WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonzero rest mass

  1. Motion of particles of non-zero rest masses exterior to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, we extend the metric tensor exterior to astrophysically real or imaginary spherical distributions of mass whose tensor field varies with polar angle only; to derive equations of motion for test particles in this field. The time, radial, polar and azimuthal equations of motion for particles of non-zero rest masses moving ...

  2. Interferometry with particles of non-zero rest mass: topological experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opat, G.I.

    1994-01-01

    Interferometry as a space-time process is described, together with its topology. Starting from this viewpoint, a convenient unified formalism for the phase shifts which arise in particle interferometry is developed. This formalism is based on a covariant form of Hamilton's action principle and Lagrange's equations of motion. It will be shown that this Lorentz invariant formalism yields a simple perturbation theoretic expression for the general phase shift that arises in matter-wave interferometry. The Lagrangian formalism is compared with the more usual formalism based on the wave propagation vector and frequency. The resulting formalism will be used to analyse the Sagnac effect, gravitational field measurements, and several Aharonov-Bohm-like topological phase shifts. Several topological interferometric experiments using particles of non-zero rest mass are discussed. These experiments involve the use of electrons, neutrons and neutral atoms. Neutron experiments will be emphasised. 45 refs., 15 figs

  3. A two-component wave equation for particles of spin 1/2 and non-zero rest mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, T.

    1981-11-01

    We have discussed here the qualifications of the equation (delta 0 +sigmasup(k)deltasub(k))psi = -kappaTpsi, where deltasub(μ) is identical to delta/deltaxsup(μ), sigmasup(k) are the Pauli spin matrices, T is the linear operator which changes the sign of t, kappa=m 0 c/(h/2π) and psi a function with two components, as a suitable wave equation for a spin 1/2 particle with non-zero rest mass. We have established that both components of all its solutions satisfy the Klein-Gordon equation and that a 1-1 correspondence can be set up between its solutions and the positive energy solutions of the Dirac equation which preserves inner products (suitably defined for our case). We have then gone on to show covariance under transformations of the proper Lorentz group as also under space and time inversions and translations. Eigenfunctions of energy-momentum and spin have been explicitly found and it is shown that causality is preserved and a Green's function exists. A list appears, at the end, of points to be discussed in Part II of this paper, points which, it is hoped, will complete the acceptability of the theory. (author)

  4. Complete orthonormal sets on the past light cone - II: Functions belonging to spin 1/2 and non-zero rest mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, G.H.

    1987-12-01

    This is the second of a series of papers preparing the mathematical framework for a past light cone formulation for the quantum mechanics of particles of arbitrary mass and spin. The aim of past light cone quantum theory is to define quantum states solely in terms of data accessible to an observer, i.e. information from within his current past light cone. In order to set up such a theory one needs to define on the past light cone complete orthonormal sets of functions which belong to the appropriate representation of the Poincare group. Such functions are interpreted as energy-momentum eigenfunctions. The present paper treats the case of spin 1/2 and non-zero rest mass. (author). 7 refs

  5. Neutrino Mass Models: impact of non-zero reactor angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Stephen F.

    2011-01-01

    In this talk neutrino mass models are reviewed and the impact of a non-zero reactor angle and other deviations from tri-bi maximal mixing are discussed. We propose some benchmark models, where the only way to discriminate between them is by high precision neutrino oscillation experiments.

  6. Implications of nonzero θ13 for the neutrino mass hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, D J; Cogswell, B K; Burroughs, H R; Escamilla-Roa, J; Latimer, D C

    2012-01-01

    The Daya Bay, RENO, and Double Chooz experiments have discovered a large non-zero value for θ 13 . We present a global analysis that includes these three experiments, Chooz, the Super-K atmospheric data, and the ν μ → ν e T2K and MINOS experiments that are sensitive to the hierarchy and the sign of θ 13 . We report preliminary results in which we fix the mixing parameters other than θ 13 to those from a recent global analysis. Given there is no evidence for a non-zero CP violation, we assume δ = 0. T2K and MINOS lie in a region of L/E where there is a hierarchy degeneracy in the limit of θ 13 → 0 and no matter interaction. For nonzero θ 13 , the symmetry is partially broken, but a degeneracy under the simultaneous exchange of both hierarchy and the sign of θ 13 remains. Matter effects break this symmetry such that the positions of the peaks in the oscillation probabilities maintain the two-fold symmetry, while the magnitude of the oscillations is sensitive to the hierarchy. This renders T2K and NOvA, with different baselines and different matter effects, better able in combination to distinguish the hierarchy and the sign of θ 13 . The present T2K and MINOS data do not distinguish between hierarchies or the sign of θ 13 , but the large value of θ 13 yields effects from atmospheric data that do. We find for normal hierarchy, positive θ 13 , sin 2 2θ 13 = 0.090 ± 0.020 and is 0.2% probable it is the correct combination; for normal hierarchy, negative θ 13 , sin 2 2θ 13 = 0.108 ± 0.023 and is 2.2% probable; for inverse hierarchy, positive θ 13 , sin 2 2θ 13 = 0.110±0.022 and is 7.1% probable; for inverse hierarchy, negative θ 13 , sin 2 2θ 13 = 0.113 ± 0.022 and is 90.5% probable, results that are inconsistent with two similar analyses.

  7. Gravitational radiation in relativistic theory of gravity with a nonzero graviton mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, A.A.; Chugreev, Yu.V.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation of gravitation waves have been analysed in the linear approximation of the relative theory of gravity, with the mass of graviton being nonzero. It is shown that the main contribution to the energy loss due to gravitational radiation has been described by the well-known quadrupole formula. Linear approximation applicability conditions have been analysed

  8. Generalization of Penrose's helicity theorem for space-times with nonzero dual mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnon, A.

    1986-01-01

    An algebraic definition of the helicity operator H is proposed for vacuum stationary and asymptotically flat wormholes (i.e., space-times where the manifold of orbits of the stationary Killing field has S 2 x R topology). The definition avoids the use of momentum space or Fourier decomposition of the gravitational degrees of freedom into positive and negative frequency parts, and is essentially geared to emphasize the role of nontrivial topology. It is obtained via the introduction of a total spin vector S/sup α/ derived from the dual Bondi four-momentum *P/sup α/, both vectors originating in the presence of nontrivial homotopy groups. (Space-times with nonzero dual mass can be characterized by a conformal null boundary I having the topology of an S 1 fiber bundle over S 2 with possible identifications along the fiber: lens space: or equivalently vanishing Bondi--News.) It is shown that S/sup α/ is a constant multiple of P/sup α/, the total Bondi four-momentum, and if in addition the space-time admits a point at spacelike infinity, there is strong support for the past limit of S/sup α/ to be a null vector. This can be viewed as a generalization of Penrose's result on the Pauli--Lubanski vector for classical zero rest-mass particles. The helicity operator at null infinity is rooted in the topology and turns out to be essentially the Hodge duality operator(*). The notion of duality appears as a global concept. Under such conditions, self- and anti-self-dual modes of the Weyl curvature could be viewed as states originating in the nontrivial topology

  9. Neutrino mass models and the implications of a non-zero reactor angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, S.F.

    2009-01-01

    In this talk we survey some of the recent promising developments in the search for the theory behind neutrino mass and mixing, and indeed all fermion masses and mixing. The talk is organized in terms of a neutrino mass models decision tree according to which the answers to experimental questions provide sign posts to guide through the maze of theoretical models eventually towards a complete theory of flavour and unification. It is also discussed the theoretical implications of the measurement of non-zero reactor angle, as hinted at by recent experimental measurements.

  10. Nonzero θ13 and neutrino masses from the modified tri-bi-maximal neutrino mixing matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damanik, A.

    2014-01-01

    There are 3 types of neutrino mixing matrices: tri-bi-maximal, bi-maximal and democratic. These 3 types of neutrino mixing matrices predict that the mixing angle θ 13 should be null. Motivated by the recent experimental evidence of nonzero and relatively large θ 13 , we modified the tribimaximal mixing matrix by introducing a simple perturbation matrix into tribimaximal neutrino mixing matrix. In this scenario, we obtained nonzero mixing angle θ 13 =7.9 degrees which is in agreement with the present experimental results. By imposing 2 zeros texture into the obtained neutrino mass matrix from modified tribimaximal mixing matrix, we then have the neutrino mass spectrum in normal hierarchy. Some phenomenological implications are also discussed. It appears that if we use the solar neutrino squared-mass difference to determine the values of neutrino masses, then we cannot have the correct value for the atmospheric squared-mass difference. Conversely, if we use the experimental value of the squared-mass difference to determine the neutrino masses, then we cannot have the correct value for the solar neutrino squared-mass difference

  11. Double beta decay and majorana neutrinos. Right-handed currents or nonzero masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, S.P.; Perlmutter, A.

    1981-01-01

    This chapter describes some new developments concerning the mechanism for lepton number nonconservation in no-neutrino double beta decay. Explains that lepton number nonconservation in no-neutrino double beta decay comes about either because both left- and right-handed components of a Majorano neutrino are coupled to the electron in the weak leptonic current, or because the neutrino has nonzero mass. Shows that while nuclear ground-state to ground-state transitions arise from right-handed currents and from neutrino mass terms, transitions to low-lying excited states with J /SUP P/ =2 + can arise only from right-handed currents. Emphasizes that the possibilities of detecting small admixtures of right-handed currents, and of setting limits on neutrino masses that are either very small or very large, make double beta decay a most rewarding phenomenon to study

  12. Analytic two-loop results for self-energy- and vertex-type diagrams with one non-zero mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, J.; Kotikov, A.V.; Veretin, O.L.

    1999-01-01

    For a large class of two-loop self-energy- and vertex-type diagrams with only one non-zero mass (m) and the vertices also with only one non-zero external momentum squared (q 2 ) the first few expansion coefficients are calculated by the large mass expansion. This allows us to 'guess' the general structure of these coefficients and to verify them in terms of certain classes of 'basis elements', which are essentially harmonic sums. Since for this case with only one non-zero mass the large mass expansion and the Taylor series in terms of q 2 are identical, this approach yields analytic expressions of the Taylor coefficients, from which the diagram can be easily evaluated numerically in a large domain of the complex q 2 -plane by well known methods. It is also possible to sum the Taylor series and present the results in terms of polylogarithms

  13. Conductivity of graphene in the framework of Dirac model: Interplay between nonzero mass gap and chemical potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Mostepanenko, V. M.; Petrov, V. M.

    2017-12-01

    The complete theory of electrical conductivity of graphene at arbitrary temperature is developed with taking into account mass-gap parameter and chemical potential. Both the in-plane and out-of-plane conductivities of graphene are expressed via the components of the polarization tensor in (2+1)-dimensional space-time analytically continued to the real frequency axis. Simple analytic expressions for both the real and imaginary parts of the conductivity of graphene are obtained at zero and nonzero temperature. They demonstrate an interesting interplay depending on the values of mass gap and chemical potential. In the local limit, several results obtained earlier using various approximate and phenomenological approaches are reproduced, refined, and generalized. The numerical computations of both the real and imaginary parts of the conductivity of graphene are performed to illustrate the obtained results. The analytic expressions for the conductivity of graphene obtained in this paper can serve as a guide in the comparison between different theoretical approaches and between experiment and theory.

  14. Relativistic theory of gravitation and the graviton rest mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logunsov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines a graviton rest mass (m) introduced in the framework of the relativistic theory of gravitation and obtains equations that describe a massive gravitational field. Under the assumption that the entire hidden mass of the matter in the Universe is due to the existence of a massive gravitational field, an upper bound on the rest mass is obtained: m ≤ 0.64 x 10 --65 g

  15. Mach's principle and the rest mass of the graviton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, J.F.; Crowley, R.J.; Yourgrau, W.

    1975-01-01

    The question of the graviton rest mass is briefly discussed and then it is shown that the Sciama-Dicke formulation of Mach's principle admits, in the linear approximation, the calculation of the graviton rest mass. One finds that the value of the graviton rest mass depends on the cosmological model adopted, the mean matter density in the universe, the speed of light, and the constant of gravitation. The value obtained for an infinite, stationary universe is 7.6 times 10 -67 g. The value for evolutionary cosmological models is found to depend critically on the mass and ''radius'' of the universe, both null and non-null values occurring only for certain values of these parameters. Problems that arise as a consequence of the linear approximation are pointed out

  16. Gauge-invariant screening masses and static quark free energies in Nf=2 +1 QCD at nonzero baryon density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Michele; Bonati, Claudio; D'Elia, Massimo; Mesiti, Michele; Negro, Francesco; Rucci, Andrea; Sanfilippo, Francesco

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the extension of gauge-invariant electric and magnetic screening masses in the quark-gluon plasma to the case of a finite baryon density, defining them in terms of a matrix of Polyakov loop correlators. We present lattice results for Nf=2 +1 QCD with physical quark masses, obtained using the imaginary chemical potential approach, which indicate that the screening masses increase as a function of μB. A separate analysis is carried out for the theoretically interesting case μB/T =3 i π , where charge conjugation is not explicitly broken and the usual definition of the screening masses can be used for temperatures below the Roberge-Weiss transition. Finally, we investigate the dependence of the static quark free energy on the baryon chemical potential, showing that it is a decreasing function of μB, which displays a peculiar behavior as the pseudocritical transition temperature at μB=0 is approached.

  17. The Charged Lepton Mass Matrix and Non-zero θ13 with TeV Scale New Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Ahmed; Datta, Alakabha

    2012-03-01

    We provide an explicit structure of the charged lepton mass matrix which is 2-3 symmetric except for a single breaking of this symmetry by the muon mass. We identify a flavor symmetric limit for the mass matrices where the first generation is decoupled from the other two in the charged lepton sector while in the neutrino sector the third generation is decoupled from the first two generations. The leptonic mixing in the symmetric limit can be, among other structures, the bi-maximal (BM) or the tri-bimaximal (TBM) mixing. Symmetry breaking effects are included both in the charged lepton and the neutrino sector to produce corrections to the leptonic mixing and explain the recent θ13 measurements. A model that extends the SM by three right handed neutrinos, an extra Higgs doublet, and two singlet scalars is introduced to generate the leptonic mixing.[4pt] This work was supported in part by the US-Egypt Joint Board on Scientific and Technological Co-operation award (Project ID: 1855) administered by the US Department of Agriculture, summer grant from the College of Liberal Arts, University of Mississippi and in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1068052 and 1066293 and the hospitality of the Aspen Center for Physics.

  18. An embedding for general relativity with variable rest mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesson, P.S.

    1984-01-01

    There is considerable interest currently in theories of gravity where rest masses vary slowly with time. A new theory of this type is proposed which is believed to be superior to others, and which contains Einstein's theory embedded within it. The theory is five dimensional, where the extra coordinate is x 4 is equivalent to Gm/c 2 (G is the Newtonian gravitational parameter, c the velocity of light, and m the mass). The theory reduces to Einstein's if w is equivalent to (G/c 3 ) dm/dt = O and the fifth dimension is absent. The theory agrees with observation provided w << 1, but the size of w in the real world can only be determined by experiment. (author)

  19. New discovery: Quantization of atomic and nuclear rest mass differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gareev, F. A.; Zhidkova, I. E.

    2007-01-01

    We come to the conclusion that all atomic models based on either the Newton equation and the Kepler laws, or the Maxwell equations, or the Schrodinger and Dirac equations are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. We can only suspect that these equations are grounded on the same fundamental principle(s) which is (are) not known or these equations can be transformed into each other. We proposed a new mechanism of LENR: cooperative processes in the whole system - nuclei + atoms + condensed matter - nuclear reactions in plasma - can occur at smaller threshold energies than the corresponding ones on free constituents. We were able to quantize [1] phenomenologically the first time the differences between atomic and nuclear rest masses by the formula: ΔΔ M = n 1 /n 2 x 0.0076294 (in MeV/c 2 ), n i =1,2,3,... Note that this quantization rule is justified for atoms and nuclei with different A, N and Z and the nuclei and atoms represent a coherent synchronized open systems - a complex of coupled oscillators (resonators). The cooperative resonance synchronization mechanisms are responsible for explanation of how the electron volt world can influence on the nuclear mega electron volt world. It means that we created new possibilities for inducing and controlling nuclear reactions by atomic processes grounded on the fundamental low of physics - conservation law of energy. The results of these research fields can provide new ecologically pure mobile sources of energy independent from oil, gas and coal, new substances, and technologies. For example, this discovery gives us a simple and cheep method for utilization of nuclear waste. References [1] F.A. Gareev, I.E. Zhidkova, E-print arXiv Nucl-th/0610002 2006

  20. Are particle rest masses variable: Theory and constraints from solar system experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekenstein, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    Particle rest mass variation in spacetime is considered. According to Dicke, if this is the case various null experiments indicate that all masses vary in the same way. Their variation relative to the Planck-Wheeler mass defines a universal scalar rest-mass field. We construct the relativistic dynamics for this field based on very general assumptions. In addition, we assume Einstein's equations to be valid in Planck-Wheeler units. A special case of the theory coincides with Dicke's reformulation of Brans-Dicke theory as general relativity with variable rest masses. In the general case the rest-mass field is some power r of a scalar field which obeys an ordinary scalar equation with coupling to the curvature of strength q. The r and q are the only parameters of the theory. Comparison with experiment is facilitated by recasting the theory into units in which rest masses are constant, the Planck-Wheeler mass varies, and the metric satisfies the equations of a small subset of the scalar-tensor theories of gravitation. The results of solar system experiments, usually used to test general relativity, are here used to delimit the acceptable values of r and q. We conclude that if cosmological considerations are not invoked, then the solar system experiments do not rule out the possibility of rest-mass variability. That is, there are theories which agree with all null and solar system experiments, and yet contradict the strong equivalence principle by allowing rest masses to vary relative to the Planck-Wheeler mass. We show that the field theory of the rest-mass field can be quantized and interpreted in terms of massless scalar quanta which interact very weakly with matter. This explains why they have not turned up in high-energy experiments. In future reports we shall investigate the implications of various cosmological and astrophysical data for the theory of variable rest masses. The ultimate goal is a firm decision on whether rest masses vary or not

  1. On gravity's role in the genesis of rest masses of classical fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabados, László B.

    2018-03-01

    It is shown that in the Einstein-conformally coupled Higgs-Maxwell system with Friedman-Robertson-Walker symmetries the energy density of the Higgs field has stable local minimum only if the mean curvature of the t=const hypersurfaces is less than a finite critical value χ _c, while for greater mean curvature the energy density is not bounded from below. Therefore, there are extreme gravitational situations in which even quasi-locally defined instantaneous vacuum states of the Higgs sector cannot exist, and hence one cannot at all define the rest mass of all the classical fields. On hypersurfaces with mean curvature less than χ _c the energy density has the `wine bottle' (rather than the familiar `Mexican hat') shape, and the gauge field can get rest mass via the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism. The spacelike hypersurface with the critical mean curvature represents the moment of `genesis' of rest masses.

  2. Past, present, and possible future limits on the photon rest mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    In an historical context, present limits on the photon rest mass are reviewed. More stringent, yet speculative, limits which have been proposed are mentioned. Finally, new theoretical ideas and possible experimental improvements on the present limits are discussed, along with possible relationships between these two areas

  3. Zero-rest-mass fields in an algebraically special curved space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fordy, A P [King' s Coll., London (UK). Dept. of Mathematics

    1977-04-01

    Zero-rest-mass higher-spin fields in algebraically special vacuum back-ground space-times are considered. It is shown that the algebraic speciality of the background metric strongly restricts the form of the solutions of these fields. These results are used to study perturbations of the Schwarzschild black hole.

  4. Improved limit on the electron anti neutrino rest mass from tritium β decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinheimer, C.; Przyrembel, M.; Backe, H.; Barth, H.; Bonn, J.; Degen, B.; Edling, T.; Fischer, H.; Fleischmann, L.; Grooss, J.U.; Haid, R.; Hermanni, A.; Kube, G.; Loeken, T.; Molz, A.; Osipowicz, A.; Otten, E.W.; Picard, A.; Schrader, M.; Steininger, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a re-measurement of the endpoint region of the beta-spectrum of tritium by an electrostatic spectrometer with magnetic guiding field. It enables the search for a rest mass of the electron anti neutrino with improved precision. The result is: m ν 2 =(-39±34 stat ±15 syst ) (eV/c 2 ) 2 , from which an upper limit of: m ν 2 may be derived. The experiment yields the atomic mass difference: m(T)-m( 3 He)=(18591±3) eV/c 2 . (TEC). 31 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Solar X-rays from Axions: Rest-Mass Dependent Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Zioutas, Konstantin; Semertzidis, Yannis; Papaevangelou, Thomas; Gardikiotis, Antonios; Dafni, Theopisti; Anastassopoulos, Vassilis

    2010-01-01

    The spectral shape of solar X-rays is a power law. The more active the Sun is, the less steep the distribution. This behaviour can be explained by axion regeneration to X-rays occurring ~400km deep into the photosphere. Their down-comptonization reproduces the measured spectral shape, pointing at axions with rest mass m_a~17 meV/c2, without contradicting astrophysical-laboratory limits. Directly measured soft X-ray spectra from the extremely quiet Sun during 2009 (SphinX mission), though hitherto overlooked, fitt the axion scenario.

  6. Light, rest mass and electric charge quanta all formed by neutrinos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    In high energy physics experiments the electric charge and rest mass of particles can commonly transform into the photons, vice versa. Its reason QFT can only give a vague answer: based on the particle creation and annihilation operators. There are not more clear answers or conjecture? At least, light, electric charge and rest mass should have a collective structure component, if not, the transformation is unable understanding. An elementary answer is that neutrino and antineutrino as their collective structure component. In the paper ‘Chen Qiliang & Wang Bin, The formation and characteristics of Chen Shaoguang's formula, China Science &Technology Overview 127101-103 (2011)’, the lowest energy state vertical polarized left spin 1/2 neutrino and right spin 1/2 antineutrino are just the left, right advance unit quanta la _{0}nuυ, ra nuυ _{0} and left, right back unit quanta lb (0) nuυ, rb nuυ (0) , it again compose into spin 1 unit photon la-ra _{0}nuυnuυ _{0} and back-photon lb-rb (0) nuυnuυ (0) , spin 0 unit rest mass ra-rb nuυ _{0}nuυ (0) and anti-mass la-lb _{0}nuυ (0) nuυ, spin 0 unit positive charge la-rb _{0}nuυnuυ (0) and negative charge ra-lb nuυ _{0} (0) nuυ. The physical vacuum is the even collocation of non-combinational nuυ _{0} or _{0}nuυ. It accord to the high energy physics experimental results of the transformation among the photons, masses quanta and charges quanta. In my paper ‘Quanta turn-advance ism, China Science && Technology Overview 131 192-210 (2011)’, QFT four-dimensional uncertainty principle and momentum-energy conservation law had been generalized as a five-dimensional equations: de Broglie wavelength as a position vector \\underline{q}= (i c t, r, s), momentum \\underline{P} = (i E / c, P, U c), \\underline{q} = i h / \\underline{P}, \\underline{q} \\underline{q} = 0, \\underline{P} \\underline{P} = 0, Sigma∑ \\underline{P} = \\underline{P} (0) . The five-dimensional time-space-spin had been quantized as a

  7. Hyperfunction solutions of the zero rest mass equations and representations of LIE groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunne, E.G.

    1984-01-01

    Recently, hyperfunctions have arisen in an essential way in separate results in mathematical physics and in representation theory. In the setting of the twistor program, Wells, with others, has extended the Penrose transform to hyperfunction solutions of the zero rest mass equations, showing that the fundamental isomorphisms hold for this larger space. Meanwhile, Schmid has shown the existence of a canonical globalization of a Harish-Chandra module, V, to a representation of the group. This maximal globalization may be realized as the completion of V in a locally convex vector space in the hyperfunction topology. This thesis shows that the former is a particular case of the latter where the globalization can be done by hand. This explicit globalization is then carried out for a more general case of the Radon transform on homogeneous spaces

  8. Effects of bed-rest on urea and creatinine: correlation with changes in fat-free mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilancio, Giancarlo; Lombardi, Cinzia; Pisot, Rado; De Santo, Natale G; Cavallo, Pierpaolo; Cirillo, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Bed-rest experiments are designed for investigation on catabolic effects of hypokinetic conditions and/or for microgravity simulation in on-ground aerospace research. Bed-rest effects include a reduction in fat-free mass and muscle mass. Urea and creatinine are catabolites of endogenous protein and of muscular energetic metabolism which are excreted mainly by the kidney. The study investigated on urea, creatinine, and kidney function during bed-rest. Twenty healthy young men underwent a 7-day adaptation period (day-6 to day-0) and a 35-day bed-rest experiment (day1 to day35) during normocaloric diet. Urine were collected from day-3 to day0 (baseline) and from day1 to day35. Blood samples and anthropometrical data were collected at day0 (baseline) and bed-rest days 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35. Bed-rest reduced plasma volume, weight, fat-free mass, and muscle mass (Pcreatinine, and no change in urinary creatinine. The overall integral of changes from day0 to day35 was on average +101.7 mg/dL for plasma urea (95%CI = +43.4/+159.9), +82.2 g/24 h for urinary urea (95%CI = +55.8/+108.7), -2.5 mg/dL for plasma creatinine (95%CI = -3.1/-1.9). Bed-rest reduced plasma cistatyn C also, which was used as mass-independent marker of glomerular filtration rate (-13.1%, P<0.05). Correlations with final reduction in fat-free mass and muscle mass were significant for the overall integral of changes in urinary urea from day0 to day35 (R = 0.706, P<0.001) and for early changes in urinary urea and plasma urea from day0 to day7 (R = 0.566, P = 0.009 and R = 0.715, P<0.001, respectively). Study results shows that urea is a marker of catabolic conditions secondary to hypokinetic conditions.

  9. Measurement of body potassium with a whole-body counter: relationship between lean body mass and resting energy expenditure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.D.; Braun, J.S.; Vetter, R.J.; Marsh, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    We conducted studies to determine whether the Mayo whole-body counter could be used to measure body potassium, and thus lean body mass (LBM), and whether moderate obesity alters resting energy expenditure when corrected for LBM. Twenty-four nonobese and 18 moderately obese adults underwent body potassium (40K) counting, as well as tritiated water space measurement and indirect calorimetry. LBM values predicted from 40K counting and tritiated water space measurements were highly correlated (P = 0.001; r = 0.88). Resting energy expenditure was closely related to LBM (P less than 0.0001; r = 0.78): kcal/day = 622 kcal + (LBM.20.0 kcal/kg LBM). In this relationship, the obese subjects did not differ from nonobese subjects. In summary, the Mayo whole-body counter can accurately measure LBM, and moderate obesity has no detectable effect on corrected resting energy expenditure

  10. Actigraphy-Derived Daily Rest-Activity Patterns and Body Mass Index in Community-Dwelling Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cespedes Feliciano, Elizabeth M; Quante, Mirja; Weng, Jia; Mitchell, Jonathan A; James, Peter; Marinac, Catherine R; Mariani, Sara; Redline, Susan; Kerr, Jacqueline; Godbole, Suneeta; Manteiga, Alicia; Wang, Daniel; Hipp, J Aaron

    2017-12-01

    To examine associations between 24-hour rest-activity patterns and body mass index (BMI) among community-dwelling US adults. Rest-activity patterns provide a field method to study exposures related to circadian rhythms. Adults (N = 578) wore an actigraph on their nondominant wrist for 7 days. Intradaily variability and interdaily stability (IS), M10 (most active 10-hours), L5 (least active 5-hours), and relative amplitude (RA) were derived using nonparametric rhythm analysis. Mesor, acrophase, and amplitude were calculated from log-transformed count data using the parametric cosinor approach. Participants were 80% female and mean (standard deviation) age was 52 (15) years. Participants with higher BMI had lower values for magnitude, RA, IS, total sleep time (TST), and sleep efficiency. In multivariable analyses, less robust 24-hour rest-activity patterns as represented by lower RA were consistently associated with higher BMI: comparing the bottom quintile (least robust) to the top quintile (most robust 24-hour rest-activity pattern) of RA, BMI was 3-kg/m2 higher (p = .02). Associations were similar in magnitude to an hour less of TST (1-kg/m2 higher BMI) or a 10% decrease in sleep efficiency (2-kg/m2 higher BMI), and independent of age, sex, race, education, and the duration of rest and/or activity. Lower RA, reflecting both higher night activity and lower daytime activity, was associated with higher BMI. Independent of the duration of rest or activity during the day or night, 24-hour rest, and activity patterns from actigraphy provide aggregated measures of activity that associate with BMI in community-dwelling adults. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Canonical ensembles and nonzero density quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenfratz, A.; Toussaint, D.

    1992-01-01

    We study QCD with nonzero chemical potential on 4 4 lattices by averaging over the canonical partition functions, or sectors with fixed quark number. We derive a condensed matrix of size 2x3xL 3 whose eigenvalues can be used to find the canonical partition functions. We also experiment with a weight for configuration generation which respects the Z(3) symmetry which forces the canonical partition function to be zero for quark numbers that are not multiples of three. (orig.)

  12. Age-related differences in lean mass, protein synthesis and skeletal muscle markers of proteolysis after bed rest and exercise rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Ruth E; Brunker, Lucille B; Agergaard, Jakob; Barrows, Katherine M; Briggs, Robert A; Kwon, Oh Sung; Young, Laura M; Hopkins, Paul N; Volpi, Elena; Marcus, Robin L; LaStayo, Paul C; Drummond, Micah J

    2015-09-15

    Bed rest-induced muscle loss and impaired muscle recovery may contribute to age-related sarcopenia. It is unknown if there are age-related differences in muscle mass and muscle anabolic and catabolic responses to bed rest. A secondary objective was to determine if rehabilitation could reverse bed rest responses. Nine older and fourteen young adults participated in a 5-day bed rest challenge (BED REST). This was followed by 8 weeks of high intensity resistance exercise (REHAB). Leg lean mass (via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; DXA) and strength were determined. Muscle biopsies were collected during a constant stable isotope infusion in the postabsorptive state and after essential amino acid (EAA) ingestion on three occasions: before (PRE), after bed rest and after rehabilitation. Samples were assessed for protein synthesis, mTORC1 signalling, REDD1/2 expression and molecular markers related to muscle proteolysis (MURF1, MAFBX, AMPKα, LC3II/I, Beclin1). We found that leg lean mass and strength decreased in older but not younger adults after bedrest (P protein synthesis increased before bed rest in both age groups (P protein synthesis rates and increased MAFBX mRNA, p-AMPKα and the LC3II/I ratio (P protein synthesis and a marginal increase in proteolytic markers. Finally, rehabilitation restored bed rest-induced deficits in lean mass and strength in older adults. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  13. Evaluating the contribution of differences in lean mass compartments for resting energy expenditure in African American and Caucasian American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadney, M M; Shareef, F; Marwitz, S E; Brady, S M; Yanovski, S Z; DeLany, J P; Yanovski, J A

    2018-04-26

    Resting energy expenditure (REE), adjusted for total lean mass (LM), is lower in African American (AA) than Caucasian American (CA) children. Some adult studies suggest that AA-CA differences in lean mass compartments explain this REE difference. Similar data are limited in children. To evaluate differences in compartment-specific lean mass between AA and CA children and examine the individual contributions of high-metabolic rate-at-rest trunk lean mass (TrLM) and low-metabolic-rate-at-rest appendicular lean mass (AppLM) for AA-CA differences in REE. We studied a convenience sample of 594 AA (n = 281) and CA (n = 313) children. REE was measured by using indirect calorimetry; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess body composition. ANCOVAs were performed to examine AA-CA differences in TrLM, AppLM and REE. After accounting for age, sex, height, pubertal development, bone mass and adiposity, REE was evaluated adjusting for total LM (model A) and separately adjusting for TrLM and AppLM (model B). African American children had greater adjusted AppLM (17.8 ± 0.2 [SE] vs. 16.0 ± 0.2 kg, p < 0.001) and lower TrLM (17.2 ± 0.2 vs. 17.7 ± 0.2 kg, p = 0.022) than CA children. REE adjusted for total LM was 77 ± 16 kcal/d lower in AA than CA (p < 0.001). However, after accounting separately for AppLM and TrLM, the discrepancy in REE between the groups declined to 28 ± 19 kcal/d (p = 0.14). In the adjusted model, both TrLM (p < 0.001) and AppLM (p < 0.027) were independently associated with REE. In children, AA-CA differences in REE appear mostly attributable to differences in body composition. Lower REE in AA children is likely due to lower TrLM and greater AppLM. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Resistance Training Combined With Diet Decreases Body Fat While Preserving Lean Mass Independent of Resting Metabolic Rate: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd; Mull, Stephanie; Aragon, Alan Albert; Krieger, James; Schoenfeld, Brad Jon

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of resistance training only (RT; n = 10), dietary intervention only (DIET; n = 10), resistance training plus diet (RT+DIET; n = 10), and control (CON; n = 10) on body composition and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a cohort of 40 premenopausal female volunteers. Subjects in DIET and RT+DIET were provided with daily macronutrient and calorie goals based on DXA and RMR tests, with protein maintained at 3.1 g/kg/day. Subjects in the RT and RT+DIET groups performed a supervised progressive RT program consisting of exercises for all the major muscle groups of the body. Results showed a significant month-by-group interaction for change in fat mass with no significant linear trend for control. The three treatment groups all showed significant linear decreases in fat mass, but the slope of the decrease became progressively steeper from the RT, to DIET, to RT+DIET. A significant linear increase for lean mass was seen for resistance training only. There was a nonsignificant increase in RMR in all groups from Month 0 to Month 4 but no significant month by group interaction. In conclusion, significant reductions in fat mass were achieved by all experimental groups, but results were maximized by RT+DIET. Only the RT group showed significant increases in lean mass.

  15. S-parameter at Non-Zero Temperature and Chemical Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Ulrik Ishøj; Sannino, Francesco; Pica, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    We compute the finite-temperature and matter density corrections to the S-parameter at the one loop level. At non-zero temperature T and matter density Lorentz symmetry breaks and therefore we suggest a suitable generalization of the S-parameter. By computing the plasma correction, we discover...... a reduction of the S-parameter in the physically relevant region of small external momenta for any non-zero chemical potential and T. In particular, the S-parameter vanishes at small m/T, where m is the mass of the fermions, due to the finite extent of the temporal direction. Our results are directly...

  16. Mathematical model for the contribution of individual organs to non-zero y-intercepts in single and multi-compartment linear models of whole-body energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiyala, Karl J

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models for the dependence of energy expenditure (EE) on body mass and composition are essential tools in metabolic phenotyping. EE scales over broad ranges of body mass as a non-linear allometric function. When considered within restricted ranges of body mass, however, allometric EE curves exhibit 'local linearity.' Indeed, modern EE analysis makes extensive use of linear models. Such models typically involve one or two body mass compartments (e.g., fat free mass and fat mass). Importantly, linear EE models typically involve a non-zero (usually positive) y-intercept term of uncertain origin, a recurring theme in discussions of EE analysis and a source of confounding in traditional ratio-based EE normalization. Emerging linear model approaches quantify whole-body resting EE (REE) in terms of individual organ masses (e.g., liver, kidneys, heart, brain). Proponents of individual organ REE modeling hypothesize that multi-organ linear models may eliminate non-zero y-intercepts. This could have advantages in adjusting REE for body mass and composition. Studies reveal that individual organ REE is an allometric function of total body mass. I exploit first-order Taylor linearization of individual organ REEs to model the manner in which individual organs contribute to whole-body REE and to the non-zero y-intercept in linear REE models. The model predicts that REE analysis at the individual organ-tissue level will not eliminate intercept terms. I demonstrate that the parameters of a linear EE equation can be transformed into the parameters of the underlying 'latent' allometric equation. This permits estimates of the allometric scaling of EE in a diverse variety of physiological states that are not represented in the allometric EE literature but are well represented by published linear EE analyses.

  17. Large Nc QCD at nonzero chemical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Thomas D.

    2004-01-01

    The general issue of large N c QCD at nonzero chemical potential is considered with a focus on understanding the difference between large N c QCD with an isospin chemical potential and large N c QCD with a baryon chemical potential. A simple diagrammatic analysis analogous to 't Hooft's analysis at μ=0 implies that the free energy with a given baryon chemical potential is equal to the free energy with an isospin chemical potential of the same value plus 1/N c corrections. Phenomenologically, these two systems behave quite differently. A scenario to explain this difference in light of the diagrammatic analysis is explored. This scenario is based on a phase transition associated with pion condensation when the isospin chemical potential exceeds m π /2; associated with this transition there is breakdown of the 1/N c expansion--in the pion condensed phase there is a distinct 1/N c expansion including a larger set of diagrams. While this scenario is natural, there are a number of theoretical issues which at least superficially challenge it. Most of these can be accommodated. However, the behavior of quenched QCD which raises a number of apparently analogous issues cannot be easily understood completely in terms of an analogous scenario. Thus, the overall issue remains open

  18. Improvement in momentum resolution of parent particles using mass constraint in the rest frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingül, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    In particle physics, uncertainties in the reconstructed momentum of parent particles are introduced due to detector resolution. Traditionally, the momentum resolution of the parent particle is improved by minimizing a non-linear chi-square function via iterative methods. In this study, it is shown that the same chi-square minimization procedure results in a set of linear equations which can be solved non-iteratively in the center of mass frame of the parent particle. By using ALEPH full simulation data, the performance of the new method is compared with relatively slower iterative method for several decay channels. No significant difference between them is obtained in terms of improvement in momentum resolution. However, the new approach is found to be simple to implement and faster than that of traditional iterative method.

  19. The O(N) model at nonzero temperature: renormalization of the gap equations in Hartree and large-N approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenaghan, J.T.; Rischke, D.H.

    2000-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the sigma meson and pion masses is studied in the framework of the O(N ) model. The Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis formalism is applied to derive gap equations for the masses in the Hartree and large-N approximations. Renormalization of the gap equations is carried out within the cut-off and counter-term renormalization schemes. A consistent renormalization of the gap equations within the cut-off scheme is found to be possible only in the large-N approximation and for a finite value of the cut-off. On the other hand, the counter-term scheme allows for a consistent renormalization of both the large-N and Hartree approximations. In these approximations, the meson masses at a given nonzero temperature depend in general on the choice of the cut-off or renormalization scale. As an application, we also discuss the in-medium on-shell decay widths for sigma mesons and pions at rest. (author)

  20. The rest-mass of neutrino and the cosmic clustering phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, L.; Peichen, Z.

    1982-01-01

    During their contracting and clustering, massive neutrinos can carry ordinary matter through their gravitational coupling, contracting to form the object with mass just at the right order of cluster of galaxies. Hence, massive neutrinos may provide the clue to explain naturally the formation of clusters of galaxies. However, as is well known, the clustering of ordinary matter before the era of the recombination could make the microwave background radiation non-isotropic, so the observational fact that this radiation is highly isotropic has usually been regarded as the strong disproof for any clustering before the recombination. In this paper, the authors discuss the contracting process from the starting point of preferential clustering (T/sub 1/≅4x10/sup 4/ K) to the era of the recombination (T/sub 2/≅4x10/sup 3/ K), and prove the nonuniformity reached at T/sub 2/ to be too small to conflict with the observational fact in microwave background radiation

  1. Non-zero total correlation means non-zero quantum correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bo; Chen, Lin; Fan, Heng

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the super quantum discord based on weak measurements. The super quantum discord is an extension of the standard quantum discord defined by projective measurements and also describes the quantumness of correlations. We provide some equivalent conditions for zero super quantum discord by using quantum discord, classical correlation and mutual information. In particular, we find that the super quantum discord is zero only for product states, which have zero mutual information. This result suggests that non-zero correlations can always be detected using the quantum correlation with weak measurements. As an example, we present the assisted state-discrimination method.

  2. General relativistic fields of an isolated spin-half charged particle near the spin axis with application to the rest-mass of the electron and positron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, J.T.

    1999-01-01

    Using a lowest-order approximation, the field equations of a general relativistic spinor-connection theory are solved semi-analytically for the fields of a stable, spin-half changed particle near the spin axis. With the exception of the atomic fine-structure constant, all parameters arising in the solution, including the rest mass of the source particle, are found by imposing the standard junction conditions of general relativity and electromagnetism. Using the empirical value for the fine-structure constant, the value derived for the rest mass gives some reason to identify the source particle with the electron. Moreover, since the rest mass is independent of the sign of the electron charge carried by the source, the solution is equally applicable to the positron

  3. On Atwood's Machine with a Nonzero Mass String

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnopolski, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Let us consider a classical high school exercise concerning two weights on a pulley and a string, illustrated in Fig. 1(a). A system like this is called an Atwood's machine and was invented by George Atwood in 1784 as a laboratory experiment to verify the mechanical laws of motion with constant acceleration. Nowadays, Atwood's machine is used for…

  4. Annihilation of antiproton on deuteron at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grach, I.; Shmatikov, M.

    1982-01-01

    The system of Faddeev equations for amplitudes of anti pD iteraction at rest accounting for higher partial anti NN waves is derived. From its solution the total and elastic anti pD cross sections are calculated. Predictions for the missing-mass spectrum in the anti pD annihilation are made. The P-wave anti NN states give small contribution to the anti pD cross section at rest, the theoretical value of the latter being less than the experimental cross section extrapolated to the threshold. Let us emphasize that the total anti pD cross section depending weakly on the radii of anti NN interactions is sensitive to the values of the anti NN scattering lengths. Experimental data for anti pD cross sections at rest can be obtained only by extrapolation procedure. Henceforth it is very important to investigate the anti pD interactions at low but non-zero momenta where the direct comparison to the experiment is possible [ru

  5. Quantization of Differences Between Atomic and Nuclear Rest Masses and Self-organization of Atoms and Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gareev, F. A.; Zhidkova, I. E.

    2007-03-01

    We come to the conclusion that all atomic models based on either the Newton equation and the Kepler laws, or the Maxwell equations, or the Schrodinger and Dirac equations are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. We can only suspect that these equations are grounded on the same fundamental principle(s) which is (are) not known or these equations can be transformed into each other. We proposed a new mechanism of LENR: cooperative processes in the whole system nuclei + atoms + condensed matter - nuclear reactions in plasma - can occur at smaller threshold energies than the corresponding ones on free constituents. We were able to quantize phenomenologically the first time the differences between atomic and nuclear rest masses by the formula: δδM =n1/n2 X 0.0076294 (in MeV/ c^2), ni=1,2,3,.... Note that this quantization rule is justified for atoms and nuclei with different A, N and Z and the nuclei and atoms represent a coherent synchronized systems - a complex of coupled oscillators (resonators). The cooperative resonance synchronization mechanisms can explain how electron volt (atomic-) scale processes can induce and control nuclear MeV (nuclear-) scale processes and reactions., F.A. Gareev, I.E. Zhidkova, E-print arXiv Nucl-th/ 0610002 2006.

  6. Role of cytokines and testosterone in regulating lean body mass and resting energy expenditure in HIV-infected men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubenoff, Ronenn; Grinspoon, Steven; Skolnik, Paul R; Tchetgen, Eric; Abad, Leslie; Spiegelman, Donna; Knox, Tamsin; Gorbach, Sherwood

    2002-07-01

    Although catastrophic weight loss is no longer common in HIV-infected men, we hypothesized that a more gradual process of cachexia [loss of lean body mass (LBM) without severe weight loss, often accompanied by elevated resting energy expenditure (REE)] is still common and is driven by excessive production of the catabolic cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta). We performed a longitudinal analysis of an ongoing cohort study of nutritional status in 172 men with HIV infection. LBM loss of >1 kg occurred in 35% of the cohort, and LBM loss of >5% occurred in 12.2% over 8 mo of observation, but classical wasting (loss of approximately 10% of weight) was rare (2%). Both TNF-alpha (-150 g LBM. ng(-1) x ml(-1), P production (-130 g LBM x ng(-1) x ml(-1), P 200 kcal/day was found in 17.7% of the subjects regardless of weight change. IL-1 beta (+9 kcal/day per ng/ml, P production predicted Delta REE. Serum free testosterone was inversely associated with TNF-alpha production and was not an independent predictor of either Delta LBM or Delta REE after adjustment for cytokine production. Even though weight loss was rare in this cohort of patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy, loss of LBM was common and was driven by catabolic cytokines and not by inadequate dietary intake or hypogonadism.

  7. Effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on lean body mass during 10 days of bed rest in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutz, Nicolaas E P; Pereira, Suzette L; Hays, Nicholas P; Oliver, Jeffery S; Edens, Neile K; Evans, Chris M; Wolfe, Robert R

    2013-10-01

    Loss of muscle mass due to prolonged bed rest decreases functional capacity and increases hospital morbidity and mortality in older adults. To determine if HMB, a leucine metabolite, is capable of attenuating muscle decline in healthy older adults during complete bed rest. A randomized, controlled, double-blinded, parallel-group design study was carried out in 24 healthy (SPPB ≥ 9) older adult subjects (20 women, 4 men), confined to complete bed rest for ten days, followed by resistance training rehabilitation for eight weeks. Subjects in the experimental group were treated with HMB (calcium salt, 1.5 g twice daily - total 3 g/day). Control subjects were treated with an inactive placebo powder. Treatments were provided starting 5 days prior to bed rest till the end rehabilitation phase. DXA was used to measure body composition. Nineteen eligible older adults (BMI: 21-33; age: 60-76 year) were evaluable at the end of the bed rest period (Control n = 8; Ca-HMB n = 11). Bed rest caused a significant decrease in total lean body mass (LBM) (2.05 ± 0.66 kg; p = 0.02, paired t-test) in the Control group. With the exclusion of one subject, treatment with HMB prevented the decline in LBM over bed rest -0.17 ± 0.19 kg; p = 0.23, paired t-test). There was a statistically significant difference between treatment groups for change in LBM over bed rest (p = 0.02, ANOVA). Sub-analysis on female subjects (Control = 7, HMB = 8) also revealed a significant difference in change in LBM over bed rest between treatment groups (p = 0.04, ANOVA). However, differences in function parameters could not be observed, probably due to the sample size of the study. In healthy older adults, HMB supplementation preserves muscle mass during 10 days of bed rest. These results need to be confirmed in a larger trial. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. Age-related differences in lean mass, protein synthesis and skeletal muscle markers of proteolysis after bed rest and exercise rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, Ruth E; Brunker, Lucille B; Agergaard, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    during a constant stable isotope infusion in the postabsorptive state and after essential amino acid (EAA) ingestion on three occasions: before (PRE), after bed rest and after rehabilitation. Samples were assessed for protein synthesis, mTORC1 signalling, REDD1/2 expression and molecular markers related...... to muscle proteolysis (MURF1, MAFBX, AMPKα, LC3II/I, Beclin1). We found that leg lean mass and strength decreased in older but not younger adults after bedrest (P protein synthesis increased before bed rest in both age groups...... (P protein synthesis rates and increased MAFBX mRNA, p-AMPKα and the LC3II/I ratio (P

  9. New discovery: quantization of atomic and nuclear rest mass differences and self-organization of atoms and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gareev, F.A.; Zhidkova, I.E.; )

    2007-01-01

    Full text: We come to the conclusion that all atomic models based on either the Newton equation and the Kepler laws, or the Maxwell equations, or the Schroedinger and Dirac equations are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. We can only suspect that these equations are grounded on the same fundamental principles which are not known or these equations can be transformed into each other. We proposed a new mechanism of LENR: cooperative processes in the whole system - nuclei + atoms + condensed matter - nuclear reactions in plasma - can occur at smaller threshold energies than the corresponding ones on free constituents. We were able to quantize phenomenologically the first time the differences between atomic and nuclear rest masses by the formula: ΔΔM = n 1 /n 2 ·0.0076294 (in MeV/ ), n i =1,.2,3... Note that this quantization rule is justified for atoms and nuclei with different A, N and Z and the nuclei and atoms represent a coherent synchronized open systems - a complex of coupled oscillators (resonators). The cooperative resonance synchronization mechanisms are responsible for explanation of how the electron volt world can influence on the nuclear mega electron volt world. It means that we created new possibilities for inducing and controlling nuclear reactions by atomic processes grounded on the fundamental low of physics - conservation law of energy. The results of these research field can provide new ecologically pure mobile sources of energy independent from oil, gas and coal, new substances, and technologies. For example, this discovery gives us a simple and cheep method for utilization of nuclear waste

  10. On Reggeon field theories and nonzero vacuum expectation values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturi, G.

    1976-01-01

    In this note it is obtained a satisfactory ''nonrelativistic'' reggeon theory by starting from a ''relativistic'' one, examining its ''nonrelativistic'' limit and allowing a nonzero vacuum expectation value for the pomeron field. In such a context the introduction of secondary trajectories is also studied

  11. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  12. Phase diagram of the Dirac spectrum at nonzero chemical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, J. C.; Splittorff, K.; Verbaarschot, J. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    The Dirac spectrum of QCD with dynamical fermions at nonzero chemical potential is characterized by three regions: a region with a constant eigenvalue density, a region where the eigenvalue density shows oscillations that grow exponentially with the volume and the remainder of the complex plane where the eigenvalue density is zero. In this paper we derive the phase diagram of the Dirac spectrum from a chiral Lagrangian. We show that the constant eigenvalue density corresponds to a pion condensed phase while the strongly oscillating region is given by a kaon condensed phase. The normal phase with nonzero chiral condensate but vanishing Bose condensates coincides with the region of the complex plane where there are no eigenvalues.

  13. Fluctuation induced critical behavior at nonzero temperature and chemical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Splittorff, K.; Lenaghan, J.T.; Wirstam, J.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss phase transitions in relativistic systems as a function of both the chemical potential and temperature. The presence of a chemical potential explicitly breaks Lorentz invariance and may additionally break other internal symmetries. This introduces new subtleties in the determination of the critical properties. We discuss separately three characteristic effects of a nonzero chemical potential. First, we consider only the explicit breaking of Lorentz invariance using a scalar field theory with a global U(1) symmetry. Second, we study the explicit breaking of an internal symmetry in addition to Lorentz invariance using two-color QCD at nonzero baryonic chemical potential. Finally, we consider the spontaneous breaking of a symmetry using three-color QCD at nonzero baryonic and isospin chemical potential. For each case, we derive the appropriate three-dimensional effective theory at criticality and study the effect of the chemical potential on the fixed point structure of the β functions. We find that the order of the phase transition is not affected by the explicit breaking of Lorentz invariance but is sensitive to the breaking of additional symmetries by the chemical potential

  14. Parity doubling structure of nucleon at non-zero density in the holographic mean field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Bing-Ran

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We summarize our recent work in which we develope the holographic mean field approach to study the dense baryonic matter in a bottom-up holographic QCD model including baryons and scalar mesons in addition to vector mesons. We first show that, at zero density, the rate of the chiral invariant mass of nucleon is controlled by the ratio of the infrared boundary values of two baryon fields included in the model. Then, at non-zero density, we find that the chiral condensate decreases with the increasing density indicating the partial restoration of the chiral symmetry. Our result shows that the more amount of the proton mass comes from the chiral symmetry breaking, the faster the effective nucleon mass decrease with density.

  15. Helicity-dependent generalized parton distributions for nonzero skewness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Chandan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China)

    2017-09-15

    We investigate the helicity-dependent generalized parton distributions (GPDs) in momentum as well as transverse position (impact) spaces for the u and d quarks in a proton when the momentum transfer in both the transverse and the longitudinal directions are nonzero. The GPDs are evaluated using the light-front wave functions of a quark-diquark model for nucleon where the wave functions are constructed by the soft-wall AdS/QCD correspondence. We also express the GPDs in the boost-invariant longitudinal position space. (orig.)

  16. Design objectives with non-zero prescribed support displacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pauli; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2011-01-01

    When non-zero prescribed support displacements are involved in addition to design independent loads for a continuum/structure, then the objectives of minimum compliance (total elastic energy) and of maximum strength lead to different designs. This is verified by the presented sensitivities. Designs...... minimization as well as that of direct strength maximization; we choose the objective of obtaining uniform energy density and show by examples that the obtained solutions are close to fulfilling also strength maximization, with the price of increased compliance. Optimal design examples are presented...

  17. Good stress management capability is associated with lower body mass index and restful sleep in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraoka, Seitaro; Hayashida, Naomi; Shinkawa, Tetsuko; Taira, Yasuyuki; Nagai-Sekitani, Yui; Irie, Sumiko; Kamasaki, Toshihiko; Nakashima-Hashiguchi, Kanami; Yoshida, Koji; Orita, Makiko; Morishita, Michiko; Clancey, Gregory; Takamura, Noboru

    2013-01-01

    Psychosocial stress is generally associated with adverse health behaviors and has been linked to the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Recently, an individual's sense of coherence (SOC), which is a concept that reflects the ability to cope with psychosocial stress, has been recognized as an essential component of long-term health and stress management. The association between SOC and traditional and alternative atherosclerotic markers in a community sample, however, has not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, we evaluated stress management capability and psychological conditions using the Japanese version of the Sense of Coherence-13 (SOC-13) Scale, supplemented by the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) that screens for minor psychiatric disorders. The study subjects were 511 adults, median age 64 years (range 48-70), who participated in a regular medical screening program in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. We then correlated our findings with atherosclerotic risk factors in the same community sample, such as body mass index (BMI) and proper and regular sleeping habits. We found that close association between good stress management capability and lower BMI and/or regular sleeping habits in elderly Japanese. This provides strong evidence that BMI and sleep management are contributory to SOC. If the ability to cope with psychosocial stress is important to the prevention of CVD, then weight control and proper sleep habits must be emphasized from a psychosocial stress-management perspective as well as a physical one.

  18. Corrigan-Ramond Extension of QCD at Nonzero Baryon Density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Frandsen, M.; Kouvaris, Christoforos; Sannino, F.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the Corrigan-Ramond extension of one massless flavor Quantum Chromo Dynamics at nonzero quark chemical potential. Since the extension requires the fermions to transform in the two index antisymmetric representation of the gauge group, one finds that the number of possible channels ......-Grigoriev-Rubakov chiral waves. We discover, differently from the 't Hooft limit, the possibility of a colored chiral wave breaking the color symmetry as well as translation invariance....... is richer than in the 't Hooft limit. We first discuss the diquark channels and show that for a number of colors larger than three a new diquark channel appears. We then study the infinite number of color limit and show that the Fermi surface is unstable to the formation of the Deryagin...

  19. Hopping magnetotransport via nonzero orbital momentum states and organic magnetoresistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Alexandre S; Dediu, Valentin A; Kabanov, Victor V

    2012-05-04

    In hopping magnetoresistance of doped insulators, an applied magnetic field shrinks the electron (hole) s-wave function of a donor or an acceptor and this reduces the overlap between hopping sites resulting in the positive magnetoresistance quadratic in a weak magnetic field, B. We extend the theory of hopping magnetoresistance to states with nonzero orbital momenta. Different from s states, a weak magnetic field expands the electron (hole) wave functions with positive magnetic quantum numbers, m>0, and shrinks the states with negative m in a wide region outside the point defect. This together with a magnetic-field dependence of injection/ionization rates results in a negative weak-field magnetoresistance, which is linear in B when the orbital degeneracy is lifted. The theory provides a possible explanation of a large low-field magnetoresistance in disordered π-conjugated organic materials.

  20. Nano-scale mass sensor based on the vibration analysis of a magneto-electro-elastic nanoplate resting on a visco-Pasternak substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanmirza, E.; Jamalpoor, A.; Kiani, A.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a magneto-electro-elastic nanoplate resting on a visco-Pasternak medium with added concentrated nanoparticles is presented as a mass nanosensor according to the vibration analysis. The MEE nanoplate is supposed to be subject to external electric voltage and magnetic potential. In order to take into account the size effect on the sensitivity of the sensor, the nonlocal elasticity theory in conjunction with the Kirchhoff plate theory is applied. Partial differential equations are derived by implementing Hamilton's variational principle. Equilibrium equations were solved analytically to determine an explicit closed-form statement for both the damped frequency shift and the relative damped frequency shift using Navier's approach. A genetic algorithm (GA) is employed to achieve the optimal added nanoparticle location to gain the most sensitivity performance of the nanosensor. Numerical studies are performed to illustrate the variation of the sensitivity property corresponding to various values of the number of attached nanoparticles, the mass of each nanoparticle, the nonlocal parameter, external electric voltage and magnetic potential, the aspect ratio, and visco-Pasternak parameters. Some numerical outcomes of this paper show that the minimum value of the damped frequency shift occurs for a certain value of the length-to-thickness ratio. Also, it is shown that the external magnetic and external electric potentials have a different effect on the sensitivity property. It is anticipated that the results reported in this work can be considered as a benchmark in future micro-structures issues.

  1. Chiral condensate at nonzero chemical potential in the microscopic limit of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, J. C.; Splittorff, K.; Verbaarschot, J. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    The chiral condensate in QCD at zero temperature does not depend on the quark chemical potential (up to one-third the nucleon mass), whereas the spectral density of the Dirac operator shows a strong dependence on the chemical potential. The cancellations which make this possible also occur on the microscopic scale, where they can be investigated by means of a random matrix model. We show that they can be understood in terms of orthogonality properties of orthogonal polynomials. In the strong non-Hermiticity limit they are related to integrability properties of the spectral density. As a by-product we find exact analytical expressions for the partially quenched chiral condensate in the microscopic domain at nonzero chemical potential.

  2. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  3. Elevated Body Mass Index is Associated with Increased Integration and Reduced Cohesion of Sensory-Driven and Internally Guided Resting-State Functional Brain Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Gaelle E; Rasgon, Natalie; McEwen, Bruce S; Micali, Nadia; Frangou, Sophia

    2018-03-01

    Elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with increased multi-morbidity and mortality. The investigation of the relationship between BMI and brain organization has the potential to provide new insights relevant to clinical and policy strategies for weight control. Here, we quantified the association between increasing BMI and the functional organization of resting-state brain networks in a sample of 496 healthy individuals that were studied as part of the Human Connectome Project. We demonstrated that higher BMI was associated with changes in the functional connectivity of the default-mode network (DMN), central executive network (CEN), sensorimotor network (SMN), visual network (VN), and their constituent modules. In siblings discordant for obesity, we showed that person-specific factors contributing to obesity are linked to reduced cohesiveness of the sensory networks (SMN and VN). We conclude that higher BMI is associated with widespread alterations in brain networks that balance sensory-driven (SMN, VN) and internally guided (DMN, CEN) states which may augment sensory-driven behavior leading to overeating and subsequent weight gain. Our results provide a neurobiological context for understanding the association between BMI and brain functional organization while accounting for familial and person-specific influences. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Performance of heat engines with non-zero heat capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odes, Ron; Kribus, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Finite heat capacity is a second irreversibility mechanism in addition to thermal resistance. ► Heat capacity introduces thermal transients and reverse heat flow. ► Engine maximum power and efficiency are lower for finite heat capacity. ► Implementing the optimal engine cycle requires active control. - Abstract: The performance of a heat engine is analyzed subject to two types of irreversibility: a non-zero heat capacity, together with the more common finite heat transfer rate between the engine and the external heat reservoirs. The heat capacity represents an engine body that undergoes significant temperature variations during the engine cycle. An option to cut off the heat exchange between the engine and the external surrounding for part of the engine cycle is also explored. A variational approach was taken to find the engine’s internal temperature profile (which defines the internal thermodynamic cycle) that would produce maximum power. The maximum power is shown to be lower than the case of zero heat capacity, due to a loss of heat that is stored in the engine body and then lost, bypassing the thermodynamic cycle. The maximum efficiency and the efficiency at maximum power are also lower than the zero heat capacity case. Similar to the Curzon–Ahlborn analysis, power can be traded for increased efficiency, but for high heat capacity, the range of efficiency that is available for such a trade is diminished. Isolating the engine during part of the cycle reduces maximum power, but the efficiency at maximum power and the maximum efficiency are improved, due to better exploitation of heat stored in the engine body. This might be useful for real engines that are limited by the internal energy change during a single engine cycle or by the operating frequency, leading to a broader power–efficiency curve.

  5. Should tsunami simulations include a nonzero initial horizontal velocity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotto, Gabriel C.; Nava, Gabriel; Dunham, Eric M.

    2017-08-01

    Tsunami propagation in the open ocean is most commonly modeled by solving the shallow water wave equations. These equations require initial conditions on sea surface height and depth-averaged horizontal particle velocity or, equivalently, horizontal momentum. While most modelers assume that initial velocity is zero, Y.T. Song and collaborators have argued for nonzero initial velocity, claiming that horizontal displacement of a sloping seafloor imparts significant horizontal momentum to the ocean. They show examples in which this effect increases the resulting tsunami height by a factor of two or more relative to models in which initial velocity is zero. We test this claim with a "full-physics" integrated dynamic rupture and tsunami model that couples the elastic response of the Earth to the linearized acoustic-gravitational response of a compressible ocean with gravity; the model self-consistently accounts for seismic waves in the solid Earth, acoustic waves in the ocean, and tsunamis (with dispersion at short wavelengths). Full-physics simulations of subduction zone megathrust ruptures and tsunamis in geometries with a sloping seafloor confirm that substantial horizontal momentum is imparted to the ocean. However, almost all of that initial momentum is carried away by ocean acoustic waves, with negligible momentum imparted to the tsunami. We also compare tsunami propagation in each simulation to that predicted by an equivalent shallow water wave simulation with varying assumptions regarding initial velocity. We find that the initial horizontal velocity conditions proposed by Song and collaborators consistently overestimate the tsunami amplitude and predict an inconsistent wave profile. Finally, we determine tsunami initial conditions that are rigorously consistent with our full-physics simulations by isolating the tsunami waves from ocean acoustic and seismic waves at some final time, and backpropagating the tsunami waves to their initial state by solving the

  6. Photon and graviton mass limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, Alfred Scharff; Nieto, Michael Martin

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to place limits on deviations from canonical formulations of electromagnetism and gravity have probed length scales increasing dramatically over time. Historically, these studies have passed through three stages: (1) testing the power in the inverse-square laws of Newton and Coulomb, (2) seeking a nonzero value for the rest mass of photon or graviton, and (3) considering more degrees of freedom, allowing mass while preserving explicit gauge or general-coordinate invariance. Since the previous review the lower limit on the photon Compton wavelength has improved by four orders of magnitude, to about one astronomical unit, and rapid current progress in astronomy makes further advance likely. For gravity there have been vigorous debates about even the concept of graviton rest mass. Meanwhile there are striking observations of astronomical motions that do not fit Einstein gravity with visible sources. ''Cold dark matter'' (slow, invisible classical particles) fits well at large scales. ''Modified Newtonian dynamics'' provides the best phenomenology at galactic scales. Satisfying this phenomenology is a requirement if dark matter, perhaps as invisible classical fields, could be correct here too. ''Dark energy''might be explained by a graviton-mass-like effect, with associated Compton wavelength comparable to the radius of the visible universe. Significant mass limits are summarized in a table.

