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Sample records for nonvolatile residue nvr

  1. Method for the Collection, Gravimetric and Chemical Analysis of Nonvolatile Residue (NVR) on Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Keith; Rutherford, Gugu; Aranda, Denisse

    2017-01-01

    Nonvolatile residue (NVR), sometimes referred to as molecular contamination is the term used for the total composition of the inorganic and high boiling point organic components in particulates and molecular films deposited on critical surfaces surrounding space structures, with the particulate and NVR contamination originating primarily from pre-launch operations. The "nonvolatile" suggestion from the terminology NVR implies that the collected residue will not experience much loss under ambient conditions. NVR has been shown to have a dramatic impact on the ability to perform optical measurements from platforms based in space. Such contaminants can be detected early by the controlled application of various detection techniques and contamination analyses. Contamination analyses are the techniques used to determine if materials, components, and subsystems can be expected to meet the performance requirements of a system. Of particular concern is the quantity of NVR contaminants that might be deposited on critical payload surfaces from these sources. Subsequent chemical analysis of the contaminant samples by infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography mass spectrometry identifies the components, gives semi-quantitative estimates of contaminant thickness, indicates possible sources of the NVR, and provides guidance for effective cleanup procedures. In this report, a method for the collection and determination of the mass of NVR was generated by the authors at NASA Langley Research Center. This report describes the method developed and implemented for collecting NVR contaminants, and procedures for gravimetric and chemical analysis of the residue obtained. The result of this NVR analysis collaboration will help pave the way for Langley's ability to certify flight hardware outgassing requirements in support of flight projects such as Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III), Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Materials International

  2. Standard Test Method for Gravimetric Determination of Nonvolatile Residue (NVR) in Environmentally Controlled Areas for Spacecraft

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of nonvolatile residue (NVR) fallout in environmentally controlled areas used for the assembly, testing, and processing of spacecraft. 1.2 The NVR of interest is that which is deposited on sampling plate surfaces at room temperature: it is left to the user to infer the relationship between the NVR found on the sampling plate surface and that found on any other surfaces. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

  3. Failure Analysis of Nonvolatile Residue (NVR) Analyzer Model SP-1000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Joseph C.

    2011-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) subcontractor Wiltech contacted the NASA Electrical Lab (NE-L) and requested a failure analysis of a Solvent Purity Meter; model SP-IOOO produced by the VerTis Instrument Company. The meter, used to measure the contaminate in a solvent to determine the relative contamination on spacecraft flight hardware and ground servicing equipment, had been inoperable and in storage for an unknown amount of time. NE-L was asked to troubleshoot the unit and make a determination on what may be required to make the unit operational. Through the use of general troubleshooting processes and the review of a unit in service at the time of analysis, the unit was found to be repairable but would need the replacement of multiple components.

  4. Standard Test Method for Gravimetric Determination of Nonvolatile Residue From Cleanroom Wipers

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of solvent extractable nonvolatile residue (NVR) from wipers used in assembly, cleaning, or testing of spacecraft, but not from those used for analytical surface sampling of hardware. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 The NVR of interest is that which can be extracted from cleanroom wipers using a specified solvent that has been selected for its extractive qualities. Alternative solvents may be selected, but since their use may result in different values being generated, they must be identified in the procedure data sheet. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  5. Standard Test Method for Gravimetric Determination of Nonvolatile Residue from Cleanroom Gloves

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of solvent extractable nonvolatile residue (NVR) from gloves used in cleanrooms where spacecraft are assembled, cleaned, or tested. 1.2 The NVR of interest is that which can be extracted from gloves using a specified solvent that has been selected for its extracting qualities, or because it is representative of solvents used in the particular facility. Alternative solvents may be used, but since their use may result in different values being generated, they must be identified in the procedure data sheet. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  6. Migration of residual nonvolatile and inorganic compounds from recycled post-consumer PET and HDPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra, Camila; Reyes, Felix G.R., E-mail: reyesfgr@fea.unicamp.br [Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia dos Alimentos. Dept. de Ciencias dos Alimentos; Freire, Maria Teresa de A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencia Animal e Engenharia dos Alimentos. Dept. de Engenharia dos Alimentos; Nerin, Cristina; Bentayeb, Karim; Rodriguez-Lafuente, Angel; Aznar, Margarita [Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Arago Inst. of Engineering Research, University of Zaragoza (Spain)

    2014-04-15

    Migration of nonvolatile and inorganic residual compounds from post-consumer recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) submitted to cleaning processes for subsequent production of materials intended to food contact, as well as from multilayer packaging material containing post-consumer recycled high-density polyethylene (HDPE) was determined. Tests were carried out using food simulant. Nonvolatile organic contaminants from PET, determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-QqQ/MS), showed significant migration reduction as consequence of the more complex cleaning technologies applied. However, contaminants not allowed by Brazilian and European Union regulations were identified even in deep cleaning samples. Results from multilayer HDPE showed a greater number of contaminants when compared to recycled pellets. Inorganic contaminants, determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were below the acceptable levels. Additional studies for identification and quantitation of unknown molecules which were not possible to identify in this study by UPLC-QqQ/MS are required to ascertain the safety of using post-consumer recycled packaging material. (author)

  7. Comprehensive profiling and marker identification in non-volatile citrus oil residues by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Guillaume; Boccard, Julien; Mehl, Florence; Debrus, Benjamin; Marcourt, Laurence; Merle, Philippe; Delort, Estelle; Baroux, Lucie; Sommer, Horst; Rudaz, Serge; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2014-05-01

    The detailed characterization of cold-pressed lemon oils (CPLOs) is of great importance for the flavor and fragrance (F&F) industry. Since a control of authenticity by standard analytical techniques can be bypassed using elaborated adulterated oils to pretend a higher quality, a combination of advanced orthogonal methods has been developed. The present study describes a combined metabolomic approach based on UHPLC-TOF-MS profiling and (1)H NMR fingerprinting to highlight metabolite differences on a set of representative samples used in the F&F industry. A new protocol was set up and adapted to the use of CPLO residues. Multivariate analysis based on both fingerprinting methods showed significant chemical variations between Argentinian and Italian samples. Discriminating markers identified in mixtures belong to furocoumarins, flavonoids, terpenoids and fatty acids. Quantitative NMR revealed low citropten and high bergamottin content in Italian samples. The developed metabolomic approach applied to CPLO residues gives some new perspectives for authenticity assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Size distributions of non-volatile particle residuals (Dp<800 nm at a rural site in Germany and relation to air mass origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tuch

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosol particle size distributions at a continental background site in Eastern Germany were examined for a one-year period. Particles were classified using a twin differential mobility particle sizer in a size range between 3 and 800 nm. As a novelty, every second measurement of this experiment involved the removal of volatile chemical compounds in a thermodenuder at 300°C. This concept allowed to quantify the number size distribution of non-volatile particle cores – primarily associated with elemental carbon, and to compare this to the original non-conditioned size distribution. As a byproduct of the volatility analysis, new particles originating from nucleation inside the thermodenuder can be observed, however, overwhelmingly at diameters below 6 nm. Within the measurement uncertainty, every particle down to particle sizes of 15 nm is concluded to contain a non-volatile core. The volume fraction of non-volatile particulate matter (non-conditioned diameter < 800 nm varied between 10 and 30% and was largely consistent with the experimentally determined mass fraction of elemental carbon. The average size of the non-volatile particle cores was estimated as a function of original non-conditioned size using a summation method, which showed that larger particles (>200 nm contained more non-volatile compounds than smaller particles (<50 nm, thus indicating a significantly different chemical composition. Two alternative air mass classification schemes based on either, synoptic chart analysis (Berliner Wetterkarte or back trajectories showed that the volume and number fraction of non-volatile cores depended less on air mass than the total particle number concentration. In all air masses, the non-volatile size distributions showed a more and a less volatile ("soot" mode, the latter being located at about 50 nm. During unstable conditions and in maritime air masses, smaller values were observed compared to stable or continental conditions

  9. Non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Lacaze, Pierre-Camille

    2014-01-01

    Written for scientists, researchers, and engineers, Non-volatile Memories describes the recent research and implementations in relation to the design of a new generation of non-volatile electronic memories. The objective is to replace existing memories (DRAM, SRAM, EEPROM, Flash, etc.) with a universal memory model likely to reach better performances than the current types of memory: extremely high commutation speeds, high implantation densities and retention time of information of about ten years.

  10. Emerging non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Seungbum; Wouters, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the fundamentals of emerging non-volatile memories and provides an overview of future trends in the field. Readers will find coverage of seven important memory technologies, including Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM), Ferromagnetic RAM (FMRAM), Multiferroic RAM (MFRAM), Phase-Change Memories (PCM), Oxide-based Resistive RAM (RRAM), Probe Storage, and Polymer Memories. Chapters are structured to reflect diffusions and clashes between different topics. Emerging Non-Volatile Memories is an ideal book for graduate students, faculty, and professionals working in the area of non-volatile memory. This book also: Covers key memory technologies, including Ferroelectric Random Access Memory (FeRAM), Ferromagnetic RAM (FMRAM), and Multiferroic RAM (MFRAM), among others. Provides an overview of non-volatile memory fundamentals. Broadens readers' understanding of future trends in non-volatile memories.

  11. Pluto's Nonvolatile Chemical Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, William M.; Binzel, Richard; Cook, Jason C.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Dalle Ore, Cristina M.; Earle, Alissa M.; Ennico, Kimberly; Jennings, Donald; Howett, Carly; Kaiser, Ralf-Ingo; Linscott, Ivan; Lunsford, A. W.; Olkin, Catherine B.; Parker, Alex Harrison; Parker, Joel Wm.; Philippe, Sylvain; Protopapa, Silvia; Quirico, Eric; Reuter, D. C.; Schmitt, Bernard; Singer, Kelsi N.; Spencer, John R.; Stansberry, John A.; Stern, S. Alan; Tsang, Constantine; Verbiscer, Anne J.; Weaver, Harold A.; Weigle, G. E.; Young, Leslie

    2016-10-01

    Despite the migration of Pluto's volatile ices (N2, CO, and CH4) around the surface on seasonal timescales, the planet's non-volatile materials are not completely hidden from view. They occur in a variety of provinces formed over a wide range of timescales, including rugged mountains and chasms, the floors of mid-latitude craters, and an equatorial belt of especially dark and reddish material typified by the informally named Cthulhu Regio. NASA's New Horizons probe observed several of these regions at spatial resolutions as fine as 3 km/pixel with its LEISA imaging spectrometer, covering wavelengths from 1.25 to 2.5 microns. Various compounds that are much lighter than the tholin-like macromolecules responsible for the reddish coloration, but that are not volatile at Pluto surface temperatures such as methanol (CH3OH) and ethane (C2H6) have characteristic absorption bands within LEISA's wavelength range. This presentation will describe their geographic distributions and attempt to constrain their origins. Possibilities include an inheritance from Pluto's primordial composition (the likely source of H2O ice seen on Pluto's surface) or ongoing production from volatile precursors through photochemistry in Pluto's atmosphere or through radiolysis on Pluto's surface. New laboratory data inform the analysis.This work was supported by NASA's New Horizons project.

  12. Measurements of non-volatile aerosols with a VTDMA and their correlations with carbonaceous aerosols in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Heidi H. Y.; Tan, Haobo; Xu, Hanbing; Li, Fei; Wu, Cheng; Yu, Jian Z.; Chan, Chak K.

    2016-07-01

    Simultaneous measurements of aerosol volatility and carbonaceous matters were conducted at a suburban site in Guangzhou, China, in February and March 2014 using a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (VTDMA) and an organic carbon/elemental carbon (OC / EC) analyzer. Low volatility (LV) particles, with a volatility shrink factor (VSF) at 300 °C exceeding 0.9, contributed 5 % of number concentrations of the 40 nm particles and 11-15 % of the 80-300 nm particles. They were composed of non-volatile material externally mixed with volatile material, and therefore did not evaporate significantly at 300 °C. Non-volatile material mixed internally with the volatile material was referred to as medium volatility (MV, 0.4 transported at low altitudes (below 1500 m) for over 40 h before arrival. Further comparison with the diurnal variations in the mass fractions of EC and the non-volatile OC in PM2.5 suggests that the non-volatile residuals may be related to both EC and non-volatile OC in the afternoon, during which the concentration of aged organics increased. A closure analysis of the total mass of LV and MV residuals and the mass of EC or the sum of EC and non-volatile OC was conducted. It suggests that non-volatile OC, in addition to EC, was one of the components of the non-volatile residuals measured by the VTDMA in this study.

  13. A memristor-based nonvolatile latch circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinett, Warren; Pickett, Matthew; Borghetti, Julien; Xia Qiangfei; Snider, Gregory S; Medeiros-Ribeiro, Gilberto; Williams, R Stanley

    2010-01-01

    Memristive devices, which exhibit a dynamical conductance state that depends on the excitation history, can be used as nonvolatile memory elements by storing information as different conductance states. We describe the implementation of a nonvolatile synchronous flip-flop circuit that uses a nanoscale memristive device as the nonvolatile memory element. Controlled testing of the circuit demonstrated successful state storage and restoration, with an error rate of 0.1%, during 1000 power loss events. These results indicate that integration of digital logic devices and memristors could open the way for nonvolatile computation with applications in small platforms that rely on intermittent power sources. This demonstrated feasibility of tight integration of memristors with CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) circuitry challenges the traditional memory hierarchy, in which nonvolatile memory is only available as a large, slow, monolithic block at the bottom of the hierarchy. In contrast, the nonvolatile, memristor-based memory cell can be fast, fine-grained and small, and is compatible with conventional CMOS electronics. This threatens to upset the traditional memory hierarchy, and may open up new architectural possibilities beyond it.

  14. Nonvolatile Memory Technology for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Timothy R.; Irom, Farokh; Friendlich, Mark; Nguyen, Duc; Kim, Hak; Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews several forms of nonvolatile memory for use in space applications. The intent is to: (1) Determine inherent radiation tolerance and sensitivities, (2) Identify challenges for future radiation hardening efforts, (3) Investigate new failure modes and effects, and technology modeling programs. Testing includes total dose, single event (proton, laser, heavy ion), and proton damage (where appropriate). Test vehicles are expected to be a variety of non-volatile memory devices as available including Flash (NAND and NOR), Charge Trap, Nanocrystal Flash, Magnetic Memory (MRAM), Phase Change--Chalcogenide, (CRAM), Ferroelectric (FRAM), CNT, and Resistive RAM.

  15. Nonvolatile Rad-Hard Holographic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Zhou, Han-Ying; Reyes, George; Dragoi, Danut; Hanna, Jay

    2001-01-01

    We are investigating a nonvolatile radiation-hardened (rad-hard) holographic memory technology. Recently, a compact holographic data storage (CHDS) breadboard utilizing an innovative electro-optic scanner has been built and demonstrated for high-speed holographic data storage and retrieval. The successful integration of this holographic memory breadboard has paved the way for follow-on radiation resistance test of the photorefractive (PR) crystal, Fe:LiNbO3. We have also started the investigation of using two-photon PR crystals that are doubly doped with atoms of iron group (Ti, Cr, Mn, Cu) and of rare-earth group (Nd, Tb) for nonvolatile holographic recordings.

  16. Measurements of non-volatile aerosols with a VTDMA and their correlations with carbonaceous aerosols in Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Y. Cheung

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous measurements of aerosol volatility and carbonaceous matters were conducted at a suburban site in Guangzhou, China, in February and March 2014 using a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (VTDMA and an organic carbon/elemental carbon (OC ∕ EC analyzer. Low volatility (LV particles, with a volatility shrink factor (VSF at 300 °C exceeding 0.9, contributed 5 % of number concentrations of the 40 nm particles and 11–15 % of the 80–300 nm particles. They were composed of non-volatile material externally mixed with volatile material, and therefore did not evaporate significantly at 300 °C. Non-volatile material mixed internally with the volatile material was referred to as medium volatility (MV, 0.4  <  VSF  <  0.9 and high volatility (HV, VSF  <  0.4 particles. The MV and HV particles contributed 57–71 % of number concentration for the particles between 40 and 300 nm in size. The average EC and OC concentrations measured by the OC ∕ EC analyzer were 3.4 ± 3.0 and 9.0 ± 6.0 µg m−3, respectively. Non-volatile OC evaporating at 475 °C or above, together with EC, contributed 67 % of the total carbon mass. In spite of the daily maximum and minimum, the diurnal variations in the volume fractions of the volatile material, HV, MV and LV residuals were less than 15 % for the 80–300 nm particles. Back trajectory analysis also suggests that over 90 % of the air masses influencing the sampling site were well aged as they were transported at low altitudes (below 1500 m for over 40 h before arrival. Further comparison with the diurnal variations in the mass fractions of EC and the non-volatile OC in PM2.5 suggests that the non-volatile residuals may be related to both EC and non-volatile OC in the afternoon, during which the concentration of aged organics increased. A closure analysis of the total mass of LV and MV residuals and the mass of EC or the

  17. Organic Nonvolatile Memory Devices Based on Ferroelectricity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, Ronald C. G.; Asadi, Kamal; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Leeuw, Dago M.; de Boer, Bert

    2010-01-01

    A memory functionality is a prerequisite for many applications of electronic devices. Organic nonvolatile memory devices based on ferroelectricity are a promising approach toward the development of a low-cost memory technology. In this Review Article we discuss the latest developments in this area

  18. Organic nonvolatile memory devices based on ferroelectricity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, R.C.G.; Asadi, K.; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, D.M. de; Boer, B. de

    2010-01-01

    A memory functionality is a prerequisite for many applications of electronic devices. Organic nonvolatile memory devices based on ferroelectricity are a promising approach toward the development of a low-cost memory technology. In this Review Article we discuss the latest developments in this area

  19. Evaluation of Recent Technologies of Nonvolatile RAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuns, Thierry; Duzellier, Sophie; Bertrand, Jean; Hubert, Guillaume; Pouget, Vincent; Darracq, FrÉdÉric; David, Jean-Pierre; Soonckindt, Sabine

    2008-08-01

    Two types of recent nonvolatile random access memories (NVRAM) were evaluated for radiation effects: total dose and single event upset and latch-up under heavy ions and protons. Complementary irradiation with a laser beam provides information on sensitive areas of the devices.

  20. Alternative Nonvolatile Residue Analysis with Contaminant Identification Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Kathleen (Compiler); Summerfield, Burton (Compiler); Thompson, Karen (Compiler); Mullenix, Pamela (Compiler); Zeitlin, Nancy (Compiler)

    2015-01-01

    Cleanliness verification is required in numerous industries including spaceflight ground support, electronics, medical and aerospace. Currently at KSC requirement for cleanliness verification use solvents that environmentally unfriendly. This goal of this project is to produce an alternative cleanliness verification technique that is both environmentally friendly and more cost effective.

  1. Changes in the Optical Properties of Simulated Shuttle Waste Water Deposits- Urine Darkening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albyn, Keith; Edwards, David; Alred, John

    2004-01-01

    Manned spacecraft have historically dumped the crew generated waste waster overboard, into the environment in which the spacecraft operates, sometimes depositing the waste water on the external spacecraft surfaces. The change in optical properties of wastewater deposited on spacecraft external surfaces, from exposure to space environmental effects, is not well understood. This study used nonvolatile residue (NVR) from Human Urine to simulate wastewater deposits and documents the changes in the optical properties of the NVR deposits after exposure to ultra violet (UV) radiation. Twenty NVR samples of, 0-angstromes/sq cm to 1000-angstromes/sq cm, and one sample contaminated with 1 to 2-mg/sq cm were exposed to UV radiation over the course of approximately 6151 equivalent sun hours (ESH). Random changes in sample mass, NVR, solar absorbance, and infrared emission were observed during the study. Significant changes in the UV transmittance were observed for one sample contaminated at the mg/sq cm level.

  2. Changes in the Optical Properties of Simulated Shuttle Waste Water Deposits: Urine Darkening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albyn, Keith; Edwards, David; Alred, John

    2003-01-01

    Manned spacecraft have historically dumped the crew generated waste water overboard, into the environment in which the spacecraft operates, sometimes depositing the waste water on the external spacecraft surfaces. The change in optical properties of wastewater deposited on spacecraft external surfaces, from exposure to space environmental effects, is not well understood. This study used nonvolatile residue (NVR) from Human Urine to simulate wastewater deposits and documents the changes in the optical properties of the NVR deposits after exposure to ultra violet(UV)radiation. Twenty four NVR samples of, 0-angstromes/sq cm to 1000-angstromes/sq cm, and one sample contaminated with 1 to 2-mg/sq cm were exposed to UV radiation over the course of approximately 6151 equivalent sun hours (ESH). Random changes in sample mass, NVR, solar absorbance, and infrared emission were observed during the study. Significant changes in the UV transmittance were observed for one sample contaminated at the mg/sq cm level.

  3. Electrostatically telescoping nanotube nonvolatile memory device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Jeong Won; Jiang Qing

    2007-01-01

    We propose a nonvolatile memory based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) serving as the key building blocks for molecular-scale computers and investigate the dynamic operations of a double-walled CNT memory element by classical molecular dynamics simulations. The localized potential energy wells achieved from both the interwall van der Waals energy and CNT-metal binding energy make the bistability of the CNT positions and the electrostatic attractive forces induced by the voltage differences lead to the reversibility of this CNT memory. The material for the electrodes should be carefully chosen to achieve the nonvolatility of this memory. The kinetic energy of the CNT shuttle experiences several rebounds induced by the collisions of the CNT onto the metal electrodes, and this is critically important to the performance of such an electrostatically telescoping CNT memory because the collision time is sufficiently long to cause a delay of the state transition

  4. Carbon nanomaterials for non-volatile memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ethan C.; Wong, H.-S. Philip; Pop, Eric

    2018-03-01

    Carbon can create various low-dimensional nanostructures with remarkable electronic, optical, mechanical and thermal properties. These features make carbon nanomaterials especially interesting for next-generation memory and storage devices, such as resistive random access memory, phase-change memory, spin-transfer-torque magnetic random access memory and ferroelectric random access memory. Non-volatile memories greatly benefit from the use of carbon nanomaterials in terms of bit density and energy efficiency. In this Review, we discuss sp2-hybridized carbon-based low-dimensional nanostructures, such as fullerene, carbon nanotubes and graphene, in the context of non-volatile memory devices and architectures. Applications of carbon nanomaterials as memory electrodes, interfacial engineering layers, resistive-switching media, and scalable, high-performance memory selectors are investigated. Finally, we compare the different memory technologies in terms of writing energy and time, and highlight major challenges in the manufacturing, integration and understanding of the physical mechanisms and material properties.

  5. Strain-controlled nonvolatile magnetization switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geprägs, S.; Brandlmaier, A.; Brandt, M. S.; Gross, R.; Goennenwein, S. T. B.

    2014-11-01

    We investigate different approaches towards a nonvolatile switching of the remanent magnetization in single-crystalline ferromagnets at room temperature via elastic strain using ferromagnetic thin film/piezoelectric actuator hybrids. The piezoelectric actuator induces a voltage-controllable strain along different crystalline directions of the ferromagnetic thin film, resulting in modifications of its magnetization by converse magnetoelastic effects. We quantify the magnetization changes in the hybrids via ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. These measurements demonstrate a significant strain-induced change of the magnetization, limited by an inefficient strain transfer and domain formation in the particular system studied. To overcome these obstacles, we address practicable engineering concepts and use a model to demonstrate that a strain-controlled, nonvolatile magnetization switching should be possible in appropriately engineered ferromagnetic/piezoelectric actuator hybrids.

  6. Flexible graphene–PZT ferroelectric nonvolatile memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wonho; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Kahya, Orhan; Toh, Chee Tat; Özyilmaz, Barbaros

    2013-01-01

    We report the fabrication of a flexible graphene-based nonvolatile memory device using Pb(Zr 0.35 ,Ti 0.65 )O 3 (PZT) as the ferroelectric material. The graphene and PZT ferroelectric layers were deposited using chemical vapor deposition and sol–gel methods, respectively. Such PZT films show a high remnant polarization (P r ) of 30 μC cm −2 and a coercive voltage (V c ) of 3.5 V under a voltage loop over ±11 V. The graphene–PZT ferroelectric nonvolatile memory on a plastic substrate displayed an on/off current ratio of 6.7, a memory window of 6 V and reliable operation. In addition, the device showed one order of magnitude lower operation voltage range than organic-based ferroelectric nonvolatile memory after removing the anti-ferroelectric behavior incorporating an electrolyte solution. The devices showed robust operation in bent states of bending radii up to 9 mm and in cycling tests of 200 times. The devices exhibited remarkable mechanical properties and were readily integrated with plastic substrates for the production of flexible circuits. (paper)

  7. Flexible graphene-PZT ferroelectric nonvolatile memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonho; Kahya, Orhan; Toh, Chee Tat; Ozyilmaz, Barbaros; Ahn, Jong-Hyun

    2013-11-29

    We report the fabrication of a flexible graphene-based nonvolatile memory device using Pb(Zr0.35,Ti0.65)O3 (PZT) as the ferroelectric material. The graphene and PZT ferroelectric layers were deposited using chemical vapor deposition and sol–gel methods, respectively. Such PZT films show a high remnant polarization (Pr) of 30 μC cm−2 and a coercive voltage (Vc) of 3.5 V under a voltage loop over ±11 V. The graphene–PZT ferroelectric nonvolatile memory on a plastic substrate displayed an on/off current ratio of 6.7, a memory window of 6 V and reliable operation. In addition, the device showed one order of magnitude lower operation voltage range than organic-based ferroelectric nonvolatile memory after removing the anti-ferroelectric behavior incorporating an electrolyte solution. The devices showed robust operation in bent states of bending radii up to 9 mm and in cycling tests of 200 times. The devices exhibited remarkable mechanical properties and were readily integrated with plastic substrates for the production of flexible circuits.

  8. Radiation-hardened nonvolatile MNOS RAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrobel, T.F.; Dodson, W.H.; Hash, G.L.; Jones, R.V.; Nasby, R.D.; Olson, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    A radiation hardened nonvolatile MNOS RAM is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The memory organization is 128 x 8 bits and utilizes two p-channel MNOS transistors per memory cell. The peripheral circuitry is constructed with CMOS metal gate and is processed with standard Sandia rad-hard processing techniques. The devices have memory retention after a dose-rate exposure of 1E12 rad(Si)/s, are functional after total dose exposure of 1E6 rad(Si), and are dose-rate upset resistant to levels of 7E8 rad(Si)/s

  9. Overview of emerging nonvolatile memory technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Jagan Singh; Sze, Simon Min; Chand, Umesh; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen

    2014-01-01

    Nonvolatile memory technologies in Si-based electronics date back to the 1990s. Ferroelectric field-effect transistor (FeFET) was one of the most promising devices replacing the conventional Flash memory facing physical scaling limitations at those times. A variant of charge storage memory referred to as Flash memory is widely used in consumer electronic products such as cell phones and music players while NAND Flash-based solid-state disks (SSDs) are increasingly displacing hard disk drives as the primary storage device in laptops, desktops, and even data centers. The integration limit of Flash memories is approaching, and many new types of memory to replace conventional Flash memories have been proposed. Emerging memory technologies promise new memories to store more data at less cost than the expensive-to-build silicon chips used by popular consumer gadgets including digital cameras, cell phones and portable music players. They are being investigated and lead to the future as potential alternatives to existing memories in future computing systems. Emerging nonvolatile memory technologies such as magnetic random-access memory (MRAM), spin-transfer torque random-access memory (STT-RAM), ferroelectric random-access memory (FeRAM), phase-change memory (PCM), and resistive random-access memory (RRAM) combine the speed of static random-access memory (SRAM), the density of dynamic random-access memory (DRAM), and the nonvolatility of Flash memory and so become very attractive as another possibility for future memory hierarchies. Many other new classes of emerging memory technologies such as transparent and plastic, three-dimensional (3-D), and quantum dot memory technologies have also gained tremendous popularity in recent years. Subsequently, not an exaggeration to say that computer memory could soon earn the ultimate commercial validation for commercial scale-up and production the cheap plastic knockoff. Therefore, this review is devoted to the rapidly developing new

  10. Overview of emerging nonvolatile memory technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Nonvolatile memory technologies in Si-based electronics date back to the 1990s. Ferroelectric field-effect transistor (FeFET) was one of the most promising devices replacing the conventional Flash memory facing physical scaling limitations at those times. A variant of charge storage memory referred to as Flash memory is widely used in consumer electronic products such as cell phones and music players while NAND Flash-based solid-state disks (SSDs) are increasingly displacing hard disk drives as the primary storage device in laptops, desktops, and even data centers. The integration limit of Flash memories is approaching, and many new types of memory to replace conventional Flash memories have been proposed. Emerging memory technologies promise new memories to store more data at less cost than the expensive-to-build silicon chips used by popular consumer gadgets including digital cameras, cell phones and portable music players. They are being investigated and lead to the future as potential alternatives to existing memories in future computing systems. Emerging nonvolatile memory technologies such as magnetic random-access memory (MRAM), spin-transfer torque random-access memory (STT-RAM), ferroelectric random-access memory (FeRAM), phase-change memory (PCM), and resistive random-access memory (RRAM) combine the speed of static random-access memory (SRAM), the density of dynamic random-access memory (DRAM), and the nonvolatility of Flash memory and so become very attractive as another possibility for future memory hierarchies. Many other new classes of emerging memory technologies such as transparent and plastic, three-dimensional (3-D), and quantum dot memory technologies have also gained tremendous popularity in recent years. Subsequently, not an exaggeration to say that computer memory could soon earn the ultimate commercial validation for commercial scale-up and production the cheap plastic knockoff. Therefore, this review is devoted to the rapidly developing new

  11. Radiation evaluation of commercial ferroelectric nonvolatile memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedetto, J.M.; DeLancey, W.M.; Oldham, T.R.; McGarrity, J.M.; Tipton, C.W.; Brassington, M.; Fisch, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on ferroelectric (FE) on complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) 4-kbit nonvolatile memories, 8-bit octal latches (with and without FE), and process control test chips that were used to establish a baseline characterization of the radiation response of CMOS/FE integrated devices and to determine whether the additional FE processing caused significant degradation to the baseline CMOS process. Functional failure of all 4-kbit memories and octal latches occurred at total doses of between 2 and 4 krad(Si), most likely due to field- oxide effects in the underlying CMOS. No significant difference was observed between the radiation responses of devices with and without the FE film in this commercial process

  12. Nonvolatile Memory Materials for Neuromorphic Intelligent Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Doo Seok; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2018-04-18

    Recent progress in deep learning extends the capability of artificial intelligence to various practical tasks, making the deep neural network (DNN) an extremely versatile hypothesis. While such DNN is virtually built on contemporary data centers of the von Neumann architecture, physical (in part) DNN of non-von Neumann architecture, also known as neuromorphic computing, can remarkably improve learning and inference efficiency. Particularly, resistance-based nonvolatile random access memory (NVRAM) highlights its handy and efficient application to the multiply-accumulate (MAC) operation in an analog manner. Here, an overview is given of the available types of resistance-based NVRAMs and their technological maturity from the material- and device-points of view. Examples within the strategy are subsequently addressed in comparison with their benchmarks (virtual DNN in deep learning). A spiking neural network (SNN) is another type of neural network that is more biologically plausible than the DNN. The successful incorporation of resistance-based NVRAM in SNN-based neuromorphic computing offers an efficient solution to the MAC operation and spike timing-based learning in nature. This strategy is exemplified from a material perspective. Intelligent machines are categorized according to their architecture and learning type. Also, the functionality and usefulness of NVRAM-based neuromorphic computing are addressed. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Identification of nonvolatile compounds in clove (Syzygium aromaticum) from Manado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathoni, A.; Saepudin, E.; Cahyana, A. H.; Rahayu, D. U. C.; Haib, J.

    2017-07-01

    Syzygium aromaticum (clove) are native to Indonesia and have been widely used in food industry due to their flavor. Nonvolatile compounds contribute to flavor, mainly in their taste. Currently, there is very little information available about nonvolatile compounds in clove. Identification of nonvolatile compounds is important to improve clove's value. Compound extraction was conducted by maceration in ethanol. Fractionations of the extract were performed by using gravity column chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 as stationary phase. Nonvolatile compounds were identified by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). LC-MS/MS was operated in negative mode with 0.1 % formic acid in water and acetonitrile as mobile phase. Nonvolatile compounds were identified by fragment analysis and compared to references. Several compounds had been identified and characterized asquinic acid, monogalloylglucose, gallic acid, digalloylglucose, isobiflorin, biflorin, ellagic acid, hydroxygallic acid, luteolin, quercetin, naringenin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, dimethoxyluteolin, and rhamnetin. These compounds had two main flavor perceptions, i.e. astringent, and bitter.

  14. Interlaboratory study of a method for determining nonvolatile organic carbon in aquifer materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughey, M.E.; Barcelona, M.J.; Powell, R.M.; Cahill, R.A.; Gron, C.; Lawrenz, D.; Meschi, P.L.

    1995-01-01

    The organic carbon fraction in aquifer materials exerts a major influence on the subsurface mobilities of organic and organic-associated contaminants. The spatial distribution of total organic carbon (TOC) in aquifer materials must be determined before the transport of hydrophobic organic pollutants in aquifers can be modeled accurately. Previous interlaboratory studies showed that it is difficult to measure TOC concentrations 1%. We have tested a new analytical method designed to improve the accuracy and precision of nonvolatile TOC quantitation in geologic materials that also contain carbonate minerals. Four authentic aquifer materials and one NIST standard reference material were selected as test materials for a blind collaborative study. Nonvolatile TOC in these materials ranged from 0.05 to 1.4%, while TIC ranged from 0.46 to 12.6%. Sample replicates were digested with sulfurous acid, dried at 40??C, and then combusted at 950??C using LECO or UIC instruments. For the three test materials that contained >2% TIC, incomplete acidification resulted in a systematic positive bias of TOC values reported by five of the six laboratories that used the test method. Participants did not have enough time to become proficient with the new method before they analyzed the test materials. A seventh laboratory successfully used an alternative method that analyzed separate liquid and solid fractions of the acidified sample residues. ?? 1995 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Nonvolatile resistive switching in Pt/laALO3/srTiO3 heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, S.; Luo, X.; Turner, S.; Peng, H.; Lin, W.; Ding, J.; David, A.; Wang, B.; Van, Tendeloo, G.; Wang, J.; Wu, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Resistive switching heterojunctions, which are promising for nonvolatile memory applications, usually share a capacitorlike metal-oxide-metal configuration. Here, we report on the nonvolatile resistive switching in Pt/LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures

  16. Nonvolatile memory design magnetic, resistive, and phase change

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hai

    2011-01-01

    The manufacture of flash memory, which is the dominant nonvolatile memory technology, is facing severe technical barriers. So much so, that some emerging technologies have been proposed as alternatives to flash memory in the nano-regime. Nonvolatile Memory Design: Magnetic, Resistive, and Phase Changing introduces three promising candidates: phase-change memory, magnetic random access memory, and resistive random access memory. The text illustrates the fundamental storage mechanism of these technologies and examines their differences from flash memory techniques. Based on the latest advances,

  17. Ferroelectric memories: A possible answer to the hardened nonvolatile question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messenger, G.C.; Coppage, F.N.

    1988-01-01

    Ferroelectric memory cells have been fabricated using a process compatible with semiconductor VLSI (Very Large-Scale Integration) manufacturing techniques which are basically nonvolatile and radiation hard. The memory can be made NDRO (Nondestructive Readout) for strategic systems using several techniques; the most practical is probably a rapid read/restore in combination with EDAC software. This memory can replace plated wire and will have substantial advantages in cost, weight, size, power and speed. It provides a practical cost-competitive solution to the need for nonvolatile RAM in all hardened tactical, avionic, and space systems

  18. EDITORIAL: Non-volatile memory based on nanostructures Non-volatile memory based on nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, Sergei; Yang, J. Joshua; Demming, Anna

    2011-06-01

    Non-volatile memory refers to the crucial ability of computers to store information once the power source has been removed. Traditionally this has been achieved through flash, magnetic computer storage and optical discs, and in the case of very early computers paper tape and punched cards. While computers have advanced considerably from paper and punched card memory devices, there are still limits to current non-volatile memory devices that restrict them to use as secondary storage from which data must be loaded and carefully saved when power is shut off. Denser, faster, low-energy non-volatile memory is highly desired and nanostructures are the critical enabler. This special issue on non-volatile memory based on nanostructures describes some of the new physics and technology that may revolutionise future computers. Phase change random access memory, which exploits the reversible phase change between crystalline and amorphous states, also holds potential for future memory devices. The chalcogenide Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) is a promising material in this field because it combines a high activation energy for crystallization and a relatively low crystallization temperature, as well as a low melting temperature and low conductivity, which accommodates localized heating. Doping is often used to lower the current required to activate the phase change or 'reset' GST but this often aggravates other problems. Now researchers in Korea report in-depth studies of SiO2-doped GST and identify ways of optimising the material's properties for phase-change random access memory [1]. Resistance switching is an area that has attracted a particularly high level of interest for non-volatile memory technology, and a great deal of research has focused on the potential of TiO2 as a model system in this respect. Researchers at HP labs in the US have made notable progress in this field, and among the work reported in this special issue they describe means to control the switch resistance and show

  19. Organic non-volatile memories from ferroelectric phase separated blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Kamal; de Leeuw, Dago; de Boer, Bert; Blom, Paul

    2009-03-01

    Ferroelectric polarisation is an attractive physical property for non-volatile binary switching. The functionality of the targeted memory should be based on resistive switching. Conductivity and ferroelectricity however cannot be tuned independently. The challenge is to develop a storage medium in which the favourable properties of ferroelectrics such as bistability and non-volatility can be combined with the beneficial properties provided by semiconductors such as conductivity and rectification. In this contribution we present an integrated solution by blending semiconducting and ferroelectric polymers into phase separated networks. The polarisation field of the ferroelectric modulates the injection barrier at the semiconductor--metal contact. This combination allows for solution-processed non-volatile memory arrays with a simple cross-bar architecture that can be read-out non-destructively. Based on this general concept a non-volatile, reversible switchable Schottky diode with relatively fast programming time of shorter than 100 microseconds, long information retention time of longer than 10^ days, and high programming cycle endurance with non-destructive read-out is demonstrated.

  20. Non-volatile memory based on the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; You, Lu; Zhou, Yang; Shiuh Lim, Zhi; Zou, Xi; Chen, Lang; Ramesh, R.; Wang, Junling

    2013-01-01

    The quest for a solid state universal memory with high-storage density, high read/write speed, random access and non-volatility has triggered intense research into new materials and novel device architectures. Though the non-volatile memory market is dominated by flash memory now, it has very low operation speed with ~10 μs programming and ~10 ms erasing time. Furthermore, it can only withstand ~105 rewriting cycles, which prevents it from becoming the universal memory. Here we demonstrate that the significant photovoltaic effect of a ferroelectric material, such as BiFeO3 with a band gap in the visible range, can be used to sense the polarization direction non-destructively in a ferroelectric memory. A prototype 16-cell memory based on the cross-bar architecture has been prepared and tested, demonstrating the feasibility of this technique. PMID:23756366

  1. Method for refreshing a non-volatile memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riekels, James E.; Schlesinger, Samuel

    2008-11-04

    A non-volatile memory and a method of refreshing a memory are described. The method includes allowing an external system to control refreshing operations within the memory. The memory may generate a refresh request signal and transmit the refresh request signal to the external system. When the external system finds an available time to process the refresh request, the external system acknowledges the refresh request and transmits a refresh acknowledge signal to the memory. The memory may also comprise a page register for reading and rewriting a data state back to the memory. The page register may comprise latches in lieu of supplemental non-volatile storage elements, thereby conserving real estate within the memory.

  2. Active non-volatile memory post-processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, Sudarsun; Milojicic, Dejan S.; Talwar, Vanish

    2017-04-11

    A computing node includes an active Non-Volatile Random Access Memory (NVRAM) component which includes memory and a sub-processor component. The memory is to store data chunks received from a processor core, the data chunks comprising metadata indicating a type of post-processing to be performed on data within the data chunks. The sub-processor component is to perform post-processing of said data chunks based on said metadata.

  3. Phase change materials in non-volatile storage

    OpenAIRE

    Ielmini, Daniele; Lacaita, Andrea L.

    2011-01-01

    After revolutionizing the technology of optical data storage, phase change materials are being adopted in non-volatile semiconductor memories. Their success in electronic storage is mostly due to the unique properties of the amorphous state where carrier transport phenomena and thermally-induced phase change cooperate to enable high-speed, low-voltage operation and stable data retention possible within the same material. This paper reviews the key physical properties that make this phase so s...

  4. Use of non-volatile memories for SSC detector readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fennelly, A.J.; Woosley, J.K.; Johnson, M.B.

    1990-01-01

    Use of non-volatile memory units at the end of each fiber optic bunch/strand would substantially increase information available from experiments by providing a complete event history, in addition to easing real time processing requirements. This may be an alternative to enhancing technology to optical computing techniques. Available and low-risk projected technologies will be surveyed, with costing addressed. Some discussion will be given to covnersion of optical signals, to electronic information, concepts for providing timing pulses to the memory units, and to the magnetoresistive (MRAM) and ferroelectric (FERAM) random access memory technologies that may be utilized in the prototype system

  5. Design considerations for a radiation hardened nonvolatile memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Sub-optimal design practices can reduce the radiation hardness of a circuit even though it is fabricated in a radiation hardened process. This is especially true for a nonvolatile memory, as compared to a standard digital circuit, where high voltages and unusual bias conditions are required. This paper will discuss the design technique's used in the development of a 64K EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) to maximize radiation hardness. The circuit radiation test results will be reviewed in order to provide validation of the techniques

  6. Channel equalization techniques for non-volatile memristor memories

    KAUST Repository

    Naous, Rawan

    2016-03-16

    Channel coding and information theoretic approaches have been utilized in conventional non-volatile memories to overcome their inherent design limitations of leakage, coupling and refresh rates. However, the continuous scaling and integration constraints set on the current devices directed the attention towards emerging memory technologies as suitable alternatives. Memristive devices are prominent candidates to replace the conventional electronics due to its non-volatility and small feature size. Nonetheless, memristor-based memories still encounter an accuracy limitation throughout the read operation addressed as the sneak path phenomenon. The readout data is corrupted with added distortion that increases significantly the bit error rate and jeopardizes the reliability of the read operation. A novel technique is applied to alleviate this distorting effect where the communication channel model is proposed for the memory array. Noise cancellation principles are applied with the aid of preset pilots to extract channel information and adjust the readout values accordingly. The proposed technique has the virtue of high speed, energy efficiency, and low complexity design while achieving high reliability and error-free decoding.

  7. Channel equalization techniques for non-volatile memristor memories

    KAUST Repository

    Naous, Rawan; Zidan, Mohammed A.; Salem, Ahmed Sultan; Salama, Khaled N.

    2016-01-01

    Channel coding and information theoretic approaches have been utilized in conventional non-volatile memories to overcome their inherent design limitations of leakage, coupling and refresh rates. However, the continuous scaling and integration constraints set on the current devices directed the attention towards emerging memory technologies as suitable alternatives. Memristive devices are prominent candidates to replace the conventional electronics due to its non-volatility and small feature size. Nonetheless, memristor-based memories still encounter an accuracy limitation throughout the read operation addressed as the sneak path phenomenon. The readout data is corrupted with added distortion that increases significantly the bit error rate and jeopardizes the reliability of the read operation. A novel technique is applied to alleviate this distorting effect where the communication channel model is proposed for the memory array. Noise cancellation principles are applied with the aid of preset pilots to extract channel information and adjust the readout values accordingly. The proposed technique has the virtue of high speed, energy efficiency, and low complexity design while achieving high reliability and error-free decoding.

  8. Determination of Nonvolatile Amines in Foods by Improved Dansyl Derivatization Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Ayami; Kawanabe, Hitomi; Ibe, Akihiro

    2017-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of nonvolatile amines (putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, and spermidine) in foods was developed, using an improved dansyl derivatization technique. The five amines were extracted from food with 1% trichloroacetic acid. Three milliliter of extract was applied to a polymer-based strong cation exchange resin mini-column, which was washed with 5 mL of water, and eluted with 5 mL of 1 mol/L potassium carbonate solution. The eluate was dansylated, then 5 mL of toluene was added with shaking. The toluene layer was evaporated. The residue was taken up in 1 mL of acetonitrile and shaken with 1 mL of 5% proline in 1 mol/L potassium carbonate solution. The upper acetonitrile layer was collected, filtered, and subjected to HPLC. The limits of quantitation for putrescine and cadaverine in the samples were both 0.2 μg/g; those of spermidine, tyramine, and histamine were 0.8, 2.0, and 5.0 μg/g, respectively. The average recoveries of the five amines from nine foods exceeded 80%.

  9. Carbon nanotube network-silicon oxide non-volatile switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Albert D; Araujo, Paulo T; Xu, Runjie; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2014-12-08

    The integration of carbon nanotubes with silicon is important for their incorporation into next-generation nano-electronics. Here we demonstrate a non-volatile switch that utilizes carbon nanotube networks to electrically contact a conductive nanocrystal silicon filament in silicon dioxide. We form this device by biasing a nanotube network until it physically breaks in vacuum, creating the conductive silicon filament connected across a small nano-gap. From Raman spectroscopy, we observe coalescence of nanotubes during breakdown, which stabilizes the system to form very small gaps in the network~15 nm. We report that carbon nanotubes themselves are involved in switching the device to a high resistive state. Calculations reveal that this switching event occurs at ~600 °C, the temperature associated with the oxidation of nanotubes. Therefore, we propose that, in switching to a resistive state, the nanotube oxidizes by extracting oxygen from the substrate.

