crevice corrosion.

  5. Exactly soluble local bosonic cocycle models, statistical transmutation, and simplest time-reversal symmetric topological orders in 3+1 dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2017-05-01

    We propose a generic construction of exactly soluble local bosonic models that realize various topological orders with gappable boundaries. In particular, we construct an exactly soluble bosonic model that realizes a (3+1)-dimensional [(3+1)D] Z2-gauge theory with emergent fermionic Kramers doublet. We show that the emergence of such a fermion will cause the nucleation of certain topological excitations in space-time without pin+ structure. The exactly soluble model also leads to a statistical transmutation in (3+1)D. In addition, we construct exactly soluble bosonic models that realize 2 types of time-reversal symmetry-enriched Z2 topological orders in 2+1 dimensions, and 20 types of simplest time-reversal symmetry-enriched topological (SET) orders which have only one nontrivial pointlike and stringlike topological excitation. Many physical properties of those topological states are calculated using the exactly soluble models. We find that some time-reversal SET orders have pointlike excitations that carry Kramers doublet, a fractionalized time-reversal symmetry. We also find that some Z2 SET orders have stringlike excitations that carry anomalous (nononsite) Z2 symmetry, which can be viewed as a fractionalization of Z2 symmetry on strings. Our construction is based on cochains and cocycles in algebraic topology, which is very versatile. In principle, it can also realize emergent topological field theory beyond the twisted gauge theory.

  6. Effect of incubation time of sago (metroxylon sago) waste by local microorganism ″ginta″ on ph, crude protein, and crude fiber content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, Nurzainah; Pase, E.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of incubation times of sago waste by local microorganism (MOL) “Ginta” to the crude protein and crude fiber content in relation to finding a cheap and good quality ruminants feed alternative. Incubation times were 0 hours to 144 hours. The data obtained were analyzed using Completely Randomize Design consisting of seven treatments and three replications. The result showed that the duration of incubation of sago waste by local microorganism (MOL) “Ginta” caused pH reduction, improved crude protein and crude fiber content. pH reduction was from 7.03 at 0 hour to 4.05 at 144 hours incubation. The highest increased in crude protein was H6U3 (5.58%) : 144 hours incubation and the lowest was H0U2 (3.22%) : 0 hour incubation while the highest crude fiber was H0U1 (19.99%) : 0 hour incubation and the lowest was H6U3 (18.23%) : 144 hours incubation. It can be concluded that incubation of sago waste triggered lower pH, higher crude protein and lower crude fiber than uninoculated. A recommendation could be given on using MOL ‘Ginta” in order to produce a cheap and good quality ruminans feed alternative.

  7. In vivo, noncontact, real-time, optical and spectroscopic assessment of the immediate local physiological response to spinal cord injury in a rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillioe, Seth; Bishop, Kyle Kelly; Jannini, Alexander Vincent Struck; Kim, Jon; McDonough, Ricky; Ortiz, Steve; Goodisman, Jerry; Hasenwinkel, Julie; Chaiken, J.

    2018-02-01

    We report a small study to test a methodology for real-time probing of chemical and physical changes in spinal cords in the immediate aftermath of a localized contusive injury. Raman spectroscopy, optical profilimetry and scanning NIR autofluorescence images were obtained simultaneously in vivo, within a 3 x 7 mm field, on spinal cords that had been surgically exposed between T9 and T10. The collected data was used alone and/or combined in a unique algorithm. A total of six rats were studied in two N=3 groups i.e. Injured and Control. A single 830 nm laser (100 μm round spot) was either 1) spatially scanned across the cord or 2) held at a specified location relative to the injury for a longer period of time to improve signal to noise in the Raman spectra. Line scans reveal photobleaching effects and surface profiles possibly allowing identification of the anterior median longitudinal artery. Analysis of the Raman spectra suggest that the tissues were equally hypoxic for both the control and injured animals i.e. a possible artifact of anesthesia and surgery. On the other hand, only injured cords display Raman features possibly indicating that extensive, localized protein phosphorylation occurs in minutes following spinal cord trauma.

  8. Docencia arquitectónica en globalización: ¿Prevalencia, filtro o anulación del perfil local de identidad? / Teaching architecture in times of globalization: Prevalence, profile filter or cancellation of local identity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letelier Parga, Sofía

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo desarrolla con mayor detalle las ideas acerca de la docencia arquitectónica en momentos de globalización, que fueran planteadas al V Congreso Arquisur como derivación de la línea investigativa sobre „Identidad Arquitectónica‟ bajo un enfoque semiótico. La investigación realizada entre 1993 -1996 con financiamiento Fondecyt y que contó con la coinvestigación de María Inés Arribas y Ana Rugiero, permitió detectar algunos rasgos de interpretación local que operan entre arquitectos y legos, los que pueden estimarse como indicadores de lectura visual de la arquitectura, a la vez que modeladores „autopoïéticos‟ de un perfil de Identidad Arquitectónica en Chile central. Éstos, que resultaron no siempre coincidentes con el cannon de valoración académico escolar, instalan la interrogante sobre la posibilidad de explicitarlos y manejarlos conscientemente para asumir la globalización desde el valor de la diferencia, o bien desligarse de su presencia, favoreciendo una más flexible apertura a la homologación de expresiones. Desde la hipótesis de que la arquitectura es un lenguaje y sistema social, cuyos códigos no escapan al circuito de experiencia y noción en cuyo desfase se da todo lenguaje, se postula la existencia de patrones locales generales –comprobados en Chile central– aun cuando se hayan detectado códigos particulares y específicos distintos para legos y arquitectos, que muestren reducidos campos de intersección. En éstos, y en la tendencia general de ambas constelaciones, pudo encontrarse un definido perfil de Identidad. Resta comprobar si hay ánimo académico de asumirlo como factor proactivo./This paper develops in greater detail the ideas about teaching architecture at a time of globalization. The research conducted between 1993 -1996, financed by FONDECYT and had the co - investigation and Ana María Inés Arribas Rugiero allowed the Docencia detection of some local features of

  9. Influence of the oral dissolution time on the absorption rate of locally administered solid formulations for oromucosal use: the flurbiprofen lozenges paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imberti, Roberto; De Gregori, Simona; Lisi, Lucia; Navarra, Pierluigi

    2014-01-01

    Flurbiprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent preferentially used for local oromucosal treatment of painful and/or inflammatory conditions of the oropharynx such as gingivitis, stomatitis, periodontitis, pharyngitis and laryngitis. In this study, we have investigated the bioavailability of a new generic formulation of flurbiprofen lozenges developed by Epifarma Srl, compared to the originator Benactiv Gola® taken as reference. Within the framework of a formal bioequivalence study, we investigated in particular the putative influence of oral dissolution time (i.e. the time spent suckling the lozenge from its intake to complete dissolution) on the absorption rate, and the contribution of this factor to the total variability of plasma flurbiprofen during absorption. We found that the amount of flurbiprofen absorbed into the systemic circulation is not significantly higher for the test drug compared to that of the reference product. We observed that the length of oral dissolution time is inversely correlated to 10-min flurbiprofen plasma levels in the test but not in the reference formulation. We estimated that oral dissolution time accounts for about 14% of overall variability in flurbiprofen plasma 10 min after test drug administration. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Mapping the Information Trace in Local Field Potentials by a Computational Method of Two-Dimensional Time-Shifting Synchronization Likelihood Based on Graphic Processing Unit Acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zi-Fang; Li, Xue-Zhu; Wan, You

    2017-12-01

    The local field potential (LFP) is a signal reflecting the electrical activity of neurons surrounding the electrode tip. Synchronization between LFP signals provides important details about how neural networks are organized. Synchronization between two distant brain regions is hard to detect using linear synchronization algorithms like correlation and coherence. Synchronization likelihood (SL) is a non-linear synchronization-detecting algorithm widely used in studies of neural signals from two distant brain areas. One drawback of non-linear algorithms is the heavy computational burden. In the present study, we proposed a graphic processing unit (GPU)-accelerated implementation of an SL algorithm with optional 2-dimensional time-shifting. We tested the algorithm with both artificial data and raw LFP data. The results showed that this method revealed detailed information from original data with the synchronization values of two temporal axes, delay time and onset time, and thus can be used to reconstruct the temporal structure of a neural network. Our results suggest that this GPU-accelerated method can be extended to other algorithms for processing time-series signals (like EEG and fMRI) using similar recording techniques.

  11. Local Vegetation Trends in the Sahel of Mali and Senegal Using Long Time Series FAPAR Satellite Products and Field Measurement (1982–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Brandt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Local vegetation trends in the Sahel of Mali and Senegal from Geoland Version 1 (GEOV1 (5 km and the third generation Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS3g (8 km Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR time series are studied over 29 years. For validation and interpretation of observed greenness trends, two methods are applied: (1 a qualitative approach using in-depth knowledge of the study areas and (2 a quantitative approach by time series of biomass observations and rainfall data. Significant greening trends from 1982 to 2010 are consistently observed in both GEOV1 and GIMMS3g FAPAR datasets. Annual rainfall increased significantly during the observed time period, explaining large parts of FAPAR variations at a regional scale. Locally, GEOV1 data reveals a heterogeneous pattern of vegetation change, which is confirmed by long-term ground data and site visits. The spatial variability in the observed vegetation trends in the Sahel area are mainly caused by varying tree- and land-cover, which are controlled by human impact, soil and drought resilience. A large proportion of the positive trends are caused by the increment in leaf biomass of woody species that has almost doubled since the 1980s due to a tree cover regeneration after a dry-period. This confirms the re-greening of the Sahel, however, degradation is also present and sometimes obscured by greening. GEOV1 as compared to GIMMS3g made it possible to better characterize the spatial pattern of trends and identify the degraded areas in the study region.

  12. Topographical Variation of Human Femoral Articular Cartilage Thickness, T1rho and T2 Relaxation Times Is Related to Local Loading during Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rossom, Sam; Wesseling, Mariska; Van Assche, Dieter; Jonkers, Ilse

    2018-01-01

    Objective Early detection of degenerative changes in the cartilage matrix composition is essential for evaluating early interventions that slow down osteoarthritis (OA) initiation. T1rho and T2 relaxation times were found to be effective for detecting early changes in proteoglycan and collagen content. To use these magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods, it is important to document the topographical variation in cartilage thickness, T1rho and T2 relaxation times in a healthy population. As OA is partially mechanically driven, the relation between these MRI-based parameters and localized mechanical loading during walking was investigated. Design MR images were acquired in 14 healthy adults and cartilage thickness and T1rho and T2 relaxation times were determined. Experimental gait data was collected and processed using musculoskeletal modeling to identify weight-bearing zones and estimate the contact force impulse during gait. Variation of the cartilage properties (i.e., thickness, T1rho, and T2) over the femoral cartilage was analyzed and compared between the weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing zone of the medial and lateral condyle as well as the trochlea. Results Medial condyle cartilage thickness was correlated to the contact force impulse ( r = 0.78). Lower T1rho, indicating increased proteoglycan content, was found in the medial weight-bearing zone. T2 was higher in all weight-bearing zones compared with the non-weight-bearing zones, indicating lower relative collagen content. Conclusions The current results suggest that medial condyle cartilage is adapted as a long-term protective response to localized loading during a frequently performed task and that the weight-bearing zone of the medial condyle has superior weight bearing capacities compared with the non-weight-bearing zones.

  13. Relationship Between Radiation Treatment Time and Overall Survival After Induction Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Head-and-Neck Carcinoma: A Subset Analysis of TAX 324

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sher, David J.; Posner, Marshall R.; Tishler, Roy B.; Sarlis, Nicholas J.; Haddad, Robert I.; Holupka, Edward J.; Devlin, Phillip M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the relationship between overall survival (OS) and radiation treatment time (RTT) and overall treatment time (OTT) in a well-described sequential therapy paradigm for locally advanced head-and-neck carcinoma (LAHNC). Methods and Materials: TAX 324 is a Phase III study comparing TPF (docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil) with PF (cisplatin and fluorouracil) induction chemotherapy (IC) in LAHNC patients; both arms were followed by carboplatin-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Prospective radiotherapy quality assurance was performed. This analysis includes all patients who received three cycles of IC and a radiation dose of ≥ 70 Gy. Radiotherapy treatment time was analyzed as binary (≤ 8 weeks vs. longer) and continuous (number of days beyond 8 weeks) functions. The primary analysis assessed the relationship between RTT, OTT, and OS, and the secondary analysis explored the association between treatment times and locoregional recurrence (LRR). Results: A total of 333 (of 501) TAX 324 patients met the criteria for inclusion in this analysis. There were no significant differences between the treatment arms in baseline or treatment characteristics. On multivariable analysis, PF IC, World Health Organization performance status of 1, non-oropharynx site, T3/4 stage, N3 status, and prolonged RTT (hazard ratio 1.63, p = 0.006) were associated with significantly inferior survival. Performance status, T3/4 disease, and prolonged RTT (odds ratio 1.68, p = 0.047) were independently and negatively related to LRR on multivariable analysis, whereas PF was not. Overall treatment time was not independently associated with either OS or LRR. Conclusions: In this secondary analysis of the TAX 324 trial, TPF IC remains superior to PF IC after controlling for radiotherapy delivery time. Even with optimal IC and concurrent chemotherapy, a non-prolonged RTT is a crucial determinant of treatment success. Appropriate delivery of radiotherapy after IC remains essential

  14. Relationship Between Radiation Treatment Time and Overall Survival After Induction Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Head-and-Neck Carcinoma: A Subset Analysis of TAX 324