  7. Photon and graviton mass limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Alfred Scharff; Nieto, Michael Martin

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to place limits on deviations from canonical formulations of electromagnetism and gravity have probed length scales increasing dramatically over time. Historically, these studies have passed through three stages: (1) testing the power in the inverse-square laws of Newton and Coulomb, (2) seeking a nonzero value for the rest mass of photon or graviton, and (3) considering more degrees of freedom, allowing mass while preserving explicit gauge or general-coordinate invariance. Since the previous review the lower limit on the photon Compton wavelength has improved by four orders of magnitude, to about one astronomical unit, and rapid current progress in astronomy makes further advance likely. For gravity there have been vigorous debates about even the concept of graviton rest mass. Meanwhile there are striking observations of astronomical motions that do not fit Einstein gravity with visible sources. “Cold dark matter” (slow, invisible classical particles) fits well at large scales. “Modified Newtonian dynamics” provides the best phenomenology at galactic scales. Satisfying this phenomenology is a requirement if dark matter, perhaps as invisible classical fields, could be correct here too. “Dark energy” might be explained by a graviton-mass-like effect, with associated Compton wavelength comparable to the radius of the visible universe. Significant mass limits are summarized in a table.

  8. Photon and graviton mass limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieto, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goldhaber Scharff, Alfred [SUNY

    2008-01-01

    We review past and current studies of possible long-distance, low-frequency deviations from Maxwell electrodynamics and Einstein gravity. Both have passed through three phases: (1) Testing the inverse-square laws of Newton and Coulomb, (2) Seeking a nonzero value for the rest mass of photon or graviton, and (3) Considering more degrees of freedom, allowing mass while preserving gauge or general-coordinate invariance. For electrodynamics there continues to be no sign of any deviation. Since our previous review the lower limit on the photon Compton wavelength (associated with weakening of electromagnetic fields in vacuum over large distance scale) has improved by four orders of magnitude, to about one astronomical unit. Rapid current progress in astronomical observations makes it likely that there will be further advances. These ultimately could yield a bound exceeding galactic dimensions, as has long been contemplated. Meanwhile, for gravity there have been strong arguments about even the concept of a graviton rest mass. At the same time there are striking observations, commonly labeled 'dark matter' and 'dark energy' that some argue imply modified gravity. This makes the questions for gravity much more interesting. For dark matter, which involves increased attraction at large distances, any explanation by modified gravity would be qualitatively different from graviton mass. Because dark energy is associated with reduced attraction at large distances, it might be explained by a graviton-mass-like effect.

  9. High-Intensity Jump Training Is Tolerated during 60 Days of Bed Rest and Is Very Effective in Preserving Leg Power and Lean Body Mass: An Overview of the Cologne RSL Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Andreas; Kümmel, Jakob; Mulder, Edwin; Gollhofer, Albert; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Gruber, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Space agencies are looking for effective and efficient countermeasures for the degrading effects of weightlessness on the human body. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a novel jump exercise countermeasure during bed rest on vitals, body mass, body composition, and jump performance. 23 male participants (29±6 years, 181±6 cm, 77±7 kg) were confined to a bed rest facility for 90 days: a 15-day ambulatory measurement phase, a 60-day six-degree head-down-tilt bed rest phase (HDT), and a 15-day ambulatory recovery phase. Participants were randomly allocated to the jump training group (JUMP, n = 12) or the control group (CTRL, n = 11). A typical training session consisted of 4x10 countermovement jumps and 2x10 hops in a sledge jump system. The training group had to complete 5-6 sessions per week. Peak force for the reactive hops (3.6±0.4 kN) as well as jump height (35±4 cm) and peak power (3.1±0.2 kW) for the countermovement jumps could be maintained over the 60 days of HDT. Lean body mass decreased in CTRL but not in JUMP (-1.6±1.9 kg and 0±1.0 kg, respectively, interaction effect p = 0.03). Resting heart rate during recovery was significantly increased for CTRL but not for JUMP (interaction effect pjump training and maintained high peak forces and high power output during 60 days of bed rest. The countermeasure was effective in preserving lean body mass and partly preventing cardiac deconditioning with only several minutes of training per day.

  10. High-Intensity Jump Training Is Tolerated during 60 Days of Bed Rest and Is Very Effective in Preserving Leg Power and Lean Body Mass: An Overview of the Cologne RSL Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kramer

    Full Text Available Space agencies are looking for effective and efficient countermeasures for the degrading effects of weightlessness on the human body. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a novel jump exercise countermeasure during bed rest on vitals, body mass, body composition, and jump performance.23 male participants (29±6 years, 181±6 cm, 77±7 kg were confined to a bed rest facility for 90 days: a 15-day ambulatory measurement phase, a 60-day six-degree head-down-tilt bed rest phase (HDT, and a 15-day ambulatory recovery phase. Participants were randomly allocated to the jump training group (JUMP, n = 12 or the control group (CTRL, n = 11. A typical training session consisted of 4x10 countermovement jumps and 2x10 hops in a sledge jump system. The training group had to complete 5-6 sessions per week.Peak force for the reactive hops (3.6±0.4 kN as well as jump height (35±4 cm and peak power (3.1±0.2 kW for the countermovement jumps could be maintained over the 60 days of HDT. Lean body mass decreased in CTRL but not in JUMP (-1.6±1.9 kg and 0±1.0 kg, respectively, interaction effect p = 0.03. Resting heart rate during recovery was significantly increased for CTRL but not for JUMP (interaction effect p<0.001.Participants tolerated the near-daily high-intensity jump training and maintained high peak forces and high power output during 60 days of bed rest. The countermeasure was effective in preserving lean body mass and partly preventing cardiac deconditioning with only several minutes of training per day.

  11. Present status of lattice QCD at nonzero T and µ

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physical observable Θ, which may contain fermion propagators of mass amvalence, as averages with respect to .... Velocity of sound, Cs, in QGP and dense hadronic media is a crucial input to ..... [29] J Cleymans, private communication. 898.

  12. Anabolic resistance assessed by oral stable isotope ingestion following bed rest in young and older adult volunteers: Relationships with changes in muscle mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biolo, Gianni; Pišot, Rado; Mazzucco, Sara; Di Girolamo, Filippo Giorgio; Situlin, Roberta; Lazzer, Stefano; Grassi, Bruno; Reggiani, Carlo; Passaro, Angelina; Rittweger, Joern; Gasparini, Mladen; Šimunič, Boštjan; Narici, Marco

    2017-10-01

    Aging and experimental bed rest are associated with muscle atrophy and resistance to post-prandial stimulation of protein synthesis or anabolic resistance (AR). We have used in young and older adult volunteers, during short-term bed rest, a quick and non-invasive method, based on a single oral bolus of the stable isotope L[ring- 2 H 5 ]phenylalanine (D 5 Phe), to determine post-prandial AR, defined as ratio between irreversible hydroxylation and incorporation into body protein of ingested phenylalanine. We compared in older (O, 59 ± 1 y) and young (Y, 23 ± 1 y) healthy male volunteers the effects of two-week bed rest on post-prandial protein kinetics, assessed during absorption of a standard ready-to-use oral nutritional supplement, through stable-labeled isotope amino acid D 5 Phe, diluted in water, given as single oral load. The metabolic fate of D 5 Phe is either utilization for protein synthesis or irreversible hydroxylation to L[ring- 2 H 4 ]tyrosine (D 4 Tyr). AR was defined as ratio between the areas under the curves of D 4 Tyr-to-D 5 Phe plasma concentrations over 6 h meal absorption. To determine the relationships between AR and muscle changes following bed rest, quadriceps muscle volume (QMV) was determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). At baseline, in pooled Y and O subjects, values of AR were inversely correlated with QMV (R = -0.75; p < 0.03). Following 2-weeks of inactivity, there were significant bed rest effects on AR (p < 0.01) and QMV (p < 0.03), as well as significant bed rest × group interaction for AR (p < 0.03; +9.2% in Y; +21.9% in O) and QMV (p < 0.05; -5.7% in Y; -%7.3 in O). In pooled subjects, the percentage delta changes in AR and QMV, induced by bed rest, were inversely correlated (R = -0.57; p < 0.05). Bed rest-induced AR is much greater in the older than in younger adults. We have developed a new, simple, non-invasive method for the assessment of AR. The results indicate that this metabolic

  13. Ergodic Capacity Analysis of Free-Space Optical Links with Nonzero Boresight Pointing Errors

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Cheng, Julian

    2015-01-01

    A unified capacity analysis of a free-space optical (FSO) link that accounts for nonzero boresight pointing errors and both types of detection techniques (i.e. intensity modulation/ direct detection as well as heterodyne detection) is addressed

  14. Lr-Lp Stability of the Incompressible Flows with Nonzero Far-Field Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiok Roh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the stability of stationary solutions w for the exterior Navier-Stokes flows with a nonzero constant velocity u∞ at infinity. For u∞=0 with nonzero stationary solution w, Chen (1993, Kozono and Ogawa (1994, and Borchers and Miyakawa (1995 have studied the temporal stability in Lp spaces for 11 and obtain Lr-Lp stability as Kozono and Ogawa and Borchers and Miyakawa obtained for u∞=0.

  15. Unquenched Complex Dirac Spectra at Nonzero Chemical Potential: Two-Color QCD Lattice Data versus Matrix Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akemann, Gernot; Bittner, Elmar

    2006-01-01

    We compare analytic predictions of non-Hermitian chiral random matrix theory with the complex Dirac operator eigenvalue spectrum of two-color lattice gauge theory with dynamical fermions at nonzero chemical potential. The Dirac eigenvalues come in complex conjugate pairs, making the action of this theory real and positive for our choice of two staggered flavors. This enables us to use standard Monte Carlo simulations in testing the influence of the chemical potential and quark mass on complex eigenvalues close to the origin. We find excellent agreement between the analytic predictions and our data for two different volumes over a range of chemical potentials below the chiral phase transition. In particular, we detect the effect of unquenching when going to very small quark masses

  16. REST based mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambow, Mark; Preuss, Thomas; Berdux, Jörg; Conrad, Marc

    2008-02-01

    Simplicity is the major advantage of REST based webservices. Whereas SOAP is widespread in complex, security sensitive business-to-business aplications, REST is widely used for mashups and end-user centric applicatons. In that context we give an overview of REST and compare it to SOAP. Furthermore we apply the GeoDrawing application as an example for REST based mobile applications and emphasize on pros and cons for the use of REST in mobile application scenarios.

  17. The quenched limit of lattice QCD at non-zero baryon number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, J.; Kaczmarek, O.; Karsch, F.; Laermann, E.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the thermodynamics of gluons in the background of static quark sources. In order to do so we formulate the quenched limit of QCD at non-zero baryon number. A first numerical analysis of this system shows that it undergoes a smooth deconfining transition. We find evidence for a region of coexisting phases that becomes broader with increasing baryon number density. Although the action is in our formulation explicitly Z(3) symmetric the Polyakov loop expectation value becomes non-zero already in the low temperature phase. It indicates that the heavy quark potential stays finite at large distances, i.e. the string between static quarks breaks at non-zero baryon number density already in the hadronic phase

  18. Semileptonic B to D Decays at Nonzero Recoil with 2+1 Flavors of Improved Staggered Quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Si-Wei; DeTar, Carleton; Du, Daping; Kronfeld, Andreas S.; Laiho, Jack; Van de Water, Ruth S.

    2011-01-01

    The Fermilab Lattice-MILC collaboration is completing a comprehensive program of heavy-light physics on the MILC (2+1)-flavor asqtad ensembles with lattice spacings as small as 0.045 fm and light-to-strange-quark mass ratios as low as 1/20. We use the Fermilab interpretation of the clover action for heavy valence quarks and the asqtad action for light valence quarks. The central goal of the program is to provide ever more exacting tests of the unitarity of the CKM matrix. We give a progress report on one part of the program, namely the analysis of the semileptonic decay B to D at both zero and nonzero recoil. Although final results are not presented, we discuss improvements in the analysis methods, the statistical errors, and the parameter coverage that we expect will lead to a significant reduction in the final error for |V cb | from this decay channel.

  19. On the proposed second law paradox in a nonzero floating potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruden, Brett A.

    2001-01-01

    A second law paradox was previously proposed for a plasma contained within an infinite blackbody. The proposed second law paradox was dependent on the plasma having a nonzero floating potential [D. P. Sheehan and J. D. Means, Phys. Plasmas 5, 2469 (1998)]. This work demonstrates that a nonzero floating potential is indicative of some energy contained within the plasma that can be withdrawn from the plasma without violation of the second law. Furthermore, it is shown from the probe theory that the plasma in this hypothetical configuration must have a floating potential of zero at steady state

  20. Scattering phases for particles with nonzero orbital momenta and resonance regimes in the Pais approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruk, Yulii M; Voloshchuk, Aleksandr N

    2012-01-01

    The functional Pais equation for scattering phases with nonzero orbital momenta is solved in the case of low-energy particles. For short-range screened potentials, in particular, Yukawa or Thomas-Fermi potentials, the Pais equation is shown to reduce to transcendental equations. For the potentials varying ∼r - n , n > 0, simple algebraic equations are obtained for determining the phases δ l , l≠0. Possible applications of the Pais approximation to the problem of finding resonance regimes in the scattering of low-energy particles with nonzero orbital momenta are discussed. (methodological notes)

  1. The chiral critical line of $N_{f}=2+1$ QCD at ero and non-zero baryon density

    CERN Document Server

    De Forcrand, Philippe; Forcrand, Philippe de; Philipsen, Owe

    2007-01-01

    We present numerical results for the location of the chiral critical line at finite temperature and zero and non-zero baryon density for QCD with N_f=2+1 flavours of staggered fermions on lattices with temporal extent N_t=4. For degenerate quark masses, we compare our results obtained with the exact RHMC algorithm with earlier, inexact R-algorithm results and find a reduction of 25% in the critical quark mass, for which the first order phase transition changes to a smooth crossover. Extending our analysis to non-degenerate quark masses, we map out the chiral critical line up to the neighbourhood of the physical point, which we confirm to be in the crossover region. Our data are consistent with a tricritical point at a strange quark mass of ~500 MeV. Finally, we investigate the shift of the critical line with finite baryon density, by simulating with an imaginary chemical potential for which there is no sign problem. We observe this shift to be very small or, conversely, the critical endpoint \\mu^c(m_{u,d},m_s...

  2. Alternative REST Splicing Underappreciated

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Guo-Lin; Miller, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    As a major orchestrator of the cellular epigenome, the repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) can either repress or activate thousands of genes depending on cellular context, suggesting a highly context-dependent REST function tuned by environmental cues. While REST shows cell-type non-selective active transcription, an N-terminal REST4 isoform caused by alternative splicing - inclusion of an extra exon (N3c) which introduces a pre-mature stop codon - has been implicated in...

  3. First non-zero terms for the Taylor expansion at 1 of the Conway potential function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buryak, A.Y.

    2011-01-01

    The Conway potential function ∇ L (t 1,...,t l ) of an ordered oriented link L = L 1 ∪ L 2 ∪ ... ∪ L l ⊂ S 3 is considered. In general, this function is not determined by the linking numbers and the Conway potential functions of the components. However, the first two nonzero terms of the Taylor

  4. Generalized quantization scheme for two-person non-zero sum games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, Ahmad; Toor, A H

    2004-01-01

    We proposed a generalized quantization scheme for non-zero sum games which can be reduced to the two existing quantization schemes under an appropriate set of parameters. Some other important situations are identified which are not apparent in the two existing quantization schemes

  5. Chiral properties of two-flavour QCD at zero and non-zero temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, Bastian Benjamin

    2012-11-22

    radius are used to test chiral perturbation theory (χPT) and are thereby extrapolated to the physical point and the continuum. The final result in units of the hadronic radius r{sub 0} is left angle r{sup 2}{sub π} right angle {sup phys}/r{sub 0}{sup 2}=1.87({sup +12}{sub -10})({sup +4}{sub -15}) or left angle r{sub π}{sup 2} right angle {sup phys}=0.473({sup +30}{sub -26})({sup +10}{sub -38})(10) fm, which agrees well with the results from other measurements in LQCD and experiment. Note, that this is the first continuum extrapolated result for the charge radius from LQCD which has been extracted from measurements of the form factor in the region of small q{sup 2}. The order of the phase transition in the chiral limit of two-flavour QCD and the associated transition temperature are the last unknown features of the phase diagram at zero chemical potential. The two possible scenarios are a second order transition in the O(4)-universality class or a first order transition. Since direct simulations in the chiral limit are not possible the transition can only be investigated by simulating at non-zero quark mass with a subsequent chiral extrapolation, guided by the universal scaling in the vicinity of the critical point. The thesis presents the setup and first results from a study on this topic. The study provides the ideal platform to test the potential and limits of todays simulation algorithms at finite temperature. The results from a first scan at a constant zero-temperature pion mass of about 290 MeV are promising, and it appears that simulations down to physical quark masses are feasible. Of particular relevance for the order of the chiral transition is the strength of the anomalous breaking of the U{sub A}(1) symmetry at the transition point. It can be studied by looking at the degeneracies of the correlation functions in scalar and pseudoscalar channels. For the temperature scan reported in this thesis the breaking is still pronounced in the transition region and

  6. Chiral properties of two-flavour QCD at zero and non-zero temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Bastian Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    test chiral perturbation theory (χPT) and are thereby extrapolated to the physical point and the continuum. The final result in units of the hadronic radius r 0 is left angle r 2 π right angle phys /r 0 2 =1.87( +12 -10 )( +4 -15 ) or left angle r π 2 right angle phys =0.473( +30 -26 )( +10 -38 )(10) fm, which agrees well with the results from other measurements in LQCD and experiment. Note, that this is the first continuum extrapolated result for the charge radius from LQCD which has been extracted from measurements of the form factor in the region of small q 2 . The order of the phase transition in the chiral limit of two-flavour QCD and the associated transition temperature are the last unknown features of the phase diagram at zero chemical potential. The two possible scenarios are a second order transition in the O(4)-universality class or a first order transition. Since direct simulations in the chiral limit are not possible the transition can only be investigated by simulating at non-zero quark mass with a subsequent chiral extrapolation, guided by the universal scaling in the vicinity of the critical point. The thesis presents the setup and first results from a study on this topic. The study provides the ideal platform to test the potential and limits of todays simulation algorithms at finite temperature. The results from a first scan at a constant zero-temperature pion mass of about 290 MeV are promising, and it appears that simulations down to physical quark masses are feasible. Of particular relevance for the order of the chiral transition is the strength of the anomalous breaking of the U A (1) symmetry at the transition point. It can be studied by looking at the degeneracies of the correlation functions in scalar and pseudoscalar channels. For the temperature scan reported in this thesis the breaking is still pronounced in the transition region and the symmetry becomes effectively restored only above 1.16 T C . The thesis also provides an extensive

  7. Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  8. Golay Complementary Waveforms in Reed–Müller Sequences for Radar Detection of Nonzero Doppler Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuezhi; Huang, Xiaotao; Suvorova, Sofia; Moran, Bill

    2018-01-01

    Golay complementary waveforms can, in theory, yield radar returns of high range resolution with essentially zero sidelobes. In practice, when deployed conventionally, while high signal-to-noise ratios can be achieved for static target detection, significant range sidelobes are generated by target returns of nonzero Doppler causing unreliable detection. We consider signal processing techniques using Golay complementary waveforms to improve radar detection performance in scenarios involving multiple nonzero Doppler targets. A signal processing procedure based on an existing, so called, Binomial Design algorithm that alters the transmission order of Golay complementary waveforms and weights the returns is proposed in an attempt to achieve an enhanced illumination performance. The procedure applies one of three proposed waveform transmission ordering algorithms, followed by a pointwise nonlinear processor combining the outputs of the Binomial Design algorithm and one of the ordering algorithms. The computational complexity of the Binomial Design algorithm and the three ordering algorithms are compared, and a statistical analysis of the performance of the pointwise nonlinear processing is given. Estimation of the areas in the Delay–Doppler map occupied by significant range sidelobes for given targets are also discussed. Numerical simulations for the comparison of the performances of the Binomial Design algorithm and the three ordering algorithms are presented for both fixed and randomized target locations. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed signal processing procedure has a better detection performance in terms of lower sidelobes and higher Doppler resolution in the presence of multiple nonzero Doppler targets compared to existing methods. PMID:29324708

  9. Normal protein intake is required for body weight loss and weight maintenance, and elevated protein intake for additional preservation of resting energy expenditure and fat free mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Martens, Eveline A P; Hochstenbach-Waelen, Ananda; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-05-01

    Energy-restricted high-protein diets (HPDs) have shown favorable results for body weight (BW) management, yet studies differ in their outcomes depending on the dietary protein content. Our objective was to determine the effects of dietary protein content on BW loss-related variables during a 6-mo energy restriction with the use of diets containing protein at the level of requirement [normal-protein diet (NPD), 0.8 g · kg BW(-1) (.) d(-1)] and above (HPD, 1.2 g · kg BW(-1) (.) d(-1)). In overweight and obese participants (24 men and 48 women), BW, body composition, and metabolic responses were assessed before and after subsequent energy intakes of 100, 33, and 67% of the original individual daily energy requirements. Protein intake was consistent in the NPD (0.8 ± 0.3 g · kg BW(-1) (.) d(-1)) and HPD (1.2 ± 0.3 g · kg BW(-1) (.) d(-1)) groups throughout the study (P body fat mass similarly decreased in the NPD and HPD groups (P initial sparing effect of FFM and lowering of DBP.

  10. Is Rest Really Rest? Resting State Functional Connectivity during Rest and Motor Task Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkiewicz, Michael T; Crawley, Adrian P; Mikulis, David J

    2018-04-18

    Numerous studies have identified the default mode network (DMN) within the brain of healthy individuals, which has been attributed to the ongoing mental activity of the brain during the wakeful resting-state. While engaged during specific resting-state fMRI paradigms, it remains unclear as to whether traditional block-design simple movement fMRI experiments significantly influence the default mode network or other areas. Using blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI we characterized the pattern of functional connectivity in healthy subjects during a resting-state paradigm and compared this to the same resting-state analysis performed on motor task data residual time courses after regressing out the task paradigm. Using seed-voxel analysis to define the DMN, the executive control network (ECN), and sensorimotor, auditory and visual networks, the resting-state analysis of the residual time courses demonstrated reduced functional connectivity in the motor network and reduced connectivity between the insula and the ECN compared to the standard resting-state datasets. Overall, performance of simple self-directed motor tasks does little to change the resting-state functional connectivity across the brain, especially in non-motor areas. This would suggest that previously acquired fMRI studies incorporating simple block-design motor tasks could be mined retrospectively for assessment of the resting-state connectivity.

  11. RESTful Web Services Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Allamaraju, Subbu

    2010-01-01

    While the REST design philosophy has captured the imagination of web and enterprise developers alike, using this approach to develop real web services is no picnic. This cookbook includes more than 100 recipes to help you take advantage of REST, HTTP, and the infrastructure of the Web. You'll learn ways to design RESTful web services for client and server applications that meet performance, scalability, reliability, and security goals, no matter what programming language and development framework you use. Each recipe includes one or two problem statements, with easy-to-follow, step-by-step i

  12. Neutron transport assembly calculation with non-zero net current boundary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Chang Keun

    1993-02-01

    Fuel assembly calculation for the homogenized group constants is one of the most important parts in the reactor core analysis. The homogenized group constants of one a quarter assembly are usually generated for the nodal calculation of the reactor core. In the current nodal calculation, one or a quarter of the fuel assembly corresponds to a unit node. The homogenized group constant calculation for a fuel assembly proceeds through cell spectrum calculations, group condensation and cell homogenization calculations, two dimensional fuel assembly calculation, and then depletion calculations of fuel rods. To obtain the assembly wise homogenized group constants, the two dimensional transport calculation is usually performed. Most codes for the assembly wise homogenized group constants employ a zero net current boundary condition. CASMO-3 is such a code that is in wide use. The zero net current boundary condition is plausible and valid in an infinite reactor composed of the same kind of assemblies. However, the reactor is finite and the core is constructed by different kinds of assemblies. Hence, the assumption of the zero net current boundary condition is not valid in the actual reactor. The objective of this study is to develop a homogenization methodology that can treat any actual boundary condition, i.e. non-zero net current boundary condition. In order to treat the non-zero net current boundary condition, we modify CASMO-3. For the two-dimensional treatment in CASMO-3, a multigroup integral transport routine based on the method of transmission probability is used. The code performs assembly calculation with zero net current boundary condition. CASMO-3 is modified to consider the inhomogeneous source at the assembly boundary surface due to the non-zero net current. The modified version of CASMO-3 is called CASMO-3M. CASMO-3M is applied to several benchmark problems. In order to obtain the inhomogeneous source, the global calculation is performed. The local calculation

  13. Perturbative study of the QCD phase diagram for heavy quarks at nonzero chemical potential: Two-loop corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maelger, J.; Reinosa, U.; Serreau, J.

    2018-04-01

    We extend a previous investigation [U. Reinosa et al., Phys. Rev. D 92, 025021 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevD.92.025021] of the QCD phase diagram with heavy quarks in the context of background field methods by including the two-loop corrections to the background field effective potential. The nonperturbative dynamics in the pure-gauge sector is modeled by a phenomenological gluon mass term in the Landau-DeWitt gauge-fixed action, which results in an improved perturbative expansion. We investigate the phase diagram at nonzero temperature and (real or imaginary) chemical potential. Two-loop corrections yield an improved agreement with lattice data as compared to the leading-order results. We also compare with the results of nonperturbative continuum approaches. We further study the equation of state as well as the thermodynamic stability of the system at two-loop order. Finally, using simple thermodynamic arguments, we show that the behavior of the Polyakov loops as functions of the chemical potential complies with their interpretation in terms of quark and antiquark free energies.

  14. Two observable features of the staggered-flux phase at nonzero doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, T.C.; Marston, J.B.; Affleck, I.

    1991-01-01

    We investigate whether the staggered-flux phase (SFP) is realized in slightly doped phases of the Cu-O high-T c superconductors. Using a mean-field solution of the t-J model, we calculate the size of circulating currents in the CuO 2 planes. For realistic parameters we find nonzero currents when the doping δ 2-x Sr x CuO 4 samples but additional structure along the (Q x ,0) and (0,Q y ) directions has not been seen. The absence of magnetic fields when δ>0.12 is consistent with the limits set by the muon experiments on superconducting samples

  15. Monte Carlo simulations of the NJL model near the nonzero temperature phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strouthos, Costas; Christofi, Stavros

    2005-01-01

    We present results from numerical simulations of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with an SU(2)xSU(2) chiral symmetry and N c = 4,8, and 16 quark colors at nonzero temperature. We performed the simulations by utilizing the hybrid Monte Carlo and hybrid Molecular Dynamics algorithms. We show that the model undergoes a second order phase transition. The critical exponents measured are consistent with the classical 3d O(4) universality class and hence in accordance with the dimensional reduction scenario. We also show that the Ginzburg region is suppressed by a factor of 1/N c in accordance with previous analytical predictions. (author)

  16. Calculation of nonzero-temperature Casimir forces in the time domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Kai; Reid, M. T. Homer; McCauley, Alexander P.; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.; White, Jacob K.; Johnson, Steven G.

    2011-01-01

    We show how to compute Casimir forces at nonzero temperatures with time-domain electromagnetic simulations, for example, using a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Compared to our previous zero-temperature time-domain method, only a small modification is required, but we explain that some care is required to properly capture the zero-frequency contribution. We validate the method against analytical and numerical frequency-domain calculations, and show a surprising high-temperature disappearance of a nonmonotonic behavior previously demonstrated in a pistonlike geometry.

  17. Siegert pseudostate formulation of scattering theory: Nonzero angular momenta in the one-channel case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batishchev, Pavel A.; Tolstikhin, Oleg I.

    2007-01-01

    The Siegert pseudostate (SPS) formulation of scattering theory, originally developed by Tolstikhin, Ostrovsky, and Nakamura [Phys. Rev. A, 58, 2077 (1998)] for s-wave scattering in a spherically symmetric finite-range potential, is generalized to nonzero angular momenta. The orthogonality and completeness properties of SPSs are established and SPS expansions for the outgoing-wave Green's function, physical states, and scattering matrix are obtained. The present formulation completes the theory of SPSs in the one-channel case, making its application to three-dimensional problems possible. The results are illustrated by calculations for several model potentials

  18. Two-color QCD with non-zero chiral chemical potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braguta, V.V. [Institute for High Energy Physics NRC “Kurchatov Institute' ,142281 Protvino (Russian Federation); Far Eastern Federal University, School of Biomedicine,690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Goy, V.A. [Far Eastern Federal University, School of Natural Sciences,690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Ilgenfritz, E.M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research,BLTP, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Kotov, A.Yu. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics,117259 Moscow (Russian Federation); Molochkov, A.V. [Far Eastern Federal University, School of Biomedicine,690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Müller-Preussker, M.; Petersson, B. [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Physik,12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-06-16

    The phase diagram of two-color QCD with non-zero chiral chemical potential is studied by means of lattice simulation. We focus on the influence of a chiral chemical potential on the confinement/deconfinement phase transition and the breaking/restoration of chiral symmetry. The simulation is carried out with dynamical staggered fermions without rooting. The dependences of the Polyakov loop, the chiral condensate and the corresponding susceptibilities on the chiral chemical potential and the temperature are presented. The critical temperature is observed to increase with increasing chiral chemical potential.

  19. NUMERICAL ALGORITHMS AT NON-ZERO CHEMICAL POTENTIAL. PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP, VOLUME 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, T.; Creutz, M.

    1999-01-01

    The RIKEN BNL Research Center hosted its 19th workshop April 27th through May 1, 1999. The topic was Numerical Algorithms at Non-Zero Chemical Potential. QCD at a non-zero chemical potential (non-zero density) poses a long-standing unsolved challenge for lattice gauge theory. Indeed, it is the primary unresolved issue in the fundamental formulation of lattice gauge theory. The chemical potential renders conventional lattice actions complex, practically excluding the usual Monte Carlo techniques which rely on a positive definite measure for the partition function. This ''sign'' problem appears in a wide range of physical systems, ranging from strongly coupled electronic systems to QCD. The lack of a viable numerical technique at non-zero density is particularly acute since new exotic ''color superconducting'' phases of quark matter have recently been predicted in model calculations. A first principles confirmation of the phase diagram is desirable since experimental verification is not expected soon. At the workshop several proposals for new algorithms were made: cluster algorithms, direct simulation of Grassman variables, and a bosonization of the fermion determinant. All generated considerable discussion and seem worthy of continued investigation. Several interesting results using conventional algorithms were also presented: condensates in four fermion models, SU(2) gauge theory in fundamental and adjoint representations, and lessons learned from strong; coupling, non-zero temperature and heavy quarks applied to non-zero density simulations

  20. Homogenization via the strong-permittivity-fluctuation theory with nonzero depolarization volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Tom G.

    2004-08-01

    The depolarization dyadic provides the scattering response of a single inclusion particle embedded within a homogenous background medium. These dyadics play a central role in formalisms used to estimate the effective constitutive parameters of homogenized composite mediums (HCMs). Conventionally, the inclusion particle is taken to be vanishingly small; this allows the pointwise singularity of the dyadic Green function associated with the background medium to be employed as the depolarization dyadic. A more accurate approach is pursued in this communication by taking into account the nonzero spatial extent of inclusion particles. Depolarization dyadics corresponding to inclusion particles of nonzero volume are incorporated within the strong-permittivity-fluctuation theory (SPFT). The linear dimensions of inclusion particles are assumed to be small relative to the electromagnetic wavelength(s) and the SPFT correlation length. The influence of the size of inclusion particles upon SPFT estimates of the HCM constitutive parameters is investigated for anisotropic dielectric HCMs.In particular, the interplay between correlation length and inclusion size is explored.

  1. Generalization of the Child-Langmuir law for nonzero injection velocities in a planar diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, R.R.; Biswas, Debabrata; Kumar, Raghwendra

    2004-01-01

    The Child-Langmuir law relates the voltage applied across a planar diode to the saturation value J CL of current density that can be transmitted through it in case the injection velocity of electrons is zero. The Child-Langmuir current density J CL is, at the same time: (i) the maximum current density that can be transmitted through a planar diode, (ii) the current density below which the flow is steady and unidirectional in the long time limit, and (iii) the average transmitted current density for any value of injected current density above J CL . Existing generalizations of Child-Langmuir law to nonzero velocities of injection are based on the characteristics (i) and (ii) of J CL . This paper generalizes the law to nonzero velocities of injection based on the characteristic (iii) by deriving an analytical expression for the saturation value of current density. The analytical expression for the saturation current density is found to be well supported by numerical computations. A reason behind preferring the saturation property of the Child-Langmuir current density as the basis for its generalization is the importance of that property in numerical simulations of high current diode devices

  2. Nonzero-Sum Stochastic Differential Portfolio Games under a Markovian Regime Switching Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoqun Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a nonzero-sum stochastic differential portfolio game problem in a continuous-time Markov regime switching environment when the price dynamics of the risky assets are governed by a Markov-modulated geometric Brownian motion (GBM. The market parameters, including the bank interest rate and the appreciation and volatility rates of the risky assets, switch over time according to a continuous-time Markov chain. We formulate the nonzero-sum stochastic differential portfolio game problem as two utility maximization problems of the sum process between two investors’ terminal wealth. We derive a pair of regime switching Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB equations and two systems of coupled HJB equations at different regimes. We obtain explicit optimal portfolio strategies and Feynman-Kac representations of the two value functions. Furthermore, we solve the system of coupled HJB equations explicitly in a special case where there are only two states in the Markov chain. Finally we provide comparative statics and numerical simulation analysis of optimal portfolio strategies and investigate the impact of regime switching on optimal portfolio strategies.

  3. Quantum Quench Dynamics in the Transverse Field Ising Model at Non-zero Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeling, Nils; Kehrein, Stefan

    The recently discovered Dynamical Phase Transition denotes non-analytic behavior in the real time evolution of quantum systems in the thermodynamic limit and has been shown to occur in different systems at zero temperature [Heyl et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 135704 (2013)]. In this talk we present the extension of the analysis to non-zero temperature by studying a generalized form of the Loschmidt echo, the work distribution function, of a quantum quench in the transverse field Ising model. Although the quantitative behavior at non-zero temperatures still displays features derived from the zero temperature non-analyticities, it is shown that in this model dynamical phase transitions do not exist if T > 0 . This is a consequence of the system being initialized in a thermal state. Moreover, we elucidate how the Tasaki-Crooks-Jarzynski relation can be exploited as a symmetry relation for a global quench or to obtain the change of the equilibrium free energy density. This work was supported through CRC SFB 1073 (Project B03) of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG).

  4. Nonzero-Sum Relationships in Mitigating Urban Carbon Emissions: A Dynamic Network Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin; Su, Meirong

    2015-10-06

    The "stove-pipe" way of thinking has been mostly used in mitigating carbon emissions and managing socioeconomics because of its convenience of implementation. However, systems-oriented approaches become imperative in pursuit of an efficient regulation of carbon emissions from systems as complicated as urban systems. The aim of this paper is to establish a dynamic network approach that is capable of assessing the effectiveness of carbon emissions mitigation in a more holistic way. A carbon metabolic network is constructed by modeling the carbon flows between economic sectors and environment. With the network shocked by interventions to the sectoral carbon flows, indirect emissions from the city are accounted for under certain carbon mitigation strategies. The nonzero-sum relationships between sectors and environmental components are identified based on utility analysis, which synthesize the nature of direct and indirect network interactions. The results of the case study of Beijing suggest that the stove-pipe mitigation strategies targeted the economic sectors might be not as efficient as they were expected. A direct cutting in material or energy import to the sectors may result in a rebound in indirect emissions and thus fails to achieve the carbon mitigation goal of the city as a whole. A promising way of foreseeing the dynamic mechanism of emissions is to analyze the nonzero-sum relationships between important urban components. Thinking cities as systems of interactions, the network approach is potentially a strong tool for appraising and filtering mitigation strategies of carbon emissions.

  5. Bayesian evidence for non-zero θ 13 and CP-violation in neutrino oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Johannes

    2012-08-01

    We present the Bayesian method for evaluating the evidence for a non-zero value of the leptonic mixing angle θ 13 and CP-violation in neutrino oscillation experiments. This is an application of the well-established method of Bayesian model selection, of which we give a concise and pedagogical overview. When comparing the hypothesis θ 13 = 0 with hypotheses where θ 13 > 0 using global data but excluding the recent reactor measurements, we obtain only a weak preference for a non-zero θ 13, even though the significance is over 3 σ. We then add the reactor measurements one by one and show how the evidence for θ 13 > 0 quickly increases. When including the D ouble C hooz, D aya B ay, and RENO data, the evidence becomes overwhelming with a posterior probability of the hypothesis θ 13 = 0 below 10-11. Owing to the small amount of information on the CP-phase δ, very similar evidences are obtained for the CP-conserving and CP-violating hypotheses. Hence, there is, not unexpectedly, neither evidence for nor against leptonic CP-violation. However, when future experiments aiming to search for CP-violation have started taking data, this question will be of great importance and the method described here can be used as an important complement to standard analyses.

  6. Measuring and engineering the atomic mass density wave of a Gaussian mass-polariton pulse in optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Mikko; Tulkki, Jukka

    2018-02-01

    Conventional theories of electromagnetic waves in a medium assume that only the energy of the field propagates inside the medium. Consequently, they neglect the transport of mass density by the medium atoms. We have recently presented foundations of a covariant theory of light propagation in a nondispersive medium by considering a light wave simultaneously with the dynamics of the medium atoms driven by optoelastic forces [Phys. Rev. A 95, 063850 (2017)]. In particular, we have shown that the mass is transferred by an atomic mass density wave (MDW), which gives rise to mass-polariton (MP) quasiparticles, i.e., covariant coupled states of the field and matter having a nonzero rest mass. Another key observation of the mass-polariton theory of light is that, in common semiconductors, most of the momentum of light is transferred by moving atoms, e.g., 92% in the case of silicon. In this work, we generalize the MP theory of light for dispersive media and consider experimental measurement of the mass transferred by the MDW atoms when an intense light pulse propagates in a silicon fiber. In particular, we consider optimal intensity and time dependence of a Gaussian pulse and account for the breakdown threshold irradiance of the material. The optical shock wave property of the MDW, which propagates with the velocity of light instead of the velocity of sound, prompts for engineering of novel device concepts like very high frequency mechanical oscillators not limited by the acoustic cutoff frequency.

  7. REST based service composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grönvall, Erik; Ingstrup, Mads; Pløger, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an ongoing work developing and testing a Service Composition framework based upon the REST architecture named SECREST. A minimalistic approach have been favored instead of a creating a complete infrastructure. One focus has been on the system's interaction model. Indeed, an aim...

  8. Ergodic Capacity Analysis of Free-Space Optical Links with Nonzero Boresight Pointing Errors

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2015-04-01

    A unified capacity analysis of a free-space optical (FSO) link that accounts for nonzero boresight pointing errors and both types of detection techniques (i.e. intensity modulation/ direct detection as well as heterodyne detection) is addressed in this work. More specifically, an exact closed-form expression for the moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single link FSO transmission system is presented in terms of well-known elementary functions. Capitalizing on these new moments expressions, we present approximate and simple closedform results for the ergodic capacity at high and low SNR regimes. All the presented results are verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations.

  9. Maximum run-up behavior of tsunamis under non-zero initial velocity condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baran AYDIN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The tsunami run-up problem is solved non-linearly under the most general initial conditions, that is, for realistic initial waveforms such as N-waves, as well as standard initial waveforms such as solitary waves, in the presence of initial velocity. An initial-boundary value problem governed by the non-linear shallow-water wave equations is solved analytically utilizing the classical separation of variables technique, which proved to be not only fast but also accurate analytical approach for this type of problems. The results provide important information on maximum tsunami run-up qualitatively. We observed that, although the calculated maximum run-ups increase significantly, going as high as double that of the zero-velocity case, initial waves having non-zero fluid velocity exhibit the same run-up behavior as waves without initial velocity, for all wave types considered in this study.

  10. Floating potential in electronegative plasmas for non-zero ion temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regodón, Guillermo Fernando; Fernández Palop, José Ignacio; Tejero-del-Caz, Antonio; Díaz-Cabrera, Juan Manuel; Carmona-Cabezas, Rafael; Ballesteros, Jerónimo

    2018-02-01

    The floating potential of a Langmuir probe immersed in an electronegative plasma is studied theoretically under the assumption of radial positive ion fluid movement for non-zero positive ion temperature: both cylindrical and spherical geometries are studied. The model is solvable exactly. The special characteristics of the electronegative pre-sheath are found and the influence of the stratified electronegative pre-sheath is shown to be very small in practical applications. It is suggested that the use of the floating potential in the measurement of negative ions population density is convenient, in view of the numerical results obtained. The differences between the two radial geometries, which become very important for small probe radii of the order of magnitude of the Debye length, are studied.

  11. Correlation Decay in Fermionic Lattice Systems with Power-Law Interactions at Nonzero Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Santana, Senaida; Gogolin, Christian; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Acín, Antonio

    2017-09-01

    We study correlations in fermionic lattice systems with long-range interactions in thermal equilibrium. We prove a bound on the correlation decay between anticommuting operators and generalize a long-range Lieb-Robinson-type bound. Our results show that in these systems of spatial dimension D with, not necessarily translation invariant, two-site interactions decaying algebraically with the distance with an exponent α ≥2 D , correlations between such operators decay at least algebraically to 0 with an exponent arbitrarily close to α at any nonzero temperature. Our bound is asymptotically tight, which we demonstrate by a high temperature expansion and by numerically analyzing density-density correlations in the one-dimensional quadratic (free, exactly solvable) Kitaev chain with long-range pairing.

  12. Vector tomography for reconstructing electric fields with non-zero divergence in bounded domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouri, Alexandra; Brookes, Mike; Rimpiläinen, Ville

    2017-01-01

    In vector tomography (VT), the aim is to reconstruct an unknown multi-dimensional vector field using line integral data. In the case of a 2-dimensional VT, two types of line integral data are usually required. These data correspond to integration of the parallel and perpendicular projection of the vector field along the integration lines and are called the longitudinal and transverse measurements, respectively. In most cases, however, the transverse measurements cannot be physically acquired. Therefore, the VT methods are typically used to reconstruct divergence-free (or source-free) velocity and flow fields that can be reconstructed solely from the longitudinal measurements. In this paper, we show how vector fields with non-zero divergence in a bounded domain can also be reconstructed from the longitudinal measurements without the need of explicitly evaluating the transverse measurements. To the best of our knowledge, VT has not previously been used for this purpose. In particular, we study low-frequency, time-harmonic electric fields generated by dipole sources in convex bounded domains which arise, for example, in electroencephalography (EEG) source imaging. We explain in detail the theoretical background, the derivation of the electric field inverse problem and the numerical approximation of the line integrals. We show that fields with non-zero divergence can be reconstructed from the longitudinal measurements with the help of two sparsity constraints that are constructed from the transverse measurements and the vector Laplace operator. As a comparison to EEG source imaging, we note that VT does not require mathematical modeling of the sources. By numerical simulations, we show that the pattern of the electric field can be correctly estimated using VT and the location of the source activity can be determined accurately from the reconstructed magnitudes of the field.

  13. Cardiac atrophy after bed rest and spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perhonen, M. A.; Franco, F.; Lane, L. D.; Buckey, J. C.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Zerwekh, J. E.; Peshock, R. M.; Weatherall, P. T.; Levine, B. D.

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac muscle adapts well to changes in loading conditions. For example, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy may be induced physiologically (via exercise training) or pathologically (via hypertension or valvular heart disease). If hypertension is treated, LV hypertrophy regresses, suggesting a sensitivity to LV work. However, whether physical inactivity in nonathletic populations causes adaptive changes in LV mass or even frank atrophy is not clear. We exposed previously sedentary men to 6 (n = 5) and 12 (n = 3) wk of horizontal bed rest. LV and right ventricular (RV) mass and end-diastolic volume were measured using cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2, 6, and 12 wk of bed rest; five healthy men were also studied before and after at least 6 wk of routine daily activities as controls. In addition, four astronauts were exposed to the complete elimination of hydrostatic gradients during a spaceflight of 10 days. During bed rest, LV mass decreased by 8.0 +/- 2.2% (P = 0.005) after 6 wk with an additional atrophy of 7.6 +/- 2.3% in the subjects who remained in bed for 12 wk; there was no change in LV mass for the control subjects (153.0 +/- 12.2 vs. 153.4 +/- 12.1 g, P = 0.81). Mean wall thickness decreased (4 +/- 2.5%, P = 0.01) after 6 wk of bed rest associated with the decrease in LV mass, suggesting a physiological remodeling with respect to altered load. LV end-diastolic volume decreased by 14 +/- 1.7% (P = 0.002) after 2 wk of bed rest and changed minimally thereafter. After 6 wk of bed rest, RV free wall mass decreased by 10 +/- 2.7% (P = 0.06) and RV end-diastolic volume by 16 +/- 7.9% (P = 0.06). After spaceflight, LV mass decreased by 12 +/- 6.9% (P = 0.07). In conclusion, cardiac atrophy occurs during prolonged (6 wk) horizontal bed rest and may also occur after short-term spaceflight. We suggest that cardiac atrophy is due to a physiological adaptation to reduced myocardial load and work in real or simulated microgravity and demonstrates the plasticity

  14. Vector tomography for reconstructing electric fields with non-zero divergence in bounded domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koulouri, Alexandra, E-mail: koulouri@uni-muenster.de [Institute for Computational and Applied Mathematics, University of Münster, Einsteinstrasse 62, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2BT (United Kingdom); Brookes, Mike [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2BT (United Kingdom); Rimpiläinen, Ville [Institute for Biomagnetism and Biosignalanalysis, University of Münster, Malmedyweg 15, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Department of Mathematics, University of Auckland, Private bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2017-01-15

    In vector tomography (VT), the aim is to reconstruct an unknown multi-dimensional vector field using line integral data. In the case of a 2-dimensional VT, two types of line integral data are usually required. These data correspond to integration of the parallel and perpendicular projection of the vector field along the integration lines and are called the longitudinal and transverse measurements, respectively. In most cases, however, the transverse measurements cannot be physically acquired. Therefore, the VT methods are typically used to reconstruct divergence-free (or source-free) velocity and flow fields that can be reconstructed solely from the longitudinal measurements. In this paper, we show how vector fields with non-zero divergence in a bounded domain can also be reconstructed from the longitudinal measurements without the need of explicitly evaluating the transverse measurements. To the best of our knowledge, VT has not previously been used for this purpose. In particular, we study low-frequency, time-harmonic electric fields generated by dipole sources in convex bounded domains which arise, for example, in electroencephalography (EEG) source imaging. We explain in detail the theoretical background, the derivation of the electric field inverse problem and the numerical approximation of the line integrals. We show that fields with non-zero divergence can be reconstructed from the longitudinal measurements with the help of two sparsity constraints that are constructed from the transverse measurements and the vector Laplace operator. As a comparison to EEG source imaging, we note that VT does not require mathematical modeling of the sources. By numerical simulations, we show that the pattern of the electric field can be correctly estimated using VT and the location of the source activity can be determined accurately from the reconstructed magnitudes of the field. - Highlights: • Vector tomography is used to reconstruct electric fields generated by dipole

  15. Flavor origin of dark matter and its relation with leptonic nonzero θ{sub 13} and Dirac CP phase δ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Subhaditya; Karmakar, Biswajit [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati,781039 Assam (India); Sahu, Narendra [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology,Hyderabad, Kandi, Sangareddy 502285, Medak, Telengana (India); Sil, Arunansu [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati,781039 Assam (India)

    2017-05-12

    We propose a minimal extension of the standard model by including a U(1) flavor symmetry to establish a correlation between the relic abundance of dark matter, measured by WMAP and PLANCK satellite experiments and non-zero value of sin θ{sub 13} observed at DOUBLE CHOOZ, Daya Bay, RENO and T2K. The flavour symmetry is allowed to be broken at a high scale to a remnant Z{sub 2} symmetry, which not only ensures the stability to the dark matter, but also gives rise to a modification to the existing A{sub 4}-based tri-bimaximal neutrino mixing. This deviation in turn suggests the required non-zero value of sin θ{sub 13}. We assume the dark matter to be neutral under the existing A{sub 4} symmetry while charged under the U(1) flavor symmetry. Hence in this set-up, the non-zero value of sin θ{sub 13} predicts the dark matter charge under U(1), which can be tested at various ongoing and future direct and collider dark matter search experiments. We also point out the involvement of nonzero leptonic CP phase δ, which plays an important role in the analysis.

  16. The effect of non-zero radial velocity on the impulse and circulation of starting jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Michael; Mohseni, Kamran

    2011-11-01

    Vortex ring formation dynamics are generally studied using two basic types of vortex generators. Piston cylinder vortex generators eject fluid through a long tube which ensures a purely axial jet; whereas, vortex ring generators which expel fluid through a flat plate with a circular orifice produce 2-D jets (non-zero radial velocity). At the nozzle exit plane of the orifice type vortex generator the radial component of velocity is linearly proportional to the radial distance from the axis of symmetry, reaching a maximum at the edge of the orifice with a magnitude around 10 % of the piston velocity (the ratio of the volume flux and the nozzle area). As the jet advances downstream the radial velocity quickly dissipates, and becomes purely axial less than a diameter away from the nozzle exit plane. The radial velocity gradient in the axial direction plays a key role in the rate at which circulation and impulse are ejected from the vortex generator. Though the radial component of velocity is small compared to the axial velocity, it has a significant effect on both the circulation and impulse of the starting jet because of this gradient. The extent of circulation and impulse enhancement is investigated through experimental DPIV data showing that the orifice device produces nearly double both circulation and energy (with identical piston velocity and stroke ratios).

  17. Gravitational instabilities of the cosmic neutrino background with non-zero lepton number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D. Barrie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We argue that a cosmic neutrino background that carries non-zero lepton charge develops gravitational instabilities. Fundamentally, these instabilities are related to the mixed gravity-lepton number anomaly. We have explicitly computed the gravitational Chern–Simons term which is generated quantum-mechanically in the effective action in the presence of a lepton number asymmetric neutrino background. The induced Chern–Simons term has a twofold effect: (i gravitational waves propagating in such a neutrino background exhibit birefringent behaviour leading to an enhancement/suppression of the gravitational wave amplitudes depending on the polarisation, where the magnitude of this effect is related to the size of the lepton asymmetry; (ii Negative energy graviton modes are induced in the high frequency regime, which leads to very fast vacuum decay producing, e.g., positive energy photons and negative energy gravitons. From the constraint on the present radiation energy density, we obtain an interesting bound on the lepton asymmetry of the universe.

  18. Positivity, discontinuity, finite resources, and nonzero error for arbitrarily varying quantum channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boche, H.; Nötzel, J.

    2014-01-01

    This work is motivated by a quite general question: Under which circumstances are the capacities of information transmission systems continuous? The research is explicitly carried out on finite arbitrarily varying quantum channels (AVQCs). We give an explicit example that answers the recent question whether the transmission of messages over AVQCs can benefit from assistance by distribution of randomness between the legitimate sender and receiver in the affirmative. The specific class of channels introduced in that example is then extended to show that the unassisted capacity does have discontinuity points, while it is known that the randomness-assisted capacity is always continuous in the channel. We characterize the discontinuity points and prove that the unassisted capacity is always continuous around its positivity points. After having established shared randomness as an important resource, we quantify the interplay between the distribution of finite amounts of randomness between the legitimate sender and receiver, the (nonzero) probability of a decoding error with respect to the average error criterion and the number of messages that can be sent over a finite number of channel uses. We relate our results to the entanglement transmission capacities of finite AVQCs, where the role of shared randomness is not yet well understood, and give a new sufficient criterion for the entanglement transmission capacity with randomness assistance to vanish

  19. SIMO optical wireless links with nonzero boresight pointing errors over M modeled turbulence channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varotsos, G. K.; Nistazakis, H. E.; Petkovic, M. I.; Djordjevic, G. T.; Tombras, G. S.

    2017-11-01

    Over the last years terrestrial free-space optical (FSO) communication systems have demonstrated an increasing scientific and commercial interest in response to the growing demands for ultra high bandwidth, cost-effective and secure wireless data transmissions. However, due the signal propagation through the atmosphere, the performance of such links depends strongly on the atmospheric conditions such as weather phenomena and turbulence effect. Additionally, their operation is affected significantly by the pointing errors effect which is caused by the misalignment of the optical beam between the transmitter and the receiver. In order to address this significant performance degradation, several statistical models have been proposed, while particular attention has been also given to diversity methods. Here, the turbulence-induced fading of the received optical signal irradiance is studied through the M (alaga) distribution, which is an accurate model suitable for weak to strong turbulence conditions and unifies most of the well-known, previously emerged models. Thus, taking into account the atmospheric turbulence conditions along with the pointing errors effect with nonzero boresight and the modulation technique that is used, we derive mathematical expressions for the estimation of the average bit error rate performance for SIMO FSO links. Finally, proper numerical results are given to verify our derived expressions and Monte Carlo simulations are also provided to further validate the accuracy of the analysis proposed and the obtained mathematical expressions.

  20. Nonthreshold D-brane bound states and black holes with nonzero entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.S.; Cvetic, M.

    1997-01-01

    We start with Bogomol close-quote nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield- (BPS) saturated configurations of two (orthogonally) intersecting M-branes and use the electromagnetic duality or dimensional reduction along a boost, in order to obtain new p-brane bound states. In the first case the resulting configurations are interpreted as BPS-saturated nonthreshold bound states of intersecting p-branes, and in the second case as p-branes intersecting at angles and their duals. As a by-product we deduce the enhancement of supersymmetry as the angle approaches zero. We also comment on the D-brane theory describing these new bound states, and a connection between the angle and the world-volume gauge fields of the D-brane system. We use these configurations to find new embeddings of the four- and five-dimensional black holes with nonzero entropy, whose entropy now also depends on the angle and world-volume gauge fields. The corresponding D-brane configuration sheds light on the microscopic entropy of such black holes. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  1. Experience Replay for Optimal Control of Nonzero-Sum Game Systems With Unknown Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongbin; Zhang, Qichao; Wang, Ding; Zhu, Yuanheng

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, an approximate online equilibrium solution is developed for an N -player nonzero-sum (NZS) game systems with completely unknown dynamics. First, a model identifier based on a three-layer neural network (NN) is established to reconstruct the unknown NZS games systems. Moreover, the identifier weight vector is updated based on experience replay technique which can relax the traditional persistence of excitation condition to a simplified condition on recorded data. Then, the single-network adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) with experience replay algorithm is proposed for each player to solve the coupled nonlinear Hamilton- (HJ) equations, where only the critic NN weight vectors are required to tune for each player. The feedback Nash equilibrium is provided by the solution of the coupled HJ equations. Based on the experience replay technique, a novel critic NN weights tuning law is proposed to guarantee the stability of the closed-loop system and the convergence of the value functions. Furthermore, a Lyapunov-based stability analysis shows that the uniform ultimate boundedness of the closed-loop system is achieved. Finally, two simulation examples are given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  2. On finitely generated modules whose first nonzero Fitting ideals are regular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Hadjirezaei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A finitely generated $R$-module is said to be a module of type ($F_r$ if its $(r-1$-th Fitting ideal is the zero ideal and its $r$-th Fitting ideal is a regular ideal. Let $R$ be a commutative ring and $N$ be a submodule of  $R^n$ which is generated by columns of  a matrix $A=(a_{ij}$ with $a_{ij}in R$ for all $1leq ileq n$, $jin Lambda$, where $Lambda $ is a (possibly infinite index set.  Let  $M=R^n/N$ be  a module of type ($F_{n-1}$ and ${rm T}(M$ be the submodule of $M$ consisting of all elements of $M$ that are annihilated by a regular element of $R$. For $ lambdain Lambda $, put $M_lambda=R^n/$. The main result of this paper asserts that if $M_lambda $ is a regular $R$-module, for some $lambdainLambda$, then $M/{rm T}(Mcong M_lambda/{rm T}(M_lambda$. Also it is shown that if $M_lambda$ is a regular torsionfree $R$-module, for some $lambdain Lambda$, then $ Mcong M_lambda. $ As a consequence we characterize all  non-torsionfree modules over a regular ring, whose first nonzero Fitting ideals are maximal.

  3. Approximate N-Player Nonzero-Sum Game Solution for an Uncertain Continuous Nonlinear System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marcus; Kamalapurkar, Rushikesh; Bhasin, Shubhendu; Dixon, Warren E

    2015-08-01

    An approximate online equilibrium solution is developed for an N -player nonzero-sum game subject to continuous-time nonlinear unknown dynamics and an infinite horizon quadratic cost. A novel actor-critic-identifier structure is used, wherein a robust dynamic neural network is used to asymptotically identify the uncertain system with additive disturbances, and a set of critic and actor NNs are used to approximate the value functions and equilibrium policies, respectively. The weight update laws for the actor neural networks (NNs) are generated using a gradient-descent method, and the critic NNs are generated by least square regression, which are both based on the modified Bellman error that is independent of the system dynamics. A Lyapunov-based stability analysis shows that uniformly ultimately bounded tracking is achieved, and a convergence analysis demonstrates that the approximate control policies converge to a neighborhood of the optimal solutions. The actor, critic, and identifier structures are implemented in real time continuously and simultaneously. Simulations on two and three player games illustrate the performance of the developed method.

  4. Should tsunami models use a nonzero initial condition for horizontal velocity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, G.; Lotto, G. C.; Dunham, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    Tsunami propagation in the open ocean is most commonly modeled by solving the shallow water wave equations. These equations require two initial conditions: one on sea surface height and another on depth-averaged horizontal particle velocity or, equivalently, horizontal momentum. While most modelers assume that initial velocity is zero, Y.T. Song and collaborators have argued for nonzero initial velocity, claiming that horizontal displacement of a sloping seafloor imparts significant horizontal momentum to the ocean. They show examples in which this effect increases the resulting tsunami height by a factor of two or more relative to models in which initial velocity is zero. We test this claim with a "full-physics" integrated dynamic rupture and tsunami model that couples the elastic response of the Earth to the linearized acoustic-gravitational response of a compressible ocean with gravity; the model self-consistently accounts for seismic waves in the solid Earth, acoustic waves in the ocean, and tsunamis (with dispersion at short wavelengths). We run several full-physics simulations of subduction zone megathrust ruptures and tsunamis in geometries with a sloping seafloor, using both idealized structures and a more realistic Tohoku structure. Substantial horizontal momentum is imparted to the ocean, but almost all momentum is carried away in the form of ocean acoustic waves. We compare tsunami propagation in each full-physics simulation to that predicted by an equivalent shallow water wave simulation with varying assumptions regarding initial conditions. We find that the initial horizontal velocity conditions proposed by Song and collaborators consistently overestimate the tsunami amplitude and predict an inconsistent wave profile. Finally, we determine tsunami initial conditions that are rigorously consistent with our full-physics simulations by isolating the tsunami waves (from ocean acoustic and seismic waves) at some final time, and backpropagating the tsunami

  5. Dipoles at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    In a world populated by magnetic monopoles (as well as ordinary electric charges), there are two kinds of electric dipoles: those due to separated electric charges, and those due to current loops of magnetic charge. Similarly, there are two kinds of magnetic dipoles: those due to separated magnetic monopoles, and those due to electric current loops. This paper derives the potentials and fields of each of the four dipole species, and calculates the force, torque, energy, momentum, and angular momentum of each type, when placed (at rest) in a static external field (which may itself be produced by electric charges and currents, magnetic charges and currents, or all of these). Some implications and applications of the various results are discussed

  6. Discrete-Time Nonzero-Sum Games for Multiplayer Using Policy-Iteration-Based Adaptive Dynamic Programming Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaguang; Jiang, He; Luo, Chaomin; Xiao, Geyang

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the nonzero-sum games for a class of discrete-time (DT) nonlinear systems by using a novel policy iteration (PI) adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) method. The main idea of our proposed PI scheme is to utilize the iterative ADP algorithm to obtain the iterative control policies, which not only ensure the system to achieve stability but also minimize the performance index function for each player. This paper integrates game theory, optimal control theory, and reinforcement learning technique to formulate and handle the DT nonzero-sum games for multiplayer. First, we design three actor-critic algorithms, an offline one and two online ones, for the PI scheme. Subsequently, neural networks are employed to implement these algorithms and the corresponding stability analysis is also provided via the Lyapunov theory. Finally, a numerical simulation example is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach.

  7. DIRAC RESTful API

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casajus Ramo, A; Graciani Diaz, R; Tsaregorodtsev, A

    2012-01-01

    The DIRAC framework for distributed computing has been designed as a flexible and modular solution that can be adapted to the requirements of any community. Users interact with DIRAC via command line, using the web portal or accessing resources via the DIRAC python API. The current DIRAC API requires users to use a python version valid for DIRAC. Some communities have developed their own software solutions for handling their specific workload, and would like to use DIRAC as their back-end to access distributed computing resources easily. Many of these solutions are not coded in python or depend on a specific python version. To solve this gap DIRAC provides a new language agnostic API that any software solution can use. This new API has been designed following the RESTful principles. Any language with libraries to issue standard HTTP queries may use it. GSI proxies can still be used to authenticate against the API services. However GSI proxies are not a widely adopted standard. The new DIRAC API also allows clients to use OAuth for delegating the user credentials to a third party solution. These delegated credentials allow the third party software to query to DIRAC on behalf of the users. This new API will further expand the possibilities communities have to integrate DIRAC into their distributed computing models.