  10. Apple juice composition: sugar, nonvolatile acid, and phenolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H S; Wrolstad, R E

    1988-01-01

    Apples from Michigan, Washington, Argentina, Mexico, and New Zealand were processed into juice; the 8 samples included Golden Delicious, Jonathan, Granny Smith, and McIntosh varieties. Liquid chromatography was used for quantitation of sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, and sorbitol), nonvolatile acids (malic, quinic, citric, shikimic, and fumaric), and phenolics (chlorogenic acid and hydroxymethylfurfural [HMF]). Other determinations included pH, 0Brix, and L-malic acid. A number of compositional indices for these authentic juices, e.g., chlorogenic acid content, total malic - L-malic difference, and the HMF:chlorogenic ratio, were at variance with recommended standards. The phenolic profile was shown to be particularly influenced by gelatin fining, with peak areas decreasing by as much as 50%. The L-malic:total malic ratio serves as a better index for presence of synthetic malic acid than does the difference between the 2 determinations. No apparent differences in chemical composition could be attributed to geographic origin.

  11. Bioorganic nanodots for non-volatile memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amdursky, Nadav; Shalev, Gil; Handelman, Amir; Natan, Amir; Rosenwaks, Yossi; Litsyn, Simon; Szwarcman, Daniel; Rosenman, Gil; Roizin, Yakov

    2013-01-01

    In recent years we are witnessing an intensive integration of bio-organic nanomaterials in electronic devices. Here we show that the diphenylalanine bio-molecule can self-assemble into tiny peptide nanodots (PNDs) of ∼2 nm size, and can be embedded into metal-oxide-semiconductor devices as charge storage nanounits in non-volatile memory. For that purpose, we first directly observe the crystallinity of a single PND by electron microscopy. We use these nanocrystalline PNDs units for the formation of a dense monolayer on SiO 2 surface, and study the electron/hole trapping mechanisms and charge retention ability of the monolayer, followed by fabrication of PND-based memory cell device

  12. Bioorganic nanodots for non-volatile memory devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amdursky, Nadav; Shalev, Gil; Handelman, Amir; Natan, Amir; Rosenwaks, Yossi [School of Electrical Engineering, Iby and Aladar Fleischman Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Litsyn, Simon; Szwarcman, Daniel; Rosenman, Gil, E-mail: rgil@post.tau.ac.il [School of Electrical Engineering, Iby and Aladar Fleischman Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); StoreDot LTD, 16 Menahem Begin St., Ramat Gan (Israel); Roizin, Yakov [School of Electrical Engineering, Iby and Aladar Fleischman Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); TowerJazz, P.O. Box 619, Migdal HaEmek 23105 (Israel)

    2013-12-01

    In recent years we are witnessing an intensive integration of bio-organic nanomaterials in electronic devices. Here we show that the diphenylalanine bio-molecule can self-assemble into tiny peptide nanodots (PNDs) of ∼2 nm size, and can be embedded into metal-oxide-semiconductor devices as charge storage nanounits in non-volatile memory. For that purpose, we first directly observe the crystallinity of a single PND by electron microscopy. We use these nanocrystalline PNDs units for the formation of a dense monolayer on SiO{sub 2} surface, and study the electron/hole trapping mechanisms and charge retention ability of the monolayer, followed by fabrication of PND-based memory cell device.

  13. Organic nonvolatile memory devices with charge trapping multilayer graphene film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Yongsung; Choe, Minhyeok; Cho, Byungjin; Song, Sunghoon; Yoon, Jongwon; Ko, Heung Cho; Lee, Takhee

    2012-01-01

    We fabricated an array-type organic nonvolatile memory device with multilayer graphene (MLG) film embedded in polyimide (PI) layers. The memory devices showed a high ON/OFF ratio (over 10 6 ) and a long retention time (over 10 4 s). The switching of the Al/PI/MLG/PI/Al memory devices was due to the presence of the MLG film inserted into the PI layers. The double-log current–voltage characteristics could be explained by the space-charge-limited current conduction based on a charge-trap model. A conductive atomic force microscopy found that the conduction paths in the low-resistance ON state were distributed in a highly localized area, which was associated with a carbon-rich filamentary switching mechanism. (paper)

  14. Non-volatile polarization switch of magnetic domain wall velocity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Z.; Stolichnov, I.; Setter, N. [Ceramics Laboratory, EPFL-Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne 1015 (Switzerland); Bernand-Mantel, A.; Schott, Marine; Pizzini, S.; Ranno, L. [University of Grenoble Alpes, Institut Néel, F-38042 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Institut Néel, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Auffret, S.; Gaudin, G. [SPINTEC, UMR-8191, CEA/CNRS/UJF/GINP, INAC, F-38054 Grenoble (France)

    2015-12-21

    Controlled propagation speed of individual magnetic domains in metal channels at the room temperature is obtained via the non-volatile field effect associated with the switchable polarization of P(VDF-TrFE) (polyvinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) ferroelectric polymer. Polarization domains directly written using conducting atomic force microscope probe locally accelerate/decelerate the magnetic domains in the 0.6 nm thick Co film. The change of the magnetic domain wall velocity is consistent with the magnetic anisotropy energy modulation through the polarization upward/downward orientation. Excellent retention is observed. The demonstrated local non-destructive and reversible change of magnetic properties via rewritable patterning of ferroelectric domains could be attractive for exploring the ultimate limit of miniaturization in devices based on ferromagnetic/ferroelectric bilayers.

  15. Multistate nonvolatile straintronics controlled by a lateral electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iurchuk, V; Doudin, B; Kundys, B

    2014-01-01

    We present a multifunctional and multistate permanent memory device based on lateral electric field control of a strained surface. Sub-coercive electrical writing of a remnant strain of a PZT substrate imprints stable and rewritable resistance changes on a CoFe overlayer. A proof-of-principle device, with the simplest resistance strain gage design, is shown as a memory cell exhibiting 17-memory states of high reproducibility and reliability for nonvolatile operations. Magnetoresistance of the film also depends on the cell state, and indicates a rewritable change of magnetic properties persisting in the remnant strain of the substrate. This makes it possible to combine strain, magnetic and resistive functionalities in a single memory element, and suggests that sub-coercive stress studies are of interest for straintronics applications. (fast track communication)

  16. Multistate nonvolatile straintronics controlled by a lateral electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurchuk, V; Doudin, B; Kundys, B

    2014-07-23

    We present a multifunctional and multistate permanent memory device based on lateral electric field control of a strained surface. Sub-coercive electrical writing of a remnant strain of a PZT substrate imprints stable and rewritable resistance changes on a CoFe overlayer. A proof-of-principle device, with the simplest resistance strain gage design, is shown as a memory cell exhibiting 17-memory states of high reproducibility and reliability for nonvolatile operations. Magnetoresistance of the film also depends on the cell state, and indicates a rewritable change of magnetic properties persisting in the remnant strain of the substrate. This makes it possible to combine strain, magnetic and resistive functionalities in a single memory element, and suggests that sub-coercive stress studies are of interest for straintronics applications.

  17. Nonvolatile memory effect of tungsten nanocrystals under oxygen plasma treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shih-Cheng; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chen, Wei-Ren; Lo, Yuan-Chun; Wu, Kai-Ting; Sze, S.M.; Chen, Jason; Liao, I.H.; Yeh, Fon-Shan

    2010-01-01

    In this work, an oxygen plasma treatment was used to improve the memory effect of nonvolatile W nanocrystal memory, including memory window, retention and endurance. To investigate the role of the oxygen plasma treatment in charge storage characteristics, the X-ray photon-emission spectra (XPS) were performed to analyze the variation of chemical composition for W nanocrystal embedded oxide both with and without the oxygen plasma treatment. In addition, the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses were also used to identify the microstructure in the thin film and the size and density of W nanocrystals. The device with the oxygen plasma treatment shows a significant improvement of charge storage effect, because the oxygen plasma treatment enhanced the quality of silicon oxide surrounding the W nanocrystals. Therefore, the data retention and endurance characteristics were also improved by the passivation.

  18. High-performance non-volatile organic ferroelectric memory on banknotes

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Yasser; Bhansali, Unnat Sampatraj; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2012-01-01

    High-performance non-volatile polymer ferroelectric memory are fabricated on banknotes using poly(vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene). The devices show excellent performance with high remnant polarization, low operating voltages, low leakage

  19. Crested Tunnel Barriers for Fast, Scalable, Nonvolatile Semiconductor Memories (Theme 3)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Likharev, Konstantin K; Ma, Tso-Ping

    2006-01-01

    .... If demonstrated in silicon-compatible materials with sufficient endurance under electric stress, this effect may enable high-density, high-speed nonvolatile memories that may potentially replace DRAM...

  20. Methyl bromide residues in fumigated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomako, D.

    1975-01-01

    The 14 C activity in unroasted [ 14 C]-methyl bromide fumigated cocoa beans was used to study the fate and persistence of CH 3 Br in the stored beans. About 70% of the residues occurred in the shells. Unchanged CH 3 Br could not be detected, all the sorbed CH 3 Br having reacted with bean constituents apparently to form 14 C-methylated derivatives and inorganic bromide. No 14 C activity was found in the lipid fraction. Roasting decreased the bound (non-volatile) residues, with corresponding changes in the activities and amounts of free sugars, free and protein amino acids. Roasted nibs and shells showed a two-fold increase in the volatile fraction of the 14 C residue. This fraction may be related to the volatile aroma compounds formed by Maillard-type reactions. (author)

  1. Role of Non-Volatile Memories in Automotive and IoT Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Standard Manufacturing Supply Long Term Short to Medium Term Density Up to 16MB Up to 2MB IO Configuration Up to x128 Up to x32 Design for Test...Role of Non-Volatile Memories in Automotive and IoT Markets Vipin Tiwari Director, Business Development and Product Marketing SST – A Wholly Own...microcontrollers (MCU) and certainly one of the most challenging elements to master. This paper addresses the role of non-volatile memories for

  2. Mass transfer of nonvolatile organic compounds from porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachikian, Crist Simon

    This thesis presents data pertaining to the mass transfer of nonvolatile organic compounds from porous media. Physical properties of porous solids, including surface and pore areas, are studied. Information from these studies, along with dissolution data, are used to develop correlations relating the Sherwood Number to the Peclet Number. The contaminant used in this study is naphthalene; the solids used are Moffett Sand (MS), Borden Sand (BS), Lampblack (LB), and Silica Gel (SG). Surface area results indicate that contamination at 0.1% reduces the area of MS and SG by 48 and 37%, respectively, while contamination at 1.0% reduces the area of MS, BS, and SG by 59, 56, and 40%, respectively. Most of the reduction in area originates in the reduction of pore areas and volumes, where the contaminant precipitates. After long-term storage, surface areas did not recover to their original values due to an "irreversible" fraction of naphthalene. Treatment with heat or solvent or both was necessary to completely remove the contamination. For lampblack, treatment at 100°C decreased areas while treatment at 250°C increased them. Treatment at 250°°C probably opened pores while that at 100°C may have blocked more pores by redistributing the tar-like contaminant characteristic of lampblack. Contaminated MS and SG solids are packed in columns through which water is pumped. The effluent began at a relatively high concentration (˜70% of solubility) for both samples. However, SG column concentrations dropped quickly, never achieving steady state while the MS samples declined more gradually towards steady state. The high pore areas of the SG samples are believed to cause this behavior. The steady state portion of the MS dissolution history is used to develop mass transfer correlations. The correlation in this study differs from previous work in two major ways: (1) the exponent on the Pe is three times larger and (2) the limiting Sh is 106 times smaller. These results suggest that

  3. Electrostatic Switching in Vertically Oriented Nanotubes for Nonvolatile Memory Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Anupama B.; Khan, Paul; Jennings, Andrew T.; Greer, Julia R.; Megerian, Krikor G.; Allmen, Paul von

    2009-01-01

    We have demonstrated electrostatic switching in vertically oriented nanotubes or nanofibers, where a nanoprobe was used as the actuating electrode inside an SEM. When the nanoprobe was manipulated to be in close proximity to a single tube, switching voltages between 10 V - 40 V were observed, depending on the geometrical parameters. The turn-on transitions appeared to be much sharper than the turn-off transitions which were limited by the tube-to-probe contact resistances. In many cases, stiction forces at these dimensions were dominant, since the tube appeared stuck to the probe even after the voltage returned to 0 V, suggesting that such structures are promising for nonvolatile memory applications. The stiction effects, to some extent, can be adjusted by engineering the switch geometry appropriately. Nanoscale mechanical measurements were also conducted on the tubes using a custom-built anoindentor inside an SEM, from which preliminary material parameters, such as the elastic modulus, were extracted. The mechanical measurements also revealed that the tubes appear to be well adhered to the substrate. The material parameters gathered from the mechanical measurements were then used in developing an electrostatic model of the switch using a commercially available finite-element simulator. The calculated pull-in voltages appeared to be in agreement to the experimentally obtained switching voltages to first order.

  4. Highly Stretchable Non-volatile Nylon Thread Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ting-Kuo

    2016-04-01

    Integration of electronic elements into textiles, to afford e-textiles, can provide an ideal platform for the development of lightweight, thin, flexible, and stretchable e-textiles. This approach will enable us to meet the demands of the rapidly growing market of wearable-electronics on arbitrary non-conventional substrates. However the actual integration of the e-textiles that undergo mechanical deformations during both assembly and daily wear or satisfy the requirements of the low-end applications, remains a challenge. Resistive memory elements can also be fabricated onto a nylon thread (NT) for e-textile applications. In this study, a simple dip-and-dry process using graphene-PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate) ink is proposed for the fabrication of a highly stretchable non-volatile NT memory. The NT memory appears to have typical write-once-read-many-times characteristics. The results show that an ON/OFF ratio of approximately 103 is maintained for a retention time of 106 s. Furthermore, a highly stretchable strain and a long-term digital-storage capability of the ON-OFF-ON states are demonstrated in the NT memory. The actual integration of the knitted NT memories into textiles will enable new design possibilities for low-cost and large-area e-textile memory applications.

  5. Graphene-quantum-dot nonvolatile charge-trap flash memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sin Joo, Soong; Kim, Jungkil; Seok Kang, Soo; Kim, Sung; Choi, Suk-Ho; Won Hwang, Sung

    2014-01-01

    Nonvolatile flash-memory capacitors containing graphene quantum dots (GQDs) of 6, 12, and 27 nm average sizes (d) between SiO 2 layers for use as charge traps have been prepared by sequential processes: ion-beam sputtering deposition (IBSD) of 10 nm SiO 2 on a p-type wafer, spin-coating of GQDs on the SiO 2 layer, and IBSD of 20 nm SiO 2 on the GQD layer. The presence of almost a single array of GQDs at a distance of ∼13 nm from the SiO 2 /Si wafer interface is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence. The memory window estimated by capacitance–voltage curves is proportional to d for sweep voltages wider than  ± 3 V, and for d = 27 nm the GQD memories show a maximum memory window of 8 V at a sweep voltage of  ± 10 V. The program and erase speeds are largest at d = 12 and 27 nm, respectively, and the endurance and data-retention properties are the best at d = 27 nm. These memory behaviors can be attributed to combined effects of edge state and quantum confinement. (papers)

  6. A graphene-based non-volatile memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loisel, Loïc.; Maurice, Ange; Lebental, Bérengère; Vezzoli, Stefano; Cojocaru, Costel-Sorin; Tay, Beng Kang

    2015-09-01

    We report on the development and characterization of a simple two-terminal non-volatile graphene switch. After an initial electroforming step during which Joule heating leads to the formation of a nano-gap impeding the current flow, the devices can be switched reversibly between two well-separated resistance states. To do so, either voltage sweeps or pulses can be used, with the condition that VSET achieve reversible switching on more than 100 cycles with resistance ratio values of 104. This approach of graphene memory is competitive as compared to other graphene approaches such as redox of graphene oxide, or electro-mechanical switches with suspended graphene. We suggest a switching model based on a planar electro-mechanical switch, whereby electrostatic, elastic and friction forces are competing to switch devices ON and OFF, and the stability in the ON state is achieved by the formation of covalent bonds between the two stretched sides of the graphene, hence bridging the nano-gap. Developing a planar electro-mechanical switch enables to obtain the advantages of electro-mechanical switches while avoiding most of their drawbacks.

  7. Quantitative reconstruction of the nonvolatile sensometabolome of a red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufnagel, Jan Carlos; Hofmann, Thomas

    2008-10-08

    The first comprehensive quantitative determination of 82 putative taste-active metabolites and mineral salts, the ranking of these compounds in their sensory impact based on dose-over-threshold (DoT) factors, followed by the confirmation of their sensory relevance by taste reconstruction and omission experiments enabled the decoding of the nonvolatile sensometabolome of a red wine. For the first time, the bitterness of the red wine could be demonstrated to be induced by subthreshold concentrations of phenolic acid ethyl esters and flavan-3-ols. Whereas the velvety astringent onset was imparted by three flavon-3-ol glucosides and dihydroflavon-3-ol rhamnosides, the puckering astringent offset was caused by a polymeric fraction exhibiting molecular masses above >5 kDa and was found to be amplified by the organic acids. The perceived sourness was imparted by l-tartaric acid, d-galacturonic acid, acetic acid, succinic acid, l-malic acid, and l-lactic acid and was slightly suppressed by the chlorides of potassium, magnesium, and ammonium, respectively. In addition, d-fructose and glycerol as well as subthreshold concentrations of glucose, 1,2-propandiol, and myo-inositol were found to be responsible for the sweetness, whereas the mouthfulness and body of the red wine were induced only by glycerol, 1,2-propandiol, and myo-inositol.

  8. Nanopatterned ferroelectrics for ultrahigh density rad-hard nonvolatile memories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennecka, Geoffrey L.; Stevens, Jeffrey; Scrymgeour, David; Gin, Aaron V.; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew

    2010-09-01

    Radiation hard nonvolatile random access memory (NVRAM) is a crucial component for DOE and DOD surveillance and defense applications. NVRAMs based upon ferroelectric materials (also known as FERAMs) are proven to work in radiation-rich environments and inherently require less power than many other NVRAM technologies. However, fabrication and integration challenges have led to state-of-the-art FERAMs still being fabricated using a 130nm process while competing phase-change memory (PRAM) has been demonstrated with a 20nm process. Use of block copolymer lithography is a promising approach to patterning at the sub-32nm scale, but is currently limited to self-assembly directly on Si or SiO{sub 2} layers. Successful integration of ferroelectrics with discrete and addressable features of {approx}15-20nm would represent a 100-fold improvement in areal memory density and would enable more highly integrated electronic devices required for systems advances. Towards this end, we have developed a technique that allows us to carry out block copolymer self-assembly directly on a huge variety of different materials and have investigated the fabrication, integration, and characterization of electroceramic materials - primarily focused on solution-derived ferroelectrics - with discrete features of {approx}20nm and below. Significant challenges remain before such techniques will be capable of fabricating fully integrated NVRAM devices, but the tools developed for this effort are already finding broader use. This report introduces the nanopatterned NVRAM device concept as a mechanism for motivating the subsequent studies, but the bulk of the document will focus on the platform and technology development.

  9. Nonvolatile, semivolatile, or volatile: redefining volatile for volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Võ, Uyên-Uyén T; Morris, Michael P

    2014-06-01

    Although widely used in air quality regulatory frameworks, the term "volatile organic compound" (VOC) is poorly defined. Numerous standardized tests are currently used in regulations to determine VOC content (and thus volatility), but in many cases the tests do not agree with each other, nor do they always accurately represent actual evaporation rates under ambient conditions. The parameters (time, temperature, reference material, column polarity, etc.) used in the definitions and the associated test methods were created without a significant evaluation of volatilization characteristics in real world settings. Not only do these differences lead to varying VOC content results, but occasionally they conflict with one another. An ambient evaporation study of selected compounds and a few formulated products was conducted and the results were compared to several current VOC test methodologies: SCAQMD Method 313 (M313), ASTM Standard Test Method E 1868-10 (E1868), and US. EPA Reference Method 24 (M24). The ambient evaporation study showed a definite distinction between nonvolatile, semivolatile, and volatile compounds. Some low vapor pressure (LVP) solvents, currently considered exempt as VOCs by some methods, volatilize at ambient conditions nearly as rapidly as the traditional high-volatility solvents they are meant to replace. Conversely, bio-based and heavy hydrocarbons did not readily volatilize, though they often are calculated as VOCs in some traditional test methods. The study suggests that regulatory standards should be reevaluated to more accurately reflect real-world emission from the use of VOC containing products. The definition of VOC in current test methods may lead to regulations that exclude otherwise viable alternatives or allow substitutions of chemicals that may limit the environmental benefits sought in the regulation. A study was conducted to examine volatility of several compounds and a few formulated products under several current VOC test

  10. Volatile and Nonvolatile Characteristics of Asymmetric Dual-Gate Thyristor RAM with Vertical Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Min; Kwon, Dae Woong; Kim, Sihyun; Lee, Kitae; Lee, Junil; Park, Euyhwan; Lee, Ryoongbin; Kim, Hyungjin; Kim, Sangwan; Park, Byung-Gook

    2018-09-01

    In this paper, the volatile and nonvolatile characteristics of asymmetric dual-gate thyristor random access memory (TRAM) are investigated using the technology of a computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation. Owing to the use of two independent gates having different gate dielectric layers, volatile and nonvolatile memory functions can be realized in a single device. The first gate with a silicon oxide layer controls the one-transistor dynamic random access memory (1T-DRAM) characteristics of the device. From the simulation results, a rapid write speed (107) can be achieved. The second gate, whose dielectric material is composed of oxide/nitride/oxide (O/N/O) layers, is used to implement the nonvolatile property by trapping charges in the nitride layer. In addition, this offers an advantage when processing the 3D-stack memory application, as the device has a vertical channel structure with polycrystalline silicon.

  11. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahotra, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)

  12. Nonvolatile memory thin-film transistors using biodegradable chicken albumen gate insulator and oxide semiconductor channel on eco-friendly paper substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Jung; Jeon, Da-Bin; Park, Jung-Ho; Ryu, Min-Ki; Yang, Jong-Heon; Hwang, Chi-Sun; Kim, Gi-Heon; Yoon, Sung-Min

    2015-03-04

    Nonvolatile memory thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated on paper substrates were proposed as one of the eco-friendly electronic devices. The gate stack was composed of chicken albumen gate insulator and In-Ga-Zn-O semiconducting channel layers. All the fabrication processes were performed below 120 °C. To improve the process compatibility of the synthethic paper substrate, an Al2O3 thin film was introduced as adhesion and barrier layers by atomic layer deposition. The dielectric properties of biomaterial albumen gate insulator were also enhanced by the preparation of Al2O3 capping layer. The nonvolatile bistabilities were realized by the switching phenomena of residual polarization within the albumen thin film. The fabricated device exhibited a counterclockwise hysteresis with a memory window of 11.8 V, high on/off ratio of approximately 1.1 × 10(6), and high saturation mobility (μsat) of 11.5 cm(2)/(V s). Furthermore, these device characteristics were not markedly degraded even after the delamination and under the bending situration. When the curvature radius was set as 5.3 cm, the ION/IOFF ratio and μsat were obtained to be 5.9 × 10(6) and 7.9 cm(2)/(V s), respectively.

  13. Organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories utilizing sputtered C nanoparticles as nano-floating-gate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Chang-Hai; She, Xiao-Jian; Sun, Qi-Jun; Gao, Xu; Wang, Sui-Dong, E-mail: wangsd@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2014-10-20

    High-performance organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories have been achieved using sputtered C nanoparticles as the nano-floating-gate. The sputtered C nano-floating-gate is prepared with low-cost material and simple process, forming uniform and discrete charge trapping sites covered by a smooth and complete polystyrene layer. The devices show large memory window, excellent retention capability, and programming/reading/erasing/reading endurance. The sputtered C nano-floating-gate can effectively trap both holes and electrons, and it is demonstrated to be suitable for not only p-type but also n-type organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories.

  14. Organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories utilizing sputtered C nanoparticles as nano-floating-gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Chang-Hai; She, Xiao-Jian; Sun, Qi-Jun; Gao, Xu; Wang, Sui-Dong

    2014-01-01

    High-performance organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories have been achieved using sputtered C nanoparticles as the nano-floating-gate. The sputtered C nano-floating-gate is prepared with low-cost material and simple process, forming uniform and discrete charge trapping sites covered by a smooth and complete polystyrene layer. The devices show large memory window, excellent retention capability, and programming/reading/erasing/reading endurance. The sputtered C nano-floating-gate can effectively trap both holes and electrons, and it is demonstrated to be suitable for not only p-type but also n-type organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories.

  15. Enhanced non-volatile and updatable holography using a polymer composite system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pengfei; Sun, Sam Q; Baig, Sarfaraz; Wang, Michael R

    2012-03-12

    Updatable holography is considered as the ultimate technique for true 3D information recording and display. However, there is no practical solution to preserve the required features of both non-volatility and reversibility which conflict with each other when the reading has the same wavelength as the recording. We demonstrate a non-volatile and updatable holographic approach by exploiting new features of molecular transformations in a polymer recording system. In addition, by using a new composite recording film containing photo-reconfigurable liquid-crystal (LC) polymer, the holographic recording is enhanced due to the collective reorientation of LC molecules around the reconfigured polymer chains.

  16. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macherauch, E.

    1978-01-01

    Residual stresses are stresses which exist in a material without the influence of external powers and moments. They come into existence when the volume of a material constantly changes its form as a consequence of mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical processes and is hindered by neighbouring volumes. Bodies with residual stress are in mechanical balance. These residual stresses can be manifested by means of all mechanical interventions disturbing this balance. Acoustical, optical, radiological, and magnetical methods involving material changes caused by residual stress can also serve for determining residual stress. Residual stresses have an ambivalent character. In technical practice, they are feared and liked at the same time. They cause trouble because they can be the cause for unexpected behaviour of construction elements. They are feared since they can cause failure, in the worst case with catastrophical consequences. They are appreciated, on the other hand, because, in many cases, they can contribute to improvements of the material behaviour under certain circumstances. But they are especially liked for their giving convenient and (this is most important) mostly uncontrollable explanations. For only in very few cases we have enough knowledge and possibilities for the objective evaluation of residual stresses. (orig.) [de

  17. Nonvolatile flip-flop based on pseudo-spin-transistor architecture and its nonvolatile power-gating applications for low-power CMOS logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shuu'ichirou; Shuto, Yusuke; Sugahara, Satoshi

    2013-07-01

    We computationally analyzed performance and power-gating (PG) ability of a new nonvolatile delay flip-flop (NV-DFF) based on pseudo-spin-MOSFET (PS-MOSFET) architecture using spin-transfer-torque magnetic tunnel junctions (STT-MTJs). The high-performance energy-efficient PG operations of the NV-DFF can be achieved owing to its cell structure employing PS-MOSFETs that can electrically separate the STT-MTJs from the ordinary DFF part of the NV-DFF. This separation also makes it possible that the break-even time (BET) of the NV-DFF is designed by the size of the PS-MOSFETs without performance degradation of the normal DFF operations. The effect of the area occupation ratio of the NV-DFFs to a CMOS logic system on the BET was also analyzed. Although the optimized BET was varied depending on the area occupation ratio, energy-efficient fine-grained PG with a BET of several sub-microseconds was revealed to be achieved. We also proposed microprocessors and system-on-chip (SoC) devices using nonvolatile hierarchical-memory systems wherein NV-DFF and nonvolatile static random access memory (NV-SRAM) circuits are used as fundamental building blocks. Contribution to the Topical Issue “International Semiconductor Conference Dresden-Grenoble - ISCDG 2012”, Edited by Gérard Ghibaudo, Francis Balestra and Simon Deleonibus.

  18. WORKSHOP REPORT - CONSIDERATIONS FOR DEVELOPING LEACHING TEST METHODS FOR SEMI- AND NON-VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides a summary of the information exchange at a workshop on the potential for release of semi- or non-volatile organic constituents at contaminated sites where sub-surface treatment has been used to control migration, and from waste that is disposed or re-used. The...

  19. Low-power non-volatile spintronic memory: STT-RAM and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, K L; Alzate, J G; Khalili Amiri, P

    2013-01-01

    The quest for novel low-dissipation devices is one of the most critical for the future of semiconductor technology and nano-systems. The development of a low-power, universal memory will enable a new paradigm of non-volatile computation. Here we consider STT-RAM as one of the emerging candidates for low-power non-volatile memory. We show different configurations for STT memory and demonstrate strategies to optimize key performance parameters such as switching current and energy. The energy and scaling limits of STT-RAM are discussed, leading us to argue that alternative writing mechanisms may be required to achieve ultralow power dissipation, a necessary condition for direct integration with CMOS at the gate level for non-volatile logic purposes. As an example, we discuss the use of the giant spin Hall effect as a possible alternative to induce magnetization reversal in magnetic tunnel junctions using pure spin currents. Further, we concentrate on magnetoelectric effects, where electric fields are used instead of spin-polarized currents to manipulate the nanomagnets, as another candidate solution to address the challenges of energy efficiency and density. The possibility of an electric-field-controlled magnetoelectric RAM as a promising candidate for ultralow-power non-volatile memory is discussed in the light of experimental data demonstrating voltage-induced switching of the magnetization and reorientation of the magnetic easy axis by electric fields in nanomagnets. (paper)

  20. Organic non-volatile memories from ferroelectric phase-separated blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Kamal; de Leeuw, Dago M.; de Boer, Bert; Blom, Paul W. M.

    2008-07-01

    New non-volatile memories are being investigated to keep up with the organic-electronics road map. Ferroelectric polarization is an attractive physical property as the mechanism for non-volatile switching, because the two polarizations can be used as two binary levels. However, in ferroelectric capacitors the read-out of the polarization charge is destructive. The functionality of the targeted memory should be based on resistive switching. In inorganic ferroelectrics conductivity and ferroelectricity cannot be tuned independently. The challenge is to develop a storage medium in which the favourable properties of ferroelectrics such as bistability and non-volatility can be combined with the beneficial properties provided by semiconductors such as conductivity and rectification. Here we present an integrated solution by blending semiconducting and ferroelectric polymers into phase-separated networks. The polarization field of the ferroelectric modulates the injection barrier at the semiconductor-metal contact. The combination of ferroelectric bistability with (semi)conductivity and rectification allows for solution-processed non-volatile memory arrays with a simple cross-bar architecture that can be read out non-destructively. The concept of an electrically tunable injection barrier as presented here is general and can be applied to other electronic devices such as light-emitting diodes with an integrated on/off switch.

  1. High-performance non-volatile organic ferroelectric memory on banknotes

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Yasser

    2012-03-21

    High-performance non-volatile polymer ferroelectric memory are fabricated on banknotes using poly(vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene). The devices show excellent performance with high remnant polarization, low operating voltages, low leakage, high mobility, and long retention times. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Feasibility of nonvolatile buffers in capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry of proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eriksson, Jonas H.C.; Mol, Roelof; Somsen, Govert W.; Hinrichs, Wouter L.J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.; de Jong, Gerhardus J.

    2004-01-01

    The combination of capillary electrophoresis (CE) and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) via a triaxial interface was studied as a potential means for the characterization of intact proteins. To evaluate the possibility to use a nonvolatile electrolyte for CE, the effect of sodium

  3. Low-temperature process steps for realization of non-volatile memory devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunets, I.; Boogaard, A.; Aarnink, Antonius A.I.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.; Holleman, J.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the low-temperature process steps required for the realization of nano-crystal non-volatile memory cells are discussed. An amorphous silicon film, crystallized using a diode pumped solid state green laser irradiating at 532 nm, is proposed as an active layer. The deposition of the

  4. The retention characteristics of nonvolatile SNOS memory transistors in a radiation environment: Experiment and model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWhorter, P.J.; Miller, S.L.; Dellin, T.A.; Axness, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental data and a model to accurately and quantitatively predict the data are presented for retention of SNOS memory devices over a wide range of dose rates. A wide range of SNOS stack geometries are examined. The model is designed to aid in screening nonvolatile memories for use in a radiation environment

  5. High-performance non-volatile organic ferroelectric memory on banknotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M A; Bhansali, Unnat S; Alshareef, H N

    2012-04-24

    High-performance non-volatile polymer ferroelectric memory are fabricated on banknotes using poly(vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene). The devices show excellent performance with high remnant polarization, low operating voltages, low leakage, high mobility, and long retention times. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Phosphorene/ZnO Nano-Heterojunctions for Broadband Photonic Nonvolatile Memory Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang; Yuan, Jun; Ren, Yi; Wang, Yan; Yang, Jia-Qin; Zhou, Ye; Zeng, Yu-Jia; Han, Su-Ting; Ruan, Shuangchen

    2018-06-10

    High-performance photonic nonvolatile memory combining photosensing and data storage with low power consumption ensures the energy efficiency of computer systems. This study first reports in situ derived phosphorene/ZnO hybrid heterojunction nanoparticles and their application in broadband-response photonic nonvolatile memory. The photonic nonvolatile memory consistently exhibits broadband response from ultraviolet (380 nm) to near infrared (785 nm), with controllable shifts of the SET voltage. The broadband resistive switching is attributed to the enhanced photon harvesting, a fast exciton separation, as well as the formation of an oxygen vacancy filament in the nano-heterojunction. In addition, the device exhibits an excellent stability under air exposure compared with reported pristine phosphorene-based nonvolatile memory. The superior antioxidation capacity is believed to originate from the fast transfer of lone-pair electrons of phosphorene. The unique assembly of phosphorene/ZnO nano-heterojunctions paves the way toward multifunctional broadband-response data-storage techniques. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, E.; Duin, P.J. van; Grootenboer, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  8. The influence of thickness on memory characteristic based on nonvolatile tuning behavior in poly(N-vinylcarbazole) films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yanmei; Ai, Chunpeng; Lu, Junguo; Li, Lei; Wen, Dianzhong; Bai, Xuduo

    2016-01-01

    The memory characteristic based on nonvolatile tuning behavior in indium tin oxide/poly(N-vinylcarbazole)/aluminum (ITO/PVK/Al) was investigated, the different memory behaviors were first observed in PVK film as the film thickness changing. By control of PVK film thickness with different spinning speeds, the nonvolatile behavior of ITO/PVK/Al sandwich structure can be tuned in a controlled manner. Obviously different nonvolatile behaviors, such as (i) flash memory behavior and (ii) write-once-read-many times (WORM) memory behavior are from the current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of the PVK films. The results suggest that the film thickness plays a key part in determining the memory type of the PVK. - Highlights: • The different memory behaviors were observed in PVK film. • The nonvolatile behavior of ITO/PVK/Al sandwich structure can be tuned. • The film thickness plays a key part in determining the memory type of the PVK.

  9. Coexistence of nonvolatility and volatility in Pt/Nb-doped SrTiO3/In memristive devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M; Bao, D H; Li, S W

    2013-01-01

    Memristive devices are triggering innovations in the fields of nonvolatile memory, digital logic, analogue circuits, neuromorphic engineering, and so on. Creating new memristive devices with unique characteristics would be significant for these emergent applications. Here we report the coexistence of nonvolatility and volatility in Pt/Nb-doped SrTiO 3 (NSTO)/In memristive devices. The Pt/NSTO interface contributes a nonvolatile resistive switching behaviour, whereas the NSTO/In interface displays a volatile hysteresis loop. Combining the two interfaces in the Pt/NSTO/In devices leads to the unique coexistence of nonvolatility and volatility. The results imply more opportunities to invent new memristive devices by engineering both interfaces in metal/insulator/metal structures. (paper)

  10. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  11. Demonstration of Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Volatile and Non-Volatile Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-06

    WP-201317) Demonstration of Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Volatile and Non-volatile Particulate Matter (PM... Engine Volatile and Non-Volatile Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions 6. AUTHOR(S) E. Corporan, M. DeWitt, C. Klingshirn, M.D. Cheng, R. Miake-Lye, J. Peck...the performance and viability of two devices to condition aircraft turbine engine exhaust to allow the accurate measurement of total (volatile and non

  12. Integration of ammonia-plasma-functionalized graphene nanodiscs as charge trapping centers for nonvolatile memory applications

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jer-Chyi

    2016-11-23

    Graphene nanodiscs (GNDs), functionalized using NH3 plasma, as charge trapping sites (CTSs) for non-volatile memory applications have been investigated in this study. The fabrication process relies on the patterning of Au nanoparticles (Au-NPs), whose thicknesses are tuned to adjust the GND density and size upon etching. A GND density as high as 8 × 1011 cm−2 and a diameter of approximately 20 nm are achieved. The functionalization of GNDs by NH3 plasma creates Nsingle bondH+ functional groups that act as CTSs, as observed by Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. This inherently enhances the density of CTSs in the GNDs, as a result, the memory window becomes more than 2.4 V and remains stable after 104 operating cycles. The charge loss is less than 10% for a 10-year data retention testing, making this low-temperature process suitable for low-cost non-volatile memory applications on flexible substrates.

  13. Identifying Non-Volatile Data Storage Areas: Unique Notebook Identification Information as Digital Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikica Budimir

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The research reported in this paper introduces new techniques to aid in the identification of recovered notebook computers so they may be returned to the rightful owner. We identify non-volatile data storage areas as a means of facilitating the safe storing of computer identification information. A forensic proof of concept tool has been designed to test the feasibility of several storage locations identified within this work to hold the data needed to uniquely identify a computer. The tool was used to perform the creation and extraction of created information in order to allow the analysis of the non-volatile storage locations as valid storage areas capable of holding and preserving the data created within them.  While the format of the information used to identify the machine itself is important, this research only discusses the insertion, storage and ability to retain such information.

  14. Fabrication of Nonvolatile Memory Effects in High-k Dielectric Thin Films Using Electron Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chanrock; Cho, Daehee; Kim, Jeongeun; Hwang, Jinha

    2010-01-01

    Electron Irradiation can be applied towards nano-floating gate memories which are recognized as one of the next-generation nonvolatile memory semiconductors. NFGMs can overcome the preexisting limitations encountered in Dynamic Random Access Memories and Flash memories with the excellent advantages, i. e. high-density information storage, high response speed, high compactness, etc. The traditional nano-floating gate memories are fabricated through multi-layered nano structures of the dissimilar materials where the charge-trapping portions are sandwiched into the high-k dielectrics. However, this work reports the unique nonvolatile responses in single-layered high-k dielectric thin films if irradiated with highly accelerated electron beams. The implications of the electron irradiation will be discussed towards high-performance nano-floating gate memories

  15. Nonvolatile Memory Elements Based on the Intercalation of Organic Molecules Inside Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Vincent; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Sumpter, Bobby G.

    2007-02-01

    We propose a novel class of nonvolatile memory elements based on the modification of the transport properties of a conducting carbon nanotube by the presence of an encapsulated molecule. The guest molecule has two stable orientational positions relative to the nanotube that correspond to conducting and nonconducting states. The mechanism, governed by a local gating effect of the molecule on the electronic properties of the nanotube host, is studied using density functional theory. The mechanisms of reversible reading and writing of information are illustrated with a F4TCNQ molecule encapsulated inside a metallic carbon nanotube. Our results suggest that this new type of nonvolatile memory element is robust, fatigue-free, and can operate at room temperature.

  16. Preparation of NiFe binary alloy nanocrystals for nonvolatile memory applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this work,an idea which applies binary alloy nanocrystal floating gate to nonvolatile memory application was introduced.The relationship between binary alloy’s work function and its composition was discussed theoretically.A nanocrystal floating gate structure with NiFe nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 dielectric layers was fabricated by magnetron sputtering.The micro-structure and composition deviation of the prepared NiFe nanocrystals were also investigated by TEM and EDS.

  17. Potential of Mass Spectrometry in Developing Clinical Laboratory Biomarkers of Nonvolatiles in Exhaled Breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Olof; Olin, Anna-Carin; Mirgorodskaya, Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Exhaled breath contains nonvolatile substances that are part of aerosol particles of submicrometer size. These particles are formed and exhaled as a result of normal breathing and contain material from distal airways of the respiratory system. Exhaled breath can be used to monitor biomarkers of both endogenous and exogenous origin and constitutes an attractive specimen for medical investigations. This review summarizes the present status regarding potential biomarkers of nonvolatile compounds in exhaled breath. The field of exhaled breath condensate is briefly reviewed, together with more recent work on more selective collection procedures for exhaled particles. The relation of these particles to the surfactant in the terminal parts of the respiratory system is described. The literature on potential endogenous low molecular weight compounds as well as protein biomarkers is reviewed. The possibility to measure exposure to therapeutic and abused drugs is demonstrated. Finally, the potential future role and importance of mass spectrometry is discussed. Nonvolatile compounds exit the lung as aerosol particles that can be sampled easily and selectively. The clinical applications of potential biomarkers in exhaled breath comprise diagnosis of disease, monitoring of disease progress, monitoring of drug therapy, and toxicological investigations. © 2015 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  18. Stable isotopic carbon composition of apples and their subfractions--juice, seeds, sugars, and nonvolatile acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H S; Wrolstad, R E

    1988-01-01

    The 13C:12C ratios of 8 authentic apple juice samples and their subfractions were determined by mass spectrometry. Apples from Argentina, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States were processed into juice; pulp was collected from the milled fruit and seeds were collected from the press-cake. Sugars, nonvolatile acids, and phenolics were isolated from the juice by treatment with ion-exchange resins and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVPP). The mean value for all juice samples was -24.2% which is close to the values reported by other investigators. Juice from apples grown in Argentina, Mexico, and New Zealand did not differ from U.S. samples. The isotopic composition of the subfractions ranged from -22.0 to -31.0%. The values for the pulp were essentially the same as for juice. The sugar fraction was slightly less negative than the juice; the nonvolatile acid and phenolic fractions were more negative. The levels of nonvolatile acids and phenolics in apple juice are low, however, so these compounds contribute little to overall delta 13C values in juice.

  19. Evaluation of reinitialization-free nonvolatile computer systems for energy-harvesting Internet of things applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onizawa, Naoya; Tamakoshi, Akira; Hanyu, Takahiro

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, reinitialization-free nonvolatile computer systems are designed and evaluated for energy-harvesting Internet of things (IoT) applications. In energy-harvesting applications, as power supplies generated from renewable power sources cause frequent power failures, data processed need to be backed up when power failures occur. Unless data are safely backed up before power supplies diminish, reinitialization processes are required when power supplies are recovered, which results in low energy efficiencies and slow operations. Using nonvolatile devices in processors and memories can realize a faster backup than a conventional volatile computer system, leading to a higher energy efficiency. To evaluate the energy efficiency upon frequent power failures, typical computer systems including processors and memories are designed using 90 nm CMOS or CMOS/magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) technologies. Nonvolatile ARM Cortex-M0 processors with 4 kB MRAMs are evaluated using a typical computing benchmark program, Dhrystone, which shows a few order-of-magnitude reductions in energy in comparison with a volatile processor with SRAM.

  20. Overview of one transistor type of hybrid organic ferroelectric non-volatile memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Young; Tea; Chun; Daping; Chu

    2015-01-01

    Organic ferroelectric memory devices based on field effect transistors that can be configured between two stable states of on and off have been widely researched as the next generation data storage media in recent years.This emerging type of memory devices can lead to a new instrument system as a potential alternative to previous non-volatile memory building blocks in future processing units because of their numerous merits such as cost-effective process,simple structure and freedom in substrate choices.This bi-stable non-volatile memory device of information storage has been investigated using several organic or inorganic semiconductors with organic ferroelectric polymer materials.Recent progresses in this ferroelectric memory field,hybrid system have attracted a lot of attention due to their excellent device performance in comparison with that of all organic systems.In this paper,a general review of this type of ferroelectric non-volatile memory is provided,which include the device structure,organic ferroelectric materials,electrical characteristics and working principles.We also present some snapshots of our previous study on hybrid ferroelectric memories including our recent work based on zinc oxide nanowire channels.

  1. Nonvolatile resistive switching in Pt/laALO3/srTiO3 heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, S.

    2013-12-12

    Resistive switching heterojunctions, which are promising for nonvolatile memory applications, usually share a capacitorlike metal-oxide-metal configuration. Here, we report on the nonvolatile resistive switching in Pt/LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures, where the conducting layer near the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface serves as the "unconventional"bottom electrode although both oxides are band insulators. Interestingly, the switching between low-resistance and high-resistance states is accompanied by reversible transitions between tunneling and Ohmic characteristics in the current transport perpendicular to the planes of the heterojunctions. We propose that the observed resistive switching is likely caused by the electric-field-induced drift of charged oxygen vacancies across the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface and the creation of defect-induced gap states within the ultrathin LaAlO3 layer. These metal-oxide-oxide heterojunctions with atomically smooth interfaces and defect-controlled transport provide a platform for the development of nonvolatile oxide nanoelectronics that integrate logic and memory devices.

  2. Supercritical fluid extraction of volatile and non-volatile compounds from Schinus molle L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. T. Barroso

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Schinus molle L., also known as pepper tree, has been reported to have antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antitumoural and cicatrizing properties. This work studies supercritical fluid extraction (SFE to obtain volatile and non-volatile compounds from the aerial parts of Schinus molle L. and the influence of the process on the composition of the extracts. Experiments were performed in a pilot-scale extractor with a capacity of 1 L at pressures of 9, 10, 12, 15 and 20 MPa at 323.15 K. The volatile compounds were obtained by CO2 supercritical extraction with moderate pressure (9 MPa, whereas the non-volatile compounds were extracted at higher pressure (12 to 20 MPa. The analysis of the essential oil was carried out by GC-MS and the main compounds identified were sabinene, limonene, D-germacrene, bicyclogermacrene, and spathulenol. For the non-volatile extracts, the total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Moreover, one of the goals of this study was to compare the experimental data with the simulated yields predicted by a mathematical model based on mass transfer. The model used requires three adjustable parameters to predict the experimental extraction yield curves.

  3. Nonvolatile Resistive Switching in Pt/LaAlO_{3}/SrTiO_{3} Heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxiang Wu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Resistive switching heterojunctions, which are promising for nonvolatile memory applications, usually share a capacitorlike metal-oxide-metal configuration. Here, we report on the nonvolatile resistive switching in Pt/LaAlO_{3}/SrTiO_{3} heterostructures, where the conducting layer near the LaAlO_{3}/SrTiO_{3} interface serves as the “unconventional” bottom electrode although both oxides are band insulators. Interestingly, the switching between low-resistance and high-resistance states is accompanied by reversible transitions between tunneling and Ohmic characteristics in the current transport perpendicular to the planes of the heterojunctions. We propose that the observed resistive switching is likely caused by the electric-field-induced drift of charged oxygen vacancies across the LaAlO_{3}/SrTiO_{3} interface and the creation of defect-induced gap states within the ultrathin LaAlO_{3} layer. These metal-oxide-oxide heterojunctions with atomically smooth interfaces and defect-controlled transport provide a platform for the development of nonvolatile oxide nanoelectronics that integrate logic and memory devices.