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sher, David J., E-mail: dsher@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Posner, Marshall R. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Tishler, Roy B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Sarlis, Nicholas J. [Sanofi-Aventis US, Bridgewater, NJ (United States); Haddad, Robert I. [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Holupka, Edward J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (Israel); Devlin, Phillip M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To analyze the relationship between overall survival (OS) and radiation treatment time (RTT) and overall treatment time (OTT) in a well-described sequential therapy paradigm for locally advanced head-and-neck carcinoma (LAHNC). Methods and Materials: TAX 324 is a Phase III study comparing TPF (docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil) with PF (cisplatin and fluorouracil) induction chemotherapy (IC) in LAHNC patients; both arms were followed by carboplatin-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Prospective radiotherapy quality assurance was performed. This analysis includes all patients who received three cycles of IC and a radiation dose of {>=} 70 Gy. Radiotherapy treatment time was analyzed as binary ({<=} 8 weeks vs. longer) and continuous (number of days beyond 8 weeks) functions. The primary analysis assessed the relationship between RTT, OTT, and OS, and the secondary analysis explored the association between treatment times and locoregional recurrence (LRR). Results: A total of 333 (of 501) TAX 324 patients met the criteria for inclusion in this analysis. There were no significant differences between the treatment arms in baseline or treatment characteristics. On multivariable analysis, PF IC, World Health Organization performance status of 1, non-oropharynx site, T3/4 stage, N3 status, and prolonged RTT (hazard ratio 1.63, p = 0.006) were associated with significantly inferior survival. Performance status, T3/4 disease, and prolonged RTT (odds ratio 1.68, p = 0.047) were independently and negatively related to LRR on multivariable analysis, whereas PF was not. Overall treatment time was not independently associated with either OS or LRR. Conclusions: In this secondary analysis of the TAX 324 trial, TPF IC remains superior to PF IC after controlling for radiotherapy delivery time. Even with optimal IC and concurrent chemotherapy, a non-prolonged RTT is a crucial determinant of treatment success. Appropriate delivery of radiotherapy after IC remains essential

  15. Relationship between radiation treatment time and overall survival after induction chemotherapy for locally advanced head-and-neck carcinoma: a subset analysis of TAX 324.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, David J; Posner, Marshall R; Tishler, Roy B; Sarlis, Nicholas J; Haddad, Robert I; Holupka, Edward J; Devlin, Phillip M

    2011-12-01

    To analyze the relationship between overall survival (OS) and radiation treatment time (RTT) and overall treatment time (OTT) in a well-described sequential therapy paradigm for locally advanced head-and-neck carcinoma (LAHNC). TAX 324 is a Phase III study comparing TPF (docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil) with PF (cisplatin and fluorouracil) induction chemotherapy (IC) in LAHNC patients; both arms were followed by carboplatin-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Prospective radiotherapy quality assurance was performed. This analysis includes all patients who received three cycles of IC and a radiation dose of ≥70 Gy. Radiotherapy treatment time was analyzed as binary (≤8 weeks vs. longer) and continuous (number of days beyond 8 weeks) functions. The primary analysis assessed the relationship between RTT, OTT, and OS, and the secondary analysis explored the association between treatment times and locoregional recurrence (LRR). A total of 333 (of 501) TAX 324 patients met the criteria for inclusion in this analysis. There were no significant differences between the treatment arms in baseline or treatment characteristics. On multivariable analysis, PF IC, World Health Organization performance status of 1, non-oropharynx site, T3/4 stage, N3 status, and prolonged RTT (hazard ratio 1.63, p=0.006) were associated with significantly inferior survival. Performance status, T3/4 disease, and prolonged RTT (odds ratio 1.68, p=0.047) were independently and negatively related to LRR on multivariable analysis, whereas PF was not. Overall treatment time was not independently associated with either OS or LRR. In this secondary analysis of the TAX 324 trial, TPF IC remains superior to PF IC after controlling for radiotherapy delivery time. Even with optimal IC and concurrent chemotherapy, a non-prolonged RTT is a crucial determinant of treatment success. Appropriate delivery of radiotherapy after IC remains essential for optimizing OS in LAHNC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc

  16. A new method to detect transitory signatures and local time/space variability structures in the climate system: the scale-dependent correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodó, Xavier; Rodríguez-Arias, Miquel-Àngel

    2006-10-01

    The study of transitory signals and local variability structures in both/either time and space and their role as sources of climatic memory, is an important but often neglected topic in climate research despite its obvious importance and extensive coverage in the literature. Transitory signals arise either from non-linearities, in the climate system, transitory atmosphere-ocean couplings, and other processes in the climate system evolving after a critical threshold is crossed. These temporary interactions that, though intense, may not last long, can be responsible for a large amount of unexplained variability but are normally considered of limited relevance and often, discarded. With most of the current techniques at hand these typology of signatures are difficult to isolate because the low signal-to-noise ratio in midlatitudes, the limited recurrence of the transitory signals during a customary interval of data considered. Also, there is often a serious problem arising from the smoothing of local or transitory processes if statistical techniques are applied, that consider all the length of data available, rather than taking into account the size of the specific variability structure under investigation. Scale-dependent correlation (SDC) analysis is a new statistical method capable of highlighting the presence of transitory processes, these former being understood as temporary significant lag-dependent autocovariance in a single series, or covariance structures between two series. This approach, therefore, complements other approaches such as those resulting from the families of wavelet analysis, singular-spectrum analysis and recurrence plots. A main feature of SDC is its high-performance for short time series, its ability to characterize phase-relationships and thresholds in the bivariate domain. Ultimately, SDC helps tracking short-lagged relationships among processes that locally or temporarily couple and uncouple. The use of SDC is illustrated in the present

  17. The Leisure Time of the Young Population in Local Island Communities – the Example of the Zadar Islands (Iž, Dugi Otok, Ugljan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragutin Babić

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the problem of leisure time in local communities on the islands of the Zadar Archipelago (Iž, Dugi Otok, Ugljan. The model for the analysis was provided by an empirical survey carried out on the population of three Zadar islands in autumn 2001. In researching the migration dilemmas of the young population on the three Zadar islands, the methods used were a questionnaire and interviews (essays written by pupils. The questionnaire contained 39 questions, with possible answers provided in regard to important segments of island issues and the way in which young islanders perceived them. The questionnaire was filled out by 107 elementary and secondary school pupils from Ugljan, Iž and Dugi Otok. The following independent variables were used in the analysis of the empirical material: school (elementary – secondary, island of residence (Ugljan – Dugi Otok – Iž and gender (male – female. Leisure time is a pressing issue for people in the (postmodern epoch. How should it be utiilsed and how can one utilise it without becoming a passive recipient of exterior content, and thus an object of manipulation of powerful groups, from political groups to economical ones? Play, as a form of self-realisation in opposition to mass-media messages and contents, becomes, in this sense, one of the best solutions in utilising leisure time. This applies especially to the young population. The research results confirm that most pupils, despite their obligations (school and extra-school obligations, travelling have sufficient leisure time. Elementary school pupils are less burdened by obligations and have more leisure time. The situation is different for secondary school pupils, whose burdens and duties already significantly reduce time for play, entertainment and relaxation. The main reasons for a lack of leisure time in both groups are school obligations. The ways of spending leisure time are quite various; however passive forms (watching TV

  18. Local adaptation and the potential effects of a contaminant on predator avoidance and antipredator responses under global warming: a space-for-time substitution approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Lizanne; Dinh Van, Khuong; Debecker, Sara; Bervoets, Lieven; Stoks, Robby

    2014-01-01

    The ability to deal with temperature-induced changes in interactions with contaminants and predators under global warming is one of the outstanding, applied evolutionary questions. For this, it is crucial to understand how contaminants will affect activity levels, predator avoidance and antipredator responses under global warming and to what extent gradual thermal evolution may mitigate these effects. Using a space-for-time substitution approach, we assessed the potential for gradual thermal evolution shaping activity (mobility and foraging), predator avoidance and antipredator responses when Ischnura elegans damselfly larvae were exposed to zinc in a common-garden warming experiment at the mean summer water temperatures of shallow water bodies at southern and northern latitudes (24 and 20°C, respectively). Zinc reduced mobility and foraging, predator avoidance and escape swimming speed. Importantly, high-latitude populations showed stronger zinc-induced reductions in escape swimming speed at both temperatures, and in activity levels at the high temperature. The latter indicates that local thermal adaptation may strongly change the ecological impact of contaminants under global warming. Our study underscores the critical importance of considering local adaptation along natural gradients when integrating biotic interactions in ecological risk assessment, and the potential of gradual thermal evolution mitigating the effects of warming on the vulnerability to contaminants. PMID:24665344

  19. Local adaptation and the potential effects of a contaminant on predator avoidance and antipredator responses under global warming: a space-for-time substitution approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Lizanne; Dinh Van, Khuong; Debecker, Sara; Bervoets, Lieven; Stoks, Robby

    2014-03-01

    The ability to deal with temperature-induced changes in interactions with contaminants and predators under global warming is one of the outstanding, applied evolutionary questions. For this, it is crucial to understand how contaminants will affect activity levels, predator avoidance and antipredator responses under global warming and to what extent gradual thermal evolution may mitigate these effects. Using a space-for-time substitution approach, we assessed the potential for gradual thermal evolution shaping activity (mobility and foraging), predator avoidance and antipredator responses when Ischnura elegans damselfly larvae were exposed to zinc in a common-garden warming experiment at the mean summer water temperatures of shallow water bodies at southern and northern latitudes (24 and 20°C, respectively). Zinc reduced mobility and foraging, predator avoidance and escape swimming speed. Importantly, high-latitude populations showed stronger zinc-induced reductions in escape swimming speed at both temperatures, and in activity levels at the high temperature. The latter indicates that local thermal adaptation may strongly change the ecological impact of contaminants under global warming. Our study underscores the critical importance of considering local adaptation along natural gradients when integrating biotic interactions in ecological risk assessment, and the potential of gradual thermal evolution mitigating the effects of warming on the vulnerability to contaminants.

  20. Longitudinal comparison of quality of life after real-time tumor-tracking intensity-modulated radiation therapy and radical prostatectomy in patients with localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Nobuo; Maruyama, Satoru; Abe, Takashige; Nonomura, Katsuya; Shimizu, Shinichi; Nishioka, Kentaro; Shirato, Hiroki; C-Hatanaka, Kanako; Oba, Koji

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the quality of life (QOL) in patients with localized prostate cancer (PC) after intensity-modulated radiation therapy assisted with a fluoroscopic real-time intensity-modulated radiation therapy (RT-IMRT) tumor-tracking system versus the QOL after radical prostatectomy (RP). Between 2003 and 2006, 71 patients were enrolled in this longitudinal prospective study. Each patient was allowed to decide which treatment modality they would receive. Of the 71 patients, 23 patients underwent RT-IMRT, while 48 opted for RP. No patient received neo-adjuvant or adjuvant hormone therapy. The global QOL and disease-specific-QOL were evaluated before treatment and again at 1, 3 and 5 years after treatment. There was no significant difference in the background characteristics between the two groups. The 5-year biochemical progression-free survival was 90% in the RT-IMRT and 79% in the RP group. In the RT-IMRT group, there was no significant deterioration of the global QOL or disease-specific QOL through 5 years post-treatment. In the RP group, the urinary function, sexual function, and sexual bother indicators significantly deteriorated after treatment. Urinary and sexual function was significantly better in the RT-IMRT group at 1, 3 and 5 years post-treatment compared to the RP group. RT-IMRT may be a preferable treatment for localized PC because of similar efficacy to RP but better post-treatment QOL. (author)

  1. Time-dependent transport of a localized surface plasmon through a linear array of metal nanoparticles: Precursor and normal mode contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compaijen, P. J.; Malyshev, V. A.; Knoester, J.

    2018-02-01

    We theoretically investigate the time-dependent transport of a localized surface plasmon excitation through a linear array of identical and equidistantly spaced metal nanoparticles. Two different signals propagating through the array are found: one traveling with the group velocity of the surface plasmon polaritons of the system and damped exponentially, and the other running with the speed of light and decaying in a power-law fashion, as x-1 and x-2 for the transversal and longitudinal polarizations, respectively. The latter resembles the Sommerfeld-Brillouin forerunner and has not been identified in previous studies. The contribution of this signal dominates the plasmon transport at large distances. In addition, even though this signal is spread in the propagation direction and has the lateral dimension larger than the wavelength, the field profile close to the chain axis does not change with distance, indicating that this part of the signal is confined to the array.