  8. Non-Zero Net Force and Constant Velocity: A Study in Mazur's Peer Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newburgh, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    A problem addressed infrequently in beginning physics courses is that of a moving body with changing mass. Elementary texts often have footnotes referring to jet planes and rockets but rarely do they go further. This omission is understandable because calculations with variable mass generally require the tools of calculus. This paper presents a…

  9. Neutrino Mass and Flavour Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Stephen F.

    2010-01-01

    We survey some of the recent promising developments in the search for the theory behind neutrino mass and tri-bimaximal mixing, and indeed all fermion masses and mixing. We focus in particular on models with discrete family symmetry and unification, and show how such models can also solve the SUSY flavour and CP problems. We also discuss the theoretical implications of the measurement of a non-zero reactor angle, as hinted at by recent experimental measurements.

  10. Speed, Acceleration, and Velocity: Level II, Unit 9, Lesson 1; Force, Mass, and Distance: Lesson 2; Types of Motion and Rest: Lesson 3; Electricity and Magnetism: Lesson 4; Electrical, Magnetic, and Gravitational Fields: Lesson 5; The Conservation and Conversion of Matter and Energy: Lesson 6; Simple Machines and Work: Lesson 7; Gas Laws: Lesson 8; Principles of Heat Engines: Lesson 9; Sound and Sound Waves: Lesson 10; Light Waves and Particles: Lesson 11; Program. A High.....

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    This self-study program for high-school level contains lessons on: Speed, Acceleration, and Velocity; Force, Mass, and Distance; Types of Motion and Rest; Electricity and Magnetism; Electrical, Magnetic, and Gravitational Fields; The Conservation and Conversion of Matter and Energy; Simple Machines and Work; Gas Laws; Principles of Heat Engines;…

  11. Fluid mechanics in fluids at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Howard

    2012-07-01

    Using readily available experimental thermophoretic particle-velocity data it is shown, contrary to current teachings, that for the case of compressible flows independent dye- and particle-tracer velocity measurements of the local fluid velocity at a point in a flowing fluid do not generally result in the same fluid velocity measure. Rather, tracer-velocity equality holds only for incompressible flows. For compressible fluids, each type of tracer is shown to monitor a fundamentally different fluid velocity, with (i) a dye (or any other such molecular-tagging scheme) measuring the fluid's mass velocity v appearing in the continuity equation and (ii) a small, physicochemically and thermally inert, macroscopic (i.e., non-Brownian), solid particle measuring the fluid's volume velocity v(v). The term "compressibility" as used here includes not only pressure effects on density, but also temperature effects thereon. (For example, owing to a liquid's generally nonzero isobaric coefficient of thermal expansion, nonisothermal liquid flows are to be regarded as compressible despite the general perception of liquids as being incompressible.) Recognition of the fact that two independent fluid velocities, mass- and volume-based, are formally required to model continuum fluid behavior impacts on the foundations of contemporary (monovelocity) fluid mechanics. Included therein are the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations, which are now seen to apply only to incompressible fluids (a fact well-known, empirically, to experimental gas kineticists). The findings of a difference in tracer velocities heralds the introduction into fluid mechanics of a general bipartite theory of fluid mechanics, bivelocity hydrodynamics [Brenner, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 54, 67 (2012)], differing from conventional hydrodynamics in situations entailing compressible flows and reducing to conventional hydrodynamics when the flow is incompressible, while being applicable to both liquids and gases.

  12. Chiral phase transition of three flavor QCD with nonzero magnetic field using standard staggered fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiya, Akio; Ding, Heng-Tong; Mukherjee, Swagato; Schmidt, Christian; Wang, Xiao-Dan

    2018-03-01

    Lattice simulations for (2+1)-flavor QCD with external magnetic field demon-strated that the quark mass is one of the important parameters responsible for the (inverse) magnetic catalysis. We discuss the dependences of chiral condensates and susceptibilities, the Polyakov loop on the magnetic field and quark mass in three degenerate flavor QCD. The lattice simulations are performed using standard staggered fermions and the plaquette action with spatial sizes Nσ = 16 and 24 and a fixed temporal size Nτ = 4. The value of the quark masses are chosen such that the system undergoes a first order chiral phase transition and crossover with zero magnetic field. We find that in light mass regime, the quark chiral condensate undergoes magnetic catalysis in the whole temperature region and the phase transition tend to become stronger as the magnetic field increases. In crossover regime, deconfinement transition temperature is shifted by the magnetic field when quark mass ma is less than 0:4. The lattice cutoff effects are also discussed.

  13. EMF-REST: Generation of RESTful APIs from Models

    OpenAIRE

    Hamza , Ed-Douibi; Cánovas Izquierdo , Javier Luis; Gómez , Abel; Tisi , Massimo; Cabot , Jordi

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, RESTful Web services have become more and more popular as a lightweight solution to connect remote systems in distributed and Cloud-based architectures. However, being an architectural style rather than a specification or standard, the proper design of RESTful Web services is not trivial since developers have to deal with a plethora of recommendations and best practices. Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) emphasizes the use of models and model transformations to raise the level...

  14. NUMERICAL AND ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS OF NEUTRINO-DOMINATED ACCRETION FLOWS WITH A NON-ZERO TORQUE BOUNDARY CONDITION AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Wei; Lei, Wei-Hua; Wang, Ding-Xiong, E-mail: leiwh@hust.edu.cn [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-12-20

    A stellar-mass black hole (BH) surrounded by a neutrino-dominated accretion flow (NDAF) has been discussed in a number of works as the central engine of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). It is widely believed that NDAF cannot liberate enough energy for bright GRBs. However, these works have been based on the assumption of a “no torque” boundary condition, which is invalid when the disk is magnetized. In this paper, we present both numerical and analytical solutions for NDAFs with non-zero boundary stresses and reexamine their properties. We find that an NDAF with such a boundary torque can be powerful enough to account for those bright short GRBs, energetic long GRBs, and ultra-long GRBs. The disk becomes viscously unstable, which makes it possible to interpret the variability of GRB prompt emission and the steep decay phase in the early X-ray afterglow. Finally, we study the gravitational waves radiated from a processing BH-NDAF. We find that the effects of the boundary torque on the strength of the gravitational waves can be ignored.

  15. Bianchi type I universe in brane world scenario with non-zero Weyl tensor of the bulk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, S. [University of Burdwan, Department of Physics, Burdwan (India)

    2017-09-15

    In the paper, we present exact solutions of gravitational field equations for an anisotropic brane with a Bianchi type I universe with perfect fluid having non-vanishing Weyl tensor of the bulk. It is assumed that the thermodynamic pressure bears a linear relation with the energy density. For a particular non-zero value of the pressure the solutions are obtained in an exact analytic form with and without the cosmological constant for a Bianchi type I universe. The relevant physical quantities associated with the evolution of the universe are also derived in the two cases. (orig.)

  16. Clinical physiology of bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Maintenance of optimal health in humans requires the proper balance between exercise, rest, and sleep as well as time in the upright position. About one-third of a lifetime is spent sleeping; and it is no coincidence that sleeping is performed in the horizontal position, the position in which gravitational influence on the body is minimal. Although enforced bed rest is necessary for the treatment of some ailments, in some cases it has probably been used unwisely. In addition to the lower hydrostatic pressure with the normally dependent regions of the cardiovascular system, body fuid compartments during bed rest in the horizontal body position, and virtual elimination of compression on the long bones of the skeletal system during bed rest (hypogravia), there is often reduction in energy metabolism due to the relative confinement (hypodynamia) and alteration of ambulatory circadian variations in metabolism, body temperature, and many hormonal systems. If patients are also moved to unfamiliar surroundings, they probably experience some feelings of anxiety and some sociopsychological problems. Adaptive physiological responses during bed rest are normal for that environment. They are attempts by the body to reduce unnecessary energy expenditure, to optimize its function, and to enhance its survival potential. Many of the deconditioning responses begin within the first day or two of bed rest; these early responses have prompted physicians to insist upon early resumption of the upright posture and ambulation of bedridden patients.

  17. Clustering of resting state networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan H Lee

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to demonstrate a hierarchical structure of resting state activity in the healthy brain using a data-driven clustering algorithm.The fuzzy-c-means clustering algorithm was applied to resting state fMRI data in cortical and subcortical gray matter from two groups acquired separately, one of 17 healthy individuals and the second of 21 healthy individuals. Different numbers of clusters and different starting conditions were used. A cluster dispersion measure determined the optimal numbers of clusters. An inner product metric provided a measure of similarity between different clusters. The two cluster result found the task-negative and task-positive systems. The cluster dispersion measure was minimized with seven and eleven clusters. Each of the clusters in the seven and eleven cluster result was associated with either the task-negative or task-positive system. Applying the algorithm to find seven clusters recovered previously described resting state networks, including the default mode network, frontoparietal control network, ventral and dorsal attention networks, somatomotor, visual, and language networks. The language and ventral attention networks had significant subcortical involvement. This parcellation was consistently found in a large majority of algorithm runs under different conditions and was robust to different methods of initialization.The clustering of resting state activity using different optimal numbers of clusters identified resting state networks comparable to previously obtained results. This work reinforces the observation that resting state networks are hierarchically organized.

  18. Updated BBN bounds on the cosmological lepton asymmetry for non-zero θ13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangano, Gianpiero; Miele, Gennaro; Pastor, Sergio; Pisanti, Ofelia; Sarikas, Srdjan

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the bounds on the cosmological lepton number from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN), in light of recent evidences for a large value of the neutrino mixing angle θ 13 , sin 2 θ 13 ≥0.01 at 2σ. The largest asymmetries for electron and μ, τ neutrinos compatible with 4 He and 2 H primordial yields are computed versus the neutrino mass hierarchy and mixing angles. The flavour oscillation dynamics is traced till the beginning of BBN and neutrino distributions after decoupling are numerically computed. The latter contains in general, non-thermal distortion due to the onset of flavour oscillations driven by solar squared mass difference in the temperature range where neutrino scatterings become inefficient to enforce thermodynamical equilibrium. Depending on the value of θ 13 , this translates into a larger value for the effective number of neutrinos, N eff . Upper bounds on this parameter are discussed for both neutrino mass hierarchies. Values for N eff which are large enough to be detectable by the Planck experiment are found only for the (presently disfavoured) range sin 2 θ 13 ≤0.01.

  19. The long-term stability of self-esteem: its time-dependent decay and nonzero asymptote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Farah; Orth, Ulrich

    2013-05-01

    How stable are individual differences in self-esteem? We examined the time-dependent decay of rank-order stability of self-esteem and tested whether stability asymptotically approaches zero or a nonzero value across long test-retest intervals. Analyses were based on 6 assessments across a 29-year period of a sample of 3,180 individuals aged 14 to 102 years. The results indicated that, as test-retest intervals increased, stability exponentially decayed and asymptotically approached a nonzero value (estimated as .43). The exponential decay function explained a large proportion of variance in observed stability coefficients, provided a better fit than alternative functions, and held across gender and for all age groups from adolescence to old age. Moreover, structural equation modeling of the individual-level data suggested that a perfectly stable trait component underlies stability of self-esteem. The findings suggest that the stability of self-esteem is relatively large, even across very long periods, and that self-esteem is a trait-like characteristic.

  20. Massive and mass-less Yang-Mills and gravitational fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, M.J.G.; Dam, H. van

    1970-01-01

    Massive and mass-less Yang-Mills and gravitational fields are considered. It is found that there is a discrete difference between the zero-mass theories and the very small, but non-zero mass theories. In the case of gravitation, comparison of massive and mass-less theories with experiment, in

  1. The QCD equation of state for two flavours at non-zero chemical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Ejiri, S; Döring, M; Hands, S J; Kaczmarek, O; Karsch, Frithjof; Laermann, E; Redlich, K

    2006-01-01

    We present results of a simulation of 2 flavour QCD on a $16^3\\times4$ lattice using p4-improved staggered fermions with bare quark mass $m/T=0.4$. Derivatives of the thermodynamic grand canonical partition function $Z(V,T,\\mu_u,\\mu_d)$ with respect to chemical potentials $\\mu_{u,d}$ for different quark flavours are calculated up to sixth order, enabling estimates of the pressure and the quark number density as well as the chiral condensate and various susceptibilities as functions of $\\mu_{u,d}$ via Taylor series expansion. Results are compared to high temperature perturbation theory as well as a hadron resonance gas model. We also analyze baryon as well as isospin fluctuations and discuss the relation to the chiral critical point in the QCD phase diagram. We moreover discuss the dependence of the heavy quark free energy on the chemical potential.

  2. RESTful Java web services security

    CERN Document Server

    Enríquez, René

    2014-01-01

    A sequential and easy-to-follow guide which allows you to understand the concepts related to securing web apps/services quickly and efficiently, since each topic is explained and described with the help of an example and in a step-by-step manner, helping you to easily implement the examples in your own projects. This book is intended for web application developers who use RESTful web services to power their websites. Prior knowledge of RESTful is not mandatory, but would be advisable.

  3. Rest frame properties of the proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobel, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    The proton is modeled as three quarks of small current quark mass. The three-body Dirac equation is solved with spin-independent central diagonal linear confining potentials with an attractive Coulombic term in a relativistic three-quark model. Hyperspherical coordinates are used, and the bound state is found analytically. After integrating over the hyperangles, the Hamiltonian is an 8 by 8 matrix of coupled first-order differential equations in one variable, the hyperradius. These are analytically solved in hypercentral approximation. For the (1/2 + ) 3 ground-state configuration in the nonrelativistic large-quark-mass limit, there are no nodes in the wave function. However, in the extreme relativistic limit of small current quark masses of a few MeV, the expectation value of the number of nodes is about 1.30 when the potential parameters are chosen to reproduce the proton rms charge radius. The quarks are assumed to possess a Pauli anomalous magnetic moment, like that of the electron and muon of (α/2π)(e/m). Assuming all three quarks have equal mass, one can fit the rest energy, magnetic moment, rms charge radius, and axial charge of the proton with this relativistic three-body Dirac equation model. The solution found shows the necessity of including all components of the composite three-quark wave function, as the upper component contributes only 0.585 to the norm

  4. Mass of the photon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, A.S.; Nieto, M.M.

    1976-01-01

    Several experiments are discussed for which results are equivalent to the catching and weighing of a photon. It is noted that none of the experiments has proved the rest mass to be zero and that such a proof may be impossible. It is shown by such experiments that the rest mass is less than the limit of accuracy of the experiment. These limits have approached ever closer to zero, and the most recent values are exceedingly small

  5. The NASA Bed Rest Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Bradley; Meck, Janice

    2005-01-01

    NASA s National Vision for Space Exploration includes human travel beyond low earth orbit and the ultimate safe return of the crews. Crucial to fulfilling the vision is the successful and timely development of countermeasures for the adverse physiological effects on human systems caused by long term exposure to the microgravity environment. Limited access to in-flight resources for the foreseeable future increases NASA s reliance on ground-based analogs to simulate these effects of microgravity. The primary analog for human based research will be head-down bed rest. By this approach NASA will be able to evaluate countermeasures in large sample sizes, perform preliminary evaluations of proposed in-flight protocols and assess the utility of individual or combined strategies before flight resources are requested. In response to this critical need, NASA has created the Bed Rest Project at the Johnson Space Center. The Project establishes the infrastructure and processes to provide a long term capability for standardized domestic bed rest studies and countermeasure development. The Bed Rest Project design takes a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, integrated approach that reduces the resource overhead of one investigator for one campaign. In addition to integrating studies operationally relevant for exploration, the Project addresses other new Vision objectives, namely: 1) interagency cooperation with the NIH allows for Clinical Research Center (CRC) facility sharing to the benefit of both agencies, 2) collaboration with our International Partners expands countermeasure development opportunities for foreign and domestic investigators as well as promotes consistency in approach and results, 3) to the greatest degree possible, the Project also advances research by clinicians and academia alike to encourage return to earth benefits. This paper will describe the Project s top level goals, organization and relationship to other Exploration Vision Projects, implementation

  6. Tensor form factor for the D → π(K) transitions with Twisted Mass fermions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubicz, Vittorio; Riggio, Lorenzo; Salerno, Giorgio; Simula, Silvano; Tarantino, Cecilia

    2018-03-01

    We present a preliminary lattice calculation of the D → π and D → K tensor form factors fT (q2) as a function of the squared 4-momentum transfer q2. ETMC recently computed the vector and scalar form factors f+(q2) and f0(q2) describing D → π(K)lv semileptonic decays analyzing the vector current and the scalar density. The study of the weak tensor current, which is directly related to the tensor form factor, completes the set of hadronic matrix element regulating the transition between these two pseudoscalar mesons within and beyond the Standard Model where a non-zero tensor coupling is possible. Our analysis is based on the gauge configurations produced by the European Twisted Mass Collaboration with Nf = 2 + 1 + 1 flavors of dynamical quarks. We simulated at three different values of the lattice spacing and with pion masses as small as 210 MeV and with the valence heavy quark in the mass range from ≃ 0.7 mc to ≃ 1.2mc. The matrix element of the tensor current are determined for a plethora of kinematical conditions in which parent and child mesons are either moving or at rest. As for the vector and scalar form factors, Lorentz symmetry breaking due to hypercubic effects is clearly observed in the data. We will present preliminary results on the removal of such hypercubic lattice effects.

  7. RESTful web services with Dropwizard

    CERN Document Server

    Dallas, Alexandros

    2014-01-01

    A hands-on focused step-by-step tutorial to help you create Web Service applications using Dropwizard. If you are a software engineer or a web developer and want to learn more about building your own Web Service application, then this is the book for you. Basic knowledge of Java and RESTful Web Service concepts is assumed and familiarity with SQL/MySQL and command-line scripting would be helpful.

  8. WEB-SERVICE. RESTFUL ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Melnichuk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Network technology for interaction between two applications via the HTTP protocol was considered in article.When client works with REST API - it means it works with "resources", and in SOAP work is performed with operations. To build REST web services, you must follow certain principles: explicit use of HTTP methods, access to resources by URI, stateless, HATEAOS, caching, transfer of objects in JSON or XML representation. But sometimes some principles are ignored to ensure a higher speed of work and to reduce development time.The pros and cons of using JSON and XML representations were considered, and it can be said that using the JSON format reduces the amount of data transfer, and with the use of XML, the readability of data increases.Also, two main ways of data transfer in REST web services were considered: converting the file to Base64 and transferring it as an object field or transferring the file using the usual HTTP multipart. The Base64 standard approach gives a higher speed for multiple files in a single request, because only one HTTP connection is created, but these files are stored in RAM during request processing, which increases chance of the application crashing.In the conclusion, the advantages of using web services and their wide use in other architectural approaches were considered, which increases the popularity of web services.

  9. Rest requirements and rest management of personnel in shift work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammell, B.D. [PDG Environmental, Melbourne, FL (United States); Scheuerle, A. [Univ. of Texas, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A difficulty-weighted shift assignment scheme is proposed for use in prolonged and strenuous field operations such as emergency response, site testing, and short term hazardous waste remediation projects. The purpose of the work rotation plan is to increase productivity, safety, and moral of workers. Job weighting is accomplished by assigning adjustments to the mental and physical intensity of the task, the protective equipment worn, and the climatic conditions. The plan is based on medical studies of sleep deprivation, the effects of rest adjustments, and programs to reduce sleep deprivation and normalize shift schedules.

  10. Deformation of an Elastic Substrate Due to a Resting Sessile Droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardall, Aaron; Daniels, Karen; Shearer, Michael

    2017-11-01

    On a sufficiently soft substrate, a resting fluid droplet will cause significant deformation of the substrate. This deformation is driven by a combination of capillary forces at the contact line and the fluid pressure at the solid surface. These forces are balanced at the surface by the solid traction stress induced by the substrate deformation. Young's Law, which predicts the equilibrium contact angle of the droplet, also indicates an a priori radial force balance for rigid substrates, but not necessarily for soft substrates which deform under loading. It remains an open question whether the contact line transmits a non-zero force tangent to the substrate surface in addition to the conventional normal force. This talk will present a model for the static deformation of the substrate that includes a non-zero tangential contact line force as well as general interfacial energy conditions governing the angle of a two-dimensional droplet. We discuss extensions of this model to non-symmetric droplets and their effect on the static configuration of the droplet/substrate system. NSF #DMS-1517291.

  11. Nonlinear image encryption using a fully phase nonzero-order joint transform correlator in the Gyrator domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardy, Juan M.; Millán, María S.; Pérez-Cabré, Elisabet

    2017-02-01

    A novel nonlinear image encryption scheme based on a fully phase nonzero-order joint transform correlator architecture (JTC) in the Gyrator domain (GD) is proposed. In this encryption scheme, the two non-overlapping data distributions of the input plane of the JTC are fully encoded in phase and this input plane is transformed using the Gyrator transform (GT); the intensity distribution captured in the GD represents a new definition of the joint Gyrator power distribution (JGPD). The JGPD is modified by two nonlinear operations with the purpose of retrieving the encrypted image, with enhancement of the decrypted signal quality and improvement of the overall security. There are three keys used in the encryption scheme, two random phase masks and the rotation angle of the GT, which are all necessary for a proper decryption. Decryption is highly sensitivity to changes of the rotation angle of the GT as well as to little changes in other parameters or keys. The proposed encryption scheme in the GD still preserves the shift-invariance properties originated in the JTC-based encryption in the Fourier domain. The proposed encryption scheme is more resistant to brute force attacks, chosen-plaintext attacks, known-plaintext attacks, and ciphertext-only attacks, as they have been introduced in the cryptanalysis of the JTC-based encryption system. Numerical results are presented and discussed in order to verify and analyze the feasibility and validity of the novel encryption-decryption scheme.

  12. Phonon self-energy corrections to non-zero wavevector phonon modes in single-layer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Paulo; Mafra, Daniela; Sato, Kentaro; Saito, Richiiro; Kong, Jing; Dresselhaus, Mildred

    2012-02-01

    Phonon self-energy corrections have mostly been studied theoretically and experimentally for phonon modes with zone-center (q = 0) wave-vectors. Here, gate-modulated Raman scattering is used to study phonons of a single layer of graphene (1LG) in the frequency range from 2350 to 2750 cm-1, which shows the G* and the G'-band features originating from a double-resonant Raman process with q 0. The observed phonon renormalization effects are different from what is observed for the zone-center q = 0 case. To explain our experimental findings, we explored the phonon self-energy for the phonons with non-zero wave-vectors (q 0) in 1LG in which the frequencies and decay widths are expected to behave oppositely to the behavior observed in the corresponding zone-center q = 0 processes. Within this framework, we resolve the identification of the phonon modes contributing to the G* Raman feature at 2450 cm-1 to include the iTO+LA combination modes with q 0 and the 2iTO overtone modes with q = 0, showing both to be associated with wave-vectors near the high symmetry point K in the Brillouin zone.

  13. Phonon Self-Energy Corrections to Nonzero Wave-Vector Phonon Modes in Single-Layer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, P. T.; Mafra, D. L.; Sato, K.; Saito, R.; Kong, J.; Dresselhaus, M. S.

    2012-07-01

    Phonon self-energy corrections have mostly been studied theoretically and experimentally for phonon modes with zone-center (q=0) wave vectors. Here, gate-modulated Raman scattering is used to study phonons of a single layer of graphene originating from a double-resonant Raman process with q≠0. The observed phonon renormalization effects are different from what is observed for the zone-center q=0 case. To explain our experimental findings, we explored the phonon self-energy for the phonons with nonzero wave vectors (q≠0) in single-layer graphene in which the frequencies and decay widths are expected to behave oppositely to the behavior observed in the corresponding zone-center q=0 processes. Within this framework, we resolve the identification of the phonon modes contributing to the G⋆ Raman feature at 2450cm-1 to include the iTO+LA combination modes with q≠0 and also the 2iTO overtone modes with q=0, showing both to be associated with wave vectors near the high symmetry point K in the Brillouin zone.

  14. The Effect of Nonzero Autocorrelation Coefficients on the Distributions of Durbin-Watson Test Estimator: Three Autoregressive Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yu LEE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of the nonzero autocorrelation coefficients on the sampling distributions of the Durbin-Watson test estimator in three time-series models that have different variance-covariance matrix assumption, separately. We show that the expected values and variances of the Durbin-Watson test estimator are slightly different, but the skewed and kurtosis coefficients are considerably different among three models. The shapes of four coefficients are similar between the Durbin-Watson model and our benchmark model, but are not the same with the autoregressive model cut by one-lagged period. Second, the large sample case shows that the three models have the same expected values, however, the autoregressive model cut by one-lagged period explores different shapes of variance, skewed and kurtosis coefficients from the other two models. This implies that the large samples lead to the same expected values, 2(1 – ρ0, whatever the variance-covariance matrix of the errors is assumed. Finally, comparing with the two sample cases, the shape of each coefficient is almost the same, moreover, the autocorrelation coefficients are negatively related with expected values, are inverted-U related with variances, are cubic related with skewed coefficients, and are U related with kurtosis coefficients.

  15. Sustainable Rest Area Design and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    One way in which State Departments of Transportation (DOTs) can modernize their rest areas while reducing operations and maintenance costs is by incorporating sustainable practices into rest area design and operations. Sustainability practices that D...

  16. Restful API Architecture Based on Laravel Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianjun; Ji, Zhoupeng; Fan, Yu; Zhan, Yongsong

    2017-10-01

    Web service has been an industry standard tech for message communication and integration between heterogeneous systems. RESTFUL API has become mainstream web service development paradigm after SOAP, how to effectively construct RESTFUL API remains a research hotspots. This paper presents a development model of RESTFUL API construction based on PHP language and LARAVEL framework. The key technical problems that need to be solved during the construction of RESTFUL API are discussed, and implementation details based on LARAVEL are given.

  17. Introducing the PRIDE Archive RESTful web services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, Florian; del-Toro, Noemi; Ternent, Tobias; Hermjakob, Henning; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio

    2015-07-01

    The PRIDE (PRoteomics IDEntifications) database is one of the world-leading public repositories of mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics data and it is a founding member of the ProteomeXchange Consortium of proteomics resources. In the original PRIDE database system, users could access data programmatically by accessing the web services provided by the PRIDE BioMart interface. New REST (REpresentational State Transfer) web services have been developed to serve the most popular functionality provided by BioMart (now discontinued due to data scalability issues) and address the data access requirements of the newly developed PRIDE Archive. Using the API (Application Programming Interface) it is now possible to programmatically query for and retrieve peptide and protein identifications, project and assay metadata and the originally submitted files. Searching and filtering is also possible by metadata information, such as sample details (e.g. species and tissues), instrumentation (mass spectrometer), keywords and other provided annotations. The PRIDE Archive web services were first made available in April 2014. The API has already been adopted by a few applications and standalone tools such as PeptideShaker, PRIDE Inspector, the Unipept web application and the Python-based BioServices package. This application is free and open to all users with no login requirement and can be accessed at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/ws/archive/. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Assessing Uncertainties in Boundary Layer Transition Predictions for HIFiRE-1 at Non-zero Angles of Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Lindsay C.

    2011-01-01

    Boundary layer stability was analyzed for the HIFiRE-1 flight vehicle geometry for ground tests conducted at the CUBRC LENS I hypersonic shock test facility and the Langley Research Center (LaRC) 20- inch Mach 6 Tunnel. Boundary layer stability results were compared to transition onset location obtained from discrete heat transfer measurements from thin film gauges during the CUBRC test and spatially continuous heat transfer measurements from thermal phosphor paint data during the LaRC test. The focus of this analysis was on conditions at non-zero angles of attack as stability analysis has already been performed at zero degrees angle of attack. Also, the transition onset data obtained during flight testing was at nonzero angles of attack, so this analysis could be expanded in the future to include the results of the flight test data. Stability analysis was performed using the 2D parabolized stability software suite STABL (Stability and Transition Analysis for Hypersonic Boundary Layers) developed at the University of Minnesota and the mean flow solutions were computed using the DPLR finite volume Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver. A center line slice of the 3D mean flow solution was used for the stability analysis to incorporate the angle of attack effects while still taking advantage of the 2D STABL software suite. The N-factors at transition onset and the value of Re(sub theta)/M(sub e), commonly used to predict boundary layer transition onset, were compared for all conditions analyzed. Ground test data was analyzed at Mach 7.2 and Mach 6.0 and angles of attack of 1deg, 3deg and 5deg. At these conditions, the flow was found to be second mode dominant for the HIFiRE-1 slender cone geometry. On the leeward side of the vehicle, a strong trend of transition onset location with angle of attack was observed as the boundary layer on the leeward side of the vehicle developed inflection points at streamwise positions on the vehicle that correlated to

  19. Antiproton-neutron annihilations at rest: Search for broad states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalogeropoulos, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    The searches so far for meson states produced in p-bar annihilations at rest into π+X have been sensitive to narrow X states. The combinatorial background and the narrow phase space width in missing mass spectra are the main problems. Most of the theoretical models predict broad states. We have measured in a high statistis experiment p-bar(at rest)d→π/sup +- /+Anything inclusive spectra. Using a novel analysis technique the π + π - difference spectra, it is shown that the p-barn annihilation is dominated by two-body cascades. Two new states of opposite G-parity of (mass, width) = (1480, 100) MeV/c 2 are dominant. The G = +1 state has a large decay branching ratio into rho 0 rho 0 . Other features are presented

  20. Pion correlations and resonance effects in pbarp annihilation at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Peter

    1999-01-01

    We study ππ correlations in the exclusive reactions pbarp → 2π + 2π - and pbarp → 2π + 2π - π 0 at rest with complete reconstruction of the kinematics for each event. A new analysis technique has been developed which is model independent. With this new technique, which relies on double-differential distributions, no reference sample is needed to extract the correlation signal. The correlations are studied as a function of the four-pion invariant mass

  1. The effect of different rest intervals between multiple bench press ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to examine the effects of different rest intervals between sets on the training volume completed during a workout, 15 male bodybuilders served as subjects (Mean SD, age=25.28±2.01; mass=73.06±8.33 kg; height=176.33±6.30 cm). All the subjects performed a minimum of three strength workouts per week for a ...

  2. Intrasellar Symptomatic Salivary Gland Rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hao Chen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic salivary gland tissue in sellar turcica is frequently observed in microscopic examination at autopsy. This tissue is considered clinically silent. Only 2 symptomatic cases have been previously reported. Here we report a 28-year-old woman presenting with galactorrhea and hyperprolactinemia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 6×5-mm nodule in the posterior aspect of the pituitary gland. This nodule showed isointensity on T1- and T2-weighted images and less enhancement on post-contrast T1-weighted images. Transsphenoidal exploration revealed a cystic lesion within the pituitary gland, which consisted of a grayish gelatinous content. The pathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of salivary gland rest.

  3. Applications of the large mass expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, J.; Kotikov, A.V.; ); Veretin, O.L.

    1998-01-01

    The method of the large mass expansion (LME) is investigated for selfenergy and vertex functions in two-loop order. It has the technical advantage that in many cases the expansion coefficients can be expressed analytically. As long as only one non-zero external momentum squared, q 2 , is involved also the Taylor expansion (TE) w.r.t. small q 2 yields high precision results in a domain sufficient for most applications. In the case of only one non-zero mass M and only one external momentum squared, the expansion w.r.t. q 2 /M 2 is identical for the TE and the LME. In this case the combined techniques yield analytic expressions for many diagrams, which are quite easy to handle numerically. (author)

  4. Effects of exercise on fluid exchange and body composition in man during 14-day bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Bernauer, E. M.; Juhos, L. T.; Young, H. L.; Morse, J. T.; Staley, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of an investigation in which body composition, fluid intake, and fluid and electrolyte losses were measured in seven normal, healthy men during three 2-wk bed-rest periods, separated by two 3-wk recovery periods. During bed rest the subjects remained in the horizontal position continuously. During the dietary control periods, body mass decreased significantly with all three regimens, including no exercise, isometric exercise, and isotonic excercise. During bed rest, body mass was essentially unchanged with no exercise, but decreased significantly with isotonic and isometric exercise. With one exception, there were no statistically significant changes in body density, lean body mass, or body fat content by the end of each of the three bed-rest periods.

  5. Analysis of Probability of Non-zero Secrecy Capacity for Multi-hop Networks in Presence of Hardware Impairments over Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.-T. Phu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we evaluate probability of non-zero secrecy capacity of multi-hop relay networks over Nakagami-m fading channels in presence of hardware impairments. In the considered protocol, a source attempts to transmit its data to a destination by using multi-hop randomize-and-forward (RF strategy. The data transmitted by the source and relays are overheard by an eavesdropper. For performance evaluation, we derive exact expressions of probability of non-zero secrecy capacity (PoNSC, which are expressed by sums of infinite series of exponential functions and exponential integral functions. We then perform Monte Carlo simulations to verify the theoretical analysis.

  6. Steady bound electromagnetic eigenstate arises in a homogeneous isotropic linear metamaterial with zero-real-part-of-impedance and nonzero-imaginary-part-of-wave-vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiangwei; Dai, Yuyao; Yan, Lin; Zhao, Huimin

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we shall demonstrate theoretically that steady bound electromagnetic eigenstate can arise in an infinite homogeneous isotropic linear metamaterial with zero-real-part-of-impedance and nonzero-imaginary-part-of-wave-vector, which is partly attributed to that, here, nonzero-imaginary-part-of-wave-vector is not involved with energy losses or gain. Altering value of real-part-of-impedance of the metamaterial, the bound electromagnetic eigenstate may become to be a progressive wave. Our work may be useful to further understand energy conversion and conservation properties of electromagnetic wave in the dispersive and absorptive medium and provides a feasible route to stop, store and release electromagnetic wave (light) conveniently by using metamaterial with near-zero-real-part-of-impedance.

  7. Ambiguities in the definition of quasilocal mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhouse, N.M.J.

    1987-01-01

    For a small surface in a vacuum spacetime, some components of the kinematic twistor are non-zero at the fifth order in the diameter of the surface even though, according to Penrose's modified construction, the leading term in the quasilocal mass msub(p) is sixth order (or higher). This implies that the leading term in msub(p) cannot be defined independently of higher-order terms in the twistor norm. (author)

  8. Texture zeros in neutrino mass matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dziewit, B., E-mail: bartosz.dziewit@us.edu.pl; Holeczek, J., E-mail: jacek.holeczek@us.edu.pl; Richter, M., E-mail: monikarichter18@gmail.com [University of Silesia, Institute of Physics (Poland); Zajac, S., E-mail: s.zajac@uksw.edu.pl [Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Studies (Poland); Zralek, M., E-mail: marek.zralek@us.edu.pl [University of Silesia, Institute of Physics (Poland)

    2017-03-15

    The Standard Model does not explain the hierarchy problem. Before the discovery of nonzero lepton mixing angle θ{sub 13} high hopes in explanation of the shape of the lepton mixing matrix were combined with non-Abelian symmetries. Nowadays, assuming one Higgs doublet, it is unlikely that this is still valid. Texture zeroes, that are combined with abelian symmetries, are intensively studied. The neutrino mass matrix is a natural way to study such symmetries.

  9. High Vegetable Fats Intake Is Associated with High Resting Energy Expenditure in Vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Montalcini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that a vegetarian diet may be effective in reducing body weight, however, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. We investigated whether there is a difference in resting energy expenditure between 26 vegetarians and 26 non-vegetarians and the correlation between some nutritional factors and inflammatory markers with resting energy expenditure. In this cross-sectional study, vegetarians and non-vegetarians were matched by age, body mass index and gender. All underwent instrumental examinations to assess the difference in body composition, nutrient intake and resting energy expenditure. Biochemical analyses and 12 different cytokines and growth factors were measured as an index of inflammatory state. A higher resting energy expenditure was found in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians (p = 0.008. Furthermore, a higher energy from diet, fibre, vegetable fats intake and interleukin-β (IL-1β was found between the groups. In the univariate and multivariable analysis, resting energy expenditure was associated with vegetarian diet, free-fat mass and vegetable fats (p < 0.001; Slope in statistic (B = 4.8; β = 0.42. After adjustment for cytokines, log10 interleukin-10 (IL-10 still correlated with resting energy expenditure (p = 0.02. Resting energy expenditure was positively correlated with a specific component of the vegetarian’s diet, i.e., vegetable fats. Furthermore, we showed that IL-10 was positively associated with resting energy expenditure in this population.

  10. SWMF simulation of field-aligned currents for a varying northward and duskward IMF with nonzero dipole tilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study concentrates on the FACs distribution for the varying northward and duskward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF conditions when the dipole tilt is nonzero. A global MHD simulation (the Space Weather Modeling Framework, SWMF has been used to perform this study. Hemispheric asymmetry of the time evolution of northward IMF Bz (NBZ FACs is found. As the IMF changes from strictly northward to duskward, NBZ FACs shift counterclockwise in both summer and winter hemispheres. However, in the winter hemisphere, the counterclockwise rotation prohibits the duskward NBZ FACs from evolving into the midday R1 FACs. The midday R1 FACs seem to be an intrusion of dawnside R1 FACs. In the summer hemisphere, the NBZ FACs can evolve into the DPY FACs, consisting of the midday R0 and R1 FACs, after the counterclockwise rotation. The hemispheric asymmetry is due to the fact that the dipole tilt favors more reconnection between the IMF and the summer magnetosphere. When mapping the NBZ and DPY FACs into the magnetosphere it is found that the NBZ currents are located on both open and closed field lines, irrespective of the IMF direction. For the DPY FACs the hemispheric asymmetry emerges: the midday R1 FACs and a small part of R0 FACs are on closed field lines in the winter hemisphere, while a small part of the midday R1 FACs and all the R0 FACs are on open field lines in the summer hemisphere. Both IMF By and dipole tilt cause the polar cap hemispheric and local time asymmetric. When the IMF is northward, the summer polar cap is closed on the nightside while the winter polar cap is open. The polar cap boundary tends to move equatorward as the IMF rotates from northward to duskward, except in the summer hemisphere, the polar cap on the dawnside shifts poleward when the clock angle is less than 10°. The further poleward displacement of the polar cap boundary on one oval side is caused by the twist of the tail plasma sheet, which is in accordance with the

  11. Asymmetric kinetic equilibria: Generalization of the BAS model for rotating magnetic profile and non-zero electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorville, Nicolas; Belmont, Gérard; Aunai, Nicolas; Dargent, Jérémy; Rezeau, Laurence

    2015-09-01

    , 110702 (2013)], and more recently in a fully kinetic simulation as well [J. Dargent and N. Aunai, Phys. Plasmas (submitted)]. Nevertheless, in most asymmetric layers like the terrestrial magnetopause, one would indeed expect a magnetic field rotation from one direction to another without going through zero [J. Berchem and C. T. Russell, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 8139-8148 (1982)], and a non-zero normal electric field. In this paper, we propose the corresponding generalization: in the model presented, the profiles can be freely imposed for the magnetic field rotation (although restricted to a 180 rotation hitherto) and for the normal electric field. As it was done previously, the equilibrium is tested with a hybrid simulation.

  12. Asymmetric kinetic equilibria: Generalization of the BAS model for rotating magnetic profile and non-zero electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorville, Nicolas; Belmont, Gérard; Aunai, Nicolas; Dargent, Jérémy; Rezeau, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    ) 20, 110702 (2013)], and more recently in a fully kinetic simulation as well [J. Dargent and N. Aunai, Phys. Plasmas (submitted)]. Nevertheless, in most asymmetric layers like the terrestrial magnetopause, one would indeed expect a magnetic field rotation from one direction to another without going through zero [J. Berchem and C. T. Russell, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 8139–8148 (1982)], and a non-zero normal electric field. In this paper, we propose the corresponding generalization: in the model presented, the profiles can be freely imposed for the magnetic field rotation (although restricted to a 180 rotation hitherto) and for the normal electric field. As it was done previously, the equilibrium is tested with a hybrid simulation

  13. Pro REST API development with nodejs

    CERN Document Server

    Doglio, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Pro REST API Development with Node.js is your guide to managing and understanding the full capabilities of successful REST development. API design is a hot topic in the programming world, but not many resources exist for developers to really understand how you can leverage the advantages. This book will provide a brief background on REST and the tools it provides (well known and not so well known). Understand how there is more to REST than just JSON and URLs. You will then cover and compare the maintained modules currently available in the npm community, including Express, Restify, Vatican,

  14. Dispersion forces in micromechanics: Casimir and Casimir-Polder forces affected by geometry and non-zero temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingsen, Simen Andreas Aadnoey

    2011-01-15

    The present thesis focuses on several topics within three separate but related branches of the overall field of dispersion forces. The three branches are: temperature corrections to the Casimir force between real materials (Part 1), explicit calculation of Casimir energy in wedge geometries (Part 2), and Casimir-Polder forces on particles out of thermal equilibrium (Part 3). Part 1 deals primarily with analysis of a previously purported thermodynamic inconsistency in the Casimir-Lifshitz free energy of the interaction of two plane mirrors - violation of the third law of thermodynamics - when the latter's dielectric response is described with dissipative models. It is shown analytically and numerically that the Casimir entropy of the interaction between two metallic mirrors described by the Drude model does tend to zero at zero temperature, provided electronic relaxation does not vanish. The leading order terms at low temperature are found. A similar calculation is carried out for the interaction of semiconductors with small but non-zero DC conductivity. In a generalisation, it is shown that a violation of the third law can only occur for permittivities whose low-frequency behaviour is temperature dependent near zero temperature. A calculation using path integral methods shows that the low temperature behaviour of the interaction of fluctuating Foucault currents in two mirrors of Drude metal is identical to that of the full Casimir-Lifshitz free energy, reasserting a previous finding by Intravaia and Henkel that such fluctuating bulk currents are the physical reason for the anomalous entropy behaviour. In a related effort, an analysis of the frequency dependence of the Casimir force by Ford is generalised to imperfectly reflecting mirrors. A paradox is pointed out, in that the effects of a perturbation of the reflecting properties of the mirrors in a finite frequency window can be calculated in two ways giving different results. It is concluded that optimistic

  15. Resting state fMRI: A review on methods in resting state connectivity analysis and resting state networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitha, K A; Akhil Raja, K; Arun, K M; Rajesh, P G; Thomas, Bejoy; Kapilamoorthy, T R; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan

    2017-08-01

    The inquisitiveness about what happens in the brain has been there since the beginning of humankind. Functional magnetic resonance imaging is a prominent tool which helps in the non-invasive examination, localisation as well as lateralisation of brain functions such as language, memory, etc. In recent years, there is an apparent shift in the focus of neuroscience research to studies dealing with a brain at 'resting state'. Here the spotlight is on the intrinsic activity within the brain, in the absence of any sensory or cognitive stimulus. The analyses of functional brain connectivity in the state of rest have revealed different resting state networks, which depict specific functions and varied spatial topology. However, different statistical methods have been introduced to study resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity, yet producing consistent results. In this article, we introduce the concept of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in detail, then discuss three most widely used methods for analysis, describe a few of the resting state networks featuring the brain regions, associated cognitive functions and clinical applications of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. This review aims to highlight the utility and importance of studying resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity, underlining its complementary nature to the task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging.

  16. Gravitational mass in an expanding universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannan, S.

    1986-01-01

    A test for the Hawking definition of mass is given in a Tolman--Bondi model that asymptotically approaches the open Friedmann universe. An expanding universe filled with dustlike matter of zero pressure is considered. The matter distribution is spherically symmetric but nonhomogeneous. With appropriate boundary conditions, the calculation yields a finite and nonzero value for the Hawking mass, measured as a deviation from a ''renormalized'' zero mass in the unperturbed Friedmann model. These boundary conditions are more restrictive than those found for a model with gravitational radiation

  17. Direct measurements of neutrino masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzschuh, E [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Physik

    1996-11-01

    The direct measurements have so far given no indication for a nonzero (positive) mass of any of the three known neutrinos. The experiments measuring the tau and the muon neutrino are good shape. The tritium experiments are in an unfortunate situation. It is unclear to me whether the problems are experimental or theoretical or a combination of both. The electronic final states distribution have been calculated, but the results have never been tested experimentally. The most important question to be answered is about the validity of the sudden approximation. (author) 9 figs., 2 tabs., 16 refs.

  18. Precision measurement of the muon momentum in pion decay at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daum, M.; Eaton, G.H.; Frosch, R.; Hirschmann, H.; McCulloch, J.; Minehart, R.C.; Steiner, E.

    1979-01-01

    At the Schweizerisches Institut fuer Nuklearforschung (SIN) we have measured the muon momentum in the pion decay π + → μ + +ν/sub μ/ at rest using a magnetic spectrometer. Our result is p/sub μ/+=29.7877 +- 0.0014 MeV/c. From our p/sub μ/+ value and the rest masses of the muon, m/sub μ/+=105.659 46 +- 0.000 24 MeV/c 2 , and the pion, m/sub π/-=139.5679 +- 0.0015 MeV/c 2 , we derive a new value for the squared muon-neutrino rest mass, m/sub ν/μ 2 =0.13 +- 0.14 (MeV/c 2 ) 2 . From this we obtain m/sub ν/μ 2 (90% C.L.), which is at present the lowest experimental upper limit for the muon-neutrino rest mass. Here the validity of the CPT theorem (m/sub π/+=m/sub π/-) and energy and momentum conservation in pion decay were assumed. Our result can be interpreted in a second way: From cosmological arguments using the big-bang hypothesis an upper limit of about 40 eV/c 2 has been derived for the neutrino rest mass. With this limit and the above value of the muon mass we can calculate the pion-muon mass difference or the rest mass of the π + with strongly improved precision from our measurement. The results are deltam=m/sub π/+-m/sub μ/+=33.9063 +- 0.0018 MeV/c 2 or m/sub π/+=139.5658 +- 0.018 MeV/c 2 . This positive-pion mass is consistent with the present world average for the negative-pion mass, in agreement with the CPT theorem

  19. Variations in resting energy expenditure: impact on gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, E K; O'Tierney-Ginn, P; Lewis, S; Presley, L; De-Mouzon, S Hauguel; Catalano, P M

    2017-10-01

    There are significant variations in gestational weight gain, with many women gaining in excess of the Institute of Medicine guidelines. Unfortunately, efforts to improve appropriate gestational weight gain have had only limited success. To date, interventions have focused primarily on decreasing energy intake and/or increasing physical activity. Maternal resting energy expenditure, which comprises ∼60% of total energy expenditure compared with the ∼20% that comes from physical activity, may be an important consideration in understanding variations in gestational weight gain. Our objective was to quantify the changes in resting energy expenditure during pregnancy and their relationship to gestational weight gain and body composition changes among healthy women. We hypothesized that greater gestational weight gain, and fat mass accrual in particular, are inversely related to variations in resting energy expenditure. We conducted a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort studied before conception and late pregnancy (34-36 weeks). Body composition (estimated using hydrodensitometry) and resting energy expenditure (estimated using indirect calorimetry) were measured. The relationship between the changes in resting energy expenditure and gestational weight gain and the change in fat mass and fat-free mass were quantified. Resting energy expenditure was expressed as kilocalories per kilogram of fat-free mass per day (kilocalories per kilogram of fat-free mass -1 /day -1 ) and kilocalories per day. Correlations are reported as r. Among 51 women, preconception body mass index was 23.0 (4.7) kg/m 2 ; gestational weight gain was 12.8 (4.7) kg. Preconception and late pregnancy resting energy expenditure (kilocalories per day) correlated positively with the change in fat-free mass (r = 0.37, P = .008; r = 0.51, P = .001). Late-pregnancy resting energy expenditure (kilocalories per kilogram of fat-free mass -1 /day -1 ) was inversely associated with the change in fat

  20. Cognitive Rest: An Integrated Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Kathleen H.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive rest has been suggested as a treatment for school athletes who have sustained a concussion, but the concept has rarely been defined. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive definition of cognitive rest, based on an integrative literature review. The method of synthesis was guided by Avant and Walker's concept analysis…

  1. Resting state EEG correlates of memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokaw, Kate; Tishler, Ward; Manceor, Stephanie; Hamilton, Kelly; Gaulden, Andrew; Parr, Elaine; Wamsley, Erin J

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies demonstrate that post-training sleep benefits human memory. At the same time, emerging data suggest that other resting states may similarly facilitate consolidation. In order to identify the conditions under which non-sleep resting states benefit memory, we conducted an EEG (electroencephalographic) study of verbal memory retention across 15min of eyes-closed rest. Participants (n=26) listened to a short story and then either rested with their eyes closed, or else completed a distractor task for 15min. A delayed recall test was administered immediately following the rest period. We found, first, that quiet rest enhanced memory for the short story. Improved memory was associated with a particular EEG signature of increased slow oscillatory activity (rest can facilitate memory, and that this may occur via an active process of consolidation supported by slow oscillatory EEG activity and characterized by decreased attention to the external environment. Slow oscillatory EEG rhythms are proposed to facilitate memory consolidation during sleep by promoting hippocampal-cortical communication. Our findings suggest that EEG slow oscillations could play a significant role in memory consolidation during other resting states as well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical applications of resting state functional connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Fox

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available During resting conditions the brain remains functionally and metabolically active. One manifestation of this activity that has become an important research tool is spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal of fMRI. The identification of correlation patterns in these spontaneous fluctuations has been termed resting state functional connectivity (fcMRI and has the potential to greatly increase the translation of fMRI into clinical care. In this article we review the advantages of the resting state signal for clinical applications including detailed discussion of signal to noise considerations. We include guidelines for performing resting state research on clinical populations, outline the different areas for clinical application, and identify important barriers to be addressed to facilitate the translation of resting state fcMRI into the clinical realm.

  3. Intensive Exercise Training During Bed Rest Attenuates Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1997-01-01

    Intensive exercise training during bed rest attenuates deconditioning. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 207-215, 1997. A 30-d 6 deg head-down bed rest project was conducted to evaluate variable high-intensity, short-duration, isotonic cycle ergometer exercise (ITE) training and high-intensity intermittent resistive isokinetic exercise (IKE) training regimens designed to maintain peak VO2 and muscle mass, strength, and endurance at ambulatory control levels throughout prolonged bed rest. Other elements of the deconditioning (adaptive) syndrome, such as proprioception, psychological performance, hypovolemia, water balance, body composition, and orthostatic tolerance, were also measured. Major findings are summarized in this paper. Compared with response during bed rest of the no exercise (NOE) control group: the ITE training regimen (a) maintained work capacity (peak VO2), (b) maintained plasma and red cell volumes, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) decreased quality of sleep and mental concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance; the IKE training regimen (f) attenuated the decrease in peak VO2 by 50%, (g) attenuated loss of red cell volume by 40% but had no effect on loss of plasma volume, (b) induced positive body water balance, (i) had no adverse effect on quality of sleep or concentration, and 0) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance. These findings suggest that various elements of the deconditioning syndrome can be manipulated by duration and intensity of ITE or IKE training regimens and that several different training protocols will be required to maintain or restore physiological and psychological performance of individuals confined to prolonged bed rest.

  4. The metabolic cost of an integrated exercise program performed during 14 days of bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jessica M; Hackney, Kyle; Downs, Meghan; Guined, Jamie; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fiedler, James; Cunningham, David; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2014-06-01

    Exercise countermeasures designed to mitigate muscle atrophy during long-duration spaceflight may not be as effective if crewmembers are in negative energy balance (energy output > energy input). This study determined the energy cost of supine exercise (resistance, interval, aerobic) during the spaceflight analogue of bed rest. Nine subjects (eight men and one woman; 34.5 +/- 8.2 yr) completed 14 d of bed rest and concomitant exercise countermeasures. Body mass and basal metabolic rate (BMR) were assessed before and during bed rest. Exercise energy expenditure was measured during and immediately after [excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC)] each of five different exercise protocols (30-s, 2-min, and 4-min intervals, continuous aerobic, and a variety of resistance exercises) during bed rest. On days when resistance and continuous aerobic exercise were performed daily, energy expenditure was significantly greater (2879 +/- 280 kcal) than 2-min (2390 +/- 237 kcal), 30-s (2501 +/- 264 kcal), or 4-min (2546 +/- 264 kcal) exercise. There were no significant differences in BMR (pre-bed rest: 1649 +/- 216 kcal; week 1: 1632 +/- 174 kcal; week 2:1657 +/- 176 kcal) or body mass (pre-bed rest: 75.2 +/- 10.1 kg; post-bed rest: 75.2 +/- 9.6 kg). These findings highlight the importance of energy balance for long-duration crewmembers completing a high-intensity exercise program with multiple exercise sessions daily.

  5. Aging, resting pulse rate, and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stessman, Jochanan; Jacobs, Jeremy M; Stessman-Lande, Irit; Gilon, Dan; Leibowitz, David

    2013-01-01

    To examine the relationship between resting pulse rate (RPR) and longevity in individuals aged 70 to 90. The Jerusalem Longitudinal Cohort Study (1990-2010) is a prospective longitudinal study of a representative cohort born in 1920-21. Home-based comprehensive assessment in 1990, 1998, and 2005. Individuals aged 70 (n = 453), 78 (n = 856), and 85 (n = 1,044), with follow-up to age 90. Comprehensive assessment included average RPR, beta-blocker usage, and physical activity level. Mortality data were collected from the Ministry of Interior from 1990 to 2010. Cox proportional hazards ratios (HRs) were determined for RPR (continuous variable), adjusting for sex, education, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, hypertension, kidney disease, anemia, physical activity, body mass index, self-rated health, dementia, beta-blocker use, and an interaction term for RPR by beta-blocker use. Mean RPR was 75.1 ± 9.9 at 70, 74.5 ± 10.9 at 78, and 68.5 ± 10.5 at 85 in women and 74.3 ± 10.7 at 70, 73.1 ± 11.2 at 78, and 65.2 ± 10.5 at 85 in men, with a significant decline from 78 to 85 for both sexes. In participants not taking beta-blockers followed up from 70 to 77, 78 to 84, and 85 to 90, mean RPR was lower in survivors than nonsurvivors for women (75.8 ± 9.2 vs 83.5 ± 10.9, P longevity. It may serve as a simple prognostic marker in the oldest old. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  6. Phase transitions in the hard-core Bose-Fermi-Hubbard model at non-zero temperatures in the heavy-fermion limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stasyuk, I.V.; Krasnov, V.O., E-mail: krasnoff@icmp.lviv.ua

    2017-04-15

    Phase transitions at non-zero temperatures in ultracold Bose- and Fermi-particles mixture in optical lattices using the Bose-Fermi-Hubbard model in the mean field and hard-core boson approximations are investigated. The case of infinitely small fermion transfer and the repulsive on-site boson-fermion interaction is considered. The possibility of change of order (from the 2nd to the 1st one) of the phase transition to the superfluid phase in the regime of fixed values of the chemical potentials of Bose- and Fermi-particles is established. The relevant phase diagrams determining the conditions at which such a change takes place, are built.

  7. Asymptotic Performance Analysis of Two-Way Relaying FSO Networks with Nonzero Boresight Pointing Errors Over Double-Generalized Gamma Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2018-01-01

    In this correspondence, an asymptotic performance analysis for two-way relaying free-space optical (FSO) communication systems with nonzero boresight pointing errors over double-generalized gamma fading channels is presented. Assuming amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying, two nodes having the FSO ability can communicate with each other through the optical links. With this setup, an approximate cumulative distribution function (CDF) expression for the overall signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is presented. With this statistic distribution, we derive the asymptotic analytical results for the outage probability and average bit error rate. Furthermore, we provide the asymptotic average capacity analysis for high SNR by using the momentsbased method.

  8. Asymptotic Performance Analysis of Two-Way Relaying FSO Networks with Nonzero Boresight Pointing Errors Over Double-Generalized Gamma Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang

    2018-05-07

    In this correspondence, an asymptotic performance analysis for two-way relaying free-space optical (FSO) communication systems with nonzero boresight pointing errors over double-generalized gamma fading channels is presented. Assuming amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying, two nodes having the FSO ability can communicate with each other through the optical links. With this setup, an approximate cumulative distribution function (CDF) expression for the overall signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is presented. With this statistic distribution, we derive the asymptotic analytical results for the outage probability and average bit error rate. Furthermore, we provide the asymptotic average capacity analysis for high SNR by using the momentsbased method.

  9. RESTful Java patterns and best practices

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Bhakti

    2014-01-01

    This book is aimed at novice developers who want to gain insights into building RESTful services and improve productivity, as well as for advanced developers who want to delve into more complicated topics.

  10. Brief wakeful resting can eliminate directed forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Andreas; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2017-02-01

    When cued to intentionally forget previously encoded memories, participants typically show reduced recall of the memories on a later recall test. We examined how such directed forgetting is affected by a brief period of wakeful resting between encoding and test. Encoding was followed by a "passive" wakeful resting period in which subjects heard emotionally neutral music or perceived neutral pictures, or it was followed by an "active" distraction period in which subjects were engaged in counting or calculation tasks. Whereas typical directed forgetting was present after active distraction, the forgetting was absent after wakeful resting. The findings indicate that the degree to which people can intentionally forget memories is influenced by the cognitive activity that people engage in shortly after learning takes place. The results provide first evidence on the interplay between wakeful resting and intentional forgetting.

  11. Partnership strategies for safety roadside rest areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This project studied the many factors influencing the potential for public private partnerships for Safety : Roadside Rest Areas. It found that Federal and California State laws and regulations represent important : barriers to certain types and loca...

  12. Elegants ja eklektika - Rest Art / Lylian Meister

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meister, Lylian, 1966-

    2007-01-01

    Tallinnas Mustika keskuses asuvas sisustussalongis Rest Art pakutavast. Asjade müümise kõrval pakutakse kodudele ja hotellidele-restoranidele terviklahendusi. Salongi kujundas Kard Männil. 4 värv. vaadet

  13. USAJOBS Job Opportunity Announcements (JOA) REST API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — This REST-based API is designed to support lightweight Federal Job Opportunity Announcement (JOA) content consumption by consumers. It is anticipated that this API...

  14. The Physiology of Bed Rest. Chapter 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Suzanne M.; Schneider, Victor S.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1996-01-01

    Prolonged rest in bed has been utilized by physicians and other health-care workers to immobilize and confine patients for rehabilitation and restoration of health since time immemorial. The sitting or horizontal position is sought by the body to relieve the strain of the upright or vertical postures, for example during syncopal situations, bone fractures, muscle injuries, fatigue, and probably also to reduce energy expenditure. Most health-care personnel are aware that adaptive responses occurring during bed rest proceed concomitantly with the healing process; signs and symptoms associated with the former should be differentiated from those of the latter. Not all illnesses and infirmities benefit from prolonged bed rest. Considerations in prescribing bed rest for patients-including duration, body position, mode and duration of exercise, light-dark cycles, temperature, and humidity-have not been investigated adequately. More recently, adaptive physiological responses have been measured in normal, healthy subjects in the horizontal or slightly head-down postures during prolonged bed rest as analogs for the adaptive responses of astronauts exposed to the microgravity environment of outer and bed-rest research.

  15. High Vegetable Fats Intake Is Associated with High Resting Energy Expenditure in Vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalcini, Tiziana; De Bonis, Daniele; Ferro, Yvelise; Carè, Ilaria; Mazza, Elisa; Accattato, Francesca; Greco, Marta; Foti, Daniela; Romeo, Stefano; Gulletta, Elio; Pujia, Arturo

    2015-07-17

    It has been demonstrated that a vegetarian diet may be effective in reducing body weight, however, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. We investigated whether there is a difference in resting energy expenditure between 26 vegetarians and 26 non-vegetarians and the correlation between some nutritional factors and inflammatory markers with resting energy expenditure. In this cross-sectional study, vegetarians and non-vegetarians were matched by age, body mass index and gender. All underwent instrumental examinations to assess the difference in body composition, nutrient intake and resting energy expenditure. Biochemical analyses and 12 different cytokines and growth factors were measured as an index of inflammatory state. A higher resting energy expenditure was found in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians (p = 0.008). Furthermore, a higher energy from diet, fibre, vegetable fats intake and interleukin-β (IL-1β) was found between the groups. In the univariate and multivariable analysis, resting energy expenditure was associated with vegetarian diet, free-fat mass and vegetable fats (p vegetarian's diet, i.e., vegetable fats. Furthermore, we showed that IL-10 was positively associated with resting energy expenditure in this population.

  16. Resting metabolic rate and postprandial thermogenesis in polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, K R; Dunaif, A

    1990-07-01

    To determine whether the high frequency of obesity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO) is related to a defect in energy expenditure, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and the thermic response to a standard meal were compared in 10 obese PCO women, nine obese but otherwise normal women, and 11 lean women. All groups were matched with respect to age and fat-free mass and the two obese groups were matched for degree of obesity. RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry for 3 h on two days: (1) in the postabsorptive state; and (2) after a 720 kcal (3014 kJ) liquid mixed meal. The thermic effect of food, calculated as 3 h postprandial minus fasting RMR, was significantly greater for the lean [52.9 +/- 5.5 kcal/3 h (221 +/- 23 kJ/3 h)] than the obese [17.2 +/- 5.1 kcal/3 h (72 +/- 21 kJ/3 h)] and the PCO women [22.8 +/- 5.2 kcal/3 h (95 +/- 22 kJ/3)], P less than 0.001). The thermic effect of food was negatively related to percent body fat (r = -0.694, P less than 0.001). Resting metabolic rate did not differ significantly among the three groups, and was strongly related to fat-free mass (r = 0.687, P less than 0.001). These results confirm previous reports of blunted thermogenesis in obese individuals, but provide no evidence of altered resting metabolic rate or postprandial thermogenesis in women with PCO compared with normal women of similar degree of obesity.