  4. Physical principles and current status of emerging non-volatile solid state memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Yang, C.-H.; Wen, J.

    2015-07-01

    Today the influence of non-volatile solid-state memories on persons' lives has become more prominent because of their non-volatility, low data latency, and high robustness. As a pioneering technology that is representative of non-volatile solidstate memories, flash memory has recently seen widespread application in many areas ranging from electronic appliances, such as cell phones and digital cameras, to external storage devices such as universal serial bus (USB) memory. Moreover, owing to its large storage capacity, it is expected that in the near future, flash memory will replace hard-disk drives as a dominant technology in the mass storage market, especially because of recently emerging solid-state drives. However, the rapid growth of the global digital data has led to the need for flash memories to have larger storage capacity, thus requiring a further downscaling of the cell size. Such a miniaturization is expected to be extremely difficult because of the well-known scaling limit of flash memories. It is therefore necessary to either explore innovative technologies that can extend the areal density of flash memories beyond the scaling limits, or to vigorously develop alternative non-volatile solid-state memories including ferroelectric random-access memory, magnetoresistive random-access memory, phase-change random-access memory, and resistive random-access memory. In this paper, we review the physical principles of flash memories and their technical challenges that affect our ability to enhance the storage capacity. We then present a detailed discussion of novel technologies that can extend the storage density of flash memories beyond the commonly accepted limits. In each case, we subsequently discuss the physical principles of these new types of non-volatile solid-state memories as well as their respective merits and weakness when utilized for data storage applications. Finally, we predict the future prospects for the aforementioned solid-state memories for

  5. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  6. Determination of non-volatile radiolytic compounds in ethylene co-vinyl alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothapalli, A.; Sadler, G.

    2003-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation on food contact polymers is increasing due to the critical role of the package in holding or containing the irradiated foods [Food Add. Contam. 18(6) (2001) 475]. Irradiation benefits the food if properly applied and the food is pre-packaged prior to irradiation to protect it from subsequent recontamination. The United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) has approved the use of ionizing radiation within the dosage range of 0-60 kGy on limited films since the 1960s [USFDA 21CFR 179.45]. The obstacle in the way of approval of additional polymers is that FDA fears that these materials may undergo changes during irradiation producing toxic radiolytic fragments. Ethylene co-vinyl alcohol (EVOH), which is often used in food applications, is not approved by the FDA for pre-packaged irradiated foods. The present work examines the non-volatile radiolytic compounds, which may be formed due to exposure to gamma irradiation at the dosage levels of 3 and 10 kGy versus a non-radiated control. Irradiated EVOH is subjected to extraction with 95:5 ethanol and water (by volume) as the food simulating solvent (FSS) for a period of 10 days at 40 deg. C, which models the amount of radiolytic compound a food would extract in 1 year [USFDA Chemistry Requirement for Food Contact Notification]. The FSS is then analyzed for the presence of non-volatile compounds using advanced liquid chromatographic techniques. The chromatograms obtained from different dosages show that non-volatile radiolytic compounds are not formed in EVOH and it would, therefore be in compliance with safety demands of USFDA [Available at: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/opa-guid.htmlref and http://www.access.gpo.gov/nara/cfr/cfr-table-search.htmlpage1

  7. ZnO as dielectric for optically transparent non-volatile memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salim, N. Tjitra; Aw, K.C.; Gao, W.; Wright, Bryon E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of a DC sputtered ZnO thin film as a dielectric in an optically transparent non-volatile memory. The main motivation for using ZnO as a dielectric is due to its optical transparency and mechanical flexibility. We have established the relationship between the electrical resistivity (ρ) and the activation energy (E a ) of the electron transport in the conduction band of the ZnO film. The ρ of 2 x 10 4 -5 x 10 7 Ω-cm corresponds to E a of 0.36-0.76 eV, respectively. The k-value and optical band-gap for films sputtered with Ar:O 2 ratio of 4:1 are 53 ± 3.6 and 3.23 eV, respectively. In this paper, the basic charge storage element for a non-volatile memory is a triple layer dielectric structure in which a 50 nm thick ZnO film is sandwiched between two layers of methyl silsesquioxane sol-gel dielectric of varying thickness. A pronounced clockwise capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis was observed with a memory window of 6 V. The integration with a solution-processable pentacene, 13,6-N-Sulfinylacetamodipentacene resulted in an optically transparent organic field effect transistor non-volatile memory (OFET-NVM). We have demonstrated that this OFET-NVM can be electrically programmed and erased at low voltage (± 10 V) with a threshold voltage shift of 4.0 V.

  8. Characteristics of a non-volatile liquid propellant in liquid-fed ablative pulsed plasma thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, William Yeong Liang; Schönherr, Tony; Koizumi, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-01

    In the past several decades, the use of electric propulsion in spacecraft has experienced tremendous growth. With the increasing adoption of small satellites in the kilogram range, suitable propulsion systems will be necessary in the near future. Pulsed plasma thrusters (PPTs) were the first form of electric propulsion to be deployed in orbit, and are highly suitable for small satellites due to their inherent simplicity. However, their lifetime is limited by disadvantages such as carbon deposition leading to thruster failure, and complicated feeding systems required due to the conventional use of solid propellants (usually polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)). A promising alternative to solid propellants has recently emerged in the form of non-volatile liquids that are stable in vacuum. This study presents a broad comparison of the non-volatile liquid perfluoropolyether (PFPE) and solid PTFE as propellants on a PPT with a common design base. We show that liquid PFPE can be successfully used as a propellant, and exhibits similar plasma discharge properties to conventional solid PTFE, but with a mass bit that is an order of magnitude higher for an identical ablation area. We also demonstrate that the liquid PFPE propellant has exceptional resistance to carbon deposition, completely negating one of the major causes of thruster failure, while solid PTFE exhibited considerable carbon build-up. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used to examine the elemental compositions of the surface deposition on the electrodes and the ablation area of the propellant (or PFPE encapsulator). The results show that based on its physical characteristics and behavior, non-volatile liquid PFPE is an extremely promising propellant for use in PPTs, with an extensive scope available for future research and development.

  9. Zinc Cadmium Selenide Cladded Quantum Dot Based Electroluminescent and Nonvolatile Memory Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amody, Fuad H.

    This dissertation presents electroluminescent (EL) and nonvolatile memory devices fabricated using pseudomorphic ZnCdSe-based cladded quantum dots (QDs). These dots were grown using our own in-school built novel reactor. The EL device was fabricated on a substrate of ITO (indium tin oxide) coated glass with the quantum dots sandwiched between anode and cathode contacts with a small barrier layer on top of the QDs. The importance of these cladded dots is to increase the quantum yield of device. This device is unique as they utilize quantum dots that are pseudomorphic (nearly lattice-matched core and the shell of the dot). In the case of floating quantum dot gate nonvolatile memory, cladded ZnCdSe quantum dots are deposited on single crystalline gate insulator (ZnMgS/ZnMgSe), which is grown using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The control gate dielectric layer of the nonvolatile memory is Si3N4 or SiO2 and is grown using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The cladded dots are grown using an improved methodology of photo-assisted microwave plasma metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (PMP-MOCVD) enhanced reactor. The cladding composition of the core and shell of the dots was engineered by the help of ultraviolet light which changed the incorporation of zinc (and hence composition of ZnCdSe). This makes ZnxCd1--xSe-ZnyCd1--y Se QDs to have a low composition of zinc in the core than the cladding (x

  10. Determination of non-volatile radiolytic compounds in ethylene co-vinyl alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothapalli, A.; Sadler, G.

    2003-08-01

    The use of ionizing radiation on food contact polymers is increasing due to the critical role of the package in holding or containing the irradiated foods [Food Add. Contam. 18(6) (2001) 475]. Irradiation benefits the food if properly applied and the food is pre-packaged prior to irradiation to protect it from subsequent recontamination. The United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) has approved the use of ionizing radiation within the dosage range of 0-60 kGy on limited films since the 1960s [USFDA 21CFR 179.45]. The obstacle in the way of approval of additional polymers is that FDA fears that these materials may undergo changes during irradiation producing toxic radiolytic fragments. Ethylene co-vinyl alcohol (EVOH), which is often used in food applications, is not approved by the FDA for pre-packaged irradiated foods. The present work examines the non-volatile radiolytic compounds, which may be formed due to exposure to gamma irradiation at the dosage levels of 3 and 10 kGy versus a non-radiated control. Irradiated EVOH is subjected to extraction with 95:5 ethanol and water (by volume) as the food simulating solvent (FSS) for a period of 10 days at 40 °C, which models the amount of radiolytic compound a food would extract in 1 year [USFDA Chemistry Requirement for Food Contact Notification]. The FSS is then analyzed for the presence of non-volatile compounds using advanced liquid chromatographic techniques. The chromatograms obtained from different dosages show that non-volatile radiolytic compounds are not formed in EVOH and it would, therefore be in compliance with safety demands of USFDA [Available at: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/opa-guid.html#ref and http://www.access.gpo.gov/nara/cfr/cfr-table-search.html#page1].

  11. Release and nonvolatile operation of carbon nanotube nanorelay by resonant vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagota, Tatsuya; Takei, Kuniharu; Arie, Takayuki; Akita, Seiji, E-mail: akita@pe.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Nakaku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Nagataki, Atsuko [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Nakaku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Materials Analysis Research Center, KRI, Inc., Osaka 554-0051 (Japan)

    2013-11-11

    We investigated the release of a stuck carbon nanotube (CNT) cantilever beam in nanorelay applications using a nano-manipulator. Even with strong adhesion induced by electrostatic attraction that is 100 times stronger than the van der Waals interaction, successful release of a nanotube arm from a stuck state was realized by the application of a resonant vibration to the stuck CNT arm. Furthermore, nonvolatile operation of the nanotube nanorelay was demonstrated by the application of the resonant vibration to the stuck CNT arm.

  12. Investigation of non-volatile additives on the process of distillation of hydrocarbon mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.Б. Степанов

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available  The given results of researches of influence of nonvolatile additives on processes of distillation of individual hydrocarbons and their mixes, including petroleum and mineral oil. With the help of the developed computer system of the continuous control of distillation it is shown, that at the presence of small amounts of the additive decrease of temperature of the beginning of boiling of hydrocarbons is observed, their speeds of banish and exits of light fuel mineral oil grow during initial oil refining

  13. Fabrication of Pb (Zr, Ti) O3 Thin Film for Non-Volatile Memory Device Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mar Lar Win

    2011-12-01

    Ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate powder was composed of mainly the oxides of titanium, zirconium and lead. PZT powder was firstly prepared by thermal synthesis at different Zr/Ti ratios with various sintering temperatures. PZT thin film was fabricated on SiO2/Si substrate by using thermal evaporation method. Physical and elemental analysis were carried out by using SEM, EDX and XRD The ferroelectric properties and the switching behaviour of the PZT thin films were investigated. The ferroelectric properties and switching properties of the PZT thin film (near morphotropic phase boundary sintered at 800 C) could function as a nonvolatile memory.

  14. Scalable printed electronics: an organic decoder addressing ferroelectric non-volatile memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tse Nga; Schwartz, David E.; Lavery, Leah L.; Whiting, Gregory L.; Russo, Beverly; Krusor, Brent; Veres, Janos; Bröms, Per; Herlogsson, Lars; Alam, Naveed; Hagel, Olle; Nilsson, Jakob; Karlsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Scalable circuits of organic logic and memory are realized using all-additive printing processes. A 3-bit organic complementary decoder is fabricated and used to read and write non-volatile, rewritable ferroelectric memory. The decoder-memory array is patterned by inkjet and gravure printing on flexible plastics. Simulation models for the organic transistors are developed, enabling circuit designs tolerant of the variations in printed devices. We explain the key design rules in fabrication of complex printed circuits and elucidate the performance requirements of materials and devices for reliable organic digital logic. PMID:22900143

  15. Overview of radiation effects on emerging non-volatile memory technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fetahović Irfan S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we give an overview of radiation effects in emergent, non-volatile memory technologies. Investigations into radiation hardness of resistive random access memory, ferroelectric random access memory, magneto-resistive random access memory, and phase change memory are presented in cases where these memory devices were subjected to different types of radiation. The obtained results proved high radiation tolerance of studied devices making them good candidates for application in radiation-intensive environments. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 171007

  16. High-Speed Non-Volatile Optical Memory: Achievements and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadym Zayets

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have proposed, fabricated, and studied a new design of a high-speed optical non-volatile memory. The recoding mechanism of the proposed memory utilizes a magnetization reversal of a nanomagnet by a spin-polarized photocurrent. It was shown experimentally that the operational speed of this memory may be extremely fast above 1 TBit/s. The challenges to realize both a high-speed recording and a high-speed reading are discussed. The memory is compact, integratable, and compatible with present semiconductor technology. If realized, it will advance data processing and computing technology towards a faster operation speed.

  17. Microwave oven fabricated hybrid memristor devices for non-volatile memory storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verrelli, E; Gray, R J; O’Neill, M; Kemp, N T; Kelly, S M

    2014-01-01

    Novel hybrid non-volatile memories made using an ultra-fast microwave heating method are reported for the first time. The devices, consisting of aligned ZnO nanorods embedded in poly (methyl methacrylate), require no forming step and exhibit reliable and reproducible bipolar resistive switching at low voltages and with low power usage. We attribute these properties to a combination of the high aspect ratio of the nanorods and the polymeric hybrid structure of the device. The extremely easy, fast and low-cost solution based method of fabrication makes possible the simple and quick production of cheap memory cells. (paper)

  18. Ambipolar organic thin-film transistor-based nano-floating-gate nonvolatile memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jinhua; Wang, Wei; Ying, Jun; Xie, Wenfa

    2014-01-01

    An ambipolar organic thin-film transistor-based nano-floating-gate nonvolatile memory was demonstrated, with discrete distributed gold nanoparticles, tetratetracontane (TTC), pentacene as the floating-gate layer, tunneling layer, and active layer, respectively. The electron traps at the TTC/pentacene interface were significantly suppressed, which resulted in an ambipolar operation in present memory. As both electrons and holes were supplied in the channel and trapped in the floating-gate by programming/erasing operations, respectively, i.e., one type of charge carriers was used to overwrite the other, trapped, one, a large memory window, extending on both sides of the initial threshold voltage, was realized

  19. Ambipolar organic thin-film transistor-based nano-floating-gate nonvolatile memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jinhua; Wang, Wei, E-mail: wwei99@jlu.edu.cn; Ying, Jun; Xie, Wenfa [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2014-01-06

    An ambipolar organic thin-film transistor-based nano-floating-gate nonvolatile memory was demonstrated, with discrete distributed gold nanoparticles, tetratetracontane (TTC), pentacene as the floating-gate layer, tunneling layer, and active layer, respectively. The electron traps at the TTC/pentacene interface were significantly suppressed, which resulted in an ambipolar operation in present memory. As both electrons and holes were supplied in the channel and trapped in the floating-gate by programming/erasing operations, respectively, i.e., one type of charge carriers was used to overwrite the other, trapped, one, a large memory window, extending on both sides of the initial threshold voltage, was realized.

  20. Future Trend of Non-Volatile Semiconductor Memory and Feasibility Study of BiCS Type Stacked Structure

    OpenAIRE

    渡辺, 重佳

    2009-01-01

    Future trend of non-volatile semiconductor memory—FeRAM, MRAM, PRAM, ReRAM—compared with NAND typeflash memory has been described based on its history, application and performance. In the realistic point of view,FeRAM and MRAM are suitable for embedded memory and main memory, and PRAM and ReRAM are promising candidatesfor main memory and mass-storage memory for multimedia. Furthermore, the feasibility study of aggressiveultra-low-cost high-speed universal non-volatile semiconductor memory has...

  1. Nonvolatile rewritable memory device based on solution-processable graphene/poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Li, E-mail: lizhang9@zzu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Li, Ye; Shi, Jun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Shi, Gaoquan [Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Cao, Shaokui, E-mail: Caoshaokui@zzu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)

    2013-11-01

    An electrically bistable device utilizing a nanocomposite of hexadecylamine-functionalized graphene oxide (HDAGO) with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is demonstrated. The device has an ITO/P3HT-HDAGO/Al sandwich structure, in which the composite film of P3HT-HDAGO was prepared by simple solution phase mixing of the exfoliated HDAGO monolayers with P3HT matrix and a spin-coating method. The memory device exhibits typical bistable electrical switching behavior and a nonvolatile rewritable memory effect, with a turn-on voltage of about 1.5 V and an ON/OFF-state current ratio of 10{sup 5}. Under ambient conditions, both the ON and OFF states are stable under a constant voltage stress or a continuous pulse voltage stress at a read voltage of 1 V. The conduction mechanism is deduced from the modeling of the nature of currents in both states, and the electrical switching behavior can be attributed to the electric-field-induced charge transfer between P3HT and HDAGO nanosheets. - Highlights: • Nonvolatile rewritable memory effect in P3HT–graphene composite is demonstrated. • The memory device was fabricated through a simple solution processing technique. • The device shows a remarkable electrical bistable behavior and excellent stability. • Memory mechanism is deduced from the modeling of the currents in both states.

  2. Review on Physically Flexible Nonvolatile Memory for Internet of Everything Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2015-07-23

    Solid-state memory is an essential component of the digital age. With advancements in healthcare technology and the Internet of Things (IoT), the demand for ultra-dense, ultra-low-power memory is increasing. In this review, we present a comprehensive perspective on the most notable approaches to the fabrication of physically flexible memory devices. With the future goal of replacing traditional mechanical hard disks with solid-state storage devices, a fully flexible electronic system will need two basic devices: transistors and nonvolatile memory. Transistors are used for logic operations and gating memory arrays, while nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices are required for storing information in the main memory and cache storage. Since the highest density of transistors and storage structures is manifested in memories, the focus of this review is flexible NVM. Flexible NVM components are discussed in terms of their functionality, performance metrics, and reliability aspects, all of which are critical components for NVM technology to be part of mainstream consumer electronics, IoT, and advanced healthcare devices. Finally, flexible NVMs are benchmarked and future prospects are provided.

  3. Review on Physically Flexible Nonvolatile Memory for Internet of Everything Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed T. Ghoneim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state memory is an essential component of the digital age. With advancements in healthcare technology and the Internet of Things (IoT, the demand for ultra-dense, ultra-low-power memory is increasing. In this review, we present a comprehensive perspective on the most notable approaches to the fabrication of physically flexible memory devices. With the future goal of replacing traditional mechanical hard disks with solid-state storage devices, a fully flexible electronic system will need two basic devices: transistors and nonvolatile memory. Transistors are used for logic operations and gating memory arrays, while nonvolatile memory (NVM devices are required for storing information in the main memory and cache storage. Since the highest density of transistors and storage structures is manifested in memories, the focus of this review is flexible NVM. Flexible NVM components are discussed in terms of their functionality, performance metrics, and reliability aspects, all of which are critical components for NVM technology to be part of mainstream consumer electronics, IoT, and advanced healthcare devices. Finally, flexible NVMs are benchmarked and future prospects are provided.

  4. Properties of nonvolatile and antibacterial bioboard produced from bamboo macromolecules by hot pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengbo Ge

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Employing the antibacterial property of industrial bamboo vinegar (IBV and the photocatalytic degradation of TiO2, bamboo macromolecules were pretreated and processed into nonvolatile and antibacterial bio board (NVABB. The NVABB was then analyzed by conducting Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis. Results show that NVABB samples had average density of 0.96 g/cm3, which is appropriate for application. In terms of physical and mechanical properties, the best NVABB sample obtained from IBV, TiO2 and bamboo had an IBV pretreatment time of 10 min, 2% TiO2 and 1% bamboo charcoal. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that optimum conditions for hot pressing were a temperature of 170 °C, duration of 15 min and the addition of IBV and TiO2. Thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis curves suggest that the thermal degradation of NVABB was less than that of bamboo and that hot pressing obviously increased the thermal stability of HDBB samples. Analysis of the antimicrobial effect revealed that IBV pretreatment improves the antibacterial property of NVABB. Keywords: Industrial bamboo vinegar, Nonvolatile and antibacterial bio board, Bamboo macromolecules, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis

  5. Design exploration of emerging nano-scale non-volatile memory

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the latest techniques for characterization, modeling and design for nano-scale non-volatile memory (NVM) devices.  Coverage focuses on fundamental NVM device fabrication and characterization, internal state identification of memristic dynamics with physics modeling, NVM circuit design, and hybrid NVM memory system design-space optimization. The authors discuss design methodologies for nano-scale NVM devices from a circuits/systems perspective, including the general foundations for the fundamental memristic dynamics in NVM devices.  Coverage includes physical modeling, as well as the development of a platform to explore novel hybrid CMOS and NVM circuit and system design.   • Offers readers a systematic and comprehensive treatment of emerging nano-scale non-volatile memory (NVM) devices; • Focuses on the internal state of NVM memristic dynamics, novel NVM readout and memory cell circuit design, and hybrid NVM memory system optimization; • Provides both theoretical analysis and pr...

  6. A review of emerging non-volatile memory (NVM) technologies and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, An

    2016-11-01

    This paper will review emerging non-volatile memory (NVM) technologies, with the focus on phase change memory (PCM), spin-transfer-torque random-access-memory (STTRAM), resistive random-access-memory (RRAM), and ferroelectric field-effect-transistor (FeFET) memory. These promising NVM devices are evaluated in terms of their advantages, challenges, and applications. Their performance is compared based on reported parameters of major industrial test chips. Memory selector devices and cell structures are discussed. Changing market trends toward low power (e.g., mobile, IoT) and data-centric applications create opportunities for emerging NVMs. High-performance and low-cost emerging NVMs may simplify memory hierarchy, introduce non-volatility in logic gates and circuits, reduce system power, and enable novel architectures. Storage-class memory (SCM) based on high-density NVMs could fill the performance and density gap between memory and storage. Some unique characteristics of emerging NVMs can be utilized for novel applications beyond the memory space, e.g., neuromorphic computing, hardware security, etc. In the beyond-CMOS era, emerging NVMs have the potential to fulfill more important functions and enable more efficient, intelligent, and secure computing systems.

  7. Review on Physically Flexible Nonvolatile Memory for Internet of Everything Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Solid-state memory is an essential component of the digital age. With advancements in healthcare technology and the Internet of Things (IoT), the demand for ultra-dense, ultra-low-power memory is increasing. In this review, we present a comprehensive perspective on the most notable approaches to the fabrication of physically flexible memory devices. With the future goal of replacing traditional mechanical hard disks with solid-state storage devices, a fully flexible electronic system will need two basic devices: transistors and nonvolatile memory. Transistors are used for logic operations and gating memory arrays, while nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices are required for storing information in the main memory and cache storage. Since the highest density of transistors and storage structures is manifested in memories, the focus of this review is flexible NVM. Flexible NVM components are discussed in terms of their functionality, performance metrics, and reliability aspects, all of which are critical components for NVM technology to be part of mainstream consumer electronics, IoT, and advanced healthcare devices. Finally, flexible NVMs are benchmarked and future prospects are provided.

  8. Volatiles and Nonvolatiles in Flourensia campestris Griseb. (Asteraceae), How Much Do Capitate Glandular Trichomes Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Leonardo A; López, Daniela; Silva, Mariana P; López Rivilli, Marisa J; Tourn, Mónica G; Cantero, Juan J; Scopel, Ana L

    2018-03-01

    The distribution and ultrastructure of capitate glandular trichomes (GTs) in Flourensia species (Asteraceae) have been recently elucidated, but their metabolic activity and potential biological function remain unexplored. Selective nonvolatile metabolites from isolated GTs were strikingly similar to those found on leaf surfaces. The phytotoxic allelochemical sesquiterpene (-)-hamanasic acid A ((-)-HAA) was the major constituent (ca. 40%) in GTs. Although GTs are quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs)-accumulating species, glycine betaine was not found in GTs; it was only present in the leaf mesophyll. Two (-)-HAA accompanying surface secreted products: compounds 4-hydroxyacetophenone (piceol; 1) and 2-hydroxy-5-methoxyacetophenone (2), which were isolated and fully characterized (GC/MS, NMR), were present in the volatiles found in GTs. The essential oils of fresh leaves revealed ca. 33% monoterpenes, 26% hydrocarbon- and 30% oxygenated sesquiterpenes, most of them related to cadinene and bisabolene derivatives. Present results suggest a main role of GTs in determining the volatile and nonvolatile composition of F. campestris leaves. Based on the known activities of the compounds identified, it can be suggested that GTs in F. campestris would play key ecological functions in plant-pathogen and plant-plant interactions. In addition, the strikingly high contribution of compounds derived from cadinene and bisabolene pathways, highlights the potential of this species as a source of high-valued bioproducts. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  9. Negative effect of Au nanoparticles on an IGZO TFT-based nonvolatile memory device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Myunghoon; Yoo, Gwangwe; Lee, Jongtaek; Jeong, Seokwon; Roh, Yonghan; Park, Jinhong; Kwon, Namyong [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Wooshik [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-02-15

    In this letter, the electrical characteristics of nonvolatile memory devices based on back gate type indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) are investigated in terms of the Au nanoparticles (NPs) employed in the floating gate-stack of the device. The size of the Au NPs is controlled using a by 500 .deg. C annealing process after the Au thin-film deposition. The size and the roughness of the Au NPs were observed by using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. In order to analyze the electrical properties according to Au NP size, we measured the current-voltage (I{sub D}-V{sub G}) characteristics of the nonvolatile memory devices fabricated without Au NPs and with Au NPs of various sizes. The size of the Au NP increased, so did the surface roughness of the gate. This resulted in increased carrier scattering, which subsequently degraded the on-current of the memory device. In addition, inter-diffusion between the Au and the α-IGZO through the non-uniform Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tunneling layer seemed to further degrade the device performance.

  10. Non-volatile flash memory with discrete bionanodot floating gate assembled by protein template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Atsushi; Yamashita, Ichiro; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Fuyuki, Takashi; Tsukamoto, Rikako; Yoshii, Shigeo

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrated non-volatile flash memory fabrication by utilizing uniformly sized cobalt oxide (Co 3 O 4 ) bionanodot (Co-BND) architecture assembled by a cage-shaped supramolecular protein template. A fabricated high-density Co-BND array was buried in a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor (MOSFET) structure to use as the charge storage node of a floating nanodot gate memory. We observed a clockwise hysteresis in the drain current-gate voltage characteristics of fabricated BND-embedded MOSFETs. Observed hysteresis obviously indicates a memory operation of Co-BND-embedded MOSFETs due to the charge confinement in the embedded BND and successful functioning of embedded BNDs as the charge storage nodes of the non-volatile flash memory. Fabricated Co-BND-embedded MOSFETs showed good memory properties such as wide memory windows, long charge retention and high tolerance to repeated write/erase operations. A new pathway for device fabrication by utilizing the versatile functionality of biomolecules is presented

  11. Nonvolatile rewritable memory device based on solution-processable graphene/poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Li; Li, Ye; Shi, Jun; Shi, Gaoquan; Cao, Shaokui

    2013-01-01

    An electrically bistable device utilizing a nanocomposite of hexadecylamine-functionalized graphene oxide (HDAGO) with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is demonstrated. The device has an ITO/P3HT-HDAGO/Al sandwich structure, in which the composite film of P3HT-HDAGO was prepared by simple solution phase mixing of the exfoliated HDAGO monolayers with P3HT matrix and a spin-coating method. The memory device exhibits typical bistable electrical switching behavior and a nonvolatile rewritable memory effect, with a turn-on voltage of about 1.5 V and an ON/OFF-state current ratio of 10 5 . Under ambient conditions, both the ON and OFF states are stable under a constant voltage stress or a continuous pulse voltage stress at a read voltage of 1 V. The conduction mechanism is deduced from the modeling of the nature of currents in both states, and the electrical switching behavior can be attributed to the electric-field-induced charge transfer between P3HT and HDAGO nanosheets. - Highlights: • Nonvolatile rewritable memory effect in P3HT–graphene composite is demonstrated. • The memory device was fabricated through a simple solution processing technique. • The device shows a remarkable electrical bistable behavior and excellent stability. • Memory mechanism is deduced from the modeling of the currents in both states

  12. Metal-organic molecular device for non-volatile memory storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radha, B.; Sagade, Abhay A.; Kulkarni, G. U.

    2014-01-01

    Non-volatile memory devices have been of immense research interest for their use in active memory storage in powered off-state of electronic chips. In literature, various molecules and metal compounds have been investigated in this regard. Molecular memory devices are particularly attractive as they offer the ease of storing multiple memory states in a unique way and also represent ubiquitous choice for miniaturized devices. However, molecules are fragile and thus the device breakdown at nominal voltages during repeated cycles hinders their practical applicability. Here, in this report, a synergetic combination of an organic molecule and an inorganic metal, i.e., a metal-organic complex, namely, palladium hexadecylthiolate is investigated for memory device characteristics. Palladium hexadecylthiolate following partial thermolysis is converted to a molecular nanocomposite of Pd(II), Pd(0), and long chain hydrocarbons, which is shown to exhibit non-volatile memory characteristics with exceptional stability and retention. The devices are all solution-processed and the memory action stems from filament formation across the pre-formed cracks in the nanocomposite film.

  13. Two-dimensional non-volatile programmable p-n junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Chen, Mingyuan; Sun, Zhengzong; Yu, Peng; Liu, Zheng; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Zhang, Zengxing

    2017-09-01

    Semiconductor p-n junctions are the elementary building blocks of most electronic and optoelectronic devices. The need for their miniaturization has fuelled the rapid growth of interest in two-dimensional (2D) materials. However, the performance of a p-n junction considerably degrades as its thickness approaches a few nanometres and traditional technologies, such as doping and implantation, become invalid at the nanoscale. Here we report stable non-volatile programmable p-n junctions fabricated from the vertically stacked all-2D semiconductor/insulator/metal layers (WSe2/hexagonal boron nitride/graphene) in a semifloating gate field-effect transistor configuration. The junction exhibits a good rectifying behaviour with a rectification ratio of 104 and photovoltaic properties with a power conversion efficiency up to 4.1% under a 6.8 nW light. Based on the non-volatile programmable properties controlled by gate voltages, the 2D p-n junctions have been exploited for various electronic and optoelectronic applications, such as memories, photovoltaics, logic rectifiers and logic optoelectronic circuits.

  14. Flexible All-Inorganic Perovskite CsPbBr3 Nonvolatile Memory Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongjue; Lin, Qiqi; Zang, Zhigang; Wang, Ming; Wangyang, Peihua; Tang, Xiaosheng; Zhou, Miao; Hu, Wei

    2017-02-22

    All-inorganic perovskite CsPbX 3 (X = Cl, Br, or I) is widely used in a variety of photoelectric devices such as solar cells, light-emitting diodes, lasers, and photodetectors. However, studies to understand the flexible CsPbX 3 electrical application are relatively scarce, mainly due to the limitations of the low-temperature fabricating process. In this study, all-inorganic perovskite CsPbBr 3 films were successfully fabricated at 75 °C through a two-step method. The highly crystallized films were first employed as a resistive switching layer in the Al/CsPbBr 3 /PEDOT:PSS/ITO/PET structure for flexible nonvolatile memory application. The resistive switching operations and endurance performance demonstrated the as-prepared flexible resistive random access memory devices possess reproducible and reliable memory characteristics. Electrical reliability and mechanical stability of the nonvolatile device were further tested by the robust current-voltage curves under different bending angles and consecutive flexing cycles. Moreover, a model of the formation and rupture of filaments through the CsPbBr 3 layer was proposed to explain the resistive switching effect. It is believed that this study will offer a new setting to understand and design all-inorganic perovskite materials for future stable flexible electronic devices.

  15. Non-volatile MOS RAM cell with capacitor-isolated nodes that are radiation accessible for rendering a non-permanent programmed information in the cell of a non-volatile one

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widdershoven, Franciscus P.; Annema, Anne J.; Storms, Maurits M.N.; Pelgrom, Marcellinus J.M.; Pelgrom, Marcel J M

    2001-01-01

    A non-volatile, random access memory cell comprises first and second inverters each having an output node cross-coupled by cross-coupling means to an input node of the other inverter for forming a MOS RAM cell. The output node of each inverter is selectively connected via the conductor paths of

  16. Dietary exposure to volatile and non-volatile N-nitrosamines from processed meat products in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Christensen, Tue

    2015-01-01

    the carcinogenicity for the majority of the non-volatile NA (NVNA) remains to be elucidated. Danish adults (15–75 years) and children (4–6 years) consume 20 g and 16 g of processed meat per day (95th percentile), respectively. The consumption is primarily accounted for by sausages, salami, pork flank (spiced...

  17. Nonvolatile memory characteristics in metal-oxide-semiconductors containing metal nanoparticles fabricated by using a unique laser irradiation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, JungYup; Yoon, KapSoo; Kim, JuHyung; Choi, WonJun; Do, YoungHo; Kim, ChaeOk; Hong, JinPyo

    2006-01-01

    Metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors with metal nanoparticles (Co NP) were successfully fabricated by utilizing an external laser exposure technique for application of non-volatile memories. Images of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveal that the spherically shaped Co NP are clearly embedded in the gate oxide layer. Capacitance-voltage measurements exhibit typical charging and discharging effects with a large flat-band shift. The effects of the tunnel oxide thickness and the different tunnel materials are analyzed using capacitance-voltage and retention characteristics. In addition, the memory characteristics of the NP embedded in a high-permittivity material are investigated because the thickness of conventionally available SiO 2 gates is approaching the quantum tunneling limit as devices are scaled down. Finally, the suitability of NP memory devices for nonvolatile memory applications is also discussed. The present results suggest that our unique laser exposure technique holds promise for the NP formation as floating gate elements in nonvolatile NP memories and that the quality of the tunnel oxide is very important for enhancing the retention properties of nonvolatile memory.

  18. BLACKCOMB2: Hardware-software co-design for non-volatile memory in exascale systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudge, Trevor [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2017-12-15

    This work was part of a larger project, Blackcomb2, centered at Oak Ridge National Labs (Jeff Vetter PI) to investigate the opportunities for replacing or supplementing DRAM main memory with nonvolatile memory (NVmemory) in Exascale memory systems. The goal was to reduce the energy consumed by in future supercomputer memory systems and to improve their resiliency. Building on the accomplishments of the original Blackcomb Project, funded in 2010, the goal for Blackcomb2 was to identify, evaluate, and optimize the most promising emerging memory technologies, architecture hardware and software technologies, which are essential to provide the necessary memory capacity, performance, resilience, and energy efficiency in Exascale systems. Capacity and energy are the key drivers.

  19. Controlled data storage for non-volatile memory cells embedded in nano magnetic logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riente, Fabrizio; Ziemys, Grazvydas; Mattersdorfer, Clemens; Boche, Silke; Turvani, Giovanna; Raberg, Wolfgang; Luber, Sebastian; Breitkreutz-v. Gamm, Stephan

    2017-05-01

    Among the beyond-CMOS technologies, perpendicular Nano Magnetic Logic (pNML) is a promising candidate due to its low power consumption, its non-volatility and its monolithic 3D integrability, which makes it possible to integrate memory and logic into the same device by exploiting the interaction of bi-stable nanomagnets with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Logic computation and signal synchronization are achieved by focus ion beam irradiation and by pinning domain walls in magnetic notches. However, in realistic circuits, the information storage and their read-out are crucial issues, often ignored in the exploration of beyond-CMOS devices. In this paper we address these issues by experimentally demonstrating a pNML memory element, whose read and write operations can be controlled by two independent pulsed currents. Our results prove the correct behavior of the proposed structure that enables high density memory embedded in the logic plane of 3D-integrated pNML circuits.

  20. Nonvolatile Memories Using Quantum Dot (QD) Floating Gates Assembled on II-VI Tunnel Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, E.; Gogna, M.; Al-Amoody, F.; Karmakar, S.; Ayers, J.; Heller, E.; Jain, F.

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents preliminary data on quantum dot gate nonvolatile memories using nearly lattice-matched ZnS/Zn0.95Mg0.05S/ZnS tunnel insulators. The GeO x -cladded Ge and SiO x -cladded Si quantum dots (QDs) are self-assembled site-specifically on the II-VI insulator grown epitaxially over the Si channel (formed between the source and drain region). The pseudomorphic II-VI stack serves both as a tunnel insulator and a high- κ dielectric. The effect of Mg incorporation in ZnMgS is also investigated. For the control gate insulator, we have used Si3N4 and SiO2 layers grown by plasma- enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

  1. Physical implication of transition voltage in organic nano-floating-gate nonvolatile memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shun; Gao, Xu, E-mail: wangsd@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: gaoxu@suda.edu.cn; Zhong, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Zhong-Da; Xu, Jian-Long; Wang, Sui-Dong, E-mail: wangsd@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: gaoxu@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2016-07-11

    High-performance pentacene-based organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories, using polystyrene as a tunneling dielectric and Au nanoparticles as a nano-floating-gate, show parallelogram-like transfer characteristics with a featured transition point. The transition voltage at the transition point corresponds to a threshold electric field in the tunneling dielectric, over which stored electrons in the nano-floating-gate will start to leak out. The transition voltage can be modulated depending on the bias configuration and device structure. For p-type active layers, optimized transition voltage should be on the negative side of but close to the reading voltage, which can simultaneously achieve a high ON/OFF ratio and good memory retention.

  2. A Survey of Soft-Error Mitigation Techniques for Non-Volatile Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparsh Mittal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-volatile memories (NVMs offer superior density and energy characteristics compared to the conventional memories; however, NVMs suffer from severe reliability issues that can easily eclipse their energy efficiency advantages. In this paper, we survey architectural techniques for improving the soft-error reliability of NVMs, specifically PCM (phase change memory and STT-RAM (spin transfer torque RAM. We focus on soft-errors, such as resistance drift and write disturbance, in PCM and read disturbance and write failures in STT-RAM. By classifying the research works based on key parameters, we highlight their similarities and distinctions. We hope that this survey will underline the crucial importance of addressing NVM reliability for ensuring their system integration and will be useful for researchers, computer architects and processor designers.

  3. Nonvolatile organic write-once-read-many-times memory devices based on hexadecafluoro-copper-phthalocyanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lidan; Su, Zisheng; Wang, Cheng

    2012-05-01

    Nonvolatile organic write-once-read-many-times memory device was demonstrated based on hexadecafluoro-copper-phthalocyanine (F16CuPc) single layer sandwiched between indium tin oxide (ITO) anode and Al cathode. The as fabricated device remains in ON state and it can be tuned to OFF state by applying a reverse bias. The ON/OFF current ratio of the device can reach up to 2.3 × 103. Simultaneously, the device shows long-term storage stability and long retention time in air. The ON/OFF transition is attributed to the formation and destruction of the interfacial dipole layer in the ITO/F16CuPc interface, and such a mechanism is different from previously reported ones.

  4. Discrete Charge Storage Nonvolatile Memory Based on Si Nanocrystals with Nitridation Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xian-Gao, Zhang; Kun-Ji, Chen; Zhong-Hui, Fang; Xin-Ye, Qian; Guang-Yuan, Liu; Xiao-Fan, Jiang; Zhong-Yuan, Ma; Jun, Xu; Xin-Fan, Huang; Jian-Xin, Ji; Fei, He; Kuang-Bao, Song; Jun, Zhang; Hui, Wan; Rong-Hua, Wang

    2010-01-01

    A nonvolatile memory device with nitrided Si nanocrystals embedded in a Boating gate was fabricated. The uniform Si nanocrystals with high density (3 × 10 11 cm −2 ) were deposited on ultra-thin tunnel oxide layer (∼ 3 nm) and followed by a nitridation treatment in ammonia to form a thin silicon nitride layer on the surface of nanocrystals. A memory window of 2.4 V was obtained and it would be larger than 1.3 V after ten years from the extrapolated retention data. The results can be explained by the nitrogen passivation of the surface traps of Si nanocrystals, which slows the charge loss rate. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  5. The charge storage characteristics of ZrO2 nanocrystallite-based charge trap nonvolatile memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Zhen-Jie; Li Rong; Yin Jiang

    2013-01-01

    ZrO 2 nanocrystallite-based charge trap flash memory capacitors incorporating a (ZrO 2 ) 0.6 (SiO 2 ) 0.4 pseudobinary high-k oxide film as the charge trapping layer were prepared and investigated. The precipitation reaction in the charge trapping layer, forming ZrO 2 nanocrystallites during rapid thermal annealing, was investigated by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. It was observed that a ZrO 2 nanocrystallite-based memory capacitor after post-annealing at 850 °C for 60 s exhibits a maximum memory window of about 6.8 V, good endurance and a low charge loss of ∼25% over a period of 10 years (determined by extrapolating the charge loss curve measured experimentally), even at 85 °C. Such 850 °C-annealed memory capacitors appear to be candidates for future nonvolatile flash memory device applications

  6. Conjugated donor-acceptor-acceptor (D-A-A) molecule for organic nonvolatile resistor memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lei; Li, Guangwu; Yu, An-Dih; Bo, Zhishan; Liu, Cheng-Liang; Chen, Wen-Chang

    2014-12-01

    A new donor-acceptor-acceptor (D-A-A) type of conjugated molecule, N-(4-(N',N'-diphenyl)phenylamine)-4-(4'-(2,2-dicyanovinyl)phenyl) naphthalene-1,8-dicarboxylic monoimide (TPA-NI-DCN), consisting of triphenylamine (TPA) donors and naphthalimide (NI)/dicyanovinylene (DCN) acceptors was synthesized and characterized. In conjunction with previously reported D-A based materials, the additional DCN moiety attached as end group in the D-A-A configuration can result in a stable charge transfer (CT) and charge-separated state to maintain the ON state current. The vacuum-deposited TPA-NI-DCN device fabricated as an active memory layer was demonstrated to exhibit write-once-read-many (WORM) switching characteristics of organic nonvolatile memory due to the strong polarity of the TPA-NI-DCN moiety. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Intrinsic Ge nanowire nonvolatile memory based on a simple core–shell structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wen-Hua; Liu, Chang-Hai; Li, Qin-Liang; Sun, Qi-Jun; Liu, Jie; Gao, Xu; Sun, Xuhui; Wang, Sui-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Intrinsic Ge nanowires (NWs) with a Ge core covered by a thick Ge oxide shell are utilized to achieve nanoscale field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories, which show a large memory window and a high ON/OFF ratio with good retention. The retainable surface charge trapping is considered to be responsible for the memory effect, and the Ge oxide shell plays a key role as the insulating tunneling dielectric which must be thick enough to prevent stored surface charges from leaking out. Annealing the device in air is demonstrated to be a simple and effective way to attain thick Ge oxide on the Ge NW surface, and the Ge-NW-based memory corresponding to thick Ge oxide exhibits a much better retention capability compared with the case of thin Ge oxide. (paper)

  8. The floating-gate non-volatile semiconductor memory--from invention to the digital age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, S M

    2012-10-01

    In the past 45 years (from 1967 to 2012), the non-volatile semiconductor memory (NVSM) has emerged from a floating-gate concept to the prime technology driver of the largest industry in the world-the electronics industry. In this paper, we briefly review the historical development of NVSM and project its future trends to the year 2020. In addition, we consider NVSM's wide-range of applications from the digital cellular phone to tablet computer to digital television. As the device dimension is scaled down to the deca-nanometer regime, we expect that many innovations will be made to meet the scaling challenges, and NVSM-inspired technology will continue to enrich and improve our lives for decades to come.

  9. Low-field Switching Four-state Nonvolatile Memory Based on Multiferroic Tunnel Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, H. M.; Yan, Z. B.; Chan, N. Y.; Au, K.; Wong, C. M.; Leung, C. W.; Zhang, F. Y.; Gao, X. S.; Dai, J. Y.

    2015-08-01

    Multiferroic tunneling junction based four-state non-volatile memories are very promising for future memory industry since this kind of memories hold the advantages of not only the higher density by scaling down memory cell but also the function of magnetically written and electrically reading. In this work, we demonstrate a success of this four-state memory in a material system of NiFe/BaTiO3/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 with improved memory characteristics such as lower switching field and larger tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR). Ferroelectric switching induced resistive change memory with OFF/ON ratio of 16 and 0.3% TMR effect have been achieved in this multiferroic tunneling structure.

  10. Poly (vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene/barium titanate nanocomposite for ferroelectric nonvolatile memory devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uvais Valiyaneerilakkal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of barium titanate (BaTiO3 nanoparticles (particle size <100nm on the ferroelectric properties of poly (vinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene P(VDF-TrFE copolymer has been studied. Different concentrations of nanoparticles were added to P(VDF-TrFE using probe sonication, and uniform thin films were made. Polarisation - Electric field (P-E hysteresis analysis shows an increase in remnant polarization (Pr and decrease in coercive voltage (Vc. Piezo-response force microscopy analysis shows the switching capability of the polymer composite. The topography and surface roughness was studied using atomic force microscopy. It has been observed that this nanocomposite can be used for the fabrication of non-volatile ferroelectric memory devices.

  11. Measurements of the size dependence of the concentration of nonvolatile material in fog droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogren, J. A.; Noone, K. J.; Hallberg, A.; Heintzenberg, J.; Schell, D.; Berner, A.; Solly, I.; Kruisz, C.; Reischl, G.; Arends, B. G.; Wobrock, W.

    1992-11-01

    Measurements of the size dependence of the mass concentration of nonvolatile material dissolved and suspended in fog droplets were obtained with three complementary approaches, covering a size range from c. 1 50µm diameter: a counterflow virtual impactor, an eight-stage aerosol impactor, and a two-stage fogwater impactor. Concentrations were observed to decrease with size over the entire range, contrary to expectations of increasing concentrations at larger sizes. It is possible that the larger droplets had solute concentrations that increased with increasing size, but that the increase was too weak for the measurements to resolve. Future studies should consider the hypothesis that the droplets were coated with a surface-active substance that hindered their uptake of water.