  2. Effectiveness of anonymised information sharing and use in health service, police, and local government partnership for preventing violence related injury: experimental study and time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence, Curtis; Brennan, Iain; Simon, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of anonymised information sharing to prevent injury related to violence. Design Experimental study and time series analysis of a prototype community partnership between the health service, police, and local government partners designed to prevent violence. Setting Cardiff, Wales, and 14 comparison cities designated “most similar” by the Home Office in England and Wales. Intervention After a 33 month development period, anonymised data relevant to violence prevention (precise violence location, time, days, and weapons) from patients attending emergency departments in Cardiff and reporting injury from violence were shared over 51 months with police and local authority partners and used to target resources for violence prevention. Main outcome measures Health service records of hospital admissions related to violence and police records of woundings and less serious assaults in Cardiff and other cities after adjustment for potential confounders. Results Information sharing and use were associated with a substantial and significant reduction in hospital admissions related to violence. In the intervention city (Cardiff) rates fell from seven to five a month per 100 000 population compared with an increase from five to eight in comparison cities (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.49 to 0.69). Average rate of woundings recorded by the police changed from 54 to 82 a month per 100 000 population in Cardiff compared with an increase from 54 to 114 in comparison cities (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.68, 0.61 to 0.75). There was a significant increase in less serious assaults recorded by the police, from 15 to 20 a month per 100 000 population in Cardiff compared with a decrease from 42 to 33 in comparison cities (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.38, 1.13 to 1.70). Conclusion An information sharing partnership between health services, police, and local government in Cardiff, Wales, altered policing

  3. High-time resolution conjugate SuperDARN radar observations of the dayside convection response to changes in IMF By

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chisham

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available We present data from conjugate SuperDARN radars describing the high-latitude ionosphere's response to changes in the direction of IMF By during a period of steady IMF Bz southward and Bx positive. During this interval, the radars were operating in a special mode which gave high-time resolution data (30 s sampling period on three adjacent beams with a full scan every 3 min. The location of the radars around magnetic local noon at the time of the event allowed detailed observations of the variations in the ionospheric convection patterns close to the cusp region as IMF By varied. A significant time delay was observed in the ionospheric response to the IMF By changes between the two hemispheres. This is explained as being partially a consequence of the location of the dominant merging region on the magnetopause, which is ~8-12RE closer to the northern ionosphere than to the southern ionosphere (along the magnetic field line due to the dipole tilt of the magnetosphere and the orientation of the IMF. This interpretation supports the anti-parallel merging hypothesis and highlights the importance of the IMF Bx component in solar wind-magnetosphere coupling.Key words: Ionosphere (plasma convection - Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers; solar wind - magnetosphere interactions

  4. Textural features and SUV-based variables assessed by dual time point 18F-FDG PET/CT in locally advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Vicente, Ana María; Molina, David; Pérez-Beteta, Julián; Amo-Salas, Mariano; Martínez-González, Alicia; Bueno, Gloria; Tello-Galán, María Jesús; Soriano-Castrejón, Ángel

    2017-12-01

    To study the influence of dual time point 18F-FDG PET/CT in textural features and SUV-based variables and their relation among them. Fifty-six patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) were prospectively included. All of them underwent a standard 18F-FDG PET/CT (PET-1) and a delayed acquisition (PET-2). After segmentation, SUV variables (SUVmax, SUVmean, and SUVpeak), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were obtained. Eighteen three-dimensional (3D) textural measures were computed including: run-length matrices (RLM) features, co-occurrence matrices (CM) features, and energies. Differences between all PET-derived variables obtained in PET-1 and PET-2 were studied. Significant differences were found between the SUV-based parameters and MTV obtained in the dual time point PET/CT, with higher values of SUV-based variables and lower MTV in the PET-2 with respect to the PET-1. In relation with the textural parameters obtained in dual time point acquisition, significant differences were found for the short run emphasis, low gray-level run emphasis, short run high gray-level emphasis, run percentage, long run emphasis, gray-level non-uniformity, homogeneity, and dissimilarity. Textural variables showed relations with MTV and TLG. Significant differences of textural features were found in dual time point 18F-FDG PET/CT. Thus, a dynamic behavior of metabolic characteristics should be expected, with higher heterogeneity in delayed PET acquisition compared with the standard PET. A greater heterogeneity was found in bigger tumors.

  5. Expansion of the Real-time Sport-land Information System for NOAA/National Weather Service Situational Awareness and Local Modeling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has been running a real-time version of the Land Information System (LIS) since summer 2010 (hereafter, SPoRTLIS). The real-time SPoRT-LIS runs the Noah land surface model (LSM) in an offline capacity apart from a numerical weather prediction model, using input atmospheric and precipitation analyses (i.e., "forcings") to drive the Noah LSM integration at 3-km resolution. Its objectives are to (1) produce local-scale information about the soil state for NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) situational awareness applications such as drought monitoring and assessing flood potential, and (2) provide land surface initialization fields for local modeling initiatives. The current domain extent has been limited by the input atmospheric analyses that drive the Noah LSM integration within SPoRT-LIS, specifically the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Stage IV precipitation analyses. Due to the nature of the geographical edges of the Stage IV precipitation grid and its limitations in the western U.S., the SPoRT-LIS was originally confined to a domain fully nested within the Stage IV grid, over the southeastern half of the Conterminous United States (CONUS). In order to expand the real-time SPoRT-LIS to a full CONUS domain, alternative precipitation forcing datasets were explored in year-long, offline comparison runs of the Noah LSM. Based on results of these comparison simulations, we chose to implement the radar/gauge-based precipitation analyses from the National Severe Storms Laboratory as a replacement to the Stage IV product. The Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS; formerly known as the National Mosaic and multi-sensor Quantitative precipitation estimate) product has full CONUS coverage at higher-resolution, thereby providing better coverage and greater detail than that of the Stage IV product. This paper will describe the expanded/upgraded SPoRT-LIS, present comparisons between the

  6. Seasonal and Local Time Variations of E-Region Field-Aligned Irregularities Observed with 30.8-MHz Radar at Kototabang, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Otsuka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A VHF backscatter radar with operating frequency 30.8 MHz has been operated at Kototabang (0.20°S, 100.32°E; dip latitude 10.36°S, Indonesia, since February 2006. We analyzed E-region field-aligned irregularities (FAIs observed by this radar through a year of 2007 and found that the E-region FAI observed at Kototabang can be classified into two groups. One is “descending FAI”. Altitude of the FAI echo region descends with time from 102 km to 88 km altitude during 0700–1000 and 1900–0000 LT in June solstice season. The other is “low-altitude FAI”, which is observed in an altitude range from 88 to 94 km mainly during nighttime. The observed Doppler velocity show distinct local time and altitude dependence. The seasonally averaged zonal velocity above (below approximately 94 km altitude is westward (eastward during daytime and eastward (westward during nighttime. Meridional/vertical velocity perpendicular to the geomagnetic fields is upward during daytime and downward during nighttime. The direction of the FAI velocity above approximately 94 km altitude is consistent with that of the background E × B plasma drifts reported previously.

  7. Localized sequence-specific release of a chemopreventive agent and an anticancer drug in a time-controllable manner to enhance therapeutic efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wen-Yu; Lin, Kun-Ju; Huang, Chieh-Cheng; Chiang, Wei-Lun; Lin, Yu-Jung; Lin, Wei-Chih; Chuang, Er-Yuan; Chang, Yen; Sung, Hsing-Wen

    2016-09-01

    Combination chemotherapy with multiple drugs commonly requires several injections on various schedules, and the probability that the drug molecules reach the diseased tissues at the proper time and effective therapeutic concentrations is very low. This work elucidates an injectable co-delivery system that is based on cationic liposomes that are adsorbed on anionic hollow microspheres (Lipos-HMs) via electrostatic interaction, from which the localized sequence-specific release of a chemopreventive agent (1,25(OH)2D3) and an anticancer drug (doxorubicin; DOX) can be thermally driven in a time-controllable manner by an externally applied high-frequency magnetic field (HFMF). Lipos-HMs can greatly promote the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in tumor cells by reducing their cytoplasmic expression of an antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase) by 1,25(OH)2D3, increasing the susceptibility of cancer cells to the cytotoxic action of DOX. In nude mice that bear xenograft tumors, treatment with Lipos-HMs under exposure to HFMF effectively inhibits tumor growth and is the most effective therapeutic intervention among all the investigated. These empirical results demonstrate that the synergistic anticancer effects of sequential release of 1,25(OH)2D3 and DOX from the Lipos-HMs may have potential for maximizing DOX cytotoxicity, supporting more effective cancer treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Measurement of the local muscular metabolism by time-domain near infrared spectroscopy during knee flex-extension induced by functional electrical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contini, D.; Spinelli, L.; Torricelli, A.; Ferrante, S.; Pedrocchi, A.; Molteni, F.; Ferrigno, G.; Cubeddu, R.

    2009-02-01

    We present a preliminary study that combines functional electrical stimulation and time-domain near infrared spectroscopy for a quantitative measurement of the local muscular metabolism during rehabilitation of post-acute stroke patients. Seven healthy subjects and nine post-acute stroke patients underwent a protocol of knee flex-extension of the quadriceps induced by functional electrical stimulation. During the protocol time-domain near infrared spectroscopy measurement were performed on both left and right muscle. Hemodynamic parameters (concentration of oxy- and deoxy-genated hemoglobin) during baseline did not show any significant differences between healthy subject and patients, while functional performances (knee angle amplitude) were distinctly different. Nevertheless, even if their clinical histories were noticeably different, there was no differentiation among functional performances of patients. On the basis of the hemodynamic parameters measured during the recovery phase, instead, it was possible to identify two classes of patients showing a metabolic trend similar or very different to the one obtained by healthy subjects. The presented results suggest that the combination of functional and metabolic information can give an additional tool to the clinicians in the evaluation of the rehabilitation in post-acute stroke patients.

  9. Expansion of the Real-Time SPoRT-Land Information System for NOAA/National Weather Service Situational Awareness and Local Modeling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L; White, Kristopher D.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Huntsville, AL is running a real-time configuration of the Noah land surface model (LSM) within the NASA Land Information System (LIS) framework (hereafter referred to as the "SPoRT-LIS"). Output from the real-time SPoRT-LIS is used for (1) initializing land surface variables for local modeling applications, and (2) displaying in decision support systems for situational awareness and drought monitoring at select NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) partner offices. The experimental CONUS run incorporates hourly quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) from the National Severe Storms Laboratory Multi- Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) which will be transitioned into operations at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) in Fall 2014.This paper describes the current and experimental SPoRT-LIS configurations, and documents some of the limitations still remaining through the advent of MRMS precipitation analyses in the SPoRT-LIS land surface model (LSM) simulations.

  10. Evaluation of Delivery Costs for External Beam Radiation Therapy and Brachytherapy for Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Using Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer-Nilsen, Kristine; Hill, Colin; Trifiletti, Daniel M; Libby, Bruce; Lash, Donna H; Lain, Melody; Christodoulou, Deborah; Hodge, Constance; Showalter, Timothy N

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the delivery costs, using time-driven activity-based costing, and reimbursement for definitive radiation therapy for locally advanced cervical cancer. Process maps were created to represent each step of the radiation treatment process and included personnel, equipment, and consumable supplies used to deliver care. Personnel were interviewed to estimate time involved to deliver care. Salary data, equipment purchasing information, and facilities costs were also obtained. We defined the capacity cost rate (CCR) for each resource and then calculated the total cost of patient care according to CCR and time for each resource. Costs were compared with 2016 Medicare reimbursement and relative value units (RVUs). The total cost of radiation therapy for cervical cancer was $12,861.68, with personnel costs constituting 49.8%. Brachytherapy cost $8610.68 (66.9% of total) and consumed 423 minutes of attending radiation oncologist time (80.0% of total). External beam radiation therapy cost $4055.01 (31.5% of total). Personnel costs were higher for brachytherapy than for the sum of simulation and external beam radiation therapy delivery ($4798.73 vs $1404.72). A full radiation therapy course provides radiation oncologists 149.77 RVUs with intensity modulated radiation therapy or 135.90 RVUs with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, with total reimbursement of $23,321.71 and $16,071.90, respectively. Attending time per RVU is approximately 4-fold higher for brachytherapy (5.68 minutes) than 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (1.63 minutes) or intensity modulated radiation therapy (1.32 minutes). Time-driven activity-based costing was used to calculate the total cost of definitive radiation therapy for cervical cancer, revealing that brachytherapy delivery and personnel resources constituted the majority of costs. However, current reimbursement policy does not reflect the increased attending physician effort and delivery costs of brachytherapy. We

  11. Comparative analysis of long-time variations of multicomponent ion ring current according to data of geostationary Gorizont satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovtyukh, A.S.; Panasyuk, M.I.; Vlasova, N.A.; Sosnovets, Eh.N.

    1990-01-01

    Long-time variations of the fluxes of the H + , [N,O] 2+ and [C,N,O] 6 6 + ions with energy E/Q∼60-120 keV/e measured by the GORIZONT (1985-07A) satellite in the geostationary orbit at noon time are analyzed. The results are dsicussed and are compared with current models of the formation of the Earth's ion ring current

  12. The importance of including local correlation times in the calculation of inter-proton distances from NMR measurements: ignoring local correlation times leads to significant errors in the conformational analysis of the Glc alpha1-2Glc alpha linkage by NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackeen, Mukram; Almond, Andrew; Cumpstey, Ian; Enis, Seth C; Kupce, Eriks; Butters, Terry D; Fairbanks, Antony J; Dwek, Raymond A; Wormald, Mark R

    2006-06-07

    The experimental determination of oligosaccharide conformations has traditionally used cross-linkage 1H-1H NOE/ROEs. As relatively few NOEs are observed, to provide sufficient conformational constraints this method relies on: accurate quantification of NOE intensities (positive constraints); analysis of absent NOEs (negative constraints); and hence calculation of inter-proton distances using the two-spin approximation. We have compared the results obtained by using 1H 2D NOESY, ROESY and T-ROESY experiments at 500 and 700 MHz to determine the conformation of the terminal Glc alpha1-2Glc alpha linkage in a dodecasaccharide and a related tetrasaccharide. For the tetrasaccharide, the NOESY and ROESY spectra produced the same qualitative pattern of linkage cross-peaks but the quantitative pattern, the relative peak intensities, was different. For the dodecasaccharide, the NOESY and ROESY spectra at 500 MHz produced a different qualitative pattern of linkage cross-peaks, with fewer peaks in the NOESY spectrum. At 700 MHz, the NOESY and ROESY spectra of the dodecasaccharide produced the same qualitative pattern of peaks, but again the relative peak intensities were different. These differences are due to very significant differences in the local correlation times for different proton pairs across this glycosidic linkage. The local correlation time for each proton pair was measured using the ratio of the NOESY and T-ROESY cross-relaxation rates, leaving the NOESY and ROESY as independent data sets for calculating the inter-proton distances. The inter-proton distances calculated including the effects of differences in local correlation times give much more consistent results.