  17. Does intra-abdominal fluid increase the resting energy expenditure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarling, E J; Grande, A; Hano, J

    1997-10-01

    In patients with intra-abdominal fluid collection, caloric needs are based on an estimated dry weight. This is done because intra-abdominal fluid has been assumed to be metabolically inactive. One recent study of patients with slowly resolving ascites suggested otherwise. In our study, the effect of intra-abdominal fluid on the resting energy expenditure (REE) and apparent lean body mass was determined in 10 stable patients requiring peritoneal dialysis. For each subject, in both the empty and full state, we measured REE by indirect calorimetry, and body composition by the bioelectric impedance method. In the full state, the VCO2 was significantly increased (210 +/- 11 versus 197 +/- 9 mL/min, P empty state. This caused an increase in the calculated resting energy expenditure (1531 +/- 88 kcal/d empty versus 1593 +/- 94 kcal/d full, P calories derived from glucose absorbed out of the dialysate. Estimates of body fat, lean body mass, and total water also were not affected by the intra-abdominal fluid. We conclude that intra-abdominal fluid will not affect the measured REE and hence may be considered to be metabolically inactive.

  18. Resting-state FMRI confounds and cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin; Birn, Rasmus M.; Bandettini, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) is to investigate the brain’s functional connections by using the temporal similarity between blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals in different regions of the brain “at rest” as an indicator of synchronous neural activity. Since this measure relies on the temporal correlation of FMRI signal changes between different parts of the brain, any non-neural activity-related process that affects the signals will influence the measure of functional connectivity, yielding spurious results. To understand the sources of these resting-state FMRI confounds, this article describes the origins of the BOLD signal in terms of MR physics and cerebral physiology. Potential confounds arising from motion, cardiac and respiratory cycles, arterial CO2 concentration, blood pressure/cerebral autoregulation, and vasomotion are discussed. Two classes of techniques to remove confounds from resting-state BOLD time series are reviewed: 1) those utilising external recordings of physiology and 2) data-based cleanup methods that only use the resting-state FMRI data itself. Further methods that remove noise from functional connectivity measures at a group level are also discussed. For successful interpretation of resting-state FMRI comparisons and results, noise cleanup is an often over-looked but essential step in the analysis pipeline. PMID:23571418

  19. Origins of mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczek, Frank

    2012-10-01

    Newtonian mechanics posited mass as a primary quality of matter, incapable of further elucidation. We now see Newtonian mass as an emergent property. That mass-concept is tremendously useful in the approximate description of baryon-dominated matter at low energy — that is, the standard "matter" of everyday life, and of most of science and engineering — but it originates in a highly contingent and non-trivial way from more basic concepts. Most of the mass of standard matter, by far, arises dynamically, from back-reaction of the color gluon fields of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Additional quantitatively small, though physically crucial, contributions come from the intrinsic masses of elementary quanta (electrons and quarks). The equations for massless particles support extra symmetries — specifically scale, chiral, and gauge symmetries. The consistency of the standard model relies on a high degree of underlying gauge and chiral symmetry, so the observed non-zero masses of many elementary particles ( W and Z bosons, quarks, and leptons) requires spontaneous symmetry breaking. Superconductivity is a prototype for spontaneous symmetry breaking and for mass-generation, since photons acquire mass inside superconductors. A conceptually similar but more intricate form of all-pervasive ( i.e. cosmic) superconductivity, in the context of the electroweak standard model, gives us a successful, economical account of W and Z boson masses. It also allows a phenomenologically successful, though profligate, accommodation of quark and lepton masses. The new cosmic superconductivity, when implemented in a straightforward, minimal way, suggests the existence of a remarkable new particle, the so-called Higgs particle. The mass of the Higgs particle itself is not explained in the theory, but appears as a free parameter. Earlier results suggested, and recent observations at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) may indicate, the actual existence of the Higgs particle, with mass m H

  20. Constraining the Natural MSSM through tunneling to color-breaking vacua at zero and non-zero temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Camargo-Molina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We re-evaluate the constraints on the parameter space of the minimal supersymmetric standard model from tunneling to charge- and/or color-breaking minima, taking into account thermal corrections. We pay particular attention to the region known as the Natural MSSM, where the masses of the scalar partners of the top quarks are within an order of magnitude or so of the electroweak scale. These constraints arise from the interaction between these scalar tops and the Higgs fields, which allows the possibility of parameter points having deep charge- and color-breaking true vacua. In addition to requiring that our electroweak-symmetry-breaking, yet QCD- and electromagnetism-preserving vacuum has a sufficiently long lifetime at zero temperature, also demanding stability against thermal tunneling further restricts the allowed parameter space.

  1. Non-zero θ{sub 13} and leptonic CP phase with A{sub 4} symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sruthilaya, M.; Mohanta, R. [University of Hyderabad, School of Physics, Hyderabad (India)

    2017-03-15

    We consider a model based on A{sub 4} symmetry to explain the phenomenon of neutrino mixing. The spontaneous symmetry breaking of A{sub 4} symmetry leads to a co-bimaximal mixing matrix at leading order. We consider the effect of higher order corrections in neutrino sector and find that the mixing angles thus obtained, come well within the 3σ ranges of their experimental values. We study the implications of this formalism on the other phenomenological observables, such as CP violating phase, Jarlskog invariant and the effective Majorana mass vertical stroke M{sub ee} vertical stroke. We also obtain the branching ratio of the lepton flavour violating decay μ → eγ in the context of this model and find that it can be less than its present experimental upper bound. (orig.)

  2. Dose and effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dose and effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats Authors: Gary E. Hatch, John McKee, James Brown, Bill McDonnell, Elston Seal, Joleen Soukup, Ralph Slade, Kay Crissman and Robert Devlin, National Health and Environmental...

  3. Exercise countermeasures for bed-rest deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose for this 30-day bed rest study was to investigate the effects of short-term, high intensity isotonic and isokinetic exercise training on maintenance of working capacity (peak oxygen uptake), muscular strength and endurance, and on orthostatic tolerance, posture and gait. Other data were collected on muscle atrophy, bone mineralization and density, endocrine analyses concerning vasoactivity and fluid-electrolyte balance, muscle intermediary metabolism, and on performance and mood of the subjects. It was concluded that: The subjects maintained a relatively stable mood, high morale, and high esprit de corps throughout the study. Performance improved in nearly all tests in almost all the subjects. Isotonic training, as opposed to isokinetic exercise training, was associated more with decreasing levels of psychological tension, concentration, and motivation; and improvement in the quality of sleep. Working capacity (peak oxygen uptake) was maintained during bed rest with isotonic exercise training; it was not maintained with isokinetic or no exercise training. In general, there was no significant decrease in strength or endurance of arm or leg muscles during bed rest, in spite of some reduction in muscle size (atrophy) of some leg muscles. There was no effect of isotonic exercise training on orthostasis, since tilt-table tolerance was reduced similarly in all three groups following bed rest. Bed rest resulted in significant decreases of postural stability and self-selected step length, stride length, and walking velocity, which were not influenced by either exercise training regimen. Most pre-bed rest responses were restored by the fourth day of recovery.

  4. Long Rest Interval Promotes Durable Testosterone Responses in High-Intensity Bench Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudese, Estevão; Simão, Roberto; Senna, Gilmar; Vingren, Jakob L; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Baffi, Matheus; Miranda, Humberto

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of rest period duration (1 vs. 3 minute between sets) on acute hormone responses to a high-intensity and equal volume bench press workout. Ten resistance-trained men (25.2 ± 5.6 years; 78.2 ± 5.7 kg; 176.7 ± 5.4 cm; bench press relative strength: 1.3 ± 0.1 kg per kilogram of body mass) performed 2 bench press workouts separated by 1 week. Each workout consisted of 5 sets of 3 repetitions performed at 85% of 1 repetition maximum, with either 1- or 3-minute rest between sets. Circulating concentrations of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), cortisol (C), testosterone/cortisol ratio (TT/C), and growth hormone (GH) were measured at preworkout (PRE), and immediately (T0), 15 minutes (T15), and 30 minutes (T30) postworkout. Rating of perceived exertion was recorded before and after each set. For TT, both rest lengths enhanced all postexercise verifications (T0, T15, and T30) compared with PRE, with 1 minute showing decreases on T15 and T30 compared with T0. For FT, both 1- and 3-minute rest protocols triggered augmentations on distinct postexercise moments (T0 and T15 for 1 minute; T15 and T30 for 3-minute) compared with PRE. The C values did not change throughout any postexercise verification for either rests. The TT/C ratio was significantly elevated for both rests in all postexercise moments compared with PRE. Finally, GH values did not change for both rest lengths. In conclusion, although both short and long rest periods enhanced acute testosterone values, the longer rest promoted a long-lasting elevation for both TT and FT.

  5. REST in practice Hypermedia and systems architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Webber, Jim; Robinson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Why don't typical enterprise projects go as smoothly as projects you develop for the Web? Does the REST architectural style really present a viable alternative for building distributed systems and enterprise-class applications? In this insightful book, three SOA experts provide a down-to-earth explanation of REST and demonstrate how you can develop simple and elegant distributed hypermedia systems by applying the Web's guiding principles to common enterprise computing problems. You'll learn techniques for implementing specific Web technologies and patterns to solve the needs of a typical com

  6. On the problem of non-zero word error rates for fixed-rate error correction codes in continuous variable quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Sarah J; Ong, Lawrence; Shirvanimoghaddam, Mahyar; Lance, Andrew M; Symul, Thomas; Ralph, T C

    2017-01-01

    The maximum operational range of continuous variable quantum key distribution protocols has shown to be improved by employing high-efficiency forward error correction codes. Typically, the secret key rate model for such protocols is modified to account for the non-zero word error rate of such codes. In this paper, we demonstrate that this model is incorrect: firstly, we show by example that fixed-rate error correction codes, as currently defined, can exhibit efficiencies greater than unity. Secondly, we show that using this secret key model combined with greater than unity efficiency codes, implies that it is possible to achieve a positive secret key over an entanglement breaking channel—an impossible scenario. We then consider the secret key model from a post-selection perspective, and examine the implications for key rate if we constrain the forward error correction codes to operate at low word error rates. (paper)

  7. A Core-Offset Mach Zehnder Interferometer Based on A Non-Zero Dispersion-Shifted Fiber and Its Torsion Sensing Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Huerta-Mascotte

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an all-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI based on a non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber (NZ-DSF is presented. The MZI was implemented by core-offset fusion splicing one section of a NZ-DSF fiber between two pieces of single mode fibers (SMFs. Here, the NZ-DSF core and cladding were used as the arms of the MZI, while the core-offset sections acted as optical fiber couplers. Thus, a MZI interference spectrum with a fringe contrast (FC of about 20 dB was observed. Moreover, its response spectrum was experimentally characterized to the torsion parameter and a sensitivity of 0.070 nm/° was achieved. Finally, these MZIs can be implemented in a compact size and low cost.

  8. Phase Diagram of the ν=5/2 Fractional Quantum Hall Effect: Effects of Landau-Level Mixing and Nonzero Width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiryl Pakrouski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Interesting non-Abelian states, e.g., the Moore-Read Pfaffian and the anti-Pfaffian, offer candidate descriptions of the ν=5/2 fractional quantum Hall state. But, the significant controversy surrounding the nature of the ν=5/2 state has been hampered by the fact that the competition between these and other states is affected by small parameter changes. To study the phase diagram of the ν=5/2 state, we numerically diagonalize a comprehensive effective Hamiltonian describing the fractional quantum Hall effect of electrons under realistic conditions in GaAs semiconductors. The effective Hamiltonian takes Landau-level mixing into account to lowest order perturbatively in κ, the ratio of the Coulomb energy scale to the cyclotron gap. We also incorporate the nonzero width w of the quantum-well and subband mixing. We find the ground state in both the torus and spherical geometries as a function of κ and w. To sort out the nontrivial competition between candidate ground states, we analyze the following four criteria: its overlap with trial wave functions, the magnitude of energy gaps, the sign of the expectation value of an order parameter for particle-hole symmetry breaking, and the entanglement spectrum. We conclude that the ground state is in the universality class of the Moore-Read Pfaffian state, rather than the anti-Pfaffian, for κ<κ_{c}(w, where κ_{c}(w is a w-dependent critical value 0.6≲κ_{c}(w≲1. We observe that both Landau-level mixing and nonzero width suppress the excitation gap, but Landau-level mixing has a larger effect in this regard. Our findings have important implications for the identification of non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall states.

  9. The Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire reveals multiple phenotypes of resting-state cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Alexander eDiaz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Resting-state neuroimaging is a dominant paradigm for studying brain function in health and disease. It is attractive for clinical research because of its simplicity for patients, straightforward standardization, and sensitivity to brain disorders. Importantly, non-sensory experiences like mind wandering may arise from ongoing brain activity. However, little is known about the link between ongoing brain activity and cognition, as phenotypes of resting-state cognition—and tools to quantify them—have been lacking. To facilitate rapid and structured measurements of resting-state cognition we developed a 50-item self-report survey, the Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire (ARSQ. Based on ARSQ data from 813 participants assessed after five minutes eyes-closed rest in their home, we identified seven dimensions of resting-state cognition using factor analysis: Discontinuity of Mind, Theory of Mind, Self, Planning, Sleepiness, Comfort, and Somatic Awareness. Further, we showed that the structure of cognition was similar during resting-state fMRI and EEG, and that the test-retest correlations were remarkably high for all dimensions. To explore whether inter-individual variation of resting-state cognition is related to health status, we correlated ARSQ-derived factor scores with psychometric scales measuring depression, anxiety, and sleep quality. Mental health correlated positively with Comfort and negatively with Discontinuity of Mind. Finally, we show that sleepiness may partially explain a resting-state EEG profile previously associated with Alzheimer’s disease. These findings indicate that the ARSQ readily provides information about cognitive phenotypes and that it is a promising tool for research on the neural correlates of resting-state cognition in health and disease.

  10. The Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire reveals multiple phenotypes of resting-state cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, B. Alexander; Van Der Sluis, Sophie; Moens, Sarah; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Migliorati, Filippo; Stoffers, Diederick; Den Braber, Anouk; Poil, Simon-Shlomo; Hardstone, Richard; Van't Ent, Dennis; Boomsma, Dorret I.; De Geus, Eco; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Linkenkaer-Hansen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Resting-state neuroimaging is a dominant paradigm for studying brain function in health and disease. It is attractive for clinical research because of its simplicity for patients, straightforward standardization, and sensitivity to brain disorders. Importantly, non-sensory experiences like mind wandering may arise from ongoing brain activity. However, little is known about the link between ongoing brain activity and cognition, as phenotypes of resting-state cognition—and tools to quantify them—have been lacking. To facilitate rapid and structured measurements of resting-state cognition we developed a 50-item self-report survey, the Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire (ARSQ). Based on ARSQ data from 813 participants assessed after 5 min eyes-closed rest in their home, we identified seven dimensions of resting-state cognition using factor analysis: Discontinuity of Mind, Theory of Mind, Self, Planning, Sleepiness, Comfort, and Somatic Awareness. Further, we showed that the structure of cognition was similar during resting-state fMRI and EEG, and that the test-retest correlations were remarkably high for all dimensions. To explore whether inter-individual variation of resting-state cognition is related to health status, we correlated ARSQ-derived factor scores with psychometric scales measuring depression, anxiety, and sleep quality. Mental health correlated positively with Comfort and negatively with Discontinuity of Mind. Finally, we show that sleepiness may partially explain a resting-state EEG profile previously associated with Alzheimer's disease. These findings indicate that the ARSQ readily provides information about cognitive phenotypes and that it is a promising tool for research on the neural correlates of resting-state cognition in health and disease. PMID:23964225

  11. The neutrino mass from beta spectrum (ITEP-85)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubimov, V.

    1986-01-01

    The new cycle of tritium beta spectrum measurements in valine with the ITEP spectrometer is discussed (ITEP-85). The detailed investigation of the total response function (TRF) has been performed. The special run of beta spectrum measurements carried out in a wide energy interval (3.4 KeV) has turned out to be a sensitive mode for the TRF experimental test. The results confirm the indication of the neutrino nonzero mass. 11 refs., 10 figs

  12. Acute GH and IGF-I responses to short vs. long rest period between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to examine the effects of different rest intervals between the sets on acute growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) responses, ten recreationally resistance trained men served as subjects (Mean ± SD, age=22 ± 2 years, body mass= 84 ± 8 kg). Subjects performed two heavy-resistance training ...

  13. 1 SHORT COMMUNICATION Resting behaviour of Anopheles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-04

    Oct 4, 2011 ... Resting behaviour of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and its implication on malaria .... nature) were requested to sleep under the double mosquito net trap (one ... designed from the DNA sequences of the intergenic spacer region of ...

  14. A resting bottom sodium cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, D.

    2012-01-01

    This follows ICAPP 2011 paper 11059 'Fast Reactor with a Cold Bottom Vessel', on sodium cooled reactor vessels in thermal gradient, resting on soil. Sodium is frozen on vessel bottom plate, temperature increasing to the top. The vault cover rests on the safety vessel, the core diagrid welded to a toric collector forms a slab, supported by skirts resting on the bottom plate. Intermediate exchangers and pumps, fixed on the cover, plunge on the collector. At the vessel top, a skirt hanging from the cover plunges into sodium, leaving a thin circular slit partially filled by sodium covered by argon, providing leak-tightness and allowing vessel dilatation, as well as a radial relative holding due to sodium inertia. No 'air conditioning' at 400 deg. C is needed as for hanging vessels, and this allows a large economy. The sodium volume below the slab contains isolating refractory elements, stopping a hypothetical corium flow. The small gas volume around the vessel limits any LOCA. The liner cooling system of the concrete safety vessel may contribute to reactor cooling. The cold resting bottom vessel, proposed by the author for many years, could avoid the complete visual inspection required for hanging vessels. However, a double vessel, containing support skirts, would allow introduction of inspecting devices. Stress limiting thermal gradient is obtained by filling secondary sodium in the intermediate space. (authors)

  15. [Creep of amalgam fillings under clasp rests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, L; Jung, T; West, M

    1989-10-01

    A clinically realistic experiment was set up to obtain information on the amount of vertical settling of clasp rests in amalgam restorations under functional loading. Mesioocclusal cavities were prepared in 16 lower molar specimens cast in brass. The cavities were filled with amalgam and provided with a mesial rest seat. A constant load of 100 N was applied via a simplified (experimental) saddle to a cobalt-chromium E-clasp cast to the saddle. The duration of the load corresponded to 160 days of clinical function. The chronological course of vertical displacement was analyzed mathematically. According to this result the process can be divided into three components: settling immediately upon load initiation (mean value 96 microns, transition creep (mean value 25 microns) and creep ata constant rate (mean value 15 microns). The mean overall vertical displacement of the rests was 136 microns, the maximum value 287 microns. These findings suggest that vertical settling of a clasp rest into its seat in an amalgam restoration may eventually result in significant changes in occlusion and may almost completely exhaust gingival resilience.

  16. Resting energy expenditure of rats acclimated to hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Charles E.; Moran, Megan M.; Oyama, Jiro

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of centrifugation at 1 G has been advocated as a control condition during spaceflight and as a countermeasure to compensate for the adverse effects of spaceflight. Rodents are the primary animal model for the study of the effects of spaceflight and will be used in the evaluation of centrifugation as a countermeasure and means of control at 1 G during flight. HYPOTHESIS: The present study was designed to assess whether resting energy expenditure (EER) of male rats was increased in relation to the magnitude of the level of gravity to which the animals were exposed. The influence of body mass and age on resting energy expenditure (EER) of male rats (n = 42, age 40-400 d) was determined following 2 wk of acclimation to 1, 2.3, or 4.1 G. Hypergravity environments were created by centrifugation. Measurements were made at the gravity level to which the animal was acclimated and during the lights-on period. RESULTS: In rats matched for body mass (approximately 400 g), mean O2 consumption and CO2 production were higher (18% and 27%, respectively) in the 2.3- and 4.1 -G groups than controls. Mean respiratory exchange ratio (RER) increased from 0.80 to 0.87. EER was increased from 47 +/- 0.1 kcal x d(-1) at 1 G, to 57 +/- 1.5 and 58 +/- 2.2 kcal x d(-1) at 2.3 and 4.1 G, respectively. There was no difference in EER between the hypergravity groups. When age differences were considered, EER (kcal x kg(-1) x d(-1)) with increased gravity was 40% higher than at 1 G. The increase in EER was not proportional over gravity levels. CONCLUSION: Acclimation of rats to hypergravity increases their EER, dependent on body mass and age, and may alter substrate metabolism. The increase in EER was not related to the level of gravity increase.

  17. REST: a toolkit for resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Song

    Full Text Available Resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI has been drawing more and more attention in recent years. However, a publicly available, systematically integrated and easy-to-use tool for RS-fMRI data processing is still lacking. We developed a toolkit for the analysis of RS-fMRI data, namely the RESting-state fMRI data analysis Toolkit (REST. REST was developed in MATLAB with graphical user interface (GUI. After data preprocessing with SPM or AFNI, a few analytic methods can be performed in REST, including functional connectivity analysis based on linear correlation, regional homogeneity, amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF, and fractional ALFF. A few additional functions were implemented in REST, including a DICOM sorter, linear trend removal, bandpass filtering, time course extraction, regression of covariates, image calculator, statistical analysis, and slice viewer (for result visualization, multiple comparison correction, etc.. REST is an open-source package and is freely available at http://www.restfmri.net.

  18. Origin of inertia at rest and the number of generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.L.; Azcoiti, V.; Cruz, A.

    1982-01-01

    A new scenario is suggested for the discussion of the old problem of generations. We shall assume that the rest mass m of a particle described by the Lagrangian L(x) = -m(1-x 2 )/sup 1/2/ has its origin in the momentum p/sub theta/, canonical conjugate of a supplementary dimension of space, beyond the usual four dimensions. More precisely, we shall contemplate the possibility that the different generations, or for definiteness, the charged leptons e,μ,tau,. . . are states, with different p/sub theta/, of a unique physical system, whose free Lagrangian will depend on theta-dot in addition to x: L(x,theta-dot). The requirement that the relativistic relationship between the momentum p/sub x/ and velocity x is maintained in five dimensions leads to the simplest Lagrangian L(x,theta-dot) = -Λ(1-x 2 ) [-theta-dot / (1-x 2 )/sup 1/2/], Λ being a constant with dimension [theta] -1 . With this Lagrangian, the function of p/sub theta/ that plays the role of the mass in the usual relativistic relation between p/sub x/ and x is m(p/sub theta/) = p/sub theta/(1-βlnp/sub theta//Λ). The quantization of momentum p/sub theta/ with periodic conditions leads to a mass spectrum compatible with experimental data only if the number of generations is three. In the present work we consider that the mass differences within each generation should be explained in the context of grand unified theories (GUT's). In the last section, though, the complementary information that GUT's might supply in our context is suggested, and a value for the mass of the top quark and a bound for the mass of the tau neutrino are obtained

  19. Nucleon axial form factors using Nf=2 twisted mass fermions with a physical value of the pion mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrou, C.; Constantinou, M.; Hadjiyiannakou, K.; Jansen, K.; Kallidonis, C.; Koutsou, G.; Vaquero Aviles-Casco, A.

    2017-09-01

    We present results on the nucleon axial and induced pseudoscalar form factors using an ensemble of two degenerate twisted mass clover-improved fermions with mass yielding a pion mass of mπ=130 MeV . We evaluate the isovector and the isoscalar, as well as the strange and the charm axial form factors. The disconnected contributions are evaluated using recently developed methods that include deflation of the lower eigenstates, allowing us to extract the isoscalar, strange, and charm axial form factors. We find that the disconnected quark loop contributions are nonzero and particularly large for the induced pseudoscalar form factor.

  20. The Metabolic Cost of a High Intensity Exercise Program During Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Kyle; Everett, Meghan; Guined, Jamie; Cunningham, Daid

    2012-01-01

    Background: Given that disuse-related skeletal muscle atrophy may be exacerbated by an imbalance between energy intake and output, the amount of energy required to complete exercise countermeasures is an important consideration in the well being of subject health during bed rest and spaceflight. Objective: To evaluate the energy cost of a high intensity exercise program performed during short duration bed rest. Methods: 9 subjects (8 male and 1 female; 34.5 +/- 8.2 years) underwent 14 days of bed rest and exercise countermeasures. Exercise energy expenditure and excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) were collected once in each of 5 different exercise protocols (30 second, 2 minute and 4 minute intervals, continuous aerobic and a variety of resistance exercises) during bed rest. Body mass, basal metabolic rate (BMR), upper and lower leg muscle, subcutaneous, and intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) volumes were assessed before and at the end of bed rest. Results: There were no significant differences in body mass (pre: 75.1 +/- 10.5 kg; post: 75.2 +/- 10.1 kg), BMR (pre: 1649 +/- 216 kcal; post: 1657 +/- 177 kcal), muscle subcutaneous, or IMAT volumes (Table 2) after 14 days of bed rest and exercise. Body mass was maintained with an average daily intake of 2710 +/- 262 kcal (36.2 +/- 2.1 kcal/kg/day), while average daily energy expenditure was 2579 +/-311 kcal (34.5 +/- 3.6 kcal/kg/day). Exercise energy expenditure was significantly greater as a result of continuous aerobic exercise than all other exercise protocols.

  1. Information Flow Between Resting-State Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Ibai; Erramuzpe, Asier; Escudero, Iñaki; Mateos, Beatriz; Cabrera, Alberto; Marinazzo, Daniele; Sanz-Arigita, Ernesto J; Stramaglia, Sebastiano; Cortes Diaz, Jesus M

    2015-11-01

    The resting brain dynamics self-organize into a finite number of correlated patterns known as resting-state networks (RSNs). It is well known that techniques such as independent component analysis can separate the brain activity at rest to provide such RSNs, but the specific pattern of interaction between RSNs is not yet fully understood. To this aim, we propose here a novel method to compute the information flow (IF) between different RSNs from resting-state magnetic resonance imaging. After hemodynamic response function blind deconvolution of all voxel signals, and under the hypothesis that RSNs define regions of interest, our method first uses principal component analysis to reduce dimensionality in each RSN to next compute IF (estimated here in terms of transfer entropy) between the different RSNs by systematically increasing k (the number of principal components used in the calculation). When k=1, this method is equivalent to computing IF using the average of all voxel activities in each RSN. For k≥1, our method calculates the k multivariate IF between the different RSNs. We find that the average IF among RSNs is dimension dependent, increasing from k=1 (i.e., the average voxel activity) up to a maximum occurring at k=5 and to finally decay to zero for k≥10. This suggests that a small number of components (close to five) is sufficient to describe the IF pattern between RSNs. Our method--addressing differences in IF between RSNs for any generic data--can be used for group comparison in health or disease. To illustrate this, we have calculated the inter-RSN IF in a data set of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to find that the most significant differences between AD and controls occurred for k=2, in addition to AD showing increased IF w.r.t. The spatial localization of the k=2 component, within RSNs, allows the characterization of IF differences between AD and controls.

  2. Calorimetric measurements of $^{163}$ holmium decay as tools to determine the electron neutrino mass

    CERN Document Server

    De Rújula, Alvaro

    1982-01-01

    Computes the spectrum of 'calorimetric' energy in the electron capture decay of /sup 163/Ho. A calorimetric experiment would yield an excellent determination of (/sup 163/Ho, /sup 163/Dy) mass difference. The proximity of the spectral endpoint to an atomic resonance makes the fraction of events that are sensitive to a non-zero neutrino mass superior in /sup 163/Ho decay than in tritium decay.

  3. Inverse scattering transform and soliton solutions for square matrix nonlinear Schrödinger equations with non-zero boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinari, Barbara; Demontis, Francesco; Li, Sitai; Horikis, Theodoros P.

    2018-04-01

    The inverse scattering transform (IST) with non-zero boundary conditions at infinity is developed for an m × m matrix nonlinear Schrödinger-type equation which, in the case m = 2, has been proposed as a model to describe hyperfine spin F = 1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensates with either repulsive interatomic interactions and anti-ferromagnetic spin-exchange interactions (self-defocusing case), or attractive interatomic interactions and ferromagnetic spin-exchange interactions (self-focusing case). The IST for this system was first presented by Ieda et al. (2007) , using a different approach. In our formulation, both the direct and the inverse problems are posed in terms of a suitable uniformization variable which allows to develop the IST on the standard complex plane, instead of a two-sheeted Riemann surface or the cut plane with discontinuities along the cuts. Analyticity of the scattering eigenfunctions and scattering data, symmetries, properties of the discrete spectrum, and asymptotics are derived. The inverse problem is posed as a Riemann-Hilbert problem for the eigenfunctions, and the reconstruction formula of the potential in terms of eigenfunctions and scattering data is provided. In addition, the general behavior of the soliton solutions is analyzed in detail in the 2 × 2 self-focusing case, including some special solutions not previously discussed in the literature.

  4. Search for a nonzero triple-correlation coefficient and new experimental limit on T invariance in polarized-neutron beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, R.I.; Liaud, P.; Vignon, B.; Hughes, V.W.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed description of an experimental test of time-reversal invariance in the β decay of the polarized free neutron is presented. The experiment consists of a measurement of the triple-correlation coefficient D between the neutron polarization vector and the electron and antineutrino momentum vectors. A nonzero value for this coefficient would imply T violation, since final-state interactions and other corrections may be neglected at the present level of precision. The experiment was performed using a cold-neutron beam at the High Flux Reactor of the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble. A polarizing neutron guide tube yielded a beam intensity of 10 9 neutrons/sec with a polarization of 70%. Our result, based upon observation of approximately 6 x 10 6 decays, is D = (-1.1 +- 1.7) x 10 -3 , consistent with time-reversal invariance in the ΔS = 0 weak interaction. In terms of the relative phase angle between axial-vector and vector coupling constants, the result may be expressed as phi = 180.14 +- 0.22 0

  5. Constraining dynamical neutrino mass generation with cosmological data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koksbang, S.M.; Hannestad, S., E-mail: koksbang@phys.au.dk, E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2017-09-01

    We study models in which neutrino masses are generated dynamically at cosmologically late times. Our study is purely phenomenological and parameterized in terms of three effective parameters characterizing the redshift of mass generation, the width of the transition region, and the present day neutrino mass. We also study the possibility that neutrinos become strongly self-interacting at the time where the mass is generated. We find that in a number of cases, models with large present day neutrino masses are allowed by current CMB, BAO and supernova data. The increase in the allowed mass range makes it possible that a non-zero neutrino mass could be measured in direct detection experiments such as KATRIN. Intriguingly we also find that there are allowed models in which neutrinos become strongly self-interacting around the epoch of recombination.

  6. Effects of Bed Rest on Conduction Velocity of the Triceps Surae Stretch Reflex and Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Wood, S. J.; Cerisano, J. M.; Kofman, I. S.; Fisher, E. A.; Esteves, J. T.; Taylor, L. C.; DeDios, Y. E.; Harm, D. L.

    2011-01-01

    Despite rigorous exercise and nutritional management during space missions, astronauts returning from microgravity exhibit neuromuscular deficits and a significant loss in muscle mass in the postural muscles of the lower leg. Similar changes in the postural muscles occur in subjects participating in long-duration bed rest studies. These adaptive muscle changes manifest as a reduction in reflex conduction velocity during head-down bed rest. Because the stretch reflex encompasses both the peripheral (muscle spindle and nerve axon) and central (spinal synapse) components involved in adaptation to calf muscle unloading, it may be used to provide feedback on the general condition of neuromuscular function, and might be used to evaluate the effectiveness of countermeasures aimed at preserving muscle mass and function during periods of unloading. Stretch reflexes were measured on 18 control subjects who spent 60 to 90 days in continuous 6 deg head-down bed rest. Using a motorized system capable of rotating the foot around the ankle joint (dorsiflexion) through an angle of 10 degrees at a peak velocity of about 250 deg/sec, a stretch reflex was recorded from the subject's left triceps surae muscle group. Using surface electromyography, about 300 reflex responses were obtained and ensemble-averaged on 3 separate days before bed rest, 3 to 4 times in bed, and 3 times after bed rest. The averaged responses for each test day were examined for reflex latency and conduction velocity (CV) across gender. Computerized posturography was also conducted on these same subjects before and after bed rest as part of the standard measures. Peak-to-peak sway was measured during Sensory Organization Tests (SOTs) to evaluate changes in the ability to effectively use or suppress visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive information for postural control. Although no gender differences were found, a significant increase in reflex latency and a significant decrease in CV were observed during the bed

  7. A Review of Target Mass Corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. Schienbein; V. Radescu; G. Zeller; M. E. Christy; C. E. Keppel; K. S. McFarland; W. Melnitchouk; F. I. Olness; M. H. Reno; F. Steffens; J.-Y. Yu

    2007-09-06

    With recent advances in the precision of inclusive lepton-nuclear scattering experiments, it has become apparent that comparable improvements are needed in the accuracy of the theoretical analysis tools. In particular, when extracting parton distribution functions in the large-x region, it is crucial to correct the data for effects associated with the nonzero mass of the target. We present here a comprehensive review of these target mass corrections (TMC) to structure functions data, summarizing the relevant formulas for TMCs in electromagnetic and weak processes. We include a full analysis of both hadronic and partonic masses, and trace how these effects appear in the operator product expansion and the factorized parton model formalism, as well as their limitations when applied to data in the x -> 1 limit. We evaluate the numerical effects of TMCs on various structure functions, and compare fits to data with and without these corrections.

  8. Framework for ReSTful Web Services in OSGi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Khawaja S.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Powell, Mark W.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Mittman, David S.; Fox, Jason M.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Wallick, Michael N.; Torres, Recaredo J.; Rabe, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ensemble ReST is a software system that eases the development, deployment, and maintenance of server-side application programs to perform functions that would otherwise be performed by client software. Ensemble ReST takes advantage of the proven disciplines of ReST (Representational State Transfer. ReST leverages the standardized HTTP protocol to enable developers to offer services to a diverse variety of clients: from shell scripts to sophisticated Java application suites

  9. Nephrogenic rests mimicking Wilms' tumor on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhas, Naveen; Siegelman, Stanley S.; Argani, Pedram; Gearhart, John P.

    2004-01-01

    Nephrogenic rests (NR) are persistent benign remnants of embryonic renal tissue. A small percentage of these may develop into Wilms' tumor (WT). Radiologic imaging is relied upon to differentiate between these entities, with the hallmark of malignant transformation being growth on serial imaging studies. There is, however, considerable overlap in their imaging characteristics. The authors present a case of two biopsy-proven NR in a 2-year-old girl with sporadic aniridia that were indistinguishable from WT on initial radiologic studies. One of the NR grew on serial imaging studies mimicking a WT, but after resection was confirmed to be a benign hyperplastic NR on pathologic examination. (orig.)

  10. Hypoxic responses in resting hyperthermic humans

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This thesis investigated the interaction between steady state hypoxia and passive hyperthermia on human ventilation and the influence of the PETCO2 on this interaction. On one of two days males twice breathed 12% oxygen for 20 min while either normothermic or hyperthermic with PETCO2 clamped -1 mm Hg above resting (iHVR). On the other day the same tests were performed except P&02 was uncontrolled (pHVR). Hyperthermia increased euoxic ventilation compared to normothermia (plO.OO1). During ...

  11. Proton spin structure in the rest frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavada, P.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that the quark-parton model in the standard infinite momentum approach overestimates the proton spin structure function g 1 (x) in comparison with the approach taking consistently into account the internal motion of quarks described by a spherical phase space in the proton rest frame. Particularly, it is shown the first moment of the spin structure function in the latter approach, assuming only the valence quarks contribution to the proton spin, does not contradict the experimental data. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  12. Vortex mass in a superfluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simula, Tapio

    2018-02-01

    We consider the inertial mass of a vortex in a superfluid. We obtain a vortex mass that is well defined and is determined microscopically and self-consistently by the elementary excitation energy of the kelvon quasiparticle localized within the vortex core. The obtained result for the vortex mass is found to be consistent with experimental observations on superfluid quantum gases and vortex rings in water. We propose a method to measure the inertial rest mass and Berry phase of a vortex in superfluid Bose and Fermi gases.

  13. Longer rest periods for intensive rotational grazing limit diet quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Longer rest periods for intensive rotational grazing limit diet quality of sheep without enhancing environmental benefits. ... This experiment was established to compare three intensive rotational grazing strategies (fast rotation [FR], average 57-day rest; slow rotation [SR], average 114-day rest; and flexible grazing [FX], based ...

  14. A Meta-analysis on Resting State High-frequency Heart Rate Variability in Bulimia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschel, Stephanie K V; Feeling, Nicole R; Vögele, Claus; Kaess, Michael; Thayer, Julian F; Koenig, Julian

    2016-09-01

    Autonomic nervous system function is altered in eating disorders. We aimed to quantify differences in resting state vagal activity, indexed by high-frequency heart rate variability comparing patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) and healthy controls. A systematic search of the literature to identify studies eligible for inclusion and meta-analytical methods were applied. Meta-regression was used to identify potential covariates. Eight studies reporting measures of resting high-frequency heart rate variability in individuals with BN (n = 137) and controls (n = 190) were included. Random-effects meta-analysis revealed a sizeable main effect (Z = 2.22, p = .03; Hedge's g = 0.52, 95% CI [0.06;0.98]) indicating higher resting state vagal activity in individuals with BN. Meta-regression showed that body mass index and medication intake are significant covariates. Findings suggest higher vagal activity in BN at rest, particularly in unmedicated samples with lower body mass index. Potential mechanisms underlying these findings and implications for routine clinical care are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  15. Thyroid hormones correlate with resting metabolic rate, not daily energy expenditure, in two charadriiform seabirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle H. Elliott

    2013-04-01

    Thyroid hormones affect in vitro metabolic intensity, increase basal metabolic rate (BMR in the lab, and are sometimes correlated with basal and/or resting metabolic rate (RMR in a field environment. Given the difficulty of measuring metabolic rate in the field—and the likelihood that capture and long-term restraint necessary to measure metabolic rate in the field jeopardizes other measurements—we examined the possibility that circulating thyroid hormone levels were correlated with RMR in two free-ranging bird species with high levels of energy expenditure (the black-legged kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla, and thick-billed murre, Uria lomvia. Because BMR and daily energy expenditure (DEE are purported to be linked, we also tested for a correlation between thyroid hormones and DEE. We examined the relationships between free and bound levels of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4 and triiodothyronine (T3 with DEE and with 4-hour long measurements of post-absorptive and thermoneutral resting metabolism (resting metabolic rate; RMR. RMR but not DEE increased with T3 in both species; both metabolic rates were independent of T4. T3 and T4 were not correlated with one another. DEE correlated with body mass in kittiwakes but not in murres, presumably owing to the larger coefficient of variation in body mass during chick rearing for the more sexually dimorphic kittiwakes. We suggest T3 provides a good proxy for resting metabolism but not DEE in these seabird species.

  16. The Effect of Rest Interval Length on Repetition Consistency and Perceived Exertion During Near Maximal Loaded Bench Press Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudese, Estevão; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Simão, Roberto; Senna, Gilmar; de Salles, Belmiro F; Miranda, Humberto

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare different rest intervals between sets on repetition consistency and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during consecutive bench press sets with an absolute 3RM (3 repetition maximum) load. Sixteen trained men (23.75 ± 4.21 years; 74.63 ± 5.36 kg; 175 ± 4.64 cm; bench press relative strength: 1.44 ± 0.19 kg/kg of body mass) attended 4 randomly ordered sessions during which 5 consecutive sets of the bench press were performed with an absolute 3RM load and 1, 2, 3, or 5 minutes of rest interval between sets. The results indicated that significantly greater bench press repetitions were completed with 2, 3, and 5 minutes vs. 1-minute rest between sets (p ≤ 0.05); no significant differences were noted between the 2, 3, and 5 minutes rest conditions. For the 1-minute rest condition, performance reductions (relative to the first set) were observed commencing with the second set; whereas for the other conditions (2, 3, and 5 minutes rest), performance reductions were not evident until the third and fourth sets. The RPE values before each of the successive sets were significantly greater, commencing with the second set for the 1-minute vs. the 3 and 5 minutes rest conditions. Significant increases were also evident in RPE immediately after each set between the 1 and 5 minutes rest conditions from the second through fifth sets. These findings indicate that when utilizing an absolute 3RM load for the bench press, practitioners may prescribe a time-efficient minimum of 2 minutes rest between sets without significant impairments in repetition performance. However, lower perceived exertion levels may necessitate prescription of a minimum of 3 minutes rest between sets.

  17. Resting ECG findings in elite football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm, Philipp; Ditzel, Roman; Ditzel, Heribert; Urhausen, Axel; Meyer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate ECG abnormalities in a large sample of elite football players. Data from 566 elite male football players (57 of them of African origin) above 16 years of age were screened retrospectively (age: 20.9 ± 5.3 years; BMI: 22.9 ± 1.7 kg · m(-2), training history: 13.8 ± 4.7 years). The resting ECGs were analysed and classified according to the most current ECG categorisation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) (2010) and a classification of Pelliccia et al. (2000) in order to assess the impact of the new ESC-approach. According to the classification of Pelliccia, 52.5% showed mildly abnormal ECG patterns and 12% were classified as distinctly abnormal ECG patterns. According to the classification of the ESC, 33.7% showed 'uncommon ECG patterns'. Short-QT interval was the most frequent ECG pattern in this group (41.9%), followed by a shortened PR-interval (19.9%). When assessed with a QTc cut-off-point of 340 ms (instead of 360 ms), only 22.2% would have had 'uncommon ECG patterns'. Resting ECG changes amongst elite football players are common. Adjustment of the ESC criteria by adapting proposed time limits for the ECG (e.g. QTc, PR) should further reduce the rate of false-positive results.

  18. Resting State Network Estimation in Individual Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Carl D.; Laumann, Timothy O.; Szrama, Nicholas P.; Baldassarre, Antonello; Snyder, Abraham Z.

    2014-01-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to study brain networks associated with both normal and pathological cognitive function. The objective of this work is to reliably compute resting state network (RSN) topography in single participants. We trained a supervised classifier (multi-layer perceptron; MLP) to associate blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) correlation maps corresponding to pre-defined seeds with specific RSN identities. Hard classification of maps obtained from a priori seeds was highly reliable across new participants. Interestingly, continuous estimates of RSN membership retained substantial residual error. This result is consistent with the view that RSNs are hierarchically organized, and therefore not fully separable into spatially independent components. After training on a priori seed-based maps, we propagated voxel-wise correlation maps through the MLP to produce estimates of RSN membership throughout the brain. The MLP generated RSN topography estimates in individuals consistent with previous studies, even in brain regions not represented in the training data. This method could be used in future studies to relate RSN topography to other measures of functional brain organization (e.g., task-evoked responses, stimulation mapping, and deficits associated with lesions) in individuals. The multi-layer perceptron was directly compared to two alternative voxel classification procedures, specifically, dual regression and linear discriminant analysis; the perceptron generated more spatially specific RSN maps than either alternative. PMID:23735260

  19. Human activity and rest in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roenneberg, Till; Keller, Lena K; Fischer, Dorothee; Matera, Joana L; Vetter, Céline; Winnebeck, Eva C

    2015-01-01

    Our lives are structured by the daily alternation of activity and rest, of wake and sleep. Despite significant advances in circadian and sleep research, we still lack answers to many of the most fundamental questions about this conspicuous behavioral pattern. We strongly believe that investigating this pattern in entrained conditions, real-life and daily contexts-in situ-will help the field to elucidate some of these central questions. Here, we present two common approaches for in situ investigation of human activity and rest: the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ) and actimetry. In the first half of this chapter, we provide detailed instructions on how to use and interpret the MCTQ. In addition, we give an overview of the main insights gained with this instrument over the past 10 years, including some new findings on the interaction of light and age on sleep timing. In the second half of this chapter, we introduce the reader to the method of actimetry and share our experience in basic analysis techniques, including visualization, smoothing, and cosine model fitting of in situ recorded data. Additionally, we describe our new approach to automatically detect sleep from activity recordings. Our vision is that the broad use of such easy techniques in real-life settings combined with automated analyses will lead to the creation of large databases. The resulting power of big numbers will promote our understanding of such fundamental biological phenomena as sleep. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. "Therapeutic" bed rest in pregnancy: unethical and unsupported by data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Christina A; Grimes, David A; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2013-06-01

    "Therapeutic" bed rest continues to be used widely, despite evidence of no benefit and known harms. In this commentary, we summarize the Cochrane reviews of bed rest and propose an ethical argument for discontinuing this practice. Cochrane systematic reviews do not support "therapeutic" bed rest for threatened abortion, hypertension, preeclampsia, preterm birth, multiple gestations, or impaired fetal growth. This assessment has been echoed in other comprehensive reviews. Prescribing bed rest is inconsistent with the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, and justice. Hence, if bed rest is to be used, it should be only within a formal clinical trial.

  1. The Ensembl REST API: Ensembl Data for Any Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Andrew; Beal, Kathryn; Keenan, Stephen; McLaren, William; Pignatelli, Miguel; Ritchie, Graham R S; Ruffier, Magali; Taylor, Kieron; Vullo, Alessandro; Flicek, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We present a Web service to access Ensembl data using Representational State Transfer (REST). The Ensembl REST server enables the easy retrieval of a wide range of Ensembl data by most programming languages, using standard formats such as JSON and FASTA while minimizing client work. We also introduce bindings to the popular Ensembl Variant Effect Predictor tool permitting large-scale programmatic variant analysis independent of any specific programming language. The Ensembl REST API can be accessed at http://rest.ensembl.org and source code is freely available under an Apache 2.0 license from http://github.com/Ensembl/ensembl-rest. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. REST represses a subset of the pancreatic endocrine differentiation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, David; Kim, Yung-Hae; Sever, Dror

    2015-01-01

    in neurons and in endocrine cells, which is necessary for their normal function. During development, REST represses a subset of genes in the neuronal differentiation program and Rest is down-regulated as neurons differentiate. Here, we investigate the role of REST in the differentiation of pancreatic...... endocrine cells, which are molecularly close to neurons. We show that Rest is widely expressed in pancreas progenitors and that it is down-regulated in differentiated endocrine cells. Sustained expression of REST in Pdx1(+) progenitors impairs the differentiation of endocrine-committed Neurog3...

  3. Resting site use of giant pandas in Wanglang Nature Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dongwei; Wang, Xiaorong; Li, Junqing

    2017-10-23

    Little is known about the resting sites used by the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), which restricts our understanding of their resting habits and limits conservation efforts. To enhance our understanding of resting site requirements and factors affecting the resting time of giant pandas, we investigated the characteristics of resting sites in the Wanglang Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province, China. The results indicated that the resting sites of giant pandas were characterised by a mean slope of 21°, mean nearest tree size of 53.75 cm, mean nearest shrub size of 2.82 cm, and mean nearest bamboo number of 56. We found that the resting sites were closer to bamboo than to trees and shrubs, suggesting that the resting site use of giant pandas is closely related to the presence of bamboo. Considering that giant pandas typically rest near a large-sized tree, protection of large trees in the forests is of considerable importance for the conservation of this species. Furthermore, slope was found to be an important factor affecting the resting time of giant pandas, as they tended to rest for a relatively longer time in sites with a smaller degree of slope.

  4. Ultrasound follow up of testicular adrenal rest tumors with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Report of three cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Dong Won; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Nam, Kyung Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Dong-A University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    While testicular adrenal rest tumor is generally a rare intratesticular tumor, it is frequent in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The tumors are diagnosed and followed up by ultrasound examination because these tumors are non-palpable and symptomless in most cases and always benign. Ultrasound imaging features change depending on how congenital adrenal hyperplasia is controlled. We herein report three cases of testicular adrenal rest tumors with different usual and unusual imaging findings and follow-up imaging. Patient 1 was a 14-year-old boy who presented with poor compliance to medication. Patient 2 and 3 were a 10-year-old and 13-year-old boy who presented with precocious puberty and short stature, respectively. Ultrasound examinations demonstrated oval hypoechoic masses and irregular speculated hyperechoic masses in the testes and different serial imaging findings.

  5. Ultrasound follow up of testicular adrenal rest tumors with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Report of three cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Dong Won; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Nam, Kyung Jin

    2014-01-01

    While testicular adrenal rest tumor is generally a rare intratesticular tumor, it is frequent in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The tumors are diagnosed and followed up by ultrasound examination because these tumors are non-palpable and symptomless in most cases and always benign. Ultrasound imaging features change depending on how congenital adrenal hyperplasia is controlled. We herein report three cases of testicular adrenal rest tumors with different usual and unusual imaging findings and follow-up imaging. Patient 1 was a 14-year-old boy who presented with poor compliance to medication. Patient 2 and 3 were a 10-year-old and 13-year-old boy who presented with precocious puberty and short stature, respectively. Ultrasound examinations demonstrated oval hypoechoic masses and irregular speculated hyperechoic masses in the testes and different serial imaging findings

  6. Definitions of mass in special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, M.A.B.

    1976-01-01

    Reference is made to the textbook on special relativity by Taylor and Wheeler (Space-time Physics. San Francisco. W H Freeman) in which the concept of relativistic mass is not used but momentum and energy are defined as γm 0 ν and γm 0 c 2 . The two approaches are compared and the particular problem of inelastic collisions between two particles with zero coefficient of restitution is used to demonstrate that the Taylor Wheeler definition of the rest mass of a system may lead to lack of clarity of thought, and even error. Alternative definitions of the rest mass of a system are proposed. (U.K.)

  7. Combined effects of air temperature, wind, and radiation on the resting metabolism of avian raptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, S.R.

    1978-01-01

    American kestrels, Falco sparverius; red-tailed hawks, Buteo jamaicensis; and golden eagles, Aquila chrysaetos, were perched in a wind tunnel and subjected to various combinations of air temperature, wind, and radiation. Oxygen consumption was measured under the various combinations of environmental variables, and multiple regression equations were developed to predict resting metabolism as a function of body mass, air temperature, wind speed, and radiation load

  8. Search for resonance structures in inclusive charged pion spectra from p-barp annihilation at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelopoulos, A.; Apostolakis, A.; Papaelias, P.

    1985-01-01

    The charged pion momentum spectra from p-barp annihilation at rest have been measured with high statistics. A search for structures finds four narrow lines which are identified with the absorption and decay processes of kaons stopping in the target. Limits of 1-6 x 10 -4 /p-bar (90% C.L.) are placed on the yield of a narrow state in the mass range 1000--1660 MeV

  9. A comparison of resting images from two myocardial perfusion tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anagnostopoulos, C.; Laney, R.; Pennell, D.; Proukakis, H.; Underwood, R.

    1995-01-01

    We have compared stress-redistribution and delayed rest thallium-201 with rest technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) tomograms in order to compare the tracers for the assessment of myocardial viability and to validate a rapid protocol combining the two tracers. We studied 30 consecutive patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease [group 1: 16 with normal left ventricular function, mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 55%, SD 6%; group 2: 14 with abnormal function, mean LVEF 28%, SD 8%]. 201 Tl was injected during infusion of adenosine followed by acquisition of conventional stress and redistribution tomograms. On a separate day, 201 Tl was injected at rest with imaging 4 h later. 99m Tc-MIBI was then given at rest and imaging was performed. Three images were compared: redistribution 201 Tl, rest 201 Tl, and rest 99m Tc-MIBI. Tracer activity was classified visually and quantitatively in nine segments and segments with>50% activity were defined as containing clinically significant viable myocardium. Mean global tracer uptake as a percentage of maximum was similar in group 1 (rest 201 Tl 69%±12%, redistribution 201 Tl 69%±15%, rest 99m Tc-MIBI 70%±13%), but in group 2 mean tracer uptake was significantly greater in the rest 201 Tl images (59%±16%) than in redistribution 201 Tl images (53%±17%) or rest 99m Tc-MIBI images (53%±19%). Overall agreement for regional uptake score was excellent (κ from 0.79 to 0.84), although there were a significant number of segments with less uptake shown by redistribution 201 Tl and by rest 99m Tc-MIBI than by rest 201 Tl in group 2. The number of segments with significant viable myocardium in group 1 was very similar between the three images but in group 2 rest 201 Tl identified significantly more segments as viable than the other images. (orig./MG) (orig.). With 1 fig., 7 tabs

  10. Resting eggs in free living marine and estuarine copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Mark Wejlemann; Kiørboe, Thomas; Brun, Philipp Georg

    2018-01-01

    Marine free living copepods can survive harsh periods and cope with seasonal fluctuations in environmental conditions using resting eggs (embryonic dormancy). Laboratory experiments show that temperature is the common driver for resting egg production. Hence, we hypothesize (i) that seasonal...... temperature variation, rather than variation in food abundance is the main driver for the occurrence of the resting eggs strategy in marine and estuarine copepod species; and (ii) that the thermal boundaries of the distribution determine where resting eggs are produced and whether they are produced to cope...... with warm or cold periods. We compile literature information on the occurrence of resting egg production and relate this to spatio-temporal patterns in sea surface temperature and chlorophyll a concentration obtained from satellite observations. We find that the production of resting eggs has been reported...

  11. Rest but busy: Aberrant resting-state functional connectivity of triple network model in insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaojuan; Qin, Haixia; Wu, Taoyu; Hu, Hua; Liao, Keren; Cheng, Fei; Gao, Dong; Lei, Xu

    2018-02-01

    One classical hypothesis among many models to explain the etiology and maintenance of insomnia disorder (ID) is hyperarousal. Aberrant functional connectivity among resting-state large-scale brain networks may be the underlying neurological mechanisms of this hypothesis. The aim of current study was to investigate the functional network connectivity (FNC) among large-scale brain networks in patients with insomnia disorder (ID) during resting state. In the present study, the resting-state fMRI was used to evaluate whether patients with ID showed aberrant FNC among dorsal attention network (DAN), frontoparietal control network (FPC), anterior default mode network (aDMN), and posterior default mode network (pDMN) compared with healthy good sleepers (HGSs). The Pearson's correlation analysis was employed to explore whether the abnormal FNC observed in patients with ID was associated with sleep parameters, cognitive and emotional scores, and behavioral performance assessed by questionnaires and tasks. Patients with ID had worse subjective thought control ability measured by Thought Control Ability Questionnaire (TCAQ) and more negative affect than HGSs. Intriguingly, relative to HGSs, patients with ID showed a significant increase in FNC between DAN and FPC, but a significant decrease in FNC between aDMN and pDMN. Exploratory analysis in patients with ID revealed a significantly positive correlation between the DAN-FPC FNC and reaction time (RT) of psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). The current study demonstrated that even during the resting state, the task-activated and task-deactivated large-scale brain networks in insomniacs may still maintain a hyperarousal state, looking quite similar to the pattern in a task condition with external stimuli. Those results support the hyperarousal model of insomnia.

  12. From "rest" to language task: Task activation selects and prunes from broader resting-state network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Gaelle E; He, Xiaosong; Sperling, Michael R; Sharan, Ashwini; Tracy, Joseph I

    2017-05-01

    Resting-state networks (RSNs) show spatial patterns generally consistent with networks revealed during cognitive tasks. However, the exact degree of overlap between these networks has not been clearly quantified. Such an investigation shows promise for decoding altered functional connectivity (FC) related to abnormal language functioning in clinical populations such as temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In this context, we investigated the network configurations during a language task and during resting state using FC. Twenty-four healthy controls, 24 right and 24 left TLE patients completed a verb generation (VG) task and a resting-state fMRI scan. We compared the language network revealed by the VG task with three FC-based networks (seeding the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC)/Broca): two from the task (ON, OFF blocks) and one from the resting state. We found that, for both left TLE patients and controls, the RSN recruited regions bilaterally, whereas both VG-on and VG-off conditions produced more left-lateralized FC networks, matching more closely with the activated language network. TLE brings with it variability in both task-dependent and task-independent networks, reflective of atypical language organization. Overall, our findings suggest that our RSN captured bilateral activity, reflecting a set of prepotent language regions. We propose that this relationship can be best understood by the notion of pruning or winnowing down of the larger language-ready RSN to carry out specific task demands. Our data suggest that multiple types of network analyses may be needed to decode the association between language deficits and the underlying functional mechanisms altered by disease. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2540-2552, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Ahmed

    MOTION OF PARTICLES OF NON-ZERO REST MASSES EXTERIOR TO ASTROPHYSICALLY ... of Physics should be generally covariant, the effect of which physical ... origin (Howosu 2007) and contain Newton's equations of motion in the.

  14. Orbits in general relativity: the Jacobian elliptic function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miro Rodriguez, C

    1987-03-11

    The Jacobian elliptic functions are applied to the motion of nonzero-rest-mass particles in the Schwarzschild geometry. The bound and unbound trajectories are analysed together with their classical and special-relativity limits.

  15. The Effects of Long Duration Bed Rest on Functional Mobility and Balance: Relationship to Resting State Motor Cortex Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdeniz, B.; Koppelmans, V.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Kofman, I. S.; DeDios, Y. E.; Riascos-Castaneda, R. F.; Wood, S. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Seidler, R. D.

    2014-01-01

    NASA offers researchers from a variety of backgrounds the opportunity to study bed rest as an experimental analog for space flight. Extended exposure to a head-down tilt position during long duration bed rest can resemble many of the effects of a low-gravity environment such as reduced sensory inputs, body unloading and increased cephalic fluid distribution. The aim of our study is to a) identify changes in brain function that occur with prolonged bed rest and characterize their recovery time course; b) assess whether and how these changes impact behavioral and neurocognitive performance. Thus far, we completed data collection from six participants that include task based and resting state fMRI. The data have been acquired through the bed rest facility located at the University of Texas Medical Branch (Galveston, TX). Subjects remained in bed with their heads tilted down 6 degrees below their feet for 70 consecutive days. Behavioral measures and neuroimaging assessments were obtained at seven time points: a) 7 and 12 days before bed rest; b) 7, 30, and 65 days during bed rest; and c) 7 and 12 days after bed rest. Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (FcMRI) analysis was performed to assess the connectivity of motor cortex in and out of bed rest. We found a decrease in motor cortex connectivity with vestibular cortex and the cerebellum from pre bed rest to in bed rest. We also used a battery of behavioral measures including the functional mobility test and computerized dynamic posturography collected before and after bed rest. We will report the preliminary results of analyses relating brain and behavior changes. Furthermore, we will also report the preliminary results of a spatial working memory task and vestibular stimulation during in and out of bed rest.

  16. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy and left ventricular function at rest in patients with rest angina pectoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakki, A.H.; Iskandrian, A.S.; Kane, S.A.; Amenta, A.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the rest thallium-201 perfusion pattern during angina-free periods in 40 patients with rest angina pectoris secondary to coronary artery disease (greater than or equal to 70% diameter narrowing). Seventeen patients had previous Q wave myocardial infarction. The perfusion defects were considered fixed or reversible, depending on the absence or presence of redistribution in the 4-hour delayed images. There were 40 perfusion defects (26 fixed and 14 reversible) in 27 patients whereas 13 patients had normal scans. Reversible perfusion defects were present in 10 patients (25%). Of the 26 fixed perfusion defects, 17 did not have corresponding Q waves. Occluded vessels (63%) had more perfusion defects than vessels with subtotal occlusion (30%) (p less than 0.01). The perfusion defect size was larger in patients with lower ejection fraction than in patients with higher ejection fraction. We conclude: (1) perfusion defects are common in patients with rest angina and are reversible in 25% of patients indicating reduced regional coronary blood flow; (2) the degree of stenosis affects the presence of perfusion defect; (3) fixed defects may be present without corresponding Q waves; and (4) global left ventricular function is related to the size of perfusion defects

  17. Efficiency at rest: magnetoencephalographic resting-state connectivity and individual differences in verbal working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Río, David; Cuesta, Pablo; Bajo, Ricardo; García-Pacios, Javier; López-Higes, Ramón; del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestú, Fernando

    2012-11-01

    Inter-individual differences in cognitive performance are based on an efficient use of task-related brain resources. However, little is known yet on how these differences might be reflected on resting-state brain networks. Here we used Magnetoencephalography resting-state recordings to assess the relationship between a behavioral measurement of verbal working memory and functional connectivity as measured through Mutual Information. We studied theta (4-8 Hz), low alpha (8-10 Hz), high alpha (10-13 Hz), low beta (13-18 Hz) and high beta (18-30 Hz) frequency bands. A higher verbal working memory capacity was associated with a lower mutual information in the low alpha band, prominently among right-anterior and left-lateral sensors. The results suggest that an efficient brain organization in the domain of verbal working memory might be related to a lower resting-state functional connectivity across large-scale brain networks possibly involving right prefrontal and left perisylvian areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Resting states are resting traits--an FMRI study of sex differences and menstrual cycle effects in resting state cognitive control networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelmervik, Helene; Hausmann, Markus; Osnes, Berge; Westerhausen, René; Specht, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    To what degree resting state fMRI is stable or susceptible to internal mind states of the individual is currently an issue of debate. To address this issue, the present study focuses on sex differences and investigates whether resting state fMRI is stable in men and women or changes within relative short-term periods (i.e., across the menstrual cycle). Due to the fact that we recently reported menstrual cycle effects on cognitive control based on data collected during the same sessions, the current study is particularly interested in fronto-parietal resting state networks. Resting state fMRI was measured in sixteen women during three different cycle phases (menstrual, follicular, and luteal). Fifteen men underwent three sessions in corresponding time intervals. We used independent component analysis to identify four fronto-parietal networks. The results showed sex differences in two of these networks with women exhibiting higher functional connectivity in general, including the prefrontal cortex. Menstrual cycle effects on resting states were non-existent. It is concluded that sex differences in resting state fMRI might reflect sexual dimorphisms in the brain rather than transitory activating effects of sex hormones on the functional connectivity in the resting brain.

  19. Developing RESTful web services with Jersey 2.0

    CERN Document Server

    Gulabani, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    The book will follow a standard tutorial approach and will teach readers how to use the Jersey API for creating RESTful web services.This book is intended for Java EE developers who are building applications on the REST architecture. This is a quick, hands-on guide for learning JAX-RS 2.0. Developers should have some knowledge about RESTful web services but it's not essential to know JAX-RS 1.0.