  12. Nonvolatile Solid-State Charged-Polymer Gating of Topological Insulators into the Topological Insulating Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, R. M.; Wu, Liang; Salehi, M.; Oh, S.; Armitage, N. P.; Katz, H. E.

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate the ability to reduce the carrier concentration of thin films of the topological insulator (TI) Bi2 Se3 by utilizing a nonvolatile electrostatic gating via corona charging of electret polymers. Sufficient electric field can be imparted to a polymer-TI bilayer to result in significant electron density depletion, even without the continuous connection of a gate electrode or the chemical modification of the TI. We show that the Fermi level of Bi2 Se3 is shifted toward the Dirac point with this method. Using terahertz spectroscopy, we find that the surface chemical potential is lowered into the bulk band gap (approximately 50 meV above the Dirac point and 170 meV below the conduction-band minimum), and it is stabilized in the intrinsic regime while enhancing electron mobility. The mobility of surface state electrons is enhanced to a value as high as approximately 1600 cm2/V s at 5 K.

  13. A direct metal transfer method for cross-bar type polymer non-volatile memory applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Lee, Kyeongmi; Oh, Seung-Hwan; Wang, Gunuk; Kim, Dong-Yu; Jung, Gun-Young; Lee, Takhee

    2008-01-01

    Polymer non-volatile memory devices in 8 x 8 array cross-bar architecture were fabricated by a non-aqueous direct metal transfer (DMT) method using a two-step thermal treatment. Top electrodes with a linewidth of 2 μm were transferred onto the polymer layer by the DMT method. The switching behaviour of memory devices fabricated by the DMT method was very similar to that of devices fabricated by the conventional shadow mask method. The devices fabricated using the DMT method showed three orders of magnitude of on/off ratio with stable resistance switching, demonstrating that the DMT method can be a simple process to fabricate organic memory array devices

  14. A room-temperature non-volatile CNT-based molecular memory cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Senbin; Jing, Qingshen; Han, Ray P. S.

    2013-04-01

    Recent experiments with a carbon nanotube (CNT) system confirmed that the innertube can oscillate back-and-forth even under a room-temperature excitation. This demonstration of relative motion suggests that it is now feasible to build a CNT-based molecular memory cell (MC), and the key to bring the concept to reality is the precision control of the moving tube for sustained and reliable read/write (RW) operations. Here, we show that by using a 2-section outertube design, we are able to suitably recalibrate the system energetics and obtain the designed performance characteristics of a MC. Further, the resulting energy modification enables the MC to operate as a non-volatile memory element at room temperatures. Our paper explores a fundamental understanding of a MC and its response at the molecular level to roadmap a novel approach in memory technologies that can be harnessed to overcome the miniaturization limit and memory volatility in memory technologies.

  15. Flavor Compounds in Pixian Broad-Bean Paste: Non-Volatile Organic Acids and Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Lin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-volatile organic acids and amino acids are important flavor compounds in Pixian broad-bean paste, which is a traditional Chinese seasoning product. In this study, non-volatile organic acids, formed in the broad-bean paste due to the metabolism of large molecular compounds, are qualitatively and quantitatively determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Amino acids, mainly produced by hydrolysis of soybean proteins, were determined by the amino acid automatic analyzer. Results indicated that seven common organic acids and eighteen common amino acids were found in six Pixian broad-bean paste samples. The content of citric acid was found to be the highest in each sample, between 4.1 mg/g to 6.3 mg/g, and malic acid were between 2.1 mg/g to 3.6 mg/g ranked as the second. Moreover, fumaric acid was first detected in fermented bean pastes albeit with a low content. For amino acids, savory with lower sour taste including glutamine (Gln, glutamic acid (Glu, aspartic acid (Asp and asparagines (Asn were the most abundant, noted to be 6.5 mg/g, 4.0 mg/g, 6.4 mg/g, 4.9 mg/g, 6.2 mg/g and 10.2 mg/g, and bitter taste amino acids followed. More importantly, as important flavor materials in Pixian broad-bean paste, these two groups of substances are expected to be used to evaluate and represent the flavor quality of Pixian broad-bean paste. Moreover, the results revealed that citric acid, glutamic acid, methionine and proline were the most important flavor compounds. These findings are agreat contribution for evaluating the quality and further assessment of Pixian broad-bean paste.

  16. Flavor Compounds in Pixian Broad-Bean Paste: Non-Volatile Organic Acids and Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongbin; Yu, Xiaoyu; Fang, Jiaxing; Lu, Yunhao; Liu, Ping; Xing, Yage; Wang, Qin; Che, Zhenming; He, Qiang

    2018-05-29

    Non-volatile organic acids and amino acids are important flavor compounds in Pixian broad-bean paste, which is a traditional Chinese seasoning product. In this study, non-volatile organic acids, formed in the broad-bean paste due to the metabolism of large molecular compounds, are qualitatively and quantitatively determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Amino acids, mainly produced by hydrolysis of soybean proteins, were determined by the amino acid automatic analyzer. Results indicated that seven common organic acids and eighteen common amino acids were found in six Pixian broad-bean paste samples. The content of citric acid was found to be the highest in each sample, between 4.1 mg/g to 6.3 mg/g, and malic acid were between 2.1 mg/g to 3.6 mg/g ranked as the second. Moreover, fumaric acid was first detected in fermented bean pastes albeit with a low content. For amino acids, savory with lower sour taste including glutamine (Gln), glutamic acid (Glu), aspartic acid (Asp) and asparagines (Asn) were the most abundant, noted to be 6.5 mg/g, 4.0 mg/g, 6.4 mg/g, 4.9 mg/g, 6.2 mg/g and 10.2 mg/g, and bitter taste amino acids followed. More importantly, as important flavor materials in Pixian broad-bean paste, these two groups of substances are expected to be used to evaluate and represent the flavor quality of Pixian broad-bean paste. Moreover, the results revealed that citric acid, glutamic acid, methionine and proline were the most important flavor compounds. These findings are agreat contribution for evaluating the quality and further assessment of Pixian broad-bean paste.

  17. Development of novel nonvolatile memory devices using the colossal magnetoresistive oxide praseodymium-calcium-manganese trioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagianni, Christina

    Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (PCMO) manganese oxide belongs in the family of materials known as transition metal oxides. These compounds have received increased attention due to their perplexing properties such as Colossal Magnetoresistance effect, Charge-Ordered phase, existence of phase-separated states etc. In addition, it was recently discovered that short electrical pulses in amplitude and duration are sufficient to induce reversible and non-volatile resistance changes in manganese perovskite oxide thin films at room temperature, known as the EPIR effect. The existence of the EPIR effect in PCMO thin films at room temperature opens a viable way for the realization of fast, high-density, low power non-volatile memory devices in the near future. The purpose of this study is to investigate, optimize and understand the properties of Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO 3 (PCMO) thin film devices and to identify how these properties affect the EPIR effect. PCMO thin films were deposited on various substrates, such as metals, and conducting and insulating oxides, by pulsed laser and radio frequency sputtering methods. Our objective was to understand and compare the induced resistive states. We attempted to identify the induced resistance changes by considering two resistive models to be equivalent to our devices. Impedance spectroscopy was also utilized in a wide temperature range that was extended down to 70K. Fitted results of the temperature dependence of the resistance states were also included in this study. In the same temperature range, we probed the resistance changes in PCMO thin films and we examined whether the phase transitions affect the EPIR effect. In addition, we included a comparison of devices with electrodes consisting of different size and different materials. We demonstrated a direct relation between the EPIR effect and the phase diagram of bulk PCMO samples. A model that could account for the observed EPIR effect is presented.

  18. Laboratory Validation of Four Black Carbon Measurement Methods for Determination of the Nonvolatile Particulate Matter (nvPM) Mass Emissions from Commercial Aircraft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four candidate black carbon (BC) measurement techniques have been identified by the SAE International E-31 Committee for possible use in determining nonvolatile particulate matter (nvPM) mass emissions during commercial aircraft engine certification. These techniques are carbon b...

  19. EPA Method 8321B (SW-846): Solvent-Extractable Nonvolatile Compounds by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Thermospray-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-TS-MS) or Ultraviolet (UV) Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Method 8321B describes procedures for preparation and analysis of solid, aqueous liquid, drinking water and wipe samples using high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry for extractable non-volatile compounds.

  20. Atomically Smooth Epitaxial Ferroelectric Thin Films for the Development of a Nonvolatile, Ultrahigh Density, Fast, Low Voltage, Radiation-Hard Memory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahn, Charles H

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this research is to fabricate atomically smooth, single crystalline, complex oxide thin film nanostructures for use in a nonvolatile, ultrahigh density, fast, low voltage, radiation-hard memory...

  1. Feasibility and limitations of anti-fuses based on bistable non-volatile switches for power electronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlbacher, T.; Huerner, A.; Bauer, A. J.; Frey, L.

    2012-09-01

    Anti-fuse devices based on non-volatile memory cells and suitable for power electronic applications are demonstrated for the first time using silicon technology. These devices may be applied as stand alone devices or integrated using standard junction-isolation into application-specific and smart-power integrated circuits. The on-resistance of such devices can be permanently switched by nine orders of magnitude by triggering the anti-fuse with a positive voltage pulse. Extrapolation of measurement data and 2D TCAD process and device simulations indicate that 20 A anti-fuses with 10 mΩ can be reliably fabricated in 0.35 μm technology with a footprint of 2.5 mm2. Moreover, this concept offers distinguished added-values compared to existing mechanical relays, e.g. pre-test, temporary and permanent reset functions, gradual turn-on mode, non-volatility, and extendibility to high voltage capability.

  2. Broadband nonvolatile photonic switching based on optical phase change materials: beyond the classical figure-of-merit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qihang; Zhang, Yifei; Li, Junying; Soref, Richard; Gu, Tian; Hu, Juejun

    2018-01-01

    In this Letter, we propose a broadband, nonvolatile on-chip switch design in the telecommunication C-band with record low loss and crosstalk. The unprecedented device performance builds on: 1) a new optical phase change material (O-PCM) Ge 2 Sb 2 Se 4 Te 1 (GSST), which exhibits significantly reduced optical attenuation compared to traditional O-PCMs, and 2) a nonperturbative design that enables low-loss device operation beyond the classical figure-of-merit (FOM) limit. We further demonstrate that the 1-by-2 and 2-by-2 switches can serve as basic building blocks to construct nonblocking and nonvolatile on-chip switching fabric supporting arbitrary numbers of input and output ports.

  3. Influence of mineral salts upon activity of Trichoderma harzianum non-volatile metabolites on Armillaria spp. rhizomorphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Przybył

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of non-volatile metabolites of Trichoderma harzianum together with certain salts containing Mg++, Fe+++, Mn++, Cu++, Al+++, Ca++, K++, Na+, PO4--- and SO3--- on the production and length of rhizomorphs of Armillaria borealis, A. gallica and A. ostoyae was studied. In pure medium, T. harzianum exhibited stimulating effect on rhizomorphs of A. borealis (both number and length and A. ostoyae (only initiation. Cu++ salt totaly inhibited the initiation of rhizomorphs of Armillaria borealis, A. gallica and A. ostoyae. Effect of other compounds on the activity of T. harzianum depended on Armillaria species. The majority of chemical compounds tested supressed the activity of non-volatile metabolites of T. harzianum. Evident stimulating effect was observed under influence of sulphate salts consisting Al++ and Fe+++ on the rhizomorph number of A. borealis and A. gallica, respectively.

  4. Unipolar resistive switching in metal oxide/organic semiconductor non-volatile memories as a critical phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bory, Benjamin F.; Meskers, Stefan C. J.; Rocha, Paulo R. F.; Gomes, Henrique L.; Leeuw, Dago M. de

    2015-01-01

    Diodes incorporating a bilayer of an organic semiconductor and a wide bandgap metal oxide can show unipolar, non-volatile memory behavior after electroforming. The prolonged bias voltage stress induces defects in the metal oxide with an areal density exceeding 10 17  m −2 . We explain the electrical bistability by the coexistence of two thermodynamically stable phases at the interface between an organic semiconductor and metal oxide. One phase contains mainly ionized defects and has a low work function, while the other phase has mainly neutral defects and a high work function. In the diodes, domains of the phase with a low work function constitute current filaments. The phase composition and critical temperature are derived from a 2D Ising model as a function of chemical potential. The model predicts filamentary conduction exhibiting a negative differential resistance and nonvolatile memory behavior. The model is expected to be generally applicable to any bilayer system that shows unipolar resistive switching

  5. Ferroelectric polymer gates for non-volatile field effect control of ferromagnetism in (Ga, Mn)As layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolichnov, I; Riester, S W E; Mikheev, E; Setter, N; Rushforth, A W; Edmonds, K W; Campion, R P; Foxon, C T; Gallagher, B L; Jungwirth, T; Trodahl, H J

    2011-01-01

    (Ga, Mn)As and other diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) attract a great deal of attention for potential spintronic applications because of the possibility of controlling the magnetic properties via electrical gating. Integration of a ferroelectric gate on the DMS channel adds to the system a non-volatile memory functionality and permits nanopatterning via the polarization domain engineering. This topical review is focused on the multiferroic system, where the ferromagnetism in the (Ga, Mn)As DMS channel is controlled by the non-volatile field effect of the spontaneous polarization. Use of ferroelectric polymer gates in such heterostructures offers a viable alternative to the traditional oxide ferroelectrics generally incompatible with DMS. Here we review the proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating the ferroelectric control of ferromagnetism, analyze the performance issues of the ferroelectric gates and discuss prospects for further development of the ferroelectric/DMS heterostructures toward the multiferroic field effect transistor. (topical review)

  6. Volatile and non-volatile compounds in green tea affected in harvesting time and their correlation to consumer preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmok; Lee, Kwang-Geun; Kim, Mina K

    2016-10-01

    Current study was designed to find out how tea harvesting time affects the volatile and non-volatile compounds profiles of green tea. In addition, correlation of instrumental volatile and non-volatile compounds analyses to consumer perception were analyzed. Overall, earlier harvested green tea had stronger antioxidant capacity (~61.0%) due to the polyphenolic compounds from catechin (23,164 mg/L), in comparison to later harvested green teas (11,961 mg/L). However, high catechin content in green tea influenced negatively the consumer likings of green tea, due to high bitterness (27.6%) and astringency (13.4%). Volatile compounds drive consumer liking of green tea products were also identified, that included linalool, 2,3-methyl butanal, 2-heptanone, (E,E)-3,5-Octadien-2-one. Finding from current study are useful for green tea industry as it provide the difference in physiochemical properties of green tea harvested at different intervals.

  7. A radiation-tolerant, low-power non-volatile memory based on silicon nanocrystal quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, L. D.; Boer, E.; Ostraat, M.; Brongersma, M. L.; Flagan, R. C.; Atwater, H. A.; De Blauwe, J.; Green, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    Nanocrystal nonvolatile floating-gate memories are a good candidate for space applications - initial results suggest they are fast, more reliable and consume less power than conventional floating gate memories. In the nanocrystal based NVM device, charge is not stored on a continuous polysilicon layer (so-called floating gate), but instead on a layer of discrete nanocrystals. Charge injection and storage in dense arrays of silicon nanocrystals in SiO_2 is a critical aspect of the performance ...

  8. Electric field mediated non-volatile tuning magnetism in CoPt/PMN-PT heterostructure for magnetoelectric memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y. T.; Li, J.; Peng, X. L.; Wang, X. Q.; Wang, D. H.; Cao, Q. Q.; Du, Y. W.

    2016-02-01

    We report a power efficient non-volatile magnetoelectric memory in the CoPt/(011)PMN-PT heterostructure. Two reversible and stable electric field induced coercivity states (i.e., high-HC or low-HC) are obtained due to the strain mediated converse magnetoelectric effect. The reading process of the different coercive field information written by electric fields is demonstrated by using a magnetoresistance read head. This result shows good prospects in the application of novel multiferroic devices.

  9. Non-volatile resistive switching in the Mott insulator (V1-xCrx)2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querré, M.; Tranchant, J.; Corraze, B.; Cordier, S.; Bouquet, V.; Députier, S.; Guilloux-Viry, M.; Besland, M.-P.; Janod, E.; Cario, L.

    2018-05-01

    The discovery of non-volatile resistive switching in Mott insulators related to an electric-field-induced insulator to metal transition (IMT) has paved the way for their use in a new type of non-volatile memories, the Mott memories. While most of the previous studies were dedicated to uncover the resistive switching mechanism and explore the memory potential of chalcogenide Mott insulators, we present here a comprehensive study of resistive switching in the canonical oxide Mott insulator (V1-xCrx)2O3. Our work demonstrates that this compound undergoes a non-volatile resistive switching under electric field. This resistive switching is induced by a Mott transition at the local scale which creates metallic domains closely related to existing phases of the temperature-pressure phase diagram of (V1-xCrx)2O3. Our work demonstrates also reversible resistive switching in (V1-xCrx)2O3 crystals and thin film devices. Preliminary performances obtained on 880 nm thick layers with 500 nm electrodes show the strong potential of Mott memories based on the Mott insulator (V1-xCrx)2O3.

  10. Anomalous Threshold Voltage Variability of Nitride Based Charge Storage Nonvolatile Memory Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Chuan Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional technology scaling is implemented to meet the insatiable demand of high memory density and low cost per bit of charge storage nonvolatile memory (NVM devices. In this study, effect of technology scaling to anomalous threshold voltage ( variability is investigated thoroughly on postcycled and baked nitride based charge storage NVM devices. After long annealing bake of high temperature, cell’s variability of each subsequent bake increases within stable distribution and found exacerbate by technology scaling. Apparent activation energy of this anomalous variability was derived through Arrhenius plots. Apparent activation energy (Eaa of this anomalous variability is 0.67 eV at sub-40 nm devices which is a reduction of approximately 2 times from 110 nm devices. Technology scaling clearly aggravates this anomalous variability, and this poses reliability challenges to applications that demand strict control, for example, reference cells that govern fundamental program, erase, and verify operations of NVM devices. Based on critical evidence, this anomalous variability is attributed to lateral displacement of trapped charges in nitride storage layer. Reliability implications of this study are elucidated. Moreover, potential mitigation methods are proposed to complement technology scaling to prolong the front-runner role of nitride based charge storage NVM in semiconductor flash memory market.

  11. Nonvolatile field effect transistors based on protons and Si/SiO2Si structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, W.L.; Vanheusden, K.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Schwank, J.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Knoll, M.G.; Devine, R.A.B.

    1997-01-01

    Recently, the authors have demonstrated that annealing Si/SiO 2 /Si structures in a hydrogen containing ambient introduces mobile H + ions into the buried SiO 2 layer. Changes in the H + spatial distribution within the SiO 2 layer were electrically monitored by current-voltage (I-V) measurements. The ability to directly probe reversible protonic motion in Si/SiO 2 /Si structures makes this an exemplar system to explore the physics and chemistry of hydrogen in the technologically relevant Si/SiO 2 structure. In this work, they illustrate that this effect can be used as the basis for a programmable nonvolatile field effect transistor (NVFET) memory that may compete with other Si-based memory devices. The power of this novel device is its simplicity; it is based upon standard Si/SiO 2 /Si technology and forming gas annealing, a common treatment used in integrated circuit processing. They also briefly discuss the effects of radiation on its retention properties

  12. The MONOS memory transistor: application in a radiation-hard nonvolatile RAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    The MONOS (metal-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon) device is a prime candidate for use as the nonvolatile memory element in a radiation-hardened RAM (random-access memory). The endurance, retention and radiation properties of MONOS memory transistors have been studied as a function of post nitride deposition annealing. Following the nitride layer deposition, all devices were subjected to an 800 0 C oxidation step and some were then annealed at 900 0 C in nitrogen. The nitrogen anneal produces an increase in memory window size of approximately 40%. The memory window center of the annealed devices is shifted toward more positive voltages and is more stable with endurance cycling. Endurance cycling to 10 9 cycles produces a 20% increase in memory window size and a 60% increase in decay rate. For a radiation total dose of 10 6 rads (Si), the memory window size is essentially unchanged and the decay rate increases approximately 13%. A combination of 10 9 cycles and 10 6 rads (Si) reduces the decades of retention (in sec) from 6.3 to 4.3 for a +- 23-V 16-μsec write/erase pulse. (author)

  13. Comparison of non-volatile umami components in chicken soup and chicken enzymatic hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yan; Yang, Xiao; Ding, Qi; Zhang, Yu-Yu; Sun, Bao-Guo; Chen, Hai-Tao; Sun, Ying

    2017-12-01

    Umami taste is an important part to the taste of chicken. To isolate and identify non-volatile umami compounds, fractions from chicken soup and hydrolysate were prepared and analyzed. Amino acids were analyzed by amino acid analyzer. Organic acids and nucleotides were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Separation procedures utilizing ultrafiltration, Sephadex G-15 and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography were used to isolate umami taste peptides. Combined with sensory evaluation and LC-Q-TOF-MS, the amino acid sequences of 12 oligopeptides were determined. The amount of taste compounds was higher in chicken enzymatic hydrolysate than that of chicken soup. Eight oligopeptides from chicken enzymatic hydrolysate were identified, including Ala-Asp, Ala-Met, His-Ser, Val-Glu, Ala-Glu, Asp-Ala-Gly, Glu-Asp and Ala-Glu-Ala. Four oligopeptides from chicken soup were identified, including Val-Thr, Ala-His, Ala-Phe and Thr-Glu. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Discharge characteristics of an ablative pulsed plasma thruster with non-volatile liquid propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, William Yeong Liang; Schönherr, Tony; Koizumi, Hiroyuki

    2017-07-01

    Pulsed plasma thrusters (PPTs) are a form of electric spacecraft propulsion. They have an extremely simple structure and are highly suitable for nano/micro-spacecraft with weights in the kilogram range. Such small spacecraft have recently experienced increased growth but still lack suitable efficient propulsion systems. PPTs operate in a pulsed mode (one discharge = one shot) and typically use solid polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) as a propellant. However, new non-volatile liquids in the perfluoropolyether (PFPE) family have recently been found to be promising alternatives. A recent study presented results on the physical characteristics of PFPE vs. PTFE, showing that PFPE is superior in terms of physical characteristics such as its resistance to carbon deposition. This letter will examine the electrical discharge characteristics of PFPE vs. PTFE. The results demonstrate that PFPE has excellent shot-to-shot repeatability and a lower discharge resistance when compared with PTFE. Taken together with its physical characteristics, PFPE appears to be a strong contender to PTFE as a PPT propellant.

  15. Controlled data storage for non-volatile memory cells embedded in nano magnetic logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Riente

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Among the beyond-CMOS technologies, perpendicular Nano Magnetic Logic (pNML is a promising candidate due to its low power consumption, its non-volatility and its monolithic 3D integrability, which makes it possible to integrate memory and logic into the same device by exploiting the interaction of bi-stable nanomagnets with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Logic computation and signal synchronization are achieved by focus ion beam irradiation and by pinning domain walls in magnetic notches. However, in realistic circuits, the information storage and their read-out are crucial issues, often ignored in the exploration of beyond-CMOS devices. In this paper we address these issues by experimentally demonstrating a pNML memory element, whose read and write operations can be controlled by two independent pulsed currents. Our results prove the correct behavior of the proposed structure that enables high density memory embedded in the logic plane of 3D-integrated pNML circuits.

  16. Origami-based tunable truss structures for non-volatile mechanical memory operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Hiromi; Tachi, Tomohiro; Lee, Mia; Yang, Jinkyu

    2017-10-17

    Origami has recently received significant interest from the scientific community as a method for designing building blocks to construct metamaterials. However, the primary focus has been placed on their kinematic applications by leveraging the compactness and auxeticity of planar origami platforms. Here, we present volumetric origami cells-specifically triangulated cylindrical origami (TCO)-with tunable stability and stiffness, and demonstrate their feasibility as non-volatile mechanical memory storage devices. We show that a pair of TCO cells can develop a double-well potential to store bit information. What makes this origami-based approach more appealing is the realization of two-bit mechanical memory, in which two pairs of TCO cells are interconnected and one pair acts as a control for the other pair. By assembling TCO-based truss structures, we experimentally verify the tunable nature of the TCO units and demonstrate the operation of purely mechanical one- and two-bit memory storage prototypes.Origami is a popular method to design building blocks for mechanical metamaterials. Here, the authors assemble a volumetric origami-based structure, predict its axial and rotational movements during folding, and demonstrate the operation of mechanical one- and two-bit memory storage.

  17. Investigations concerning the exchange of iodine from non-volatile organic iodine compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psarros, N.; Duschner, H.; Molzahn, D.; Schmidt, L.; Heise, S.; Jungclas, H.; Brandt, R.; Patzelt, P.

    1990-10-01

    The iodine produced by nuclear fission is removed during the reprocessing of exhausted nuclear fuel elements by desorption achieving good decontamination factors. Nevertheless the further optimization of the process requires detailed information about the iodine speciation during fuel reprocessing, and about possible reactions. For the study of decomposition reactions of iodo-alcanes, which are built up during the fuel recycling process, we developed a method for the synthesis of labelled iodo-dodecane, which was used as tracer. In order to identify the iodo species in the organic phase of the reprocessing cycle we applied plasma desorption time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. The problem of the volatility of the iodo-compounds in the ultra vacuum of the mass spectrometer was overcome by derivatization of the iodo-alcanes with dithizon, which yielded non-volatile ionic alcyltetrazolium iodides. Beta-spectrometric analysis of the exhaust condensates collected from the organic phase of the WAK reprocessing cycle revealed beside iodine-129 the existence of a low-energetic beta emitter, which has yet to be identified. A literature survey on the topic was also performed. (orig.) With 42 refs., 9 figs [de

  18. Non-volatile main memory management methods based on a file system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    There are upcoming non-volatile (NV) memory technologies that provide byte addressability and high performance. PCM, MRAM, and STT-RAM are such examples. Such NV memory can be used as storage because of its data persistency without power supply while it can be used as main memory because of its high performance that matches up with DRAM. There are a number of researches that investigated its uses for main memory and storage. They were, however, conducted independently. This paper presents the methods that enables the integration of the main memory and file system management for NV memory. Such integration makes NV memory simultaneously utilized as both main memory and storage. The presented methods use a file system as their basis for the NV memory management. We implemented the proposed methods in the Linux kernel, and performed the evaluation on the QEMU system emulator. The evaluation results show that 1) the proposed methods can perform comparably to the existing DRAM memory allocator and significantly better than the page swapping, 2) their performance is affected by the internal data structures of a file system, and 3) the data structures appropriate for traditional hard disk drives do not always work effectively for byte addressable NV memory. We also performed the evaluation of the effects caused by the longer access latency of NV memory by cycle-accurate full-system simulation. The results show that the effect on page allocation cost is limited if the increase of latency is moderate.

  19. An Investigation of Quantum Dot Super Lattice Use in Nonvolatile Memory and Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirdha, P.; Parthasarathy, B.; Kondo, J.; Chan, P.-Y.; Heller, E.; Jain, F. C.

    2018-02-01

    Site-specific self-assembled colloidal quantum dots (QDs) will deposit in two layers only on p-type substrate to form a QD superlattice (QDSL). The QDSL structure has been integrated into the floating gate of a nonvolatile memory component and has demonstrated promising results in multi-bit storage, ease of fabrication, and memory retention. Additionally, multi-valued logic devices and circuits have been created by using QDSL structures which demonstrated ternary and quaternary logic. With increasing use of site-specific self-assembled QDSLs, fundamental understanding of silicon and germanium QDSL charge storage capability, self-assembly on specific surfaces, uniform distribution, and mini-band formation has to be understood for successful implementation in devices. In this work, we investigate the differences in electron charge storage by building metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) capacitors and using capacitance and voltage measurements to quantify the storage capabilities. The self-assembly process and distribution density of the QDSL is done by obtaining atomic force microscopy (AFM) results on line samples. Additionally, we present a summary of the theoretical density of states in each of the QDSLs.

  20. Low temperature synthesis and electrical characterization of germanium doped Ti-based nanocrystals for nonvolatile memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Li-Wei; Chang, Chun-Yen; Chang, Ting-Chang; Tu, Chun-Hao; Wang, Pai-Syuan; Lin, Chao-Cheng; Chen, Min-Chen; Huang, Hui-Chun; Gan, Der-Shin; Ho, New-Jin; Chen, Shih-Ching; Chen, Shih-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Chemical and electrical characteristics of Ti-based nanocrystals containing germanium, fabricated by annealing the co-sputtered thin film with titanium silicide and germanium targets, were demonstrated for low temperature applications of nonvolatile memory. Formation and composition characteristics of nanocrystals (NCs) at various annealing temperatures were examined by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photon-emission spectroscopy, respectively. It was observed that the addition of germanium (Ge) significantly reduces the proposed thermal budget necessary for Ti-based NC formation due to the rise of morphological instability and agglomeration properties during annealing. NC structures formed after annealing at 500 °C, and separated well at 600 °C annealing. However, it was also observed that significant thermal desorption of Ge atoms occurs at 600 °C due to the sublimation of formatted GeO phase and results in a serious decrease of memory window. Therefore, an approach to effectively restrain Ge thermal desorption is proposed by encapsulating the Ti-based trapping layer with a thick silicon oxide layer before 600 °C annealing. The electrical characteristics of data retention in the sample with the 600 °C annealing exhibited better performance than the 500 °C-annealed sample, a result associated with the better separation and better crystallization of the NC structures.

  1. Dependence of the organic nonvolatile memory performance on the location of ultra-thin Ag film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Bo; Wu Zhaoxin; He Qiang; Mao Guilin; Hou Xun; Tian Yuan

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrated organic nonvolatile memory devices based on 4,4',4''-tris[N-(3-methylphenyl)-N-phenylamino] triphenylamine (m-MTDATA) inserted by an ultra-thin Ag film. The memory devices with different locations of ultra-thin Ag film in m-MTDATA were investigated, and it was found that the location of the Ag film could affect the performance of the organic memory, such as ON/OFF ratio, retention time and cycling endurance. When the Ag film was located at the ITO/m-MTDATA interface, the largest ON/OFF ratio (about 10 5 ) could be achieved, but the cycling endurance was poor. When the Ag film was located in the middle region of the m-MTDATA layer, the ON/OFF ratios came down by about 10 3 , but better performance of cycling endurance was exhibited. When the Ag film was located close to the Al electrode, the ON/OFF ratios and the retention time of this device decreased sharply and the bistable phenomenon almost disappeared. Our works show a simple approach to improve the performance of organic memory by adjusting the location of the metal film.

  2. Non-volatile memory devices with redox-active diruthenium molecular compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pookpanratana, S; Zhu, H; Bittle, E G; Richter, C A; Li, Q; Hacker, C A; Natoli, S N; Ren, T

    2016-01-01

    Reduction-oxidation (redox) active molecules hold potential for memory devices due to their many unique properties. We report the use of a novel diruthenium-based redox molecule incorporated into a non-volatile Flash-based memory device architecture. The memory capacitor device structure consists of a Pd/Al 2 O 3 /molecule/SiO 2 /Si structure. The bulky ruthenium redox molecule is attached to the surface by using a ‘click’ reaction and the monolayer structure is characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to verify the Ru attachment and molecular density. The ‘click’ reaction is particularly advantageous for memory applications because of (1) ease of chemical design and synthesis, and (2) provides an additional spatial barrier between the oxide/silicon to the diruthenium molecule. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy data identified the energy of the electronic levels of the surface before and after surface modification. The molecular memory devices display an unsaturated charge storage window attributed to the intrinsic properties of the redox-active molecule. Our findings demonstrate the strengths and challenges with integrating molecular layers within solid-state devices, which will influence the future design of molecular memory devices. (paper)

  3. Resistance Switching Characteristics in ZnO-Based Nonvolatile Memory Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Chien Chiu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar resistance switching characteristics are demonstrated in Pt/ZnO/Pt nonvolatile memory devices. A negative differential resistance or snapback characteristic can be observed when the memory device switches from a high resistance state to a low resistance state due to the formation of filamentary conducting path. The dependence of pulse width and temperature on set/reset voltages was examined in this work. The exponentially decreasing trend of set/reset voltage with increasing pulse width is observed except when pulse width is larger than 1 s. Hence, to switch the ZnO memory devices, a minimum set/reset voltage is required. The set voltage decreases linearly with the temperature whereas the reset voltage is nearly temperature-independent. In addition, the ac cycling endurance can be over 106 switching cycles, whereas, the dependence of HRS/LRS resistance distribution indicates that a significant memory window closure may take place after about 102  dc switching cycles.

  4. Four-state non-volatile memory in a multiferroic spin filter tunnel junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jieji; Li, Chen; Yuan, Zhoushen; Wang, Peng; Li, Aidong; Wu, Di

    2016-12-01

    We report a spin filter type multiferroic tunnel junction with a ferromagnetic/ferroelectric bilayer barrier. Memory functions of a spin filter magnetic tunnel junction and a ferroelectric tunnel junction are combined in this single device, producing four non-volatile resistive states that can be read out in a non-destructive manner. This concept is demonstrated in a LaNiO3/Pr0.8Ca0.2MnO3/BaTiO3/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 all-oxide tunnel junction. The ferromagnetic insulator Pr0.8Ca0.2MnO3 serves as the spin filter and the ferromagnetic metal La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 is the spin analyzer. The ferroelectric polarization reversal in the BaTiO3 barrier switches the tunneling barrier height to produce a tunneling electroresistance. The ferroelectric switching also modulates the spin polarization and the spin filtering efficiency in Pr0.8Ca0.2MnO3.

  5. Quasi-unipolar pentacene films embedded with fullerene for non-volatile organic transistor memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Juhee; Lee, Sungpyo; Lee, Moo Hyung; Kang, Moon Sung, E-mail: mskang@ssu.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-09

    Quasi-unipolar non-volatile organic transistor memory (NOTM) can combine the best characteristics of conventional unipolar and ambipolar NOTMs and, as a result, exhibit improved device performance. Unipolar NOTMs typically exhibit a large signal ratio between the programmed and erased current signals but also require a large voltage to program and erase the memory cells. Meanwhile, an ambipolar NOTM can be programmed and erased at lower voltages, but the resulting signal ratio is small. By embedding a discontinuous n-type fullerene layer within a p-type pentacene film, quasi-unipolar NOTMs are fabricated, of which the signal storage utilizes both electrons and holes while the electrical signal relies on only hole conduction. These devices exhibit superior memory performance relative to both pristine unipolar pentacene devices and ambipolar fullerene/pentacene bilayer devices. The quasi-unipolar NOTM exhibited a larger signal ratio between the programmed and erased states while also reducing the voltage required to program and erase a memory cell. This simple approach should be readily applicable for various combinations of advanced organic semiconductors that have been recently developed and thereby should make a significant impact on organic memory research.

  6. Scaling dependence of memory windows and different carrier charging behaviors in Si nanocrystal nonvolatile memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Chen, Kun-ji; Ma, Zhong-yuan; Zhang, Xin-xin; Jiang, Xiao-fan; Wu, Yang-qing; Huang, Xin-fan; Oda, Shunri

    2016-09-01

    Based on the charge storage mode, it is important to investigate the scaling dependence of memory performance in silicon nanocrystal (Si-NC) nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices for its scaling down limit. In this work, we made eight kinds of test key cells with different gate widths and lengths by 0.13-μm node complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. It is found that the memory windows of eight kinds of test key cells are almost the same of about 1.64 V @ ± 7 V/1 ms, which are independent of the gate area, but mainly determined by the average size (12 nm) and areal density (1.8 × 1011/cm2) of Si-NCs. The program/erase (P/E) speed characteristics are almost independent of gate widths and lengths. However, the erase speed is faster than the program speed of test key cells, which is due to the different charging behaviors between electrons and holes during the operation processes. Furthermore, the data retention characteristic is also independent of the gate area. Our findings are useful for further scaling down of Si-NC NVM devices to improve the performance and on-chip integration. Project supported by the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2010CB934402) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374153, 61571221, and 61071008).

  7. Inkjet-printing of non-volatile organic resistive devices and crossbar array structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Stefan; Nau, Sebastian; Popovic, Karl; Bluemel, Alexander; Klug, Andreas; List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.

    2015-09-01

    Due to the increasing demand for storage capacity in various electronic gadgets like mobile phones or tablets, new types of non-volatile memory devices have gained a lot of attention over the last few years. Especially multilevel conductance switching elements based on organic semiconductors are of great interest due to their relatively simple device architecture and their small feature size. Since organic semiconductors combine the electronic properties of inorganic materials with the mechanical characteristics of polymers, this class of materials is suitable for solution based large area device preparation techniques. Consequently, inkjet based deposition techniques are highly capable of facing preparation related challenges. By gradually replacing the evaporated electrodes with inkjet printed silver, the preparation related influence onto device performance parameters such as the ON/OFF ratio was investigated with IV measurements and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Due to the electrode surface roughness the solvent load during the printing of the top electrode as well as organic layer inhomogeneity's the utilization in array applications is hampered. As a prototypical example a 1diode-1resistor element and a 2×2 subarray from 5×5 array matrix were fully characterized demonstrating the versatility of inkjet printing for device preparation.

  8. Thin PZT-Based Ferroelectric Capacitors on Flexible Silicon for Nonvolatile Memory Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2015-04-24

    A flexible version of traditional thin lead zirconium titanate ((Pb1.1Zr0.48Ti0.52O3)-(PZT)) based ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) on silicon shows record performance in flexible arena. The thin PZT layer requires lower operational voltages to achieve coercive electric fields, reduces the sol-gel coating cycles required (i.e., more cost-effective), and, fabrication wise, is more suitable for further scaling of lateral dimensions to the nano-scale due to the larger feature size-to-depth aspect ratio (critical for ultra-high density non-volatile memory applications). Utilizing the inverse proportionality between substrate\\'s thickness and its flexibility, traditional PZT based FeRAM on silicon is transformed through a transfer-less manufacturable process into a flexible form that matches organic electronics\\' flexibility while preserving the superior performance of silicon CMOS electronics. Each memory cell in a FeRAM array consists of two main elements; a select/access transistor, and a storage ferroelectric capacitor. Flexible transistors on silicon have already been reported. In this work, we focus on the storage ferroelectric capacitors, and report, for the first time, its performance after transformation into a flexible version, and assess its key memory parameters while bent at 0.5 cm minimum bending radius.

  9. Graphene-ferroelectric metadevices for nonvolatile memory and reconfigurable logic-gate operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woo Young; Kim, Hyeon-Don; Kim, Teun-Teun; Park, Hyun-Sung; Lee, Kanghee; Choi, Hyun Joo; Lee, Seung Hoon; Son, Jaehyeon; Park, Namkyoo; Min, Bumki

    2016-01-01

    Memory metamaterials are artificial media that sustain transformed electromagnetic properties without persistent external stimuli. Previous memory metamaterials were realized with phase-change materials, such as vanadium dioxide or chalcogenide glasses, which exhibit memory behaviour with respect to electrically/optically induced thermal stimuli. However, they require a thermally isolated environment for longer retention or strong optical pump for phase-change. Here we demonstrate electrically programmable nonvolatile memory metadevices realised by the hybridization of graphene, a ferroelectric and meta-atoms/meta-molecules, and extend the concept further to establish reconfigurable logic-gate metadevices. For a memory metadevice having a single electrical input, amplitude, phase and even the polarization multi-states were clearly distinguishable with a retention time of over 10 years at room temperature. Furthermore, logic-gate functionalities were demonstrated with reconfigurable logic-gate metadevices having two electrical inputs, with each connected to separate ferroelectric layers that act as the multi-level controller for the doping level of the sandwiched graphene layer.

  10. Investigation of High-k Dielectrics and Metal Gate Electrodes for Non-volatile Memory Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanti, Srikant

    Due to the increasing demand of non-volatile flash memories in the portable electronics, the device structures need to be scaled down drastically. However, the scalability of traditional floating gate structures beyond 20 nm NAND flash technology node is uncertain. In this regard, the use of metal gates and high-k dielectrics as the gate and interpoly dielectrics respectively, seem to be promising substitutes in order to continue the flash scaling beyond 20nm. Furthermore, research of novel memory structures to overcome the scaling challenges need to be explored. Through this work, the use of high-k dielectrics as IPDs in a memory structure has been studied. For this purpose, IPD process optimization and barrier engineering were explored to determine and improve the memory performance. Specifically, the concept of high-k / low-k barrier engineering was studied in corroboration with simulations. In addition, a novel memory structure comprising a continuous metal floating gate was investigated in combination with high-k blocking oxides. Integration of thin metal FGs and high-k dielectrics into a dual floating gate memory structure to result in both volatile and non-volatile modes of operation has been demonstrated, for plausible application in future unified memory architectures. The electrical characterization was performed on simple MIS/MIM and memory capacitors, fabricated through CMOS compatible processes. Various analytical characterization techniques were done to gain more insight into the material behavior of the layers in the device structure. In the first part of this study, interfacial engineering was investigated by exploring La2O3 as SiO2 scavenging layer. Through the silicate formation, the consumption of low-k SiO2 was controlled and resulted in a significant improvement in dielectric leakage. The performance improvement was also gauged through memory capacitors. In the second part of the study, a novel memory structure consisting of continuous metal FG

  11. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  12. Long-term studies on the effects of nonvolatile organic compounds on porous media surface areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachikian, Crist S; Harmon, Thomas C

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the long-term behavior of porous media contaminated by nonvolatile organic compounds (NVOC) in terms of specific interfacial surface area. Specifically, a natural sand, Moffett sand (MS), was contaminated with naphthalene and the surface area was measured repeatedly over time using nitrogen adsorption-desorption techniques. A field-contaminated sand affected by lamp-black material (LB) from former manufactured gas plant operations was also studied. Lampblack is a carbonaceous skeleton containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other hydrocarbons. It is hypothesized that soils contaminated by these types of chemicals will exhibit significantly less surface area than their clean counterparts. The surface areas for the contaminated MS samples increased toward their clean-MS values during the 700-h aging period, but achieved the clean values only after pentane extraction or heating at 60 degrees C. Heating at 50 degrees C failed to achieve a similar recovery of the clean-MS surface area value. Nonspecific mass loss tracked the increase in surface area as indirect evidence that naphthalene loss was the cause of the surface area increase. For the LB samples, aging at 100 degrees C produced a slight decrease in surface area and mass while aging at 250 degrees C caused the surface area to increase roughly threefold while the mass decreased by approximately 1%. These results suggest that, under moderate heating and over the time scale of this investigation, there is a redistribution of the complex contaminant mixture on the solid matrix. Greater temperatures remove mass more efficiently and therefore exhibited the surface area increase expected in this experiment.

  13. Studying the fate of non-volatile organic compounds in a commercial plasma air purifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Stefan [ETH Zürich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Seiler, Cornelia; Gerecke, Andreas C. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science and Technology (EMPA), CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Hächler, Herbert [University of Zürich, Institute for Food Safety and Hygiene, National Centre for Enteropathogenic Bacteria and Listeria (NENT), CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Hilbi, Hubert [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München Max von Pettenkofer-Institut, D-80336 München (Germany); Frey, Joachim [University of Bern, Institute for Veterinary Bacteriology, CH-3001 Bern (Switzerland); Weidmann, Simon; Meier, Lukas; Berchtold, Christian [ETH Zürich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Zenobi, Renato, E-mail: zenobi@org.chem.ethz.ch [ETH Zürich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Degradation of environmental toxins, a protein, and bioparticles were studied. • A commercial air purifier based on a cold plasma was used. • Passage through the device reduced the concentration of the compounds/particles. • Deposition inside the plasma air purifier was the main removal process. -- Abstract: Degradation of non-volatile organic compounds–environmental toxins (methyltriclosane and phenanthrene), bovine serum albumin, as well as bioparticles (Legionella pneumophila, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus anthracis)–in a commercially available plasma air purifier based on a cold plasma was studied in detail, focusing on its efficiency and on the resulting degradation products. This system is capable of handling air flow velocities of up to 3.0 m s{sup −1} (3200 L min{sup −1}), much higher than other plasma-based reactors described in the literature, which generally are limited to air flow rates below 10 L min{sup −1}. Mass balance studies consistently indicated a reduction in concentration of the compounds/particles after passage through the plasma air purifier, 31% for phenanthrene, 17% for methyltriclosane, and 80% for bovine serum albumin. L. pneumophila did not survive passage through the plasma air purifier, and cell counts of aerosolized spores of B. subtilis and B. anthracis were reduced by 26- and 15-fold, depending on whether it was run at 10 Hz or 50 Hz, respectively. However rather than chemical degradation, deposition on the inner surfaces of the plasma air purifier occured. Our interpretation is that putative “degradation” efficiencies were largely due to electrostatic precipitation rather than to decomposition into smaller molecules.

  14. Novel ferroelectric capacitor for non-volatile memory storage and biomedical tactile sensor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shi Yang; Chua, Lynn; Tan, Kian Chuan; Valavan, S.E.

    2010-01-01

    We report on novel ferroelectric thin film compositions for use in non-volatile memory storage and biomedical tactile sensor applications. The lead zirconate titanate (PZT) composition was modified by lanthanum (La 3+ ) (PLZT) and vanadium (V 5+ ) (PZTV, PLZTV) doping. Hybrid films with PZTV and PLZTV as top layers are also made using seed layers of differing compositions using sol-gel and spin coating methods. La 3+ doping decreased the coercive field, polarization and leakage current, while increasing the relative permittivity. V 5+ doping, while having similar effects, results in an enhanced polarization, with comparable dielectric loss characteristics. Complex doping of both La 3+ and V 5+ in PLZTV, while reducing the polarization relative to PZTV, significantly decreases the coercive field. Hybrid films have a greater uniformity of grain formation than non-hybrid films, thus decreasing the coercive field, leakage current and polarization fatigue while increasing the relative permittivity. Analysis using X-ray diffraction (XRD) verified the retention of the PZT perovskite structure in the novel films. PLZT/PZTV has been identified as an optimal ferroelectric film composition due to its desirable ferroelectric, fatigue and dielectric properties, including the highest observed remnant polarization (P r ) of ∼ 25 μC/cm 2 , saturation polarization (P sat ) of ∼ 58 μC/cm 2 and low coercive field (E c ) of ∼ 60 kV/cm at an applied field of ∼ 1000 kV/cm, as well as a low leakage current density of ∼ 10 -5 A/cm 2 at 500 kV/cm and fatigue resistance of up to ∼ 10 10 switching cycles.