  13. An initial study on the estimation of time-varying volumetric treatment images and 3D tumor localization from single MV cine EPID images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Pankaj, E-mail: pankaj.mishra@varian.com; Mak, Raymond H.; Rottmann, Joerg; Bryant, Jonathan H.; Williams, Christopher L.; Berbeco, Ross I.; Lewis, John H. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Li, Ruijiang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: In this work the authors develop and investigate the feasibility of a method to estimate time-varying volumetric images from individual MV cine electronic portal image device (EPID) images. Methods: The authors adopt a two-step approach to time-varying volumetric image estimation from a single cine EPID image. In the first step, a patient-specific motion model is constructed from 4DCT. In the second step, parameters in the motion model are tuned according to the information in the EPID image. The patient-specific motion model is based on a compact representation of lung motion represented in displacement vector fields (DVFs). DVFs are calculated through deformable image registration (DIR) of a reference 4DCT phase image (typically peak-exhale) to a set of 4DCT images corresponding to different phases of a breathing cycle. The salient characteristics in the DVFs are captured in a compact representation through principal component analysis (PCA). PCA decouples the spatial and temporal components of the DVFs. Spatial information is represented in eigenvectors and the temporal information is represented by eigen-coefficients. To generate a new volumetric image, the eigen-coefficients are updated via cost function optimization based on digitally reconstructed radiographs and projection images. The updated eigen-coefficients are then multiplied with the eigenvectors to obtain updated DVFs that, in turn, give the volumetric image corresponding to the cine EPID image. Results: The algorithm was tested on (1) Eight digital eXtended CArdiac-Torso phantom datasets based on different irregular patient breathing patterns and (2) patient cine EPID images acquired during SBRT treatments. The root-mean-squared tumor localization error is (0.73 ± 0.63 mm) for the XCAT data and (0.90 ± 0.65 mm) for the patient data. Conclusions: The authors introduced a novel method of estimating volumetric time-varying images from single cine EPID images and a PCA-based lung motion model

  14. Time-frequency analysis of laser Doppler flowmetry signals recorded in response to a progressive pressure applied locally on anaesthetized healthy rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humeau, Anne; Koitka, Audrey; Abraham, Pierre; Saumet, Jean-Louis; L'Huillier, Jean-Pierre

    2004-01-01

    The laser Doppler flowmetry technique has recently been used to report a significant transient increase of the cutaneous blood flow signal, in response to a local non-noxious pressure applied progressively on the skin of both healthy humans and rats. This phenomenon is not entirely understood yet. In the present work, a time-frequency analysis is applied to signals recorded on anaesthetized healthy rats, at rest and during a cutaneous pressure-induced vasodilation (PIV). The comparison, at rest and during PIV, of the scalogram relative energies and scalogram relative amplitudes in five bands, corresponding to five characteristic frequencies, shows an increased contribution for the endothelial related metabolic activity in PIV signals, till 400 s after the beginning of the progressive pressure application. The other subsystems (heart, respiration, myogenic and neurogenic activities) contribute relatively less during PIV than at rest. The differences are statistically significant for all the relative activities in the interval 0-200 s following the beginning of the pressure. These results and others obtained on patients, such as diabetics, could increase the understanding of some cutaneous pathologies involved in various neurological diseases and in the pathophysiology of decubitus ulcers

  15. Dynamic behaviour of the local layer structure of antiferroelectric liquid crystals under a high electric field measured by time-resolved synchrotron x-ray microbeam diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yumiko; Iida, Atsuo; Takanishi, Yoichi; Ogasawara, Toyokazu; Ishikawa, Ken; Takezoe, Hideo

    2001-01-01

    The local layer structure response to a triangular electric field in an antiferroelectric liquid crystal cell has been measured using synchrotron X-ray diffraction with 3 ms time resolution and a few μm spatial resolution. The initially coexisting vertical and horizontal chevron structures are irreversibly transformed to the layer structure with a rearranged molecular orientation at the surface (so-called vertical bookshelf structure). After the irreversible transformation, the rearranged layer structure shows a reversible transition between the horizontal chevron (high field, ferroelectric state) and the combination of the modified vertical and horizontal chevron (low field, antiferroelectric state) associated with the field-induced antiferroelectric-ferroelectric transition. The reversible layer structure has a smaller horizontal chevron angle (a few degrees) than that in the initial state (about 17deg). The detailed microbeam diffraction revealed that the layer structure at a low electric field consists of a broad vertical chevron with a small chevron angle and a bent bookshelf in combination with a horizontal chevron, depending on the analyzing position. The stripe texture is related to the modified horizontal chevron structure. (author)

  16. Dynamic behaviour of the local layer structure of antiferroelectric liquid crystals under a high electric field measured by time-resolved synchrotron x-ray microbeam diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Yumiko [Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Iida, Atsuo [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Takanishi, Yoichi; Ogasawara, Toyokazu; Ishikawa, Ken; Takezoe, Hideo [Department of Organic and Polymeric Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    The local layer structure response to a triangular electric field in an antiferroelectric liquid crystal cell has been measured using synchrotron X-ray diffraction with 3 ms time resolution and a few {mu}m spatial resolution. The initially coexisting vertical and horizontal chevron structures are irreversibly transformed to the layer structure with a rearranged molecular orientation at the surface (so-called vertical bookshelf structure). After the irreversible transformation, the rearranged layer structure shows a reversible transition between the horizontal chevron (high field, ferroelectric state) and the combination of the modified vertical and horizontal chevron (low field, antiferroelectric state) associated with the field-induced antiferroelectric-ferroelectric transition. The reversible layer structure has a smaller horizontal chevron angle (a few degrees) than that in the initial state (about 17deg). The detailed microbeam diffraction revealed that the layer structure at a low electric field consists of a broad vertical chevron with a small chevron angle and a bent bookshelf in combination with a horizontal chevron, depending on the analyzing position. The stripe texture is related to the modified horizontal chevron structure. (author)

  17. Local and distant residence times of contaminants in multi-compartment models. Part II: Application to assessing environmental mobility and long-range atmospheric transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Liisa; Mackay, Don

    2008-01-01

    In Part I, the concepts of inherent, local and distant residence times (DRTs) were reviewed as metrics of the extent to which chemical discharges or emissions in one region or box are transported to distant regions. In this second part, the concepts are applied to geographically relevant systems to illustrate their applicability to the assessment of chemicals for long-range transport potential (LRTP). It is shown that the relative ranking of chemicals as characterized by the DRT method is similar to that of the characteristic travel distance concept. A DRT source-receptor matrix is developed that can express the chemical-specific potential of source regions to contaminate a specific receptor region of concern such as the Arctic. The matrix can be modified to identify for a specific source region the likely destinations of emissions as well as to assess the relative vulnerability of regions in the global environment to contaminants of concern. - The DRT concept is applied to multi-box and geographically explicit models to assess the long-range transport potential of 10 chemicals

  18. Time-frequency analysis of laser Doppler flowmetry signals recorded in response to a progressive pressure applied locally on anaesthetized healthy rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humeau, Anne [Groupe ISAIP-ESAIP, 18 rue du 8 mai 1945, BP 80022, 49180 Saint Barthelemy d' Anjou Cedex (France); Koitka, Audrey [Laboratoire de Physiologie et d' Explorations Vasculaires, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d' Angers, 49033 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Abraham, Pierre [Laboratoire de Physiologie et d' Explorations Vasculaires, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d' Angers, 49033 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Saumet, Jean-Louis [Laboratoire de Physiologie et d' Explorations Vasculaires, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d' Angers, 49033 Angers Cedex 01 (France); L' Huillier, Jean-Pierre [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Arts et Metiers (ENSAM), Laboratoire Procedes-Materiaux-Instrumentation (LPMI), 2 boulevard du Ronceray, BP 3525, 49035 Angers Cedex (France)

    2004-03-07

    The laser Doppler flowmetry technique has recently been used to report a significant transient increase of the cutaneous blood flow signal, in response to a local non-noxious pressure applied progressively on the skin of both healthy humans and rats. This phenomenon is not entirely understood yet. In the present work, a time-frequency analysis is applied to signals recorded on anaesthetized healthy rats, at rest and during a cutaneous pressure-induced vasodilation (PIV). The comparison, at rest and during PIV, of the scalogram relative energies and scalogram relative amplitudes in five bands, corresponding to five characteristic frequencies, shows an increased contribution for the endothelial related metabolic activity in PIV signals, till 400 s after the beginning of the progressive pressure application. The other subsystems (heart, respiration, myogenic and neurogenic activities) contribute relatively less during PIV than at rest. The differences are statistically significant for all the relative activities in the interval 0-200 s following the beginning of the pressure. These results and others obtained on patients, such as diabetics, could increase the understanding of some cutaneous pathologies involved in various neurological diseases and in the pathophysiology of decubitus ulcers.

  19. Impact and relationship of anterior commissure and time-dose factor on the local control of T1N0 glottic cancer treated by 6 MV photons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yiu-Tung

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate prognostic factors that may influence local control (LC of T1N0 glottic cancer treated by primary radiotherapy (RT with 6 MV photons. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 433 consecutive patients with T1N0 glottic cancer treated between 1983 and 2005 by RT in our institution. All patients were treated with 6 MV photons. One hundred and seventy seven (41% patients received 52.5 Gy in 23 fractions with 2.5 Gy/fraction, and 256 (59% patients received 66 Gy in 33 fractions with 2 Gy/fraction. Results The median follow-up time was 10.5 years. The 10-year LC rates were 91% and 87% for T1a and T1b respectively. Multivariate analysis showed LC rate was adversely affected by poorly differentiated histology (Hazard Ratio [HR]: 7.5, p = 0.035; involvement of anterior commissure (HR: 2.34, p = 0.011; fraction size of 2.0 Gy (HR: 2.17, p = 0.035 and tumor biologically effective dose (BED 15 (HR: 3.38, p = 0.017. Conclusions The negative impact of anterior commissure involvement could be overcome by delivering a higher tumor BED through using fraction size of > 2.0 Gy. We recommend that fraction size > 2.0 Gy should be utilized, for radiation schedules with five daily fractions each week.

  20. Retrieval of Kinetic Temperature and Carbon Dioxide Abundance from Non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium Limb Emission Measurements made by the SABER Experiment on the TIMED Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Wintersteiner, Peter P.; Picard, Richard H.; Winick, Jeremy R.; Gordley, Larry L.; Russell, James M., III

    2002-01-01

    The Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) experiment was launched onboard the TIMED satellite in December, 2001. SABER is designed to provide measurements of the key radiative and chemical sources and sinks of energy in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). SABER measures Earth limb emission in 10 broadband radiometer channels ranging from 1.27 micrometers to 17 micrometers. Measurements are made both day and night over the latitude range from 54 deg. S to 87 deg. N with alternating hemisphere coverage every 60 days. In this paper we concentrate on retrieved profiles of kinetic temperature (T(sub k)) and CO2 volume mixing ratio (vmr), inferred from SABER-observed 15 micrometer and 4.3 micrometer limb emissions, respectively. SABER-measured limb radiances are in non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) in the MLT region. The complexity of non-LTE radiation transfer combined with the large volume of data measured by SABER requires new retrieval approaches and radiative transfer techniques to accurately and efficiently retrieve the data products. In this paper we present the salient features of the coupled non-LTE T(sub k)/CO2 retrieval algorithm, along with preliminary results.

  1. The relationship between inpatient discharge timing and emergency department boarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Emilie S; Khare, Rahul K; Venkatesh, Arjun K; Van Roo, Ben D; Adams, James G; Reinhardt, Gilles

    2012-02-01

    Patient crowding and boarding in Emergency Departments (EDs) impair the quality of care as well as patient safety and satisfaction. Improved timing of inpatient discharges could positively affect ED boarding, and this hypothesis can be tested with computer modeling. Modeling enables analysis of the impact of inpatient discharge timing on ED boarding. Three policies were tested: a sensitivity analysis on shifting the timing of current discharge practices earlier; discharging 75% of inpatients by 12:00 noon; and discharging all inpatients between 8:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. A cross-sectional computer modeling analysis was conducted of inpatient admissions and discharges on weekdays in September 2007. A model of patient flow streams into and out of inpatient beds with an output of ED admitted patient boarding hours was created to analyze the three policies. A mean of 38.8 ED patients, 22.7 surgical patients, and 19.5 intensive care unit transfers were admitted to inpatient beds, and 81.1 inpatients were discharged daily on September 2007 weekdays: 70.5%, 85.6%, 82.8%, and 88.0%, respectively, occurred between noon and midnight. In the model base case, total daily admitted patient boarding hours were 77.0 per day; the sensitivity analysis showed that shifting the peak inpatient discharge time 4h earlier eliminated ED boarding, and discharging 75% of inpatients by noon and discharging all inpatients between 8:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. both decreased boarding hours to 3.0. Timing of inpatient discharges had an impact on the need to board admitted patients. This model demonstrates the potential to reduce or eliminate ED boarding by improving inpatient discharge timing in anticipation of the daily surge in ED demand for inpatient beds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Millisecond single-molecule localization microscopy combined with convolution analysis and automated image segmentation to determine protein concentrations in complexly structured, functional cells, one cell at a time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollman, Adam J M; Leake, Mark C

    2015-01-01

    We present a single-molecule tool called the CoPro (concentration of proteins) method that uses millisecond imaging with convolution analysis, automated image segmentation and super-resolution localization microscopy to generate robust estimates for protein concentration in different compartments of single living cells, validated using realistic simulations of complex multiple compartment cell types. We demonstrate its utility experimentally on model Escherichia coli bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae budding yeast cells, and use it to address the biological question of how signals are transduced in cells. Cells in all domains of life dynamically sense their environment through signal transduction mechanisms, many involving gene regulation. The glucose sensing mechanism of S. cerevisiae is a model system for studying gene regulatory signal transduction. It uses the multi-copy expression inhibitor of the GAL gene family, Mig1, to repress unwanted genes in the presence of elevated extracellular glucose concentrations. We fluorescently labelled Mig1 molecules with green fluorescent protein (GFP) via chromosomal integration at physiological expression levels in living S. cerevisiae cells, in addition to the RNA polymerase protein Nrd1 with the fluorescent protein reporter mCherry. Using CoPro we make quantitative estimates of Mig1 and Nrd1 protein concentrations in the cytoplasm and nucleus compartments on a cell-by-cell basis under physiological conditions. These estimates indicate a ∼4-fold shift towards higher values in the concentration of diffusive Mig1 in the nucleus if the external glucose concentration is raised, whereas equivalent levels in the cytoplasm shift to smaller values with a relative change an order of magnitude smaller. This compares with Nrd1 which is not involved directly in glucose sensing, and which is almost exclusively localized in the nucleus under high and low external glucose levels. CoPro facilitates time-resolved quantification of

  3. Study of short time effect on health of a local air pollution source. Epidemiological approach; Etude des effets a court terme sur la sante d'une source locale de pollution atmospherique. Approche epidemiologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzzo, J.Ch. [Institut National de Veille Sanitaire, Reseau National de Sante Publique, 94 - Saint-Maurice (France)

    2000-07-01

    This document applies to health professionals who are facing with a problem of risks evaluation relative to a local source of air pollution and envisage to realize an epidemiological study. In this document, only the short term effects are considered and the situations of accidental pollution are not treated. Without being a methodological treatise it can be a tool to better understand the constraints and the limits of epidemiology to answer the difficult question of the impact evaluation on health of populations living near a local source of air pollution. (N.C.)