  20. Volunteer Work, Religious Commitment, and Resting Pulse Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal; Ironson, Gail; Hill, Peter C

    2017-04-01

    Research indicates that greater involvement in volunteer activities is associated with better health. We aim to contribute to this literature in two ways. First, rather than rely on self-reports of health, measured resting pulse rates serve as the dependent variable. Second, an effort is made to see if religious commitment moderates the relationship between volunteering and resting pulse rates. Data that come from a recent nationwide survey (N = 2265) suggest that volunteer work is associated with lower resting pulse rates. The results also reveal that the relationship between engaging in volunteer work and resting pulse rates improves among study participants who are more deeply committed to religion.

  1. Latent heat of traffic moving from rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzad Ahmadi, S.; Berrier, Austin S.; Doty, William M.; Greer, Pat G.; Habibi, Mohammad; Morgan, Hunter A.; Waterman, Josam H. C.; Abaid, Nicole; Boreyko, Jonathan B.

    2017-11-01

    Contrary to traditional thinking and driver intuition, here we show that there is no benefit to ground vehicles increasing their packing density at stoppages. By systematically controlling the packing density of vehicles queued at a traffic light on a Smart Road, drone footage revealed that the benefit of an initial increase in displacement for close-packed vehicles is completely offset by the lag time inherent to changing back into a ‘liquid phase’ when flow resumes. This lag is analogous to the thermodynamic concept of the latent heat of fusion, as the ‘temperature’ (kinetic energy) of the vehicles cannot increase until the traffic ‘melts’ into the liquid phase. These findings suggest that in situations where gridlock is not an issue, drivers should not decrease their spacing during stoppages in order to lessen the likelihood of collisions with no loss in flow efficiency. In contrast, motion capture experiments of a line of people walking from rest showed higher flow efficiency with increased packing densities, indicating that the importance of latent heat becomes trivial for slower moving systems.

  2. Comparison of stress-rest and rest-stress one day myocardial perfusion scintigraphies in detecting coronary artery diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bom, Hee Seung; Min, Jung Jun; Song, Ho Cheon; Kim, Ji Yeul

    1997-01-01

    It has been shown that both rest and stress myocardial perfusion imaging with technetium agents can be performed on the same day using two different doses injected within few hours. The purpose of this study was to compare the two protocols (stress-rest and rest-stress) in detecting coronary artery diseases. One hundred and sixty patients (101 males, 59 females, mean age 57±9 years) and 120 patients (79 males, 41 females, mean age 59±10 years) underwent stress-rest myocardial perfusion SPECT and rest-stress myocardial perfusion SPECT, respectively. All of them underwent both myocardial perfusion SPECT and coronary angiography within 1 month. A coronary stenosis was considered significant when it compromised the luminal diameter by ≥50%. The chi square test was used to compare differences in sensitivity, specificity and accuracy between the two groups. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of stress-rest protocol were 99%, 35% and 68%, respectively. Those of rest-stress protocol were 96%, 47% and 78%, respectively. There was no difference between the two protocols in identifying individual diseased coronary artery branches. Therefore, one day stress-rest and rest-stress myocardial SPECT using 99m Tc agents were comparable and were very sensitive tests in detecting coronary artery diseases

  3. A novel lunar bed rest analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Peter R; Rice, Andrea J; Licata, Angelo A; Kuklis, Matthew M; Novotny, Sara C; Genc, Kerim O; Englehaupt, Ricki K; Hanson, Andrea M

    2013-11-01

    Humans will eventually return to the Moon and thus there is a need for a ground-based analogue to enable the study of physiological adaptations to lunar gravity. An important unanswered question is whether or not living on the lunar surface will provide adequate loading of the musculoskeletal system to prevent or attenuate the bone loss that is seen in microgravity. Previous simulations have involved tilting subjects to an approximately 9.5 degrees angle to achieve a lunar gravity component parallel to the long-axis of the body. However, subjects in these earlier simulations were not weight-bearing, and thus these protocols did not provide an analogue for load on the musculoskeletal system. We present a novel analogue which includes the capability to simulate standing and sitting in a lunar loading environment. A bed oriented at a 9.5 degrees angle was mounted on six linear bearings and was free to travel with one degree of freedom along rails. This allowed approximately 1/6 body weight loading of the feet during standing. "Lunar" sitting was also successfully simulated. A feasibility study demonstrated that the analogue was tolerated by subjects for 6 d of continuous bed rest and that the reaction forces at the feet during periods of standing were a reasonable simulation of lunar standing. During the 6 d, mean change in the volume of the quadriceps muscles was -1.6% +/- 1.7%. The proposed analogue would appear to be an acceptable simulation of lunar gravity and deserves further exploration in studies of longer duration.

  4. Resting state functional connectivity predicts neurofeedback response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin eScheinost

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tailoring treatments to the specific needs and biology of individual patients – personalized medicine – requires delineation of reliable predictors of response. Unfortunately, these have been slow to emerge, especially in neuropsychiatric disorders. We have recently described a real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI neurofeedback protocol that can reduce contamination-related anxiety, a prominent symptom of many cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Individual response to this intervention is variable. Here we used patterns of brain functional connectivity, as measured by baseline resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI, to predict improvements in contamination anxiety after neurofeedback training. Activity of a region of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC and anterior prefrontal cortex, Brodmann area (BA 10, associated with contamination anxiety in each subject was measured in real time and presented as a neurofeedback signal, permitting subjects to learn to modulate this target brain region. We have previously reported both enhanced OFC/BA 10 control and improved anxiety in a group of subclinically anxious subjects after neurofeedback. Five individuals with contamination-related OCD who underwent the same protocol also showed improved clinical symptomatology. In both groups, these behavioral improvements were strongly correlated with baseline whole-brain connectivity in the OFC/BA 10, computed from rs-fMRI collected several days prior to neurofeedback training. These pilot data suggest that rs-fMRI can be used to identify individuals likely to benefit from rt-fMRI neurofeedback training to control contamination anxiety.

  5. Atypical Laterality of Resting Gamma Oscillations in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Christina R.; Villalobos, Michele E.; Schultz, Robert T.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Kohls, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal brain oscillatory activity has been found in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and proposed as a potential biomarker. While several studies have investigated gamma oscillations in ASD, none have examined resting gamma power across multiple brain regions. This study investigated resting gamma power using EEG in 15 boys with ASD and 18 age…

  6. Rest tremor in idiopathic adult-onset dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigante, A F; Berardelli, A; Defazio, G

    2016-05-01

    Tremor in dystonia has been described as a postural or kinetic abnormality. In recent series, however, patients with idiopathic adult-onset dystonia also displayed rest tremor. The frequency and distribution of rest tremor were studied in a cohort of 173 consecutive Italian patients affected by various forms of idiopathic adult-onset dystonia attending our movement disorder clinic over 8 months. Examination revealed tremor in 59/173 patients (34%): 12 patients had head tremor, 34 patients had arm tremor, whilst 13 patients presented tremor in both sites. Head tremor was postural in all patients, whereas arm tremor was postural/kinetic in 28 patients, only at rest in one and both postural/kinetic and at rest in 18 patients. Patients with tremor were more likely to have segmental/multifocal dystonia. Patients who had rest tremor (either alone or associated with action tremor) had a higher age at dystonia onset and a greater frequency of dystonic arm involvement than patients with action tremor alone or without tremor. Both action and rest tremor are part of the tremor spectrum of adult-onset dystonia and are more frequently encountered in segmental/multifocal dystonia. The higher age at dystonia onset and the greater frequency of arm dystonia in patients with rest tremor may have pathophysiological implications and may account, at least in part, for the previous lack of identification of rest tremor as one possible type of tremor present in dystonia. © 2016 EAN.

  7. Identification of Resting State Networks Involved in Executive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Joanna; McNulty, Jonathan P; Boran, Lorraine; Roche, Richard A P; Delany, David; Bokde, Arun L W

    2016-06-01

    The structural networks in the human brain are consistent across subjects, and this is reflected also in that functional networks across subjects are relatively consistent. These findings are not only present during performance of a goal oriented task but there are also consistent functional networks during resting state. It suggests that goal oriented activation patterns may be a function of component networks identified using resting state. The current study examines the relationship between resting state networks measured and patterns of neural activation elicited during a Stroop task. The association between the Stroop-activated networks and the resting state networks was quantified using spatial linear regression. In addition, we investigated if the degree of spatial association of resting state networks with the Stroop task may predict performance on the Stroop task. The results of this investigation demonstrated that the Stroop activated network can be decomposed into a number of resting state networks, which were primarily associated with attention, executive function, visual perception, and the default mode network. The close spatial correspondence between the functional organization of the resting brain and task-evoked patterns supports the relevance of resting state networks in cognitive function.

  8. Restful Implementation of Catalogue Service for Geospatial Data Provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L. C.; Yue, P.; Lu, X. C.

    2013-10-01

    Provenance, also known as lineage, is important in understanding the derivation history of data products. Geospatial data provenance helps data consumers to evaluate the quality and reliability of geospatial data. In a service-oriented environment, where data are often consumed or produced by distributed services, provenance could be managed by following the same service-oriented paradigm. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Catalogue Service for the Web (CSW) is used for the registration and query of geospatial data provenance by extending ebXML Registry Information Model (ebRIM). Recent advance of the REpresentational State Transfer (REST) paradigm has shown great promise for the easy integration of distributed resources. RESTful Web Service aims to provide a standard way for Web clients to communicate with servers based on REST principles. The existing approach for provenance catalogue service could be improved by adopting the RESTful design. This paper presents the design and implementation of a catalogue service for geospatial data provenance following RESTful architecture style. A middleware named REST Converter is added on the top of the legacy catalogue service to support a RESTful style interface. The REST Converter is composed of a resource request dispatcher and six resource handlers. A prototype service is developed to demonstrate the applicability of the approach.

  9. A REST-ful interpretation for embedded modular systems based on open architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyke, James

    2016-05-01

    The much-anticipated revolution of the "Internet of things" (IoT) is expected to generate one trillion internet devices within the next 15 years, mostly in the form of simple wireless sensor devices. While this revolution promises to transform silicon markets and drive a number of disruptive changes in society, it is also the case that the protocols, complexity, and security issues of extremely large dynamic, co-mingled networks is still poorly understood. Furthermore, embedded system developers, to include military and aerospace users, have largely ignored the potential (good and bound) of the cloudlike, possibly intermingling networks having variable structure to how future systems might be engineered. In this paper, we consider a new interpretation of IoT inspired modular architecture strategies involving the representational state transfer (REST) model, in which dynamic networks with variable structure employ stateless application programming interface (API) concepts. The power of the method, which extends concepts originally developed for space plug-and-play avionics, is that it allows for the fluid co-mingling of hardware and software in networks whose structure can overlap and evolve. Paradoxically, these systems may have the most stringent determinism and fault-tolerant needs. In this paper we review how RESTful APIs can potentially be used to design, create, test, and deploy systems rapidly while addressing security and referential integrity even when the nodes of many systems might physically co-mingle. We will also explore ways to take advantage of the RESTful paradigm for fault tolerance and what extensions might be necessary to deal with high-performance and determinism.

  10. Cognitive and default-mode resting state networks: do male and female brains "rest" differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman-Fogel, Irit; Moayedi, Massieh; Taylor, Keri S; Pope, Geoff; Davis, Karen D

    2010-11-01

    Variability in human behavior related to sex is supported by neuroimaging studies showing differences in brain activation patterns during cognitive task performance. An emerging field is examining the human connectome, including networks of brain regions that are not only temporally-correlated during different task conditions, but also networks that show highly correlated spontaneous activity during a task-free state. Both task-related and task-free network activity has been associated with individual task performance and behavior under certain conditions. Therefore, our aim was to determine whether sex differences exist during a task-free resting state for two networks associated with cognitive task performance (executive control network (ECN), salience network (SN)) and the default mode network (DMN). Forty-nine healthy subjects (26 females, 23 males) underwent a 5-min task-free fMRI scan in a 3T MRI. An independent components analysis (ICA) was performed to identify the best-fit IC for each network based on specific spatial nodes defined in previous studies. To determine the consistency of these networks across subjects we performed self-organizing group-level ICA analyses. There were no significant differences between sexes in the functional connectivity of the brain areas within the ECN, SN, or the DMN. These important findings highlight the robustness of intrinsic connectivity of these resting state networks and their similarity between sexes. Furthermore, our findings suggest that resting state fMRI studies do not need to be controlled for sex. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Texture one zero Dirac neutrino mass matrix with vanishing determinant or trace condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Madan

    2018-06-01

    In the light of non-zero and relatively large value of rector mixing angle (θ13), we have performed a detailed analysis of texture one zero neutrino mass matrix Mν in the scenario of vanishing determinant/trace conditions, assuming the Dirac nature of neutrinos. In both the scenarios, normal mass ordering is ruled out for all the six possibilities of Mν, however for inverted mass ordering, only two are found to be viable with the current neutrino oscillation data at 3σ confidence level. Numerical and some approximate analytical results are presented.

  12. Stress/Rest Tc-99m-MIBI SPECT in Comparison with Rest/Stress Rubidium - 82 PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. S.; Kamg, K. W.; Lee, K. H.; Jeong, J. M.; Kwark, C. E.; Chung, J. K.; Lee, M.C.; Seo, J. D.; Koh, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    We compared stress/rest myocardial Tc-99m-MIBI tomographic image findings with rest/stress rubidium-82 tomographic images. In 23 patients with coronary artery disease (12 of them received bypass grafts before) and 6 normal subjects, rest rubidium PET study was performed, rubidium-82 and Tc-99m-MIBI were injected simultaneously to each patient after dipyridamole stress for rubidium PET and MIBI SPECT; and rest MIBI SPECT was performed 4 hours thereafter. We scored segmental decrease of rubidium, or MIBI uptakes into 5 grades for 29 segments from 3 short-axis, vertical and horizontal slices. Scores were summed for each major arterial territory. When more score than two grade-2's or one grade-3 was considered as the cue for significant stenosis for major arterial territories, 67% of 46 stenosed arteries were found with MIBI studies and 78% of them by rubidium studies. Fourteen among 28 grafted arterial territories of 12 post-CABG patients were found normal with both rubidium and MIBI. Segmental scores were concordant between rubidium and MIBI in 72% of 709-stress segments and in 80% of 825 rest segments. Stress rubidium segmental scores were less than stress MIBI scores in 9%, so were rest rubidium scores. Stress rubidium scores were more than stress MIBI scores in 20% of segments, and rest rubidium segmental scores were more than rest MIBI scores in 11%. Rank correlations (Spearman's rho's more than 0.7(stress) and 0.5(rest), slopes (MIBI/rubidium) around 0.7(stress) and 0.9(rest) suggested deeper and wider defects in stress with rubidium. Slope over 1 (MIBI/rubidium) with LAD segmental scores at rest and 7 territories which had much larger score with MIBI revealed exaggeration of rest defects with rest MIBI in same-day stress/rest study. Difference scores (stress-rest for each territory) suggesting ischemia were larger with rubidium (slope of MIBI/rubidium around 0.45). As has been implied by animal or separate-day- human studies, these segmental analyses with

  13. Can the graviton have a large mass near black holes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Shuang-Yong

    2018-04-01

    The mass of the graviton, if nonzero, is usually considered to be very small, e.g., of the Hubble scale, from several observational constraints. In this paper, we propose a gravity model where the graviton mass is very small in the usual weak gravity environments, below all the current graviton mass bounds, but becomes much larger in the strong gravity regime such as a black hole's vicinity. For black holes in this model, significant deviations from general relativity emerge very close to the black hole horizon and alter the black hole quasinormal modes, which can be extracted from the ringdown wave form of black hole binary mergers. Also, the enhancement of the graviton mass near the horizon can result in echoes in the late-time ringdown, which can be verified in the upcoming gravitational wave observations of higher sensitivity.

  14. Meson masses in electromagnetic fields with Wilson fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, G. S.; Brandt, B. B.; Endrődi, G.; Gläßle, B.

    2018-02-01

    We determine the light meson spectrum in QCD in the presence of background magnetic fields using quenched Wilson fermions. Our continuum extrapolated results indicate a monotonous reduction of the connected neutral pion mass as the magnetic field grows. The vector meson mass is found to remain nonzero, a finding relevant for the conjectured ρ -meson condensation at strong magnetic fields. The continuum extrapolation was facilitated by adding a novel magnetic field-dependent improvement term to the additive quark mass renormalization. Without this term, sizable lattice artifacts that would deceptively indicate an unphysical rise of the connected neutral pion mass for strong magnetic fields are present. We also investigate the impact of these lattice artifacts on further observables like magnetic polarizabilities and discuss the magnetic field-induced mixing between ρ -mesons and pions. We also derive Ward-Takashi identities for QCD +QED both in the continuum formulation and for (order a -improved) Wilson fermions.

  15. High peripheral temperatures in king penguins while resting at sea: thermoregulation versus fat deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewden, Agnès; Enstipp, Manfred R; Picard, Baptiste; van Walsum, Tessa; Handrich, Yves

    2017-09-01

    Marine endotherms living in cold water face an energetically challenging situation. Unless properly insulated, these animals will lose heat rapidly. The field metabolic rate of king penguins at sea is about twice that on land. However, when at sea, their metabolic rate is higher during extended resting periods at the surface than during foraging, when birds descend to great depth in pursuit of their prey. This is most likely explained by differences in thermal status. During foraging, peripheral vasoconstriction leads to a hypothermic shell, which is rewarmed during extended resting bouts at the surface. Maintaining peripheral perfusion during rest in cold water, however, will greatly increase heat loss and, therefore, thermoregulatory costs. Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the maintenance of a normothermic shell during surface rest: (1) to help the unloading of N 2 accumulated during diving; and (2) to allow the storage of fat in subcutaneous tissue, following the digestion of food. We tested the latter hypothesis by maintaining king penguins within a shallow seawater tank, while we recorded tissue temperature at four distinct sites. When king penguins were released into the tank during the day, their body temperature immediately declined. However, during the night, periodic rewarming of abdominal and peripheral tissues occurred, mimicking temperature patterns observed in the wild. Body temperatures, particularly in the flank, also depended on body condition and were higher in 'lean' birds (after 10 days of fasting) than in 'fat' birds. While not explicitly tested, our observation that nocturnal rewarming persists in the absence of diving activity during the day does not support the N 2 unloading hypothesis. Rather, differences in temperature changes throughout the day and night, and the effect of body condition/mass supports the hypothesis that tissue perfusion during rest is required for nutritional needs. © 2017. Published by The Company of

  16. Snack food as a modulator of human resting-state functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Torrijos, Andrea; Kreitz, Silke; Ivan, Claudiu; Konerth, Laura; Rösch, Julie; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Moll, Gunther; Kratz, Oliver; Dörfler, Arnd; Horndasch, Stefanie; Hess, Andreas

    2018-04-04

    To elucidate the mechanisms of how snack foods may induce non-homeostatic food intake, we used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), as resting state networks can individually adapt to experience after short time exposures. In addition, we used graph theoretical analysis together with machine learning techniques (support vector machine) to identifying biomarkers that can categorize between high-caloric (potato chips) vs. low-caloric (zucchini) food stimulation. Seventeen healthy human subjects with body mass index (BMI) 19 to 27 underwent 2 different fMRI sessions where an initial resting state scan was acquired, followed by visual presentation of different images of potato chips and zucchini. There was then a 5-minute pause to ingest food (day 1=potato chips, day 3=zucchini), followed by a second resting state scan. fMRI data were further analyzed using graph theory analysis and support vector machine techniques. Potato chips vs. zucchini stimulation led to significant connectivity changes. The support vector machine was able to accurately categorize the 2 types of food stimuli with 100% accuracy. Visual, auditory, and somatosensory structures, as well as thalamus, insula, and basal ganglia were found to be important for food classification. After potato chips consumption, the BMI was associated with the path length and degree in nucleus accumbens, middle temporal gyrus, and thalamus. The results suggest that high vs. low caloric food stimulation in healthy individuals can induce significant changes in resting state networks. These changes can be detected using graph theory measures in conjunction with support vector machine. Additionally, we found that the BMI affects the response of the nucleus accumbens when high caloric food is consumed.

  17. Female thermal sensitivity to hot and cold during rest and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrett, Nicola; Ouzzahra, Yacine; Redortier, Bernard; Voelcker, Thomas; Havenith, George

    2015-12-01

    Regional differences in thermal sensation to a hot or cold stimulus are often limited to male participants, in a rested state and cover minimal locations. Therefore, magnitude sensation to both a hot and cold stimulus were investigated during rest and exercise in 8 females (age: 20.4 ± 1.4 years, mass: 61.7 ± 4.0 kg, height: 166.9 ± 5.4 cm, VO2max: 36.8 ± 4.5 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)). Using a repeated measures cross over design, participants rested in a stable environment (22.3 ± 0.9°C, 37.7 ± 5.5% RH) whilst a thermal probe (25 cm(2)), set at either 40°C or 20°C, was applied in a balanced order to 29 locations across the body. Participants reported their thermal sensation after 10s of application. Following this, participants cycled at 50% VO2max for 20 min and then 30% VO2max whilst the sensitivity test was repeated. Females experienced significantly stronger magnitude sensations to the cold than the hot stimulus (5.5 ± 1.7 and 4.3 ± 1.3, pcold stimulation (psensation was greatest at the head then the torso and declined towards the extremities. No significant effect of location was found in response to the hot stimulation and the pattern across the body was more homogenous. In comparison to rest, exercise caused a significant overall reduction in thermal sensation (5.2 ± 1.5 and 4.6 ± 1.7, respectively, p<0.05). Body maps were produced for both stimuli during rest and exercise, which highlight sensitive areas across the body. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of detomidine administered to horses at rest and after maximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, J A E; Sams, R A; Schmall, L M; Robertson, J T; Hinchcliff, K W; Muir, W W

    2009-05-01

    Increased doses of detomidine are required to produce sedation in horses after maximal exercise compared to calm or resting horses. To determine if the pharmacokinetics of detomidine in Thoroughbred horses are different when the drug is given during recuperation from a brief period of maximal exercise compared to administration at rest. Six Thoroughbred horses were preconditioned by exercising them on a treadmill. Each horse ran a simulated race at a treadmill speed that caused it to exercise at 120% of its maximal oxygen consumption. One minute after the end of exercise, horses were treated with detomidine. Each horse was treated with the same dose of detomidine on a second occasion a minimum of 14 days later while standing in a stocks. Samples of heparinised blood were obtained at various time points on both occasions. Plasma detomidine concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The plasma concentration vs. time data were analysed by nonlinear regression analysis. Median back-extrapolated time zero plasma concentration was significantly lower and median plasma half-life and median mean residence time were significantly longer when detomidine was administered after exercise compared to administration at rest. Median volume of distribution was significantly higher after exercise but median plasma clearance was not different between the 2 administrations. Detomidine i.v. is more widely distributed when administered to horses immediately after exercise compared to administration at rest resulting in lower peak plasma concentrations and a slower rate of elimination. The dose requirement to produce an equivalent effect may be higher in horses after exercise than in resting horses and less frequent subsequent doses may be required to produce a sustained effect.

  19. Lateral abdominal muscle size at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre in healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linek, Pawel; Saulicz, Edward; Wolny, Tomasz; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Kokosz, Mirosław

    2015-02-01

    Lateral abdominal wall muscles in children and adolescents have not been characterised to date. In the present report, we examined the reliability of the ultrasound measurement and thickness of the oblique external muscle (OE), oblique internal muscle (OI) and transverse abdominal muscle (TrA) at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre (ADIM) on both sides of the body in healthy adolescents. We also determined possible differences between boys and girls and defined any factors-such as body mass, height and BMI-that may affect the thickness of the abdominal muscles. B-mode ultrasound was used to assess OE, OI and TrA on both sides of the body in the supine position. Ultrasound measurements at rest and during ADIM were reliable in this age group (ICC3,3 > 0.92). OI was always the thickest and TrA the thinnest muscle on both sides of the body. In this group, an identical pattern of the contribution of the individual muscles to the structure of the lateral abdominal wall (OI > OE > TrA) was observed. At rest and during ADIM, no statistically significant side-to-side differences were demonstrated in either gender. The body mass constitutes between 30% and <50% of the thickness differences in all muscles under examination at rest and during ADIM. The structure of lateral abdominal wall in adolescents is similar to that of adults. During ADIM, the abdominal muscles in adolescents react similarly to those in adults. This study provided extensive information regarding the structure of the lateral abdominal wall in healthy adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Biomarkers of Dose and Effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Human controlled exposure studies have generally focused on subjects exposed to ozone (O3) while exercising while exposures in rats have been done at rest. We exposed resting subjects to labeled O3 (18O3, 0.4 ppm, for 2 hr) and compared O3 dose and effects with our...

  1. Building RESTful web services with Go learn how to build powerful RESTful APIs with Golang that scale gracefully

    CERN Document Server

    Yellavula, Naren

    2017-01-01

    REST is an architectural style that tackles the challenges of building scalable web services and in today's connected world, APIs have taken a central role on the web. APIs provide the fabric through which systems interact, and REST has become synonymous with APIs. The depth, breadth, and ease of use of Go, makes it a breeze for developers to ...

  2. Task vs. rest-different network configurations between the coactivation and the resting-state brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Xin; Gohel, Suril; Kim, Eun H; Biswal, Bharat B

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing interest in studies of human brain networks using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, it is unclear whether and how brain networks measured during the resting-state exhibit comparable properties to brain networks during task performance. In the present study, we investigated meta-analytic coactivation patterns among brain regions based upon published neuroimaging studies, and compared the coactivation network configurations with those in the resting-state network. The strength of resting-state functional connectivity between two regions were strongly correlated with the coactivation strength. However, the coactivation network showed greater global efficiency, smaller mean clustering coefficient, and lower modularity compared with the resting-state network, which suggest a more efficient global information transmission and between system integrations during task performing. Hub shifts were also observed within the thalamus and the left inferior temporal cortex. The thalamus and the left inferior temporal cortex exhibited higher and lower degrees, respectively in the coactivation network compared with the resting-state network. These results shed light regarding the reconfiguration of the brain networks between task and resting-state conditions, and highlight the role of the thalamus in change of network configurations in task vs. rest.

  3. Do resting brain dynamics predict oddball evoked-potential?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Tien-Wen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oddball paradigm is widely applied to the investigation of cognitive function in neuroscience and in neuropsychiatry. Whether cortical oscillation in the resting state can predict the elicited oddball event-related potential (ERP is still not clear. This study explored the relationship between resting electroencephalography (EEG and oddball ERPs. The regional powers of 18 electrodes across delta, theta, alpha and beta frequencies were correlated with the amplitude and latency of N1, P2, N2 and P3 components of oddball ERPs. A multivariate analysis based on partial least squares (PLS was applied to further examine the spatial pattern revealed by multiple correlations. Results Higher synchronization in the resting state, especially at the alpha spectrum, is associated with higher neural responsiveness and faster neural propagation, as indicated by the higher amplitude change of N1/N2 and shorter latency of P2. None of the resting quantitative EEG indices predict P3 latency and amplitude. The PLS analysis confirms that the resting cortical dynamics which explains N1/N2 amplitude and P2 latency does not show regional specificity, indicating a global property of the brain. Conclusions This study differs from previous approaches by relating dynamics in the resting state to neural responsiveness in the activation state. Our analyses suggest that the neural characteristics carried by resting brain dynamics modulate the earlier/automatic stage of target detection.

  4. REST-MapReduce: An Integrated Interface but Differentiated Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hyuk Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the fast deployment of cloud computing, MapReduce architectures are becoming the major technologies for mobile cloud computing. The concept of MapReduce was first introduced as a novel programming model and implementation for a large set of computing devices. In this research, we propose a novel concept of REST-MapReduce, enabling users to use only the REST interface without using the MapReduce architecture. This approach provides a higher level of abstraction by integration of the two types of access interface, REST API and MapReduce. The motivation of this research stems from the slower response time for accessing simple RDBMS on Hadoop than direct access to RDMBS. This is because there is overhead to job scheduling, initiating, starting, tracking, and management during MapReduce-based parallel execution. Therefore, we provide a good performance for REST Open API service and for MapReduce, respectively. This is very useful for constructing REST Open API services on Hadoop hosting services, for example, Amazon AWS (Macdonald, 2005 or IBM Smart Cloud. For evaluating performance of our REST-MapReduce framework, we conducted experiments with Jersey REST web server and Hadoop. Experimental result shows that our approach outperforms conventional approaches.

  5. Resting energy expenditure in girls with Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Gerhard; Frank, Laura; Ziegler, Julian; Blumenstock, Gunnar; Schweizer, Roland

    2017-03-01

    Knowledge concerning energy metabolism in Turner syndrome (TS) is lacking. We compared the resting energy expenditure per fat-free mass (REE/FFM) in TS with other girls with short stature treated with growth hormone (GH) and age-related controls. We measured prospectively REE by spirometry under fasting conditions in the morning in 85 short prepubertal girls at the start of GH treatment. Diagnoses were TS (n=20), GH deficiency (GHD) (n=38) and small for gestational age (SGA) short stature (n=27). Additionally, 20 age-related controls were studied. Mean ages were 8.3 (TS), 7.1 (GHD), 6.9 (SGA) and 8.5 years (controls). Mean heights were -2.90 (TS), -3.32 (GHD), -3.69 (SGA) and -0.03 standard deviation scores (SDS) (controls). FFM was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). At the start of GH girls with TS showed insignificantly higher REE per FFM (REE/FFM) (mean±SD; 65±9 kcal/kg×day) than did the other female patients (62±9 kcal/kg×day) (p>0.23). The healthy controls had significantly lower REE/FFM (35±4 kcal/kg×day) (p<0.001). Follow-up examination of the patients after 6 or 12 months revealed decreasing REE/FFM in TS (62±9 kcal/kg×day) resulting in comparable REE/FFM in all three patient groups. At baseline short girls with TS had insignificantly higher REE/FFM than short children with SGA or GHD, but in follow-up this difference was not detectable any more. Future studies are necessary to understand this observation.

  6. RestKit for iOS standard guide

    CERN Document Server

    Kalapun, Taras

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step, example-based guide to learning how you can link your apps and web services using RestKit.This book is for iOS developers of all levels who are interested in boosting their productivity by utilizing third party libraries and who have a willingness to learn how to build RESTful apps using the RestKit framework. A basic knowledge of Objective-C is required as well as a simple understanding of how to use CoreData.

  7. Resting technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile cardiac imaging in chronic coronary artery disease: comparison with rest-redistribution thallium-201 scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuocolo, A.; Maurea, S.; Pace, L.; Nicolai, E.; Nappi, A.; Imbriaco, M.; Trimarco, B.; Salvatore, M.

    1993-01-01

    We studied 19 patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction 33%±8%) by resting technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile ( 99m Tc-MIBI) and rest-redistribution thallium-201 cardiac imaging. Thallium and 99m Tc-MIBI studies were visually analysed. Of 285 segments, 203 (71%) had normal thallium uptake, 48 (17%) showed reversible thallium defects and 34 (12%) showed irreversible thallium defects. Of these 34 irreversible thallium defects, 19 (56%) were moderate and 15 (44%) were severe. Of the corresponding 285 segments, 200 (70%) had normal 99m Tc-MIBI uptake, while 37 (13%) showed moderate and 48 (17%) showed severe reduction of MIBI uptake. Myocardial segmental agreement for regional uptake score between initial thallium and resting 99m Tc-MIBI images was 90% (κ=0.78). Segmental agreement between delayed thallium and resting 99m Tc-MIBI images was 77% (κ=0.44). In particular, in 26 (9%) segments 99m Tc-MIBI uptake was severely reduced while delayed thallium uptake was normal or only moderately reduced. These data suggest that although rest-redistribution thallium and resting 99m Tc-MIBI cardiac imaging provide concordant results in the majority of myocardial segments, some segments with severely reduced resting 99m Tc-MIBI uptake may contain viable but hypoperfused myocardium. Thus, conclusions on myocardial viability based on 99m Tc-MIBI uptake should be made with caution in chronic coronary artery disease. (orig.)

  8. Direct search for neutrino mass and anomaly in the tritium beta-spectrum: Status of 'Troitsk neutrino mass' experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobashev, V.M.; Aseev, V.N.; Belesev, A.I.; Berlev, A.I.; Geraskin, E.V.; Golubev, A.A.; Kazachenko, O.V.; Kuznetsov, Yu.E.; Ostroumov, R.P.; Rivkis, L.A.; Stern, B.E.; Titov, N.A.; Zadoroghny, C.V.; Zakharov, Yu.I.

    2000-01-01

    Results of the 'Troitsk ν-mass' experiment on search for the neutrino rest mass in the tritium beta-decay are presented. New data on the time dependence of the anomalous, bump-like structure at the end of the beta spectrum reported earlier are discussed. Possible systematics is considered in view of contradiction of 'Troitsk nu-mass' observation with those of 'Mainz neutrino' set-up. An upper limit for electron antineutrino rest mass remains at m ν 2 at 95% C.L

  9. AgNOR Count in Resting Cells (Resting NOR Is a New Prognostic Marker in Invasive Bladder Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuro Tomobe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We have previously demonstrated that the AgNOR count in proliferating cells is a predictor of tumor recurrence in superficial bladder tumor (J. Urol. 162 (1999, 63–68. In the present study, we evaluate the type of AgNOR associated with cell cycles as a prognostic factor in invasive bladder tumor using a double staining technique employing both AgNOR and MIB-1 labelling. Materials and methods: Forty-four paraffin sections of invasive bladder tumors were stained simultaneously with AgNOR and MIB-1. The number of AgNORs in proliferating (MIB-1 positive or resting (MIB-1 negative cells were counted from a total of 100 nuclei. Correlations between MIB-1 associated AgNOR count and clinicopathological parameters were statistically analyzed. Results: The AgNOR count in proliferating cells (proliferating NOR was significantly higher than that in resting cells (resting NOR (p < 0.01. The resting NOR in tumors with distant metastases was significantly higher than that in tumors without metastases (p < 0.05. Patients with a low resting NOR tumor had a better prognosis than those with a high resting NOR tumor, whereas the proliferating NOR was not associated with survival. Survival analysis revealed that the resting NOR was the most powerful prognostic marker in patients with invasive bladder tumor (p < 0.05. Conclusions: Resting NOR had a predictive value in the prognosis of patients with invasive bladder tumor. Keywords: Transitional cell carcinoma, invasive, resting cell, AgNORs, MIB-1

  10. Resting States Are Resting Traits – An fMRI Study of Sex Differences and Menstrual Cycle Effects in Resting State Cognitive Control Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hjelmervik, Helene; Hausmann, Markus; Osnes, Berge; Westerhausen, René; Specht, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    To what degree resting state fMRI is stable or susceptible to internal mind states of the individual is currently an issue of debate. To address this issue, the present study focuses on sex differences and investigates whether resting state fMRI is stable in men and women or changes within relative short-term periods (i.e., across the menstrual cycle). Due to the fact that we recently reported menstrual cycle effects on cognitive control based on data collected during the same sessions, the c...

  11. Pion Correlations and Resonance Effects in $\\overline{p}p$ Annihilation at Rest

    CERN Document Server

    Angelopoulos, Angelos; Aslanides, Elie; Backenstoss, Gerhard; Bargassa, P; Behnke, O; Benelli, A; Bertin, V; Blanc, F; Bloch, P; Carlson, P J; Carroll, M; Cawley, E; Chertok, M B; Danielsson, M; Dejardin, M; Derré, J; Ealet, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Faravel, L; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Filipcic, A; Francis, D; Fry, J; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Gerber, H J; Go, A; Haselden, A; Hayman, P J; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hollander, R W; Jon-And, K; Kettle, P R; Kokkas, P; Kreuger, R; Le Gac, R; Leimgruber, F; Mandic, I; Manthos, N; Marel, Gérard; Mikuz, M; Miller, J; Montanet, François; Müller, A; Nakada, Tatsuya; Pagels, B; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Polivka, G; Rickenbach, R; Roberts, B L; Ruf, T; Schäfer, M; Schaller, L A; Schietinger, T; Schopper, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thibault, C; Touchard, F; Touramanis, C; van Eijk, C W E; Vlachos, S; Weber, P; Wigger, O; Wolter, M; Zavrtanik, D; Zimmerman, D; Locher, M P; Markushin, V E

    1999-01-01

    We study pi pi correlations in the exclusive reactions pbarp -> 2 pi sup + 2 pi sup - and pbarp -> 2 pi sup + 2 pi sup -pi sup 0 at rest with complete reconstruction of the kinematics for each event. A new analysis technique has been developed which is model independent. With this new technique, which relies on double-differential distributions, no reference sample is needed to extract the correlation signal. The correlations are studied as a function of the four-pion invariant mass.

  12. New data on OZI rule violation in $\\overline{P}P$ annihilation at rest

    CERN Document Server

    Bertin, A.; De Castro, S.; Feretti, A.; Galli, D.; Giacobbe, B.; Marconi, U.; Poli, M.; Piccinini, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Spighi, R.; Vecchi, S.; Vezzani, A.; Vigotti, F.; Villa, M.; Vitale, A.; Zoccoli, A.; Belli, G.; Corradini, M.; Donzella, A.; Lodi Rizzini, E.; Venturelli, L.; Zenoni, A.; Cicalo, C.; Masoni, A.; Puddu, G.; Serci, S.; Temnikov, P.P.; Usai, G.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Gorchakov, O.E.; Nomokonov, V.P.; Prakhov, S.N.; Rozhdestvensky, A.M.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Tretyak, V.I.; Gianotti, P.; Guaraldo, C.; Lanaro, A.; Lucherini, V.; Nichitiu, F.; Petrascu, C.; Rosca, A.; Ableev, V.G.; Cavion, C.; Gastaldi, U.; Lombardi, M.; Andrighetto, A.; Morando, M.; Bendiscioli, G.; Filippini, V.; Fontana, A.; Montagna, P.; Rotondi, A.; Saino, A.; Salvini, P.; Balestra, F.; Botta, E.; Bressani, T.; Bussa, M.P.; Busso, L.; Calvo, D.; Cerello, P.; Costa, S.; Fava, L.; Feliciello, A.; Ferrero, L.; Filippi, A.; Garfagnini, R.; Grasso, A.; D'Isep, D.; Maggiora, A.; Marcello, S.; Panzieri, D.; Parena, D.; Rossetto, E.; Tosello, F.; Zosi, G.; Agnello, M.; Iazzi, F.; Minetti, B.; Margagliotti, G.V.; Pauli, G.; Tessaro, S.; Santi, L.

    1996-01-01

    The results of a measurement of the ratio R =3D Y(phi pi+ pi-) / Y(omega = pi+ pi-) for antiproton annihilation at rest in a gaseous and in a liquid hydrogen target are presented. It was found that the value of this ratio increases with the decreasing of the dipion mass, which demonstrates the difference in the phi and omega production mechanisms. An indication on the momentum transfer dependence of the apparent OZI rule violation for phi production from the 3S1 initial state was found.

  13. Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumors (TARTS With Unusual Histological Features in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeri Marianovsky

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH patients with testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs with testicular enlargement present a serious diagnostic challenge. According to the data TARTs are usually benign. They are rare, resulting in paucity in the medical literature regarding their pathological features. We report a case of bilateral synchronous mass-forming TARTs with marked cytological and nuclear atypia misinterpreted as malignant testicular tumors in a 40-years-old man with CAH and CT and MRI data for pheochromocytoma of the right adrenal gland and paraaortal and paracaval lymphadenomegaly. He was previously diagnosed with adrenal cortical carcinoma of the left adrenal gland.

  14. Radionuclide ventriculography during rest and exercise: normal values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, E.B.; Marroni, B.J.; Achutti, A.C.; Anselmi, O.E.; Rabin, M.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty young volunteers of both sexes were examined by radioisotopic techniques to establish the normal range of ventricular function at rest and the response to a stress test (systolic arterious pressure X cardiac frequency > 25000). (M.A.C.) [pt

  15. Memory reactivation during rest supports upcoming learning of related content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Margaret L.; Preston, Alison R.

    2014-01-01

    Although a number of studies have highlighted the importance of offline processes for memory, how these mechanisms influence future learning remains unknown. Participants with established memories for a set of initial face–object associations were scanned during passive rest and during encoding of new related and unrelated pairs of objects. Spontaneous reactivation of established memories and enhanced hippocampal–neocortical functional connectivity during rest was related to better subsequent learning, specifically of related content. Moreover, the degree of functional coupling during rest was predictive of neural engagement during the new learning experience itself. These results suggest that through rest-phase reactivation and hippocampal–neocortical interactions, existing memories may come to facilitate encoding during subsequent related episodes. PMID:25331890

  16. Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk Factors for Bone Loss Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss Like muscle, bone ... complications of pregnancy; and those who are experiencing immobilization of some part of the body because of ...

  17. Myocardial oxygen consumption at rest and during submaximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    2008-11-26

    Nov 26, 2008 ... ratio were the most important independent parameters in prediction of RPP. The study shows that ... study of various medical, surgical, and physical interventions on .... increase in myocardial activity and thus the MVO2 at rest.

  18. Effects of Interval Training Programme on Resting Heart Rate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DATONYE ALASIA

    Subjects with Hypertension: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Type of Article: Original ... Resting Heart Rate in Subjects with Hypertension — Lamina S. et al investigate the effect of interval .... changes in VO max) of interest. In the t-test. 2.

  19. Memory reactivation during rest supports upcoming learning of related content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Margaret L; Preston, Alison R

    2014-11-04

    Although a number of studies have highlighted the importance of offline processes for memory, how these mechanisms influence future learning remains unknown. Participants with established memories for a set of initial face-object associations were scanned during passive rest and during encoding of new related and unrelated pairs of objects. Spontaneous reactivation of established memories and enhanced hippocampal-neocortical functional connectivity during rest was related to better subsequent learning, specifically of related content. Moreover, the degree of functional coupling during rest was predictive of neural engagement during the new learning experience itself. These results suggest that through rest-phase reactivation and hippocampal-neocortical interactions, existing memories may come to facilitate encoding during subsequent related episodes.

  20. Isometric stress in cardiovascular magnetic resonance - a simple and easily replicable method of assessing cardiovascular differences not apparent at rest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, Kristian H.; Jones, Alexander; Steeden, Jennifer A.; Taylor, Andrew M.; Muthurangu, Vivek [UCL Centre for Cardiovascular MR, UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, Level 6 Old Nurses Home, Cardiorespiratory Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-15

    Isometric exercise may unmask cardiovascular disease not evident at rest, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is proven for comprehensive resting assessment. This study devised a simple isometric exercise CMR methodology and assessed the hemodynamic response evoked by isometric exercise. A biceps isometric exercise technique was devised for CMR, and 75 healthy volunteers were assessed at rest, after 3-minute biceps exercise, and 5-minute of recovery using: (1) blood pressure (BP) and (2) CMR measured aortic flow and left ventricular function. Total peripheral resistance (SVR) and arterial compliance (TAC), cardiac output (CO), left ventricular volumes and function (ejection fraction, stroke volume, power output), blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and rate pressure product were assessed at all time points. Image quality was preserved during stress. During exercise there were increases in CO (+14.9 %), HR (+17.0 %), SVR (+9.8 %), systolic BP (+22.4 %), diastolic BP (+25.4 %) and mean BP (+23.2 %). In addition, there were decreases in TAC (-22.0 %) and left ventricular ejection fraction (-6.3 %). Age and body mass index modified the evoked response, even when resting measures were similar. Isometric exercise technique evokes a significant cardiovascular response in CMR, unmasking physiological differences that are not apparent at rest. (orig.)

  1. Isometric stress in cardiovascular magnetic resonance - a simple and easily replicable method of assessing cardiovascular differences not apparent at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortensen, Kristian H.; Jones, Alexander; Steeden, Jennifer A.; Taylor, Andrew M.; Muthurangu, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Isometric exercise may unmask cardiovascular disease not evident at rest, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is proven for comprehensive resting assessment. This study devised a simple isometric exercise CMR methodology and assessed the hemodynamic response evoked by isometric exercise. A biceps isometric exercise technique was devised for CMR, and 75 healthy volunteers were assessed at rest, after 3-minute biceps exercise, and 5-minute of recovery using: (1) blood pressure (BP) and (2) CMR measured aortic flow and left ventricular function. Total peripheral resistance (SVR) and arterial compliance (TAC), cardiac output (CO), left ventricular volumes and function (ejection fraction, stroke volume, power output), blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and rate pressure product were assessed at all time points. Image quality was preserved during stress. During exercise there were increases in CO (+14.9 %), HR (+17.0 %), SVR (+9.8 %), systolic BP (+22.4 %), diastolic BP (+25.4 %) and mean BP (+23.2 %). In addition, there were decreases in TAC (-22.0 %) and left ventricular ejection fraction (-6.3 %). Age and body mass index modified the evoked response, even when resting measures were similar. Isometric exercise technique evokes a significant cardiovascular response in CMR, unmasking physiological differences that are not apparent at rest. (orig.)

  2. RESTful web API design with Node.js

    CERN Document Server

    Bojinov, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    If you are a web developer wanting to enrich your development skills to create scalable, server-side, RESTful applications based on the Node.js platform, this book is for you. You also need to be aware of HTTP communication concepts and should have a working knowledge of JavaScript. Knowledge of REST would be an added advantage but is definitely not a necessity.

  3. The Classic: On Rest and Pain: Lecture XIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, John

    2009-09-01

    This Classic article is a reprint of the original work by John Hilton, On Rest and Pain: Lecture XIV. An accompanying biographical sketch on John Hilton, MD, is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-0927-2 . The Classic Article is reprinted with courtesy from Hilton J. On The Influence of Mechanical and Physiological Rest in the Treatment of Accidents and Surgical Diseases, and the Diagnostic Value of Pain. London, England: Bell and Daldy; 1863.

  4. Genetic variablilities of body temperature and resting behaviour in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This implies that neither progeny nor generation had effect on body temperature. The Alpha strain exhibited more resting behaviour than did the exotic and the pure native types. Majority of the birds rested in the afternoon at 2.00 pm. This could be attributed to the fact that at 2.00 pm the weather is hot and birds search for a ...

  5. Discovering EEG resting state alterations of semantic dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieder, Matthias; Koenig, Thomas; Kinoshita, Toshihiko; Utsunomiya, Keita; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Dierks, Thomas; Nishida, Keiichiro

    2016-05-01

    Diagnosis of semantic dementia relies on cost-intensive MRI or PET, although resting EEG markers of other dementias have been reported. Yet the view still holds that resting EEG in patients with semantic dementia is normal. However, studies using increasingly sophisticated EEG analysis methods have demonstrated that slightest alterations of functional brain states can be detected. We analyzed the common four resting EEG microstates (A, B, C, and D) of 8 patients with semantic dementia in comparison with 8 healthy controls and 8 patients with Alzheimer's disease. Topographical differences between the groups were found in microstate classes B and C, while microstate classes A and D were comparable. The data showed that the semantic dementia group had a peculiar microstate E, but the commonly found microstate C was lacking. Furthermore, the presence of microstate E was significantly correlated with lower MMSE and language scores. Alterations in resting EEG can be found in semantic dementia. Topographical shifts in microstate C might be related to semantic memory deficits. This is the first study that discovered resting state EEG abnormality in semantic dementia. The notion that resting EEG in this dementia subtype is normal has to be revised. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterizing Resting-State Brain Function Using Arterial Spin Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jann, Kay; Wang, Danny J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an increasingly established magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that is finding broader applications in studying the healthy and diseased brain. This review addresses the use of ASL to assess brain function in the resting state. Following a brief technical description, we discuss the use of ASL in the following main categories: (1) resting-state functional connectivity (FC) measurement: the use of ASL-based cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements as an alternative to the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) technique to assess resting-state FC; (2) the link between network CBF and FC measurements: the use of network CBF as a surrogate of the metabolic activity within corresponding networks; and (3) the study of resting-state dynamic CBF-BOLD coupling and cerebral metabolism: the use of dynamic CBF information obtained using ASL to assess dynamic CBF-BOLD coupling and oxidative metabolism in the resting state. In addition, we summarize some future challenges and interesting research directions for ASL, including slice-accelerated (multiband) imaging as well as the effects of motion and other physiological confounds on perfusion-based FC measurement. In summary, this work reviews the state-of-the-art of ASL and establishes it as an increasingly viable MRI technique with high translational value in studying resting-state brain function. PMID:26106930

  7. A small mass tachyon theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohly, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Tachyons of very small mass, m, have been assumed to satisfy a Proca-like equation, approximately but not exactly, so that the Lorentz gauge condition can be retained as in the photon case. THe tachyon fields therefore have four non-zero conjugate momenta, making invariance manifest. On introducing particle operators, two consistent, theories are found, a particle theory and a 'non-particle' theory, depending on which version of the Reinterpretation Principle one applies. The particle theory is relativistically invariant, gauge invariant, and also causal in the naive sense. While the vacuum is not invariant, using RIP, the fields and Fock space of physical tachyon states is invariant. The Lorentz gauge is satisfied by restricting states to those meeting a Gupta-Bleuler condition. Physical states can further be modified to travel symmetrically in time, and thus, will not violate causality. Under this restriction, a time symmetric tachyon sent backwards in time by Lorentz transformation becomes a tachyon going forward in time, but in the opposite direction

  8. Mass discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeckman, A. [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1978-12-15

    In thermal ionization mass spectrometry the phenomenon of mass discrimination has led to the use of a correction factor for isotope ratio-measurements. The correction factor is defined as the measured ratio divided by the true or accepted value of this ratio. In fact this factor corrects for systematic errors of the whole procedure; however mass discrimination is often associated just with the mass spectrometer.

  9. Negative mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    Some physical aspects of negative mass are examined. Several unusual properties, such as the ability of negative mass to penetrate any armor, are analysed. Other surprising effects include the bizarre system of negative mass chasing positive mass, naked singularities and the violation of cosmic censorship, wormholes, and quantum mechanical results as well. In addition, a brief look into the implications for strings is given. (paper)

  10. Nominal Mass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attygalle, Athula B; Pavlov, Julius

    2017-08-01

    The current IUPAC-recommended definition of the term "nominal mass," based on the most abundant naturally occurring stable isotope of an element, is flawed. We propose that Nominal mass should be defined as the sum of integer masses of protons and neutrons in any chemical species. In this way, all isotopes and isotopologues can be assigned a definitive identifier. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  11. Validation of resting metabolic rate prediction equations for teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Santos da Fonseca

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The resting metabolic rate (RMR can be defi ned as the minimum rate of energy spent and represents the main component of the energetic outlay. The purpose of this study is to validate equations to predict the resting metabolic rate in teenagers (103 individuals, being 51 girls and 52 boys, with age between 10 and 17 years from Florianópolis – SC – Brazil. It was measured: the body weight, body height, skinfolds and obtained the lean and body fat mass through bioimpedance. The nonproteic RMR was measured by Weir’s equation (1949, utilizing AeroSport TEEM-100 gas analyzer. The studied equations were: Harry and Benedict (1919, Schofi eld (1985, WHO/FAO/UNU (1985, Henry and Rees (1991, Molnár et al. (1998, Tverskaya et al. (1998 and Müller et al. (2004. In order to study the cross-validation of the RMR prediction equations and its standard measure (Weir 1949, the following statistics procedure were calculated: Pearson’s correlation (r ≥ 0.70, the “t” test with the signifi cance level of p0.05 in relation to the standard measure, with exception of the equations suggested for Tverskaya et al. (1998, and the two models of Müller et al (2004. Even though there was not a signifi cant difference, only the models considered for Henry and Rees (1991, and Molnár et al. (1995 had gotten constant error variation under 5%. All the equations analyzed in the study in girls had not reached criterion of correlation values of 0.70 with the indirect calorimetry. Analyzing the prediction equations of RMR in boys, all of them had moderate correlation coeffi cients with the indirect calorimetry, however below 0.70. Only the equation developed for Tverskaya et al. (1998 presented differences (p ABSTRACT0,05 em relação à medida padrão (Weir 1949, com exceção das equações sugeridas por Tverskaya et al. (1998 e os dois modelos de Müller et al (2004. Mesmo não havendo diferença signifi cativa, somente os modelos propostos por Henry e Rees (1991

  12. "I am resting but rest less well with you." The moderating effect of anxious attachment style on alpha power during EEG resting state in a social context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeke, W.J.M.I.; Pozharliev, R.; van Strien, J.W.; Belschak, F.; Bagozzi, R.P.

    2014-01-01

    We took EEG recordings to measure task-free resting-state cortical brain activity in 35 participants under two conditions, alone (A) or together (T). We also investigated whether psychological attachment styles shape human cortical activity differently in these two settings. The results indicate

  13. What are the masses of elementary particles?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good, I.J.

    1988-01-01

    The paper concerns the numerology on the masses of elementary particles, and examines the formula m(n)-m(p)/m(p) 136α/6x120 (where m(n) and m(p) are the rest masses of the neutron and proton respectively and α is the fine structure constant). The author reports that this simple relationship between fundamental constants is correct to one part in at least 51,000, and is comfortably consistent with experimental results. (U.K.)

  14. Visual food stimulus changes resting oscillatory brain activities related to appetitive motive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Yamano, Yoko; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2016-09-26

    Changes of resting brain activities after visual food stimulation might affect the feeling of pleasure in eating food in daily life and spontaneous appetitive motives. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to identify brain areas related to the activity changes. Fifteen healthy, right-handed males [age, 25.4 ± 5.5 years; body mass index, 22.5 ± 2.7 kg/m 2 (mean ± SD)] were enrolled. They were asked to watch food or mosaic pictures for 5 min and to close their eyes for 3 min before and after the picture presentation without thinking of anything. Resting brain activities were recorded during two eye-closed sessions. The feeling of pleasure in eating food in daily life and appetitive motives in the study setting were assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) scores. The γ-band power of resting oscillatory brain activities was decreased after the food picture presentation in the right insula [Brodmann's area (BA) 13], the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) (BA11), and the left frontal pole (BA10). Significant reductions of the α-band power were observed in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) (BA46). Particularly, the feeling of pleasure in eating food was positively correlated with the power decrease in the insula and negatively with that in the DLPFC. The changes in appetitive motives were associated with the power decrease in the frontal pole. These findings suggest automatic brain mechanics whereby changes of the resting brain activity might be associated with positive feeling in dietary life and have an impact on the irresistible appetitive motives through emotional and cognitive brain functions.

  15. Bed Rest is an Analog to Study the Physiological Changes of Spaceflight and to Evaluate Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannenstiel, P.; Ottenbacher, M.; Inniss, A.; Ware, D.; Anderson, K.; Stranges, S.; Keith, K.; Cromwell, R.; Neigut. J.; Powell, D.

    2012-01-01

    The UTMB/NASA Flight Analog Research Unit is an inpatient unit with a bionutrition kitchen and unique testing areas for studying subjects subjected to 6 degree head-down complete bed rest for prolonged periods as an analog for zero gravity. Bed rest allows study of physiological changes and performance of functional tasks representative of critical interplanetary mission operations and measures of the efficacy of countermeasures designed to protect against the resulting deleterious effects. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Subjects are healthy adults 24-55 years old; 60 75 in tall; body mass index 18.5-30; and bone mineral density normal by DXA scan. Over 100 subjects have been studied in 7 campaigns since 2004. The iRAT countermeasure combines high intensity interval aerobic exercises on alternating days with continuous aerobic exercise. Resistance exercise is performed 3 days per week. Subjects are tested on an integrated suite of functional and interdisciplinary physiological tests before and after 70 days of total bed rest. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: It is anticipated that post-bed rest functional performance will be predicted by a weighted combination of sensorimotor, cardiovascular and muscle physiological factors. Control subjects who do not participate in the exercise countermeasure will have significantly greater decreases in these parameters. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Astronauts experience alterations in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity, leading to disruption in the ability to perform functional tasks after reintroduction to a gravitational environment. Current flight exercise countermeasures are not fully protective of cardiovascular, muscle and bone health. There is a need to refine and optimize countermeasures to mitigate health risks associated with long-term space missions.

  16. Systemic inflammation and resting state connectivity of the default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsland, Anna L; Kuan, Dora C-H; Sheu, Lei K; Krajina, Katarina; Kraynak, Thomas E; Manuck, Stephen B; Gianaros, Peter J

    2017-05-01

    The default mode network (DMN) encompasses brain systems that exhibit coherent neural activity at rest. DMN brain systems have been implicated in diverse social, cognitive, and affective processes, as well as risk for forms of dementia and psychiatric disorders that associate with systemic inflammation. Areas of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and surrounding medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) within the DMN have been implicated specifically in regulating autonomic and neuroendocrine processes that relate to systemic inflammation via bidirectional signaling mechanisms. However, it is still unclear whether indicators of inflammation relate directly to coherent resting state activity of the ACC, mPFC, or other areas within the DMN. Accordingly, we tested whether plasma interleukin (IL)-6, an indicator of systemic inflammation, covaried with resting-state functional connectivity of the DMN among 98 adults aged 30-54 (39% male; 81% Caucasian). Independent component analyses were applied to resting state fMRI data to generate DMN connectivity maps. Voxel-wise regression analyses were then used to test for associations between IL-6 and DMN connectivity across individuals, controlling for age, sex, body mass index, and fMRI signal motion. Within the DMN, IL-6 covaried positively with connectivity of the sub-genual ACC and negatively with a region of the dorsal medial PFC at corrected statistical thresholds. These novel findings offer evidence for a unique association between a marker of systemic inflammation (IL-6) and ACC and mPFC functional connectivity within the DMN, a network that may be important for linking aspects of immune function to psychological and behavioral states in health and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. What goes on in the resting-state? A qualitative glimpse into resting-state experience in the scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlburt, Russell T.; Alderson-Day, Ben; Fernyhough, Charles; Kühn, Simone

    2015-01-01

    The brain’s resting-state has attracted considerable interest in recent years, but currently little is known either about typical experience during the resting-state or about whether there are inter-individual differences in resting-state phenomenology. We used descriptive experience sampling (DES) in an attempt to apprehend high fidelity glimpses of the inner experience of five participants in an extended fMRI study. Results showed that the inner experiences and the neural activation patterns (as quantified by amplitude of low frequency fluctuations analysis) of the five participants were largely consistent across time, suggesting that our extended-duration scanner sessions were broadly similar to typical resting-state sessions. However, there were very large individual differences in inner phenomena, suggesting that the resting-state itself may differ substantially from one participant to the next. We describe these individual differences in experiential characteristics and display some typical moments of resting-state experience. We also show that retrospective characterizations of phenomena can often be very different from moment-by-moment reports. We discuss implications for the assessment of inner experience in neuroimaging studies more generally, concluding that it may be possible to use fMRI to investigate neural correlates of phenomena apprehended in high fidelity. PMID:26500590

  18. Remarks on mass and angular momenta for U(1){sup 2}-invariant initial data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alaee, Aghil, E-mail: aak818@mun.ca; Kunduri, Hari K., E-mail: hkkunduri@mun.ca [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador NL A1C 4P5 (Canada)

    2016-03-15

    We extend Brill’s positive mass theorem to a large class of asymptotically flat, maximal, U(1){sup 2}-invariant initial data sets on simply connected four dimensional manifolds Σ. Moreover, we extend the local mass angular momenta inequality result [A. Alaee and H. K. Kunduri, Classical Quantum Gravity 32(16), 165020 (2015)] for U(1){sup 2} invariant black holes to the case with nonzero stress energy tensor with positive matter density and energy-momentum current invariant under the above symmetries.

  19. Neutrino masses in the SU(5) x (lower case x) SU(5)' mirror symmetric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collie, M.; Foot, R.

    1998-02-01

    Motivated by the atmospheric and solar neutrino anomalies, we study neutrino masses in a parity invariant SU(5) x SU(5)' grand unified model. Two distinct ways of incorporating neutrino masses into this model are envisaged. One way involves adding a gauge singlet fermion to each generation. The other way, is to extend the scalar sector. This possibility suggests that photon - mirror photon kinetic mixing is non-zero since is generated radiatively. It is argued that the kinetic mixing is such models may well be close to the experimental limit

  20. Exotic Higgs decays in a neutrino mass model with discrete S3 symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, G; Päs, H

    2010-01-01

    Exotic Higgs decays can arise in lepton flavor models with horizontal symme- tries. We investigate the scalar sector of a neutrino mass model using an S3 family symmetry as an example. The model’s symmetry leads to an enlarged scalar sector with features that might be used to test the model experimentally, such as scalar particles with masses below 1 TeV and manifestly non-zero ma- trix elements for lepton flavor violating decays. We compare different decay channels of the scalars as well as leptonic processes that violate lepton flavor, in order to compare model predictions with experimental bounds.

  1. Modifications of resting state networks in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocozza, Sirio; Saccà, Francesco; Cervo, Amedeo; Marsili, Angela; Russo, Cinzia Valeria; Giorgio, Sara Maria Delle Acque; De Michele, Giuseppe; Filla, Alessandro; Brunetti, Arturo; Quarantelli, Mario

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to investigate the integrity of the Resting State Networks in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) and the correlations between the modification of these networks and clinical variables. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) data from 19 SCA2 patients and 29 healthy controls were analyzed using an independent component analysis and dual regression, controlling at voxel level for the effect of atrophy by co-varying for gray matter volume. Correlations between the resting state networks alterations and disease duration, age at onset, number of triplets, and clinical score were assessed by Spearman's coefficient, for each cluster which was significantly different in SCA2 patients compared with healthy controls. In SCA2 patients, disruption of the cerebellar components of all major resting state networks was present, with supratentorial involvement only for the default mode network. When controlling at voxel level for gray matter volume, the reduction in functional connectivity in supratentorial regions of the default mode network, and in cerebellar regions within the default mode, executive and right fronto-parietal networks, was still significant. No correlations with clinical variables were found for any of the investigated resting state networks. The SCA2 patients show significant alterations of the resting state networks, only partly explained by the atrophy. The default mode network is the only resting state network that shows also supratentorial changes, which appear unrelated to the cortical gray matter volume. Further studies are needed to assess the clinical significance of these changes. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  2. Search for a rest mass of the electron antineutrino in the beta-decay of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, H.; Hiddemann, K.H.; Schwentker, O.