  15. A Compute Capable SSD Architecture for Next-Generation Non-volatile Memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Arup [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Existing storage technologies (e.g., disks and ash) are failing to cope with the processor and main memory speed and are limiting the overall perfor- mance of many large scale I/O or data-intensive applications. Emerging fast byte-addressable non-volatile memory (NVM) technologies, such as phase-change memory (PCM), spin-transfer torque memory (STTM) and memristor are very promising and are approaching DRAM-like performance with lower power con- sumption and higher density as process technology scales. These new memories are narrowing down the performance gap between the storage and the main mem- ory and are putting forward challenging problems on existing SSD architecture, I/O interface (e.g, SATA, PCIe) and software. This dissertation addresses those challenges and presents a novel SSD architecture called XSSD. XSSD o oads com- putation in storage to exploit fast NVMs and reduce the redundant data tra c across the I/O bus. XSSD o ers a exible RPC-based programming framework that developers can use for application development on SSD without dealing with the complication of the underlying architecture and communication management. We have built a prototype of XSSD on the BEE3 FPGA prototyping system. We implement various data-intensive applications and achieve speedup and energy ef- ciency of 1.5-8.9 and 1.7-10.27 respectively. This dissertation also compares XSSD with previous work on intelligent storage and intelligent memory. The existing ecosystem and these new enabling technologies make this system more viable than earlier ones.

  16. Exploring Surface Analysis Techniques for the Detection of Molecular Contaminants on Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Gugu N.; Seasly, Elaine; Thornblom, Mark; Baughman, James

    2016-01-01

    Molecular contamination is a known area of concern for spacecraft. To mitigate this risk, projects involving space flight hardware set requirements in a contamination control plan that establishes an allocation budget for the exposure of non-volatile residues (NVR) onto critical surfaces. The purpose of this work will focus on non-contact surface analysis and in situ monitoring to mitigate molecular contamination on space flight hardware. By using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) with Raman Spectroscopy, an unlikely contaminant was identified on space flight hardware. Using traditional and surface analysis methods provided the broader view of the contamination sources allowing for best fit solutions to prevent any future exposure.

  17. A Novel Non-Destructive Silicon-on-Insulator Nonvolatile Memory - LDRD 99-0750 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DRAPER,BRUCE L.; FLEETWOOD,D. M.; MEISENHEIMER,TIMOTHY L.; MURRAY,JAMES R.; SCHWANK,JAMES R.; SHANEYFELT,MARTY R.; SMITH,PAUL M.; VANHEUSDEN,KAREL J.; WARREN,WILLIAM L.

    1999-11-01

    Defects in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) buried oxides are normally considered deleterious to device operation. Similarly, exposing devices to hydrogen at elevated temperatures often can lead to radiation-induced charge buildup. However, in this work, we take advantage of as-processed defects in SOI buried oxides and moderate temperature hydrogen anneals to generate mobile protons in the buried oxide to form the basis of a ''protonic'' nonvolatile memory. Capacitors and fully-processed transistors were fabricated. SOI buried oxides are exposed to hydrogen at moderate temperatures using a variety of anneal conditions to optimize the density of mobile protons. A fast ramp cool down anneal was found to yield the maximum number of mobile protons. Unfortunately, we were unable to obtain uniform mobile proton concentrations across a wafer. Capacitors were irradiated to investigate the potential use of protonic memories for space and weapon applications. Irradiating under a negative top-gate bias or with no applied bias was observed to cause little degradation in the number of mobile protons. However, irradiating to a total dose of 100 krad(SiO{sub 2}) under a positive top-gate bias caused approximately a 100% reduction in the number of mobile protons. Cycling capacitors up to 10{sup 4} cycles had little effect on the switching characteristics. No change in the retention characteristics were observed for times up to 3 x 10{sup 4} s for capacitors stored unbiased at 200 C. These results show the proof-of-concept for a protonic nonvolatile memory. Two memory architectures are proposed for a protonic non-destructive, nonvolatile memory.

  18. Occurence and dietary exposure of volatile and non-volatile N-Nitrosamines in processed meat products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Granby, Kit

    Nitrite and nitrate have for many decades been used for preservation of meat. However, nitrite can react with secondary amines in meat to form N-Nitrosamines (NAs), many of which have been shown to be genotoxic1 . The use of nitrite therefore ought to be limited as much as possible. To maintain...... a high level of consumer protection Denmark obtains National low limits of the nitrite use in meat products. An estimation of the dietary exposure to volatile NAs (VNA) and non-volatile NAs (NVNA) is necessary when performing a risk assessment of the use of nitrite and nitrate for meat preservation....

  19. Subthreshold-swing-adjustable tunneling-field-effect-transistor-based random-access memory for nonvolatile operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, In; Cheon, Woo Young; Choi, Woo Young

    2016-04-01

    A subthreshold-swing-adjustable tunneling-field-effect-transistor-based random-access memory (SAT RAM) has been proposed and fabricated for low-power nonvolatile memory applications. The proposed SAT RAM cell demonstrates adjustable subthreshold swing (SS) depending on stored information: small SS in the erase state ("1" state) and large SS in the program state ("0" state). Thus, SAT RAM cells can achieve low read voltage (Vread) with a large memory window in addition to the effective suppression of ambipolar behavior. These unique features of the SAT RAM are originated from the locally stored charge, which modulates the tunneling barrier width (Wtun) of the source-to-channel tunneling junction.

  20. Memory characteristics of silicon nitride with silicon nanocrystals as a charge trapping layer of nonvolatile memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sangmoo; Yang, Hyundeok; Chang, Man; Baek, Sungkweon; Hwang, Hyunsang; Jeon, Sanghun; Kim, Juhyung; Kim, Chungwoo

    2005-01-01

    Silicon nitride with silicon nanocrystals formed by low-energy silicon plasma immersion ion implantation has been investigated as a charge trapping layer of a polycrystalline silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon-type nonvolatile memory device. Compared with the control sample without silicon nanocrystals, silicon nitride with silicon nanocrystals provides excellent memory characteristics, such as larger width of capacitance-voltage hysteresis, higher program/erase speed, and lower charge loss rate at elevated temperature. These improved memory characteristics are derived by incorporation of silicon nanocrystals into the charge trapping layer as additional accessible charge traps with a deeper effective trap energy level

  1. A New Concept for Non-Volatile Memory: The Electric-Pulse Induced Resistive Change Effect in Colossal Magnetoresistive Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S. Q.; Wu, N. J.; Ignatiev, A.

    2001-01-01

    A novel electric pulse-induced resistive change (EPIR) effect has been found in thin film colossal magnetoresistive (CMR) materials, and has shown promise for the development of resistive, nonvolatile memory. The EPIR effect is induced by the application of low voltage (resistance of the thin film sample depending on pulse polarity. The sample resistance change has been shown to be over two orders of magnitude, and is nonvolatile after pulsing. The sample resistance can also be changed through multiple levels - as many as 50 have been shown. Such a device can provide a way for the development of a new kind of nonvolatile multiple-valued memory with high density, fast write/read speed, low power-consumption, and potential high radiation-hardness.

  2. High-Performance Nonvolatile Organic Field-Effect Transistor Memory Based on Organic Semiconductor Heterostructures of Pentacene/P13/Pentacene as Both Charge Transport and Trapping Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Guo, Fengning; Ling, Haifeng; Zhang, Peng; Yi, Mingdong; Wang, Laiyuan; Wu, Dequn; Xie, Linghai; Huang, Wei

    2017-08-01

    Nonvolatile organic field-effect transistor (OFET) memory devices based on pentacene/ N , N '-ditridecylperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (P13)/pentacene trilayer organic heterostructures have been proposed. The discontinuous n-type P13 embedded in p-type pentacene layers can not only provide electrons in the semiconductor layer that facilitates electron trapping process; it also works as charge trapping sites, which is attributed to the quantum well-like pentacene/P13/pentacene organic heterostructures. The synergistic effects of charge trapping in the discontinuous P13 and the charge-trapping property of the poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP) layer remarkably improve the memory performance. In addition, the trilayer organic heterostructures have also been successfully applied to multilevel and flexible nonvolatile memory devices. The results provide a novel design strategy to achieve high-performance nonvolatile OFET memory devices and allow potential applications for different combinations of various organic semiconductor materials in OFET memory.

  3. Analytical techniques and method validation for the measurement of selected semivolatile and nonvolatile organofluorochemicals in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagen, William K; Lindstrom, Kent R; Thompson, Kathy L; Flaherty, John M

    2004-09-01

    The widespread use of semi- and nonvolatile organofluorochemicals in industrial facilities, concern about their persistence, and relatively recent advancements in liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) technology have led to the development of new analytical methods to assess potential worker exposure to airborne organofluorochemicals. Techniques were evaluated for the determination of 19 organofluorochemicals and for total fluorine in ambient air samples. Due to the potential biphasic nature of most of these fluorochemicals when airborne, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) versatile sampler (OVS) tubes were used to simultaneously trap fluorochemical particulates and vapors from workplace air. Analytical methods were developed for OVS air samples to quantitatively analyze for total fluorine using oxygen bomb combustion/ion selective electrode and for 17 organofluorochemicals using LC/MS and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The experimental design for this validation was based on the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Guidelines for Air Sampling and Analytical Method Development and Evaluation, with some revisions of the experimental design. The study design incorporated experiments to determine analytical recovery and stability, sampler capacity, the effect of some environmental parameters on recoveries, storage stability, limits of detection, precision, and accuracy. Fluorochemical mixtures were spiked onto each OVS tube over a range of 0.06-6 microg for each of 12 compounds analyzed by LC/MS and 0.3-30 microg for 5 compounds analyzed by GC/MS. These ranges allowed reliable quantitation at 0.001-0.1 mg/m3 in general for LC/MS analytes and 0.005-0.5 mg/m3 for GC/MS analytes when 60 L of air are sampled. The organofluorochemical exposure guideline (EG) is currently 0.1 mg/m3 for many analytes, with one exception being ammonium perfluorooctanoate (EG is 0.01 mg/m3). Total fluorine results may be used

  4. Transport and Fatigue Properties of Ferroelectric Polymer P(VDF-TrFE) For Nonvolatile Memory Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, Amir

    2012-06-01

    Organic ferroelectrics polymers have recently received much interest for use in nonvolatile memory devices. The ferroelectric copolymer poly(vinylidene fluoride- trifluoroethylene) , P(VDF-TrFE), is a promising candidate due to its relatively high remnant polarization, low coercive field, fast switching times, easy processability, and low Curie transition. However, no detailed study of charge injection and current transport properties in P(VDF-TrFE) have been reported in the literature yet. Charge injection and transport are believed to affect various properties of ferroelectric films such as remnant polarization values and polarization fatigue behavior.. Thus, this thesis aims to study charge injection in P(VDF-TrFE) and its transport properties as a function of electrode material. Injection was studied for Al, Ag, Au and Pt electrodes. Higher work function metals such as Pt have shown less leakage current compared to lower work function metals such as Al for more than an order of magnitude. That implied n-type conduction behavior for P(VDF-TrFE), as well as electrons being the dominant injected carrier type. Charge transport was also studied as a function of temperature, and two major transport regimes were identified: 1) Thermionic emission over a Schottky barrier for low fields (E < 25 MV/m). 2) Space-Charge-Limited regime at higher fields (25 < E <120 MV/m). We have also studied the optical imprint phenomenon, the polarization fatigue resulting from a combination of broad band optical illumination and DC bias near the switching field. A setup was designed for the experiment, and validated by reproducing the reported effect in polycrystalline Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 , PZT, film. On the other hand, P(VDF-TrFE) film showed no polarization fatigue as a result of optical imprint test, which could be attributed to the large band gap of the material, and the low intensity of the UV portion of the arc lamp white light used for the experiment. Results suggest using high work

  5. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  6. Nonvolatile “AND,” “OR,” and “NOT” Boolean logic gates based on phase-change memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.; Zhong, Y. P.; Deng, Y. F.; Zhou, Y. X.; Xu, L.; Miao, X. S., E-mail: miaoxs@mail.hust.edu.cn [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (WNLO), Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-12-21

    Electronic devices or circuits that can implement both logic and memory functions are regarded as the building blocks for future massive parallel computing beyond von Neumann architecture. Here we proposed phase-change memory (PCM)-based nonvolatile logic gates capable of AND, OR, and NOT Boolean logic operations verified in SPICE simulations and circuit experiments. The logic operations are parallel computing and results can be stored directly in the states of the logic gates, facilitating the combination of computing and memory in the same circuit. These results are encouraging for ultralow-power and high-speed nonvolatile logic circuit design based on novel memory devices.

  7. Nonvolatile “AND,” “OR,” and “NOT” Boolean logic gates based on phase-change memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Zhong, Y. P.; Deng, Y. F.; Zhou, Y. X.; Xu, L.; Miao, X. S.

    2013-01-01

    Electronic devices or circuits that can implement both logic and memory functions are regarded as the building blocks for future massive parallel computing beyond von Neumann architecture. Here we proposed phase-change memory (PCM)-based nonvolatile logic gates capable of AND, OR, and NOT Boolean logic operations verified in SPICE simulations and circuit experiments. The logic operations are parallel computing and results can be stored directly in the states of the logic gates, facilitating the combination of computing and memory in the same circuit. These results are encouraging for ultralow-power and high-speed nonvolatile logic circuit design based on novel memory devices

  8. A hybrid magnetic/complementary metal oxide semiconductor three-context memory bit cell for non-volatile circuit design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanović, B.; Brum, R. M.; Torres, L.

    2014-01-01

    After decades of continued scaling to the beat of Moore's law, it now appears that conventional silicon based devices are approaching their physical limits. In today's deep-submicron nodes, a number of short-channel and quantum effects are emerging that affect the manufacturing process, as well as, the functionality of the microelectronic systems-on-chip. Spintronics devices that exploit both the intrinsic spin of the electron and its associated magnetic moment, in addition to its fundamental electronic charge, are promising solutions to circumvent these scaling threats. Being compatible with the CMOS technology, such devices offer a promising synergy of radiation immunity, infinite endurance, non-volatility, increased density, etc. In this paper, we present a hybrid (magnetic/CMOS) cell that is able to store and process data both electrically and magnetically. The cell is based on perpendicular spin-transfer torque magnetic tunnel junctions (STT-MTJs) and is suitable for use in magnetic random access memories and reprogrammable computing (non-volatile registers, processor cache memories, magnetic field-programmable gate arrays, etc). To demonstrate the potential our hybrid cell, we physically implemented a small hybrid memory block using 45 nm × 45 nm round MTJs for the magnetic part and 28 nm fully depleted silicon on insulator (FD-SOI) technology for the CMOS part. We also report the cells measured performances in terms of area, robustness, read/write speed and energy consumption

  9. Novel Quantum Dot Gate FETs and Nonvolatile Memories Using Lattice-Matched II-VI Gate Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, F. C.; Suarez, E.; Gogna, M.; Alamoody, F.; Butkiewicus, D.; Hohner, R.; Liaskas, T.; Karmakar, S.; Chan, P.-Y.; Miller, B.; Chandy, J.; Heller, E.

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents the successful use of ZnS/ZnMgS and other II-VI layers (lattice-matched or pseudomorphic) as high- k gate dielectrics in the fabrication of quantum dot (QD) gate Si field-effect transistors (FETs) and nonvolatile memory structures. Quantum dot gate FETs and nonvolatile memories have been fabricated in two basic configurations: (1) monodispersed cladded Ge nanocrystals (e.g., GeO x -cladded-Ge quantum dots) site-specifically self-assembled over the lattice-matched ZnMgS gate insulator in the channel region, and (2) ZnTe-ZnMgTe quantum dots formed by self-organization, using metalorganic chemical vapor-phase deposition (MOCVD), on ZnS-ZnMgS gate insulator layers grown epitaxially on Si substrates. Self-assembled GeO x -cladded Ge QD gate FETs, exhibiting three-state behavior, are also described. Preliminary results on InGaAs-on-InP FETs, using ZnMgSeTe/ZnSe gate insulator layers, are presented.

  10. Semiconductor-Free Nonvolatile Resistive Switching Memory Devices Based on Metal Nanogaps Fabricated on Flexible Substrates via Adhesion Lithography

    KAUST Repository

    Semple, James

    2017-01-02

    Electronic memory cells are of critical importance in modern-day computing devices, including emerging technology sectors such as large-area printed electronics. One technology that has being receiving significant interest in recent years is resistive switching primarily due to its low dimensionality and nonvolatility. Here, we describe the development of resistive switching memory device arrays based on empty aluminum nanogap electrodes. By employing adhesion lithography, a low-temperature and large-area compatible nanogap fabrication technique, dense arrays of memory devices are demonstrated on both rigid and flexible plastic substrates. As-prepared devices exhibit nonvolatile memory operation with stable endurance, resistance ratios >10⁴ and retention times of several months. An intermittent analysis of the electrode microstructure reveals that controlled resistive switching is due to migration of metal from the electrodes into the nanogap under the application of an external electric field. This alternative form of resistive random access memory is promising for use in emerging sectors such as large-area electronics as well as in electronics for harsh environments, e.g., space, high/low temperature, magnetic influences, radiation, vibration, and pressure.

  11. Solution-Processed Wide-Bandgap Organic Semiconductor Nanostructures Arrays for Nonvolatile Organic Field-Effect Transistor Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Guo, Fengning; Ling, Haifeng; Liu, Hui; Yi, Mingdong; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Wenjun; Xie, Linghai; Huang, Wei

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the development of organic field-effect transistor (OFET) memory device based on isolated and ordered nanostructures (NSs) arrays of wide-bandgap (WBG) small-molecule organic semiconductor material [2-(9-(4-(octyloxy)phenyl)-9H-fluoren-2-yl)thiophene]3 (WG 3 ) is reported. The WG 3 NSs are prepared from phase separation by spin-coating blend solutions of WG 3 /trimethylolpropane (TMP), and then introduced as charge storage elements for nonvolatile OFET memory devices. Compared to the OFET memory device with smooth WG 3 film, the device based on WG 3 NSs arrays exhibits significant improvements in memory performance including larger memory window (≈45 V), faster switching speed (≈1 s), stable retention capability (>10 4 s), and reliable switching properties. A quantitative study of the WG 3 NSs morphology reveals that enhanced memory performance is attributed to the improved charge trapping/charge-exciton annihilation efficiency induced by increased contact area between the WG 3 NSs and pentacene layer. This versatile solution-processing approach to preparing WG 3 NSs arrays as charge trapping sites allows for fabrication of high-performance nonvolatile OFET memory devices, which could be applicable to a wide range of WBG organic semiconductor materials. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Semiconductor-Free Nonvolatile Resistive Switching Memory Devices Based on Metal Nanogaps Fabricated on Flexible Substrates via Adhesion Lithography

    KAUST Repository

    Semple, James; Wyatt-Moon, Gwenhivir; Georgiadou, Dimitra G.; McLachlan, Martyn A.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.

    2017-01-01

    Electronic memory cells are of critical importance in modern-day computing devices, including emerging technology sectors such as large-area printed electronics. One technology that has being receiving significant interest in recent years is resistive switching primarily due to its low dimensionality and nonvolatility. Here, we describe the development of resistive switching memory device arrays based on empty aluminum nanogap electrodes. By employing adhesion lithography, a low-temperature and large-area compatible nanogap fabrication technique, dense arrays of memory devices are demonstrated on both rigid and flexible plastic substrates. As-prepared devices exhibit nonvolatile memory operation with stable endurance, resistance ratios >10⁴ and retention times of several months. An intermittent analysis of the electrode microstructure reveals that controlled resistive switching is due to migration of metal from the electrodes into the nanogap under the application of an external electric field. This alternative form of resistive random access memory is promising for use in emerging sectors such as large-area electronics as well as in electronics for harsh environments, e.g., space, high/low temperature, magnetic influences, radiation, vibration, and pressure.

  13. A hybrid magnetic/complementary metal oxide semiconductor three-context memory bit cell for non-volatile circuit design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanović, B., E-mail: bojan.jovanovic@lirmm.fr, E-mail: lionel.torres@lirmm.fr; Brum, R. M.; Torres, L. [LIRMM—University of Montpellier 2/UMR CNRS 5506, 161 Rue Ada, 34095 Montpellier (France)

    2014-04-07

    After decades of continued scaling to the beat of Moore's law, it now appears that conventional silicon based devices are approaching their physical limits. In today's deep-submicron nodes, a number of short-channel and quantum effects are emerging that affect the manufacturing process, as well as, the functionality of the microelectronic systems-on-chip. Spintronics devices that exploit both the intrinsic spin of the electron and its associated magnetic moment, in addition to its fundamental electronic charge, are promising solutions to circumvent these scaling threats. Being compatible with the CMOS technology, such devices offer a promising synergy of radiation immunity, infinite endurance, non-volatility, increased density, etc. In this paper, we present a hybrid (magnetic/CMOS) cell that is able to store and process data both electrically and magnetically. The cell is based on perpendicular spin-transfer torque magnetic tunnel junctions (STT-MTJs) and is suitable for use in magnetic random access memories and reprogrammable computing (non-volatile registers, processor cache memories, magnetic field-programmable gate arrays, etc). To demonstrate the potential our hybrid cell, we physically implemented a small hybrid memory block using 45 nm × 45 nm round MTJs for the magnetic part and 28 nm fully depleted silicon on insulator (FD-SOI) technology for the CMOS part. We also report the cells measured performances in terms of area, robustness, read/write speed and energy consumption.

  14. The effects of biodiesels on semivolatile and nonvolatile particulate matter emissions from a light-duty diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan; Li, Shao-Meng; Liggio, John; Hayden, Katherine; Han, Yuemei; Stroud, Craig; Chan, Tak; Poitras, Marie-Josée

    2017-11-01

    Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) represent a dominant category of secondary organic aerosol precursors that are increasingly included in air quality models. In the present study, an experimental system was developed and applied to a light-duty diesel engine to determine the emission factors of particulate SVOCs (pSVOCs) and nonvolatile particulate matter (PM) components at dilution ratios representative of ambient conditions. The engine was tested under three steady-state operation modes, using ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD), three types of pure biodiesels and their blends with ULSD. For ULSD, the contribution of pSVOCs to total particulate organic matter (POM) mass in the engine exhaust ranged between 21 and 85%. Evaporation of pSVOCs from the diesel particles during dilution led to decreases in the hydrogen to carbon ratio of POM and the PM number emission factor of the particles. Substituting biodiesels for ULSD could increase pSVOCs emissions but brought on large reductions in black carbon (BC) emissions. Among the biodiesels tested, tallow/used cooking oil (UCO) biodiesel showed advantages over soybean and canola biodiesels in terms of both pSVOCs and nonvolatile PM emissions. It is noteworthy that PM properties, such as particle size and BC mass fraction, differed substantially between emissions from conventional diesel and biodiesels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of Hospital Residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Meza, A.; Bonilla Jimenez, S.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author) [es

  16. Expression of MEP Pathway Genes and Non-volatile Sequestration Are Associated with Circadian Rhythm of Dominant Terpenoids Emission in Osmanthus fragrans Lour. Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riru Zheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Osmanthus fragrans Lour. is one of the top 10 traditional ornamental flowers in China famous for its unique fragrance. Preliminary study proved that the terpenoids including ionone, linalool, and ocimene and their derivatives are the dominant aroma-active compounds that contribute greatly to the scent bouquet. Pollination observation implies the emission of aromatic terpenoids may follow a circadian rhythm. In this study, we investigated the variation of volatile terpenoids and its potential regulators. The results showed that both volatile and non-volatile terpenoids presented circadian oscillation with high emission or accumulation during the day and low emission or accumulation during the night. The volatile terpenoids always increased to reach their maximum values at 12:00 h, while free and glycosylated compounds continued increasing throughout the day. The depletion of non-volatile pool might provide the substrates for volatile emission at 0:00–6:00, suggesting the sequestration of non-volatile compounds acted like a buffer regulating emission of terpenoids. Further detection of MEP pathway genes demonstrated that their expressions increased significantly in parallel with the evident increase of both volatile and non-volatile terpenoids during the day, indicating that the gene expressions were also closely associated with terpenoid formation. Thus, the expression of MEP pathway genes and internal sequestration both played crucial roles in modulating circadian rhythm of terpenoid emission in O. fragrans.

  17. Technology breakthroughs in high performance metal-oxide-semiconductor devices for ultra-high density, low power non-volatile memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Augustin Jinwoo

    Non-volatile memory devices have attracted much attention because data can be retained without power consumption more than a decade. Therefore, non-volatile memory devices are essential to mobile electronic applications. Among state of the art non-volatile memory devices, NAND flash memory has earned the highest attention because of its ultra-high scalability and therefore its ultra-high storage capacity. However, human desire as well as market competition requires not only larger storage capacity but also lower power consumption for longer battery life time. One way to meet this human desire and extend the benefits of NAND flash memory is finding out new materials for storage layer inside the flash memory, which is called floating gate in the state of the art flash memory device. In this dissertation, we study new materials for the floating gate that can lower down the power consumption and increase the storage capacity at the same time. To this end, we employ various materials such as metal nanodot, metal thin film and graphene incorporating complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible processes. Experimental results show excellent memory effects at relatively low operating voltages. Detailed physics and analysis on experimental results are discussed. These new materials for data storage can be promising candidates for future non-volatile memory application beyond the state of the art flash technologies.

  18. Analysis of drugs of forensic interest with capillary zone electrophoresis/time-of-flight mass spectrometry based on the use of non-volatile buffers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gottardo, R.; Mikšík, Ivan; Aturki, Z.; Sorio, D.; Seri, C.; Fanali, S.; Tagliaro, F.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 4 (2012), s. 599-606 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/08/1428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : capillary electrophoresis * drugs of abuse * non-volatile buffer * CE-MS Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.261, year: 2012

  19. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  20. Calculation of the total plasma concentration of nonvolatile weak acids and the effective dissociation constant of nonvolatile buffers in plasma for use in the strong ion approach to acid-base balance in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Sheila M; Constable, Peter D

    2003-08-01

    To determine values for the total concentration of nonvolatile weak acids (Atot) and effective dissociation constant of nonvolatile weak acids (Ka) in plasma of cats. Convenience plasma samples of 5 male and 5 female healthy adult cats. Cats were sedated, and 20 mL of blood was obtained from the jugular vein. Plasma was tonometered at 37 degrees C to systematically vary PCO2 from 8 to 156 mm Hg, thereby altering plasma pH from 6.90 to 7.97. Plasma pH, PCO2, and concentrations of quantitatively important strong cations (Na+, K+, and Ca2+), strong anions (Cl-, lactate), and buffer ions (total protein, albumin, and phosphate) were determined. Strong ion difference was estimated from the measured strong ion concentrations and nonlinear regression used to calculate Atot and Ka from the measured pH and PCO2 and estimated strong ion difference. Mean (+/- SD) values were as follows: Atot = 24.3 +/- 4.6 mmol/L (equivalent to 0.35 mmol/g of protein or 0.76 mmol/g of albumin); Ka = 0.67 +/- 0.40 x 10(-7); and the negative logarithm (base 10) of Ka (pKa) = 7.17. At 37 degrees C, pH of 7.35, and a partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) of 30 mm Hg, the calculated venous strong ion difference was 30 mEq/L. These results indicate that at a plasma pH of 7.35, a 1 mEq/L decrease in strong ion difference will decrease pH by 0.020, a 1 mm Hg decrease in PCO2 will increase plasma pH by 0.011, and a 1 g/dL decrease in albumin concentration will increase plasma pH by 0.093.

  1. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A N; Webster, G A [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P J [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  2. Bipolar resistive switching in graphene oxide based metal insulator metal structure for non-volatile memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rakesh; Kumar, Ravi; Kumar, Anil; Kashyap, Rajesh; Kumar, Mukesh; Kumar, Dinesh

    2018-05-01

    Graphene oxide based devices have attracted much attention recently because of their possible application in next generation electronic devices. In this study, bipolar resistive switching characteristics of graphene oxide based metal insulator metal structure were investigated for nonvolatile memories. The graphene oxide was prepared by the conventional Hummer's method and deposited on ITO coated glass by spin-coating technique. The dominant mechanism of resistive switching is the formation and rupture of the conductive filament inside the graphene oxide. The conduction mechanism for low and high resistance states are dominated by two mechanism the ohmic conduction and space charge limited current (SCLC) mechanism, respectively. Atomic Force Microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Cyclic-Voltammetry were conducted to observe the morphology, structure and behavior of the material. The fabricated device with Al/GO/ITO structure exhibited reliable bipolar resistive switching with set & reset voltage of -2.3 V and 3V respectively.

  3. Density-controllable nonvolatile memory devices having metal nanocrystals through chemical synthesis and assembled by spin-coating technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guangli; Chen Yubin; Shi Yi; Pu Lin; Pan Lijia; Zhang Rong; Zheng Youdou

    2010-01-01

    A novel two-step method is employed, for the first time, to fabricate nonvolatile memory devices that have metal nanocrystals. First, size-averaged Au nanocrystals are synthesized chemically; second, they are assembled into memory devices by a spin-coating technique at room temperature. This attractive approach makes it possible to tailor the diameter and control the density of nanocrystals individually. In addition, processes at room temperature prevent Au diffusion, which is a main concern for the application of metal nanocrystal-based memory. The experimental results, both the morphology characterization and the electrical measurements, reveal that there is an optimum density of nanocrystal monolayer to balance between long data retention and a large hysteresis memory window. At the same time, density-controllable devices could also feed the preferential emphasis on either memory window or retention time. All these facts confirm the advantages and novelty of our two-step method. (semiconductor devices)

  4. Electrical and ferroelectric properties of RF sputtered PZT/SBN on silicon for non-volatile memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prashant; Jha, Rajesh Kumar; Singh, Rajat Kumar; Singh, B. R.

    2018-02-01

    We report the integration of multilayer ferroelectric film deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and explore the electrical characteristics for its application as the gate of ferroelectric field effect transistor for non-volatile memories. PZT (Pb[Zr0.35Ti0.65]O3) and SBN (SrBi2Nb2O9) ferroelectric materials were selected for the stack fabrication due to their large polarization and fatigue free properties respectively. Electrical characterization has been carried out to obtain memory window, leakage current density, PUND and endurance characteristics. Fabricated multilayer ferroelectric film capacitor structure shows large memory window of 17.73 V and leakage current density of the order 10-6 A cm-2 for the voltage sweep of -30 to +30 V. This multilayer gate stack of PZT/SBN shows promising endurance property with no degradation in the remnant polarization for the read/write iteration cycles upto 108.

  5. Nonvolatile memory characteristics influenced by the different crystallization of Ni-Si and Ni-N nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.-R.; Yeh, J.-L.; Chang, C.-Y.; Chang, T.-C.; Chen, S.-C.

    2008-01-01

    The formation of Ni-Si and Ni-N nanocrystals by sputtering a Ni 0.3 Si 0.7 target in argon and nitrogen environment were proposed in this paper. A transmission electron microscope analysis shows the nanocrystals embedded in the nitride layer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction also offer the chemical material analysis of nanocrystals with surrounding dielectric and the crystallization of nanocrystals for different thermal annealing treatments. Nonvolatile Ni-Si nanocrystal memories reveal superior electrical characteristics for charge storage capacity and reliability due to the improvement of thermal annealing treatment. In addition, we used energy band diagrams to explain the significance of surrounding dielectric for reliability

  6. Direct probing of electron and hole trapping into nano-floating-gate in organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Ze-Qun; Wang, Shun; Chen, Jian-Mei; Gao, Xu; Dong, Bin, E-mail: wangsd@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: chilf@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: bdong@suda.edu.cn; Chi, Li-Feng, E-mail: wangsd@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: chilf@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: bdong@suda.edu.cn; Wang, Sui-Dong, E-mail: wangsd@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: chilf@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: bdong@suda.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2015-03-23

    Electron and hole trapping into the nano-floating-gate of a pentacene-based organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memory is directly probed by Kelvin probe force microscopy. The probing is straightforward and non-destructive. The measured surface potential change can quantitatively profile the charge trapping, and the surface characterization results are in good accord with the corresponding device behavior. Both electrons and holes can be trapped into the nano-floating-gate, with a preference of electron trapping than hole trapping. The trapped charge quantity has an approximately linear relation with the programming/erasing gate bias, indicating that the charge trapping in the device is a field-controlled process.

  7. Electrical bistabilities and memory stabilities of nonvolatile bistable devices fabricated utilizing C60 molecules embedded in a polymethyl methacrylate layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung Hwan; Lee, Dong Ik; Jung, Jae Hun; Kim, Tae Whan

    2009-01-01

    Current-voltage (I-V) measurements on Al/fullerene (C 60 ) molecules embedded in polymethyl methacrylate/Al devices at 300 K showed a current bistability due to the existence of the C 60 molecules. The on/off ratio of the current bistability for the memory devices was as large as 10 3 . The retention time of the devices was above 2.5 x 10 4 s at room temperature, and cycling endurance tests on these devices indicated that the ON and OFF currents showed no degradation until 50 000 cycles. Carrier transport mechanisms for the nonvolatile bistable devices are described on the basis of the I-V experimental and fitting results.

  8. Resistive switching characteristics of polymer non-volatile memory devices in a scalable via-hole structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Choi, Hyejung; Oh, Seung-Hwan; Jo, Minseok; Wang, Gunuk; Cho, Byungjin; Kim, Dong-Yu; Hwang, Hyunsang; Lee, Takhee

    2009-01-01

    The resistive switching characteristics of polyfluorene-derivative polymer material in a sub-micron scale via-hole device structure were investigated. The scalable via-hole sub-microstructure was fabricated using an e-beam lithographic technique. The polymer non-volatile memory devices varied in size from 40 x 40 μm 2 to 200 x 200 nm 2 . From the scaling of junction size, the memory mechanism can be attributed to the space-charge-limited current with filamentary conduction. Sub-micron scale polymer memory devices showed excellent resistive switching behaviours such as a large ON/OFF ratio (I ON /I OFF ∼10 4 ), excellent device-to-device switching uniformity, good sweep endurance, and good retention times (more than 10 000 s). The successful operation of sub-micron scale memory devices of our polyfluorene-derivative polymer shows promise to fabricate high-density polymer memory devices.

  9. Design of a magnetic-tunnel-junction-oriented nonvolatile lookup table circuit with write-operation-minimized data shifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Daisuke; Hanyu, Takahiro

    2018-04-01

    A magnetic-tunnel-junction (MTJ)-oriented nonvolatile lookup table (LUT) circuit, in which a low-power data-shift function is performed by minimizing the number of write operations in MTJ devices is proposed. The permutation of the configuration memory cell for read/write access is performed as opposed to conventional direct data shifting to minimize the number of write operations, which results in significant write energy savings in the data-shift function. Moreover, the hardware cost of the proposed LUT circuit is small since the selector is shared between read access and write access. In fact, the power consumption in the data-shift function and the transistor count are reduced by 82 and 52%, respectively, compared with those in a conventional static random-access memory-based implementation using a 90 nm CMOS technology.

  10. Effect of Ag nanoparticles on resistive switching of polyfluorene-based organic non-volatile memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Oh, Seung-Hwan; Choi, Hye-Jung; Wang, Gun-Uk; Kim, Dong-Yu; Hwang, Hyun-Sang; Lee, Tak-Hee

    2010-01-01

    The effects of Ag nanoparticles on the switching behavior of polyfluorene-based organic nonvolatile memory devices were investigated. Polyfluorene-derivatives (WPF-oxy-F) with and without Ag nanoparticles were synthesized, and the presence of Ag nanoparticles in Ag-WPF-oxy-F was identified by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. The Ag-nanoparticles did not significantly affect the basic switching performances, such as the current-voltage characteristics, the distribution of on/off resistance, and the retention. The pulse switching time of Ag-WPF-oxy-F was faster than that of WPF-oxy-F. Ag-WPF-oxy-F memory devices showed an area dependence in the high resistance state, implying that formation of a Ag metallic channel for current conduction.

  11. Direct probing of electron and hole trapping into nano-floating-gate in organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Ze-Qun; Wang, Shun; Chen, Jian-Mei; Gao, Xu; Dong, Bin; Chi, Li-Feng; Wang, Sui-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Electron and hole trapping into the nano-floating-gate of a pentacene-based organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memory is directly probed by Kelvin probe force microscopy. The probing is straightforward and non-destructive. The measured surface potential change can quantitatively profile the charge trapping, and the surface characterization results are in good accord with the corresponding device behavior. Both electrons and holes can be trapped into the nano-floating-gate, with a preference of electron trapping than hole trapping. The trapped charge quantity has an approximately linear relation with the programming/erasing gate bias, indicating that the charge trapping in the device is a field-controlled process

  12. Multi-floor cascading ferroelectric nanostructures: multiple data writing-based multi-level non-volatile memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Seung; Kwon, Owoong; Lee, Bom-Yi; Seol, Daehee; Park, Beomjin; Lee, Jae Yong; Lee, Ju Hyun; Kim, Yunseok; Kim, Jin Kon

    2016-01-01

    Multiple data writing-based multi-level non-volatile memory has gained strong attention for next-generation memory devices to quickly accommodate an extremely large number of data bits because it is capable of storing multiple data bits in a single memory cell at once. However, all previously reported devices have failed to store a large number of data bits due to the macroscale cell size and have not allowed fast access to the stored data due to slow single data writing. Here, we introduce a novel three-dimensional multi-floor cascading polymeric ferroelectric nanostructure, successfully operating as an individual cell. In one cell, each floor has its own piezoresponse and the piezoresponse of one floor can be modulated by the bias voltage applied to the other floor, which means simultaneously written data bits in both floors can be identified. This could achieve multi-level memory through a multiple data writing process.Multiple data writing-based multi-level non-volatile memory has gained strong attention for next-generation memory devices to quickly accommodate an extremely large number of data bits because it is capable of storing multiple data bits in a single memory cell at once. However, all previously reported devices have failed to store a large number of data bits due to the macroscale cell size and have not allowed fast access to the stored data due to slow single data writing. Here, we introduce a novel three-dimensional multi-floor cascading polymeric ferroelectric nanostructure, successfully operating as an individual cell. In one cell, each floor has its own piezoresponse and the piezoresponse of one floor can be modulated by the bias voltage applied to the other floor, which means simultaneously written data bits in both floors can be identified. This could achieve multi-level memory through a multiple data writing process. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07377d

  13. Experimental determination of net protein charge and A(tot) and K(a) of nonvolatile buffers in canine plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Peter D; Stämpfli, Henry R

    2005-01-01

    Acid-base abnormalities frequently are present in sick dogs. The mechanism for an acid-base disturbance can be determined with the simplified strong ion approach, which requires accurate values for the total concentration of plasma nonvolatile buffers (A(tot)) and the effective dissociation constant for plasma weak acids (K(a)). The aims of this study were to experimentally determine A(tot) and K(a) values for canine plasma. Plasma was harvested from 10 healthy dogs; the concentrations of quantitatively important strong ions (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, L-lactate) and nonvolatile buffer ions (total protein, albumin, phosphate) were determined; and the plasma was tonometered with CO2 at 37 degrees C. Strong ion difference (SID) was calculated from the measured strong ion concentrations, and nonlinear regression was used to estimate values for A(tot) and K(a), which were validated with data from an in vitro and in vivo study. Mean (+/- SD) values for canine plasma were A(tot) = (17.4 +/- 8.6) mM (equivalent to 0.273 mmol/g of total protein or 0.469 mmol/g of albumin); K(a) = (0.17 +/- 0.11) x 10(-7); pK(a) = 7.77. The calculated SID for normal canine plasma (pH = 7.40; P(CO2) = 37 mm Hg; [total protein] = 64 g/L) was 27 mEq/L. The net protein charge for normal canine plasma was 0.25 mEq/g of total protein or 0.42 mEq/g of albumin. Application of the experimentally determined values for A(tot), K(a), and net protein charge should improve understanding of the mechanism for complex acid-base disturbances in dogs.

  14. Experimental determination of net protein charge, [A]tot, and Ka of nonvolatile buffers in bird plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stämpfli, Henry; Taylor, Michael; McNicoll, Carl; Gancz, Ady Y; Constable, Peter D

    2006-06-01

    The quantitative mechanistic acid-base approach to clinical assessment of acid-base status requires species-specific values for [A]tot (the total concentration of nonvolatile buffers in plasma) and Ka (the effective dissociation constant for weak acids in plasma). The aim of this study was to determine [A]tot and Ka values for plasma in domestic pigeons. Plasma from 12 healthy commercial domestic pigeons was tonometered with 20% CO2 at 37 degrees C. Plasma pH, Pco2, and plasma concentrations of strong cations (Na, K, Ca), strong anions (Cl, L-lactate), and nonvolatile buffer ions (total protein, albumin, phosphate) were measured over a pH range of 6.8-7.7. Strong ion difference (SID) (SID5=Na+K+Ca-Cl-lactate) was used to calculate [A]tot and Ka from the measured pH and Pco2 and SID5. Mean (+/-SD) values for bird plasma were as follows: [A]tot=7.76+/-2.15 mmol/l (equivalent to 0.32 mmol/g of total protein, 0.51 mmol/g of albumin, 0.23 mmol/g of total solids); Ka=2.15+/-1.15x10(-7); and pKa=6.67. The net protein charge at normal pH (7.43) was estimated to be 6 meq/l; this value indicates that pigeon plasma has a much lower anion gap value than mammals after adjusting for high mean L-lactate concentrations induced by restraint during blood sampling. This finding indicates that plasma proteins in pigeons have a much lower net anion charge than mammalian plasma protein. An incidental finding was that total protein concentration measured by a multianalyzer system was consistently lower than the value for total solids measured by refractometer.

  15. Highly conducting leakage-free electrolyte for SrCoOx-based non-volatile memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katase, Takayoshi; Suzuki, Yuki; Ohta, Hiromichi

    2017-10-01

    The electrochemical switching of SrCoOx-based non-volatile memory with a thin-film-transistor structure was examined by using liquid-leakage-free electrolytes with different conductivities (σ) as the gate insulator. We first examined leakage-free water, which is incorporated in the amorphous (a-) 12CaO.7Al2O3 film with a nanoporous structure (Calcium Aluminate with Nanopore), but the electrochemical oxidation/reduction of the SrCoOx layer required the application of a high gate voltage (Vg) up to 20 V for a very long current-flowing-time (t) ˜40 min, primarily due to the low σ [2.0 × 10-8 S cm-1 at room temperature (RT)] of leakage-free water. We then controlled the σ of the leakage-free electrolyte, infiltrated in the a-NaxTaO3 film with a nanopillar array structure, from 8.0 × 10-8 S cm-1 to 2.5 × 10-6 S cm-1 at RT by changing the x = 0.01-1.0. As the result, the t, required for the metallization of the SrCoOx layer under small Vg = -3 V, becomes two orders of magnitude shorter with increase of the σ of the a-NaxTaO3 leakage-free electrolyte. These results indicate that the ion migration in the leakage-free electrolyte is the rate-determining step for the electrochemical switching, compared to the other electrochemical process, and the high σ of the leakage-free electrolyte is the key factor for the development of the non-volatile SrCoOx-based electro-magnetic phase switching device.