  4. The time frame of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1 gene to disappear in nasopharyngeal swabs after initiation of primary radiotherapy is an independently significant prognostic factor predicting local control for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, S.-Y.; Chang, K.-P.; Hsieh, M.-S.; Ueng, S.-H.; Hao, S.-P.; Tseng, C.-K.; Pai, P.-C.; Chang, F.-T.; Tsai, M.-H.; Tsang, N.-M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The presence of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) gene in nasopharyngeal swabs indicates the presence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) mucosal tumor cells. This study was undertaken to investigate whether the time taken for LMP-1 to disappear after initiation of primary radiotherapy (RT) was inversely associated with NPC local control. Methods and Materials: During July 1999 and October 2002, there were 127 nondisseminated NPC patients receiving serial examinations of nasopharyngeal swabbing with detection of LMP-1 during the RT course. The time for LMP-1 regression was defined as the number of days after initiation of RT for LMP-1 results to turn negative. The primary outcome was local control, which was represented by freedom from local recurrence. Results: The time for LMP-1 regression showed a statistically significant influence on NPC local control both univariately (p < 0.0001) and multivariately (p = 0.004). In multivariate analysis, the administration of chemotherapy conferred a significantly more favorable local control (p = 0.03). Advanced T status (≥ T2b), overall treatment time of external photon radiotherapy longer than 55 days, and older age showed trends toward being poor prognosticators. The time for LMP-1 regression was very heterogeneous. According to the quartiles of the time for LMP-1 regression, we defined the pattern of LMP-1 regression as late regression if it required 40 days or more. Kaplan-Meier plots indicated that the patients with late regression had a significantly worse local control than those with intermediate or early regression (p 0.0129). Conclusion: Among the potential prognostic factors examined in this study, the time for LMP-1 regression was the most independently significant factor that was inversely associated with NPC local control

  5. Prolonged radiation time and low nadir hemoglobin during postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy are both poor prognostic factors with synergistic effect on locally advanced head and neck cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su NW

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nai-Wen Su,1 Chung-Ji Liu,2 Yi-Shing Leu,3 Jehn-Chuan Lee,3 Yu-Jen Chen,4 Yi-Fang Chang1,51Division of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 3Department of Otorhinolaryngology, 4Department of Radiation Oncology, 5Good Clinical Research Center, Department of Medical Research, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, TaiwanBackground: Anemia, a common complication of head and neck cancer treatment, is regarded as a poor prognostic factor. We evaluated the impact of low hemoglobin (Hb levels, measured at different time points, on a consecutive cohort of patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (LA-SCCHN who underwent postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT.Materials and methods: From 2002 to 2009, 140 patients were enrolled and reviewed retrospectively. Preoperative (pre-op Hb, pre-CCRT Hb, and nadir Hb during CCRT were measured and recorded. The three Hb parameters were analyzed against several well-established pathologic risk factors and radiation-associated variables. Prognostic impacts were investigated with multivariate analysis by Cox proportional hazards model.Results: On Cox regression analysis, significantly higher risk of death was associated with pre-op Hb %13 g/dL (hazard ratio [HR] =1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–3.1; P=0.023, nadir Hb %11 g/dL (HR =1.9; 95% CI, 1.1–3.3; P=0.020, radiation treatment time (RTT >7 weeks (HR =1.9; 95% CI, 1.1–3.3; P=0.022, and multiple positive lymph nodes (HR =2.1; 95% CI, 1.2–3.7; P=0.010, after adjusting for primary tumor site and pathologic lymphovascular invasion. Patients with poor prognosticators including low nadir Hb %11 g/dL and RTT >7 weeks had a higher risk of death (HR =4.0; 95% CI =1.6–10.2; P=0.004.Conclusion: In the treatment setting of LA-SCCHN patients who underwent postoperative CCRT, coexistance of lower nadir Hb during CCRT and prolonged RTT resulted in

  6. Expression of LRP and MDR1 in locally advanced breast cancer predicts axillary node invasion at the time of rescue mastectomy after induction chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, José; Gonzalez-Roces, Severino; Pollán, Marina; Lucas, Raul; Tejerina, Armando; Martin, Miguel; Alba, Alfonso

    2001-01-01

    total clinical response rate of 75.0%. None achieved a complete pathological response. MDR1 mRNA expression detected by RT-PCR was associated with the presence of invaded axillary nodes at surgery in 18/22 cases (81.8%), compared with 13/24 (54.2%) in the group with undetectable MDR1 expression. This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). LRP expression in more than 20% of tumor cells before any treatment was associated with axillary nodal metastasis after chemotherapy and rescue mastectomy in 17/23 cases, compared with 3/8 in nonexpressors. Again, this difference was highly significant (P < 0.01). LRP expression before treatment and MDR1 mRNA expression after treatment were significantly interrelated (P < 0.001), which might reflect the presence of chemoresistant clones liable to metastasize to the regional nodes. Persistence of previously detected MDR1-positivity after treatment (7/9 compared with 0/2 cases) was significantly associated with axillary node metastasis (P < 0.05). Finally, in a logistic regression multivariate model, histology other than ductal, a Ki67 labeling index of at least 20% and the combination of LRP and MDR1 positivity emerged as independent predictors of axillary node invasion at the time of rescue mastectomy. The expression of different genes involved in resistance to chemotherapy, both before and after treatment with neoadjuvant, is associated with the presence of axillary node invasion at rescue surgery in locally advanced breast cancer. This might reflect the presence of intrinsically resistant clones before any form of therapy, which persist after it, and could be helpful both for prognosis and for the choice of individual treatment

  7. Prostate-Specific Antigen Halving Time While on Neoadjuvant Androgen Deprivation Therapy Is Associated With Biochemical Control in Men Treated With Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, Renuka; Jani, Ashesh B.; Liauw, Stanley L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess whether the PSA response to neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is associated with biochemical control in men treated with radiation therapy (RT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: In a cohort of men treated with curative-intent RT for localized prostate cancer between 1988 and 2005, 117 men had PSA values after the first and second months of neoadjuvant ADT. Most men had intermediate-risk (45%) or high-risk (44%) disease. PSA halving time (PSAHT) was calculated by first order kinetics. Median RT dose was 76 Gy and median total duration of ADT was 4 months. Freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF, nadir + 2 definition) was analyzed by PSAHT and absolute PSA nadir before the start of RT. Results: Median follow-up was 45 months. Four-year FFBF was 89%. Median PSAHT was 2 weeks. A faster PSA decline (PSAHT ≤2 weeks) was associated with greater FFBF (96% vs. 81% for a PSAHT >2 weeks, p = 0.0110). Those within the fastest quartile of PSAHTs (≤ 10 days) achieved a FFBF of 100%. Among high-risk patients, a PSAHT ≤2 weeks achieved a 4-yr FFBF of 93% vs. 70% for those with PSAHT >2 weeks (p = 0.0508). Absolute PSA nadir was not associated with FFBF. On multivariable analysis, PSAHT (p = 0.0093) and Gleason score (p = 0.0320) were associated with FFBF, whereas T-stage (p = 0.7363) and initial PSA level (p = 0.9614) were not. Conclusions: For men treated with combined ADT and RT, PSA response to the first month of ADT may be a useful criterion for prognosis and treatment modification.

  8. Three-times-daily radiotherapy with induction chemotherapy in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Feasibility and toxicity study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalano, G.; Jereczek-Fossa, B.A.; Pas, T. de; Leon, M.E.; Cattani, F.; Spaggiari, L.; Veronesi, G.; Braud, F. de; Orecchia, R.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: to evaluate the feasibility and toxicity of three-times-daily radiotherapy (3tdRT), preceded by induction chemotherapy (iCT), in stage IIIA-IIIB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and methods: iCT consisted of three cycles of cisplatin and gemcitabine. Surgery was considered for stage IIIA patients responsive to iCT; definitive or postoperative 3tdRT was planned. Doses of 54.4 Gy and 64.6 Gy in postoperative and definitive treatments, respectively, were delivered in three daily fractions. Results: from February 1998 to October 2000, 37 patients received 3tdRT as definitive (n = 18) or postoperative treatment (n = 19). Toxicity was limited to RTOG grade 2 (25 patients, 67.6%) and grade 3 (four patients, 10.8%) acute esophagitis; no grade 3 late esophagitis occurred. Late lung toxicity was represented by one grade 3 pneumonitis. No correlation emerged between acute esophageal toxicity and irradiated esophageal volume or disease- and treatment-related factors. A significant correlation was found for stage (IIIA vs. IIIB; p = 0.03) and a trend for the N-class (N2 vs. N3; p = 0.08). Conclusion: in this experience of 3tdRT preceded by iCT, the low toxicity profile confirmed the feasibility of this combination. The limited statistical power does not permit a definition of predictors for radiation-induced esophagitis incidence and severity; additional studies are required to clarify the impact of volumetric and dosimetric parameters. Failure patterns and survival results are warranted to confirm the efficacy of this approach in locally advanced NSCLC. (orig.)

  9. Major Co-localized QTL for Plant Height, Branch Initiation Height, Stem Diameter, and Flowering Time in an Alien Introgression Derived Brassica napus DH Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusen Shen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant height (PH, branch initiation height (BIH, and stem diameter (SD are three stem-related traits that play crucial roles in plant architecture and lodging resistance. Herein, we show one doubled haploid (DH population obtained from a cross between Y689 (one Capsella bursa-pastoris derived Brassica napus intertribal introgression and Westar (B. napus cultivar that these traits were significantly positively correlated with one another and with flowering time (FT. Based on a high-density SNP map, a total of 102 additive quantitative trait loci (QTL were identified across six environments. Seventy-two consensus QTL and 49 unique QTL were identified using a two-round strategy of QTL meta-analysis. Notably, a total of 19 major QTL, including 11 novel ones, were detected for these traits, which comprised two QTL clusters on chromosomes A02 and A07. Conditional QTL mapping was performed to preliminarily evaluate the genetic basis (pleiotropy or tight linkage of the co-localized QTL. In addition, QTL by environment interactions (QEI mapping was performed to verify the additive QTL and estimate the QEI effect. In the genomic regions of all major QTL, orthologs of the genes involved in phytohormone biosynthesis, phytohormone signaling, flower development, and cell differentiation in Arabidopsis were proposed as candidate genes. Of these, BnaA02g02560, an ortholog of Arabidopsis GASA4, was suggested as a candidate gene for PH, SD, and FT; and BnaA02g08490, an ortholog of Arabidopsis GNL, was associated with PH, BIH and FT. These results provide useful information for further genetic studies on stem-related traits and plant growth adaptation.

  10. A first telecoupling analysis of multi-species poaching trade in Nepal: When outside demands seek and distribute a local resource in times of globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, G. R.; Lama, R. P.; Puri, G.; Huettmann, F.