    1986-01-01

    The authors performed a precision measurement of the end point region of the tritium β-ray spectrum. The data were recorded with an iron-free π√13/2 magnetic spectrometer. The source consisted of tritium atoms, absorbed in a thin layer of hafnium, which was evaporated on a silicon wafer. The instrumental resolution was set to 0.1% in Δrho/rho. The fractional solid angle was 1% of 4π. The authors identified the electrons with a proportional counter, filled with isobutane. The counter had two distinct features: First, the good energy resolution of the signal at the main counting wire over a wide energy range allowed us to discriminate between real and background events, and second, there was a ring of several secondary counting wires around the main wire within the same gas volume, which served as an anticoincidence counter. With this arrangement an additional reduction of the background could be obtained. The functions of the spectrometer were checked by using internal conversion lines from the decay of /sup 169/Yb

  3. Feasibility Study of a Lunar Analog Bed Rest Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.; Platts, Steven H.; Yarbough, Patrice; Buccello-Stout, Regina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using a 9.5deg head-up tilt bed rest model to simulate the effects of the 1/6 g load to the human body that exists on the lunar surface. The lunar analog bed rest model utilized a modified hospital bed. The modifications included mounting the mattress on a sled that rolled on bearings to provide freedom of movement. The weight of the sled was off-loaded using a counterweight system to insure that 1/6 body weight was applied along the long axis (z-axis) of the body. Force was verified through use of a force plate mounted at the foot of the bed. A seating assembly was added to the bed to permit periods of sitting. Subjects alternated between standing and sitting positions throughout the day. A total of 35% of the day was spent in the standing position and 65% was spent sitting. In an effort to achieve physiologic fluid shifts expected for a 1/6 G environment, subjects wore compression stockings and performed unloaded foot and ankle exercises. Eight subjects (3 females and 5 males) participated in this study. Subjects spent 13 days in the pre-bed rest phase, 6 days in bed rest and 3 days post bed rest. Subjects consumed a standardized diet throughout the study. To determine feasibility, measures of subject comfort, force and plasma volume were collected. Subject comfort was assessed using a Likert scale. Subjects were asked to assess level of comfort (0-100) for 11 body regions and provide an overall rating. Results indicated minimal to no discomfort as most subjects reported scores of zero. Force measures were performed for each standing position and were validated against subject s calculated 1/6 body weight (r(sup 2) = 0.993). The carbon monoxide rebreathing technique was used to assess plasma volume during pre-bed rest and on the last day of bed rest. Plasma volume results indicated a significant decrease (p = 0.001) from pre to post bed rest values. Subjects lost on average 8.3% (sd = 6.1%) during the

  4. Resting state brain networks in the prairie vole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Juan J; Portillo, Wendy; Paredes, Raul G; Young, Larry J; Alcauter, Sarael

    2018-01-19

    Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) has shown the hierarchical organization of the human brain into large-scale complex networks, referred as resting state networks. This technique has turned into a promising translational research tool after the finding of similar resting state networks in non-human primates, rodents and other animal models of great value for neuroscience. Here, we demonstrate and characterize the presence of resting states networks in Microtus ochrogaster, the prairie vole, an extraordinary animal model to study complex human-like social behavior, with potential implications for the research of normal social development, addiction and neuropsychiatric disorders. Independent component analysis of rsfMRI data from isoflurane-anestethized prairie voles resulted in cortical and subcortical networks, including primary motor and sensory networks, but also included putative salience and default mode networks. We further discuss how future research could help to close the gap between the properties of the large scale functional organization and the underlying neurobiology of several aspects of social cognition. These results contribute to the evidence of preserved resting state brain networks across species and provide the foundations to explore the use of rsfMRI in the prairie vole for basic and translational research.

  5. URINARY CREATINE AT REST AND AFTER REPEATED SPRINTS IN ATHLETES: A PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bezrati-Benayed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Creatine plays a key role in muscle function and its evaluation is important in athletes. In this study, urinary creatine concentration was measured in order to highlight its possible significance in monitoring sprinters. The study included 51 sprinters and 25 age- and sex-matched untrained subjects as a control group. Body composition was measured and dietary intake estimated. Urine samples were collected before and after standardized physical exercise. Creatine was assessed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Basal urinary creatine (UC was significantly lower in sprinters than controls (34±30 vs. 74±3 μmol/mmol creatinine, p<0.05. UC was inversely correlated with body mass (r=-0.34, p<0.01 and lean mass (r=- 0.30, p<0.05, and positively correlated with fat mass (r=0.32, p<0.05. After acute exercise, urinary creatine significantly decreased in both athletes and controls. UC is low in sprinters at rest and further decreases after exercise, most likely due to a high uptake and use of creatine by muscles, as muscle mass and physical activity are supposed to be greater in athletes than untrained subjects. Further studies are needed to test the value of urinary creatine as a non-invasive marker of physical condition and as a parameter for managing Cr supplementation in athletes.

  6. [Resting metabolic rate estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis and its determinants in maintenance hemodialysis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da, J J; Peng, H Y; Lin, X; Shen, Y; Zhao, J Q; He, S; Zha, Y

    2018-03-27

    Objective: To explore the level of resting energy expenditure (REE) estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis and the association of resting metabolic rate (RMR) with clinical related factors, and provide new ideas for improving protein energy wasting (PEW) in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. Methods: Seven hundred and sixty-five subjects receiving MHD between July 2015 and September 2016 in 11 hemodialysis centers in Guizhou province were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to measure RMR and body composition, such as lean body mass, fat mass and body cell mass (BCM). Baseline characteristics, routine blood test indexes and biochemical data of hemodialysis patients were collected. The level of RMR and body composition in hemodialysis patients was compared by gender grouping. Then the patients were divided into four groups according to the cutoff value of RMR quartile. Spearman correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were used to analyze the relationships between RMR and clinical related factors. Results: The average age of MHD patients was (54.96±15.78) years and the duriation of dialysis was (42.3±9.0) months. The level of RMR in male patients (474 cases, 61.96%) was significantly higher than that in female patients [1 591(1 444, 1 764) kcal/d vs 1 226 (1 104, 1 354) kcal/d, P lean body mass ( P =0.193). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that RMR was positively correlated with body surface area (β=0.817) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (β=0.198), and negatively correlated with age (β=-0.141), all P maintenance hemodialysis are associated with lactate dehydrogenase level, which may become a new index to evaluate energy consumption.

  7. Issues in characterizing resting energy expenditure in obesity and after weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eBosy-Westphal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Normalization of resting energy expenditure (REE for body composition using the 2-compartment model (fat mass, FM and fat-free mass, FFM has inherent limitations for the interpretation of REE and may lead to erroneous conclusions when comparing people with a wide range of adiposity as well as before and after substantial weight loss. We compared different methods of REE normalization: (i for FFM and FM (ii by the inclusion of %FM as a measure of adiposity and (iii based on organ and tissue masses. Results were compared between healthy subjects with different degrees of adiposity as well as within subject before and after weight loss. Normalizing REE from an REE vs. FFM and FM equation that (i was derived in obese participants and applied to lean people or (ii was derived before weight loss and applied after weight loss leads to the erroneous conclusion of a lower metabolic rate (i in lean persons and (ii after weight loss. This is revealed by the normalization of REE for organ and tissue masses that was not significantly different between lean and obese or between baseline and after weight loss. There is evidence for an increasing specific metabolic rate of FFM with increasing %FM that could be explained by a higher contribution of liver, kidney and heart mass to FFM in obesity. Using REE vs. FFM and FM equations specific for different levels of adiposity (% fat mass eliminated differences in REE before and after weight loss in women. In conclusion, the most established method for normalization of REE based on FFM and FM may lead to spurious conclusions about metabolic rate in obesity and the phenomenon of weight loss-associated adaptive thermogenesis. Using % fat mass-specific REE prediction from FFM and FM in kg may improve the normalization of REE when subjects with wide differences in % fat mass are investigated.

  8. Expression of REST4 in human gliomas in vivo and influence of pioglitazone on REST in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Huan [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan Key Laboratory of Pharmacogenetics, Changsha 410078 (China); Gao, Zhangfeng [Department of Neurosurgery, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Wu, Nayiyuan; Zeng, Liu; Tang, Xinyue; Chen, Xiaoping; Liu, Zhaoqian; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Liansheng [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan Key Laboratory of Pharmacogenetics, Changsha 410078 (China); Li, Zhi, E-mail: lizhi489@163.com [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan Key Laboratory of Pharmacogenetics, Changsha 410078 (China)

    2015-08-07

    The repressor element-1 (RE1) silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (REST/NRSF) has an irreplaceable role during the differentiation of neurons. REST has multiple splice variants which link to various types of cancer. Previous work had highlighted the role of REST in glioma, where the expression of REST is enhanced. But whether alternative splicing of REST is expressed in glioma has not been described. Here, we show that a specific isoform REST4 is expressed in glioma specimens, and will influence the mRNA level of REST in vivo. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists have a role of antineoplastic in various tumor cells, which including glioma cells. Moreover, study indicated that PPARγ agonist pioglitazone can promote alternative splicing of REST pre-mRNA. In this study, we selected pioglitazone as a tool drug to explore whether the role of pioglitazone in anti-glioma is mediated by regulating REST expression or promoting alternative splicing of REST in glioma cells. Results show that pioglitazone can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of glioma cell in vitro, which may be mediated by down-regulating REST mRNA level but not by inducing alternative splicing of REST pre-mRNA. Our study firstly reports the expression of REST4 in glioma tissue samples. And we recommend that pioglitazone, which can reduce the expression level of REST, represents a promising drug for therapy of glioma. - Highlights: • A specific isoform REST4 is expressed in glioma specimens in vivo. • REST4 will influence the mRNA level of REST in vivo. • Pioglitazone can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of glioma cells. • The role of pioglitazone in anti-glioma may be mediated by down-regulating REST.

  9. Expression of REST4 in human gliomas in vivo and influence of pioglitazone on REST in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Huan; Gao, Zhangfeng; Wu, Nayiyuan; Zeng, Liu; Tang, Xinyue; Chen, Xiaoping; Liu, Zhaoqian; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Liansheng; Li, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    The repressor element-1 (RE1) silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (REST/NRSF) has an irreplaceable role during the differentiation of neurons. REST has multiple splice variants which link to various types of cancer. Previous work had highlighted the role of REST in glioma, where the expression of REST is enhanced. But whether alternative splicing of REST is expressed in glioma has not been described. Here, we show that a specific isoform REST4 is expressed in glioma specimens, and will influence the mRNA level of REST in vivo. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists have a role of antineoplastic in various tumor cells, which including glioma cells. Moreover, study indicated that PPARγ agonist pioglitazone can promote alternative splicing of REST pre-mRNA. In this study, we selected pioglitazone as a tool drug to explore whether the role of pioglitazone in anti-glioma is mediated by regulating REST expression or promoting alternative splicing of REST in glioma cells. Results show that pioglitazone can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of glioma cell in vitro, which may be mediated by down-regulating REST mRNA level but not by inducing alternative splicing of REST pre-mRNA. Our study firstly reports the expression of REST4 in glioma tissue samples. And we recommend that pioglitazone, which can reduce the expression level of REST, represents a promising drug for therapy of glioma. - Highlights: • A specific isoform REST4 is expressed in glioma specimens in vivo. • REST4 will influence the mRNA level of REST in vivo. • Pioglitazone can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of glioma cells. • The role of pioglitazone in anti-glioma may be mediated by down-regulating REST

  10. NEUTRINO MASS

    OpenAIRE

    Kayser, Boris

    1988-01-01

    This is a review article about the most recent developments on the field of neutrino mass. The first part of the review introduces the idea of neutrino masses and mixing angles, summarizes the most recent experimental data then discusses the experimental prospects and challenges in this area. The second part of the review discusses the implications of these results for particle physics and cosmology, including the origin of neutrino mass, the see-saw mechanism and sequential dominance, and la...

  11. Neutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    Despite intensive experimental work since the neutrino's existence was proposed by Pauli 60 years ago, and its first observation by Reines and Cowan almost 40 years ago, the neutrino's fundamental properties remain elusive. Among those properties are the masses of the three known flavors, properties under charge conjugation, parity and time-reversal, and static and dynamic electromagnetic moments. Mass is perhaps the most fundamental, as it constrains the other properties. The present status of the search for neutrino mass is briefly reviewed

  12. Sparse dictionary learning of resting state fMRI networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eavani, Harini; Filipovych, Roman; Davatzikos, Christos; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C

    2012-07-02

    Research in resting state fMRI (rsfMRI) has revealed the presence of stable, anti-correlated functional subnetworks in the brain. Task-positive networks are active during a cognitive process and are anti-correlated with task-negative networks, which are active during rest. In this paper, based on the assumption that the structure of the resting state functional brain connectivity is sparse, we utilize sparse dictionary modeling to identify distinct functional sub-networks. We propose two ways of formulating the sparse functional network learning problem that characterize the underlying functional connectivity from different perspectives. Our results show that the whole-brain functional connectivity can be concisely represented with highly modular, overlapping task-positive/negative pairs of sub-networks.

  13. Exclusive channels in bar pp annihilation at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluem, P.

    1992-01-01

    Exclusive channels in bar pp annihilation at rest provide a powerful tool for studying the meson spectrum below the bar pp threshold. The mesons can be classified in SU(3) multiplets according to their quantum numbers. The states which do not fit into this classification are candidates for new forms of hadronic matter like glueballs, hybrids, and multi-quark states. Recent results on the search for exotic states in exclusive channels of bar pp annihilation at rest are discussed. No less important is the study of the annihilation mechanism. In particular, high-statistic measurements of bar pp annihilation at rest into two-meson final states are an excellent tool for studying quark dynamics. Examples of two-body reactions are presented. 24 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Phylogenetic placement of two species known only from resting spores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajek, Ann E; Gryganskyi, Andrii; Bittner, Tonya

    2016-01-01

    resting spores, Zoophthora independentia, infecting Tipula (Lunatipula) submaculata in New York State, is now described as a new species and Tarichium porteri, described in 1942, which infects Tipula (Triplicitipula) colei in Tennessee, is transferred to the genus Zoophthora. We have shown that use......Molecular methods were used to determine the generic placement of two species of Entomophthorales known only from resting spores. Historically, these species would belong in the form-genus Tarichium, but this classification provides no information about phylogenetic relationships. Using DNA from...... of molecular methods can assist with determination of the phylogenetic relations of specimens within the form-genus Tarichium for an already described species and a new species for which only resting spores are available....

  15. Multifraction dose response of growing and resting phase hair follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegesna, V.; Withers, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    It has been established in both the clinic and the laboratory that there is a differentiation response to changes in dose per fraction in early and late responding tissues. To study one possible biological reason for differences in early and late responses. The authors selected one kind of cellular entity, the hair follicle, in two different phases of mitotic activity. The follicles are usually in a resting phase (7-12 wks), but mitotic activity can be initiated by plucking the club hairs. This was done on one half of the thorax and then exposing mice to doses of radiation (cesium gamma-ray). Dose responses for epilation between growing (early) and resting (late) follicles were compared for the same mouse. The fractionated response was studied by reducing the dose down to 2.5 Gy/fx. As the literature suggests, the total dose tolerated by a resting (late) follicle increased more than that for a growing (early) follicle

  16. Physiological and Functional Alterations after Spaceflight and Bed Rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Peters, Brian T; Miller, Chris A; Kofman, Igor S; Reschke, Millard F; Taylor, Laura C; Lawrence, Emily L; Wood, Scott J; Laurie, Steven S; Lee, Stuart M C; Buxton, Roxanne E; May-Phillips, Tiffany R; Stenger, Michael B; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L; Ryder, Jeffrey W; Feiveson, Alan H; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2018-04-03

    Exposure to microgravity causes alterations in multiple physiological systems, potentially impacting the ability of astronauts to perform critical mission tasks. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of spaceflight on functional task performance and to identify the key physiological factors contributing to their deficits. A test battery comprised of 7 functional tests and 15 physiological measures was used to investigate the sensorimotor, cardiovascular and neuromuscular adaptations to spaceflight. Astronauts were tested before and after 6-month spaceflights. Subjects were also tested before and after 70 days of 6° head-down bed rest, a spaceflight analog, to examine the role of axial body unloading on the spaceflight results. These subjects included Control and Exercise groups to examine the effects of exercise during bed rest. Spaceflight subjects showed the greatest decrement in performance during functional tasks that required the greatest demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium which was paralleled by similar decrements in sensorimotor tests that assessed postural and dynamic gait control. Other changes included reduced lower limb muscle performance and increased heart rate to maintain blood pressure. Exercise performed during bed rest prevented detrimental change in neuromuscular and cardiovascular function, however, both bed rest groups experienced functional and balance deficits similar to spaceflight subjects. Bed rest data indicates that body support unloading experienced during spaceflight contributes to postflight postural control dysfunction. Further, the bed rest results in the Exercise group of subjects confirm that resistance and aerobic exercises performed during spaceflight can play an integral role in maintaining neuromuscular and cardiovascular function, which can help in reducing decrements in functional performance. These results indicate that a countermeasure to mitigate postflight postural control dysfunction is

  17. Resting release of acetylcholine at the motor endplate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molenaar, P.C.; Polak, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews recent work on resting release of ACh in frog, rat and mouse skeletal muscle. Because of the effect of Ca 2+ on resting release it was of interest to know whether non-quantal release of ACh is increased under conditions of increased Ca 2+ influx, viz. during depolarization of the nerve terminals. It is shown that depolarization of the motor nerve terminals by K + ions led to an increase of both min.e.p.c. frequency and chemically detectable ACh release

  18. Hemifacial Display of Emotion in the Resting State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Mandal

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The human face at rest displays distinguishable asymmetries with some lateralization of emotion or expression. The asymmetrical nature of the resting face was examined by preparing hemifacial composites, left–left, right–right, along with normal facial orientation. The left side and right side composites were constructed by using the lateral half of one side of the face and its mirror-reversal. The left side facial composites were found to be more emotional than the right side or normal facial orientations of neutral expressions.

  19. Mass Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Christian

    2017-01-01

    the negative features usually ascribed by late nineteenth-century crowd psychology to spontaneous crowds, and attributes these to the entire social fabric. However, in contrast to crowd psychology, theorists of mass society often place greater emphasis on how capitalism, technological advances, or demographic......Mass society is a societal diagnosis that emphasizes – usually in a pejorative, modernity critical manner – a series of traits allegedly associated with modern society, such as the leveling of individuality, moral decay, alienation, and isolation. As such, the notion of mass society generalizes...... developments condition such negative features, and some theorists argue that mass society produces a propensity to totalitarianism. Discussions of mass society culminated in the early and mid-twentieth century....

  20. Implications of neutrino masses and mixing for weak processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrock, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    A general theory is presented of weak processes involving neutrinos which consistently incorporates the possibility of nonzero neutrino masses and associated lepton mixing. The theory leads to new tests for and bounds on such masses and mixing. These tests make use of (π,K)/sub l2/ decay, nuclear β decay, and μ and tau decays, among others. New experiments at SIN and KEK to apply the tests are mentioned. Further, some implications are discussed for (1) the analysis of the spectral parameters in leptonic decays to determine the Lorentz structure of the weak leptonic couplings; (2) fundamental weak interaction constants such as G/sub μ/, G/sub V/', f/sub π/, f/sub K/, V/sub uq/, q = d or s, m/sub W/, and m/sub Z/; and (3) neutrino propagation

  1. Association between uncoupling protein 2, adiponectin and resting energy expenditure in obese women with normal and low resting energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghadomi Masoumi, Zahra; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Hedayati, Mahdi; Pishva, Hamideh

    2018-02-01

    Obesity is recognized as the most prevalent metabolic disease worldwide. Decreases in energy expenditure may increase risk of obesity. One of the key regulators of energy balance is uncoupling protein2 (UCP2), a transporter protein presents in mitochondrial inner membrane. Moreover, adiponectin is the most abundant adipocytokine, it may play a role in energy metabolism and gene expression of UCP2. The aim of this study was to investigate potential associations between the level of uncoupling protein 2 and adiponectin and their relationship with REE (Resting Energy Expenditure) in obese women with normal and low resting energy expenditure. A total of 49 subjects (women, 25-50 years old), were included in current study, 16 subjects with BMI > 30 and low resting energy expenditure, 17 subjects with BMI > 30 and normal resting energy expenditure and 16 non-obese subjects as a control group. Anthropometric, body composition parameters and resting energy expenditure were measured. Plasma adiponectin, UCP2 protein and total protein in PBMC were determined. Measured resting energy expenditure in obese subjects with low REE was significantly lower than other groups. Plasma adiponectin in the obese subjects with low REE was significantly lower compared to normal weight group. There was a significant relationship between 'UCP2 protein/Total protein' ratio and plasma adiponectin in obese group with low REE and in three groups when we pooled. There was a significant association between REE and plasma adiponectin in three groups when we pooled. There was a significant association between plasma adiponectin and REE. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between UCP2 and REE.

  2. Spatiotemporal psychopathology I: No rest for the brain's resting state activity in depression? Spatiotemporal psychopathology of depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northoff, Georg

    2016-01-15

    Despite intense neurobiological investigation in psychiatric disorders like major depressive disorder (MDD), the basic disturbance that underlies the psychopathological symptoms of MDD remains, nevertheless, unclear. Neuroimaging has focused mainly on the brain's extrinsic activity, specifically task-evoked or stimulus-induced activity, as related to the various sensorimotor, affective, cognitive, and social functions. Recently, the focus has shifted to the brain's intrinsic activity, otherwise known as its resting state activity. While various abnormalities have been observed during this activity, their meaning and significance for depression, along with its various psychopathological symptoms, are yet to be defined. Based on findings in healthy brain resting state activity and its particular spatial and temporal structure - defined in a functional and physiological sense rather than anatomical and structural - I claim that the various depressive symptoms are spatiotemporal disturbances of the resting state activity and its spatiotemporal structure. This is supported by recent findings that link ruminations and increased self-focus in depression to abnormal spatial organization of resting state activity. Analogously, affective and cognitive symptoms like anhedonia, suicidal ideation, and thought disorder can be traced to an increased focus on the past, increased past-focus as basic temporal disturbance o the resting state. Based on these findings, I conclude that the various depressive symptoms must be conceived as spatiotemporal disturbances of the brain's resting state's activity and its spatiotemporal structure. Importantly, this entails a new form of psychopathology, "Spatiotemporal Psychopathology" that directly links the brain and psyche, therefore having major diagnostic and therapeutic implications for clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Classification of mass matrices and the calculability of the Cabibbo angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, T.G.

    1981-01-01

    We have analyzed all possible 2 x 2 mass matrices with two nonzero elements in an attempt to find which matrices yield a reasonable value of the Cabibbo angle upon diagonalization. We do not concern ourselves with the origin of these mass matrices (spontaneous symmetry breaking, bare-mass term, etc.). We find that, in the limit m/sub u//m/sub c/→0, only four possible relationships exist between sin 2 theta/sub C/ and the quark mass ratio m/sub d//m/sub s/, only one of which is reasonable for the usual value of m/sub d//m/sub s/ (approx.1/20). This limits the possible forms of the quark mass matrix to be two in number, both of which have been discussed previously in the literature

  4. Bed rest and increased diuretic treatment in chronic congestive heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, U; Aldershvile, J; Ring-Larsen, H

    1985-01-01

    To elucidate the effect of bed rest used as an adjunct to increased diuretic treatment, twelve patients with chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) had a 50% increase in loop diuretic dosage and were allocated to either continuous bed rest or bed rest during nights only. The 24-hour bed rest group...... is a reasonable adjunct to diuretic treatment in patients with CHF....

  5. 49 CFR 37.201 - Intermediate and rest stops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... wheelchair, shall be permitted to leave and return to the bus on the same basis as other passengers. The... passenger to get on and off the bus at the stop (e.g., operate the lift and provide assistance with... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.201 Intermediate and rest stops. (a) Whenever an OTRB makes...

  6. Effects of Flotation-REST on Muscle Tension Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Kjellgren

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the floating form of the restricted environmental stimulation technique (REST may be applied within the field of pain relief. Flotation-REST consists of a procedure whereby an individual is immersed in a tank filled with water of an extremely high salt concentration. Thirty-seven patients (14 men and 23 women suffering from chronic pain consisting of aching muscles in the neck and back area participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to either a control group (17 participants or an experimental group (20 participants. The experimental group received nine opportunities to use the flotation-REST technique in the water tank over a three-week period. The results indicated that the most severe perceived pain intensity was significantly reduced, whereas low perceived pain intensity was not influenced by the floating technique. Further, the results indicated that circulating levels of the noradrenaline metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol were reduced significantly in the experimental group but not in the control group following treatment, whereas endorphin levels were not affected by flotation. Flotation-REST treatment also elevated the participants' optimism and reduced the degree of anxiety or depression; at nighttime, patients who underwent flotation fell asleep more easily. The present findings describe possible changes, for the better, in patients presenting with chronic pain complaints.

  7. Effects of flotation-REST on muscle tension pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellgren, A; Sundequist, U; Norlander, T; Archer, T

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the floating form of the restricted environmental stimulation technique (REST) may be applied within the field of pain relief. Flotation-REST consists of a procedure whereby an individual is immersed in a tank filled with water of an extremely high salt concentration. Thirty-seven patients (14 men and 23 women) suffering from chronic pain consisting of aching muscles in the neck and back area participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to either a control group (17 participants) or an experimental group (20 participants). The experimental group received nine opportunities to use the flotation-REST technique in the water tank over a three-week period. The results indicated that the most severe perceived pain intensity was significantly reduced, whereas low perceived pain intensity was not influenced by the floating technique. Further, the results indicated that circulating levels of the noradrenaline metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol were reduced significantly in the experimental group but not in the control group following treatment, whereas endorphin levels were not affected by flotation. Flotation-REST treatment also elevated the participants' optimism and reduced the degree of anxiety or depression; at nighttime, patients who underwent flotation fell asleep more easily. The present findings describe possible changes, for the better, in patients presenting with chronic pain complaints.

  8. A Rwandan spirometry and resting ventilation study | Gahutu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To illustrate spirometric population variation and ventilatory adaptation to moderate altitude, we report the spirometric and resting ventilation values observed in a student population in Butare, Rwanda (altitude: 1 768 m; barometric pressure: 629 mm Hg). Spirometry was carried out with a Mijnhardt Volutest VT-3 ...

  9. Effects of temperature and salinity on resting metabolism in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the resting metabolic rate (RMR; mg O2 g/h) of the resident rock pool fish Caffrogobius caffer and the transient sparid Diplodus sargus capensis at a range of salinities (5, 15, 25, 35 and 45 PSU) and temperatures (14, 20 and 28°C) using closed-vessel respirometry. Both species were temperature ...

  10. JASPAR RESTful API: accessing JASPAR data from any programming language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aziz; Mathelier, Anthony

    2018-05-01

    JASPAR is a widely used open-access database of curated, non-redundant transcription factor binding profiles. Currently, data from JASPAR can be retrieved as flat files or by using programming language-specific interfaces. Here, we present a programming language-independent application programming interface (API) to access JASPAR data using the Representational State Transfer (REST) architecture. The REST API enables programmatic access to JASPAR by most programming languages and returns data in eight widely used formats. Several endpoints are available to access the data and an endpoint is available to infer the TF binding profile(s) likely bound by a given DNA binding domain protein sequence. Additionally, it provides an interactive browsable interface for bioinformatics tool developers. This REST API is implemented in Python using the Django REST Framework. It is accessible at http://jaspar.genereg.net/api/ and the source code is freely available at https://bitbucket.org/CBGR/jaspar under GPL v3 license. aziz.khan@ncmm.uio.no or anthony.mathelier@ncmm.uio.no. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  11. Isospin effects in anti p3He annihilation at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestra, F.; Barbieri, R.; Batusov, Yu.A.; Bendiscioli, G.; Breivik, F.O.; Bossolasco, S.; Bussa, M.P.; Busso, L.; Falomkin, I.V.; Ferrero, L.; Guaraldo, C.; Haatuft, A.; Halsteinslid, A.; Jacobsen, T.; Lodi Rizzini, E.; Maggiora, A.; Myklebost, K.; Olsen, J.M.; Panzieri, D.; Piragino, G.; Pontecorvo, G.B.; Rozhdestvensky, A.M.; Rotondi, A.; Salvini, P.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Soerensen, S.O.; Tosello, F.; Tretyak, V.I.; Venaglioni, A.; Zenoni, A.

    1989-01-01

    The analysis of anti p 3 He annihilation events at rest (from the PS 179 experiment at LEAR) gives the value 0.467±0.035 for the ratio between the annihilation cross sections on n and on p. This low value indicates a strong isospin dependence of the anti NN amplitude in P wave. (orig.)

  12. Myocardial oxygen consumption at rest and during submaximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increased adiposity on myocardial oxygen consumption at rest and during submaximal exercise in young adults. The study consisted of 85 young adults (18-22years) grouped into 3 based on ...

  13. Resting cardiointegram: correlation with stress thallium perfusion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, L.A.; Betzu, R.; Judge, D.; Lee, J.; Taddeo, M.; Yang, D.

    1988-01-01

    The cardiointegram is a noninvasive technique for the analysis of the electrical signals of the heart obtained by a transformation of the voltage versus time format by a series of integrations. The stress thallium perfusion study is a widely used test for the detection of coronary artery disease. In order to evaluate the correlation between the resting cardiointegram and the stress thallium 201 perfusion study, 20 patients with normal resting electrocardiograms underwent stress thallium tests and resting cardiointegrams. The cardiointegram was determined on two resting complexes of leads I, II, V4, V5, and V6 and called abnormal if five of ten complexes deviated outside a normalized template. There was concordance of the cardiointegram and the thallium study in 16 of 20 patients (80%). The sensitivity for the detection of coronary artery disease was 71%, and the specificity was 80%. The overall accuracy was 74%. Thus in patients with normal electrocardiograms, the cardiointegram is a useful noninvasive test for the detection of coronary artery disease

  14. Hierarchical Functional Modularity in the Resting-State Human Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrarini, Luca; Veer, Ilya M.; Baerends, Evelinda; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Renken, Remco J.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Veltman, Dirk. J.; Aleman, Andre; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; van Buchem, Mark A.; Reiber, Johan H. C.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Milles, Julien

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that anatomically distinct brain regions are functionally connected during the resting state. Basic topological properties in the brain functional connectivity (BFC) map have highlighted the BFC's small-world topology. Modularity, a

  15. Hierarchical Functional Modularity in the Resting-State Human Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrarini, L.; Veer, I.M.; Baerends, E.; van Tol, M.J.; Renken, R.J.; van der Wee, N.J.A.; Veltman, D.J.; Aleman, A.; Zitman, F.G.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; van Buchem, M.A.; Reiber, J.H.C.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; Milles, J.

    2009-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that anatomically distinct brain regions are functionally connected during the resting state. Basic topological properties in the brain functional connectivity (BFC) map have highlighted the BFC's small-world topology. Modularity, a

  16. Separation of uranium in bone rest for their dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia R, G.; Ordonez R, E.; Tenorio, D.; Cordoba, L.

    2001-01-01

    The uranium (U) and thorium (Th) recovery, as fundamental part of the 'uranium serie' technique is an alternative method for dating of bone rests in Mexico. That so is how it has been possible its application for dating geological material and in this research it has been determined the age of some mammoth samples from the basin of Mexico valley. (Author)

  17. Simplifying cardiovascular risk estimation using resting heart rate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-09-01

    Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is a known, independent cardiovascular (CV) risk factor, but is not included in risk estimation systems, including Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE). We aimed to derive risk estimation systems including RHR as an extra variable and assess the value of this addition.

  18. Metabolic, respiratory, and cardiological measurements during exercise and rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    Low concentration effects of CO2 on metabolic respiration and circulation were measured during work and at rest. The relationship between heart rate and metabolic rate is examined, as well as calibration procedures, and rate measurement during submaximal and standard exercise tests. Alterations in acid base and electrolytes were found during exhaustive exercise, including changes in ECG and metabolic alkalosis effects.

  19. Effects of aging on blood pressure variability in resting conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, D. P.; Imholz, B. P.; Wieling, W.; Karemaker, J. M.; van Montfrans, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of aging on beat-to-beat blood pressure and pulse interval variability in resting conditions and to determine the effect of aging on the sympathetic and vagal influence on the cardiovascular system by power spectral analysis of blood pressure

  20. Altered Resting and Exercise Respiratory Physiology in Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, Akshay

    2009-01-01

    Obesity, particularly severe obesity, affects both resting and exercise-related respiratory physiology. Severe obesity classically produces a restrictive ventilatory abnormality, characterized by reduced expiratory reserve volume. However, obstructive ventilatory abnormality may also be associated with abdominal obesity. Decreased peak work rates are usually seen among obese subjects in a setting of normal or decreased ventilatory reserve and normal cardiovascular response to exercise. Weight...

  1. Hours of work and rest in the rail industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C; Grunstein, R R; Rajaratnam, S M W

    2013-06-01

    Currently, the National Transport Commission is considering four options to form the regulatory framework for rail safety within Australia with respect to fatigue. While the National Transport Commission currently recommends no limitations around hours of work or rest, we provide evidence which suggests regulatory frameworks should incorporate a traditional hours of service regulation over more flexible policies. Our review highlights: Shift durations >12 h are associated with a doubling of risk for accident and injury. Fatigue builds cumulatively with each successive shift where rest in between is inadequate (hours of work and rest, including maximum shift duration and successive number of shifts. Appropriately, validated biomathematical models and technologies may be used as a part of a fatigue management system, to augment the protection afforded by limits on hours of work and rest. A comprehensive sleep disorder screening and management programme should form an essential component of any regulatory framework. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  2. Magnetic alignment in grazing and resting cattle and deer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Begall, S.; Červený, Jaroslav; Neef, J.; Burda, H.; Vojtěch, O.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 36 (2008), s. 13451-13455 ISSN 0027-8424 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : grazing behavior * magnetic alignment * magnetoreception * resting behavior * spatial orientation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 9.380, year: 2008

  3. Resting-State Oscillatory Activity in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornew, Lauren; Roberts, Timothy P. L.; Blaskey, Lisa; Edgar, J. Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Neural oscillatory anomalies in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) suggest an excitatory/inhibitory imbalance; however, the nature and clinical relevance of these anomalies are unclear. Whole-cortex magnetoencephalography data were collected while 50 children (27 with ASD, 23 controls) underwent an eyes-closed resting-state exam. A Fast Fourier…

  4. Infraslow Electroencephalographic and Dynamic Resting State Network Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooms, Joshua K; Thompson, Garth J; Pan, Wen-Ju; Billings, Jacob; Schumacher, Eric H; Epstein, Charles M; Keilholz, Shella D

    2017-06-01

    A number of studies have linked the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal to electroencephalographic (EEG) signals in traditional frequency bands (δ, θ, α, β, and γ), but the relationship between BOLD and its direct frequency correlates in the infraslow band (resting state magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired simultaneously. The DC EEG signals were correlated with the BOLD signal in patterns that resembled resting state networks. Subsequent dynamic analysis showed that the correlation between DC EEG and the BOLD signal varied substantially over time, even within individual subjects. The variation in DC EEG appears to reflect the time-varying contribution of different resting state networks. Furthermore, some of the patterns of DC EEG and BOLD correlation are consistent with previous work demonstrating quasiperiodic spatiotemporal patterns of large-scale network activity in resting state. These findings demonstrate that infraslow electrical activity is linked to BOLD fluctuations in humans and that it may provide a basis for large-scale organization comparable to that observed in animal studies.

  5. Resting state FMRI research in child psychiatric disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, Marianne; Francx, Winke; Beckmann, Christian; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Mennes, Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Concurring with the shift from linking functions to specific brain areas towards studying network integration, resting state FMRI (R-FMRI) has become an important tool for delineating the functional network architecture of the brain. Fueled by straightforward data collection, R-FMRI analysis methods

  6. Aerobic exercise deconditioning and countermeasures during bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M C; Moore, Alan D; Everett, Meghan E; Stenger, Michael B; Platts, Steven H

    2010-01-01

    Bed rest is a well-accepted model for spaceflight in which the physiologic adaptations, particularly in the cardiovascular system, are studied and potential countermeasures can be tested. Bed rest without countermeasures results in reduced aerobic capacity and altered submaximal exercise responses. Aerobic endurance and factors which may impact prolonged exercise, however, have not been well studied. The initial loss of aerobic capacity is rapid, occurring in parallel with the loss of plasma volume. Thereafter, the reduction in maximal aerobic capacity proceeds more slowly and is influenced by central and peripheral adaptation. Exercise capacity can be maintained during bed rest and may be improved during recovery with appropriate countermeasures. Plasma volume restoration, resistive exercise, orthostatic stress, aerobic exercise, and aerobic exercise plus orthostatic stress all have been tested with varying levels of success. However, the optimal combination of elements-exercise modality, intensity, duration, muscle groups exercised and frequency of aerobic exercise, orthostatic stress, and supplementary resistive or anaerobic exercise training-has not been systematically evaluated. Currently, frequent (at least 3 days per week) bouts of intense exercise (interval-style and near maximal) with orthostatic stress appears to be the most efficacious method to protect aerobic capacity during bed rest. Further refinement of protocols and countermeasure hardware may be necessary to insure the success of countermeasures in the unique environment of space.

  7. Production of doubly charmed baryons nearly at rest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groote, Stefan; Koshkarev, Sergey [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, Tartu (Estonia)

    2017-08-15

    We investigate the production cross sections, momentum distributions and rapidity distributions for doubly charmed baryons which according to the intrinsic heavy quark mechanism are produced nearly at rest. These events should be measurable at fixed-target experiments like STAR rate at RHIC and AFTER rate at LHC. (orig.)

  8. Effects of strict prolonged bed rest on cardiorespiratory fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Aarts, Hugo M; Joyner, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis [International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) CRD42017055619] was to assess the effects of strict prolonged bed rest (without countermeasures) on maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2max) and to explore sources of variation therein....

  9. Gradient Compression Stockings may Prevent Recovery after Bed Rest Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, Michael B.; Lee, Stuart M.; Westby, Christian M.; Willig, Michael C.; Platts, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Astronauts continue to wear a compression garment during and immediately after landing to prevent orthostatic intolerance (OI). We recently developed a custom-fitted, 3-piece garment that consists of thigh-high stockings with biker-style shorts that provides continuous, gradient compression: 55 mmHg at the ankle that decreases to approximately 20 mmHg at the top of the leg and 15 mmHg over the abdomen. This garment has been shown to be effective in preventing symptoms of OI during a short stand test after Space Shuttle missions, but symptoms may persist for several days after a long-duration mission in some astronauts. The purpose of this study was to confirm the effectiveness of wearing these elastic, gradient compression garments during orthostatic testing after 2 weeks of 6 degree head-down tilt bed rest as a model of spaceflight and to determine whether they would impact recovery after bed rest. Methods: Eight (5 treatment, 3 control) of 16 subjects have completed this study to-date. All subjects wore the 3-piece garment from waking until tilt testing (3 h) as a simulation of the timeline for astronauts on landing day (BR+0). Control subjects removed the garment after the tilt test. Treatment subjects wore the garment for the remainder of the day and wore lower compression thigh-high only garments on the day after bed rest (BR+1). Blood pressure, heart rate, and stroke volume responses to a 15-min 80 degree head-up tilt test were determined before 2 weeks of 6 degree head-down tilt, and on BR+0 and BR+1. Plasma volume (PV) was measured before each of these test sessions. Data are mean SE. Results: Compression garments prevented signs of OI on BR+0; all subjects in both groups completed the full 15-min test. Heart rate responses to tilt were lower on BR+0 than all other test days. Control subjects demonstrated a marginal PV decrease after bed rest, but showed typical recovery the day after bed rest (BR+0: 2.32 plus or minus 0.15 L to BR+1: 2

  10. Mass hysteria

    CERN Document Server

    Hellemans, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Considerable research is being undertaken to identify the Higgs particle that is believed to give things their mass. According to the standard model, what we call mass is really an indication of how strongly particles interact with an invisible syrupy substance called the Higgs field. Quantum mechanics say that the mass-giving field can also be thought of as a sea of electrically neutral Higgs particles that should be dislodged in collisions between subatomic particles with high enough energies. Particle physicists expect the Higgs to exist only for a fleeting moment before decaying into other particles, which are caught in a detector. (Edited abstract).

  11. Changes in dynamic resting state network connectivity following aphasia therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, E Susan; Small, Steven L

    2017-10-24

    Resting state magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) permits observation of intrinsic neural networks produced by task-independent correlations in low frequency brain activity. Various resting state networks have been described, with each thought to reflect common engagement in some shared function. There has been limited investigation of the plasticity in these network relationships after stroke or induced by therapy. Twelve individuals with language disorders after stroke (aphasia) were imaged at multiple time points before (baseline) and after an imitation-based aphasia therapy. Language assessment using a narrative production task was performed at the same time points. Group independent component analysis (ICA) was performed on the rsfMRI data to identify resting state networks. A sliding window approach was then applied to assess the dynamic nature of the correlations among these networks. Network correlations during each 30-second window were used to cluster the data into ten states for each window at each time point for each subject. Correlation was performed between changes in time spent in each state and therapeutic gains on the narrative task. The amount of time spent in a single one of the (ten overall) dynamic states was positively associated with behavioral improvement on the narrative task at the 6-week post-therapy maintenance interval, when compared with either baseline or assessment immediately following therapy. This particular state was characterized by minimal correlation among the task-independent resting state networks. Increased functional independence and segregation of resting state networks underlies improvement on a narrative production task following imitation-based aphasia treatment. This has important clinical implications for the targeting of noninvasive brain stimulation in post-stroke remediation.

  12. A Nap But Not Rest or Activity Consolidates Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Heim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that a period of sleep after a motor learning task is a relevant factor for memory consolidation. However, it is yet open whether this also holds true for language-related learning. Therefore, the present study compared the short- and long-term effects of a daytime nap, rest, or an activity task after vocabulary learning on learning outcome. Thirty healthy subjects were divided into three treatment groups. Each group received a pseudo-word learning task in which pictures of monsters were associated with unique pseudo-word names. At the end of the learning block a first test was administered. Then, one group went for a 90-min nap, one for a waking rest period, and one for a resting session with interfering activity at the end during which a new set of monster names was to be learned. After this block, all groups performed a first re-test of the names that they initially learned. On the morning of the following day, a second re-test was administered to all groups. The nap group showed significant improvement from test to re-test and a stable performance onto the second re-test. In contrast, the rest and the interference groups showed decline in performance from test to re-test, with persistently low performance at re-test 2. The 3 (GROUP × 3 (TIME ANOVA revealed a significant interaction, indicating that the type of activity (nap/rest/interfering action after initial learning actually had an influence on the memory outcome. These data are discussed with respect to translation to clinical settings with suggestions for improvement of intervention outcome after speech-language therapy if it is followed by a nap rather than interfering activity.

  13. Can resting B cells present antigen to T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwell, J.D.; DeFranco, A.L.; Paul, W.E.; Schwartz, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Antigen stimulation of T lymphocytes can occur only in the presence of an antigen-presenting cell (APC). An ever-increasing number of cell types have been found to act as APCs; these include macrophages, splenic and lymph node dendritic cells, and Langerhans cells of the skin. Although activated B lymphocytes and B cell lymphomas are known to serve as APCs, it has been generally believed that resting B cells cannot perform this function. However, in recent studies the authors have found that resting B cells can indeed present soluble antigen to T cell clones as well as to antigen-primed T cells. The previous difficulty in demonstrating this activity can be explained by the finding that, in contrast to macrophages and dendritic cells, the antigen-presenting ability of resting B cells is very radiosensitive. Macrophages are usually irradiated with 2000-3300 rads to prevent them from incorporating [ 3 H]thymidine in the T cell proliferation assay. Resting B cells, however, begin to lose presenting function at 1500 rads and have completely lost this activity at 3300 rads. It was also possible to distinguish two distinct T cell clonal phenotypes when resting B cells were used as APCs on the basis of two different assays (T cell proliferation, and B cell proliferation resulting from T cell activation). The majority of T cell clones tested were capable of both proliferating themselves and inducing the proliferation of B cells. Some T cells clones, however, could not proliferate in the presence of antigen and B cell APCs, although they were very good at inducing the proliferation of B cells

  14. Cerebral Blood Flow during Rest Associates with General Intelligence and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Nagase, Tomomi; Nouchi, Rui; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2011-01-01

    Recently, much scientific attention has been focused on resting brain activity and its investigation through such methods as the analysis of functional connectivity during rest (the temporal correlation of brain activities in different regions). However, investigation of the magnitude of brain activity during rest has focused on the relative decrease of brain activity during a task, rather than on the absolute resting brain activity. It is thus necessary to investigate the association between cognitive factors and measures of absolute resting brain activity, such as cerebral blood flow (CBF), during rest (rest-CBF). In this study, we examined this association using multiple regression analyses. Rest-CBF was the dependent variable and the independent variables included two essential components of cognitive functions, psychometric general intelligence and creativity. CBF was measured using arterial spin labeling and there were three analyses for rest-CBF; namely mean gray matter rest-CBF, mean white matter rest-CBF, and regional rest-CBF. The results showed that mean gray and white matter rest-CBF were significantly and positively correlated with individual psychometric intelligence. Furthermore, mean white matter rest-CBF was significantly and positively correlated with creativity. After correcting the effect of mean gray matter rest-CBF the significant and positive correlation between regional rest-CBF in the perisylvian anatomical cluster that includes the left superior temporal gyrus and insula and individual psychometric intelligence was found. Also, regional rest-CBF in the precuneus was significantly and negatively correlated with individual creativity. Significance of these results of regional rest-CBF did not change when the effect of regional gray matter density was corrected. The findings showed mean and regional rest-CBF in healthy young subjects to be correlated with cognitive functions. The findings also suggest that, even in young cognitively intact

  15. Predictive value of casual ECG-based resting heart rate compared with resting heart rate obtained from Holter recording

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Nicholas; Dixen, Ulrik; Marott, Jacob L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Assessment of heart rate (HR) from Holter recording may afford a more precise estimate of the effect of RHR on cardiovascular risk, as compared to casual RHR. Comparative analysis was carried ...

  16. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation for 12 Weeks Increases Resting and Exercise Metabolic Rate in Healthy Community-Dwelling Older Females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha L Logan

    Full Text Available Critical among the changes that occur with aging are decreases in muscle mass and metabolic rate and an increase in fat mass. These changes may predispose older adults to chronic disease and functional impairment; ultimately resulting in a decrease in the quality of life. Research has suggested that long chain omega-3 fatty acids, found predominantly in fatty fish, may assist in reducing these changes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of fish oil (FO supplementation in a cohort of healthy, community-dwelling older females on 1 metabolic rate and substrate oxidation at rest and during exercise; 2 resting blood pressure and resting and exercise heart rates; 3 body composition; 4 strength and physical function, and; 5 blood measures of insulin, glucose, c-reactive protein, and triglycerides. Twenty-four females (66 ± 1 yr were recruited and randomly assigned to receive either 3g/d of EPA and DHA or a placebo (PL, olive oil for 12 wk. Exercise measurements were taken before and after 12 wk of supplementation and resting metabolic measures were made before and at 6 and 12 wk of supplementation. The results demonstrated that FO supplementation significantly increased resting metabolic rate by 14%, energy expenditure during exercise by 10%, and the rate of fat oxidation during rest by 19% and during exercise by 27%. In addition, FO consumption lowered triglyceride levels by 29% and increased lean mass by 4% and functional capacity by 7%, while no changes occurred in the PL group. In conclusion, FO may be a strategy to improve age-related physical and metabolic changes in healthy older females. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01734538.

  17. Neutrino mass and mixing with discrete symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Stephen F; Luhn, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    This is a review paper about neutrino mass and mixing and flavour model building strategies based on discrete family symmetry. After a pedagogical introduction and overview of the whole of neutrino physics, we focus on the PMNS mixing matrix and the latest global fits following the Daya Bay and RENO experiments which measure the reactor angle. We then describe the simple bimaximal, tri-bimaximal and golden ratio patterns of lepton mixing and the deviations required for a non-zero reactor angle, with solar or atmospheric mixing sum rules resulting from charged lepton corrections or residual trimaximal mixing. The different types of see-saw mechanism are then reviewed as well as the sequential dominance mechanism. We then give a mini-review of finite group theory, which may be used as a discrete family symmetry broken by flavons either completely, or with different subgroups preserved in the neutrino and charged lepton sectors. These two approaches are then reviewed in detail in separate chapters including mechanisms for flavon vacuum alignment and different model building strategies that have been proposed to generate the reactor angle. We then briefly review grand unified theories (GUTs) and how they may be combined with discrete family symmetry to describe all quark and lepton masses and mixing. Finally, we discuss three model examples which combine an SU(5) GUT with the discrete family symmetries A 4 , S 4 and Δ(96). (review article)

  18. Pharmacological exploration of the resting membrane potential reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Heyden, Marcel A G; Jespersen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    as well as by exchangers and pumps. This review will focus on the relative and regulated contribution of IK1, IK,ACh and IK,Ca, and on pharmacological modification of the channels underlying these currents in respect to the resting membrane potential, Na(+) channel availability and atrial......The cardiac action potential arises and spreads throughout the myocardium as a consequence of highly organized spatial and temporal expression of ion channels conducting Na(+), Ca(2+) or K(+) currents. The cardiac Na(+) current is responsible for the initiation and progression of the action...... potential. Altered Na(+) current has been found implicated in a number of different arrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation. In the atrium, the resting membrane potential is more depolarized than in the ventricles, and as cardiac Na(+) channels undergo voltage-dependent inactivation close...

  19. Resting alpha activity predicts learning ability in alpha neurofeedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenya eNan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals differ in their ability to learn how to regulate the alpha activity by neurofeedback. This study aimed to investigate whether the resting alpha activity is related to the learning ability of alpha enhancement in neurofeedback and could be used as a predictor. A total of 25 subjects performed 20 sessions of individualized alpha neurofeedback in order to learn how to enhance activity in the alpha frequency band. The learning ability was assessed by three indices respectively: the training parameter changes between two periods, within a short period and across the whole training time. It was found that the resting alpha amplitude measured before training had significant positive correlations with all learning indices and could be used as a predictor for the learning ability prediction. This finding would help the researchers in not only predicting the training efficacy in individuals but also gaining further insight into the mechanisms of alpha neurofeedback.

  20. Hydroelastic Oscillations of a Circular Plate, Resting on Winkler Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratov, D. V.; Mogilevich, L. I.; Popov, V. S.; Popova, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The forced hydroelastic oscillations of a circular plate resting on elastic foundation are investigated. The oscillations are caused by a stamp vibration under interaction with a plate through a thin layer of viscous incompressible liquid. The axis-symmetric problem for the regime of the steady-state harmonic oscillations is considered. On the basis of hydroelasticity problem solution the laws of plate deflection and pressure in the liquid are found. The functions of the amplitudes deflection distribution and liquid pressure along the plate are constructed. The presented mathematical model provides for investigating viscous liquid layer interaction dynamics with a circular plate resting on an elastic foundation. The above-mentioned model makes it possible to define the plate oscillations resonance frequencies and the corresponding amplitudes of deflection and liquid pressure, as well.

  1. Hierarchical functional modularity in the resting-state human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Luca; Veer, Ilya M; Baerends, Evelinda; van Tol, Marie-José; Renken, Remco J; van der Wee, Nic J A; Veltman, Dirk J; Aleman, André; Zitman, Frans G; Penninx, Brenda W J H; van Buchem, Mark A; Reiber, Johan H C; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Milles, Julien

    2009-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that anatomically distinct brain regions are functionally connected during the resting state. Basic topological properties in the brain functional connectivity (BFC) map have highlighted the BFC's small-world topology. Modularity, a more advanced topological property, has been hypothesized to be evolutionary advantageous, contributing to adaptive aspects of anatomical and functional brain connectivity. However, current definitions of modularity for complex networks focus on nonoverlapping clusters, and are seriously limited by disregarding inclusive relationships. Therefore, BFC's modularity has been mainly qualitatively investigated. Here, we introduce a new definition of modularity, based on a recently improved clustering measurement, which overcomes limitations of previous definitions, and apply it to the study of BFC in resting state fMRI of 53 healthy subjects. Results show hierarchical functional modularity in the brain. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  2. The resting electrocardiogram of t. cruzi-infected rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo B. Bestetti

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available A total of 125 rats were infected with the Colômbia strain of T. cruzi (2000 parasites/g shortly after weaning. Of these, 58 survived the acute phase and were used in the present experiment. Twenty eight similar but not infected rats served as controls. All rats were submitted to the resting ECG When they were 6 months old. Classic and 3 precordial leads were employed in order to record the ECG as completely as possible. Electrocardiographic changes similar to those found in human chronic Chagas' heart disease and not previously described in this model were found in 44% of the T. cruzi-infected rats: left axis deviation (22%, right axis deviation (7%, lengthened and bizarre QRS complex (14% and abnormal J point elevation (3%. On the basis of these results, we believe that the resting ECG constitutes a valuable tool for studying experimental chronic Chagas' heart disease in rats.

  3. Lactate kinetics in human tissues at rest and during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hall, Gerrit

    2010-01-01

    lactate metabolism at rest and during exercise and suggestions are put forward to explain the simultaneous lactate uptake and release; and (2) lactate metabolism in the heart, liver, kidneys, brain, adipose tissue and lungs will be discussed and its potential importance in these tissues.......Lactate production in skeletal muscle has now been studied for nearly two centuries and still its production and functional role at rest and during exercise is much debated. In the early days skeletal muscle was mainly seen as the site of lactate production during contraction and lactate production...... associated with a lack of muscle oxygenation and fatigue. Later it was recognized that skeletal muscle not only played an important role in lactate production but also in lactate clearance and this led to a renewed interest, not the least from the Copenhagen School in the 1930s, in the metabolic role...

  4. Resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia is associated with tonic positive emotionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oveis, Christopher; Cohen, Adam B; Gruber, June; Shiota, Michelle N; Haidt, Jonathan; Keltner, Dacher

    2009-04-01

    Resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSAREST) indexes important aspects of individual differences in emotionality. In the present investigation, the authors address whether RSAREST is associated with tonic positive or negative emotionality, and whether RSAREST relates to phasic emotional responding to discrete positive emotion-eliciting stimuli. Across an 8-month, multiassessment study of first-year university students (n = 80), individual differences in RSAREST were associated with positive but not negative tonic emotionality, assessed at the level of personality traits, long-term moods, the disposition toward optimism, and baseline reports of current emotional states. RSAREST was not related to increased positive emotion, or stimulus-specific emotion, in response to compassion-, awe-, or pride-inducing stimuli. These findings suggest that resting RSA indexes aspects of a person's tonic positive emotionality. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Treatment of resting tremor by beta-adrenergic blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, N L; Newman, R P; LeWitt, P A; Gillespie, M M; Chase, T N

    1984-10-01

    The effect of nadolol, a peripherally acting beta-adrenergic blocker, on resting tremor was examined in eight patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. With the use of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of crossover design, patients received 80 to 320 mg of nadolol for 6 weeks while continuing their previous treatment regimen. Accelerometer readings showed a progressive reduction in tremor amplitude, but no change in tremor frequency, with increasing nadolol dosage. Maximum benefit was achieved at 240 mg, when resting tremor improved 50% (p less than 0.01). Physician ratings confirmed these findings. The results suggest that response to beta-adrenergic blockade may not be limited to postural or intention tremor and that such agents may not reliably differentiate between the tremor of Parkinson's disease and essential tremor.

  6. Resting EEG deficits in accused murderers with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Robert A; Yang, Yaling; Raine, Adrian; Han, Chenbo; Liu, Jianghong; Li, Liejia

    2011-10-31

    Empirical evidence continues to suggest a biologically distinct violent subtype of schizophrenia. The present study examined whether murderers with schizophrenia would demonstrate resting EEG deficits distinguishing them from both non-violent schizophrenia patients and murderers without schizophrenia. Resting EEG data were collected from five diagnostic groups (normal controls, non-murderers with schizophrenia, murderers with schizophrenia, murderers without schizophrenia, and murderers with psychiatric conditions other than schizophrenia) at a brain hospital in Nanjing, China. Murderers with schizophrenia were characterized by increased left-hemispheric fast-wave EEG activity relative to non-violent schizophrenia patients, while non-violent schizophrenia patients instead demonstrated increased diffuse slow-wave activity compared to all other groups. Results are discussed within the framework of a proposed left-hemispheric over-processing hypothesis specific to violent individuals with schizophrenia, involving left hemispheric hyperarousal deficits, which may lead to a homicidally violent schizophrenia outcome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Child Abuse, Resting Blood Pressure, and Blood Pressure Reactivity to Psychosocial Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Holly C; Milliren, Carly E; Austin, S Bryn; Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2016-01-01

    Childhood trauma is associated with hypertension in adults. It is unknown whether childhood trauma predicts elevated blood pressure earlier in development. We investigated whether the trauma of child abuse was associated with blood pressure in adolescents. The sample included 145 adolescents aged 13-17 years, 40% with exposure to child abuse. The mean age of participants was 14.93 years (SD = 1.33); 58% were female. The majority self-identified as non-Hispanic White (43%), with the remainder identifying as non-Hispanic Black (17%), Hispanic (17%), or other/mixed race (23%). We used established age/sex/height-specific cutoffs to determine the prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension in the sample. We used two-sample t tests to examine associations of abuse with resting systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and blood pressure reactivity to the Trier Social Stress Test and a frustration task. We used linear regression to adjust for potential confounders including sociodemographic variables, body mass index, smoking, and psychopathology. Mean resting SBP and DBP were 114.07 mmHg and 61.35 mmHg in those with a history of abuse and 111.39 mmHg and 56.89 mmHg in those without a history of abuse. This difference was significant for DBP only. Twelve percent of participants met criteria for prehypertension or hypertension based on resting blood pressure values; this did not differ between those with and without an abuse history. Child abuse was associated with lower DBP and SBP reactivity to laboratory stress tasks and reduced DBP reactivity to frustration. These associations were robust to adjustment for potential confounders. Child abuse is associated with higher resting DBP and blunted DBP and SBP reactivity to laboratory stress in adolescence. These findings suggest a potential pathway by which child abuse leads to hypertension. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All

  8. Connecting Majorana phases to the geometric parameters of the Majorana unitarity triangle in a neutrino mass matrix model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Surender; Bhardwaj, Shankita

    2018-05-01

    We have investigated a possible connection between the Majorana phases and geometric parameters of Majorana unitarity triangle (MT) in two-texture zero neutrino mass matrix. Such analytical relations can, also, be obtained for other theoretical models viz. hybrid textures, neutrino mass matrix with vanishing minors and have profound implications for geometric description of C P violation. As an example, we have considered the two-texture zero neutrino mass model to obtain a relation between Majorana phases and MT parameters that may be probed in various lepton number violating processes. In particular, we find that Majorana phases depend on only one of the three interior angles of the MT in each class of two-texture zero neutrino mass matrix. We have also constructed the MT for class A , B , and C neutrino mass matrices. Nonvanishing areas and nontrivial orientations of these Majorana unitarity triangles indicate nonzero C P violation as a generic feature of this class of mass models.

  9. Prolonged bed rest decreases skeletal muscle and whole body protein synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, A. A.; Lane, H. W.; Stuart, C. A.; Davis-Street, J.; Wolfe, R. R.

    1996-01-01

    We sought to determine the extent to which the loss of lean body mass and nitrogen during inactivity was due to alterations in skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Six male subjects were studied during 7 days of diet stabilization and after 14 days of stimulated microgravity (-6 degrees bed rest). Nitrogen balance became more negative (P protein synthesis (PS; P protein also decreased by 46% (P protein breakdown and inward transport. Whole body protein synthesis determined by [15N]alanine ingestion on six subjects also revealed a 14% decrease (P protein breakdown change significantly. These results indicate that the loss of body protein with inactivity is predominantly due to a decrease in muscle PS and that this decrease is reflected in both whole body and skeletal muscle measures.

  10. Strangeness production in antiproton annihilation at rest on 3He, 4He and 20Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestra, F.; Batusov, Yu.A.; Falomkin, I.V.; Pontecorvo, G.B.; Rozhdestvensky, A.M.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Tretyak, V.I.; Bendiscioli, G.; Filippini, V.; Rotondi, A.; Salvini, P.; Venaglioni, A.; Bossolasco, S.; Bussa, M.P.; Busso, L.; Fava, L.; Ferrero, L.; Panzieri, D.; Piragino, G.; Tosello, F.; Breivik, F.O.; Danielsen, K.M.; Jacobsen, T.; Soerensen, S.O.; Guaraldo, C.; Maggiora, A.; Haatuft, A.; Halsteinslid, A.; Myklebost, K.; Olsen, J.M.; Lodi Rizzini, E.; Brescia Univ.; Zenoni, A.; European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva

    1991-01-01

    New data are reported on antiproton annihilations at rest with production of Λ and K S 0 , using a streamer chamber with 3 He, 4 He and 20 Ne as gas targets. The data include Λ, K S 0 , ΛK S 0 and K S 0 K S 0 production rates and momentum distributions, π - momentum spectra, mean numbers of charged particles generally and of negatively charged particles separately for different reaction channels. The yields are compared to simple combinatorial calculations based on the extreme assumptions of Λ production via B=1 or via B=0 (anti K rescattering) annihilations. Λ and K S 0 momentum spectra are compared to simple model calculations where B=0 and B=1 annihilations with and without final-state interactions are considered. A review of existing data on Λ and K S 0 production is presented, showing the dependence on the anti p momentum and on the mass number of the target. (orig.)

  11. Relativistic entanglement from relativistic quantum mechanics in the rest-frame instant form of dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusanna, Luca

    2011-01-01

    After a review of the problems induced by the Lorentz signature of Minkowski space-time, like the need of a clock synchronization convention for the definition of 3-space and the complexity of the notion of relativistic center of mass, there is the introduction of a new formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics compatible with the theory of relativistic bound states. In it the zeroth postulate of non-relativistic quantum mechanics is not valid and the physics is described in the rest frame by a Hilbert space containing only relative variables. The non-locality of the Poincare' generators imply a kinematical non-locality and non-separability influencing the theory of relativistic entanglement and not connected with the standard quantum non-locality.