  16. Phase-change materials for non-volatile memory devices: from technological challenges to materials science issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noé, Pierre; Vallée, Christophe; Hippert, Françoise; Fillot, Frédéric; Raty, Jean-Yves

    2018-01-01

    Chalcogenide phase-change materials (PCMs), such as Ge-Sb-Te alloys, have shown outstanding properties, which has led to their successful use for a long time in optical memories (DVDs) and, recently, in non-volatile resistive memories. The latter, known as PCM memories or phase-change random access memories (PCRAMs), are the most promising candidates among emerging non-volatile memory (NVM) technologies to replace the current FLASH memories at CMOS technology nodes under 28 nm. Chalcogenide PCMs exhibit fast and reversible phase transformations between crystalline and amorphous states with very different transport and optical properties leading to a unique set of features for PCRAMs, such as fast programming, good cyclability, high scalability, multi-level storage capability, and good data retention. Nevertheless, PCM memory technology has to overcome several challenges to definitively invade the NVM market. In this review paper, we examine the main technological challenges that PCM memory technology must face and we illustrate how new memory architecture, innovative deposition methods, and PCM composition optimization can contribute to further improvements of this technology. In particular, we examine how to lower the programming currents and increase data retention. Scaling down PCM memories for large-scale integration means the incorporation of the PCM into more and more confined structures and raises materials science issues in order to understand interface and size effects on crystallization. Other materials science issues are related to the stability and ageing of the amorphous state of PCMs. The stability of the amorphous phase, which determines data retention in memory devices, can be increased by doping the PCM. Ageing of the amorphous phase leads to a large increase of the resistivity with time (resistance drift), which has up to now hindered the development of ultra-high multi-level storage devices. A review of the current understanding of all these

  17. Untargeted metabolomic analysis using liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for non-volatile profiling of wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbulu, M.; Sampedro, M.C.; Gómez-Caballero, A.; Goicolea, M.A.; Barrio, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An untargeted metabolomic method for the non-volatile profile of the Graciano wine was developed. • 411 different metabolites in Graciano Vitis vinifera red wine were identified. • 15 compounds could serve to differentiate Graciano and Tempranillo wines. • An enological database (WinMet) with 2080 compounds was constructed. - Abstract: The current study presents a method for comprehensive untargeted metabolomic fingerprinting of the non-volatile profile of the Graciano Vitis vinifera wine variety, using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-QTOF). Pre-treatment of samples, chromatographic columns, mobile phases, elution gradients and ionization sources, were evaluated for the extraction of the maximum number of metabolites in red wine. Putative compounds were extracted from the raw data using the extraction algorithm, molecular feature extractor (MFE). For the metabolite identification the WinMet database was designed based on electronic databases and literature research and includes only the putative metabolites reported to be present in oenological matrices. The results from WinMet were compared with those in the METLIN database to evaluate how much the databases overlap for performing identifications. The reproducibility of the analysis was assessed using manual processing following replicate injections of Vitis vinifera cv. Graciano wine spiked with external standards. In the present work, 411 different metabolites in Graciano Vitis vinifera red wine were identified, including primary wine metabolites such as sugars (4%), amino acids (23%), biogenic amines (4%), fatty acids (2%), and organic acids (32%) and secondary metabolites such as phenols (27%) and esters (8%). Significant differences between varieties Tempranillo and Graciano were related to the presence of fifteen specific compounds

  18. Untargeted metabolomic analysis using liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for non-volatile profiling of wines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbulu, M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of the Basque Country, 01006 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); Sampedro, M.C. [Central Service of Analysis, SGIker, University of the Basque Country, 01006 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); Gómez-Caballero, A.; Goicolea, M.A. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of the Basque Country, 01006 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); Barrio, R.J., E-mail: r.barrio@ehu.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of the Basque Country, 01006 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain)

    2015-02-09

    Highlights: • An untargeted metabolomic method for the non-volatile profile of the Graciano wine was developed. • 411 different metabolites in Graciano Vitis vinifera red wine were identified. • 15 compounds could serve to differentiate Graciano and Tempranillo wines. • An enological database (WinMet) with 2080 compounds was constructed. - Abstract: The current study presents a method for comprehensive untargeted metabolomic fingerprinting of the non-volatile profile of the Graciano Vitis vinifera wine variety, using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-QTOF). Pre-treatment of samples, chromatographic columns, mobile phases, elution gradients and ionization sources, were evaluated for the extraction of the maximum number of metabolites in red wine. Putative compounds were extracted from the raw data using the extraction algorithm, molecular feature extractor (MFE). For the metabolite identification the WinMet database was designed based on electronic databases and literature research and includes only the putative metabolites reported to be present in oenological matrices. The results from WinMet were compared with those in the METLIN database to evaluate how much the databases overlap for performing identifications. The reproducibility of the analysis was assessed using manual processing following replicate injections of Vitis vinifera cv. Graciano wine spiked with external standards. In the present work, 411 different metabolites in Graciano Vitis vinifera red wine were identified, including primary wine metabolites such as sugars (4%), amino acids (23%), biogenic amines (4%), fatty acids (2%), and organic acids (32%) and secondary metabolites such as phenols (27%) and esters (8%). Significant differences between varieties Tempranillo and Graciano were related to the presence of fifteen specific compounds.

  19. Designing with residual materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies

  20. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan; Fidelis, Krzysztof; Tramontano, Anna; Kryshtafovych, Andriy

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures

  1. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... for policy makers and courts in awarding damages in a large number of real-world accident cases....

  2. Changes in non-volatile taste components of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) during different stages of freeze drying and freeze drying combined with microwave vacuum drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Fei; Shi, Ying; Gao, Xingyang; Wu, Fangning; Mariga, Alfred Mugambi; Yang, Wenjian; Zhao, Liyan; An, Xinxin; Xin, Zhihong; Yang, Fangmei; Hu, Qiuhui

    2014-12-15

    Button mushroom slices were dehydrated using freeze drying (FD) or FD combined with microwave vacuum drying (FMVD), and the non-volatile component profiles were studied. The results showed that the level of non-volatile components in button mushroom firstly increased during sublimation of FD/FMVD process and then fell during desorption in FD process and MVD in FMVD process. Compared to FD products, the contents of soluble sugars and polyols in FMVD products were relatively low, whereas the contents of total free amino acids were significantly higher, close to the level of fresh mushroom. However, there was no significant difference in the contents of 5'-nucleotides and organic acids between FD and FMVD products. The equivalent umami concentration (EUC) values for FD and FMVD products did not differ from fresh, indicating that both drying methods could effectively preserve MSG (monosodium glutamate)-like components in button mushroom. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Logic gates realized by nonvolatile GeTe/Sb2Te3 super lattice phase-change memory with a magnetic field input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Cheng, Xiaomin; Feng, Jinlong; Guan, Xiawei; Miao, Xiangshui

    2016-07-01

    Nonvolatile memory devices or circuits that can implement both storage and calculation are a crucial requirement for the efficiency improvement of modern computer. In this work, we realize logic functions by using [GeTe/Sb2Te3]n super lattice phase change memory (PCM) cell in which higher threshold voltage is needed for phase change with a magnetic field applied. First, the [GeTe/Sb2Te3]n super lattice cells were fabricated and the R-V curve was measured. Then we designed the logic circuits with the super lattice PCM cell verified by HSPICE simulation and experiments. Seven basic logic functions are first demonstrated in this letter; then several multi-input logic gates are presented. The proposed logic devices offer the advantages of simple structures and low power consumption, indicating that the super lattice PCM has the potential in the future nonvolatile central processing unit design, facilitating the development of massive parallel computing architecture.

  4. Flexible nonvolatile memory devices based on Au/PMMA nanocomposites deposited on PEDOT:PSS/Ag nanowire hybrid electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Sihyun; Kim, Tae Whan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Flexible nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices fabricated utilizing Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) embedded in a PMMA layer were fabricated. • The insertion of the PEDOT:PSS layer enhanced the surface uniformity of the AgNW bottom electrode, resulting in improved device performances. • Current-voltage curves for the Al/PMMA:AuNP/PEDOT:PSS/AgNW/PET devices showed clockwise current hysteresis behaviors. • ON/OFF ratio of 1 × 10 3 was maintained for retention times longer than 1 × 10 4 s. • Memory characteristics of the NVM devices before and after bending were similar. - Abstract: Flexible nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices fabricated utilizing Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) embedded in a poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) layer were fabricated on a silver nanowire (AgNW) or a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/AgNW coated on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates. The transmittance and the sheet resistance of the PEDOT:PSS/AgNW hybrid layer were approximately 89% and 50 Ω/sq, respectively, which were comparable to the values for commercial indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrodes. Current-voltage curves for the Al/PMMA:AuNP/PEDOT:PSS/AgNW/PET devices at 300 K showed clockwise current hysteresis behaviors due to the existence of the AuNPs. The endurance number of ON/OFF switching for the NVM devices was above 30 cycles. An ON/OFF ratio of 1 × 10 3 was maintained for retention times longer than 1 × 10 4 s. The maximum memory margins of the NVM devices before and after bending were approximately 3.4 × 10 3 and 1.4 × 10 3 , respectively. The retention times of the devices before and after bending remained same 1 × 10 4 s. The memory margin and the stability of flexible NVMs fabricated on AgNW electrodes were enhanced due to the embedded PEDOT:PSS buffer layer.

  5. Flexible nonvolatile memory devices based on Au/PMMA nanocomposites deposited on PEDOT:PSS/Ag nanowire hybrid electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Sihyun; Kim, Tae Whan, E-mail: twk@hanyang.ac.kr

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Flexible nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices fabricated utilizing Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) embedded in a PMMA layer were fabricated. • The insertion of the PEDOT:PSS layer enhanced the surface uniformity of the AgNW bottom electrode, resulting in improved device performances. • Current-voltage curves for the Al/PMMA:AuNP/PEDOT:PSS/AgNW/PET devices showed clockwise current hysteresis behaviors. • ON/OFF ratio of 1 × 10{sup 3} was maintained for retention times longer than 1 × 10{sup 4} s. • Memory characteristics of the NVM devices before and after bending were similar. - Abstract: Flexible nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices fabricated utilizing Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) embedded in a poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) layer were fabricated on a silver nanowire (AgNW) or a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/AgNW coated on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates. The transmittance and the sheet resistance of the PEDOT:PSS/AgNW hybrid layer were approximately 89% and 50 Ω/sq, respectively, which were comparable to the values for commercial indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrodes. Current-voltage curves for the Al/PMMA:AuNP/PEDOT:PSS/AgNW/PET devices at 300 K showed clockwise current hysteresis behaviors due to the existence of the AuNPs. The endurance number of ON/OFF switching for the NVM devices was above 30 cycles. An ON/OFF ratio of 1 × 10{sup 3} was maintained for retention times longer than 1 × 10{sup 4} s. The maximum memory margins of the NVM devices before and after bending were approximately 3.4 × 10{sup 3} and 1.4 × 10{sup 3}, respectively. The retention times of the devices before and after bending remained same 1 × 10{sup 4} s. The memory margin and the stability of flexible NVMs fabricated on AgNW electrodes were enhanced due to the embedded PEDOT:PSS buffer layer.

  6. Machine for compacting solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, J.

    1981-11-01

    Machine for compacting solid residues, particularly bulky radioactive residues, constituted of a horizontally actuated punch and a fixed compression anvil, in which the residues are first compacted horizontally and then vertically. Its salient characteristic is that the punch and the compression anvil have embossments on the compression side and interpenetrating plates in the compression position [fr

  7. Quadratic residues and non-residues selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an account of the classical theory of quadratic residues and non-residues with the goal of using that theory as a lens through which to view the development of some of the fundamental methods employed in modern elementary, algebraic, and analytic number theory. The first three chapters present some basic facts and the history of quadratic residues and non-residues and discuss various proofs of the Law of Quadratic Reciprosity in depth, with an emphasis on the six proofs that Gauss published. The remaining seven chapters explore some interesting applications of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, prove some results concerning the distribution and arithmetic structure of quadratic residues and non-residues, provide a detailed proof of Dirichlet’s Class-Number Formula, and discuss the question of whether quadratic residues are randomly distributed. The text is a valuable resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as for mathematicians interested in number theory.

  8. Comparison of volatile and non-volatile metabolites in rice wine fermented by Koji inoculated with Saccharomycopsis fibuligera and Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Eun Yeong; Lee, Sang Mi; Kim, Minjoo; Seo, Jeong-Ah; Kim, Young-Suk

    2018-07-01

    This study investigated volatile and nonvolatile metabolite profiles of makgeolli (a traditional rice wine in Korea) fermented by koji inoculated with Saccharomycopsis fibuligera and/or Aspergillus oryzae. The enzyme activities in koji were also examined to determine their effects on the formation of metabolites. The contents of all 18 amino acids detected were the highest in makgeolli fermented by S. fibuligera CN2601-09, and increased after combining with A. oryzae CN1102-08, unlike the contents of most fatty acids. On the other hand, major volatile metabolites were fusel alcohols, acetate esters, and ethyl esters. The contents of most fusel alcohols and acetate esters were the highest in makgeolli fermented by S. fibuligera CN2601-09, for which the protease activity was the highest, leading to the largest amounts of amino acods. The makgeolli samples fermented only by koji inoculated with S. fibuligera could be discriminated on PCA plots from the makgeolli samples fermented in combination with A. oryzae. In the case of nonvolatile metabolites, all amino acids and some metabolites such as xylose, 2-methylbenzoic acid, and oxalic acid contributed mainly to the characteristics of makgeolli fermented by koji inoculated with S. fibuligera and A. oryzae. These results showed that the formations of volatile and nonvolatile metabolites in makgeolli can be significantly affected by microbial strains with different enzyme activities in koji. To our knowledge, this study is the first report on the effects of S. fibuligera strains on the formation of volatile and non-volatile metabolites in rice wine, facilitating their use in brewing rice wine. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Nonvolatile two-step, two-color holography with continuous-wave lights for both congruent and near-stoichiometric LiNbO3:Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yan; Zhang Guoquan; Fu Bo; Xu Qingjun; Xu Jingjun

    2004-01-01

    We have studied theoretically the steady-state nonvolatile two-step, two-color holographic recording performance for both the congruent and the near-stoichiometric LiNbO 3 :Fe based on the two-center model (the deep-trap and the shallow-trap centers are Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ and Nb Li 4+ /Nb Li 5+ , respectively). The results show that the direct electron exchange between the Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ centers and the Nb Li 4+ /Nb Li 5+ centers due to the tunneling effect dominates the charge-transfer process during the nonvolatile two-step, two-color holography and determines the two-step, two-color holography performance in LiNbO 3 :Fe. We have further studied the effects of the crystal stoichiometry on the performance of the two-step, two-color holography. It is shown that, as far as the total space-charge field is considered, the nonvolatile two-step, two-color holography performance in the near-stoichiometric LiNbO 3 :Fe is much better than that in the congruent LiNbO 3 :Fe within the intensity range reachable by the continuous-wave lights

  10. Design of a memory-access controller with 3.71-times-enhanced energy efficiency for Internet-of-Things-oriented nonvolatile microcontroller unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsui, Masanori; Hanyu, Takahiro

    2018-04-01

    In realizing a nonvolatile microcontroller unit (MCU) for sensor nodes in Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications, it is important to solve the data-transfer bottleneck between the central processing unit (CPU) and the nonvolatile memory constituting the MCU. As one circuit-oriented approach to solving this problem, we propose a memory access minimization technique for magnetoresistive-random-access-memory (MRAM)-embedded nonvolatile MCUs. In addition to multiplexing and prefetching of memory access, the proposed technique realizes efficient instruction fetch by eliminating redundant memory access while considering the code length of the instruction to be fetched and the transition of the memory address to be accessed. As a result, the performance of the MCU can be improved while relaxing the performance requirement for the embedded MRAM, and compact and low-power implementation can be performed as compared with the conventional cache-based one. Through the evaluation using a system consisting of a general purpose 32-bit CPU and embedded MRAM, it is demonstrated that the proposed technique increases the peak efficiency of the system up to 3.71 times, while a 2.29-fold area reduction is achieved compared with the cache-based one.

  11. High‐Performance Nonvolatile Organic Field‐Effect Transistor Memory Based on Organic Semiconductor Heterostructures of Pentacene/P13/Pentacene as Both Charge Transport and Trapping Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Guo, Fengning; Ling, Haifeng; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Laiyuan; Wu, Dequn

    2017-01-01

    Nonvolatile organic field‐effect transistor (OFET) memory devices based on pentacene/N,N′‐ditridecylperylene‐3,4,9,10‐tetracarboxylic diimide (P13)/pentacene trilayer organic heterostructures have been proposed. The discontinuous n‐type P13 embedded in p‐type pentacene layers can not only provide electrons in the semiconductor layer that facilitates electron trapping process; it also works as charge trapping sites, which is attributed to the quantum well‐like pentacene/P13/pentacene organic heterostructures. The synergistic effects of charge trapping in the discontinuous P13 and the charge‐trapping property of the poly(4‐vinylphenol) (PVP) layer remarkably improve the memory performance. In addition, the trilayer organic heterostructures have also been successfully applied to multilevel and flexible nonvolatile memory devices. The results provide a novel design strategy to achieve high‐performance nonvolatile OFET memory devices and allow potential applications for different combinations of various organic semiconductor materials in OFET memory. PMID:28852619

  12. Effects of biodiesel, engine load and diesel particulate filter on nonvolatile particle number size distributions in heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Li-Hao; Liou, Yi-Jyun; Cheng, Man-Ting; Lu, Jau-Huai; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Tsai, Ying I.; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chen, Chung-Bang; Lai, Jim-Shoung

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The effects of waste cooking oil biodiesel, engine load and DOC + DPF on nonvolatile particle size distributions in HDDE exhaust. ► Increasing biodiesel blends cause slight decreases in the total particle number concentrations and negligible changes in size distributions. ► Increasing load results in modest increases in both the total particle number concentrations and sizes. ► The effects of semivolatile materials are strongest at idle, during which nonvolatile cores TOT ) decrease slightly, while the mode diameters show negligible changes with increasing biodiesel blends. For a given biodiesel blend, both the N TOT and mode diameters increase modestly with increasing load of above 25%. The N TOT at idle are highest and their size distributions are strongly affected by condensation and possible nucleation of semivolatile materials. Nonvolatile cores of diameters less than 16 nm are only observed at idle mode. The DOC + DPF shows remarkable filtration efficiency for both the core and soot particles, irrespective of the biodiesel blend and engine load under study. The N TOT post the DOC + DPF are comparable to typical ambient levels of ∼10 4 cm −3 . This implies that, without concurrent reductions of semivolatile materials, the formation of semivolatile nucleation mode particles post the aftertreatment is highly favored.

  13. Bioenergy from sisal residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The main objectives of this report are: To analyse the bioenergy potential of the Tanzanian agro-industries, with special emphasis on the Sisal industry, the largest producer of agro-industrial residues in Tanzania; and to upgrade the human capacity and research potential of the Applied Microbiology Unit at the University of Dar es Salaam, in order to ensure a scientific and technological support for future operation and implementation of biogas facilities and anaerobic water treatment systems. The experimental work on sisal residues contains the following issues: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; Pre-treatment methods for treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield; Evaluation of the requirement for nutrient addition; Evaluation of the potential for bioethanol production from sisal bulbs. The processing of sisal leaves into dry fibres (decortication) has traditionally been done by the wet processing method, which consumes considerable quantities of water and produces large quantities of waste water. The Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) is now developing a dry decortication method, which consumes less water and produces a waste product with 12-15% TS, which is feasible for treatment in CSTR systems (Continously Stirred Tank Reactors). (EG)

  14. Functionalized Graphitic Carbon Nitride for Metal-free, Flexible and Rewritable Nonvolatile Memory Device via Direct Laser-Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei; Cheng, Huhu; Hu, Yue; Song, Long; Zhang, Zhipan; Jiang, Lan; Qu, Liangti

    2014-01-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride nanosheet (g-C3N4-NS) has layered structure similar with graphene nanosheet and presents unusual physicochemical properties due to the s-triazine fragments. But their electronic and electrochemical applications are limited by the relatively poor conductivity. The current work provides the first example that atomically thick g-C3N4-NSs are the ideal candidate as the active insulator layer with tunable conductivity for achieving the high performance memory devices with electrical bistability. Unlike in conventional memory diodes, the g-C3N4-NSs based devices combined with graphene layer electrodes are flexible, metal-free and low cost. The functionalized g-C3N4-NSs exhibit desirable dispersibility and dielectricity which support the all-solution fabrication and high performance of the memory diodes. Moreover, the flexible memory diodes are conveniently fabricated through the fast laser writing process on graphene oxide/g-C3N4-NSs/graphene oxide thin film. The obtained devices not only have the nonvolatile electrical bistability with great retention and endurance, but also show the rewritable memory effect with a reliable ON/OFF ratio of up to 105, which is the highest among all the metal-free flexible memory diodes reported so far, and even higher than those of metal-containing devices. PMID:25073687

  15. Magnetic Random Access Memory based non-volatile asynchronous Muller cell for ultra-low power autonomous applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pendina, G.; Zianbetov, E.; Beigne, E.

    2015-05-01

    Micro and nano electronic integrated circuit domain is today mainly driven by the advent of the Internet of Things for which the constraints are strong, especially in terms of power consumption and autonomy, not only during the computing phases but also during the standby or idle phases. In such ultra-low power applications, the circuit has to meet new constraints mainly linked to its changing energetic environment: long idle phases, automatic wake up, data back-up when the circuit is sporadically turned off, and ultra-low voltage power supply operation. Such circuits have to be completely autonomous regarding their unstable environment, while remaining in an optimum energetic configuration. Therefore, we propose in this paper the first MRAM-based non-volatile asynchronous Muller cell. This cell has been simulated and characterized in a very advanced 28 nm CMOS fully depleted silicon-on-insulator technology, presenting good power performance results due to an extremely efficient body biasing control together with ultra-wide supply voltage range from 160 mV up to 920 mV. The leakage current can be reduced to 154 pA thanks to reverse body biasing. We also propose an efficient standard CMOS bulk version of this cell in order to be compatible with different fabrication processes.

  16. Volatile and Nonvolatile Constituents and Antioxidant Capacity of Oleoresins in Three Taiwan Citrus Varieties as Determined by Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Hung Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As local varieties of citrus fruit in Taiwan, Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco, Tankan (C. tankan Hayata, and Murcott (C. reticulate × C. sinensis face substantial competition on the market. In this study, we used carbon dioxide supercritical technology to extract oleoresin from the peels of the three citrus varieties, adding alcohol as a solvent assistant to enhance the extraction rate. The supercritical fluid extraction was fractionated with lower terpene compounds in order to improve the oxygenated amounts of the volatile resins. The contents of oleoresin from the three varieties of citrus peels were then analyzed with GC/MS in order to identify 33 volatile compounds. In addition, the analysis results indicated that the non-volatile oleoresin extracted from the samples contains polymethoxyflavones (86.2~259.5 mg/g, limonoids (111.7~406.2 mg/g, and phytosterols (686.1~1316.4 μg/g. The DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, ABTS [2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] scavenging and inhibition of lipid oxidation, which test the oleoresin from the three kinds of citrus, exhibited significant antioxidant capacity. The component polymethoxyflavones contributed the greatest share of the overall antioxidant capacity, while the limonoid and phytosterol components effectively coordinated with its effects.

  17. Magnetic Random Access Memory based non-volatile asynchronous Muller cell for ultra-low power autonomous applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Pendina, G., E-mail: gregory.dipendina@cea.fr, E-mail: eldar.zianbetov@cea.fr, E-mail: edith.beigne@cea.fr; Zianbetov, E., E-mail: gregory.dipendina@cea.fr, E-mail: eldar.zianbetov@cea.fr, E-mail: edith.beigne@cea.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC-SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Beigne, E., E-mail: gregory.dipendina@cea.fr, E-mail: eldar.zianbetov@cea.fr, E-mail: edith.beigne@cea.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CEA, LETI, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2015-05-07

    Micro and nano electronic integrated circuit domain is today mainly driven by the advent of the Internet of Things for which the constraints are strong, especially in terms of power consumption and autonomy, not only during the computing phases but also during the standby or idle phases. In such ultra-low power applications, the circuit has to meet new constraints mainly linked to its changing energetic environment: long idle phases, automatic wake up, data back-up when the circuit is sporadically turned off, and ultra-low voltage power supply operation. Such circuits have to be completely autonomous regarding their unstable environment, while remaining in an optimum energetic configuration. Therefore, we propose in this paper the first MRAM-based non-volatile asynchronous Muller cell. This cell has been simulated and characterized in a very advanced 28 nm CMOS fully depleted silicon-on-insulator technology, presenting good power performance results due to an extremely efficient body biasing control together with ultra-wide supply voltage range from 160 mV up to 920 mV. The leakage current can be reduced to 154 pA thanks to reverse body biasing. We also propose an efficient standard CMOS bulk version of this cell in order to be compatible with different fabrication processes.

  18. Surface-type nonvolatile electric memory elements based on organic-on-organic CuPc-H2Pc heterojunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimov, Khasan S.; Muqeet Rehman, M.; Zameer Abbas, S.; Ahmad, Zubair; Touati, Farid; Mahroof-Tahir, M.

    2015-01-01

    A novel surface-type nonvolatile electric memory elements based on organic semiconductors CuPc and H 2 Pc are fabricated by vacuum deposition of the CuPc and H 2 Pc films on preliminary deposited metallic (Ag and Cu) electrodes. The gap between Ag and Cu electrodes is 30–40 μm. For the current–voltage (I–V) characteristics the memory effect, switching effect, and negative differential resistance regions are observed. The switching mechanism is attributed to the electric-field-induced charge transfer. As a result the device switches from a low to a high-conductivity state and then back to a low conductivity state if the opposite polarity voltage is applied. The ratio of resistance at the high resistance state to that at the low resistance state is equal to 120–150. Under the switching condition, the electric current increases ∼ 80–100 times. A comparison between the forward and reverse I–V characteristics shows the presence of rectifying behavior. (paper)

  19. EqualChance: Addressing Intra-set Write Variation to Increase Lifetime of Non-volatile Caches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Sparsh [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    To address the limitations of SRAM such as high-leakage and low-density, researchers have explored use of non-volatile memory (NVM) devices, such as ReRAM (resistive RAM) and STT-RAM (spin transfer torque RAM) for designing on-chip caches. A crucial limitation of NVMs, however, is that their write endurance is low and the large intra-set write variation introduced by existing cache management policies may further exacerbate this problem, thereby reducing the cache lifetime significantly. We present EqualChance, a technique to increase cache lifetime by reducing intra-set write variation. EqualChance works by periodically changing the physical cache-block location of a write-intensive data item within a set to achieve wear-leveling. Simulations using workloads from SPEC CPU2006 suite and HPC (high-performance computing) field show that EqualChance improves the cache lifetime by 4.29X. Also, its implementation overhead is small, and it incurs very small performance and energy loss.

  20. Magnetic Random Access Memory based non-volatile asynchronous Muller cell for ultra-low power autonomous applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Pendina, G.; Zianbetov, E.; Beigne, E.

    2015-01-01

    Micro and nano electronic integrated circuit domain is today mainly driven by the advent of the Internet of Things for which the constraints are strong, especially in terms of power consumption and autonomy, not only during the computing phases but also during the standby or idle phases. In such ultra-low power applications, the circuit has to meet new constraints mainly linked to its changing energetic environment: long idle phases, automatic wake up, data back-up when the circuit is sporadically turned off, and ultra-low voltage power supply operation. Such circuits have to be completely autonomous regarding their unstable environment, while remaining in an optimum energetic configuration. Therefore, we propose in this paper the first MRAM-based non-volatile asynchronous Muller cell. This cell has been simulated and characterized in a very advanced 28 nm CMOS fully depleted silicon-on-insulator technology, presenting good power performance results due to an extremely efficient body biasing control together with ultra-wide supply voltage range from 160 mV up to 920 mV. The leakage current can be reduced to 154 pA thanks to reverse body biasing. We also propose an efficient standard CMOS bulk version of this cell in order to be compatible with different fabrication processes

  1. NVL-C: Static Analysis Techniques for Efficient, Correct Programming of Non-Volatile Main Memory Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seyong [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Computer architecture experts expect that non-volatile memory (NVM) hierarchies will play a more significant role in future systems including mobile, enterprise, and HPC architectures. With this expectation in mind, we present NVL-C: a novel programming system that facilitates the efficient and correct programming of NVM main memory systems. The NVL-C programming abstraction extends C with a small set of intuitive language features that target NVM main memory, and can be combined directly with traditional C memory model features for DRAM. We have designed these new features to enable compiler analyses and run-time checks that can improve performance and guard against a number of subtle programming errors, which, when left uncorrected, can corrupt NVM-stored data. Moreover, to enable recovery of data across application or system failures, these NVL-C features include a flexible directive for specifying NVM transactions. So that our implementation might be extended to other compiler front ends and languages, the majority of our compiler analyses are implemented in an extended version of LLVM's intermediate representation (LLVM IR). We evaluate NVL-C on a number of applications to show its flexibility, performance, and correctness.

  2. Embedded nonvolatile memory devices with various silicon nitride energy band gaps on glass used for flat panel display applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Dang Ngoc; Van Duy, Nguyen; Jung, Sungwook; Yi, Junsin

    2010-01-01

    Nonvolatile memory (NVM) devices with a nitride–nitride–oxynitride stack structure on a rough poly-silicon (poly-Si) surface were fabricated using a low-temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin film transistor technology on glass substrates for application of flat panel display (FPD). The plasma-assisted oxidation/nitridation method is used to form a uniform oxynitride with an ultrathin tunneling layer on a rough LTPS surface. The NVMs, using a Si-rich silicon nitride film as a charge-trapping layer, were proposed as one of the solutions for the improvement of device performance such as the program/erase speed, the memory window and the charge retention characteristics. To further improve the vertical scaling and charge retention characteristics of NVM devices, the high-κ high-density N-rich SiN x films are used as a blocking layer. The fabricated NVM devices have outstanding electrical properties, such as a low threshold voltage, a high ON/OFF current ratio, a low subthreshold swing, a low operating voltage of less than ±9 V and a large memory window of 3.7 V, which remained about 1.9 V over a period of 10 years. These characteristics are suitable for electrical switching and data storage with in FPD application

  3. Functionalized Graphitic Carbon Nitride for Metal-free, Flexible and Rewritable Nonvolatile Memory Device via Direct Laser-Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei; Cheng, Huhu; Hu, Yue; Song, Long; Zhang, Zhipan; Jiang, Lan; Qu, Liangti

    2014-07-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride nanosheet (g-C3N4-NS) has layered structure similar with graphene nanosheet and presents unusual physicochemical properties due to the s-triazine fragments. But their electronic and electrochemical applications are limited by the relatively poor conductivity. The current work provides the first example that atomically thick g-C3N4-NSs are the ideal candidate as the active insulator layer with tunable conductivity for achieving the high performance memory devices with electrical bistability. Unlike in conventional memory diodes, the g-C3N4-NSs based devices combined with graphene layer electrodes are flexible, metal-free and low cost. The functionalized g-C3N4-NSs exhibit desirable dispersibility and dielectricity which support the all-solution fabrication and high performance of the memory diodes. Moreover, the flexible memory diodes are conveniently fabricated through the fast laser writing process on graphene oxide/g-C3N4-NSs/graphene oxide thin film. The obtained devices not only have the nonvolatile electrical bistability with great retention and endurance, but also show the rewritable memory effect with a reliable ON/OFF ratio of up to 105, which is the highest among all the metal-free flexible memory diodes reported so far, and even higher than those of metal-containing devices.

  4. Immobilization of acid digestion residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.; Allen, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    Acid digestion treatment of nuclear waste is similar to incineration processes and results in the bulk of the waste being reduced in volume and weight to some residual solids termed residue. The residue is composed of various dispersible solid materials and typically contains the resultant radioactivity from the waste. This report describes the immobilization of the residue in portland cement, borosilicate glass, and some other waste forms. Diagrams showing the cement and glass virtification parameters are included in the report as well as process steps and candidate waste product forms. Cement immobilization is simplest and probably least expensive; glass vitrification exhibits the best overall volume reduction ratio

  5. Effect of tunneling layers on the performances of floating-gate based organic thin-film transistor nonvolatile memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei; Han, Jinhua; Ying, Jun; Xiang, Lanyi; Xie, Wenfa

    2014-01-01

    Two types of floating-gate based organic thin-film transistor nonvolatile memories (FG-OTFT-NVMs) were demonstrated, with poly(methyl methacrylate co glycidyl methacrylate) (P(MMA-GMA)) and tetratetracontane (TTC) as the tunneling layer, respectively. Their device performances were measured and compared. In the memory with a P(MMA-GMA) tunneling layer, typical unipolar hole transport was obtained with a relatively small mobility of 0.16 cm 2 /V s. The unidirectional shift of turn-on voltage (V on ) due to only holes trapped/detrapped in/from the floating gate resulted in a small memory window of 12.5 V at programming/erasing voltages (V P /V E ) of ±100 V and a nonzero reading voltage. Benefited from the well-ordered molecule orientation and the trap-free surface of TTC layer, a considerably high hole mobility of 1.7 cm 2 /V s and a visible feature of electrons accumulated in channel and trapped in floating-gate were achieved in the memory with a TTC tunneling layer. High hole mobility resulted in a high on current and a large memory on/off ratio of 600 at the V P /V E of ±100 V. Both holes and electrons were injected into floating-gate and overwritten each other, which resulted in a bidirectional V on shift. As a result, an enlarged memory window of 28.6 V at the V P /V E of ±100 V and a zero reading voltage were achieved. Based on our results, a strategy is proposed to optimize FG-OTFT-NVMs by choosing a right tunneling layer to improve the majority carrier mobility and realize ambipolar carriers injecting and trapping in the floating-gate.

  6. Effect of tunneling layers on the performances of floating-gate based organic thin-film transistor nonvolatile memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Han, Jinhua; Ying, Jun; Xiang, Lanyi; Xie, Wenfa

    2014-09-01

    Two types of floating-gate based organic thin-film transistor nonvolatile memories (FG-OTFT-NVMs) were demonstrated, with poly(methyl methacrylate co glycidyl methacrylate) (P(MMA-GMA)) and tetratetracontane (TTC) as the tunneling layer, respectively. Their device performances were measured and compared. In the memory with a P(MMA-GMA) tunneling layer, typical unipolar hole transport was obtained with a relatively small mobility of 0.16 cm2/V s. The unidirectional shift of turn-on voltage (Von) due to only holes trapped/detrapped in/from the floating gate resulted in a small memory window of 12.5 V at programming/erasing voltages (VP/VE) of ±100 V and a nonzero reading voltage. Benefited from the well-ordered molecule orientation and the trap-free surface of TTC layer, a considerably high hole mobility of 1.7 cm2/V s and a visible feature of electrons accumulated in channel and trapped in floating-gate were achieved in the memory with a TTC tunneling layer. High hole mobility resulted in a high on current and a large memory on/off ratio of 600 at the VP/VE of ±100 V. Both holes and electrons were injected into floating-gate and overwritten each other, which resulted in a bidirectional Von shift. As a result, an enlarged memory window of 28.6 V at the VP/VE of ±100 V and a zero reading voltage were achieved. Based on our results, a strategy is proposed to optimize FG-OTFT-NVMs by choosing a right tunneling layer to improve the majority carrier mobility and realize ambipolar carriers injecting and trapping in the floating-gate.

  7. Experimental determination of net protein charge and A(tot) and K(a) of nonvolatile buffers in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staempfli, Henry R; Constable, Peter D

    2003-08-01

    The mechanism for an acid-base disturbance can be determined by using the strong ion approach, which requires species-specific values for the total concentration of plasma nonvolatile buffers (Atot) and the effective dissociation constant for plasma weak acids (Ka). The aim of this study was to experimentally determine Atot and Ka values for human plasma by using in vitro CO2 tonometry. Plasma Pco2 was systematically varied from 25 to 145 Torr at 37 degrees C, thereby altering plasma pH over the physiological range of 6.90-7.55, and plasma pH, Pco2, and concentrations of quantitatively important strong ions (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, lactate) and buffer ions (total protein, albumin, phosphate) were measured. Strong ion difference was estimated, and nonlinear regression was used to calculate Atot and Ka from the measured pH and Pco2 and estimated strong ion difference; the Atot and Ka values were then validated by using a published data set (Figge J, Rossing TH, and Fencl V, J Lab Clin Med 117: 453-467, 1991). The values (mean +/- SD) were as follows: Atot = 17.2 +/- 3.5 mmol/l (equivalent to 0.224 mmol/g of protein or 0.378 mmol/g of albumin); Ka = 0.80 +/- 0.60 x 10-7; negative log of Ka = 7.10. Mean estimates were obtained for strong ion difference (37 meq/l) and net protein charge (13+.0 meq/l). The experimentally determined values for Atot, Ka, and net protein charge should facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of acid-base disturbances in critically ill humans.

  8. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures being the precision in recognizing contacts and the difference between the distribution of distances in the subset of predicted contact pairs versus all pairs of residues in the structure. The emphasis is placed on the prediction of long-range contacts (i.e., contacts between residues separated by at least 24 residues along sequence) in target proteins that cannot be easily modeled by homology. Although there is considerable activity in the field, the current analysis reports no discernable progress since CASP8.

  9. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...

  10. Statistical inference on residual life

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Jong-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    This is a monograph on the concept of residual life, which is an alternative summary measure of time-to-event data, or survival data. The mean residual life has been used for many years under the name of life expectancy, so it is a natural concept for summarizing survival or reliability data. It is also more interpretable than the popular hazard function, especially for communications between patients and physicians regarding the efficacy of a new drug in the medical field. This book reviews existing statistical methods to infer the residual life distribution. The review and comparison includes existing inference methods for mean and median, or quantile, residual life analysis through medical data examples. The concept of the residual life is also extended to competing risks analysis. The targeted audience includes biostatisticians, graduate students, and PhD (bio)statisticians. Knowledge in survival analysis at an introductory graduate level is advisable prior to reading this book.

  11. Contribution of non-volatile and aroma fractions to in-mouth sensory properties of red wines: wine reconstitution strategies and sensory sorting task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Campo, Eva; Avizcuri, José Miguel; Valentin, Dominique; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación; Ferreira, Vicente

    2012-06-30

    This work explores to what extent the aroma or the non-volatile fractions of red wines are responsible for the overall flavor differences perceived in-mouth. For this purpose, 14 samples (4 commercial and 10 reconstituted wines), were sorted by a panel of 30 trained assessors according to their sensory in-mouth similarities. Reconstituted wines were prepared by adding the same volatile fraction (coming from a red wine) to the non-volatile fraction of 10 different red wines showing large differences in perceived astringency. Sorting was performed under three different conditions: (a) no aroma perception: nose-close condition (NA), (b) retronasal aroma perception only (RA), and (c) allowing retro- and involuntary orthonasal aroma perception (ROA). Similarity estimates were derived from the sorting and submitted to multidimensional scaling (MDS) followed by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Results have clearly shown that, globally, aroma perception is not the major driver of the in-mouth sensory perception of red wine, which is undoubtedly primarily driven by the perception of astringency and by the chemical compounds causing it, particularly protein precipitable proanthocyanidins (PAs). However, aroma perception plays a significant role on the perception of sweetness and bitterness. The impact of aroma seems to be more important whenever astringency, total polyphenols and protein precipitable PAs levels are smaller. Results also indicate that when a red-black fruit odor nuance is clearly perceived in conditions in which orthonasal odor perception is allowed, a strong reduction in astringency takes place. Such red-black fruit odor nuance seems to be the result of a specific aroma release pattern as a consequence of the interaction between aroma compounds and the non-volatile matrix. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of Non-Volatile Chemical Constituents of Menthae Haplocalycis Herba by Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Lu Xu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Menthae Haplocalycis herba, one kind of Chinese edible herbs, has been widely utilized for the clinical use in China for thousands of years. Over the last decades, studies on chemical constituents of Menthae Haplocalycis herba have been widely performed. However, less attention has been paid to non-volatile components which are also responsible for its medical efficacy than the volatile constituents. Therefore, a rapid and sensitive method was developed for the comprehensive identification of the non-volatile constituents in Menthae Haplocalycis herba using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap. Separation was performed with Acquity UPLC® BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm with 0.2% formic acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile as the mobile phase under gradient conditions. Based on the accurate mass measurement (<5 ppm, MS/MS fragmentation patterns and different chromatographic behaviors, a total of 64 compounds were unambiguously or tentatively characterized, including 30 flavonoids, 20 phenolic acids, 12 terpenoids and two phenylpropanoids. Finally, target isolation of three compounds named Acacetin, Rosmarinic acid and Clemastanin A (first isolated from Menthae Haplocalycis herba were performed based on the obtained results, which further confirmed the deduction of fragmentation patterns and identified the compounds profile in Menthae Haplocalycis herba. Our research firstly systematically elucidated the non-volatile components of Menthae Haplocalycis herba, which laid the foundation for further pharmacological and metabolic studies. Meanwhile, our established method was useful and efficient to screen and identify targeted constituents from traditional Chinese medicine extracts.

  13. Low-cost fabrication of ternary CuInSe{sub 2} nanocrystals by colloidal route using a novel combination of volatile and non-volatile capping agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chawla, Parul; Narain Sharma, Shailesh, E-mail: shailesh@nplindia.org; Singh, Son

    2014-11-15

    Wet-route synthesis of CuInSe{sub 2} (CISe) nanocrystals has been envisaged with the utilization of the unique combination of coordinating ligand and non coordinating solvent. Our work demonstrates the formation of a single-phase, nearly stoichiometric and monodispersive, stable and well-passivated colloidal ternary CISe nanocrystals (band gap (E{sub g})∼1.16 eV) using a novel combination of ligands; viz. volatile arylamine aniline and non-volatile solvent 1-octadecene. The synthesis and growth conditions have been manoeuvred using the colligative properties of the mixture and thus higher growth temperature (∼250 °C) could be attained that promoted larger grain growth. The beneficial influence of the capping agents (aniline and 1-octadecene) on the properties of chalcopyrite nanocrystals has enabled us to pictorally model the structural, morphological and optoelectronic aspects of CISe nanoparticles. - Graphical abstract: Without resorting to any post-selenization process and using the colligative properties of the mixture comprising of volatile aniline and non-volatile 1-octadecene to manoeuvre the growth conditions to promote Ostwald ripening, a single phase, monodispersive and nearly stoichiometric ternary CISe nanocrystals are formed by wet-synthesis route. - Highlights: • Wet-route synthesis of CISe nanocrystals reported without post-selenization process. • Single-phase, stable and well-passivated colloidal ternary CISe nanocrystals formed. • Novel combination of capping agents: volatile aniline and non-volatile 1-octadecene. • Higher growth temperature attained using the colligative properties of the mixture. • Metallic salts presence explains exp. and theoretical boiling point difference.

  14. Cathode and ion-luminescence of Eu:ZnO thin films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering and plasma decomposition of non-volatile precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil-Rostra, Jorge [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, CSIC, Univ. Sevilla, C/Américo Vespucio 49, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Ferrer, Francisco J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, CSIC, Univ. Sevilla, Av. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Martín, Inocencio R. [Departamento de Física Fundamental y Experimental, Electrónica y Sistemas, U. La Laguna, C/Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez s/n, E-38206 La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); González-Elipe, Agustín R.; Yubero, Francisco [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, CSIC, Univ. Sevilla, C/Américo Vespucio 49, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2016-10-15

    This paper reports the luminescent behavior of Eu:ZnO thin films prepared by an one-step procedure that combines reactive magnetron sputtering deposition of ZnO with the plasma activated decomposition of a non-volatile acetylacetonate precursor of Eu sublimated in an effusion cell. Chemical composition and microstructure of the Eu:ZnO thin films have been characterized by several methods and their photo-, cathode- and ion-luminescent properties studied as a function of Eu concentration. The high transparency and well controlled optical properties of the films have demonstrated to be ideal for the development of cathode- and ion- luminescence sensors.

  15. Controlled fabrication of Si nanocrystal delta-layers in thin SiO{sub 2} layers by plasma immersion ion implantation for nonvolatile memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonafos, C.; Ben-Assayag, G.; Groenen, J.; Carrada, M. [CEMES-CNRS and Université de Toulouse, 29 rue J. Marvig, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 04 (France); Spiegel, Y.; Torregrosa, F. [IBS, Rue G Imbert Prolongée, ZI Peynier-Rousset, 13790 Peynier (France); Normand, P.; Dimitrakis, P.; Kapetanakis, E. [NCSRD, Terma Patriarchou Gregoriou, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Sahu, B. S.; Slaoui, A. [ICube, 23 Rue du Loess, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)

    2013-12-16

    Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII) is a promising alternative to beam line implantation to produce a single layer of nanocrystals (NCs) in the gate insulator of metal-oxide semiconductor devices. We report herein the fabrication of two-dimensional Si-NCs arrays in thin SiO{sub 2} films using PIII and rapid thermal annealing. The effect of plasma and implantation conditions on the structural properties of the NC layers is examined by transmission electron microscopy. A fine tuning of the NCs characteristics is possible by optimizing the oxide thickness, implantation energy, and dose. Electrical characterization revealed that the PIII-produced-Si NC structures are appealing for nonvolatile memories.

  16. Non-exponential resistive switching in Ag2S memristors: a key to nanometer-scale non-volatile memory devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubicza, Agnes; Csontos, Miklós; Halbritter, András; Mihály, György

    2015-03-14

    The dynamics of resistive switchings in nanometer-scale metallic junctions formed between an inert metallic tip and an Ag film covered by a thin Ag2S layer are investigated. Our thorough experimental analysis and numerical simulations revealed that the resistance change upon a switching bias voltage pulse exhibits a strongly non-exponential behaviour yielding markedly different response times at different bias levels. Our results demonstrate the merits of Ag2S nanojunctions as nanometer-scale non-volatile memory cells with stable switching ratios, high endurance as well as fast response to write/erase, and an outstanding stability against read operations at technologically optimal bias and current levels.

  17. Effects of biodiesel, engine load and diesel particulate filter on nonvolatile particle number size distributions in heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Li-Hao, E-mail: lhy@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, China Medical University, 91, Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Liou, Yi-Jyun [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, China Medical University, 91, Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Man-Ting [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250, Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40254, Taiwan (China); Lu, Jau-Huai [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250, Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 40254, Taiwan (China); Yang, Hsi-Hsien [Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, 168, Jifeng E. Road, Taichung 41349, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ying I. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, 60, Sec. 1, Erh-Jen Road, Tainan 71710, Taiwan (China); Wang, Lin-Chi [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, 840, Chengcing Road, Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chung-Bang [Fuel Quality and Engine Performance Research, Refining and Manufacturing Research Institute, Chinese Petroleum Corporation, 217, Minsheng S. Road, Chiayi 60036, Taiwan (China); Lai, Jim-Shoung [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, China Medical University, 91, Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of waste cooking oil biodiesel, engine load and DOC + DPF on nonvolatile particle size distributions in HDDE exhaust. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing biodiesel blends cause slight decreases in the total particle number concentrations and negligible changes in size distributions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing load results in modest increases in both the total particle number concentrations and sizes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of semivolatile materials are strongest at idle, during which nonvolatile cores <16 nm were observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The DOC + DPF shows remarkable filtration efficiency for both the core and soot particles, irrespective of biodiesel blend and load. - Abstract: Diesel engine exhaust contains large numbers of submicrometer particles that degrade air quality and human health. This study examines the number emission characteristics of 10-1000 nm nonvolatile particles from a heavy-duty diesel engine, operating with various waste cooking oil biodiesel blends (B2, B10 and B20), engine loads (0%, 25%, 50% and 75%) and a diesel oxidation catalyst plus diesel particulate filter (DOC + DPF) under steady modes. For a given load, the total particle number concentrations (N{sub TOT}) decrease slightly, while the mode diameters show negligible changes with increasing biodiesel blends. For a given biodiesel blend, both the N{sub TOT} and mode diameters increase modestly with increasing load of above 25%. The N{sub TOT} at idle are highest and their size distributions are strongly affected by condensation and possible nucleation of semivolatile materials. Nonvolatile cores of diameters less than 16 nm are only observed at idle mode. The DOC + DPF shows remarkable filtration efficiency for both the core and soot particles, irrespective of the biodiesel blend and engine load under study. The N{sub TOT} post the DOC + DPF are comparable to typical ambient levels of

  18. Controlled fabrication of Si nanocrystal delta-layers in thin SiO2 layers by plasma immersion ion implantation for nonvolatile memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonafos, C.; Ben-Assayag, G.; Groenen, J.; Carrada, M.; Spiegel, Y.; Torregrosa, F.; Normand, P.; Dimitrakis, P.; Kapetanakis, E.; Sahu, B. S.; Slaoui, A.