    2016-12-01

    Asia remains one of the last wilderness resources in the world. It's widely praised for those resources and they are in a global appreciation and demand. Considering open borders, many of them virtually uncontrollable in Asia, and globalization in full swing, precious local resources become available to a global audience without much constraint though. Nepal and its unique biodiversity presents us with one of such cases while hard data remain elusive. Here we present a first telecoupling analysis based on poaching and crime statistics presented in the public print national daily newspapers (Kantipur and Gorkhapatra) in Nepal. This review highlights a few high-profile species (timber: Sal Shorea robusta , Sissoo Dalbergia sissoo, Pine Pinus species; aromatic and medicinal plants: Red Sandal Wood Santalum album, Orchid Orchid species, Paris Paris polyphylla, Jatamashi Nardostachys grandiflora, Kutki Picrorhyza scrophulariiflora and wildlife: Royal Bengal Tiger Panthera tigris tigris, Rhino Rhinoceros unicornis, Pangolin Manis species, Common Leopard Panthera pardus, Red Panda Ailurus fulgens, Snow Leopard Panthera uncia) in Nepal, traded out directly and illegally to India and China. We provide a wider perspective regarding sending, receiving and spill-over agents. Arguably, the western world as the spill-over agent set up a globalization framework that allows for items, virtually any items, to be shipped across borders, e.g. done on foot, by car or plane. It further allows to create and satisfy a demand by the receiver (=nations in wider Asia), and a system that circumvents the legal structure in the sending location (=Nepal and its biodiversity hotspots and wilderness). We extend the traditional telecoupling analysis with a flow analysis of money, remittance payments and banking networks. This research describes for the first time such a system which is by now essentially found worldwide, how it operates, what devastating impacts it leaves behind on landscapes, and

  11. Simulating Ru L3-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy with time-dependent density functional theory: model complexes and electron localization in mixed-valence metal dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kuiken, Benjamin E; Valiev, Marat; Daifuku, Stephanie L; Bannan, Caitlin; Strader, Matthew L; Cho, Hana; Huse, Nils; Schoenlein, Robert W; Govind, Niranjan; Khalil, Munira

    2013-05-30

    Ruthenium L3-edge X-ray absorption (XA) spectroscopy probes unoccupied 4d orbitals of the metal atom and is increasingly being used to investigate the local electronic structure in ground and excited electronic states of Ru complexes. The simultaneous development of computational tools for simulating Ru L3-edge spectra is crucial for interpreting the spectral features at a molecular level. This study demonstrates that time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is a viable and predictive tool for simulating ruthenium L3-edge XA spectroscopy. We systematically investigate the effects of exchange correlation functional and implicit and explicit solvent interactions on a series of Ru(II) and Ru(III) complexes in their ground and electronic excited states. The TDDFT simulations reproduce all of the experimentally observed features in Ru L3-edge XA spectra within the experimental resolution (0.4 eV). Our simulations identify ligand-specific charge transfer features in complicated Ru L3-edge spectra of [Ru(CN)6](4-) and Ru(II) polypyridyl complexes illustrating the advantage of using TDDFT in complex systems. We conclude that the B3LYP functional most accurately predicts the transition energies of charge transfer features in these systems. We use our TDDFT approach to simulate experimental Ru L3-edge XA spectra of transition metal mixed-valence dimers of the form [(NC)5M(II)-CN-Ru(III)(NH3)5](-) (where M = Fe or Ru) dissolved in water. Our study determines the spectral signatures of electron delocalization in Ru L3-edge XA spectra. We find that the inclusion of explicit solvent molecules is necessary for reproducing the spectral features and the experimentally determined valencies in these mixed-valence complexes. This study validates the use of TDDFT for simulating Ru 2p excitations using popular quantum chemistry codes and providing a powerful interpretive tool for equilibrium and ultrafast Ru L3-edge XA spectroscopy.

  12. The Effects of Voxel Localization and Time of Echo on the Diagnostic Accuracy of Cystic Brain Tumors in 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezvanizadeh, Alireza; Firouznia, Kavous; Salehi-Sadaghiani, Mohammad; Mohseni, Meisam; Gharaei, Dona; Ghanaati, Hossein; Saligheh Rad, Hamidreza; Masoudnia, Majid

    2012-01-01

    Although magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has been shown as an effective diagnostic tool in distinguishing inflammation from neoplasm in cystic brain lesions, the optimum approach in selecting the portions of lesions in MRS and the possible effects of different times of echoes (TEs) remains unknown. To determine the most effective TE in diagnosing neoplastic lesions based on detecting choline (Cho), N acetyl aspartate (NAA) and creatinine (Cr). Moreover, the role of voxel localization on the diagnosis of the neoplastic nature of the lesions is assessed through comparing the abovementioned metabolite ratios in the rim and center of each lesion with the same TE. In 16 patients with brain cystic tumors, MRS was performed at TEs of 30, 135 and 270 ms for detection of Cho, NAA and Cr metabolites using a 3 tesla MRI unit. The percentage of analyzed ratios greater than a cut-off point of 1.3 for Cho/Cr and 1.6 for Cho/NAA were calculated. Cho/Cr and Cho/NAA ratio means at all TEs were more at the central area in comparison with the periphery, although none of the differences were statistically significant. There was no statistically significant difference among the compared TEs. The percentages of ratios above the cut-off point at all TEs were more in the rim compared to the center and in the union of both compared to the rim or center. All the patients had at least one voxel with a Cho/Cr ratio of more than 1.3 when the voxel was chosen according to the hotspots shown in the chemical shift imaging map, regardless of their location at all examined TEs. Selection of voxels with the guide of chemical shift imaging map yields to 100% diagnostic sensitivity. If not accessible, the use of the union of peripheral and central voxels enhances the sensitivity when compared to usage of peripheral or central voxels solely

  13. Implementation of a new 'community' laboratory CD4 service in a rural health district in South Africa extends laboratory services and substantially improves local reporting turnaround time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, L M; Cassim, N; Glencross, D K

    2015-12-16

    The CD4 integrated service delivery model (ITSDM) provides for reasonable access to pathology services across South Africa (SA) by offering three new service tiers that extend services into remote, under-serviced areas. ITSDM identified Pixley ka Seme as such an under-serviced district. To address the poor service delivery in this area, a new ITSDM community (tier 3) laboratory was established in De Aar, SA. Laboratory performance and turnaround time (TAT) were monitored post implementation to assess the impact on local service delivery. Using the National Health Laboratory Service Corporate Data Warehouse, CD4 data were extracted for the period April 2012-July 2013 (n=11,964). Total mean TAT (in hours) was calculated and pre-analytical and analytical components assessed. Ongoing testing volumes, as well as external quality assessment performance across ten trials, were used to indicate post-implementation success. Data were analysed using Stata 12. Prior to the implementation of CD4 testing at De Aar, the total mean TAT was 20.5 hours. This fell to 8.2 hours post implementation, predominantly as a result of a lower pre-analytical mean TAT reducing from a mean of 18.9 to 1.8 hours. The analytical testing TAT remained unchanged after implementation and monthly test volumes increased by up to 20%. External quality assessment indicated adequate performance. Although subjective, questionnaires sent to facilities reported improved service delivery. Establishing CD4 testing in a remote community laboratory substantially reduces overall TAT. Additional community CD4 laboratories should be established in under-serviced areas, especially where laboratory infrastructure is already in place.

  14. Time delay and duration of ionospheric total electron content responses to geomagnetic disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although positive and negative signatures of ionospheric storms have been reported many times, global characteristics such as the time of occurrence, time delay and duration as well as their relations to the intensity of the ionospheric storms have not received enough attention. The 10 years of global ionosphere maps (GIMs of total electron content (TEC retrieved at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL were used to conduct a statistical study of the time delay of the ionospheric responses to geomagnetic disturbances. Our results show that the time delays between geomagnetic disturbances and TEC responses depend on season, magnetic local time and magnetic latitude. In the summer hemisphere at mid- and high latitudes, the negative storm effects can propagate to the low latitudes at post-midnight to the morning sector with a time delay of 4–7 h. As the earth rotates to the sunlight, negative phase retreats to higher latitudes and starts to extend to the lower latitude toward midnight sector. In the winter hemisphere during the daytime and after sunset at mid- and low latitudes, the negative phase appearance time is delayed from 1–10 h depending on the local time, latitude and storm intensity compared to the same area in the summer hemisphere. The quick response of positive phase can be observed at the auroral area in the night-side of the winter hemisphere. At the low latitudes during the dawn-noon sector, the ionospheric negative phase responses quickly with time delays of 5–7 h in both equinoctial and solsticial months.

    Our results also manifest that there is a positive correlation between the intensity of geomagnetic disturbances and the time duration of both the positive phase and negative phase. The durations of both negative phase and positive phase have clear latitudinal, seasonal and magnetic local time (MLT dependence. In the winter hemisphere, long durations for the positive phase are 8–11 h and 12–14 h during the daytime at

  15. Time delay and duration of ionospheric total electron content responses to geomagnetic disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although positive and negative signatures of ionospheric storms have been reported many times, global characteristics such as the time of occurrence, time delay and duration as well as their relations to the intensity of the ionospheric storms have not received enough attention. The 10 years of global ionosphere maps (GIMs of total electron content (TEC retrieved at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL were used to conduct a statistical study of the time delay of the ionospheric responses to geomagnetic disturbances. Our results show that the time delays between geomagnetic disturbances and TEC responses depend on season, magnetic local time and magnetic latitude. In the summer hemisphere at mid- and high latitudes, the negative storm effects can propagate to the low latitudes at post-midnight to the morning sector with a time delay of 4–7 h. As the earth rotates to the sunlight, negative phase retreats to higher latitudes and starts to extend to the lower latitude toward midnight sector. In the winter hemisphere during the daytime and after sunset at mid- and low latitudes, the negative phase appearance time is delayed from 1–10 h depending on the local time, latitude and storm intensity compared to the same area in the summer hemisphere. The quick response of positive phase can be observed at the auroral area in the night-side of the winter hemisphere. At the low latitudes during the dawn-noon sector, the ionospheric negative phase responses quickly with time delays of 5–7 h in both equinoctial and solsticial months. Our results also manifest that there is a positive correlation between the intensity of geomagnetic disturbances and the time duration of both the positive phase and negative phase. The durations of both negative phase and positive phase have clear latitudinal, seasonal and magnetic local time (MLT dependence. In the winter hemisphere, long durations for the positive phase are 8–11 h and 12–14 h during the daytime at middle

  16. Local food:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Donna Isabella Caroline

    2013-01-01

    are identified and then categorised according to whether they pertain to the food product itself or the production methods and facilities and whether they describe physical or social properties of local food. From this a model with four categories is developed. It is found that properties of the product are more......Recently there has been more focus on food in general and local food in particular. But what is local food? And what are the perceptions of this concept according to theory and to providers and consumers of local food? This article first summarises and compares three different theoretical...... perspectives on local food, namely experience economy, local food systems and what is termed pro-industrialism. These have differing and sometimes opposite conceptualisations and aims for the concept of local food. Using the perspective of experience economy as theoretical background, the concept of local food...

  17. Local Content

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Local content refers to materials and products made in a country as opposed those that are imported. There is an increasing interest in the concept of local content as a means of supporting local economies and providing jobs (Belderbos & Sleuwaegen...

  18. Isolated limb perfusion with tumor necrosis factor alpha and melphalan for locally advanced soft tissue sarcoma : Three time periods at risk for amputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ginkel, Robert J.; Thijssens, Katja M. J.; Pras, Elisabeth; van der Graaf, Winette T. A.; Suurmeijer, Albert J. H.; Hoekstra, Harald J.

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term limb salvage rate and overall survival after isolated limb perfusion (ILP) with tumor necrosis factor alpha and melphalan for locally advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Methods: From 1991 to 2003, 73 patients (36 men, 37 women,

  19. Cycling of clock genes entrained to the solar rhythm enables plants to tell time: data from Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeang, Hoong-Yeet

    2015-07-01

    An endogenous rhythm synchronized to dawn cannot time photosynthesis-linked genes to peak consistently at noon since the interval between sunrise and noon changes seasonally. In this study, a solar clock model that circumvents this limitation is proposed using two daily timing references synchronized to noon and midnight. Other rhythmic genes that are not directly linked to photosynthesis, and which peak at other times, also find an adaptive advantage in entrainment to the solar rhythm. Fourteen datasets extracted from three published papers were used in a meta-analysis to examine the cyclic behaviour of the Arabidopsis thaliana photosynthesis-related gene CAB2 and the clock oscillator genes TOC1 and LHY in T cycles and N-H cycles. Changes in the rhythms of CAB2, TOC1 and LHY in plants subjected to non-24-h light:dark cycles matched the hypothesized changes in their behaviour as predicted by the solar clock model, thus validating it. The analysis further showed that TOC1 expression peaked ∼5·5 h after mid-day, CAB2 peaked close to noon, while LHY peaked ∼7·5 h after midnight, regardless of the cycle period, the photoperiod or the light:dark period ratio. The solar clock model correctly predicted the zeitgeber timing of these genes under 11 different lighting regimes comprising combinations of seven light periods, nine dark periods, four cycle periods and four light:dark period ratios. In short cycles that terminated before LHY could be expressed, the solar clock correctly predicted zeitgeber timing of its expression in the following cycle. Regulation of gene phases by the solar clock enables the plant to tell the time, by which means a large number of genes are regulated. This facilitates the initiation of gene expression even before the arrival of sunrise, sunset or noon, thus allowing the plant to 'anticipate' dawn, dusk or mid-day respectively, independently of the photoperiod. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  20. Cycling of clock genes entrained to the solar rhythm enables plants to tell time: data from arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeang, Hoong-Yeet

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims An endogenous rhythm synchronized to dawn cannot time photosynthesis-linked genes to peak consistently at noon since the interval between sunrise and noon changes seasonally. In this study, a solar clock model that circumvents this limitation is proposed using two daily timing references synchronized to noon and midnight. Other rhythmic genes that are not directly linked to photosynthesis, and which peak at other times, also find an adaptive advantage in entrainment to the solar rhythm. Methods Fourteen datasets extracted from three published papers were used in a meta-analysis to examine the cyclic behaviour of the Arabidopsis thaliana photosynthesis-related gene CAB2 and the clock oscillator genes TOC1 and LHY in T cycles and N–H cycles. Key Results Changes in the rhythms of CAB2, TOC1 and LHY in plants subjected to non-24-h light:dark cycles matched the hypothesized changes in their behaviour as predicted by the solar clock model, thus validating it. The analysis further showed that TOC1 expression peaked ∼5·5 h after mid-day, CAB2 peaked close to noon, while LHY peaked ∼7·5 h after midnight, regardless of the cycle period, the photoperiod or the light:dark period ratio. The solar clock model correctly predicted the zeitgeber timing of these genes under 11 different lighting regimes comprising combinations of seven light periods, nine dark periods, four cycle periods and four light:dark period ratios. In short cycles that terminated before LHY could be expressed, the solar clock correctly predicted zeitgeber timing of its expression in the following cycle. Conclusions Regulation of gene phases by the solar clock enables the plant to tell the time, by which means a large number of genes are regulated. This facilitates the initiation of gene expression even before the arrival of sunrise, sunset or noon, thus allowing the plant to ‘anticipate’ dawn, dusk or mid-day respectively, independently of the photoperiod. PMID:26070640

  1. Just in Time Strategy and Financial Performance of Small Scale Industry in Ogun State: A Study of ADO-ODO/OTA Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Amaechi Egbunike

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many manufacturing firms have decided to implement just in time technique as a strategic cost management to survive and remain competitive in their business environment. The study examines how just in time technique has assisted in reducing inventory cost management and improve the firm profit level. The specific objective is to ascertain the influence of purchases and sales on return on equity of small scale manufacturing industry. Survey design was used for the study. Sample frame was purposively selected for convenience sake. Data was collected though secondary source. Regression analysis was employed to analyze the data. The study found positive relationship between just in time implementation and profit level of small scale business industry. We recommend other small scale businesses that have not started implementing just in time strategy to start the strategy. We encourage future researcher to examine the efficiency of just in time strategy among petty small scale trader in our urban centers.