  12. Heritability of resting heart rate and association with mortality in middle-aged and elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus T; Wod, Mette; Galatius, Søren

    2018-01-01

    , heritability estimates were 0.23 (95% CI 0.15 to 0.30); 0.27 (0.15 to 0.38) for males and 0.17 (0.06 to 0.28) for females. In multivariable models adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, pulmonary function, smoking, physical activity and zygosity, RHR was significantly associated......OBJECTIVE: Resting heart rate (RHR) possibly has a hereditary component and is associated with longevity. We used the classical biometric twin study design to investigate the heritability of RHR in a population of middle-aged and elderly twins and, furthermore, studied the association between RHR...... in RHR. CONCLUSIONS: RHR is a trait with a genetic influence in middle-aged and elderly twins free of cardiovascular disease. RHR is independently associated with longevity even when familial factors are controlled for in a twin design....

  13. Resting-state beta and gamma activity in Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-Seok; Park, Su Mi; Lee, Jaewon; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Jung, Hee Yeon; Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dai Jin; Oh, Sohee; Lee, Jun-Young

    2013-09-01

    Internet addiction is the inability to control one's use of the Internet and is related to impulsivity. Although a few studies have examined neurophysiological activity as individuals with Internet addiction engage in cognitive processing, no information on spontaneous EEG activity in the eyes-closed resting-state is available. We investigated resting-state EEG activities in beta and gamma bands and examined their relationships with impulsivity among individuals with Internet addiction and healthy controls. Twenty-one drug-naïve patients with Internet addiction (age: 23.33 ± 3.50 years) and 20 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched healthy controls (age: 22.40 ± 2.33 years) were enrolled in this study. Severity of Internet addiction was identified by the total score on Young's Internet Addiction Test. Impulsivity was measured with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 and a stop-signal task. Resting-state EEG during eyes closed was recorded, and the absolute/relative power of beta and gamma bands was analyzed. The Internet addiction group showed high impulsivity and impaired inhibitory control. The generalized estimating equation showed that the Internet-addiction group showed lower absolute power on the beta band than did the control group (estimate = -3.370, p Internet-addiction group showed higher absolute power on the gamma band than did the control group (estimate = 0.434, p Internet addiction as well as with the extent of impulsivity. The present study suggests that resting-state fast-wave brain activity is related to the impulsivity characterizing Internet addiction. These differences may be neurobiological markers for the pathophysiology of Internet addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Neutrino mass?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayser, B.

    1992-01-01

    After arguing that we should be looking for evidence of neutrino mass, we illustrate the possible consequences of neutrino mass and mixing. We then turn to the question of whether neutrinos are their own antiparticles, and to the process which may answer this question: neutrinoless double beta decay. Next, we review the proposed Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution to the solar neutrino problem, and discuss models which can generate neutrino electromagnetic moments large enough to play a role in the sun. Finally, we consider how the possible 17 keV neutrino, if real, would fit in with everything we know about neutrinos. (orig.)

  15. Mass metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, S V

    2012-01-01

    This book presents the practical aspects of mass measurements. Concepts of gravitational, inertial and conventional mass and details of the variation of acceleration of gravity are described. The Metric Convention and International Prototype Kilogram and BIPM standards are described. The effect of change of gravity on the indication of electronic balances is derived with respect of latitude, altitude and earth topography. The classification of weights by OIML is discussed. Maximum permissible errors in different categories of weights prescribed by national and international organizations are p

  16. Role of resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure in hunger and appetite control: a new formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, John E; Caudwell, Phillipa; Gibbons, Catherine; Hopkins, Mark; Naslund, Erik; King, Neil; Finlayson, Graham

    2012-09-01

    A long-running issue in appetite research concerns the influence of energy expenditure on energy intake. More than 50 years ago, Otto G. Edholm proposed that "the differences between the intakes of food [of individuals] must originate in differences in the expenditure of energy". However, a relationship between energy expenditure and energy intake within any one day could not be found, although there was a correlation over 2 weeks. This issue was never resolved before interest in integrative biology was replaced by molecular biochemistry. Using a psychobiological approach, we have studied appetite control in an energy balance framework using a multi-level experimental system on a single cohort of overweight and obese human subjects. This has disclosed relationships between variables in the domains of body composition [fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM)], metabolism, gastrointestinal hormones, hunger and energy intake. In this Commentary, we review our own and other data, and discuss a new formulation whereby appetite control and energy intake are regulated by energy expenditure. Specifically, we propose that FFM (the largest contributor to resting metabolic rate), but not body mass index or FM, is closely associated with self-determined meal size and daily energy intake. This formulation has implications for understanding weight regulation and the management of obesity.

  17. Role of resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure in hunger and appetite control: a new formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Blundell

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A long-running issue in appetite research concerns the influence of energy expenditure on energy intake. More than 50 years ago, Otto G. Edholm proposed that “the differences between the intakes of food [of individuals] must originate in differences in the expenditure of energy”. However, a relationship between energy expenditure and energy intake within any one day could not be found, although there was a correlation over 2 weeks. This issue was never resolved before interest in integrative biology was replaced by molecular biochemistry. Using a psychobiological approach, we have studied appetite control in an energy balance framework using a multi-level experimental system on a single cohort of overweight and obese human subjects. This has disclosed relationships between variables in the domains of body composition [fat-free mass (FFM, fat mass (FM], metabolism, gastrointestinal hormones, hunger and energy intake. In this Commentary, we review our own and other data, and discuss a new formulation whereby appetite control and energy intake are regulated by energy expenditure. Specifically, we propose that FFM (the largest contributor to resting metabolic rate, but not body mass index or FM, is closely associated with self-determined meal size and daily energy intake. This formulation has implications for understanding weight regulation and the management of obesity.

  18. Effects of air and water temperatures on resting metabolism of auklets and other diving birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Samantha E; Lovvorn, James R

    2011-01-01

    For small aquatic endotherms, heat loss while floating on water can be a dominant energy cost, and requires accurate estimation in energetics models for different species. We measured resting metabolic rate (RMR) in air and on water for a small diving bird, the Cassin's auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus), and compared these results to published data for other diving birds of diverse taxa and sizes. For 8 Cassin's auklets (~165 g), the lower critical temperature was higher on water (21 °C) than in air (16 °C). Lowest values of RMR (W kg⁻¹) averaged 19% higher on water (12.14 ± 3.14 SD) than in air (10.22 ± 1.43). At lower temperatures, RMR averaged 25% higher on water than in air, increasing with similar slope. RMR was higher on water than in air for alcids, cormorants, and small penguins but not for diving ducks, which appear exceptionally resistant to heat loss in water. Changes in RMR (W) with body mass either in air or on water were mostly linear over the 5- to 20-fold body mass ranges of alcids, diving ducks, and penguins, while cormorants showed no relationship of RMR with mass. The often large energetic effects of time spent floating on water can differ substantially among major taxa of diving birds, so that relevant estimates are critical to understanding their patterns of daily energy use.

  19. ACTIVE AND PASSIVE GALAXIES AT z ∼ 2: REST-FRAME OPTICAL MORPHOLOGIES WITH WFC3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, E.; Carollo, C. M.; Oesch, P. A.; Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Magee, D.; Trenti, M.; Labbé, I.

    2011-01-01

    We use the high angular resolution in the near-infrared of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope to determine YHVz color-color-selection criteria to identify and characterize 1.5 10 M ☉ . Meanwhile, galaxies maintaining diffuse and/or irregular morphologies in the rest-frame optical light—i.e., not yet dynamically settled—at these epochs are almost entirely restricted to masses below 10 11 M ☉ . In contrast at 2.25 11 M ☉ . Strikingly, by 1.5 < z < 2.25 roughly two out of every three galaxies at the highest masses are spheroids. In our small sample, the fraction of star-forming galaxies at these mass scales decreases concurrently from ∼60% to ∼5%. If confirmed, this indicates that z ∼ 2 is the epoch of both the morphological transformation and quenching of star formation which assemble the first substantial population of massive ellipticals.

  20. Independent association of resting energy expenditure with blood pressure: confirmation in populations of the African diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creber, Chloe; Cooper, Richard S; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Lambert, Estelle V; Forrester, Terrence E; Schoeller, Dale; Riesen, Walter; Korte, Wolfgang; Cao, Guichan; Luke, Amy; Dugas, Lara R

    2018-01-10

    Obesity is a major risk factor for hypertension, however, the physiologic mechanisms linking increased adiposity to elevations in blood pressure are not well described. An increase in resting energy expenditure (REE) is an obligatory consequence of obesity. Previous survey research has demonstrated that REE is an independent predictor of blood pressure, and eliminates the co-linear association of body mass index. This observation has received little attention and there have been no attempts to provide a causal explanation. At baseline in an international comparative study on obesity, 289 participants aged 25-44 were recruited from communities in the US, the Seychelles, Ghana and South Africa and had REE measured with indirect calorimetry. All participants were thought to be free of major illness. In multivariate regression models, both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were positively associated with REE (p < 0.01), while body mass index and fat mass were negatively correlated with systolic blood pressure (p < 0.01, and p < 0.05 respectively), but not diastolic blood pressure. These data confirm previous reports and suggest that a common physiologic abnormality links REE and blood pressure. Elevated catecholamines, a putative metabolic characteristic of obesity, is a possible candidate to explain this association. The direct role of excess adipose tissue is open to question.

  1. Seamless Integration of RESTful Services into the Web of Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Lanthaler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We live in an era of ever-increasing abundance of data. To cope with the information overload we suffer from every single day, more sophisticated methods are required to access, manipulate, and analyze these humongous amounts of data. By embracing the heterogeneity, which is unavoidable at such a scale, and accepting the fact that the data quality and meaning are fuzzy, more adaptable, flexible, and extensible systems can be built. RESTful services combined with Semantic Web technologies could prove to be a viable path to achieve that. Their combination allows data integration on an unprecedented scale and solves some of the problems Web developers are continuously struggling with. This paper introduces a novel approach to create machine-readable descriptions for RESTful services as a first step towards this ambitious goal. It also shows how these descriptions along with an algorithm to translate SPARQL queries to HTTP requests can be used to integrate RESTful services into a global read-write Web of Data.

  2. Dirac Matrices and Feynman’s Rest of the Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young S. Kim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available There are two sets of four-by-four matrices introduced by Dirac. The first set consists of fifteen Majorana matrices derivable from his four γ matrices. These fifteen matrices can also serve as the generators of the group SL(4, r. The second set consists of ten generators of the Sp(4 group which Dirac derived from two coupled harmonic oscillators. It is shown possible to extend the symmetry of Sp(4 to that of SL(4, r if the area of the phase space of one of the oscillators is allowed to become smaller without a lower limit. While there are no restrictions on the size of phase space in classical mechanics, Feynman’s rest of the universe makes this Sp(4-to-SL(4, r transition possible. The ten generators are for the world where quantum mechanics is valid. The remaining five generators belong to the rest of the universe. It is noted that the groups SL(4, r and Sp(4 are locally isomorphic to the Lorentz groups O(3, 3 and O(3, 2 respectively. This allows us to interpret Feynman’s rest of the universe in terms of space-time symmetry.

  3. Neuroaging through the Lens of the Resting State Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Cieri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI allows studying spontaneous brain activity in absence of task, recording changes of Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD signal. rs-fMRI enables identification of brain networks also called Resting State Networks (RSNs including the most studied Default Mode Network (DMN. The simplicity and speed of execution make rs-fMRI applicable in a variety of normal and pathological conditions. Since it does not require any task, rs-fMRI is particularly useful for protocols on patients, children, and elders, increasing participant’s compliance and reducing intersubjective variability due to the task performance. rs-fMRI has shown high sensitivity in identification of RSNs modifications in several diseases also in absence of structural modifications. In this narrative review, we provide the state of the art of rs-fMRI studies about physiological and pathological aging processes. First, we introduce the background of resting state; then we review clinical findings provided by rs-fMRI in physiological aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI, Alzheimer Dementia (AD, and Late Life Depression (LLD. Finally, we suggest future directions in this field of research and its potential clinical applications.

  4. Detecting Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Using Resting State Magnetoencephalographic Connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily A Vakorin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate means to detect mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI using objective and quantitative measures remain elusive. Conventional imaging typically detects no abnormalities despite post-concussive symptoms. In the present study, we recorded resting state magnetoencephalograms (MEG from adults with mTBI and controls. Atlas-guided reconstruction of resting state activity was performed for 90 cortical and subcortical regions, and calculation of inter-regional oscillatory phase synchrony at various frequencies was performed. We demonstrate that mTBI is associated with reduced network connectivity in the delta and gamma frequency range (>30 Hz, together with increased connectivity in the slower alpha band (8-12 Hz. A similar temporal pattern was associated with correlations between network connectivity and the length of time between the injury and the MEG scan. Using such resting state MEG network synchrony we were able to detect mTBI with 88% accuracy. Classification confidence was also correlated with clinical symptom severity scores. These results provide the first evidence that imaging of MEG network connectivity, in combination with machine learning, has the potential to accurately detect and determine the severity of mTBI.

  5. BDNF genotype modulates resting functional connectivity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moriah E Thomason

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A specific polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene is associated with alterations in brain anatomy and memory; its relevance to the functional connectivity of brain networks, however, is unclear. Given that altered hippocampal function and structure has been found in adults who carry the methionine (met allele of the BDNF gene and the molecular studies elucidating the role of BDNF in neurogenesis and synapse formation, we examined in the association between BDNF gene variants and neural resting connectivity in children and adolescents. We observed a reduction in hippocampal and parahippocampal to cortical connectivity in met-allele carriers within each of three resting networks: the default-mode, executive, and paralimbic networks. In contrast, we observed increased connectivity to amygdala, insula and striatal regions in met-carriers, within the paralimbic network. Because the BDNF met-allele has been linked to increased susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders, this latter finding of greater connectivity in circuits important for emotion processing may indicate a new neural mechanism through which these gene-related psychiatric differences are manifest. Here we show that the BDNF gene, known to regulate synaptic plasticity and connectivity in the brain, affects functional connectivity at the neural systems level. Additionally, we provide the first demonstration that the spatial topography of multiple high-level resting state networks in healthy children and adolescents is similar to that observed in adults.

  6. Heart rate variability biofeedback improves cardiorespiratory resting function during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Masahito; Hayano, Junichiro; Oikawa, Leo O; Katsamanis, Maria; Lehrer, Paul

    2013-12-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effect of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback on the cardiorespiratory resting function during sleep in daily life. Forty-five healthy young adults were randomly assigned to one of three groups: HRV biofeedback, Autogenic Training(AT), and no-treatment control. Participants in the HRV biofeedback were instructed to use a handheld HRV biofeedback device before their habitual bedtime, those in the AT were asked to listen to an audiotaped instruction before bedtime,and those in the control were asked to engage in their habitual activity before bedtime. Pulse wave signal during sleep at their own residences was measured continuously with a wrist watch-type transdermal photoelectric sensor for three time points. Baseline data were collected on the first night of measurements, followed by two successive nights for HRV biofeedback, AT, or control. Cardiorespiratory resting function was assessed quantitatively as the amplitude of high frequency(HF) component of pulse rate variability, a surrogate measure of respiratory sinus arrhythmia. HF component increased during sleep in the HRV biofeedback group,although it remained unchanged in the AT and control groups. These results suggest that HRV biofeedback before sleep may improve cardiorespiratory resting function during sleep.

  7. On the relativistic mass conception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kard, P.

    1979-01-01

    Mass of light is generally substantiated with the use of the Einstein known mental experiment with a cylinder displacing under the pressure of light flare emitted at one of its ends and absorbed at the other. This experiment is not rigorous however and involves a logical circle. Another method is presented to substantiate mass of light. The initial conditions are as follows: the law of momentum conservation, evailability of light pulse, momentum parallelism to a velocity, and the general ralativistic formula of velocity transformation. A consideration is given to directed emission of light flux by a body in two internal systems, viz. in the system of initial rest of the body and in the system moving relatively to it with an arbitrary velocity. The law of momentum conservation being used in both systems, as well as formulae for velocity transformation, the formulae are obtained which show that light has mass. The general law of mass conservation is derived as a consequence of the formulae for mass and momentum transformations

  8. Automatic O(a) improvement for twisted mass QCD in the presence of spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Sinya; Baer, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present a proof for automatic O(a) improvement in twisted mass lattice QCD at maximal twist, which uses only the symmetries of the leading part in the Symanzik effective action. In the process of the proof we clarify that the twist angle is dynamically determined by vacuum expectation values in the Symanzik theory. For maximal twist according to this definition, we show that scaling violations of all quantities which have nonzero values in the continuum limit are even in a. In addition, using Wilson chiral perturbation theory, we investigate this definition for maximal twist and compare it to other definitions which were already employed in actual simulations

  9. Soft tissue masses of extremities: MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Seok Hyun; Yang, Seoung Oh; Choi, Jong Chul; Park, Byeong Ho; Lee, Ki Nam; Choi, Sun Seob; Chung, Duck Hwan [Dong-A University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-11-15

    To evaluate MR findings of soft tissue masses in extremities and to find the helpful findings of distinguish benignity from malignancy, 28 soft tissue masses (22 benign and 6 malignant) in extremities were reviewed. TI-weighted, proton density, T2-weighted and Gd-DTPA enhanced images were obtained. MR images allowed a specific diagnosis in large number of benign masses, such as hemangioma(8/9), lipoma(2/2), angiolipoma(1/1), epidermoid cyst(2/2), myositis ossificans(1/1), synovial chondromatosis(1/1) and pigmented villonodular synovitis(1/2). Specific diagnosis was difficult in the rest of the masses including malignancy. However, inhomogeneous signal intensities with necrosis and inhomogeneous enhancement may suggest malignant masses.

  10. Individual Variability in Aerobic Fitness Adaptations to 70-d of Bed Rest and Exercise Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Meghan; Buxton, Roxanne; Goetchius, Elizabeth; DeWitt, John; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Change in maximal aerobic capacity (VO2pk) in response to exercise training and disuse is highly variable among individuals. Factors that could contribute to the observed variability (lean mass, daily activity, diet, sleep, stress) are not routinely controlled in studies. The NASA bed rest (BR) studies use a highly controlled hospital based model as an analog of spaceflight. In this study, diet, hydration, physical activity and light/dark cycles were precisely controlled and provided the opportunity to investigate individual variability. PURPOSE. Evaluate the contribution of exercise intensity and lean mass on change in VO2pk during 70-d of BR or BR + exercise. METHODS. Subjects completed 70-d of BR alone (CON, N=9) or BR + exercise (EX, N=17). The exercise prescription included 6 d/wk of aerobic exercise at 70 - 100% of max and 3 d/wk of lower body resistance exercise. Subjects were monitored 24 hr/d. VO2pk and lean mass (iDXA) were measured pre and post BR. ANOVA was used to evaluate changes in VO2pk pre to post BR. Subjects were retrospectively divided into high and low responders based on change in VO2pk (CON > 20% loss, n=5; EX >10% loss, n=4, or 5% gain, n=4) to further understand individual variability. RESULTS. VO2pk decreased from pre to post BR in CON (Pexercise intensity. CONCLUSION. Change in VO2pk in response to disuse and exercise was highly variable among individuals, even in this tightly controlled study. Loss in lean mass accounts for a significant degree of variability in the CON; however, training induced gains in VO2pk appear unrelated to lean mass or exercise intensity.

  11. Mass-Radius Relations of Z and Higgs-Like Bosons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Relations between the rest mass and the effective radius are deduced for the Z boson and the experimentally discovered Higgs-like boson, in terms of a revised quantum electrodynamic (RQED theory. The latter forms an alternative to the Standard Model of elementary particles. This results in an effective radius of the order of 10 E-18 m for a rest mass of 125 GeV.

  12. Mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvang Hartmeyer, Gitte; Jensen, Anne Kvistholm; Böcher, Sidsel

    2010-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is currently being introduced for the rapid and accurate identification of bacteria. We describe 2 MALDI-TOF MS identification cases - 1 directly on spinal fluid and 1 on grown bacteria. Rapidly obtained...

  13. Same day injections of Tc-99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (hexamibi) for myocardial tomographic imaging: Comparison between rest-stress and stress-rest injection sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taillefer, R.; Gagnon, A.; Laflamme, L.; Leveille, J.; Phaneuf, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    It has been shown that both rest and stress 99m Tc-hexamibi myocardial perfusion imaging can be performed on the same day using two different doses injected within few h (the first one at rest followed by a second at stress). In order to evaluate and compare 2 sequences (rest-stress and stress-rest) of 99m Tc-hexamibi injections performed the same day, 18 patients with either abnormal 201 Tl myocardial scan or abnormal coronary angiography were studied with 2 99m Tc-hexamibi injections protocols. The rest-stress study was performed as follows: 7 mCi 99m Tc-hexamibi was injected at rest. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed 60 min later. Immediately after the rest study, patients were injected at peak stress with 25 mCi 99m Tc-hexamibi. Tomographic imaging was repeated 1 h later. Patients were submitted to the stress-rest protocol within 3 days. Tomographic imaging was done 1 h after a 7 mCi injection at stress. This study was followed by an injection of 25 mCi 99m Tc-hexamibi at rest, a tomographic study was performed 60 min later. Myocardial sections were reconstructed in horizontal long, vertical long, and short axes. Data analysis also included polar map representation. A total of 324 segments were interpreted blind by 3 observers, there was an agreement in 283/324 (87.3%) segments between the 2 protocols. However, 24 segments (7.4%) judged ischemic on rest-stress were called scars on stress-rest. In three patients, myocardial segments were judged normal on the rest image of the rest-stress protocol while they were found abnormal (false positive images) on the stress-rest sequence. Stress images from both protocols were judged similar in 17 patients. In conclusion, when using a short time interval (less than 2 h) between two 99m Tc-hexamibi injections, it is preferable to do a rest-stress sequence since the rest image performed initially represents a true rest study, which is not necessarily the case with the stress-rest sequence

  14. Modeling quantum fluid dynamics at nonzero temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berloff, Natalia G.; Brachet, Marc; Proukakis, Nick P.

    2014-01-01

    The detailed understanding of the intricate dynamics of quantum fluids, in particular in the rapidly growing subfield of quantum turbulence which elucidates the evolution of a vortex tangle in a superfluid, requires an in-depth understanding of the role of finite temperature in such systems. The Landau two-fluid model is the most successful hydrodynamical theory of superfluid helium, but by the nature of the scale separations it cannot give an adequate description of the processes involving vortex dynamics and interactions. In our contribution we introduce a framework based on a nonlinear classical-field equation that is mathematically identical to the Landau model and provides a mechanism for severing and coalescence of vortex lines, so that the questions related to the behavior of quantized vortices can be addressed self-consistently. The correct equation of state as well as nonlocality of interactions that leads to the existence of the roton minimum can also be introduced in such description. We review and apply the ideas developed for finite-temperature description of weakly interacting Bose gases as possible extensions and numerical refinements of the proposed method. We apply this method to elucidate the behavior of the vortices during expansion and contraction following the change in applied pressure. We show that at low temperatures, during the contraction of the vortex core as the negative pressure grows back to positive values, the vortex line density grows through a mechanism of vortex multiplication. This mechanism is suppressed at high temperatures. PMID:24704874

  15. CANDELS: THE EVOLUTION OF GALAXY REST-FRAME ULTRAVIOLET COLORS FROM z = 8 TO 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, Steven L.; Papovich, Casey; Salmon, Brett; Bassett, Robert; Finlator, Kristian; Dickinson, Mark; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Grogin, Norman A.; Giavalisco, Mauro; Reddy, Naveen A.; Mobasher, Bahram; Conselice, Christopher J.; Dunlop, James S.; McLure, Ross J.; Faber, S. M.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Lai, Kamson; Hathi, Nimish P.; Lee, Kyoung-Soo

    2012-01-01

    We study the evolution of galaxy rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) colors in the epoch 4 ∼ 3.5, including 113 at z ≅ 7-8. We fit the observed spectral energy distribution to a suite of synthetic stellar population models and measure the value of the UV spectral slope (β) from the best-fit model spectrum. We run simulations to show that this measurement technique results in a smaller scatter on β than other methods, as well as a reduced number of galaxies with catastrophically incorrect β measurements (i.e., Δβ > 1). We find that the median value of β evolves significantly from –1.82 +0.00 –0.04 at z = 4 to –2.37 +0.26 –0.06 at z = 7. Additionally, we find that faint galaxies at z = 7 have β –2.68 +0.39 –0.24 (∼ –2.4 after correcting for observational bias); this is redder than previous claims in the literature and does not require 'exotic' stellar populations (e.g., very low metallicities or top-heavy initial mass functions) to explain their colors. This evolution can be explained by an increase in dust extinction, from low amounts at z = 7 to A V ∼ 0.5 mag at z = 4. The timescale for this increase is consistent with low-mass asymptotic giant branch stars forming the bulk of the dust. We find no significant ( UV when measuring M UV at a consistent rest-frame wavelength of 1500 Å. This is particularly true at bright magnitudes, though our results do show evidence for a weak correlation at faint magnitudes when galaxies in the HUDF are considered separately, hinting that dynamic range in sample luminosities may play a role. We do find a strong correlation between β and the stellar mass at all redshifts, in that more massive galaxies exhibit redder colors. The most massive galaxies in our sample have similarly red colors at each redshift, implying that dust can build up quickly in massive galaxies and that feedback is likely removing dust from low-mass galaxies at z ≥ 7. Thus, the stellar-mass—metallicity relation, previously observed up

  16. Relativistic kinematics of the electromagnetic fields of a guided mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivlin, Lev A

    2000-01-01

    It is shown that during the observation of a wave in a waveguide from a comoving reference system travelling at a velocity equal to the group velocity of the wave, the wave propagation is halted and the electromagnetic energy contained in the waveguide proves to be stationary. The nonzero rest mass of the photons in the waveguide is equivalent to this rest energy and is identical with the rest mass measured in dynamic experiments. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  17. Influence of segmental body composition and adiposity hormones on resting metabolic rate and substrate utilization in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, K R; Smith-Ryan, A E; Blue, M N M; Mock, M G; Trexler, E T

    2017-06-01

    Low resting metabolic rate (RMR) and high carbohydrate reliance at rest are associated with weight gain, but are highly variable in obese individuals. This study determined the relationship of total and segmental body composition and adiposity hormones with RMR and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in overweight and obese adults. In 49 men (n = 23) and premenopausal women (n = 26) [mean ± SD; age = 35.0 ± 8.9 years; body mass index (BMI) = 33.6 ± 5.2 kg·m -2 ; percent body fat (%fat) = 40.0 ± 8.0%], RMR and RER were evaluated using indirect calorimetry. Total and segmental body composition [fat mass (FM), percent fat (%fat), lean mass (LM), visceral adipose tissue (VAT)] were estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Fasted blood and saliva samples were analyzed for insulin, leptin, estradiol, and cortisol. In men (M) and women (W), RMR significantly correlated (p  0.05). Segmental evaluation of body composition, specifically in the lower extremities and abdomen, may be an effective and efficient way to evaluate metabolic status. Sex-specific evaluations are also imperative.

  18. Increased heart rate variability but normal resting metabolic rate in hypocretin/orexin-deficient human narcolepsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fronczek, R.; Overeem, S.; Reijntjes, R.; Lammers, G.J.; Dijk, J.G.M.; Pijl, H.

    2008-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: We investigated autonomic balance and resting metabolic rate to explore their possible involvement in obesity in hypocretin/orexin-deficient narcoleptic subjects. METHODS: Resting metabolic rate (using indirect calorimetry) and variability in heart rate and blood pressure were

  19. Impact of mass generation for spin-1 mediator simplified models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Nicole F.; Cai, Yi; Leane, Rebecca K.

    2017-01-01

    In the simplified dark matter models commonly studied, the mass generation mechanism for the dark fields is not typically specified. We demonstrate that the dark matter interaction types, and hence the annihilation processes relevant for relic density and indirect detection, are strongly dictated by the mass generation mechanism chosen for the dark sector particles, and the requirement of gauge invariance. We focus on the class of models in which fermionic dark matter couples to a spin-1 vector or axial-vector mediator. However, in order to generate dark sector mass terms, it is necessary in most cases to introduce a dark Higgs field and thus a spin-0 scalar mediator will also be present. In the case that all the dark sector fields gain masses via coupling to a single dark sector Higgs field, it is mandatory that the axial-vector coupling of the spin-1 mediator to the dark matter is non-zero; the vector coupling may also be present depending on the charge assignments. For all other mass generation options, only pure vector couplings between the spin-1 mediator and the dark matter are allowed. If these coupling restrictions are not obeyed, unphysical results may be obtained such as a violation of unitarity at high energies. These two-mediator scenarios lead to important phenomenology that does not arise in single mediator models. We survey two-mediator dark matter models which contain both vector and scalar mediators, and explore their relic density and indirect detection phenomenology.

  20. Measurement of collective dynamical mass of Dirac fermions in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hosang; Forsythe, Carlos; Wang, Lei; Tombros, Nikolaos; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Hone, James; Kim, Philip; Ham, Donhee

    2014-08-01

    Individual electrons in graphene behave as massless quasiparticles. Unexpectedly, it is inferred from plasmonic investigations that electrons in graphene must exhibit a non-zero mass when collectively excited. The inertial acceleration of the electron collective mass is essential to explain the behaviour of plasmons in this material, and may be directly measured by accelerating it with a time-varying voltage and quantifying the phase delay of the resulting current. This voltage-current phase relation would manifest as a kinetic inductance, representing the reluctance of the collective mass to accelerate. However, at optical (infrared) frequencies, phase measurements of current are generally difficult, and, at microwave frequencies, the inertial phase delay has been buried under electron scattering. Therefore, to date, the collective mass in graphene has defied unequivocal measurement. Here, we directly and precisely measure the kinetic inductance, and therefore the collective mass, by combining device engineering that reduces electron scattering and sensitive microwave phase measurements. Specifically, the encapsulation of graphene between hexagonal boron nitride layers, one-dimensional edge contacts and a proximate top gate configured as microwave ground together enable the inertial phase delay to be resolved from the electron scattering. Beside its fundamental importance, the kinetic inductance is found to be orders of magnitude larger than the magnetic inductance, which may be utilized to miniaturize radiofrequency integrated circuits. Moreover, its bias dependency heralds a solid-state voltage-controlled inductor to complement the prevalent voltage-controlled capacitor.

  1. Cognitive function at rest and during exercise following breakfast omission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, Takaaki; Sudo, Mizuki; Okuda, Naoki; Yasuno, Tetsuhiko; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Higaki, Yasuki; Ando, Soichi

    2016-04-01

    It has been suggested that breakfast omission, as opposed to breakfast consumption, has the detrimental effects on cognitive function. However, the effects of acute exercise following breakfast omission on cognitive function are poorly understood, particularly during exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine the interactive effects of breakfast and exercise on cognitive function. Ten participants completed cognitive tasks at rest and during exercise in the breakfast consumption or omission conditions. Blood glucose concentration was measured immediately after each cognitive task. We used cognitive tasks to assess working memory [Spatial Delayed Response (DR) task] and executive function [Go/No-Go (GNG) task]. The participants cycled ergometer for 30 min while keeping their heart rate at 140 beats·min(-1). Accuracy of the GNG task was lower at rest in the breakfast omission condition than that in the breakfast consumption condition (Go trial: P=0.012; No-Go trial: P=0.028). However, exercise improved accuracy of the Go trial in the breakfast omission condition (P=0.013). Reaction time in the Go trial decreased during exercise relative to rest in both conditions (P=0.002), and the degree of decreases in reaction time was not different between conditions (P=0.448). Exercise and breakfast did not affect the accuracy of the Spatial DR task. The present results indicate that breakfast omission impairs executive function, but acute exercise improved executive function even after breakfast omission. It appears that beneficial effects of acute exercise on cognitive function are intact following breakfast omission. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A RESTful interface to pseudonymization services in modern web applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lablans, Martin; Borg, Andreas; Ückert, Frank

    2015-02-07

    Medical research networks rely on record linkage and pseudonymization to determine which records from different sources relate to the same patient. To establish informational separation of powers, the required identifying data are redirected to a trusted third party that has, in turn, no access to medical data. This pseudonymization service receives identifying data, compares them with a list of already reported patient records and replies with a (new or existing) pseudonym. We found existing solutions to be technically outdated, complex to implement or not suitable for internet-based research infrastructures. In this article, we propose a new RESTful pseudonymization interface tailored for use in web applications accessed by modern web browsers. The interface is modelled as a resource-oriented architecture, which is based on the representational state transfer (REST) architectural style. We translated typical use-cases into resources to be manipulated with well-known HTTP verbs. Patients can be re-identified in real-time by authorized users' web browsers using temporary identifiers. We encourage the use of PID strings for pseudonyms and the EpiLink algorithm for record linkage. As a proof of concept, we developed a Java Servlet as reference implementation. The following resources have been identified: Sessions allow data associated with a client to be stored beyond a single request while still maintaining statelessness. Tokens authorize for a specified action and thus allow the delegation of authentication. Patients are identified by one or more pseudonyms and carry identifying fields. Relying on HTTP calls alone, the interface is firewall-friendly. The reference implementation has proven to be production stable. The RESTful pseudonymization interface fits the requirements of web-based scenarios and allows building applications that make pseudonymization transparent to the user using ordinary web technology. The open-source reference implementation implements the

  3. Resting-state brain activity in adult males who stutter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Xuan

    Full Text Available Although developmental stuttering has been extensively studied with structural and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, few studies have focused on resting-state brain activity in this disorder. We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF, region of interest (ROI-based functional connectivity (FC and independent component analysis (ICA-based FC. Forty-four adult males with developmental stuttering and 46 age-matched fluent male controls were scanned using resting-state fMRI. ALFF, ROI-based FCs and ICA-based FCs were compared between male stuttering subjects and fluent controls in a voxel-wise manner. Compared with fluent controls, stuttering subjects showed increased ALFF in left brain areas related to speech motor and auditory functions and bilateral prefrontal cortices related to cognitive control. However, stuttering subjects showed decreased ALFF in the left posterior language reception area and bilateral non-speech motor areas. ROI-based FC analysis revealed decreased FC between the posterior language area involved in the perception and decoding of sensory information and anterior brain area involved in the initiation of speech motor function, as well as increased FC within anterior or posterior speech- and language-associated areas and between the prefrontal areas and default-mode network (DMN in stuttering subjects. ICA showed that stuttering subjects had decreased FC in the DMN and increased FC in the sensorimotor network. Our findings support the concept that stuttering subjects have deficits in multiple functional systems (motor, language, auditory and DMN and in the connections between them.

  4. Energy landscapes of resting-state brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamitsu eWatanabe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During rest, the human brain performs essential functions such as memory maintenance, which are associated with resting-state brain networks (RSNs including the default-mode network (DMN and frontoparietal network (FPN. Previous studies based on spiking-neuron network models and their reduced models, as well as those based on imaging data, suggest that resting-state network activity can be captured as attractor dynamics, i.e., dynamics of the brain state toward an attractive state and transitions between different attractors. Here, we analyze the energy landscapes of the RSNs by applying the maximum entropy model, or equivalently the Ising spin model, to human RSN data. We use the previously estimated parameter values to define the energy landscape, and the disconnectivity graph method to estimate the number of local energy minima (equivalent to attractors in attractor dynamics, the basin size, and hierarchical relationships among the different local minima. In both of the DMN and FPN, low-energy local minima tended to have large basins. A majority of the network states belonged to a basin of one of a few local minima. Therefore, a small number of local minima constituted the backbone of each RSN. In the DMN, the energy landscape consisted of two groups of low-energy local minima that are separated by a relatively high energy barrier. Within each group, the activity patterns of the local minima were similar, and different minima were connected by relatively low energy barriers. In the FPN, all dominant energy were separated by relatively low energy barriers such that they formed a single coarse-grained global minimum. Our results indicate that multistable attractor dynamics may underlie the DMN, but not the FPN, and assist memory maintenance with different memory states.

  5. Gender Differences in Baroreflex Sensitivity after Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzeno, Natalia M.; Stenger, M. B.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Lee, S. M.; Platts, S. H.

    2009-01-01

    Two potential contributing factors to post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance are decreases in baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and sympathetic nervous system response. The purpose of this study was to examine the shape of the BRS curve and sympathetic response to a wide range of blood pressures (BP) before and during 6 head-down bed rest (BR). METHODS: Normal volunteers were tested one day before BR (20M, 1 0F) and near BR days 30 (20M, 10F), 60 (16M, 8F), and 90 (1 0M, 5F). BP was pharmacologically manipulated by 10-min infusions of phenylephrine (PE) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) at 3 increasing concentrations with a 20-min rest between PE and SNP. Electrocardiogram and continuous finger blood pressure were recorded. A blood sample was drawn at the end of each infusion to measure plasma norepinephrine levels. The spontaneous baroreflex slope (SBS), a measure of BRS, was calculated as the slope of a sequence of 3 or more beats in which the systolic BP (SBP) and following R-R interval (RR) both increased or decreased. The data included saturated responses at the upper but not the lower end of the BP range. Mean response curves were constructed using second-order mixed model analysis. Results are based on term significance in the models. RESULTS RR: RR was lower during BR than pre BR (pgenders were modeled by a linear response; compared to males, females had an attenuated (lower slope) RR response to changes in SBP (p=0.031). SBS: SBS vs SBP analysis showed a lower SBS during BR (pgender and BR. Not only do gender and BR baseline differences exist, but gender and BR also influence the slope and saturation of the BRS curves. Attenuated and saturating RR and SBS responses, as well as differences in baseline values, may contribute to the higher rates of orthostatic intolerance in women and after bed rest.

  6. Resting-State Brain Activity in Adult Males Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chaozhe; Wang, Liang; Yan, Qian; Lin, Chunlan; Yu, Chunshui

    2012-01-01

    Although developmental stuttering has been extensively studied with structural and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), few studies have focused on resting-state brain activity in this disorder. We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), region of interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity (FC) and independent component analysis (ICA)-based FC. Forty-four adult males with developmental stuttering and 46 age-matched fluent male controls were scanned using resting-state fMRI. ALFF, ROI-based FCs and ICA-based FCs were compared between male stuttering subjects and fluent controls in a voxel-wise manner. Compared with fluent controls, stuttering subjects showed increased ALFF in left brain areas related to speech motor and auditory functions and bilateral prefrontal cortices related to cognitive control. However, stuttering subjects showed decreased ALFF in the left posterior language reception area and bilateral non-speech motor areas. ROI-based FC analysis revealed decreased FC between the posterior language area involved in the perception and decoding of sensory information and anterior brain area involved in the initiation of speech motor function, as well as increased FC within anterior or posterior speech- and language-associated areas and between the prefrontal areas and default-mode network (DMN) in stuttering subjects. ICA showed that stuttering subjects had decreased FC in the DMN and increased FC in the sensorimotor network. Our findings support the concept that stuttering subjects have deficits in multiple functional systems (motor, language, auditory and DMN) and in the connections between them. PMID:22276215

  7. Charged massive particle at rest in the field of a Reissner-Nordstroem black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bini, D.; Geralico, A.; Ruffini, R.

    2007-01-01

    The interaction of a Reissner-Nordstroem black hole and a charged massive particle is studied in the framework of perturbation theory. The particle backreaction is taken into account, studying the effect of general static perturbations of the hole following the approach of Zerilli. The solutions of the combined Einstein-Maxwell equations for both perturbed gravitational and electromagnetic fields to first order of the perturbation are exactly reconstructed by summing all multipoles, and are given explicit closed form expressions. The existence of a singularity-free solution of the Einstein-Maxwell system requires that the charge-to-mass ratios of the black hole and of the particle satisfy an equilibrium condition which is in general dependent on the separation between the two bodies. If the black hole is undercritically charged (i.e. its charge-to-mass ratio is less than one), the particle must be overcritically charged, in the sense that the particle must have a charge-to-mass ratio greater than one. If the charge-to-mass ratios of the black hole and of the particle are both equal to one (so that they are both critically charged, or 'extreme'), the equilibrium can exist for any separation distance, and the solution we find coincides with the linearization in the present context of the well-known Majumdar-Papapetrou solution for two extreme Reissner-Nordstroem black holes. In addition to these singularity-free solutions, we also analyze the corresponding solution for the problem of a massive particle at rest near a Schwarzschild black hole, exhibiting a strut singularity on the axis between the two bodies. The relations between our perturbative solutions and the corresponding exact two-body solutions belonging to the Weyl class are also discussed

  8. Does exercise training affect resting metabolic rate in adolescents with obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberga, Angela S; Prud'homme, Denis; Sigal, Ronald J; Goldfield, Gary S; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Gougeon, Réjeanne; Phillips, Penny; Malcolm, Janine; Wells, George A; Doucette, Steve; Ma, Jinhui; Kenny, Glen P

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that resistance exercise training performed alone or in combination with aerobic exercise training would increase resting metabolic rate (RMR) relative to aerobic-only and nonexercising control groups. Postpubertal adolescents (N = 304) aged 14-18 years with obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 95th percentile) or overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile + additional diabetes risk factor(s)) were randomized to 4 groups for 22 weeks: Aerobic exercise training, Resistance exercise training, Combined aerobic and resistance exercise training, or Control. All participants received dietary counselling targeting a daily energy deficit of 250 kcal. RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry and body composition by magnetic resonance imaging. There was no significant change in RMR in any group, in spite of significant within-group increases in fat-free mass in the Aerobic, Resistance, and Combined exercise training groups. RMR at baseline and 6 months were Aerobic: 1972 ± 38 and 1990 ± 41; Resistance: 2024 ± 37 and 1992 ± 41; Combined: 2023 ± 38 and 1995 ± 38; Control: 2075 ± 38 and 2073 ± 39 kcal/day (p > 0.05). There were no between-group differences in RMR after adjustment for total body weight or fat-free mass between groups over time. Per-protocol analyses including only participants with ≥70% adherence, and analyses stratified by sex, also showed no within- or between-group differences in RMR. In conclusion, despite an increase in fat-free mass in all exercise groups, 6 months of aerobic, resistance, or combined training with modest dietary restriction did not increase RMR compared with diet only in adolescents with obesity.

  9. Lorentzian Type Force on a Charge at Rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelsacher R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A remarkable achievement of theoretical physics is the explanation of magnetic effects, described by the Lorentz force, to be corollaries of charge i nvariance, Coulombs Law and the Lorentz transformation. The relativistic explanation of magnetism is based essentially on the calculation of Coulomb forces between mo ving charges in the labo- ratory reference system. We will show presently that the ideas used for the relativistic explanation of magnetism also lead to a force on a charge at rest by moving charges, which we dub “Lorentzian type force on a charge at rest”.

  10. Nephrogenic rests mimicking Wilms' tumor on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhas, Naveen; Siegelman, Stanley S. [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology, The Johns Hopkins Hospital and School of Medicine, 600 N. Wolfe St., 21287, Baltimore, MD (United States); Argani, Pedram [Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins Hospital and School of Medicine, 21287, Baltimore, MD (United States); Gearhart, John P. [Department of Pediatric Urology, Brady Urologic Institute, The Johns Hopkins Hospital and School of Medicine, 21287, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2004-02-01

    Nephrogenic rests (NR) are persistent benign remnants of embryonic renal tissue. A small percentage of these may develop into Wilms' tumor (WT). Radiologic imaging is relied upon to differentiate between these entities, with the hallmark of malignant transformation being growth on serial imaging studies. There is, however, considerable overlap in their imaging characteristics. The authors present a case of two biopsy-proven NR in a 2-year-old girl with sporadic aniridia that were indistinguishable from WT on initial radiologic studies. One of the NR grew on serial imaging studies mimicking a WT, but after resection was confirmed to be a benign hyperplastic NR on pathologic examination. (orig.)

  11. Recommended rest frequencies for observed interstellar molecular transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovas, F.J.; Snyder, I.E.; Johnson, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    The most accurate values presently available for the rest frequencies of all known interstellar molecular transitions are presented and recommended for reference in future astronomical observations in the radio and microwave regions. The recommended values have been carefully selected after critical evaluation of the spectroscopic literature. Probable error limits along with the proper molecular and quantum mechanical labels are presented for each observed transition. Representative line antenna temperatures are also presented for a typical source as a convenience to users. References are cited to both the astronomical and the laboratory literature

  12. Rest frames and relativistic effects on de Sitter spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotaescu, Ion I. [West University of Timisoara, Timisoara (Romania)

    2017-07-15

    It is shown that the Nachtmann boosting method of introducing coordinates on de Sitter manifolds can be completed with suitable gauge transformations able to keep under control the transformation under isometries of the conserved quantities. With this method, the rest local charts (or natural frames) are defined pointing out the role of the conserved quantities in investigating the relative geodesic motion. The advantages of this approach can be seen from the applications presented here. For the first time, the simple kinematic effects, the electromagnetic field of a free falling charge and the binary fission are solved in terms of conserved quantities on the expanding portion of the de Sitter spacetime. (orig.)

  13. A respiratory mask for resting and exercising dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavert, D M; Reischl, P; O'Loughlin, B J

    1982-02-01

    A respiratory face mask has been developed for use with unsedated beagles trained to run on a treadmill. The latex rubber mask, shaped to fit the animal's muzzle, incorporates two modified, commercially available, pulmonary valves for separating inspiratory and expiratory flows. The mask has a dead space of 30 cm3 and a flow resistance below 1 cmH2O . 1(-1) . s. The flexible mask is used to measure breath-by-breath respiratory variables over extended periods of time during rest and exercise.

  14. Hypervolemia from Drinking Hyperhydration Solutions at Rest and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Looft-Wilson, Robin; Jackson, Catherine G. R.; Geelen, Ghislaine; Barnes, Paul R.; Jensen, Christopher D.; Whittam, James H.

    1995-01-01

    The mechanism of muscular fatigue from physical work and exercise (high metabolism) is not clear, but involves disturbances of muscle surface membrane excitation-contraction coupling from changes in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release, cell H+ and Pi responses, and carbohydrate metabolism. Fatigue in people at rest (low metabolism) involves both psychological and physiological factors, probably in different proportions. One common factor appears to be the level and distribution of water and electrolytes within muscle cells and other vascular, interstitial, body fluid compartments. The vascular fluid volume, composed of plasma and red blood cells, is a primary regulatory factor for cardiovascular function; reduction of vascular volume (hypovolemia) and total body water (hypohydration) adversely affect exercise performance. Plasma volume and plasma ionic-osmotic constituent concentrations are also regulatory factors for body thermoregulation, which is often compromised from exercise induced hypovolemia and hypohydration. Rehydration of dehydrated people on earth is relatively easy with appropriate food (osmols), fluid, and a restful environment. But ad libitum drinking under stressful conditions; e.g., heat, exercise, or prior dehydration, results in involuntary dehydration defined as the delay in full fluid replacement (euhydration) during and following loss of body fluid. Astronauts, with their reduced total body water are euhydrated while in weightlessness, but become "dehydrated" during reentry and landing. Thus, people subjected to acute or chronic stress are probably somewhat "dehydrated" as well as fatigued. Many rehydration drinks are more concentrated (hypertonic-hyperosmotic) with respect to the normal plasma osmolality of 285 mOsm/kg H2O and more of the drink osmols are contributed by carbohydrates than by ionized substances. There have been few studies on the efficacy of various drink formulations for increasing body fluid compartment volumes, especially

  15. The Effects of Long Duration Bed Rest as a Spaceflight Analogue on Resting State Sensorimotor Network Functional Connectivity and Neurocognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, K.; Koppelmans, V.; Yuan, P.; Cooke, K.; De Dios, Y.; Stepanyan, V.; Szecsy, D.; Gadd, N.; Wood, S.; Reuter-Lorenz, P.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight has been associated with detrimental alterations in human sensorimotor systems and neurocognitive performance. Prolonged exposure to a head-down tilt position during long duration bed rest can resemble several effects of the microgravity environment such as reduced sensory inputs, body unloading and increased cephalic fluid distribution. The question of whether microgravity affects other central nervous system functions such as brain functional connectivity and its relationship with neurocognitive performance is largely unknown, but of potential importance to the health and performance of astronauts both during and post-flight. The aims of the present study are 1) to identify changes in sensorimotor resting state functional connectivity that occur with extended bed rest exposure, and to characterize their recovery time course; 2) to evaluate how these neural changes correlate with neurocognitive performance. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data were collected from 17 male participants. The data were acquired through the NASA bed rest facility, located at the University of Texas Medical Branch (Galveston, TX). Participants remained in bed with their heads tilted down six degrees below their feet for 70 consecutive days. RsfMRI data were obtained at seven time points: 7 and 12 days before bed rest; 7, 50, and 65 days during bed rest; and 7 and 12 days after bed rest. Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) analysis was performed to measure the connectivity of sensorimotor networks in the brain before, during, and post-bed rest. We found a decrease in left putamen connectivity with the pre- and post-central gyri from pre bed rest to the last day in bed rest. In addition, vestibular cortex connectivity with the posterior cingulate cortex decreased from pre to post bed rest. Furthermore, connectivity between cerebellar right superior posterior fissure and other cerebellar regions decreased from

  16. Merger of binary neutron stars of unequal mass in full general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Masaru; Taniguchi, Keisuke; Uryu-bar, Ko-barji

    2003-01-01

    We present results of three dimensional numerical simulations of the merger of unequal-mass binary neutron stars in full general relativity. A Γ-law equation of state P=(Γ-1)ρε is adopted, where P, ρ, ε, and Γ are the pressure, rest mass density, specific internal energy, and the adiabatic constant, respectively. We take Γ=2 and the baryon rest-mass ratio Q M to be in the range 0.85-1. The typical grid size is (633,633,317) for (x,y,z). We improve several implementations since the latest work. In the present code, the radiation reaction of gravitational waves is taken into account with a good accuracy. This fact enables us to follow the coalescence all the way from the late inspiral phase through the merger phase for which the transition is triggered by the radiation reaction. It is found that if the total rest mass of the system is more than ∼1.7 times of the maximum allowed rest mass of spherical neutron stars, a black hole is formed after the merger, irrespective of the mass ratios. The gravitational waveforms and outcomes in the merger of unequal-mass binaries are compared with those in equal-mass binaries. It is found that the disk mass around the so formed black holes increases with decreasing rest-mass ratios and decreases with increasing compactness of neutron stars. The merger process and the gravitational waveforms also depend strongly on the rest-mass ratios even for the range Q M =0.85-1

  17. Matched-pair analyses of resting and dynamic morphology between Monarc and TVT-O procedures by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jenn-Ming; Yang, Shwu-Huey; Huang, Wen-Chen; Tzeng, Chii-Ruey

    2013-07-01

    To determine morphologic differences between Monarc and TVT-O procedures in axial and coronal planes by three- and four-dimensional (3D and 4D) ultrasound. Retrospective chart audits and ultrasound analyses were conducted on 128 women who had undergone either Monarc or TVT-O procedures for urodynamic stress incontinence. Thirty matched pairs of the two successful procedures were randomly selected and compared. Matched variables were age, parity, body mass index, cesarean status, menopausal status, and primary surgeries. Six-month postoperative 3D and 4D ultrasound results obtained at rest, on straining, and during coughing in these 60 women were analyzed. Assessed ultrasound parameters included the axial tape urethral distance (aTUD), axial central urethral echolucent area (aUCEA), axial tape angle (aTA), and coronal tape angle (cTA), all of which were measured at three equidistant points along the tapes. Paired t-tests were used to compare differences in ultrasound parameters between women after the two procedures and a P value TVT-O procedures. There were no significant differences in other resting ultrasound parameters between these two procedures. Additionally, after both procedures women had comparable straining and coughing ultrasound manifestations as well as respective dynamic changes. Despite flatter resting tape angulations in women following Monarc procedures, both Monarc and TVT-O tapes had equivalent dynamic patterns and changes assessed by 4D ultrasound. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Proliferation of epithelial cell rests, formation of apical cysts, and regression of apical cysts after periapical wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Louis M; Huang, George T-J; Rosenberg, Paul A

    2007-08-01

    There is continuing controversy regarding the potential for inflammatory apical cysts to heal after nonsurgical endodontic therapy. Molecular cell biology may provide answers to a series of related questions. How are the epithelial cell rests of Malassez stimulated to proliferate? How are the apical cysts formed? How does the lining epithelium of apical cysts regress after endodontic therapy? Epithelial cell rests are induced to divide and proliferate by inflammatory mediators, proinflammatory cytokines, and growth factors released from host cells during periradicular inflammation. Quiescent epithelial cell rests can behave like restricted-potential stem cells if stimulated to proliferate. Formation of apical cysts is most likely caused by the merging of proliferating epithelial strands from all directions to form a three-dimensional ball mass. After endodontic therapy, epithelial cells in epithelial strands of periapical granulomas and the lining epithelium of apical cysts may stop proliferating because of a reduction in inflammatory mediators, proinflammatory cytokines, and growth factors. Epithelial cells will also regress because of activation of apoptosis or programmed cell death through deprivation of survival factors or by receiving death signals during periapical wound healing.

  19. Changes in the structural and functional characteristics of fisher (Pekania pennanti) rest structures over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill Zielinski; Fredrick V. Schlexer

    2015-01-01

    Resting habitat used by fishers (Pekania pennanti) has been relatively well studied but information on the persistence of their resting structures over time is unknown. We selected for reexamination 73 of 195 resting structures used by by fishers in northwestern California and compared their condition on the date they were found with their...

  20. The Rest-Activity Rhythm and Physical Activity in Early-Onset Dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooghiemstra, A.M.; Eggermont, L.H.P.; Scheltens, P.; van der Flier, W.M.; Scherder, E.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A substantial part of elderly persons with dementia show rest-activity rhythm disturbances. The rest-activity rhythm is important to study in people with early-onset dementia (EOD) for rest-activity rhythm disturbances are predictive of institutionalization, and caregivers of young

  1. Rest and action tremor in Parkinson's disease: effects of Deep Brain Stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, Tjitske; Wentink, E.C.

    2010-01-01

    One of the cardinal symptoms of Parkinson’s disease is rest tremor. While rest tremor generally disappears during sleep and voluntary movement, action tremor may be triggered by voluntary movement, and may even be more disabling than rest tremor. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic

  2. Cancellous bone structure of iliac crest biopsies following 370 days of head-down bed rest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Morukov, Boris V.; Vico, Laurence

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Static bone histomorphometry was applied to existing iliac bone sections originating from a 370-d 5 degrees head-down bed rest experiment. This bed rest experiment is the longest ever to have been conducted. We hypothesized that bed rest would decrease cancellous bone volume fractio...

  3. 14 CFR 91.1059 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: One or two pilot crews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1059 Flight time... Rest 10 Hours 12 Hours. (6) Minimum After Duty Rest Period for Multi-Time Zone Flights 14 Hours 18... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest...

  4. Expanded functional coupling of subcortical nuclei with the motor resting-state network in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogonowski, Anne-Marie; Siebner, Hartwig R; Sørensen, Per Soelberg

    2013-01-01

    controls underwent a 20-minute resting-state fMRI session at 3 Tesla. Independent component analysis was applied to the fMRI data to identify disease-related changes in motor resting-state connectivity. RESULTS: Patients with MS showed a spatial expansion of motor resting-state connectivity in deep...

  5. Mass Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2017-03-01

    Fitness has become one of the most popular kinds of the mass sport and has completely replaced the traditional “physical culture”. Dozens of variations of fitness and millions of participants pose a great challenge to contemporary architecture. The articles of our issue show the present and the future of architecture for fitness. We present a topical collection with a wide geographical range, including the Irkutsk Agglomeration, Tomsk, Krasnodar, sports in the Moscow Palace of Young Pioneers, and the anthology of the top foreign sports venues.

  6. Critical Mass

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070299

    2017-01-01

    Critical Mass is a cycling event typically held on the last Friday of every month; its purpose is not usually formalized beyond the direct action of meeting at a set location and time and traveling as a group through city or town streets on bikes. The event originated in 1992 in San Francisco; by the end of 2003, the event was being held in over 300 cities around the world. At CERN it is held once a year in conjunction with the national Swiss campaing "Bike to work".

  7. Temporal Changes in Left Ventricular Mechanics: Impact of Bed Rest and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jessica M.; Matz, Timothy; Caine, Timothy; Martin, David S.; Downs, Meghan; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Current techniques used to assess cardiac function following spaceflight or head-down tilt bed rest (HDTBR) involve invasive and time consuming procedures such as Swan-Ganz catheterization or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. An alternative approach, echocardiography, can monitor cardiac morphology and function via sequential measurements of left ventricular (LV) mass and ejection fraction (EF). However, LV mass and EF are insensitive measures of early (subclinical) cardiac deconditioning, and a decrease in LV mass and EF become evident only once significant deconditioning has already occurred. The use of more sensitive and specific echocardiographic techniques such as speckle tracking imaging may address the current limitations of conventional cardiac imaging techniques to provide insight into the magnitude and time course of cardiac deconditioning. METHODS Speckle tracking assessment of longitudinal, radial, and circumferential strain and twist was used to evaluate the impact of 70 days of HDTBR (n=7) and HDTBR + exercise (n=11) on temporal changes in LV mechanics. Echocardiograms were performed pre (BR-2), during (BR31, 70), and following (BR+4hr) HDTBR. Multi-level modeling was used to evaluate the effect of HDTBR condition (Control, Exercise) on cardiac variables. RESULTS Compared to BR-2, longitudinal (BR-2: - 19.0 +/- 1.8%; BR31: -15.9 +/- 2.4%; BR70: -14.9 +/- 2.4%; BR+4hr: -16.0 +/- 2.1%) and radial (BR-2: 15.0 +/- 1.9%; BR31: 12.3 +/- 2.4%; BR70: 11.3 +/- 2.2%; BR+4hr: 13.5 +/- 2.5% ) strains were significantly impaired during and following bed rest (pmechanics for longitudinal strain (BR-2: -19.1 +/- 1.5%; BR 31: -19.0 +/- 2.4%; BR70: -19.1 +/- 2.7%; BR+4hr: -17.8 +/- 2.1%), radial strain (BR-2: 13.8 +/- 2.4; BR31: 14.7 +/- 2.4; BR70: 14.4 +/- 1.6; BR+4hr: 14.4 +/- 2.4), and twist (BR-2: 17.8 +/- 3.6deg; BR31: 18.0 +/- 3.6deg; BR70: 18.2 +/- 5.9deg; BR+4hr: 18.3 +/- 4.2deg). CONCLUSIONS Speckle-tracking echocardiography provides important

  8. Effect of enforced physical inactivity induced by 60-day of bed rest on hepatic markers of NAFLD in healthy normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudwill, Floriane; Bergouignan, Audrey; Gastebois, Caroline; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Lefai, Etienne; Blanc, Stéphane; Simon, Chantal

    2015-06-01

    Physical inactivity leads to a cluster of metabolic disorders that have been associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases. We tested whether physical inactivity increases hepatic biomarkers of NAFLDs. Sixteen normal-weight healthy women (body mass index = 21.2 ± 0.5 kg/m(2) ) were studied under controlled energy balance conditions during a previous 60-day bed rest with (n = 8) or without (n = 8) a combined aerobic/resistive exercise protocol. Stored samples were retrospectively used to measure plasma hepatic markers, i.e. steatosis-related alanine and aspartate transaminases, cytokeratin 18 and angiopoietin-like 3, at baseline, after 30 and 60 days of bed rest. Fasting insulin and triglycerides were measured at baseline and after 30 days of bed rest. Two indexes were calculated, one combining alanine and aspartate transaminase and cytokeratin 18 and another cytokeratin 18, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and aspartate aminotransferase. Sixty days of bed rest increased all hepatic markers (P inactive conditions. Physical inactivity increases, independent of fat mass, hepatic markers of steatosis and steatohepatitis. Regular exercise can limit these physical inactivity-induced metabolic alterations. Future studies need to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. URINARY CREATINE AT REST AND AFTER REPEATED SPRINTS IN ATHLETES: A PILOT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrallah, F.; Feki, M.; Chamari, K.; Omar, S.; Alouane-Trabelsi, L.; Ben Mansour, A.; Kaabachi, N.

    2014-01-01

    Creatine plays a key role in muscle function and its evaluation is important in athletes. In this study, urinary creatine concentration was measured in order to highlight its possible significance in monitoring sprinters. The study included 51 sprinters and 25 age- and sex-matched untrained subjects as a control group. Body composition was measured and dietary intake estimated. Urine samples were collected before and after standardized physical exercise. Creatine was assessed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Basal urinary creatine (UC) was significantly lower in sprinters than controls (34±30 vs. 74±3 µmol/mmol creatinine, p creatine significantly decreased in both athletes and controls. UC is low in sprinters at rest and further decreases after exercise, most likely due to a high uptake and use of creatine by muscles, as muscle mass and physical activity are supposed to be greater in athletes than untrained subjects. Further studies are needed to test the value of urinary creatine as a non-invasive marker of physical condition and as a parameter for managing Cr supplementation in athletes. PMID:24917689

  10. Resting energy expenditure and body composition in children with cancer: indirect calorimetry and bioimpedance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Konovalova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Resting energy expenditure (REE by indirect calorimetry and body composition by bioimpedance analysis are studied in three groups of children aged 5–18 years. Group 1 (n = 181 – patients in remission of cancer, group 2 (n = 55 – children with oncology diseases receiving chemotherapy or who are in the early period after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, group 3 (n = 63 – children with non-malignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. To eliminate the influence of age and gender on the intergroup comparisons, body composition parameters were expressed as standardized values (z-scores relative to a reference group of healthy Russian children (n = 138,191. Group 1 was characterized by excess fat content with intact lean body mass, and groups 2 and 3 by protein depletion, more pronounced in Group 2 with a higher percentage of body fat. All used conventional formulas (WHO, Harris–Benedict and others in groups 1 and 3 underestimated REE as compared with indirect calorimetry. A new formula for REE, giving an unbiased estimate in the group 1 was proposed: REE (kcal/day = 28.7 × BCM (kg +10.5 × Height (cm – 38.6 × Age (years – 134, where BCM – body cell mass according to bioimpedance analysis (R2 = 0.67, the standard deviation of 196 kcal/day.