    2013-01-01

    Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII) is a promising alternative to beam line implantation to produce a single layer of nanocrystals (NCs) in the gate insulator of metal-oxide semiconductor devices. We report herein the fabrication of two-dimensional Si-NCs arrays in thin SiO 2 films using PIII and rapid thermal annealing. The effect of plasma and implantation conditions on the structural properties of the NC layers is examined by transmission electron microscopy. A fine tuning of the NCs characteristics is possible by optimizing the oxide thickness, implantation energy, and dose. Electrical characterization revealed that the PIII-produced-Si NC structures are appealing for nonvolatile memories

  19. Residual stress by repair welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Toyoda, Masao

    2003-01-01

    Residual stress by repair welds is computed using the thermal elastic-plastic analysis with phase-transformation effect. Coupling phenomena of temperature, microstructure, and stress-strain fields are simulated in the finite-element analysis. Weld bond of a plate butt-welded joint is gouged and then deposited by weld metal in repair process. Heat source is synchronously moved with the deposition of the finite-element as the weld deposition. Microstructure is considered by using CCT diagram and the transformation behavior in the repair weld is also simulated. The effects of initial stress, heat input, and weld length on residual stress distribution are studied from the organic results of numerical analysis. Initial residual stress before repair weld has no influence on the residual stress after repair treatment near weld metal, because the initial stress near weld metal releases due to high temperature of repair weld and then stress by repair weld regenerates. Heat input has an effect for residual stress distribution, for not its magnitude but distribution zone. Weld length should be considered reducing the magnitude of residual stress in the edge of weld bead; short bead induces high tensile residual stress. (author)

  20. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  1. Electric Field Tuning Non-volatile Magnetism in Half-Metallic Alloys Co2FeAl/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 Heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunzhu, Gesang; Wang, Fenglong; Zhou, Cai; Jiang, Changjun

    2018-03-01

    We reported the non-volatile electric field-mediated magnetic properties in the half-metallic Heusler alloy Co2FeAl/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 heterostructure at room temperature. The remanent magnetization with different applied electric field along [100] and [01-1] directions was achieved, which showed the non-volatile remanent magnetization driven by an electric field. The two giant reversible and stable remanent magnetization states were obtained by applying pulsed electric field. This can be attributed to the piezostrain effect originating from the piezoelectric substrate, which can be used for magnetoelectric-based memory devices.

  2. Nitrogen availability of biogas residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed Fouda, Sara

    2011-09-07

    The objectives of this study were to characterize biogas residues either unseparated or separated into a liquid and a solid phase from the fermentation of different substrates with respect to their N and C content. In addition, short and long term effects of the application of these biogas residues on the N availability and N utilization by ryegrass was investigated. It is concluded that unseparated or liquid separated biogas residues provide N at least corresponding to their ammonium content and that after the first fertilizer application the C{sub org}:N{sub org} ratio of the biogas residues was a crucial factor for the N availability. After long term application, the organic N accumulated in the soil leads to an increased release of N.

  3. Evaluation of non-volatile metabolites in beer stored at high temperature and utility as an accelerated method to predict flavour stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuberger, Adam L; Broeckling, Corey D; Sedin, Dana; Holbrook, Christian; Barr, Lindsay; Kirkpatrick, Kaylyn; Prenni, Jessica E

    2016-06-01

    Flavour stability is vital to the brewing industry as beer is often stored for an extended time under variable conditions. Developing an accelerated model to evaluate brewing techniques that affect flavour stability is an important area of research. Here, we performed metabolomics on non-volatile compounds in beer stored at 37 °C between 1 and 14 days for two beer types: an amber ale and an India pale ale. The experiment determined high temperature to influence non-volatile metabolites, including the purine 5-methylthioadenosine (5-MTA). In a second experiment, three brewing techniques were evaluated for improved flavour stability: use of antioxidant crowns, chelation of pro-oxidants, and varying plant content in hops. Sensory analysis determined the hop method was associated with improved flavour stability, and this was consistent with reduced 5-MTA at both regular and high temperature storage. Future studies are warranted to understand the influence of 5-MTA on flavour and aging within different beer types. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. High reliable and stable organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memory with a poly(4-vinyl phenol) charge trapping layer based on a pn-heterojunction active layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Lanyi; Ying, Jun; Han, Jinhua; Zhang, Letian, E-mail: zlt@jlu.edu.cn, E-mail: wwei99@jlu.edu.cn; Wang, Wei, E-mail: zlt@jlu.edu.cn, E-mail: wwei99@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2016-04-25

    In this letter, we demonstrate a high reliable and stable organic field-effect transistor (OFET) based nonvolatile memory (NVM) with a polymer poly(4-vinyl phenol) (PVP) as the charge trapping layer. In the unipolar OFETs, the inreversible shifts of the turn-on voltage (V{sub on}) and severe degradation of the memory window (ΔV{sub on}) at programming (P) and erasing (E) voltages, respectively, block their application in NVMs. The obstacle is overcome by using a pn-heterojunction as the active layer in the OFET memory, which supplied a holes and electrons accumulating channel at the supplied P and E voltages, respectively. Both holes and electrons transferring from the channels to PVP layer and overwriting the trapped charges with an opposite polarity result in the reliable bidirectional shifts of V{sub on} at P and E voltages, respectively. The heterojunction OFET exhibits excellent nonvolatile memory characteristics, with a large ΔV{sub on} of 8.5 V, desired reading (R) voltage at 0 V, reliable P/R/E/R dynamic endurance over 100 cycles and a long retention time over 10 years.

  5. A study on low-power, nanosecond operation and multilevel bipolar resistance switching in Ti/ZrO2/Pt nonvolatile memory with 1T1R architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ming-Chi; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen; Jang, Wen-Yueh; Lin, Chen-Hsi

    2012-01-01

    Low-power, bipolar resistive switching (RS) characteristics in the Ti/ZrO 2 /Pt nonvolatile memory with one transistor and one resistor (1T1R) architecture were reported. Multilevel storage behavior was observed by modulating the amplitude of the MOSFET gate voltage, in which the transistor functions as a current limiter. Furthermore, multilevel storage was also executed by controlling the reset voltage, leading the resistive random access memory (RRAM) to the multiple metastable low resistance state (LRS). The experimental results on the measured electrical properties of the various sized devices confirm that the RS mechanism of the Ti/ZrO 2 /Pt structure obeys the conducting filaments model. In application, the devices exhibit high-speed switching performances (250 ns) with suitable high/low resistance state ratio (HRS/LRS > 10). The LRS of the devices with 10 year retention ability at 80 °C, based on the Arrhenius equation, is also demonstrated in the thermal accelerating test. Furthermore, the ramping gate voltage method with fixed drain voltage is used to switch the 1T1R memory cells for upgrading the memory performances. Our experimental results suggest that the ZrO 2 -based RRAM is a prospective alternative for nonvolatile multilevel memory device applications. (paper)

  6. Voltage control of metal-insulator transition and non-volatile ferroelastic switching of resistance in VOx/PMN-PT heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Tianxiang; Liu, Ming; Ren, Wei; Ye, Zuo-Guang; Sun, Nian X

    2014-08-04

    The central challenge in realizing electronics based on strongly correlated electronic states, or 'Mottronics', lies in finding an energy efficient way to switch between the distinct collective phases with a control voltage in a reversible and reproducible manner. In this work, we demonstrate that a voltage-impulse-induced ferroelastic domain switching in the (011)-oriented 0.71Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) substrates allows a robust non-volatile tuning of the metal-insulator transition in the VOx films deposited onto them. In such a VOx/PMN-PT heterostructure, the unique two-step electric polarization switching covers up to 90% of the entire poled area and contributes to a homogeneous in-plane anisotropic biaxial strain, which, in turn, enables the lattice changes and results in the suppression of metal-insulator transition in the mechanically coupled VOx films by 6 K with a resistance change up to 40% over a broad range of temperature. These findings provide a framework for realizing in situ and non-volatile tuning of strain-sensitive order parameters in strongly correlated materials, and demonstrate great potentials in delivering reconfigurable, compactable, and energy-efficient electronic devices.

  7. The origin of traps and the effect of nitrogen plasma in oxide-nitride-oxide structures for non-volatile memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W. S.; Kwak, D. W.; Oh, J. S.; Lee, D. W.; Cho, H. Y.

    2010-01-01

    Ultrathin oxide-nitride-oxide (ONO) dielectric stacked layers are fundamental structures of silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon (SONOS) non-volatile memory devices in which information is known to be stored as charges trapped in silicon nitride. Deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and a capacitance-voltage (CV) analysis were introduced to observe the trap behavior related to the memory effect in memory devices. The DLTS results verified that the nitride-related traps were a dominant factor in the memory effect. The energy of hole traps was 0.307 eV above the balance band. To improve the memory effects of the non-volatile memory devices with ONO structures, we introduced a nitrogen plasma treatment. After the N-plasma treatment, the flat-band voltage shift (ΔV FB ) was increased by about 1.5 times. The program and the erase (P-E) characteristics were also shown to be better than those for the as-ONO structure. In addition, the retention characteristics were improved by over 2.4 times.

  8. Core-Shell Zn x Cd1- x Se/Zn y Cd1- y Se Quantum Dots for Nonvolatile Memory and Electroluminescent Device Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amoody, Fuad; Suarez, Ernesto; Rodriguez, Angel; Heller, E.; Huang, Wenli; Jain, F.

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents a floating quantum dot (QD) gate nonvolatile memory device using high-energy-gap Zn y Cd1- y Se-cladded Zn x Cd1- x Se quantum dots ( y > x) with tunneling layers comprising nearly lattice-matched semiconductors (e.g., ZnS/ZnMgS) on Si channels. Also presented is the fabrication of an electroluminescent (EL) device with embedded cladded ZnCdSe quantum dots. These ZnCdSe quantum dots were embedded between indium tin oxide (ITO) on glass and a top Schottky metal electrode deposited on a thin CsF barrier. These QDs, which were nucleated in a photo-assisted microwave plasma (PMP) metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor, were grown between the source and drain regions on a p-type silicon substrate of the nonvolatile memory device. The composition of QD cladding, which relates to the value of y in Zn y Cd1- y Se, was engineered by the intensity of ultraviolet light, which controlled the incorporation of zinc in ZnCdSe. The QD quality is comparable to those deposited by other methods. Characteristics and modeling of the II-VI quantum dots as well as two diverse types of devices are presented in this paper.

  9. Non-volatile nano-floating gate memory with Pt-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite nanoparticles and indium gallium zinc oxide channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Quanli [Myongji University, Department of Nano Science and Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Chang; Baek, Yoon-Jae [Myongji University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Ho [Myongji University, Department of Chemical Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chi Jung [Myongji University, Department of Nano Science and Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun-Mi; Kim, Ki-Bum [Seoul National University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Tae-Sik, E-mail: tsyoon@mju.ac.kr [Myongji University, Department of Nano Science and Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    Non-volatile nano-floating gate memory characteristics with colloidal Pt-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite nanoparticles with a mostly core-shell structure and indium gallium zinc oxide channel layer were investigated. The Pt-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were chemically synthesized through the preferential oxidation of Fe and subsequent pileup of Pt into the core in the colloidal solution. The uniformly assembled nanoparticles' layer could be formed with a density of {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2} by a solution-based dip-coating process. The Pt core ({approx}3 nm in diameter) and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-shell ({approx}6 nm in thickness) played the roles of the charge storage node and tunneling barrier, respectively. The device exhibited the hysteresis in current-voltage measurement with a threshold voltage shift of {approx}4.76 V by gate voltage sweeping to +30 V. It also showed the threshold shift of {approx}0.66 V after pulse programming at +20 V for 1 s with retention > {approx}65 % after 10{sup 4} s. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using colloidal nanoparticles with core-shell structure as gate stacks of the charge storage node and tunneling dielectric for low-temperature and solution-based processed non-volatile memory devices.

  10. Floating-Gate Manipulated Graphene-Black Phosphorus Heterojunction for Nonvolatile Ambipolar Schottky Junction Memories, Memory Inverter Circuits, and Logic Rectifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Chen, Mingyuan; Zong, Qijun; Zhang, Zengxing

    2017-10-11

    The Schottky junction is an important unit in electronics and optoelectronics. However, its properties greatly degrade with device miniaturization. The fast development of circuits has fueled a rapid growth in the study of two-dimensional (2D) crystals, which may lead to breakthroughs in the semiconductor industry. Here we report a floating-gate manipulated nonvolatile ambipolar Schottky junction memory from stacked all-2D layers of graphene-BP/h-BN/graphene (BP, black phosphorus; h-BN, hexagonal boron nitride) in a designed floating-gate field-effect Schottky barrier transistor configuration. By manipulating the voltage pulse applied to the control gate, the device exhibits ambipolar characteristics and can be tuned to act as graphene-p-BP or graphene-n-BP junctions with reverse rectification behavior. Moreover, the junction exhibits good storability properties of more than 10 years and is also programmable. On the basis of these characteristics, we further demonstrate the application of the device to dual-mode nonvolatile Schottky junction memories, memory inverter circuits, and logic rectifiers.

  11. Nonvolatile flexible organic bistable devices fabricated utilizing CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles embedded in a conducting poly N-vinylcarbazole polymer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Dong-Ick; Kim, Ji-Hwan; Park, Dong-Hee; Choi, Won Kook; Li, Fushan; Ham, Jung Hun; Kim, Tae Whan

    2008-01-01

    The bistable effects of CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles embedded in a conducting poly N-vinylcarbazole (PVK) polymer layer by using flexible poly-vinylidene difluoride (PVDF) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates were investigated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed that CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles were formed inside the PVK polymer layer. Current-voltage (I-V) measurement on the Al/[CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles+ PVK]/ITO/PVDF and Al/[CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles+ PVK ]/ITO/PET structures at 300 K showed a nonvolatile electrical bistability behavior with a flat-band voltage shift due to the existence of the CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles, indicative of trapping, storing and emission of charges in the electronic states of the CdSe nanoparticles. A bistable behavior for the fabricated organic bistable device (OBD) structures is described on the basis of the I-V results. These results indicate that OBDs fabricated by embedding inorganic CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles in a conducting polymer matrix on flexible substrates are prospects for potential applications in flexible nonvolatile flash memory devices

  12. Effects of biodiesel, engine load and diesel particulate filter on nonvolatile particle number size distributions in heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Li-Hao; Liou, Yi-Jyun; Cheng, Man-Ting; Lu, Jau-Huai; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Tsai, Ying I; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chen, Chung-Bang; Lai, Jim-Shoung

    2012-01-15

    Diesel engine exhaust contains large numbers of submicrometer particles that degrade air quality and human health. This study examines the number emission characteristics of 10-1000 nm nonvolatile particles from a heavy-duty diesel engine, operating with various waste cooking oil biodiesel blends (B2, B10 and B20), engine loads (0%, 25%, 50% and 75%) and a diesel oxidation catalyst plus diesel particulate filter (DOC+DPF) under steady modes. For a given load, the total particle number concentrations (N(TOT)) decrease slightly, while the mode diameters show negligible changes with increasing biodiesel blends. For a given biodiesel blend, both the N(TOT) and mode diameters increase modestly with increasing load of above 25%. The N(TOT) at idle are highest and their size distributions are strongly affected by condensation and possible nucleation of semivolatile materials. Nonvolatile cores of diameters less than 16 nm are only observed at idle mode. The DOC+DPF shows remarkable filtration efficiency for both the core and soot particles, irrespective of the biodiesel blend and engine load under study. The N(TOT) post the DOC+DPF are comparable to typical ambient levels of ≈ 10(4)cm(-3). This implies that, without concurrent reductions of semivolatile materials, the formation of semivolatile nucleation mode particles post the after treatment is highly favored. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Vesícula residual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio C. U. Coelho

    Full Text Available Our objective is to report three patients with recurrent severe upper abdominal pain secondary to residual gallbladder. All patients had been subjected to cholecystectomy from 1 to 20 years before. The diagnosis was established after several episodes of severe upper abdominal pain by imaging exams: ultrasonography, tomography, or endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Removal of the residual gallbladder led to complete resolution of symptoms. Partial removal of the gallbladder is a very rare cause of postcholecystectomy symptoms.

  14. Residual number processing in dyscalculia ?

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and ca...

  15. Americium recovery from reduction residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, W.V.; Proctor, S.G.

    1973-12-25

    A process for separation and recovery of americium values from container or bomb'' reduction residues comprising dissolving the residues in a suitable acid, adjusting the hydrogen ion concentration to a desired level by adding a base, precipitating the americium as americium oxalate by adding oxalic acid, digesting the solution, separating the precipitate, and thereafter calcining the americium oxalate precipitate to form americium oxide. (Official Gazette)

  16. Evaluation of residue-residue contact prediction in CASP10

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2013-08-31

    We present the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions from 26 prediction groups participating in the 10th round of the CASP experiment. The most recently developed direct coupling analysis methods did not take part in the experiment likely because they require a very deep sequence alignment not available for any of the 114 CASP10 targets. The performance of contact prediction methods was evaluated with the measures used in previous CASPs (i.e., prediction accuracy and the difference between the distribution of the predicted contacts and that of all pairs of residues in the target protein), as well as new measures, such as the Matthews correlation coefficient, the area under the precision-recall curve and the ranks of the first correctly and incorrectly predicted contact. We also evaluated the ability to detect interdomain contacts and tested whether the difficulty of predicting contacts depends upon the protein length and the depth of the family sequence alignment. The analyses were carried out on the target domains for which structural homologs did not exist or were difficult to identify. The evaluation was performed for all types of contacts (short, medium, and long-range), with emphasis placed on long-range contacts, i.e. those involving residues separated by at least 24 residues along the sequence. The assessment suggests that the best CASP10 contact prediction methods perform at approximately the same level, and comparably to those participating in CASP9.

  17. Residual stresses around Vickers indents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajares, A.; Guiberteau, F.; Steinbrech, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    The residual stresses generated by Vickers indentation in brittle materials and their changes due to annealing and surface removal were studied in 4 mol% yttria partially stabilized zirconia (4Y-PSZ). Three experimental methods to gain information about the residual stress field were applied: (i) crack profile measurements based on serial sectioning, (ii) controlled crack propagation in post indentation bending tests and (iii) double indentation tests with smaller secondary indents located around a larger primary impression. Three zones of different residual stress behavior are deduced from the experiments. Beneath the impression a crack free spherical zone of high hydrostatic stresses exists. This core zone is followed by a transition regime where indentation cracks develop but still experience hydrostatic stresses. Finally, in an outward third zone, the crack contour is entirely governed by the tensile residual stress intensity (elastically deformed region). Annealing and surface removal reduce this crack driving stress intensity. The specific changes of the residual stresses due to the post indentation treatments are described and discussed in detail for the three zones

  18. Minimization of zirconium chlorinator residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, G.K.; Harbuck, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    Zirconium chlorinator residues contain an array of rare earths, scandium, unreacted coke, and radioactive thorium and radium. Because of the radioactivity, the residues must be disposed in special waste containment facilities. As these sites become more congested, and with stricter environmental regulations, disposal of large volumes of wastes may become more difficult. To reduce the mass of disposed material, the US Bureau of Mines (USBM) developed technology to recover rare earths, thorium and radium, and unreacted coke from these residues. This technology employs an HCl leach to solubilize over 99% of the scandium and thorium, and over 90% of the rare earths. The leach liquor is processed through several solvent extraction stages to selectively recover scandium, thorium, and rare earths. The leach residue is further leached with an organic acid to solubilize radium, thus allowing unreacted coke to be recycled to the chlorinator. The thorium and radium waste products, which comprise only 2.1% of the original residue mass, can then be sent to the radioactive waste facility

  19. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    A new process for recovery of plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste has been demonstrated. It is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, which eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flowsheet concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 = from high chloride-low acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with 1N HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. The plutonium is recovered, after elution, via hydroxide precipitation, while the americium is recovered via NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process are discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are now in progress for MSE residues. Flow sheets for actinide recovery from electrorefining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  20. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1985-05-01

    We demonstrated a new process for recovering plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste. The method is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, or acidity that eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flow chart concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 2- from high-chloride low-acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with lN HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. After elution, plutonium is recovered by hydroxide precipitation, and americium is recovered by NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process can be discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are in progress for MSE residues. Flow charts for actinide recovery from electro-refining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  1. Coking of residue hydroprocessing catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, M.R.; Zhao, Y.X. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; McKnight, C.A. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Komar, D.A.; Carruthers, J.D. [Cytec Industries Inc., Stamford, CT (United States)

    1997-11-01

    One of the major causes of deactivation of Ni/Mo and Co/Mo sulfide catalysts for hydroprocessing of heavy petroleum and bitumen fractions is coke deposition. The composition and amount of coke deposited on residue hydroprocessing catalysts depends on the composition of the liquid phase of the reactor. In the Athabasca bitumen, the high molecular weight components encourage coke deposition at temperatures of 430 to 440 degrees C and at pressures of 10 to 20 MPa hydrogen pressure. A study was conducted to determine which components in the heavy residual oil fraction were responsible for coking of catalysts. Seven samples of Athabasca vacuum residue were prepared by supercritical fluid extraction with pentane before being placed in the reactor. Carbon content and hydrodesulfurization activity was measured. It was concluded that the deposition of coke depended on the presence of asphaltenes and not on other compositional variables such as content of nitrogen, aromatic carbon or vanadium.

  2. Leaching From Biomass Gasification Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Polletini, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled with geoche......The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled...

  3. Carbaryl residues in maize products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Mansour, S.A.; Mostafa, I.Y.; Hassan, A.

    1976-01-01

    The 14 C-labelled insecticide carbaryl was synthesized from [1- 14 C]-1-naphthol at a specific activity of 3.18mCig -1 . Maize plants were treated with the labelled insecticide under simulated conditions of agricultural practice. Mature plants were harvested and studied for distribution of total residues in untreated grains as popularly roasted and consumed, and in the corn oil and corn germ products. Total residues found under these conditions in the respective products were 0.2, 0.1, 0.45 and 0.16ppm. (author)

  4. Combinatorial construction of toric residues

    OpenAIRE

    Khetan, Amit; Soprounov, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    The toric residue is a map depending on n+1 semi-ample divisors on a complete toric variety of dimension n. It appears in a variety of contexts such as sparse polynomial systems, mirror symmetry, and GKZ hypergeometric functions. In this paper we investigate the problem of finding an explicit element whose toric residue is equal to one. Such an element is shown to exist if and only if the associated polytopes are essential. We reduce the problem to finding a collection of partitions of the la...

  5. Alternatives to crop residues for soil amendment

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, J.M.; Unger, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    Metadata only record In semiarid agroecosystems, crop residues can provide important benefits of soil and water conservation, nutrient cycling, and improved subsequent crop yields. However, there are frequently multiple competing uses for residues, including animal forage, fuel, and construction material. This chapter discusses the various uses of crop residues and examines alternative soil amendments when crop residues cannot be left on the soil.

  6. Residual Structures in Latent Growth Curve Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Kevin J.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2010-01-01

    Several alternatives are available for specifying the residual structure in latent growth curve modeling. Two specifications involve uncorrelated residuals and represent the most commonly used residual structures. The first, building on repeated measures analysis of variance and common specifications in multilevel models, forces residual variances…

  7. Computing Decoupled Residuals for Compact Disc Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    a pair of residuals generated by Compact Disc Player. However, these residuals depend on the performance of position servos in the Compact Disc Player. In other publications of the same authors a pair of decoupled residuals is derived. However, the computation of these alternative residuals has been...

  8. Laser Nanosoldering of Golden and Magnetite Particles and its Possible Application in 3D Printing Devices and Four-Valued Non-Volatile Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaworski Jacek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the 3D printing methods have been developing rapidly. This article presents researches about a new composite consisted of golden and magnetite nanoparticles which could be used for this technique. Preparation of golden nanoparticles by laser ablation and their soldering by laser green light irradiation proceeded in water environment. Magnetite was obtained on chemical way. During experiments it was tested a change of a size of nanoparticles during laser irradiation, surface plasmon resonance, zeta potential. The obtained golden - magnetite composite material was magnetic after laser irradiation. On the end there was considered the application it for 3D printing devices, water filters and four-valued non-volatile memories.

  9. Profiling of nonvolatiles in whiskeys using ultra high pressure liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Thomas S; Zweigenbaum, Jerry; Ebeler, Susan E

    2014-11-15

    Commercial samples of 63 American whiskeys, including bourbon whiskeys, Tennessee whiskeys, rye whiskeys and other blended whiskeys were analysed using ultra high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The non-volatile composition of the whiskeys was used to model differences among the samples using discriminant analysis. The blended American whiskeys were readily distinguished from the remaining types. Additionally, most Tennessee whiskeys could be differentiated from bourbon and rye whiskeys. Similarly, younger (8 years old) whiskeys could be separated. The compounds important for differentiating among these whiskeys included wood derived phenolic compounds, lignan derived compounds and several C8 and larger lipids. A number of additional compounds differentiated the whiskeys but could not be identified using MS and MS/MS data alone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High performance non-volatile ferroelectric copolymer memory based on a ZnO nanowire transistor fabricated on a transparent substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedic, Stanko; Welland, Mark; Tea Chun, Young; Chu, Daping; Hong, Woong-Ki

    2014-01-01

    A high performance ferroelectric non-volatile memory device based on a top-gate ZnO nanowire (NW) transistor fabricated on a glass substrate is demonstrated. The ZnO NW channel was spin-coated with a poly (vinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) layer acting as a top-gate dielectric without buffer layer. Electrical conductance modulation and memory hysteresis are achieved by a gate electric field induced reversible electrical polarization switching of the P(VDF-TrFE) thin film. Furthermore, the fabricated device exhibits a memory window of ∼16.5 V, a high drain current on/off ratio of ∼10 5 , a gate leakage current below ∼300 pA, and excellent retention characteristics for over 10 4 s

  11. Simultaneous Microwave Extraction and Separation of Volatile and Non-Volatile Organic Compounds of Boldo Leaves. From Lab to Industrial Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Petigny

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Microwave extraction and separation has been used to increase the concentration of the extract compared to the conventional method with the same solid/liquid ratio, reducing extraction time and separate at the same time Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC from non-Volatile Organic Compounds (NVOC of boldo leaves. As preliminary study, a response surface method has been used to optimize the extraction of soluble material and the separation of VOC from the plant in laboratory scale. The results from the statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions were: microwave power 200 W, extraction time 56 min and solid liquid ratio of 7.5% of plants in water. Lab scale optimized microwave method is compared to conventional distillation, and requires a power/mass ratio of 0.4 W/g of water engaged. This power/mass ratio is kept in order to upscale from lab to pilot plant.

  12. Search for Non-Volatile Components with Low Polarity Characterizing Tobacco Leaves Using Liquid Chromatography / Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishida Naoyuki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alors que les regards se sont principalement tournés sur les composants à faible polarité dans la résine de feuilles de tabac en raison de leur lien probable avec le goût et l’arôme des produits du tabac, l’absence d’une méthode praticable et d’un outil analytique a longtemps fait obstacle à l’identification des composants non-volatils à faible polarité. L’auteur a, en l’occurrence, porté son attention sur l’analyse recourant à la chromatographie en phase inverse non aqueuse couplée à un détecteur à barrettes de photodiodes et à un détecteur de spectrométrie de masse par ionisation chimique à pression atmosphérique. Cette analyse fut considérée applicable à la séparation des composants nonvolatils significatifs mais inconnus. Son application a permis, avec succès, de séparer, détecter et quantifier simultanément plus de 100 composants non-volatils présentant des polarités faibles et différenciées. Ces composantes furent, entre autres, des solanésols, des triacylglycérides, des phytostérols et des chlorophylles. Cependant, les données concernant les différences de composition parmi les diverses feuilles de tabac demeurent encore partielles et basées sur une analyse ciblée plutôt que globales et basées sur une analyse exhaustive. Aucune étude n’a été, à ce jour, accomplie qui recense les composants essentiels permettant de distinguer, parmi les feuilles de tabac, les différents goûts, arômes, variétés, cultivars, processus de séchage et régions de culture. Par conséquent, toutes les données de quantification ont été consolidées dans le but de former une matrice multidimensionnelle complète et ont subi un traitement statistique qui a mis en exergue les catégories et les composants-clés des diverses feuilles de tabac grâce à une analyse en composantes principales et une classification hiérarchique. Les feuilles de tabac ont, dans un premier temps, été ventilées en

  13. Analysis of drugs of forensic interest with capillary zone electrophoresis/time-of-flight mass spectrometry based on the use of non-volatile buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardo, Rossella; Mikšík, Ivan; Aturki, Zeineb; Sorio, Daniela; Seri, Catia; Fanali, Salvatore; Tagliaro, Franco

    2012-02-01

    The present work is aimed at investigating the influence of the background electrolyte composition and concentration on the separation efficiency and resolution and mass spectrometric detection of illicit drugs in a capillary zone electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (CZE-ESI-TOF MS) system. The effect of phosphate, borate and Tris buffers on the separation and mass spectrometry response of a mixture of 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methadone, cocaine, morphine, codeine and 6-monoacetylmorphine was studied, in comparison with a reference ammonium formate separation buffer. Inorganic non-volatile borate and Tris buffers proved hardly suitable for capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) analysis, but quite unexpectedly ammonium phosphate buffers showed good separation and ionization performances for all the analytes tested. Applications of this method to real samples of hair from drug addicts are also provided. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Piezoelectric control of magnetoelectric coupling driven non-volatile memory switching and self cooling effects in FE/FSMA multiferroic heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kirandeep; Kaur, Davinder

    2017-02-01

    The manipulation of magnetic states and materials' spin degree-of-freedom via a control of an electric (E-) field has been recently pursued to develop magnetoelectric (ME) coupling-driven electronic data storage devices with high read/write endurance, fast dynamic response, and low energy dissipation. One major hurdle for this approach is to develop reliable materials which should be compatible with prevailing silicon (Si)-based complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology, simultaneously allowing small voltage for the tuning of magnetization switching. In this regard, multiferroic heterostructures where ferromagnetic (FM) and ferroelectric (FE) layers are alternatively grown on conventional Si substrates are promising as the piezoelectric control of magnetization switching is anticipated to be possible by an E-field. In this work, we study the ferromagnetic shape memory alloys based PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3/Ni50Mn35In15 (PZT/Ni-Mn-In) multiferroic heterostructures, and investigate their potential for CMOS compatible non-volatile magnetic data storage applications. We demonstrate the voltage-impulse controlled nonvolatile, reversible, and bistable magnetization switching at room temperature in Si-integrated PZT/Ni-Mn-In thin film multiferroic heterostructures. We also thoroughly unveil the various intriguing features in these materials, such as E-field tuned ME coupling and magnetocaloric effect, shape memory induced ferroelectric modulation, improved fatigue endurance as well as Refrigeration Capacity (RC). This comprehensive study suggests that these novel materials have a great potential for the development of unconventional nanoscale memory and refrigeration devices with self-cooling effect and enhanced refrigeration efficiency, thus providing a new venue for their applications.

  15. A Simultaneous Analytical Method to Profile Non-Volatile Components with Low Polarity Elucidating Differences Between Tobacco Leaves Using Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishida Naoyuki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive analytical method using liquid chromatography atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry detector (LC/APCI-MSD was developed to determine key non-volatile components with low polarity elucidating holistic difference among tobacco leaves. Nonaqueous reversed-phase chromatography (NARPC using organic solvent ensured simultaneous separation of various components with low polarity in tobacco resin. Application of full-scan mode to APCI-MSD hyphenated with NARPC enabled simultaneous detection of numerous intense product ions given by APCI interface. Parameters for data processing to filter, feature and align peaks were adjusted in order to strike a balance between comprehensiveness and reproducibility in analysis. 63 types of components such as solanesols, chlorophylls, phytosterols, triacylglycerols, solanachromene and others were determined on total ion chromatograms according to authentic components, wavelength spectrum and mass spectrum. The whole area of identified entities among the ones detected on total ion chromatogram reached to over 60% and major entities among those identified showed favorable linearity of determination coefficient of over 0.99. The developed method and data processing procedure were therefore considered feasible for subsequent multivariate analysis. Data matrix consisting of a number of entities was then subjected to principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical clustering analysis. Cultivars of tobacco leaves were distributed far from each cultivar on PCA score plot and each cluster seemed to be characterized by identified non-volatile components with low polarity. While fluecured Virginia (FCV was loaded by solanachromene, phytosterol esters and triacylglycerols, free phytosterols and chlorophylls loaded Burley (BLY and Oriental (ORI respectively. Consequently the whole methodology consisting of comprehensive method and data processing procedure proved useful to determine key

  16. Managing woodwaste: Yield from residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, E. [LNS Services, Inc., North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Rayner, S. [Pacific Waste Energy Inc., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Historically, the majority of sawmill waste has been burned or buried for the sole purpose of disposal. In most jurisdictions, environmental legislation will prohibit, or render uneconomic, these practices. Many reports have been prepared to describe the forest industry`s residue and its environmental effect; although these help those looking for industry-wide or regional solutions, such as electricity generation, they have limited value for the mill manager, who has the on-hands responsibility for generation and disposal of the waste. If the mill manager can evaluate waste streams and break them down into their usable components, he can find niche market solutions for portions of the plant residue and redirect waste to poor/no-return, rather than disposal-cost, end uses. In the modern mill, residue is collected at the individual machine centre by waste conveyors that combine and mix sawdust, shavings, bark, etc. and send the result to the hog-fuel pile. The mill waste system should be analyzed to determine the measures that can improve the quality of residues and determine the volumes of any particular category before the mixing, mentioned above, occurs. After this analysis, the mill may find a niche market for a portion of its woodwaste.

  17. Residual stress in polyethylene pipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poduška, Jan; Hutař, Pavel; Kučera, J.; Frank, A.; Sadílek, J.; Pinter, G.; Náhlík, Luboš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 54, SEP (2016), s. 288-295 ISSN 0142-9418 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : polyethylene pipe * residual stress * ring slitting method * lifetime estimation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.464, year: 2016

  18. Solow Residuals Without Capital Stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burda, Michael C.; Severgnini, Battista

    2014-01-01

    We use synthetic data generated by a prototypical stochastic growth model to assess the accuracy of the Solow residual (Solow, 1957) as a measure of total factor productivity (TFP) growth when the capital stock in use is measured with error. We propose two alternative measurements based on curren...

  19. Solidification process for sludge residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, K.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report investigates the solidification process used at 100-N Basin to solidify the N Basin sediment and assesses the N Basin process for application to the K Basin sludge residue material. This report also includes a discussion of a solidification process for stabilizing filters. The solidified matrix must be compatible with the Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility acceptance criteria

  20. Leptogenesis and residual CP symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Peng; Ding, Gui-Jun; King, Stephen F.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss flavour dependent leptogenesis in the framework of lepton flavour models based on discrete flavour and CP symmetries applied to the type-I seesaw model. Working in the flavour basis, we analyse the case of two general residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, which corresponds to all possible semi-direct models based on a preserved Z 2 in the neutrino sector, together with a CP symmetry, which constrains the PMNS matrix up to a single free parameter which may be fixed by the reactor angle. We systematically study and classify this case for all possible residual CP symmetries, and show that the R-matrix is tightly constrained up to a single free parameter, with only certain forms being consistent with successful leptogenesis, leading to possible connections between leptogenesis and PMNS parameters. The formalism is completely general in the sense that the two residual CP symmetries could result from any high energy discrete flavour theory which respects any CP symmetry. As a simple example, we apply the formalism to a high energy S 4 flavour symmetry with a generalized CP symmetry, broken to two residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, recovering familiar results for PMNS predictions, together with new results for flavour dependent leptogenesis.

  1. Nonvolatile organic pollutants in domestic dust samples from the urban Hamburg area; Schwerfluechtige organische Umweltchemikalien in Hamburger Hausstaeuben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Nonvolatile organic pollutants were measured in 65 private apartments, i.e. biocides, softeners, flame protection agents, stabilisers, soot, tar and bitumen which are contained in many everyday products and building materials. The homes were the private homes of staff members of the Hamburg Environmental Office and their friends; none of the homes were problem cases. The information was obtained by collecting vacuum cleaner dust. The inhomogeneous dust was screened, and the < 63 {mu}m fraction was analyzed. This fraction was homogeneously enough to provide reproducible results. Chloroparaffins and organic tin compounds were measured for the first time ever in this project. While the concentrations of chloroparaffins were significant, organic tin compounds are rather scarce. Bis(2,ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was the main component in nearly all household dust samples. Phthalates in general had the highest concentrations. Next to phthalates, chloroparaffins and the biocide permethrin were found in high concentrations, followed by organic phosphates, further biocides, organic tin compounds and benzo(a)pyrene. The individual substances wre assessed on the basis of 95 percent percentiles obtained from the measured frequency distributions. This figure means that 95 percent of the household dust have a lower or equal concentration than the 95 percent percentile. 95 percent percentiles are generally used as reference values in environmental measurements. The reference values presented here should be considered as preliminary values, owing to the fact that the apartments are not representative of the city of Hamburg, and 65 dust samples are too small a data base. Among the most important substances, owing to their high concentrations and/or toxic effects, are DEHP with a preliminary reference value of 1600 mg/kg of household dust, dibutyl phthalate with 180 mg/kg of dust, short-chain chloroparaffins with 180 mg/kg of dust, permethrin with 110 mg/kg of dust, monobutyl tin

  2. Radioactive material in residues of health services residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa R, A. Jr.; Recio, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The work presents the operational actions developed by the one organ responsible regulator for the control of the material use radioactive in Brazil. Starting from the appearance of coming radioactive material of hospitals and clinical with services of nuclear medicine, material that that is picked up and transported in specific trucks for the gathering of residuals of hospital origin, and guided one it manufactures of treatment of residuals of services of health, where they suffer radiological monitoring before to guide them for final deposition in sanitary embankment, in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The appearance of this radioactive material exposes a possible one violation of the norms that govern the procedures and practices in that sector in the country. (Author)

  3. Evaluation of the QuEChERS sample preparation approach for the analysis of pesticide residues in olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Sara C; Lehotay, Steven J; Mastovska, Katerina; Fernandes, José O; Beatriz, Maria; Oliveira, P P

    2007-03-01

    This paper describes the use of a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method for extraction and cleanup of 16 pesticide residues of interest in olives and olive oil. These products contain a high lipid content, which can adversely affect pesticide recoveries and harm traditional chromatographic systems. For extraction, the main factors (oil and water content) were studied and optimized in experiments to maximize pesticide recoveries. Dispersive SPE with different sorbents was also investigated to minimize matrix coextractives and interferences. For analysis, a new automated DSI device was tested in GC-MS to avoid nonvolatile coextractives from contaminating the instrument. LC-MS/MS with positive ESI was used for those pesticides that were difficult to detect by GC-MS. The final method was validated for olives in terms of recoveries, repeatabilities, and reproducibilities using both detection techniques. The results demonstrated that the method achieved acceptable quantitative recoveries of 70-109% with RSDs < 20% for DSI-GC-MS and 88-130% with RSDs < 10% for LC-MS/MS, and LOQ at or below the regulatory maximum residue limits for the pesticides were achieved.

  4. The Cauchy method of residues

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrinović, Dragoslav S

    1993-01-01

    Volume 1, i. e. the monograph The Cauchy Method of Residues - Theory and Applications published by D. Reidel Publishing Company in 1984 is the only book that covers all known applications of the calculus of residues. They range from the theory of equations, theory of numbers, matrix analysis, evaluation of real definite integrals, summation of finite and infinite series, expansions of functions into infinite series and products, ordinary and partial differential equations, mathematical and theoretical physics, to the calculus of finite differences and difference equations. The appearance of Volume 1 was acknowledged by the mathematical community. Favourable reviews and many private communications encouraged the authors to continue their work, the result being the present book, Volume 2, a sequel to Volume 1. We mention that Volume 1 is a revised, extended and updated translation of the book Cauchyjev raeun ostataka sa primenama published in Serbian by Nau~na knjiga, Belgrade in 1978, whereas the greater part ...

  5. Calcination/dissolution residue treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.C.; Creed, R.F.; Patello, G.K.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Buehler, M.F.; O'Rourke, S.M.; Visnapuu, A.; McLaughlin, D.F.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, high-level wastes are stored underground in steel-lined tanks at the Hanford site. Current plans call for the chemical pretreatment of these wastes before their immobilization in stable glass waste forms. One candidate pretreatment approach, calcination/dissolution, performs an alkaline fusion of the waste and creates a high-level/low-level partition based on the aqueous solubilities of the components of the product calcine. Literature and laboratory studies were conducted with the goal of finding a residue treatment technology that would decrease the quantity of high-level waste glass required following calcination/dissolution waste processing. Four elements, Fe, Ni, Bi, and U, postulated to be present in the high-level residue fraction were identified as being key to the quantity of high-level glass formed. Laboratory tests of the candidate technologies with simulant high-level residues showed reductive roasting followed by carbonyl volatilization to be successful in removing Fe, Ni, and Bi. Subsequent bench-scale tests on residues from calcination/dissolution processing of genuine Hanford Site tank waste showed Fe was separated with radioelement decontamination factors of 70 to 1,000 times with respect to total alpha activity. Thermodynamic analyses of the calcination of five typical Hanford Site tank waste compositions also were performed. The analyses showed sodium hydroxide to be the sole molten component in the waste calcine and emphasized the requirement for waste blending if fluid calcines are to be achieved. Other calcine phases identified in the thermodynamic analysis indicate the significant thermal reconstitution accomplished in calcination

  6. Residue management at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olencz, J.

    1995-01-01

    Past plutonium production and manufacturing operations conducted at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) produced a variety of plutonium-contaminated by-product materials. Residues are a category of these materials and were categorized as open-quotes materials in-processclose quotes to be recovered due to their inherent plutonium concentrations. In 1989 all RFETS plutonium production and manufacturing operations were curtailed. This report describes the management of plutonium bearing liquid and solid wastes

  7. Residual life management. Maintenance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainero Garcia, J.; Hevia Ruperez, F.

    1995-01-01

    The terms Residual Life Management, Life Cycle Management and Long-Term Management are synonymous with a concept which aims to establish efficient maintenance for the profitable and safe operation of a power plant for as long as possible. A Residual Life Management programme comprises a number of stages, of which Maintenance Evaluation focuses on how power plant maintenance practices allow the mitigation and control of component ageing. with this objective in mind, a methodology has been developed for the analysis of potential degradative phenomena acting on critical components in terms of normal power plant maintenance practices. This methodology applied to maintenance evaluation enables the setting out of a maintenance programme based on the Life Management concept, and the programme's subsequent up-dating to allow for new techniques and methods. Initial applications have shown that although, in general terms, power plant maintenance is efficient, the way in which Residual Life Management is approached requires changes in maintenance practices. These changes range from modifications to existing inspection and surveillance methods or the establishment of new ones, to the monitoring of trends or the performance of additional studies, the purpose of which is to provide an accurate evaluation of the condition of the installations and the possibility of life extension. (Author)

  8. Characterisation and management of concrete grinding residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Matt; Gupta, Nautasha; Watts, Ben; Chadik, Paul A; Ferraro, Christopher; Townsend, Timothy G

    2018-02-01

    Concrete grinding residue is the waste product resulting from the grinding, cutting, and resurfacing of concrete pavement. Potential beneficial applications for concrete grinding residue include use as a soil amendment and as a construction material, including as an additive to Portland cement concrete. Concrete grinding residue exhibits a high pH, and though not hazardous, it is sufficiently elevated that precautions need to be taken around aquatic ecosystems. Best management practices and state regulations focus on reducing the impact on such aquatic environment. Heavy metals are present in concrete grinding residue, but concentrations are of the same magnitude as typically recycled concrete residuals. The chemical composition of concrete grinding residue makes it a useful product for some soil amendment purposes at appropriate land application rates. The presence of unreacted concrete in concrete grinding residue was examined for potential use as partial replacement of cement in new concrete. Testing of Florida concrete grinding residue revealed no dramatic reactivity or improvement in mortar strength.

  9. FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR PREDICTING RESIDUAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR PREDICTING RESIDUAL STRESSES IN ... the transverse residual stress in the x-direction (σx) had a maximum value of 375MPa ... the finite element method are in fair agreement with the experimental results.

  10. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Residue Effects Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The PCB Residue Effects (PCBRes) Database was developed to assist scientists and risk assessors in correlating PCB and dioxin-like compound residues with toxic...

  11. 9 CFR 311.39 - Biological residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biological residues. 311.39 Section... Biological residues. Carcasses, organs, or other parts of carcasses of livestock shall be condemned if it is determined that they are adulterated because of the presence of any biological residues. ...

  12. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes is the main input of nitrogen in ecological agriculture. The cycling of N-15-labelled mature pea (Pisum sativum L.) residues was studied during three years in small field plots and lysimeters. The residual organic labelled N declined rapidly during the initial...... management methods in order to conserve grain legume residue N sources within the soil-plant system....

  13. Neutron residual stress measurements in linepipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Michael; Gnaepel-Herold, Thomas; Luzin, Vladimir; Bowie, Graham

    2006-01-01

    Residual stresses in gas pipelines are generated by manufacturing and construction processes and may affect the subsequent pipe integrity. In the present work, the residual stresses in eight samples of linepipe were measured by neutron diffraction. Residual stresses changed with some coating processes. This has special implications in understanding and mitigating stress corrosion cracking, a major safety and economic problem in some gas pipelines

  14. Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazineu, M.H.P.; Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A.; Hazin, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the 238 U and 232 Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for 226 Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for 228 Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)

  15. Residual Liquefaction under Standing Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study which deals with the residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves. It is shown that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although qualitatively similar, exhibits features different from that caused by progressive waves....... The experimental results show that the buildup of pore-water pressure and the resulting liquefaction first starts at the nodal section and spreads towards the antinodal section. The number of waves to cause liquefaction at the nodal section appears to be equal to that experienced in progressive waves for the same...