  2. Experimental validation of a real time energy management system for microgrids in islanded mode using a local day-ahead electricity market and MINLP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzband, Mousa; Sumper, Andreas; Domínguez-García, José Luis; Gumara-Ferret, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • An algorithm is developed to enhance Microgrid performance. • Local energy market cost model is proposed to obtain the cheapest price. • Several real technical and market scenarios are considered in the study. • Simulation and experimental results demonstrate a significant reduction in cost. - Abstract: Energy management systems (EMS) are vital supervisory control tools used to optimally operate and schedule Microgrids (MG). In this paper, an EMS algorithm based on mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) is presented for MG in islanding mode considering different scenarios. A local energy market (LEM) is also proposed with in this EMS to obtain the cheapest price, maximizing the utilization of distributed energy resources. The proposed energy management is based on LEM and allows scheduling the MG generation with minimum information shared sent by generation units. Load demand management is carried out by demand response concept to improve reliability and efficiency as well as to reduce the total cost of energy (COE). Simulations are performed with real data to test the performance and accuracy of the proposed algorithm. The proposed algorithm is experimentally tested to evaluate processing speed as well as to validate the results obtained from the simulation setup on a real MG Testbed. The results of the EMS–MINLP based on LEM are compared with a conventional EMS based on LEM. Simulation and experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm which provides a reduction of 15% in COE, in comparison with conventional EMS

  3. Milligan-Morgan hemorrhoidectomy under local anesthesia - an old operation that stood the test of time. A single-team experience with 2,280 operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argov, Samuel; Levandovsky, Olga; Yarhi, Danielle

    2012-07-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the morbidity and efficacy of Milligan-Morgan (M&M) hemorrhoidectomy in comparison to novel techniques (e.g., hemorrhoidal artery ligation [HAL], stapler hemorrhoidopexy [PPH]). This is a retrospective review of a single-team experience with 2,280 M&M hemorrhoidectomy patients, with 1-12 years follow-up. All patients were operated upon in jack-knife position, using local anesthesia under light sedation in an ambulatory facility. This method allowed us to operate on 40 pregnant women. All operations were performed using simple, commercially available instruments. We found negligible morbidity, no mortality and a very efficient operation on long-term follow-up. The surgical literature is littered with dreadful complications and even mortality from stapled hemorrhoidopexy (Giordano et al., Dis Colon Rectum 51:1574-1576, 2008; Brown et al., Tech Coloproctol 11:357-358, 2007; Cipriani and Pescatori, Colorectal Dis 4:367-370, 2002; Mongardini et al., G Chir 26:275-277, 2005) and the inefficiency of Doppler HAL (Faucheron and Gangner, Dis Colon Rectum 51:945-949, 2008; Scheyer et al., Am J Surg, 191:89-93, 2006). In days of soaring medical expenditures, nobody will argue about the superiority of M&M hemorrhoidectomy as the cheapest operation available. In all aspects, M&M hemorrhoidectomy under local anesthesia beats its competitors in terms of morbidity, mortality, long-term efficiency and low cost.

  4. Operative Start Time Does Not Affect Post-Operative Infection Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidry, Christopher A; Davies, Stephen W; Willis, Rhett N; Dietch, Zachary C; Shah, Puja M; Sawyer, Robert G

    2016-10-01

    Surgical care is delivered 24 h a day at most institutions. Alarmingly, some authors have found that certain operative start times are associated with greater morbidity and mortality rates. This effect has been noted in both the public and private sector. Although some of these differences may be related to process, they may also be caused by the human circadian rhythm and corresponding changes in host defenses. We hypothesized that the time of day of an operation would impact the frequency of certain post-operative outcomes significantly. Cases at a single tertiary-care center reported to the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program over a 10-year period were identified. Operative start times were divided into six-hour blocks, with 6 am to noon serving as the reference. Standard univariable techniques were applied. Multivariable logistic regression with mixed effects modeling then was used to determine the relation between operative start times and infectious outcomes, controlling for surgeon clustering. Statistical significance was set at p operative infectious complication. Seventy percent of these infections (n = 1,506) were surgical site infections. On univariable analysis considering all cases, nighttime and evening operations had higher rates of post-operative infections than those in performed during the day (9.1% from 6 am to noon; 9.7% from noon to 6 pm; 14.8% from 6 pm to midnight; and 14.4% from midnight to 6 am; p operative start time was not associated with the risk of post-operative infection, even when emergency cases were considered independently. Our data suggest that operative start times have no correlation with post-operative infectious complications. Further work is required to identify the source of the time-dependent outcome variability observed in previous studies.

  5. Cardiac pre-competiton screening in Swiss athletes. Current situation in competitive athletes and short-time assessment of an exemplary local screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, Christian; Notz, Sara; Cribari, Marco; Gähwiler, Roman; Keller, Dagmar I; Lüscher, Thomas F

    2012-05-31

    In Switzerland, screening concepts for the prevention of sports-associated sudden cardiac death are still insufficiently established in the large group of competitive athletes who are not integrated in an Olympic- or other high-level squad. The aim of the present study was to objectively determine the current situation in this particular group of athletes concerning cardiac pre-competition screening and define specific features of an "ideal" Swiss screening concept. Based on these data, the feasibility and validity was tested by the implementation of an exemplary local screening programme. A standardised questionnaire was completed by 1,047 competitive athletes of different ages and gender. The individual, sports-specific profile of an athlete and furthermore, the personal attitude towards and the vision of a "perfect" cardiac screening were assessed. Based on the results, an exemplary local screening programme for competitive athletes was implemented at the "Academic Sports Association Zurich" (ASVZ) in Zurich, Switzerland and evaluated 1 year after its introduction. Only 9% of the 1,047 interviewed competitive athletes (aged 13 to 64 years; median age 22 years, SD = 5.87) had previously undergone a cardiac screening. Only 47% of the interviewed competitive athletes expressed their interest to undergo a cardiac screening at all. Male and older athletes showed a significantly higher acceptance rate for the screening programme than women and younger athletes. All athletes accepted to bear the expenses for the baseline screening programme, adapted to international standards (minimal accepted fee of 60 Swiss Francs). Almost half of the athletes (49.2%) preferred easy accessibility to a sports cardiologist (max. distance of 10 kilometres). The exemplary local screening programme proved to be feasible and successful. However, only 30% of the 102 screened individuals were female and most of the athletes (80%) who made use of the screening had a specific concern or

  6. Just in Time Strategy and Financial Performance of Small Scale Industry in Ogun State: A Study of ADO-ODO/OTA Local Government

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Amaechi Egbunike; Osazee Graham Imade

    2017-01-01

    Many manufacturing firms have decided to implement just in time technique as a strategic cost management to survive and remain competitive in their business environment. The study examines how just in time technique has assisted in reducing inventory cost management and improve the firm profit level. The specific objective is to ascertain the influence of purchases and sales on return on equity of small scale manufacturing industry. Survey design was used for the study. Sample frame was purpo...

  7. Direct Detection of a Chemical Equilibrium between a Localized Singlet Diradical and Its σ-Bonded Species by Time-Resolved UV/Vis and IR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshidomi, Shohei; Mishima, Megumi; Seyama, Shin; Abe, Manabu; Fujiwara, Yoshihisa; Ishibashi, Taka-Aki

    2017-03-06

    Localized singlet diradicals are key intermediates in bond homolyses. The singlet diradicals are energetically much less stable than the σ-bonded species. In general, only one-way reactions from diradicals to σ-bonded species are observed. In this study, a thermal equilibrium between a singlet 1,2-diazacyclopentane-3,5-diyl diradical and the corresponding σ-bonded species was directly observed. The singlet diradical was more stable than the σ-bonded species. The solvent effect clarified key features, such as the zwitterionic character of the singlet diradical. The effect of the nitrogen atoms is discussed in detail. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Characteristics of Kentucky local health departments that influence public health communication during times of crisis: information dissemination associated with H1N1 novel influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Alex F; Bush, Heather M; Shapiro, Robert M; Dearinger, Angela

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of selected characteristics of local health departments (LHDs) in Kentucky with the receipt of information by external stakeholders, specifically physicians and pharmacists, during the initial H1N1 outbreak of 2009. This study utilized a cross-sectional survey to gather characteristic information from local health departments. In addition, cross sectional surveys of physicians and pharmacists were used to determine information receipt. All 54 LHDs in Kentucky were surveyed; however, only those physicians belonging to the Kentucky Family Physician Association or the Kentucky Ambulatory Network were surveyed. Also, pharmacists included in this survey were members of the Kentucky Pharmacist Association. Descriptive data analyses, including chi-square test of independence, were conducted, and generalized estimating equations were used to calculate odds ratios to depict associations related to information exchange in this study. Response rates for the study were as follows: LHDs 65% (35/54), physicians 18.5% (96/518), and pharmacists 21.1% (211/1000). Of the 35 participating LHDs the most common characteristic identified was the presence of a public information officer (PIO) and a pandemic influenza plan, 76% and 64%, respectively. Despite these factors, 72% of external stakeholders did not receive any information regarding H1N1 from the LHD. Generalized estimating equations also indicated that stakeholders in jurisdictions lacking a PIO had 6 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-26.95) greater odds of not receiving information from the LHD. External stakeholders in jurisdictions without a pandemic influenza plan had 3.38 (95% confidence interval, 0.80-1.17) increased odds of not receiving information but this association was not statistically significant. Observations from this study indicate a need to improve information exchange between LHDs and their external stakeholders, specifically physicians and pharmacists

  9. Locally distributed ground deformation in an area of potential phreatic eruption, Midagahara volcano, Japan, detected by single-look-based InSAR time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tomokazu

    2018-05-01

    Although it is difficult to monitor the spatial extent and temporal evolution of local and small-magnitude ground inflation, this information is vital to assess the potential for phreatic eruption. Herein, we demonstrate the detection of locally distributed ground deformation preceding the enhancement of geothermal activity in the Midagahara volcano, Japan, through the application of single-look-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar analysis. In the Jigoku-dani geothermal area, the ground deformation proceeded at a low speed of 4 cm/year at most with a spatial extent of 500 m in the east-west direction and 250 m in the north-south direction. The deformation can be recognized to progress from 2007, at the latest, to 2010, after which the geothermal activity increased, with the collapse of sulfur towers and the appearance of active fumaroles and boiling water on the ground surface. The most deformed area corresponds to the geothermal area with the highest activity observed on the ground surface. Assuming a sill opening model, the deformation source is estimated to be located at a depth of 50 m from the surface with a speed of 7 cm/year at most, which is consistent with the depth of the highly conductive medium inferred from magnetotelluric analyses. This may suggest that volcanic fluid and/or heat was injected into the fluid-rich medium from depth and caused the ground inflation. Our results demonstrate that high-spatial-resolution deformation data can be an effective tool to monitor subsurface pressure conditions with pinpoint spatial accuracy during the build-up to phreatic eruptions.

  10. Influencing connectivity and cross-frequency coupling by real-time source localized neurofeedback of the posterior cingulate cortex reduces tinnitus related distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Vanneste

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study we are using source localized neurofeedback to moderate tinnitus related distress by influencing neural activity of the target region as well as the connectivity within the default network. Hypothesis: We hypothesize that up-training alpha and down-training beta and gamma activity in the posterior cingulate cortex has a moderating effect on tinnitus related distress by influencing neural activity of the target region as well as the connectivity within the default network and other functionally connected brain areas. Methods: Fifty-eight patients with chronic tinnitus were included in the study. Twenty-three tinnitus patients received neurofeedback training of the posterior cingulate cortex with the aim of up-training alpha and down-training beta and gamma activity, while 17 patients underwent training of the lingual gyrus as a control situation. A second control group consisted of 18 tinnitus patients on a waiting list for future tinnitus treatment. Results: This study revealed that neurofeedback training of the posterior cingulate cortex results in a significant decrease of tinnitus related distress. No significant effect on neural activity of the target region could be obtained. However, functional and effectivity connectivity changes were demonstrated between remote brain regions or functional networks as well as by altering cross frequency coupling of the posterior cingulate cortex. Conclusion: This suggests that neurofeedback could remove the information, processed in beta and gamma, from the carrier wave, alpha, which transports the high frequency information and influences the salience attributed to the tinnitus sound. Based on the observation that much pathology is the result of an abnormal functional connectivity within and between neural networks various pathologies should be considered eligible candidates for the application of source localized EEG based neurofeedback training. Keywords: Posterior cingulate

  11. Blood and hair mercury concentrations among Cree First Nations of Eeyou Istchee (Quebec, Canada): time trends, prenatal exposure and links to local fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Susannah; Robinson, Elizabeth; Johnson-Down, Louise; Andermann, Anne; Ayotte, Pierre; Lucas, Michel; Nieboer, Evert

    2018-12-01

    To describe exposure to methylmercury among Cree, focusing on women of childbearing age, we used data from 2 studies. Multiple regression was employed to examine associations between blood and hair mercury concentrations and consumption of locally harvested fish. Approximately 9.9% of non-pregnant women aged 15-44 y and 3.9% of pregnant women required follow-up according to Health Canada's blood mercury guidance value of 40 nmol/L. 8% of hair mercury observations in the non-pregnant women and 2.5% among pregnant women exceeded the equivalent threshold of 10 nmol/g. The geometric mean blood mercury concentration was 12.7 nmol/L in 1,429 persons aged 8 and over, and 17.7 nmol/L in adults aged 18 and older. The proportion of hair mercury concentrations greater than 12.5 nmol/g decreased in all age-sex groups when comparing the 2002-2009 data to published values for 1993-1994. Among women of childbearing age, local fish consumption was associated with increased blood and hair mercury concentrations. While over 90% of women of childbearing age in this population have acceptable levels of mercury, ongoing intake of mercury suggests that their consumption of fish with known high mercury content be minimised. Reducing consumption of fish known to be high in mercury content needs to be balanced with promoting ongoing connection to Cree culture and land-based activities that are also important determinants of health.