  11. Increased interhemispheric resting-state functional connectivity after sleep deprivation: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuanqiang; Feng, Zhiyan; Xu, Junling; Fu, Chang; Sun, Jinbo; Yang, Xuejuan; Shi, Dapeng; Qin, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Several functional imaging studies have investigated the regional effects of sleep deprivation (SD) on impaired brain function; however, potential changes in the functional interactions between the cerebral hemispheres after SD are not well understood. In this study, we used a recently validated approach, voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC), to directly examine the changes in interhemispheric homotopic resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) after SD. Resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) was performed in 28 participants both after rest wakefulness (RW) and a total night of SD. An interhemispheric RSFC map was obtained by calculating the Pearson correlation (Fisher Z transformed) between each pair of homotopic voxel time series for each subject in each condition. The between-condition differences in interhemispheric RSFC were then examined at global and voxelwise levels separately. Significantly increased global VMHC was found after sleep deprivation; specifically, a significant increase in VMHC was found in specific brain regions, including the thalamus, paracentral lobule, supplementary motor area, postcentral gyrus and lingual gyrus. No regions showed significantly reduced VMHC after sleep deprivation. Further analysis indicates that these findings did not depend on the various sizes of smoothing kernels that were adopted in the preprocessing steps and that the differences in these regions were still significant with or without global signal regression. Our data suggest that the increased VMHC might reflect the compensatory involvement of bilateral brain areas, especially the bilateral thalamus, to prevent cognitive performance deterioration when sleep pressure is elevated after sleep deprivation. Our findings provide preliminary evidence of interhemispheric correlation changes after SD and contribute to a better understanding of the neural mechanisms of SD.

  12. Effect of Smoking on Blood Pressure and Resting Heart Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan; Jacobsen, Rikke K; Skaaby, Tea

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: -Smoking is an important cardiovascular disease risk factor, but the mechanisms linking smoking to blood pressure are poorly understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: -Data on 141,317 participants (62,666 never, 40,669 former, 37,982 current smokers) from 23 population-based studies were...... for smoking heaviness in current smokers. In observational analyses, current as compared with never smoking was associated with lower SBP, DBP, and lower hypertension risk, but with higher resting heart rate. In observational analyses amongst current smokers, one cigarette/day higher level of smoking...... heaviness was associated with higher (0.21 beats/minute; 95% CI 0.19; 0.24) resting heart rate, and slightly higher DBP (0.05 mmHg; 95% CI 0.02; 0.08) and SBP (0.08 mmHg; 95% CI 0.03; 0.13). However, in MR analyses amongst current smokers, while each smoking increasing allele of rs16969968/rs1051730...

  13. Resting-state functional connectivity differences in premature children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eswar Damaraju

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine the coherence in the spontaneous brain activity of sleeping children as measured by the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI signals. The results are described in terms of resting-state networks (RSN and their properties. More specifically, in this study we examine the effect of severe prematurity on the spatial location of the visual, temporal, motor, basal ganglia, and the default mode networks, the temporal response properties of each of these networks, and the functional connectivity between them. Our results suggest that the anatomical locations of the RSNs are well developed by 18 months of age and their spatial locations are not distinguishable between premature and term born infants at 18 months or at 36 months, with the exception of small spatial differences noted in the basal ganglia area and the visual cortex. The two major differences between term and preterm children were present at 36 but not 18 months and include: 1 increased spectral energy in the low frequency range (0.01 – 0.06 Hz for pre-term children in the basal ganglia component, and 2 stronger connectivity between RSNs in term children. We speculate that children born very prematurely are vulnerable to injury resulting in weaker connectivity between resting state networks by 36 months of age. Further work is required to determine whether this could be a clinically useful tool to identify children at risk of developmental delay related to premature birth.

  14. A baseline for the multivariate comparison of resting state networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A Allen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available As the size of functional and structural MRI datasets expands, it becomes increasingly important to establish a baseline from which diagnostic relevance may be determined, a processing strategy that efficiently prepares data for analysis, and a statistical approach that identifies important effects in a manner that is both robust and reproducible. In this paper, we introduce a multivariate analytic approach that optimizes sensitivity and reduces unnecessary testing. We demonstrate the utility of this mega-analytic approach by identifying the effects of age and gender on the resting state networks of 603 healthy adolescents and adults (mean age: 23.4 years, range: 12 to 71 years. Data were collected on the same scanner, preprocessed using an automated analysis pipeline based in SPM, and studied using group independent component analysis. Resting state networks were identified and evaluated in terms of three primary outcome measures: time course spectral power, spatial map intensity, and functional network connectivity. Results revealed robust effects of age on all three outcome measures, largely indicating decreases in network coherence and connectivity with increasing age. Gender effects were of smaller magnitude but suggested stronger intra-network connectivity in females and more inter-network connectivity in males, particularly with regard to sensorimotor networks. These findings, along with the analysis approach and statistical framework described here, provide a useful baseline for future investigations of brain networks in health and disease.

  15. Habenula functional resting-state connectivity in pediatric CRPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erpelding, Nathalie; Sava, Simona; Simons, Laura E; Lebel, Alyssa; Serrano, Paul; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2014-01-01

    The habenula (Hb) is a small brain structure located in the posterior end of the medial dorsal thalamus and through medial (MHb) and lateral (LHb) Hb connections, it acts as a conduit of information between forebrain and brainstem structures. The role of the Hb in pain processing is well documented in animals and recently also in acute experimental pain in humans. However, its function remains unknown in chronic pain disorders. Here, we investigated Hb resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) compared with healthy controls. Twelve pediatric patients with unilateral lower-extremity CRPS (9 females; 10-17 yr) and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls provided informed consent to participate in the study. In healthy controls, Hb functional connections largely overlapped with previously described anatomical connections in cortical, subcortical, and brainstem structures. Compared with controls, patients exhibited an overall Hb rsFC reduction with the rest of the brain and, specifically, with the anterior midcingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, supplementary motor cortex, primary motor cortex, and premotor cortex. Our results suggest that Hb rsFC parallels anatomical Hb connections in the healthy state and that overall Hb rsFC is reduced in patients, particularly connections with forebrain areas. Patients' decreased Hb rsFC to brain regions implicated in motor, affective, cognitive, and pain inhibitory/modulatory processes may contribute to their symptomatology.

  16. Exercise to rest ratios in RSA training in women's soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscello, Bruno; Esposito, Mario; Partipilo, Filippo; DI Cicco, Dalila; Filetti, Cristoforo; Pantanella, Laura; D'Ottavio, Stefano

    2017-10-27

    To investigate the applicability of three different exercise to rest ratios in RSA training in women's soccer players, applying those ones already adopted in male adult and young players, when performing three different sprinting modes (straight, shuttle and sprinting with changing of direction). 15 trained female soccer players (height: 1.65 ± 0.06 m; weight: 59.3 ± 9.0 kg; BMI 21.6 ± 2.7 kg·m-2; age: 23.3±5.9 years) participated to the study. In order to compare the different values of the time recorded, an Index of Fatigue was used. Recovery times among trials in the sets were administered according to the 1:5, 1:3; 1:2 exercise to rest ratio, respectively. Blood lactate concentrations at the end of each set (3') were analyzed. Significant differences among trials within each set (Repeated Measures Anova; p0.05). Significant differences were found in blood lactate concentrations (pRSA in women's soccer players, keeping the performances in the speed domain (IF% < ⊕7-8%) but inducing the fatigue processes sought with this kind of training method.

  17. Changes of resting cerebral activities in subacute ischemic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to detect the difference in resting cerebral activities between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants, define the abnormal site, and provide new evidence for pathological mechanisms, clinical diagnosis, prognosis prediction and efficacy evaluation of ischemic stroke. At present, the majority of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies focus on the motor dysfunction and the acute stage of ischemic stroke. This study recruited 15 right-handed ischemic stroke patients at subacute stage (15 days to 11.5 weeks and 15 age-matched healthy participants. A resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan was performed on each subject to detect cerebral activity. Regional homogeneity analysis was used to investigate the difference in cerebral activities between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants. The results showed that the ischemic stroke patients had lower regional homogeneity in anterior cingulate and left cerebrum and higher regional homogeneity in cerebellum, left precuneus and left frontal lobe, compared with healthy participants. The experimental findings demonstrate that the areas in which regional homogeneity was different between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants are in the cerebellum, left precuneus, left triangle inferior frontal gyrus, left inferior temporal gyrus and anterior cingulate. These locations, related to the motor, sensory and emotion areas, are likely potential targets for the neural regeneration of subacute ischemic stroke patients.

  18. Resting State Functional Connectivity in Early Blind Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold eBurton

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Task-based neuroimaging studies in early blind humans (EB have demonstrated heightened visual cortex responses to non-visual paradigms. Several prior functional connectivity studies in EB have shown altered connections consistent with these task-based results. But these studies generally did not consider behavioral adaptations to lifelong blindness typically observed in EB. Enhanced cognitive abilities shown in EB include greater serial recall and attention to memory. Here, we address the question of the extent to which brain intrinsic activity in EB reflects such adaptations. We performed a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study contrasting 14 EB with 14 age/gender matched normally sighted controls (NS. A principal finding was markedly greater functional connectivity in EB between visual cortex and regions typically associated with memory and cognitive control of attention. In contrast, correlations between visual cortex and non-deprived sensory cortices were significantly lower in EB. Thus, the available data, including that obtained in prior task-based and resting state fMRI studies, as well as the present results, indicate that visual cortex in EB becomes more heavily incorporated into functional systems instantiating episodic recall and attention to non-visual events. Moreover, EB appear to show a reduction in interactions between visual and non-deprived sensory cortices, possibly reflecting suppression of inter-sensory distracting activity.

  19. Altered resting brain function and structure in professional badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Xin; Zhu, Senhua; Jin, Hua; Wang, Pin; Ye, Zhuoer; Zhou, Ke; Zhuo, Yan; Rao, Hengyi

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of professional athletic or musical training have demonstrated considerable practice-dependent plasticity in various brain structures, which may reflect distinct training demands. In the present study, structural and functional brain alterations were examined in professional badminton players and compared with healthy controls using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting-state functional MRI. Gray matter concentration (GMC) was assessed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and resting-brain functions were measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and seed-based functional connectivity. Results showed that the athlete group had greater GMC and ALFF in the right and medial cerebellar regions, respectively. The athlete group also demonstrated smaller ALFF in the left superior parietal lobule and altered functional connectivity between the left superior parietal and frontal regions. These findings indicate that badminton expertise is associated with not only plastic structural changes in terms of enlarged gray matter density in the cerebellum, but also functional alterations in fronto-parietal connectivity. Such structural and functional alterations may reflect specific experiences of badminton training and practice, including high-capacity visuo-spatial processing and hand-eye coordination in addition to refined motor skills.

  20. Spatiotemporal dynamics of the brain at rest--exploring EEG microstates as electrophysiological signatures of BOLD resting state networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Han; Zotev, Vadim; Phillips, Raquel; Drevets, Wayne C; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2012-05-01

    Neuroimaging research suggests that the resting cerebral physiology is characterized by complex patterns of neuronal activity in widely distributed functional networks. As studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) signal, the resting brain activity is associated with slowly fluctuating hemodynamic signals (~10s). More recently, multimodal functional imaging studies involving simultaneous acquisition of BOLD-fMRI and electroencephalography (EEG) data have suggested that the relatively slow hemodynamic fluctuations of some resting state networks (RSNs) evinced in the BOLD data are related to much faster (~100 ms) transient brain states reflected in EEG signals, that are referred to as "microstates". To further elucidate the relationship between microstates and RSNs, we developed a fully data-driven approach that combines information from simultaneously recorded, high-density EEG and BOLD-fMRI data. Using independent component analysis (ICA) of the combined EEG and fMRI data, we identified thirteen microstates and ten RSNs that are organized independently in their temporal and spatial characteristics, respectively. We hypothesized that the intrinsic brain networks that are active at rest would be reflected in both the EEG data and the fMRI data. To test this hypothesis, the rapid fluctuations associated with each microstate were correlated with the BOLD-fMRI signal associated with each RSN. We found that each RSN was characterized further by a specific electrophysiological signature involving from one to a combination of several microstates. Moreover, by comparing the time course of EEG microstates to that of the whole-brain BOLD signal, on a multi-subject group level, we unraveled for the first time a set of microstate-associated networks that correspond to a range of previously described RSNs, including visual, sensorimotor, auditory, attention, frontal, visceromotor and default mode networks. These

  1. Neutrino masses and flavor mixing in the extended double Seesaw model with two texture zeros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Li-Jun; Dulat, Sayipjamal; Ablat, Abduleziz

    2011-01-01

    We study the light neutrino mass matrix in the extended double Seesaw model (EDSM), and as a result we get its general form. Also we demonstrate that conventional type-I and double seesaw mechanisms can be regarded as two special cases. We analyze the structure of the 9 x 9 neutrino mass matrix in this scenario, and surprisingly we find that EDSM will degenerate to a conventional type-I seesaw mechanism when M R = M S M μ -1 M S T holds exactly. Considering two simple ansaetze in two texture zeros for its 3 x 3 submatrices, we calculate the neutrino masses and flavor mixing angles, in which the θ 13 is a nonzero large angle. (orig.)

  2. Effects of smoking on heart rate at rest and during exercise, and on heart rate recovery, in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathanasiou, George; Georgakopoulos, Dimitris; Papageorgiou, Effie; Zerva, Efthimia; Michalis, Lampros; Kalfakakou, Vasiliki; Evangelou, Angelos

    2013-01-01

    There is an established link between smoking, abnormal heart rate (HR) values, and impaired cardiovascular health in middle-aged or older populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of smoking on resting HR and on HR responses during and after exercise in young adults. A sample of 298 young adults (159 men), aged 20-29 years old, were selected from a large population of health-science students based on health status, body mass index, physical activity, and smoking habit. All subjects underwent a maximal Bruce treadmill test and their HR was recorded during, at peak, and after termination of exercise. Smokers had significantly higher resting HR values than non-smokers. Both female and male smokers showed a significantly slower HR increase during exercise. Female smokers failed to reach their age-predicted maximum HR by 6.0 bpm and males by 3.6 bpm. The actual maximum HR achieved (HRmax) was significantly lower for both female smokers (191.0 bpm vs.198.0 bpm) and male smokers (193.2 bpm vs.199.3 bpm), compared to non-smokers. Heart rate reserve was also significantly lower in female (114.6 bpm vs. 128.1 bpm) and male smokers (120.4 bpm vs. 133.0 bpm). During recovery, the HR decline was significantly attenuated, but only in female smokers. Females had a higher resting HR and showed a higher HR response during sub-maximal exercise compared to males. Smoking was found to affect young smokers' HR, increasing HR at rest, slowing HR increase during exercise and impairing their ability to reach the age-predicted HRmax. In addition, smoking was associated with an attenuated HR decline during recovery, but only in females.

  3. Probing neutrino masses with CMB lensing extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesgourgues, Julien; Perotto, Laurence; Pastor, Sergio; Piat, Michel

    2006-01-01

    We evaluate the ability of future cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments to measure the power spectrum of large scale structure using quadratic estimators of the weak lensing deflection field. We calculate the sensitivity of upcoming CMB experiments such as BICEP, QUaD, BRAIN, ClOVER and Planck to the nonzero total neutrino mass M ν indicated by current neutrino oscillation data. We find that these experiments greatly benefit from lensing extraction techniques, improving their one-sigma sensitivity to M ν by a factor of order four. The combination of data from Planck and the SAMPAN mini-satellite project would lead to σ(M ν )∼0.1 eV, while a value as small as σ(M ν )∼0.035 eV is within the reach of a space mission based on bolometers with a passively cooled 3-4 m aperture telescope, representative of the most ambitious projects currently under investigation. We show that our results are robust not only considering possible difficulties in subtracting astrophysical foregrounds from the primary CMB signal but also when the minimal cosmological model (Λ Mixed Dark Matter) is generalized in order to include a possible scalar tilt running, a constant equation-of-state parameter for the dark energy and/or extra relativistic degrees of freedom

  4. Effect of Different Interrepetition Rest Periods on Barbell Velocity Loss During the Ballistic Bench Press Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Padial, Paulino; Haff, G Gregory; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; García-Ramos, Miguel; Conde-Pipó, Javier; Feriche, Belén

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of introducing different interrepetition rest (IRR) periods on the ability to sustain maximum bench press throw velocity with a range of loads commonly used to develop upper-body power. Thirty-four physically active collegiate men (age: 21.5 ± 2.8 years; body mass: 75.2 ± 7.2 kg; height: 176.9 ± 4.9 cm) were tested during 2 consecutive weeks. During the first week, the maximum dynamic strength (repetition maximum [RM]) in bench press exercise was determined (RM = 76.7 ± 13.2 kg). The following week, 3 testing sessions were conducted with 48 hours apart in random order. In each day of evaluation, only 1 load (30%RM, 40%RM, or 50%RM) was assessed in the bench press throw exercise. With each load, subjects performed 3 single sets of 15 repetitions (15-minute interset rest) with 3 different sets configurations: continuous repetitions (CR), 6 seconds of IRR (IRR6), and 12 seconds of IRR (IRR12). The decrease of peak velocity (PV) was significantly lower for IRR12 compared with CR and IRR6 at least since the repetition 4. No differences between CR and IRR6 protocols were found until the repetition 7 at 30%RM and 40%RM and until the repetition 5 at 50%RM. The decrease of PV during the CR protocol was virtually linear for the 3 loads analyzed (r > 0.99); however, this linear relationship became weaker for IRR6 (r = 0.79-0.95) and IRR12 (r = 0.35-0.87). These results demonstrate that IRR periods allow increasing the number of repetitions before the onset of significant velocity losses.

  5. EFFECTS OF PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTATION ON MUSCULAR PERFORMANCE AND RESTING HORMONAL CHANGES IN COLLEGE FOOTBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R. Hoffman

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of protein supplementation on athletic performance and hormonal changes was examined in 21 experienced collegiate strength/power athletes participating in a 12-week resistance training program. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a protein supplement (PR; n = 11 or a placebo (PL; n = 10 group. During each testing session subjects were assessed for strength (one repetition maximum [1-RM] bench press and squat, power (Wingate anaerobic power test and body composition. Resting blood samples were analyzed at weeks 0 (PRE, 6 (MID and 12 (POST for total testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone, and IGF-1. No difference was seen in energy intake between PR and PL (3034 ± 209 kcal and 3130 ± 266 kcal, respectively, but a significant difference in daily protein intake was seen between PR (2.00 g·kg body mass[BM]-1·d-1 and PL (1.24 g·kgBM-1·d-1. A greater change (p < 0.05 in the ∆ 1-RM squat was seen in PR (23.5 ± 13.6 kg compared to PL (9.1 ± 11.9 kg. No other significant strength or power differences were seen between the groups. Cortisol concentrations were significantly lower at MID for PL and this difference was significantly different than PR. No significant changes were noted in resting growth hormone or IGF-1 concentrations in either group. Although protein supplementation appeared to augment lower body strength development, similar upper body strength, anaerobic power and lean tissue changes do not provide clear evidence supporting the efficacy of a 12-week protein supplementation period in experienced resistance trained athletes

  6. Interpersonal versus Mass Media Communication: A False Dichotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Kathleen K.; Rogers, Everett M.

    1988-01-01

    Challenges the intellectual separation of interpersonal and mass media communication, arguing that this division rests primarily on grounds of historical convenience and university politics. Discusses the consequences of this dichotomy and suggests ways of encouraging intellectual exchange between the two subdisciplines. (MM)

  7. Mechanisms for decreased exercise capacity after bed rest in normal middle-aged men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, J.; Goldwater, D.; Convertino, V.A.; McKillop, J.H.; Goris, M.L.; DeBusk, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the decrease in exercise capacity after bed rest were assessed in 12 apparently healthy men aged 50 +/- 4 years who underwent equilibrium gated blood pool scintigraphy during supine and upright multistage bicycle ergometry before and after 10 days of bed rest. After bed rest, echocardiographically measured supine resting left ventricular end-diastolic volume decreased by 16% (p less than 0.05). Peak oxygen uptake during supine effort after bed rest was diminished by 6% (p . not significant [NS]), whereas peak oxygen uptake during upright effort declined by 15% (p less than 0.05). After bed rest, increases in heart rate were also greater during exercise in the upright than in the supine position (p less than 0.05). Values of left ventricular ejection fraction increased normally during both supine and upright effort after bed rest and were higher than corresponding values before bed rest (p less than 0.05). After bed rest, increased left ventricular ejection fraction and heart rate largely compensated for the reduced cardiac volume during supine effort, but these mechanisms were insufficient to maintain oxygen transport capacity at levels during upright effort before bed rest. These results indicate that orthostatically induced cardiac underfilling, not physical deconditioning or left ventricular dysfunction, is the major cause of reduced effort tolerance after 10 days of bed rest in normal middle-aged men

  8. Myocardial imaging with 201Tl at rest and during exercise. Comparison with coronary arteriography and resting and stress electrocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, J.L.; Trobaugh, G.B.; Hamilton, G.W.; Gould, K.L.; Narahara, K.A.; Murray, J.A.; Williams, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    Myocardial imaging with intravenous thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) was performed at rest and following maximal treadmill exercise in 101 patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Results were interpreted from Polaroid scintiphotos by three independent observers with complete interobserver agreement in 79%. Of 25 patients with no or insignificant coronary artery disease ( 201 Tl image defect, one (4%) had an exercise 201 Tl defect, none had an ECG Q wave, and four (16%) had exercise ST-segment depression. Among 76 patients with coronary artery disease (greater than or equal to 50% diameter stenosis), 58 (76%) had a defect on either the rest or exercise 201 Tl image. The proportion of patients with an exercise image defect (50/76, 66%) was greater than the proportion with exercise ST depression alone (34/76, 45%; P 201 Tl is easily accomplished with readily available imaging equipment. The image data enhanced the diagnostic sensitivity of stress electrocardiography, and provided spatial identification of the abnormal segment(s) of myocardium

  9. Hadron collider tests of neutrino mass-generating mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Richard Efrain

    The Standard Model of particle physics (SM) is presently the best description of nature at small distances and high energies. However, with tiny but nonzero neutrino masses, a Higgs boson mass unstable under radiative corrections, and little guidance on understanding the hierarchy of fermion masses, the SM remains an unsatisfactory description of nature. Well-motivated scenarios that resolve these issues exist but also predict extended gauge (e.g., Left-Right Symmetric Models), scalar (e.g., Supersymmetry), and/or fermion sectors (e.g., Seesaw Models). Hence, discovering such new states would have far-reaching implications. After reviewing basic tenets of the SM and collider physics, several beyond the SM (BSM) scenarios that alleviate these shortcomings are investigated. Emphasis is placed on the production of a heavy Majorana neutrinos at hadron colliders in the context of low-energy, effective theories that simultaneously explain the origin of neutrino masses and their smallness compared to other elementary fermions, the so-called Seesaw Mechanisms. As probes of new physics, rare top quark decays to Higgs bosons in the context of the SM, the Types I and II Two Higgs Doublet Model (2HDM), and the semi-model independent framework of Effective Field Theory (EFT) have also been investigated. Observation prospects and discovery potentials of these models at current and future collider experiments are quantified.

  10. Baryon asymmetry via leptogenesis in a neutrino mass model with complex scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, Rome; Ghosal, Ambar; Chakraborty, Mainak; Roy, Probir

    2017-01-01

    Baryogenesis via leptogenesis is investigated in a specific model of light neutrino masses and mixing angles. The latter was proposed on the basis of an assumed complex-extended scaling property of the neutrino Majorana mass matrix M ν , derived with a type-1 seesaw from a Dirac mass matrix m D and a heavy singlet neutrino Majorana mass matrix M R . One of its important features, highlighted here, is that there is a common source of the origin of a nonzero θ 13 and the CP violating lepton asymmetry through the imaginary part of m D . The model predicted CP violation to be maximal for the Dirac type and vanishing for the Majorana type. We assume strongly hierarchical mass eigenvalues for M R . The leptonic CP asymmetry parameter ε α 1 mm with lepton flavor α, originating from the decays of the lightest of the heavy neutrinos N 1 (of mass M 1 ) at a temperature T ∼ M 1 , is what matters here with the lepton asymmetries, originating from the decays of N 2,3 , being washed out. The light leptonic and heavy neutrino number densities (normalized to the entropy density) are evolved via Boltzmann equations down to electroweak temperatures to yield a baryon asymmetry through sphaleronic transitions. The effects of flavored vs. unflavored leptogenesis in the three mass regimes (1) M 1 < 10 9 GeV, (2) 10 9 GeV < M 1 < 10 12 GeV and (3) M 1 > 10 12 GeV are numerically worked out for both a normal and an inverted mass ordering of the light neutrinos. Corresponding results on the baryon asymmetry of the universe are obtained, displayed and discussed. For values close to the best-fit points of the input neutrino mass and mixing parameters, obtained from neutrino oscillation experiments, successful baryogenesis is achieved for the mass regime (2) and a normal mass ordering of the light neutrinos with a nonzero θ 13 playing a crucial role. However, the other possibility of an inverted mass ordering for the same mass regime, though disfavored, cannot be excluded. A

  11. Baryon asymmetry via leptogenesis in a neutrino mass model with complex scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samanta, Rome; Ghosal, Ambar [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, HBNI, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Chakraborty, Mainak [Centre of Excellence in Theoretical and Mathematical Sciences, SOA University, Khandagiri Square, Bhubaneswar 751030 (India); Roy, Probir, E-mail: rome.samanta@saha.ac.in, E-mail: mainak.chakraborty2@gmail.com, E-mail: probirrana@gmail.com, E-mail: ambar.ghosal@saha.ac.in [Center for Astroparticle Physics and Space Science, Bose Institute, Kolkata 700091 (India)

    2017-03-01

    Baryogenesis via leptogenesis is investigated in a specific model of light neutrino masses and mixing angles. The latter was proposed on the basis of an assumed complex-extended scaling property of the neutrino Majorana mass matrix M {sub ν}, derived with a type-1 seesaw from a Dirac mass matrix m {sub D} and a heavy singlet neutrino Majorana mass matrix M {sub R} . One of its important features, highlighted here, is that there is a common source of the origin of a nonzero θ{sub 13} and the CP violating lepton asymmetry through the imaginary part of m {sub D} . The model predicted CP violation to be maximal for the Dirac type and vanishing for the Majorana type. We assume strongly hierarchical mass eigenvalues for M {sub R} . The leptonic CP asymmetry parameter ε{sup α}{sub 1} mm with lepton flavor α, originating from the decays of the lightest of the heavy neutrinos N {sub 1} (of mass M {sub 1}) at a temperature T ∼ M {sub 1}, is what matters here with the lepton asymmetries, originating from the decays of N {sub 2,3}, being washed out. The light leptonic and heavy neutrino number densities (normalized to the entropy density) are evolved via Boltzmann equations down to electroweak temperatures to yield a baryon asymmetry through sphaleronic transitions. The effects of flavored vs. unflavored leptogenesis in the three mass regimes (1) M {sub 1} < 10{sup 9} GeV, (2) 10{sup 9} GeV < M {sub 1} < 10{sup 12} GeV and (3) M {sub 1} > 10{sup 12} GeV are numerically worked out for both a normal and an inverted mass ordering of the light neutrinos. Corresponding results on the baryon asymmetry of the universe are obtained, displayed and discussed. For values close to the best-fit points of the input neutrino mass and mixing parameters, obtained from neutrino oscillation experiments, successful baryogenesis is achieved for the mass regime (2) and a normal mass ordering of the light neutrinos with a nonzero θ{sub 13} playing a crucial role. However, the other

  12. Leydig Cell Tumor Associated with Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumors in a Patient with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 11β-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Charfi, Nadia; Kamoun, Mahdi; Feki Mnif, Mouna; Mseddi, Neila; Mnif, Fatma; Kallel, Nozha; Ben Naceur, Basma; Rekik, Nabila; Fourati, Hela; Daoud, Emna; Mnif, Zainab; Hadj Sliman, Mourad; Sellami-Boudawara, Tahia; Abid, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) describes a group of inherited autosomal recessive disorders characterized by enzyme defects in the steroidogenic pathways that lead to the biosynthesis of cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens. Chronic excessive adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation may result in hyperplasia of ACTH-sensitive tissues in adrenal glands and other sites such as the testes, causing testicular masses known as testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs). Leydig cell tumors (...

  13. A combination of whey protein and potassium bicarbonate supplements during head-down-tilt bed rest: Presentation of a multidisciplinary randomized controlled trial (MEP study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehlmeier, Judith; Mulder, Edwin; Noppe, Alexandra; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Angerer, Oliver; Rudwill, Floriane; Biolo, Gianni; Smith, Scott M.; Blanc, Stéphane; Heer, Martina

    2014-02-01

    Inactivity, as it appears during space flight and in bed rest, induces reduction of lean body and bone mass, glucose intolerance, and weakening of the cardiovascular system. Increased protein intake, whey protein in particular, has been proposed to counteract some of these effects, but has also been associated with negative effects on bone, likely caused by a correspondingly high ratio of acid to alkali precursors in the diet.

  14. Genome-wide association studies and resting heart rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revolutionized the search for genetic variants regulating resting heart rate. In the last 10 years, GWASs have led to the identification of at least 21 novel heart rate loci. These discoveries have provided valuable insights into the mechanisms...... and pathways that regulate heart rate and link heart rate to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. GWASs capture majority of genetic variation in a population sample by utilizing high-throughput genotyping chips measuring genotypes for up to several millions of SNPs across the genome in thousands...... of individuals. This allows the identification of the strongest heart rate associated signals at genome-wide level. While GWASs provide robust statistical evidence of the association of a given genetic locus with heart rate, they are only the starting point for detailed follow-up studies to locate the causal...

  15. Highly charged ions at rest: The HITRAP project at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herfurth, F.; Beier, T.; Dahl, L.; Eliseev, S.; Heinz, S.; Kester, O.; Kluge, H.-J.; Kozhuharov, C.; Maero, G.; Quint, W.

    2005-01-01

    A decelerator will be installed at GSI in order to provide and study bare heavy nuclei or heavy nuclei with only few electrons at very low energies or even at rest. Highly-charged ions will be produced by stripping at relativistic energies. After electron cooling and deceleration in the Experimental Storage Ring the ions are ejected out of the storage ring at 4 MeV/u and further decelerated in a combination of an IH and RFQ structure. Finally, they are injected into a Penning trap where the ions are cooled to 4 K. From here, the ions can be transferred in a quasi dc or in a pulsed mode to different experimental setups. This article describes the technical concepts of this project as well as planned key experiments

  16. Vascular Uptake of Six Rehydration Drinks at Rest and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Geelen, G.; Jackson, C. G. R.; Saumet, J.-L.; Juhos, L. T.; Keil, L. C.; Fegan-Meyer, D.; Dearborn, A.; Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.; Whittam, J. H.

    1996-01-01

    A report presents data on the effectiveness of each of six rehydration fluids in restoring total body water and plasma volume in human subjects during rest and exercise. One of the six fluids was water sweetened with aspartame: the others were water containing various amounts of sodium chloride and/or sodium citrate, plus various amounts of aspartame and/or other carbohydrates. In one experiment, five men who had previously dehydrated themselves for 24 hours drank one of the rehydration fluids, then sat for 70 minutes. Pretest plasma volumes were measured and changes in plasma volumes were calculated. This procedure was repeated at weekly intervals until all six rehydration fluids had been tested. Another similar experiment involved four men who exercised on a cycle ergometer for 70 minutes in the supine position after drinking the fluids.

  17. Radiotelemetry recording of electroencephalogram in piglets during rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Yasuko; Nemoto, Tetsu; Kasuya, Etsuko; Sakumoto, Ryosuke

    2005-04-13

    A wireless recording system was developed to study the electroencephalogram (EEG) in unrestrained, male Landrace piglets. Under general anesthesia, ball-tipped silver/silver chloride electrodes for EEG recording were implanted onto the dura matter of the parietal and frontal cortex of the piglets. A pair of miniature preamplifiers and transmitters was then mounted on the surface of the skull. To examine whether other bioelectrical activities interfere with the EEG measurements, an electrocardiogram (ECG) or electromyogram (EMG) of the neck was simultaneously recorded with the EEG. Next, wire electrodes for recording movement of the eyelid were implanted with EEG electrodes, and EEG and eyelid movements were simultaneously measured. Power spectral analysis using a Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) algorithm indicates that EEG was successfully recorded in unrestrained piglets, at rest, during the daytime in the absence of interference from ECG, EMG or eyelid movements. These data indicate the feasibility of using our radiotelemetry system for measurement of EEG under these conditions.

  18. A RESTful Web service interface to the ATLAS COOL database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, S A

    2010-01-01

    The COOL database in ATLAS is primarily used for storing detector conditions data, but also status flags which are uploaded summaries of information to indicate the detector reliability during a run. This paper introduces the use of CherryPy, a Python application server which acts as an intermediate layer between a web interface and the database, providing a simple means of storing to and retrieving from the COOL database which has found use in many web applications. The software layer is designed to be RESTful, implementing the common CRUD (Create, Read, Update, Delete) database methods by means of interpreting the HTTP method (POST, GET, PUT, DELETE) on the server along with a URL identifying the database resource to be operated on. The format of the data (text, xml etc) is also determined by the HTTP protocol. The details of this layer are described along with a popular application demonstrating its use, the ATLAS run list web page.

  19. Initial angular momentum state in pp annihilation at rest

    CERN Document Server

    Bizzarri, R

    1972-01-01

    The author shows that no quantitative statement on the relative importance of initial P-states in pp annihilation can be made. Annihilations in flight indicate that P-wave annihilation into K/sub 1 //sup 0/K/sub 1//sup 0/ is inhibited while annihilation into pi pi is enhanced and might suggest a P-wave contamination approximately 10%. The observatory of the final state K/sub 1//sup 0/K/sub 1//sup 0/n from annihilations at rest indicates that the depression of the K/sub 1//sup 0/K/sub 1//sup 0/ final state is not so important and suggests a P-wave contamination smaller than 4%. Furthermore the successes obtained in the analysis of various final states on the assumption of S-wave annihilation are hard to reconcile with a P-wave contribution bigger than approximately 5%. (20 refs).

  20. Practical Implementation of 10 Rules for Writing REST APIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Hradil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a practical implementation of “10 Rules for Writing REST APIs introduced in the article” (Hradil, 2016. The application is done in Invoice Home (Wikilane, 2016, an invoicing web application for small business and entrepreneurs available world-wide. The API is implemented in JSON hypermedia format (ECMA International, 2016 and with Ruby on Rails framework (Hansson, 2016. The main purpose of the API is to allow connection of Invoice Home with external systems and offer Invoice Home data in simpler format compared to the current HTML format of the full-stack web application. The paper could be also used as a basic template or pattern for any other implementation of the JSON API in any web-based application.

  1. [Electromechanical registration of the resting behavior of fattening pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuser, H; Plonait, H

    1977-10-05

    The resting behaviour of four weanling pigs has been continuously recorded by an electromechanical apparatus for 8 weeks. The duration of different postures: standing, ventral recumbency, lateral recumbency and frequency of standing periods were recorded as influenced by different environmental factors. 1. Floor with and without bedding at 21 degrees C. 2. Floor without bedding at 27 degrees C environmental temperature. 3. Feeding once daily versus twice. Duration of recumbency periods was increases at 21 degrees C if bedding was provided. This also improved daily gain. At elevated environmental temperatures the animals preferred the lying posture on concrete floor. Feeding twice increased the duration of recumbency. The same was the case as the animals grew older. Disturbance by caretaking activities in neighbouring dens increased the duration of standing.

  2. The geospatial data quality REST API for primary biodiversity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otegui, Javier; Guralnick, Robert P

    2016-06-01

    We present a REST web service to assess the geospatial quality of primary biodiversity data. It enables access to basic and advanced functions to detect completeness and consistency issues as well as general errors in the provided record or set of records. The API uses JSON for data interchange and efficient parallelization techniques for fast assessments of large datasets. The Geospatial Data Quality API is part of the VertNet set of APIs. It can be accessed at http://api-geospatial.vertnet-portal.appspot.com/geospatial and is already implemented in the VertNet data portal for quality reporting. Source code is freely available under GPL license from http://www.github.com/vertnet/api-geospatial javier.otegui@gmail.com or rguralnick@flmnh.ufl.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Resting Heart Rate Is Not Associated with Cognitive Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wod, M; Jensen, M T; Galatius, S

    2018-01-01

    Aims: In order to examine the hypothesis that elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is associated with impaired cognitive score, we investigated the relationship between RHR and cognitive score in middle-aged, elderly and old Danish subjects from the general population. Methods: Composite cognitive s...... cognitive score (1,049 pairs of 2,049 pairs [51% (95% CI 49–53), p relation to cognitive function in the general population....... and hypertension, RHR was not associated with cognitive function. Furthermore, the intrapair analyses showed that RHR was not associated with cognitive score testing within twin pairs, as measured by the proportion of twin pairs in which the twin with higher RHR also was the twin with the lowest composite...

  4. Resting and postexercise heart rate variability in professional handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayacan, Yildirim; Yildiz, Sedat

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate heart rate variability (HRV) in professional handball players during rest and following a 5 min mild jogging exercise. For that purpose, electrocardiogram (ECG) of male handball players (N.=12, mean age 25±3.95 years) and sedentary controls (N.=14, mean age 23.5±2.95 years) were recorded for 5 min at rest and just after 5 min of mild jogging. ECGs were recorded and following HRV parameters were calculated: time-domain variables such as heart rate (HR), average normal-to-normal RR intervals, standard deviation of normal-to-normal RR intervals, square root of the mean of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals, percentage of differences between adjacent NN intervals that are greater than 50 milliseconds (pNN50), and frequency-domain variables such as very low frequency, low (LF) and high frequency (HF) of the power and LF/HF ratio. Unpaired t-test was used to find out differences among groups while paired t-test was used for comparison of each group for pre- and postjogging HRV. Pearson correlations were carried out to find out the relationships between the parameters. Blood pressures were not different between handball players and sedentary controls but exercise increased systolic blood pressure (Phandball players (Phandball players (Phandball players in response to a mild, short-time (5 min) jogging exercise. However, in sedentary subjects, either the sympathetic regulation of the autonomous nervous system increased or vagal withdrawal occurred.

  5. Resting brain activity varies with dream recall frequency between subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Nicolas, Alain; Daltrozzo, Jérôme; Redouté, Jérôme; Costes, Nicolas; Ruby, Perrine

    2014-06-01

    Dreaming is still poorly understood. Notably, its cerebral underpinning remains unclear. Neuropsychological studies have shown that lesions in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and/or the white matter of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) lead to the global cessation of dream reports, suggesting that these regions of the default mode network have key roles in the dreaming process (forebrain 'dream-on' hypothesis). To test this hypothesis, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using [(15)O]H2O positron emission tomography in healthy subjects with high and low dream recall frequencies (DRFs) during wakefulness (rest) and sleep (rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, N2, and N3). Compared with Low recallers (0.5 ± 0.3 dream recall per week in average), High recallers (5.2 ± 1.4) showed higher rCBF in the TPJ during REM sleep, N3, and wakefulness, and in the MPFC during REM sleep and wakefulness. We demonstrate that the resting states of High recallers and Low recallers differ during sleep and wakefulness. It coheres with previous ERP results and confirms that a high/low DRF is associated with a specific functional organization of the brain. These results support the forebrain 'dream-on' hypothesis and suggest that TPJ and MPFC are not only involved in dream recall during wakefulness but also have a role in dreaming during sleep (production and/or encoding). Increased activity in the TPJ and MPFC might promote the mental imagery and/or memory encoding of dreams. Notably, increased activity in TPJ might facilitate attention orienting toward external stimuli and promote intrasleep wakefulness, facilitating the encoding of the dreams in memory.

  6. Your resting brain CAREs about your risky behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine L Cox

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on the neural correlates of risk-related behaviors and personality traits has provided insight into mechanisms underlying both normal and pathological decision-making. Task-based neuroimaging studies implicate a distributed network of brain regions in risky decision-making. What remains to be understood are the interactions between these regions and their relation to individual differences in personality variables associated with real-world risk-taking.We employed resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI and resting state functional connectivity (RSFC methods to investigate differences in the brain's intrinsic functional architecture associated with beliefs about the consequences of risky behavior. We obtained an individual measure of expected benefit from engaging in risky behavior, indicating a risk seeking or risk-averse personality, for each of 21 participants from whom we also collected a series of R-fMRI scans. The expected benefit scores were entered in statistical models assessing the RSFC of brain regions consistently implicated in both the evaluation of risk and reward, and cognitive control (i.e., orbitofrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, lateral prefrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate. We specifically focused on significant brain-behavior relationships that were stable across R-fMRI scans collected one year apart. Two stable expected benefit-RSFC relationships were observed: decreased expected benefit (increased risk-aversion was associated with 1 stronger positive functional connectivity between right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and right insula, and 2 weaker negative functional connectivity between left nucleus accumbens and right parieto-occipital cortex.Task-based activation in the IFG and insula has been associated with risk-aversion, while activation in the nucleus accumbens and parietal cortex has been associated with both risk seeking and risk-averse tendencies. Our results suggest that

  7. Resting state networks' corticotopy: the dual intertwined rings architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Mesmoudi

    Full Text Available How does the brain integrate multiple sources of information to support normal sensorimotor and cognitive functions? To investigate this question we present an overall brain architecture (called "the dual intertwined rings architecture" that relates the functional specialization of cortical networks to their spatial distribution over the cerebral cortex (or "corticotopy". Recent results suggest that the resting state networks (RSNs are organized into two large families: 1 a sensorimotor family that includes visual, somatic, and auditory areas and 2 a large association family that comprises parietal, temporal, and frontal regions and also includes the default mode network. We used two large databases of resting state fMRI data, from which we extracted 32 robust RSNs. We estimated: (1 the RSN functional roles by using a projection of the results on task based networks (TBNs as referenced in large databases of fMRI activation studies; and (2 relationship of the RSNs with the Brodmann Areas. In both classifications, the 32 RSNs are organized into a remarkable architecture of two intertwined rings per hemisphere and so four rings linked by homotopic connections. The first ring forms a continuous ensemble and includes visual, somatic, and auditory cortices, with interspersed bimodal cortices (auditory-visual, visual-somatic and auditory-somatic, abbreviated as VSA ring. The second ring integrates distant parietal, temporal and frontal regions (PTF ring through a network of association fiber tracts which closes the ring anatomically and ensures a functional continuity within the ring. The PTF ring relates association cortices specialized in attention, language and working memory, to the networks involved in motivation and biological regulation and rhythms. This "dual intertwined architecture" suggests a dual integrative process: the VSA ring performs fast real-time multimodal integration of sensorimotor information whereas the PTF ring performs multi

  8. Resting State Networks' Corticotopy: The Dual Intertwined Rings Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesmoudi, Salma; Perlbarg, Vincent; Rudrauf, David; Messe, Arnaud; Pinsard, Basile; Hasboun, Dominique; Cioli, Claudia; Marrelec, Guillaume; Toro, Roberto; Benali, Habib; Burnod, Yves

    2013-01-01

    How does the brain integrate multiple sources of information to support normal sensorimotor and cognitive functions? To investigate this question we present an overall brain architecture (called “the dual intertwined rings architecture”) that relates the functional specialization of cortical networks to their spatial distribution over the cerebral cortex (or “corticotopy”). Recent results suggest that the resting state networks (RSNs) are organized into two large families: 1) a sensorimotor family that includes visual, somatic, and auditory areas and 2) a large association family that comprises parietal, temporal, and frontal regions and also includes the default mode network. We used two large databases of resting state fMRI data, from which we extracted 32 robust RSNs. We estimated: (1) the RSN functional roles by using a projection of the results on task based networks (TBNs) as referenced in large databases of fMRI activation studies; and (2) relationship of the RSNs with the Brodmann Areas. In both classifications, the 32 RSNs are organized into a remarkable architecture of two intertwined rings per hemisphere and so four rings linked by homotopic connections. The first ring forms a continuous ensemble and includes visual, somatic, and auditory cortices, with interspersed bimodal cortices (auditory-visual, visual-somatic and auditory-somatic, abbreviated as VSA ring). The second ring integrates distant parietal, temporal and frontal regions (PTF ring) through a network of association fiber tracts which closes the ring anatomically and ensures a functional continuity within the ring. The PTF ring relates association cortices specialized in attention, language and working memory, to the networks involved in motivation and biological regulation and rhythms. This “dual intertwined architecture” suggests a dual integrative process: the VSA ring performs fast real-time multimodal integration of sensorimotor information whereas the PTF ring performs multi

  9. Graph theoretical analysis of resting magnetoencephalographic functional connectivity networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay eRutter

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Complex networks have been observed to comprise small-world properties, believed to represent an optimal organization of local specialization and global integration of information processing at reduced wiring cost. Here, we applied magnitude squared coherence to resting magnetoencephalographic time series in reconstructed source space, acquired from controls and patients with schizophrenia, and generated frequency-dependent adjacency matrices modeling functional connectivity between virtual channels. After configuring undirected binary and weighted graphs, we found that all human networks demonstrated highly localized clustering and short characteristic path lengths. The most conservatively thresholded networks showed efficient wiring, with topographical distance between connected vertices amounting to one-third as observed in surrogate randomized topologies. Nodal degrees of the human networks conformed to a heavy-tailed exponentially truncated power-law, compatible with the existence of hubs, which included theta and alpha bilateral cerebellar tonsil, beta and gamma bilateral posterior cingulate, and bilateral thalamus across all frequencies. We conclude that all networks showed small-worldness, minimal physical connection distance, and skewed degree distributions characteristic of physically-embedded networks, and that these calculations derived from graph theoretical mathematics did not quantifiably distinguish between subject populations, independent of bandwidth. However, post-hoc measurements of edge computations at the scale of the individual vertex revealed trends of reduced gamma connectivity across the posterior medial parietal cortex in patients, an observation consistent with our prior resting activation study that found significant reduction of synthetic aperture magnetometry gamma power across similar regions. The basis of these small differences remains unclear.

  10. Comparison between Medgem and Deltatrac resting metabolic rate measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compher, C; Hise, M; Sternberg, A; Kinosian, B P

    2005-10-01

    The primary aims of this trial were to evaluate the reproducibility of a portable handheld calorimeter (Medgem) in a clinical population, and to compare its measures with a calorimeter in typical use with these patients. Cross-sectional clinical validation study. Outpatient Clinical Research Center. A total of 24 stable home nutrition support patients. In random order three measures of resting metabolic rate (RMR) were taken after a 4-h fast, 15 min rest and 2-h abstention from exercise. Two measures were taken with the same Medgem (MG) and one with the traditional calorimeter (Deltatrac). Reproducibility of MG measures and their comparability to a Deltatrac measure were assessed by Bland-Altman analysis, with >+/-250 kcal/day established a priori as a clinically unacceptable error. In addition, disagreement between the two types of measures was defined as greater than 10% difference. The mean difference between two MG measures was -6.8 kcal/day, with limits of agreement between 233 and -247 kcal/day and clinically acceptable. The mean difference between the Deltatrac and mean of two MG measures was -162 kcal/day, with limits of agreement between 577 and -253 kcal/day and clinically unacceptable. In all, 80% of the repeated MG RMR measures agreed within 10%, and the mean MG reading agreed with the Deltatrac in 60% of cases. RMR obtained using the MG calorimeter has an acceptable degree of reproducibility, and is acceptable to patients. The MG measures, however, are frequently lower than traditional measures and require further validation prior to application to practice in this vulnerable patient group.

  11. Smoking is associated with increased resting energy expenditure in the general population: The NEO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauw, Lisanne L; Boon, Mariëtte R; Rosendaal, Frits R; de Mutsert, Renée; Gast, Karin B; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Rensen, Patrick C N; Dekkers, Olaf M

    2015-11-01

    Animal studies and human studies in small selected populations have shown a positive association between nicotine smoking and resting energy expenditure (REE), but data in large cohorts are lacking. We aimed to investigate the association between smoking behavior and REE in a large, population-based study. Population-based cross-sectional study. In this cross-sectional analysis of baseline measurements from the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study (n=6673), we included participants with REE measurement by indirect calorimetry who were not using lipid or glucose lowering drugs (n=1189). We used linear regression analysis to examine the association of smoking status (never, former, occasional, current smoker) and smoking quantity (pack years) with REE per kilogram (kg) fat free mass (FFM) and with REE adjusted for FFM. Models were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, educational level, physical activity, energy intake and body mass index (BMI). Mean (standard deviation, SD) age was 55.2 (5.9) years and BMI was 26.3 (4.4) kg/m(2). 60% of the participants were women. Mean (SD) REE/FFM (kcal/day/kg FFM) was for male never smokers 25.1 (2.0), male current smokers 26.4 (2.8), female never smokers 28.9 (2.5) and female current smokers 30.1 (3.7). After adjustment, only current smokers had a higher REE/FFM (mean difference 1.28, 95% CI 0.64, 1.92), and a higher REE adjusted for FFM (mean difference 60.3 kcal/day, 95% CI 29.1, 91.5), compared with never smokers. There was no association between pack years and REE/FFM (mean difference -0.01, 95% CI -0.06, 0.04) or REE adjusted for FFM (mean difference 0.2, 95% CI -2.4, 2.8) in current smokers. Current smoking is associated with a higher resting energy expenditure compared with never smoking in a large population-based cohort. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. CANDELS: THE EVOLUTION OF GALAXY REST-FRAME ULTRAVIOLET COLORS FROM z = 8 TO 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelstein, Steven L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Papovich, Casey; Salmon, Brett; Bassett, Robert [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Finlator, Kristian [Physics Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Dickinson, Mark [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Grogin, Norman A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Giavalisco, Mauro [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Reddy, Naveen A.; Mobasher, Bahram [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Conselice, Christopher J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Dunlop, James S.; McLure, Ross J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Faber, S. M.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Lai, Kamson [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Hathi, Nimish P. [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Lee, Kyoung-Soo, E-mail: stevenf@astro.as.utexas.edu [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Departments of Physics and Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); and others

    2012-09-10

    We study the evolution of galaxy rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) colors in the epoch 4 {approx}< z {approx}< 8. We use new wide-field near-infrared data in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South field from the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey, Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) 2009, and Early Release Science programs to select galaxies via photometric redshift measurements. Our sample consists of 2812 candidate galaxies at z {approx}> 3.5, including 113 at z {approx_equal} 7-8. We fit the observed spectral energy distribution to a suite of synthetic stellar population models and measure the value of the UV spectral slope ({beta}) from the best-fit model spectrum. We run simulations to show that this measurement technique results in a smaller scatter on {beta} than other methods, as well as a reduced number of galaxies with catastrophically incorrect {beta} measurements (i.e., {Delta}{beta} > 1). We find that the median value of {beta} evolves significantly from -1.82{sup +0.00}{sub -0.04} at z = 4 to -2.37{sup +0.26}{sub -0.06} at z = 7. Additionally, we find that faint galaxies at z = 7 have {beta} -2.68{sup +0.39}{sub -0.24} ({approx} -2.4 after correcting for observational bias); this is redder than previous claims in the literature and does not require 'exotic' stellar populations (e.g., very low metallicities or top-heavy initial mass functions) to explain their colors. This evolution can be explained by an increase in dust extinction, from low amounts at z = 7 to A{sub V} {approx} 0.5 mag at z = 4. The timescale for this increase is consistent with low-mass asymptotic giant branch stars forming the bulk of the dust. We find no significant (<2{sigma}) correlation between {beta} and M{sub UV} when measuring M{sub UV} at a consistent rest-frame wavelength of 1500 A. This is particularly true at bright magnitudes, though our results do show evidence for a weak correlation at faint magnitudes when galaxies in the HUDF

  13. Correlation of resting and exercising endoscopic findings for horses with dynamic laryngeal collapse and palatal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakzai, S Z; Dixon, P M

    2011-01-01

    To correlate resting and exercising endoscopic grades of laryngeal function in horses undergoing high-speed treadmill endoscopy (HSTE) using the Havemeyer grading system. To correlate dorsal displacement of the soft palate (DDSP) seen at rest with palatal function during exercise. Records of horses that underwent HSTE examination (1999-2009) were reviewed. Resting laryngeal function score and other abnormalities noted on resting endoscopy were recorded as were results of HSTE. Results of resting and exercising endoscopic findings were correlated. 281 horses underwent HSTE. There was significant correlation between grade of laryngeal function at rest (grades 1-4) and exercise (ρ=0.53, Pexercising grades of laryngeal function (ρ=0.43, P=0.0017). DDSP was observed at rest significantly more often in horses that developed DDSP during HSTE than those without DDSP during HSTE (RR=4.1, Pexercise were 25.5 and 95.1% respectively (positive predictive value 0.57, negative predictive value 0.83). The results of the current study support the use of the Havemeyer system for grading laryngeal function in the resting horse, and corroborate findings of previous studies correlating resting and exercising palatal abnormalities. Studies that use the presence of spontaneous DDSP during resting endoscopic examination as an inclusion criterion for investigating efficacy of treatments for DDSP are likely to have a low proportion of horses with false positive diagnoses. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  14. The effect of inter-set rest intervals on resistance exercise-induced muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henselmans, Menno; Schoenfeld, Brad J

    2014-12-01

    Due to a scarcity of longitudinal trials directly measuring changes in muscle girth, previous recommendations for inter-set rest intervals in resistance training programs designed to stimulate muscular hypertrophy were primarily based on the post-exercise endocrinological response and other mechanisms theoretically related to muscle growth. New research regarding the effects of inter-set rest interval manipulation on resistance training-induced muscular hypertrophy is reviewed here to evaluate current practices and provide directions for future research. Of the studies measuring long-term muscle hypertrophy in groups employing different rest intervals, none have found superior muscle growth in the shorter compared with the longer rest interval group and one study has found the opposite. Rest intervals less than 1 minute can result in acute increases in serum growth hormone levels and these rest intervals also decrease the serum testosterone to cortisol ratio. Long-term adaptations may abate the post-exercise endocrinological response and the relationship between the transient change in hormonal production and chronic muscular hypertrophy is highly contentious and appears to be weak. The relationship between the rest interval-mediated effect on immune system response, muscle damage, metabolic stress, or energy production capacity and muscle hypertrophy is still ambiguous and largely theoretical. In conclusion, the literature does not support the hypothesis that training for muscle hypertrophy requires shorter rest intervals than training for strength development or that predetermined rest intervals are preferable to auto-regulated rest periods in this regard.

  15. Effects of Different Types of 3D Rest Frames on Reducing Cybersickness in a Virtual Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KyungHun Han

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A virtual environment (VE presents several kinds of sensory stimuli for creating a virtual reality. Some sensory stimuli presented in the VE have been reported to provoke cybersickness, which is caused by conflicts between sensory stimuli, especially conflicts between visual and vestibular sensations. Application of a rest frame has been known to be effective on reducing cybersickness by alleviating sensory conflict. The form and the way rest frames are presented in 3D VEs have different effects on reducing cybersickness. In this study, two different types of 3D rest frames were created. For verifying the rest frames' effects in reducing cybersickness, twenty subjects were exposed to two different rest frame conditions and a non-rest frame condition after an interval of three days in 3D VE. We observed the characteristic changes in the physiology of cybersickness in terms of autonomic regulation. Psychophysiological signals including EEG, EGG, and HRV were recorded and a simulator sickness questionnaire (SSQ was used for measuring the intensity of the sickness before and after the exposure to the different conditions. In the results, the SSQ was reduced significantly in the rest frame conditions. Psychophysiological responses changed significantly in the rest frame conditions compared to the non-rest frame condition. The results suggest that the rest frame conditions have condition-specific effects on reducing cybersickness by differentially alleviating aspects of visual and vestibular sensory conflicts in 3D VE.

  16. Influence of ROI selection on Resting Functional Connectivity: An Individualized Approach for Resting fMRI Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Seunghyun Sohn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The differences in how our brain is connected are often thought to reflect the differences in our individual personalities and cognitive abilities. Individual differences in brain connectivity has long been recognized in the neuroscience community however it has yet to manifest itself in the methodology of resting state analysis. This is evident as previous studies use the same region of interest (ROIs for all subjects. In this paper we demonstrate that the use of ROIs which are standardized across individuals leads to inaccurate calculations of functional connectivity. We also show that this problem can be addressed by taking an individualized approach by using subject-specific ROIs. Finally we show that ROI selection can affect the way we interpret our data by showing different changes in functional connectivity with ageing.

  17. Relationship between Cardiometabolic Parameters and Elevated Resting and Effort Heart Rate in Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cristiane Fernanda da; Burgos, Miria Suzana; Silva, Priscila Tatiana da; Burgos, Leandro Tibiriçá; Welser, Letícia; Sehn, Ana Paula; Horta, Jorge André; Mello, Elza Daniel de; Reuter, Cézane Priscila

    2017-09-01

    Little has been studied on heart rate and its relationship with metabolic disorders. To identify possible association between heart rate (HR) and metabolic disorders in children and adolescents. This cross-sectional study evaluated 2.098 subjects, aged between 7 and 17 years. The variables evaluated were: HR, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), pulse pressure (PP), double-product (DP), myocardial oxygen consumption (mVO2), lipids, glucose and uric acid levels, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). The values of HR at rest and effort were divided into quartiles. The association between continuous values of HR and cardiometabolic indicators was tested by linear regression. LDL cholesterol presented a significantly higher mean (p = 0.003) in schoolchildren with resting HR greater or equal to 91 bpm, compared to students with less than 75 bpm. Compared with the quartiles of effort HR, SBP, DBP, glucose and uric acid presented high values when HR was greater or equal than 185 bpm. SBP, glucose and HDL cholesterol demonstrated a significant association with resting HR. Uric acid was observed as a predictor of increased effort HR. Schoolchildren with a higher resting HR have higher mean of LDL cholesterol. For effort HR, there was an increase in blood pressure, glucose and uric acid levels. Uric acid has been shown to be a predictor of elevated effort HR. Pouco se tem estudado sobre frequência cardíaca e suas relações com alterações metabólicas. Verificar se existe associação entre frequência cardíaca e disfunções metabólicas em crianças e adolescentes. Estudo transversal com 2.098 escolares, com idade entre 7 e 17 anos. As variáveis avaliadas foram: frequência cardíaca (FC), pressão arterial sistólica (PAS), diastólica (PAD) e de pulso (PP), duplo-produto (DP), consumo de oxigênio pelo miocárdio (mVO2), perfil lipídico e glicêmico, níveis de ácido úrico, índice de massa corporal (IMC) e circunferência da cintura

  18. Analysis of Crystal Barrel data on the reaction p-barp annihilation at rest into π+π-π0η

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveev, M.

    2004-01-01

    The preliminary results of partial wave analysis of the Crystal Barrel data on p-barp annihilation at rest into π+π-π0η are presented. The data provide the information about production of meson channels, such as b1π, h1η from 1S0 and 3S1 p-barp state annihilation. The analysis shows the presence of the b 1 * resonance and a possible presence of ρ2 in the mass region around 1600 MeV. The mass of b 1 * was found to be 1620 ± 15 MeV

  19. Direct search for neutrino mass and anomaly in the tritium beta-spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobashev, V.M.; Assev, V.N.; Belesev, A.I.; Berlev, A.I.; Geraskin, E.V.; Golubev, A.A.; Kazachenko, O.V.; Kuznetsov, Y.E.; Ostroumov, R.P.; Rivkis, L.A.; Stern, B.E.; Titov, N.A.; Zasoroghny, C.V.; Zakharov, Y.I.

    2001-01-01

    Results of the ''Troitsk ν-mass'' experiment on search for the neutrino rest mass in the tritium beta-decay are presented. Study of time dependence of anomalous, bump-like structure at the end of the beta spectrum reported earlier gives indication of a periodic shift of the position of the bump with respect to the end-point energy with period of 0.5 year. New upper limit for electron antineutrino rest mass m ν 2 is derived after accounting for the bump. (authors)

  20. Fibroblast Growth Factor-23 in Bed Rest and Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, R.; Zwart, S. R; Fields, E.; Heer, M.; Sibonga, J.; Smith, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Many nutritional factors influence bone, from the basics of calcium and vitamin D, to factors which influence bone through acid/base balance, including protein, sodium, and more. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a recently identified factor, secreted from osteocytes, which is involved in classic (albeit complex) feedback loops controlling phosphorus homeostasis through both vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) (1, 2). As osteocytes are gravity sensing cells, it is important to determine if there are changes in FGF23 during spaceflight. In extreme cases, such as chronic kidney disease, FGF23 levels are highly elevated. FGF23 imbalances, secondary to dietary influences, may contribute to skeletal demineralization and kidney stone risk during spaceflight. Presented with an imbalanced dietary phosphorus to calcium ratio, increased secretion of FGF23 will inhibit renal phosphorus reabsorption, resulting in increased excretion and reduced circulating phosphorus. Increased intake and excretion of phosphorus is associated with increased kidney stone risk in both the terrestrial and microgravity environments. Highly processed foods and carbonated beverages are associated with higher phosphorus content. Ideally, the dietary calcium to phosphorus ratio should be at minimum 1:1. Nutritional requirements for spaceflight suggest that this ratio not be less than 0.67 (3), while the International Space Station (ISS) menu provides 1020 mg Ca and 1856 mg P, for a ratio of 0.55 (3). Subjects in NASA's bed rest studies, by design, have consumed intake ratios much closer to 1.0 (4). FGF23 also has an inhibitory influence on PTH secretion and 1(alpha)-hydroxylase, both of which are required for activating vitamin D with the conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Decreased 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D will result in decreased intestinal phosphorus absorption, and increased urinary phosphorus excretion (via decreased renal reabsorption). Should a decrease in 1