  12. A High-Precision RF Time-of-Flight Measurement Method based on Vernier Effect for Localization of Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-il KO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the fundamental principles of a high-precision RF time-of-flight (ToF measurement method based on the vernier effect, which enables the improvement of time measurement resolution, for accurate distance measurement between sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks. Similar to the two scales of the vernier caliper, two heterogeneous clocks are employed to induce a new virtual time resolution that is much finer than clocks’ intrinsic time resolution. Consecutive RF signal transmission and sensing using two heterogeneous clocks generates a unique sensing pattern for the RF ToF, so that the size of the RF ToF can be estimated by comparing the measured sensing pattern with the predetermined sensing patterns for the RF ToF. RF ToF measurement experiments using this heterogeneous clock system, which has low operating frequencies of several megahertz, certify the proposed RF ToF measurement method through the evaluation of the measured sensing patterns with respect to an RF round-trip time of several nanoseconds.

  13. A quantitative method to track protein translocation between intracellular compartments in real-time in live cells using weighted local variance image analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Calmettes

    Full Text Available The genetic expression of cloned fluorescent proteins coupled to time-lapse fluorescence microscopy has opened the door to the direct visualization of a wide range of molecular interactions in living cells. In particular, the dynamic translocation of proteins can now be explored in real time at the single-cell level. Here we propose a reliable, easy-to-implement, quantitative image processing method to assess protein translocation in living cells based on the computation of spatial variance maps of time-lapse images. The method is first illustrated and validated on simulated images of a fluorescently-labeled protein translocating from mitochondria to cytoplasm, and then applied to experimental data obtained with fluorescently-labeled hexokinase 2 in different cell types imaged by regular or confocal microscopy. The method was found to be robust with respect to cell morphology changes and mitochondrial dynamics (fusion, fission, movement during the time-lapse imaging. Its ease of implementation should facilitate its application to a broad spectrum of time-lapse imaging studies.

  14. The JET Alfven Eigenmode Local Manager for the real-time detection and tracking of a frequency-degenerate spectrum of MHD instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, D.; Carfantan, H.; Fasoli, A.; Goodyear, A.; King, Q.; Blanchard, P.; Klein, A.; Lavanchy, P.; Panis, T.

    2011-01-01

    We present the real-time VME system used to detect and track MHD instabilities, and particularly Alfven Eigenmodes, on the JET tokamak [J. Wesson, Tokamaks, 3rd ed., Oxford Science Publication, Oxford, 2003, p. 617]. This system runs on a 1 kHz clock cycle, and allows performing a real-time, unsupervised and blind detection, decomposition and tracking of the individual components in a frequency-degenerate, multi-harmonic spectrum, using a small number of input data which are unevenly sampled in the spatial domain. This makes it possible to follow in real-time the detected modes as the plasma background evolves, and measure in real-time their frequency, damping rate, toroidal mode-number and relative amplitude. The successful implementation of this system opens a clear path towards developing real-time control tools for electro-magnetic instabilities in future fusion devices aimed at achieving a net energy gain, such as ITER [J. Wesson, Tokamaks, 3rd ed., Oxford Science Publication, Oxford, 2003, p. 711].

  15. Predictions of local ground geomagnetic field fluctuations during the 7-10 November 2004 events studied with solar wind driven models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Wintoft

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The 7-10 November 2004 period contains two events for which the local ground magnetic field was severely disturbed and simultaneously, the solar wind displayed several shocks and negative Bz periods. Using empirical models the 10-min RMS and at Brorfelde (BFE, 11.67° E, 55.63° N, Denmark, are predicted. The models are recurrent neural networks with 10-min solar wind plasma and magnetic field data as inputs. The predictions show a good agreement during 7 November, up until around noon on 8 November, after which the predictions become significantly poorer. The correlations between observed and predicted log RMS is 0.77 during 7-8 November but drops to 0.38 during 9-10 November. For RMS the correlations for the two periods are 0.71 and 0.41, respectively. Studying the solar wind data for other L1-spacecraft (WIND and SOHO it seems that the ACE data have a better agreement to the near-Earth solar wind during the first two days as compared to the last two days. Thus, the accuracy of the predictions depends on the location of the spacecraft and the solar wind flow direction. Another finding, for the events studied here, is that the and models showed a very different dependence on Bz. The model is almost independent of the solar wind magnetic field Bz, except at times when Bz is exceptionally large or when the overall activity is low. On the contrary, the model shows a strong dependence on Bz at all times.

  16. Predictions of local ground geomagnetic field fluctuations during the 7-10 November 2004 events studied with solar wind driven models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Wintoft

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The 7-10 November 2004 period contains two events for which the local ground magnetic field was severely disturbed and simultaneously, the solar wind displayed several shocks and negative Bz periods. Using empirical models the 10-min RMS and at Brorfelde (BFE, 11.67° E, 55.63° N, Denmark, are predicted. The models are recurrent neural networks with 10-min solar wind plasma and magnetic field data as inputs. The predictions show a good agreement during 7 November, up until around noon on 8 November, after which the predictions become significantly poorer. The correlations between observed and predicted log RMS is 0.77 during 7-8 November but drops to 0.38 during 9-10 November. For RMS the correlations for the two periods are 0.71 and 0.41, respectively. Studying the solar wind data for other L1-spacecraft (WIND and SOHO it seems that the ACE data have a better agreement to the near-Earth solar wind during the first two days as compared to the last two days. Thus, the accuracy of the predictions depends on the location of the spacecraft and the solar wind flow direction. Another finding, for the events studied here, is that the and models showed a very different dependence on Bz. The model is almost independent of the solar wind magnetic field Bz, except at times when Bz is exceptionally large or when the overall activity is low. On the contrary, the model shows a strong dependence on Bz at all times.

  17. Localized Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Is Localized Scleroderma Diagnosed? Doctors who are familiar with scleroderma, or who are experts at examining ... systemic treatment with a medication or other treatment interventions (for example, ultraviolet light), are reserved for more ...

  18. Générateur de timing local pour l'acquisition des transformateurs rapides (LEIR, LINAC 3, LINAC 2, Ligne d'injection PSB)

    CERN Document Server

    Schnell, J D

    2006-01-01

    Dans le cadre des acquisitions des transformateurs rapides des deux LINACS, de la ligne d'injection PSB et de la machine LEIR, un nouveau hardware a été mis en opération [1]. Celui-ci assure la digitalisation des signaux analogiques et aussi de certains signaux de timing devant cadrer la mesure. Pour ce faire des ADC SIS3300 (SIS3320) et des DPRAM 80408 sont mis en service. Ces unités nécéssitent pour leur fonctionnement des horloges et des timings qui normalement sont intégralement fournis par l'équipement standard CO, notamment des CTRV et autres TG8. Suite à des problèmes d'approvisionnement, il existe des cas où l'on ne dispose pas (du moins pour le court terme) de suffisemment de ressources standard pour pourvoir au timing mentionné plus haut. Le tiroir qui fait l'objet de la présente description assure, avec certaines limitations, la génération des timings et autres horloges utilisées par les DPRAM 80408 et les ADC SIS3300.

  19. Real-time detection system for tumor localization during minimally invasive surgery for gastric and colon cancer removal: In vivo feasibility study in a swine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won Jung; Moon, Jin-Hee; Min, Jae Seok; Song, Yong Keun; Lee, Seung A; Ahn, Jin Woo; Lee, Sang Hun; Jung, Ha Chul

    2018-03-01

    During minimally invasive surgery (MIS), it is impossible to directly detect marked clips around tumors via palpation. Therefore, we developed a novel method and device using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) technology to detect the position of clips during minimally invasive gastrectomy or colectomy. The feasibility of the RFID-based detection system was evaluated in an animal experiment consisting of seven swine. The primary outcome was to successfully detect the location of RFID clips in the stomach and colon. The secondary outcome measures were to detect time (time during the intracorporeal detection of the RFID clip), and accuracy (distance between the RFID clip and the detected site). A total of 25 detection attempts (14 in the stomach and 11 in the colon) using the RFID antenna had a 100% success rate. The median detection time was 32.5 s (range, 15-119 s) for the stomach and 28.0 s (range, 8-87 s) for the colon. The median detection distance was 6.5 mm (range, 4-18 mm) for the stomach and 6.0 mm (range, 3-13 mm) for the colon. We demonstrated favorable results for a RFID system that detects the position of gastric and colon tumors in real-time during MIS. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Prostate-specific antigen doubling time as a progression criterion in an active surveillance programme for patients with localized prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik Birkebaek; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Brasso, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the role of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time (PSAdt) as a progression criterion in patients with low-risk prostate cancer managed by active surveillance (AS). To assess the correlation between PSAdt during AS and final histopathology after radical prostatectomy...

  1. Simultaneous recording of brain extracellular glucose, spike and local field potential in real time using an implantable microelectrode array with nano-materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wenjing; Song, Yilin; Fan, Xinyi; Zhang, Song; Wang, Li; Xu, Shengwei; Wang, Mixia; Cai, Xinxia

    2016-03-01

    Glucose is the main substrate for neurons in the central nervous system. In order to efficiently characterize the brain glucose mechanism, it is desirable to determine the extracellular glucose dynamics as well as the corresponding neuroelectrical activity in vivo. In the present study, we fabricated an implantable microelectrode array (MEA) probe composed of platinum electrochemical and electrophysiology microelectrodes by standard micro electromechanical system (MEMS) processes. The MEA probe was modified with nano-materials and implanted in a urethane-anesthetized rat for simultaneous recording of striatal extracellular glucose, local field potential (LFP) and spike on the same spatiotemporal scale when the rat was in normoglycemia, hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. During these dual-mode recordings, we observed that increase of extracellular glucose enhanced the LFP power and spike firing rate, while decrease of glucose had an opposite effect. This dual mode MEA probe is capable of examining specific spatiotemporal relationships between electrical and chemical signaling in the brain, which will contribute significantly to improve our understanding of the neuron physiology.

  2. Simultaneous recording of brain extracellular glucose, spike and local field potential in real time using an implantable microelectrode array with nano-materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Wenjing; Song, Yilin; Fan, Xinyi; Zhang, Song; Wang, Li; Xu, Shengwei; Wang, Mixia; Cai, Xinxia

    2016-01-01

    Glucose is the main substrate for neurons in the central nervous system. In order to efficiently characterize the brain glucose mechanism, it is desirable to determine the extracellular glucose dynamics as well as the corresponding neuroelectrical activity in vivo. In the present study, we fabricated an implantable microelectrode array (MEA) probe composed of platinum electrochemical and electrophysiology microelectrodes by standard micro electromechanical system (MEMS) processes. The MEA probe was modified with nano-materials and implanted in a urethane-anesthetized rat for simultaneous recording of striatal extracellular glucose, local field potential (LFP) and spike on the same spatiotemporal scale when the rat was in normoglycemia, hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. During these dual-mode recordings, we observed that increase of extracellular glucose enhanced the LFP power and spike firing rate, while decrease of glucose had an opposite effect. This dual mode MEA probe is capable of examining specific spatiotemporal relationships between electrical and chemical signaling in the brain, which will contribute significantly to improve our understanding of the neuron physiology. (paper)

  3. New Communication Technologies, Local Journalism and the Perception of Locality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali ÖZCAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on local journalism as an important element of participatory democracy generally focus on the history of the local press, the financial insufficiencies of local newspapers as well as technical/ technological incompetency that occurs as a result of these factors. This research analyzes local newspapers with a new scientific point of view by focusing on the perception of locality as a mental projection of geographical constraint. Perspectives regarding the transformations on perceptions of locality as a result of the disappearance of time and space constraints due to new communication technologies, and the opportunities that new communication environments offer to local newspapers will be provided. Moreover, the ways in which local newspapers reflect on locality with their printed versions under time and space constraints will be analyzed. The research scope of the study has been limited to 15 newspapers in Konya. Structured interviews and content analysis methods were used for data collection and analysis.

  4. Quality assurance of a system for improved target localization and patient set-up that combines real-time infrared tracking and stereoscopic X-ray imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verellen, Dirk; Soete, Guy; Linthout, Nadine; Van Acker, Swana; De Roover, Patsy; Vinh-Hung, Vincent; Van de Steene, Jan; Storme, Guy

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the positional accuracy of a prototype X-ray imaging tool in combination with a real-time infrared tracking device allowing automated patient set-up in three dimensions. A prototype X-ray imaging tool has been integrated with a commercially released real-time infrared tracking device. The system, consisting of two X-ray tubes mounted to the ceiling and a centrally located amorphous silicon detector has been developed for automated patient positioning from outside the treatment room prior to treatment. Two major functions are supported: (a) automated fusion of the actual treatment images with digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) representing the desired position; (b) matching of implanted radio opaque markers. Measurements of known translational (up to 30.0mm) and rotational (up to 4.0 degrees ) set-up errors in three dimensions as well as hidden target tests have been performed on anthropomorphic phantoms. The system's accuracy can be represented with the mean three-dimensional displacement vector, which yielded 0.6mm (with an overall SD of 0.9mm) for the fusion of DRRs and X-ray images. Average deviations between known translational errors and calculations varied from -0.3 to 0.6mm with a stan