  16. Process to recycle shredder residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    2001-01-01

    A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

  17. Identification and Quantification of Oxidoselina-1,3,7(11-Trien-8-One and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside as One of the Major Volatile and Non-Volatile Low-Molecular-Weight Constituents in Pitanga Pulp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Josino Soares

    Full Text Available The pulp of pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L. is used to prepare pitanga juice. However, there are no reports on the identification and quantification of the main constituents in pitanga pulp. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight constituents of the pulp. Isolation of volatile compounds was performed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation technique. Characterization of the main volatile and non-volatile constituents was performed by GC-MS, LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. For quantitative measurements, the main volatile compound needed to be isolated from pitanga pulp to obtain a commercially not available reference standard. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was determined as one of the most abundant non-volatile pulp compound yielding 53.8% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by LC-MS. Quantification of cyanidin-3-glucoside in pitanga pulp resulted in a concentration of 344 ± 66.4 μg/mL corresponding to 688 ± 133 μg/g dried pulp and 530 ± 102 μg/g fruit. For the volatile fraction, oxidoselina-1,3,7(11-trien-8-one was identified as the main volatile pulp constituent (27.7% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by GC-MS, reaching a concentration of 89.0 ± 16.9 μg/mL corresponding to 1.34 ± 0.25 μg/g fresh pulp and 1.03 ± 0.19 μg/g fruit. The results provide quantitative evidence for the occurrence of an anthocyanin and an oxygenated sesquiterpene as one of the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight compounds in pitanga pulp.

  18. Identification and Quantification of Oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-Trien-8-One and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside as One of the Major Volatile and Non-Volatile Low-Molecular-Weight Constituents in Pitanga Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josino Soares, Denise; Pignitter, Marc; Ehrnhöfer-Ressler, Miriam Margit; Walker, Jessica; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella; Somoza, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    The pulp of pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) is used to prepare pitanga juice. However, there are no reports on the identification and quantification of the main constituents in pitanga pulp. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight constituents of the pulp. Isolation of volatile compounds was performed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation technique. Characterization of the main volatile and non-volatile constituents was performed by GC-MS, LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. For quantitative measurements, the main volatile compound needed to be isolated from pitanga pulp to obtain a commercially not available reference standard. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was determined as one of the most abundant non-volatile pulp compound yielding 53.8% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by LC-MS. Quantification of cyanidin-3-glucoside in pitanga pulp resulted in a concentration of 344 ± 66.4 μg/mL corresponding to 688 ± 133 μg/g dried pulp and 530 ± 102 μg/g fruit. For the volatile fraction, oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one was identified as the main volatile pulp constituent (27.7% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by GC-MS), reaching a concentration of 89.0 ± 16.9 μg/mL corresponding to 1.34 ± 0.25 μg/g fresh pulp and 1.03 ± 0.19 μg/g fruit. The results provide quantitative evidence for the occurrence of an anthocyanin and an oxygenated sesquiterpene as one of the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight compounds in pitanga pulp.

  19. Large non-volatile tuning of magnetism mediated by electric field in Fe–Al/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–PbTiO3 heterostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhendong; Gao, Cunxu; Wei, Yanping; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Yutian; Zhang, Chao; Ma, Zhikun

    2017-01-01

    Electric-field control of magnetism is now an attractive trend to approach a new kind of fast, low-power-cost memory device. In this work, we report a strong non-volatile electric control of magnetism in an Fe–Al/Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 –PbTiO 3 heterostructure. In this system, a 90° rotation of the in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy is exhibited during the increase of the external electric field, which means the easy axis turns into a hard axis and the hard axis turns into an easy one. Additionally, a non-volatile switch of the remanence is observed after a sweeping of the electric field from 0 kV cm −1 to  ±  10 kV cm −1 , then back to 0 kV cm −1 . More interestingly, a 20% non-volatile magnetic state tuning driven by individual pulse electric fields is shown in contrast to large tuning up to 120% caused by pulse electric fields with small assistant pulse magnetic fields, which means a 180° reverse of the magnetization. These remarkable behaviors demonstrated in this heterostructure reveal a promising potential application in magnetic memory devices mediated by electric fields. (paper)

  20. Residual Stresses In 3013 Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickalonis, J.; Dunn, K.

    2009-01-01

    The DOE Complex is packaging plutonium-bearing materials for storage and eventual disposition or disposal. The materials are handled according to the DOE-STD-3013 which outlines general requirements for stabilization, packaging and long-term storage. The storage vessels for the plutonium-bearing materials are termed 3013 containers. Stress corrosion cracking has been identified as a potential container degradation mode and this work determined that the residual stresses in the containers are sufficient to support such cracking. Sections of the 3013 outer, inner, and convenience containers, in both the as-fabricated condition and the closure welded condition, were evaluated per ASTM standard G-36. The standard requires exposure to a boiling magnesium chloride solution, which is an aggressive testing solution. Tests in a less aggressive 40% calcium chloride solution were also conducted. These tests were used to reveal the relative stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of the as fabricated 3013 containers. Significant cracking was observed in all containers in areas near welds and transitions in the container diameter. Stress corrosion cracks developed in both the lid and the body of gas tungsten arc welded and laser closure welded containers. The development of stress corrosion cracks in the as-fabricated and in the closure welded container samples demonstrates that the residual stresses in the 3013 containers are sufficient to support stress corrosion cracking if the environmental conditions inside the containers do not preclude the cracking process.

  1. Residual Fragments after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Özdedeli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRFs are described as asymptomatic, noninfectious and nonobstructive stone fragments (≤4 mm remaining in the urinary system after the last session of any intervention (ESWL, URS or PCNL for urinary stones. Their insignificance is questionable since CIRFs could eventually become significant, as their presence may result in recurrent stone growth and they may cause pain and infection due to urinary obstruction. They may become the source of persistent infections and a significant portion of the patients will have a stone-related event, requiring auxilliary interventions. CT seems to be the ultimate choice of assessment. Although there is no concensus about the timing, recent data suggests that it may be performed one month after the procedure. However, imaging can be done in the immediate postoperative period, if there are no tubes blurring the assessment. There is some evidence indicating that selective medical therapy may have an impact on decreasing stone formation rates. Retrograde intrarenal surgery, with its minimally invasive nature, seems to be the best way to deal with residual fragments.

  2. Residual number processing in dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia - a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts - is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia.

  3. Residual number processing in dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinella Cappelletti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia.

  4. Residual number processing in dyscalculia☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia. PMID:24266008

  5. Multilevel characteristics and memory mechanisms for nonvolatile memory devices based on CuInS2 quantum dot-polymethylmethacrylate nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yang; Yun, Dong Yeol; Kim, Tae Whan; Kim, Sang Wook

    2014-01-01

    Nonvolatile memory devices based on CuInS 2 (CIS) quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) layer were fabricated using spin-coating method. The memory window widths of the capacitance-voltage (C-V) curves for the Al/CIS QDs embedded in PMMA layer/p-Si devices were 0.3, 0.6, and 1.0 V for sweep voltages of ±3, ±5, and ±7 V, respectively. Capacitance-cycle data demonstrated that the charge-trapping capability of the devices with an ON/OFF ratio value of 2.81 × 10 −10 was maintained for 8 × 10 3 cycles without significant degradation and that the extrapolation of the ON/OFF ratio value to 1 × 10 6 cycles converged to 2.40 × 10 −10 , indicative of the good stability of the devices. The memory mechanisms for the devices are described on the basis of the C-V curves and the energy-band diagrams

  6. Radiation-hardened MRAM-based LUT for non-volatile FPGA soft error mitigation with multi-node upset tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, Ramtin; DeMara, Ronald F.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we have developed a radiation-hardened non-volatile lookup table (LUT) circuit utilizing spin Hall effect (SHE)-magnetic random access memory (MRAM) devices. The design is motivated by modeling the effect of radiation particles striking hybrid complementary metal oxide semiconductor/spin based circuits, and the resistive behavior of SHE-MRAM devices via established and precise physics equations. The models developed are leveraged in the SPICE circuit simulator to verify the functionality of the proposed design. The proposed hardening technique is based on using feedback transistors, as well as increasing the radiation capacity of the sensitive nodes. Simulation results show that our proposed LUT circuit can achieve multiple node upset (MNU) tolerance with more than 38% and 60% power-delay product improvement as well as 26% and 50% reduction in device count compared to the previous energy-efficient radiation-hardened LUT designs. Finally, we have performed a process variation analysis showing that the MNU immunity of our proposed circuit is realized at the cost of increased susceptibility to transistor and MRAM variations compared to an unprotected LUT design.

  7. Detection of Nonvolatile Inorganic Oxidizer-Based Explosives from Wipe Collections by Infrared Thermal Desorption-Direct Analysis in Real Time Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Thomas P; Sisco, Edward; Staymates, Matthew

    2018-05-07

    Infrared thermal desorption (IRTD) was coupled with direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) for the detection of both inorganic and organic explosives from wipe collected samples. This platform generated discrete and rapid heating rates that allowed volatile and semivolatile organic explosives to thermally desorb at relatively lower temperatures, while still achieving elevated temperatures required to desorb nonvolatile inorganic oxidizer-based explosives. IRTD-DART-MS demonstrated the thermal desorption and detection of refractory potassium chlorate and potassium perchlorate oxidizers, compounds difficult to desorb with traditional moderate-temperature resistance-based thermal desorbers. Nanogram to sub-nanogram sensitivities were established for analysis of a range of organic and inorganic oxidizer-based explosive compounds, with further enhancement limited by the thermal properties of the most common commercial wipe materials. Detailed investigations and high-speed visualization revealed conduction from the heated glass-mica base plate as the dominant process for heating of the wipe and analyte materials, resulting in thermal desorption through boiling, aerosolization, and vaporization of samples. The thermal desorption and ionization characteristics of the IRTD-DART technique resulted in optimal sensitivity for the formation of nitrate adducts with both organic and inorganic species. The IRTD-DART-MS coupling and IRTD in general offer promising explosive detection capabilities to the defense, security, and law enforcement arenas.

  8. Capacitance characteristics of metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with a single layer of embedded nickel nanoparticles for the application of nonvolatile memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Li; Ling, Xu; Wei-Ming, Zhao; Hong-Lin, Ding; Zhong-Yuan, Ma; Jun, Xu; Kun-Ji, Chen

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports that metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors with a single layer of Ni nanoparticles were successfully fabricated by using electron-beam evaporation and rapid thermal annealing for application to nonvolatile memory. Experimental scanning electron microscopy images showed that Ni nanoparticles of about 5 nm in diameter were clearly embedded in the SiO 2 layer on p-type Si (100). Capacitance–voltage measurements of the MOS capacitor show large flat-band voltage shifts of 1.8 V, which indicate the presence of charge storage in the nickel nanoparticles. In addition, the charge-retention characteristics of MOS capacitors with Ni nanoparticles were investigated by using capacitance–time measurements. The results showed that there was a decay of the capacitance embedded with Ni nanoparticles for an electron charge after 10 4 s. But only a slight decay of the capacitance originating from hole charging was observed. The present results indicate that this technique is promising for the efficient formation or insertion of metal nanoparticles inside MOS structures. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  9. Low-voltage operating flexible ferroelectric organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memory with a vertical phase separation P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE)/PS dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meili; Xiang, Lanyi; Xu, Ting; Wang, Wei; Xie, Wenfa; Zhou, Dayu

    2017-10-01

    Future flexible electronic systems require memory devices combining low-power operation and mechanical bendability. However, high programming/erasing voltages, which are universally needed to switch the storage states in previously reported ferroelectric organic field-effect transistor (Fe-OFET) nonvolatile memories (NVMs), severely prevent their practical applications. In this work, we develop a route to achieve a low-voltage operating flexible Fe-OFET NVM. Utilizing vertical phase separation, an ultrathin self-organized poly(styrene) (PS) buffering layer covers the surface of the ferroelectric polymer layer by one-step spin-coating from their blending solution. The ferroelectric polymer with a low coercive field contributes to low-voltage operation in the Fe-OFET NVM. The polymer PS contributes to the improvement of mobility, attributing to screening the charge scattering and decreasing the surface roughness. As a result, a high performance flexible Fe-OFET NVM is achieved at the low P/E voltages of ±10 V, with a mobility larger than 0.2 cm2 V-1 s-1, a reliable P/E endurance over 150 cycles, stable data storage retention capability over 104 s, and excellent mechanical bending durability with a slight performance degradation after 1000 repetitive tensile bending cycles at a curvature radius of 5.5 mm.

  10. GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor based non-volatile flash memory devices with InAs quantum dots as charge storage nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Sk Masiul, E-mail: masiulelt@gmail.com; Chowdhury, Sisir; Sarkar, Krishnendu; Nagabhushan, B.; Banerji, P. [Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Chakraborty, S. [Applied Materials Science Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Sector-I, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Mukherjee, Rabibrata [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Ultra-thin InP passivated GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor based non-volatile flash memory devices were fabricated using InAs quantum dots (QDs) as charge storing elements by metal organic chemical vapor deposition technique to study the efficacy of the QDs as charge storage elements. The grown QDs were embedded between two high-k dielectric such as HfO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}, which were used for tunneling and control oxide layers, respectively. The size and density of the QDs were found to be 5 nm and 1.8×10{sup 11} cm{sup −2}, respectively. The device with a structure Metal/ZrO{sub 2}/InAs QDs/HfO{sub 2}/GaAs/Metal shows maximum memory window equivalent to 6.87 V. The device also exhibits low leakage current density of the order of 10{sup −6} A/cm{sup 2} and reasonably good charge retention characteristics. The low value of leakage current in the fabricated memory device is attributed to the Coulomb blockade effect influenced by quantum confinement as well as reduction of interface trap states by ultra-thin InP passivation on GaAs prior to HfO{sub 2} deposition.

  11. Nonvolatile memory thin film transistors using CdSe/ZnS quantum dot-poly(methyl methacrylate) composite layer formed by a two-step spin coating technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chih; Huang, Chun-Yuan; Yu, Hsin-Chieh; Su, Yan-Kuin

    2012-08-01

    The nonvolatile memory thin film transistors (TFTs) using a core/shell CdSe/ZnS quantum dot (QD)-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) composite layer as the floating gate have been demonstrated, with the device configuration of n+-Si gate/SiO2 insulator/QD-PMMA composite layer/pentacene channel/Au source-drain being proposed. To achieve the QD-PMMA composite layer, a two-step spin coating technique was used to successively deposit QD-PMMA composite and PMMA on the insulator. After the processes, the variation of crystal quality and surface morphology of the subsequent pentacene films characterized by x-ray diffraction spectra and atomic force microscopy was correlated to the two-step spin coating. The crystalline size of pentacene was improved from 147.9 to 165.2 Å, while the degree of structural disorder was decreased from 4.5% to 3.1% after the adoption of this technique. In pentacene-based TFTs, the improvement of the performance was also significant, besides the appearances of strong memory characteristics. The memory behaviors were attributed to the charge storage/discharge effect in QD-PMMA composite layer. Under the programming and erasing operations, programmable memory devices with the memory window (Δ Vth) = 23 V and long retention time were obtained.

  12. Electrical bistabilities and memory mechanisms of nonvolatile organic bistable devices based on exfoliated muscovite-type mica nanoparticle/poly(methylmethacrylate) nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Won Gyu; Lee, Dea Uk; Na, Han Gil; Kim, Hyoun Woo; Kim, Tae Whan

    2018-02-01

    Organic bistable devices (OBDs) with exfoliated mica nanoparticles (NPs) embedded into an insulating poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) layer were fabricated by using a spin-coating method. Current-voltage (I-V) curves for the Al/PMMA/exfoliated mica NP/PMMA/indium-tin-oxide/glass devices at 300 K showed a clockwise current hysteresis behavior due to the existence of the exfoliated muscovite-type mica NPs, which is an essential feature for bistable devices. Write-read-erase-read data showed that the OBDs had rewritable nonvolatile memories and an endurance number of ON/OFF switching for the OBDs of 102 cycles. An ON/OFF ratio of 1 × 103 was maintained for retention times larger than 1 × 104 s. The memory mechanisms of the fabricated OBDs were described by using the trapping and the tunneling processes within a PMMA active layer containing exfoliated muscovite-type mica NPs on the basis of the energy band diagram and the I-V curves.

  13. 1,2-Dibromoethane and chloroform in the rainbow trout (salmo gairdneri): Studies on the distribution of nonvolatile and irreversibly bound metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnerud, P.O.; Lund, B.O.; Brittebo, E.B.; Brandt, I.

    1989-01-01

    The disposition of metabolites from 14 C-labeled 1,2-dibromoethane (DBE) and chloroform (CF) in juvenile rainbow trout was studied by autoradiography and quantitation of tissue radioactivity. Whole-body autoradiography of heated tissue sections showed a considerable level of nonvolatile metabolites of DBE and CF in the liver and certain areas of the body kidney. A lower level of metabolites appeared in the gills, intestinal mucosa, and olfactory rosettes in trouts exposed to DBE- or CF-containing water. Unlike previous studies in rodents, no specific uptake or binding of DBE or CF occurred in the surface epithelia of the upper alimentary tract. Microautoradiography and exhaustive tissue extraction confirmed a high irreversible binding of DBE metabolites in the liver and in a proximal tubular segment of the body kidney in fish exposed to DBE-containing water. A high level of radioactivity in the bile indicated fecal excretion of metabolites from both compounds. The results suggest that there is marked metabolism of DBE and CF in the liver and kidney, whereas the metabolism in the surface epithelia is low. The liver and kidney are proposed to be target organs of toxicity in fish

  14. Spironolactone release from liquisolid formulations prepared with Capryol™ 90, Solutol® HS-15 and Kollicoat® SR 30 D as non-volatile liquid vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkordy, Amal Ali; Tan, Xin Ning; Essa, Ebtessam Ahmed

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the study is to enhance dissolution of spironolactone as a model hydrophobic drug through application of liquisolid technology. Spironolactone is prepared as liquisolid formulations, and its dissolution property is evaluated and compared to that of conventional spironolactone tablets and pure spironolactone. Three non-volatile liquid vehicles were used in the design of spironolactone liquisolid formulations, Capryol™ 90, Synperonic® PE/L61 in combination with Solutol® HS-15 at a ratio of 1:1, and Kollicoat® SR 30 D. Spironolactone liquisolid formulations were tested according to British Pharmacopoeia (BP) quality control tests. Furthermore, the prepared liquisolid powder formulations were evaluated via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy. Also, liquisolid formulations were subjected to testing of storage stability at high relative humidity. The results indicated that most of liquisolid tablets met the BP requirements. Dissolution results indicate that release of spironolactone was significantly increased (PSolutol® HS-15 showed highest dissolution. DSC thermograms from liquisolid formulations revealed that drug endothermic peak was disappeared after processing. Dissolution, DSC and FT-IR data after storage demonstrated that there were no significant changes in the formulations after storage. In conclusion, the liquid vehicles used within spironolactone liquisolid formulations enhanced drug dissolution rate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Volatile and non-volatile radiolysis products in irradiated multilayer coextruded food-packaging films containing a buried layer of recycled low-density polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chytiri, S; Goulas, A E; Badeka, A; Riganakos, K A; Kontominas, M G

    2005-12-01

    The effects of gamma-irradiation (5-60 kGy) on radiolysis products and sensory changes of experimental five-layer food-packaging films were determined. Films contained a middle buried layer of recycled low-density polyethylene (LDPE) comprising 25-50% by weight (bw) of the multilayer structure. Respective films containing 100% virgin LDPE as the buried layer were used as controls. Under realistic polymer/food simulant contact conditions during irradiation, a large number of primary and secondary radiolysis products (hydrocarbons, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, carboxylic acids) were produced. These compounds were detected in the food simulant after contact with all films tested, even at the lower absorbed doses of 5 and 10 kGy (approved doses for food preservation). The type and concentration of radiolysis products increased progressively with increasing dose. Generally, there were no significant differences in radiolysis products between samples containing a buried layer of recycled LDPE and those containing virgin LDPE (all absorbed doses), indicating the good barrier properties of external virgin polymer layers. Volatile and non-volatile compounds produced during irradiation affected the sensory properties of potable water after contact with packaging films. Taste transfer to water was observed mainly at higher doses and was more noticeable for multilayer structures containing recycled LDPE, even though differences were slight.

  16. Nonvolatile ferroelectric memory based on PbTiO3 gated single-layer MoS2 field-effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun Wook; Son, Jong Yeog

    2018-01-01

    We fabricated ferroelectric non-volatile random access memory (FeRAM) based on a field effect transistor (FET) consisting of a monolayer MoS2 channel and a ferroelectric PbTiO3 (PTO) thin film of gate insulator. An epitaxial PTO thin film was deposited on a Nb-doped SrTiO3 (Nb:STO) substrate via pulsed laser deposition. A monolayer MoS2 sheet was exfoliated from a bulk crystal and transferred to the surface of the PTO/Nb:STO. Structural and surface properties of the PTO thin film were characterized by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy, respectively. Raman spectroscopy analysis was performed to identify the single-layer MoS2 sheet on the PTO/Nb:STO. We obtained mobility value (327 cm2/V·s) of the MoS2 channel at room temperature. The MoS2-PTO FeRAM FET showed a wide memory window with 17 kΩ of resistance variation which was attributed to high remnant polarization of the epitaxially grown PTO thin film. According to the fatigue resistance test for the FeRAM FET, however, the resistance states gradually varied during the switching cycles of 109. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Multifunctional BiFeO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nano-heterostructure: Photo-ferroelectricity, rectifying transport, and nonvolatile resistive switching property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Ayan; Khan, Gobinda Gopal, E-mail: gobinda.gk@gmail.com [Centre for Research in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Calcutta, Technology Campus, Block JD2, Sector III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700 098 (India); Chaudhuri, Arka [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700 098 (India); Department of Applied Science, Haldia Institute of Technology, Haldia 721657, Purba Medinipur, West Bengal (India); Das, Avishek [Department of Electronic Science, University of Calcutta, 92 APC Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Mandal, Kalyan [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700 098 (India)

    2016-01-18

    Multifunctional BiFeO{sub 3} nanostructure anchored TiO{sub 2} nanotubes are fabricated by coupling wet chemical and electrochemical routes. BiFeO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nano-heterostructure exhibits white-light-induced ferroelectricity at room temperature. Studies reveal that the photogenerated electrons trapped at the domain/grain boundaries tune the ferroelectric polarization in BiFeO{sub 3} nanostructures. The photon controlled saturation and remnant polarization opens up the possibility to design ferroelectric devices based on BiFeO{sub 3.} The nano-heterostructure also exhibits substantial photovoltaic effect and rectifying characteristics. Photovoltaic property is found to be correlated with the ferroelectric polarization. Furthermore, the nonvolatile resistive switching in BiFeO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nano-heterostructure has been studied, which demonstrates that the observed resistive switching is most likely caused by the electric-field-induced carrier injection/migration and trapping/detrapping process at the hetero-interfaces. Therefore, BiFeO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nano-heterostructure coupled with logic, photovoltaics and memory characteristics holds promises for long-term technological applications in nanoelectronics devices.

  18. Large scale integration of flexible non-volatile, re-addressable memories using P(VDF-TrFE) and amorphous oxide transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelinck, Gerwin H; Cobb, Brian; Van Breemen, Albert J J M; Myny, Kris

    2015-01-01

    Ferroelectric polymers and amorphous metal oxide semiconductors have emerged as important materials for re-programmable non-volatile memories and high-performance, flexible thin-film transistors, respectively. However, realizing sophisticated transistor memory arrays has proven to be a challenge, and demonstrating reliable writing to and reading from such a large scale memory has thus far not been demonstrated. Here, we report an integration of ferroelectric, P(VDF-TrFE), transistor memory arrays with thin-film circuitry that can address each individual memory element in that array. n-type indium gallium zinc oxide is used as the active channel material in both the memory and logic thin-film transistors. The maximum process temperature is 200 °C, allowing plastic films to be used as substrate material. The technology was scaled up to 150 mm wafer size, and offers good reproducibility, high device yield and low device variation. This forms the basis for successful demonstration of memory arrays, read and write circuitry, and the integration of these. (paper)

  19. Novel Organic Phototransistor-Based Nonvolatile Memory Integrated with UV-Sensing/Green-Emissive Aggregation Enhanced Emission (AEE)-Active Aromatic Polyamide Electret Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shun-Wen; Han, Ting; Huang, Teng-Yung; Chang Chien, Yu-Hsin; Liu, Cheng-Liang; Tang, Ben Zhong; Liou, Guey-Sheng

    2018-05-30

    A novel aggregation enhanced emission (AEE)-active polyamide TPA-CN-TPE with a high photoluminesence characteristic was successfully synthesized by the direct polymerization of 4-cyanotriphenyl diamine (TPA-CN) and tetraphenylethene (TPE)-containing dicarboxylic acid. The obtained luminescent polyamide plays a significant role as the polymer electret layer in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs)-type memory. The strong green emission of TPA-CN-TPE under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation can be directly absorbed by the pentacene channel, displaying a light-induced programming and voltage-driven erasing organic phototransistor-based nonvolatile memory. Memory window can be effectively manipulated between the programming and erasing states by applying UV light illumination and electrical field, respectively. The photoinduced memory behavior can be maintained for over 10 4 s between these two states with an on/off ratio of 10 4 , and the memory switching can be steadily operated for many cycles. With high photoresponsivity ( R) and photosensitivity ( S), this organic phototransistor integrated with AEE-active polyamide electret layer could serve as an excellent candidate for UV photodetectors in optical applications. For comparison, an AEE-inactive aromatic polyimide TPA-PIS electret with much weaker solid-state emission was also applied in the same OFETs device architecture, but this device did not show any UV-sensitive and UV-induced memory characteristics, which further confirmed the significance of the light-emitting capability of the electret layer.

  20. Reversible and nonvolatile ferroelectric control of two-dimensional electronic transport properties of ZrCuSiAs-type copper oxyselenide thin films with a layered structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu-Wen; Gao, Guan-Yin; Yan, Jian-Min; Chen, Lei; Xu, Meng; Zhao, Wei-Yao; Xu, Zhi-Xue; Guo, Lei; Liu, Yu-Kuai; Li, Xiao-Guang; Wang, Yu; Zheng, Ren-Kui

    2018-05-01

    Copper-based ZrCuSiAs-type compounds of LnCuChO (Ln =Bi and lanthanides, Ch =S , Se, Te) with a layered crystal structure continuously attract worldwide attention in recent years. Although their high-temperature (T ≥ 300 K) electrical properties have been intensively studied, their low-temperature electronic transport properties are little known. In this paper, we report the integration of ZrCuSiAs-type copper oxyselenide thin films of B i0.94P b0.06CuSeO (BPCSO) with perovskite-type ferroelectric Pb (M g1 /3N b2 /3 ) O3-PbTi O3 (PMN-PT) single crystals in the form of ferroelectric field effect devices that allow us to control the electronic properties (e.g., carrier density, magnetoconductance, dephasing length, etc.) of BPCSO films in a reversible and nonvolatile manner by polarization switching at room temperature. Combining ferroelectric gating and magnetotransport measurements with the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka theory, we demonstrate two-dimensional (2D) electronic transport characteristics and weak antilocalization effect as well as strong carrier-density-mediated competition between weak antilocalization and weak localization in BPCSO films. Our results show that ferroelectric gating using PMN-PT provides an effective and convenient approach to probe the carrier-density-related 2D electronic transport properties of ZrCuSiAs-type copper oxyselenide thin films.

  1. Fabrication and operation methods of a one-time programmable (OTP) nonvolatile memory (NVM) based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seongjae; Lee, Junghoon; Jung, Sunghun; Park, Sehwan; Park, Byunggook

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a novel one-time programmable (OTP) nonvolatile memory (NVM) device and its array based on a metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure is proposed. The Iindividual memory device has a vertical channel of a silicon diode. Historically, OTP memories were widely used for read-only-memories (ROMs), in which the most basic system architecture model was to store central processing unit (CPU) instructions. By grafting the nanoscale fabrication technology and novel structuring onto the concept of the OTP memory, innovative high-density NVM appliances for mobile storage media may be possible. The program operation is performed by breaking down the thin oxide layer between the pn diode structure and the wordline (WL). The programmed state can be identified by an operation that reads the leakage currents through the broken oxide. Since the proposed OTP NVM is based on neither a transistor structure nor a charge storing mechanism, it is highly reliable and functional for realizing the ultra-large scale integration. The operation physics and the fabrication processes are also explained in detail.

  2. Multistate storage nonvolatile memory device based on ferroelectricity and resistive switching effects of SrBi2Ta2O9 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhiwei; Li, Gang; Xiong, Ying; Cheng, Chuanpin; Zhang, Wanli; Tang, Minghua; Li, Zheng; He, Jiangheng

    2018-05-01

    A memory device with a Pt/SrBi2Ta2O9(SBT)/Pt(111) structure was shown to have excellent combined ferroelectricity and resistive switching properties, leading to higher multistate storage memory capacity in contrast to ferroelectric memory devices. In this device, SBT polycrystalline thin films with significant (115) orientation were fabricated on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO2/Si(100) substrates using CVD (chemical vapor deposition) method. Measurement results of the electric properties exhibit reproducible and reliable ferroelectricity switching behavior and bipolar resistive switching effects (BRS) without an electroforming process. The ON/OFF ratio of the resistive switching was found to be about 103. Switching mechanisms for the low resistance state (LRS) and high resistance state (HRS) currents are likely attributed to the Ohmic and space charge-limited current (SCLC) behavior, respectively. Moreover, the ferroelectricity and resistive switching effects were found to be mutually independent, and the four logic states were obtained by controlling the periodic sweeping voltage. This work holds great promise for nonvolatile multistate memory devices with high capacity and low cost.

  3. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Canova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  4. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido Canova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  5. Upgraded wood residue fuels 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinterbaeck, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Swedish market for upgraded residue fuels, i.e. briquettes, pellets and wood powder, has developed considerably during the nineties. The additional costs for the upgrading processes are regained and create a surplus in other parts of the system, e.g. in the form of higher combustion efficiencies, lower investment costs for burning equipment, lower operation costs and a diminished environmental impact. All these factors put together have resulted in a rapid growth of this part of the energy sector. In 1994 the production was 1.9 TWh, an increase of 37 % compared to the previous year. In the forthcoming heating season 1995/96 the production may reach 4 TWh. 57 refs, 11 figs, 6 tabs

  6. Forest residues in cattle feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ruminants are capable of converting low-quality food, when they are complementes with high-energy source. Through the use of regional agricultural residues is possible to conduct more economical production systems, since energetic foods have high cost in animal production. There is very abundant availability of residues in agroforestry activities worldwide, so that if a small fraction of them were used with appropriate technical criteria they could largely meet the needs of existing herds in the world and thus meet the demands of consumption of protein of animal origin. The Southwest Region of São Paulo State has large area occupied by reforestation and wide availability of non-timber forest residues, which may represent more concentrated energetic food for ruminant production. This experiment aimed to evaluate the acceptability of ground pine (20, 30 and 40%, replacing part of the energetic food (corn, present in the composition of the concentrate and was performed at the Experimental Station of Itapetininga - Forest Institute / SMA, in the dry season of 2011. It were used four crossbred steers, mean 18 months old, average body weight of 250 kg, housed in a paddock provided with water ad libitum and covered troughs for supplementation with the experimental diet. The adjustment period of the animals was of 07 days and the measurement of the levels of consumption, physiological changes, acceptability and physiological parameters were observed during the following 25 days. The concentrate supplement was formulated based on corn (76.2%, Soybean Meal (20%, urea (2%, Ammonium sulfate (0.4%, calcite (1.4%, Mineral Core (1% and finely ground Pine Cone, replacing corn. In preparing food, the formulas were prepared to make them isoproteic/energetic, containing the following nutrient levels: 22% Crude Protein (CP and 79% of Total Nutrients (TDN. The animals received the supplement in three steps for each level of cone replaced, being offered in the

  7. Landfill Mining of Shredder Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jette Bjerre; Hyks, Jiri; Shabeer Ahmed, Nassera

    In Denmark, shredder residues (SR) are classified as hazardous waste and until January 2012 the all SR were landfilled. It is estimated that more than 1.8 million tons of SR have been landfilled in mono cells. This paper describes investigations conducted at two Danish landfills. SR were excavated...... from the landfills and size fractionated in order to recover potential resources such as metal and energy and to reduce the amounts of SR left for re-landfilling. Based on the results it is estimated that 60-70% of the SR excavated could be recovered in terms of materials or energy. Only a fraction...... with particle size less than 5 mm needs to be re-landfilled at least until suitable techniques are available for recovery of materials with small particle sizes....

  8. Evaluation of Contamination Inspection and Analysis Methods through Modeling System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasly, Elaine; Dever, Jason; Stuban, Steven M. F.

    2016-01-01

    Contamination is usually identified as a risk on the risk register for sensitive space systems hardware. Despite detailed, time-consuming, and costly contamination control efforts during assembly, integration, and test of space systems, contaminants are still found during visual inspections of hardware. Improved methods are needed to gather information during systems integration to catch potential contamination issues earlier and manage contamination risks better. This research explores evaluation of contamination inspection and analysis methods to determine optical system sensitivity to minimum detectable molecular contamination levels based on IEST-STD-CC1246E non-volatile residue (NVR) cleanliness levels. Potential future degradation of the system is modeled given chosen modules representative of optical elements in an optical system, minimum detectable molecular contamination levels for a chosen inspection and analysis method, and determining the effect of contamination on the system. By modeling system performance based on when molecular contamination is detected during systems integration and at what cleanliness level, the decision maker can perform trades amongst different inspection and analysis methods and determine if a planned method is adequate to meet system requirements and manage contamination risk.

  9. Residues and duality for projective algebraic varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Kunz, Ernst; Dickenstein, Alicia

    2008-01-01

    This book, which grew out of lectures by E. Kunz for students with a background in algebra and algebraic geometry, develops local and global duality theory in the special case of (possibly singular) algebraic varieties over algebraically closed base fields. It describes duality and residue theorems in terms of K�hler differential forms and their residues. The properties of residues are introduced via local cohomology. Special emphasis is given to the relation between residues to classical results of algebraic geometry and their generalizations. The contribution by A. Dickenstein gives applications of residues and duality to polynomial solutions of constant coefficient partial differential equations and to problems in interpolation and ideal membership. D. A. Cox explains toric residues and relates them to the earlier text. The book is intended as an introduction to more advanced treatments and further applications of the subject, to which numerous bibliographical hints are given.

  10. Using cotton plant residue to produce briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, W. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Bioresources Research Facility

    2000-07-01

    In Arizona, cotton (Gossypium) plant residue left in the field following harvest must be buried to prevent it from serving as an overwintering site for insects such as the pink bollworm. Most tillage operations employed to incorporate the residue into the soil are energy intensive and often degrade soil structure. Trials showed that cotton plant residue could be incorporated with pecan shells to produce commercially acceptable briquettes. Pecan shell briquettes containing cotton residue rather than waste paper were slightly less durable, when made using equivalent weight mixtures and moisture contents. Proximate and ultimate analyses showed the only difference among briquette samples to be a higher ash content in those made using cotton plant residue. Briquettes made with paper demonstrated longer flame out time, and lower ash percentage, compared to those made with cotton plant residue. (author)

  11. Distribution of residues and primitive roots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Replacing the function f by g, we get the required estimate for N(p, N). D. Proof of Theorem 1.1. When p = 7, we clearly see that (1, 2) is a consecutive pair of quadratic residue modulo 7. Assume that p ≥ 11. If 10 is a quadratic residue modulo p, then we have (9, 10) as a consecutive pair of quadratic residues modulo p, ...

  12. Residual analysis for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baddeley, A.; Turner, R.; Møller, Jesper

    We define residuals for point process models fitted to spatial point pattern data, and propose diagnostic plots based on these residuals. The techniques apply to any Gibbs point process model, which may exhibit spatial heterogeneity, interpoint interaction and dependence on spatial covariates. Ou...... or covariate effects. Q-Q plots of the residuals are effective in diagnosing interpoint interaction. Some existing ad hoc statistics of point patterns (quadrat counts, scan statistic, kernel smoothed intensity, Berman's diagnostic) are recovered as special cases....

  13. Carbaryl residues in maize and processed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M.J.; Sattar, A. Jr.; Naqvi, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    Carbaryl residues in two local maize varieties were determined using a colorimetric method. No significant differences were observed for residues of the two varieties which ranged between 12.0 to 13.75 mg/kg in the crude oil, and averaged 1.04 and 0.67 mg/kg in the flour and cake respectively. In whole maize plants, carbaryl residues declined to approximately 2 mg/kg 35 days after treatment. Cooking in aqueous, oil or aqueous-oil media led to 63-83% loss of carbaryl residues, after 30 minutes. (author)

  14. Process for measuring residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfinger, F.X.; Peiter, A.; Theiner, W.A.; Stuecker, E.

    1982-01-01

    No single process can at present solve all problems. The complete destructive processes only have a limited field of application, as the component cannot be reused. However, they are essential for the basic determination of stress distributions in the field of research and development. Destructive and non-destructive processes are mainly used if investigations have to be carried out on original components. With increasing component size, the part of destructive tests becomes smaller. The main applications are: quality assurance, testing of manufactured parts and characteristics of components. Among the non-destructive test procedures, X-raying has been developed most. It gives residual stresses on the surface and on surface layers near the edges. Further development is desirable - in assessment - in measuring techniques. Ultrasonic and magnetic crack detection processes are at present mainly used in research and development, and also in quality assurance. Because of the variable depth of penetration and the possibility of automation they are gaining in importance. (orig./RW) [de

  15. Characterization Report on Sand, Slag, and Crucible Residues and on Fluoride Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on the chemical characterization of the sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C) residues and the fluoride residues that may be shipped from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) to Savannah River Site (SRS)

  16. Foliar Essential Oil Glands of Eucalyptus Subgenus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae Are a Rich Source of Flavonoids and Related Non-Volatile Constituents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Q D Goodger

    Full Text Available The sub-dermal secretory cavities (glands embedded within the leaves of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae were once thought to be the exclusive repositories of monoterpene and sesquiterpene oils. Recent research has debunked this theory and shown that abundant non-volatile compounds also occur within foliar glands. In particular, glands of four species in subgenus Eucalyptus contain the biologically active flavanone pinocembrin. Pinocembrin shows great promise as a pharmaceutical and is predominantly plant-sourced, so Eucalyptus could be a potential commercial source of such compounds. To explore this we quantified and assessed the purity of pinocembrin in glands of 11 species of E. subg. Eucalyptus using Electro-Spray Ionisation Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry of acetonitrile extracts and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analyses of hexane extracts of isolated glands which were free from other leaf tissues. Our results showed that the glands of subgenus Eucalyptus contain numerous flavanones that are structurally related to pinocembrin and often present in much greater abundance. The maximum concentration of pinocembrin was 2 mg g-1 dry leaf found in E. stellulata, whereas that of dimethylpinocembrin (5,7-dimethoxyflavanone was 10 mg g-1 in E. oreades and that of pinostrobin (5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone was 12 mg g-1 in E. nitida. We also found that the flavanones are exclusively located within the foliar glands rather than distributed throughout leaf tissues. The flavanones differ from the non-methylated pinocembrin in the degree and positions of methylation. This finding is particularly important given the attractiveness of methylated flavonoids as pharmaceuticals and therapeutics. Another important finding was that glands of some members of the subgenus also contain flavanone O-glucosides and flavanone-β-triketone conjugates. In addition, glands contain free β-triketones, β-triketone heterodimers and chromone C-glucosides. Therefore, the

  17. Foliar Essential Oil Glands of Eucalyptus Subgenus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) Are a Rich Source of Flavonoids and Related Non-Volatile Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodger, Jason Q D; Seneratne, Samiddhi L; Nicolle, Dean; Woodrow, Ian E

    2016-01-01

    The sub-dermal secretory cavities (glands) embedded within the leaves of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) were once thought to be the exclusive repositories of monoterpene and sesquiterpene oils. Recent research has debunked this theory and shown that abundant non-volatile compounds also occur within foliar glands. In particular, glands of four species in subgenus Eucalyptus contain the biologically active flavanone pinocembrin. Pinocembrin shows great promise as a pharmaceutical and is predominantly plant-sourced, so Eucalyptus could be a potential commercial source of such compounds. To explore this we quantified and assessed the purity of pinocembrin in glands of 11 species of E. subg. Eucalyptus using Electro-Spray Ionisation Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry of acetonitrile extracts and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analyses of hexane extracts of isolated glands which were free from other leaf tissues. Our results showed that the glands of subgenus Eucalyptus contain numerous flavanones that are structurally related to pinocembrin and often present in much greater abundance. The maximum concentration of pinocembrin was 2 mg g-1 dry leaf found in E. stellulata, whereas that of dimethylpinocembrin (5,7-dimethoxyflavanone) was 10 mg g-1 in E. oreades and that of pinostrobin (5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone) was 12 mg g-1 in E. nitida. We also found that the flavanones are exclusively located within the foliar glands rather than distributed throughout leaf tissues. The flavanones differ from the non-methylated pinocembrin in the degree and positions of methylation. This finding is particularly important given the attractiveness of methylated flavonoids as pharmaceuticals and therapeutics. Another important finding was that glands of some members of the subgenus also contain flavanone O-glucosides and flavanone-β-triketone conjugates. In addition, glands contain free β-triketones, β-triketone heterodimers and chromone C-glucosides. Therefore, the foliar glands

  18. Impact of process parameters on the structural and electrical properties of metal/PZT/Al2O3/silicon gate stack for non-volatile memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prashant; Jha, Rajesh Kumar; Singh, Rajat Kumar; Singh, B. R.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we present the structural and electrical properties of the Al2O3 buffer layer on non-volatile memory behavior using Metal/PZT/Al2O3/Silicon structures. Metal/PZT/Silicon and Metal/Al2O3/Silicon structures were also fabricated and characterized to obtain capacitance and leakage current parameters. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT::35:65) and Al2O3 films were deposited by sputtering on the silicon substrate. Memory window, PUND, endurance, breakdown voltage, effective charges, flat-band voltage and leakage current density parameters were measured and the effects of process parameters on the structural and electrical characteristics were investigated. X-ray data show dominant (110) tetragonal phase of the PZT film, which crystallizes at 500 °C. The sputtered Al2O3 film annealed at different temperatures show dominant (312) orientation and amorphous nature at 425 °C. Multiple angle laser ellipsometric analysis reveals the temperature dependence of PZT film refractive index and extinction coefficient. Electrical characterization shows the maximum memory window of 3.9 V and breakdown voltage of 25 V for the Metal/Ferroelectric/Silicon (MFeS) structures annealed at 500 °C. With 10 nm Al2O3 layer in the Metal/Ferroelectric/Insulator/Silicon (MFeIS) structure, the memory window and breakdown voltage was improved to 7.21 and 35 V, respectively. Such structures show high endurance with no significant reduction polarization charge for upto 2.2 × 109 iteration cycles.

  19. Effects of thickness and geometric variations in the oxide gate stack on the nonvolatile memory behaviors of charge-trap memory thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Jun Yong; Kim, So-Jung; Byun, Chun-Won; Pi, Jae-Eun; Ryu, Min-Ki; Hwang, Chi Sun; Yoon, Sung-Min

    2015-09-01

    Device designs of charge-trap oxide memory thin-film transistors (CTM-TFTs) were investigated to enhance their nonvolatile memory performances. The first strategy was to optimize the film thicknesses of the tunneling and charge-trap (CT) layers in order to meet requirements of both higher operation speed and longer retention time. While the program speed and memory window were improved for the device with a thinner tunneling layer, a long retention time was obtained only for the device with a tunneling layer thicker than 5 nm. The carrier concentration and charge-trap densities were optimized in the 30-nm-thick CT layer. It was observed that 10-nm-thick tunneling, 30-nm-thick CT, and 50-nm-thick blocking layers were the best configuration for our proposed CTM-TFTs, where a memory on/off margin higher than 107 was obtained, and a memory margin of 6.6 × 103 was retained even after the lapse of 105 s. The second strategy was to examine the effects of the geometrical relations between the CT and active layers for the applications of memory elements embedded in circuitries. The CTM-TFTs fabricated without an overlap between the CT layer and the drain electrode showed an enhanced program speed by the reduced parasitic capacitance. The drain-bias disturbance for the memory off-state was effectively suppressed even when a higher read-out drain voltage was applied. Appropriate device design parameters, such as the film thicknesses of each component layer and the geometrical relations between them, can improve the memory performances and expand the application fields of the proposed CTM-TFTs.

  20. Atomic layer-deposited Al–HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} bi-layers towards 3D charge trapping non-volatile memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Congedo, Gabriele, E-mail: gabriele.congedo@mdm.imm.cnr.it; Wiemer, Claudia; Lamperti, Alessio; Cianci, Elena; Molle, Alessandro; Volpe, Flavio G.; Spiga, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.spiga@mdm.imm.cnr

    2013-04-30

    A metal/oxide/high-κ dielectric/oxide/silicon (MOHOS) planar charge trapping memory capacitor including SiO{sub 2} as tunnel oxide, Al–HfO{sub 2} as charge trapping layer, SiO{sub 2} as blocking oxide and TaN metal gate was fabricated and characterized as test vehicle in the view of integration into 3D cells. The thin charge trapping layer and blocking oxide were grown by atomic layer deposition, the technique of choice for the implementation of these stacks into 3D structures. The oxide stack shows a good thermal stability for annealing temperature of 900 °C in N{sub 2}, as required for standard complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor processes. MOHOS capacitors can be efficiently programmed and erased under the applied voltages of ± 20 V to ± 12 V. When compared to a benchmark structure including thin Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} as charge trapping layer, the MOHOS cell shows comparable program characteristics, with the further advantage of the equivalent oxide thickness scalability due to the high dielectric constant (κ) value of 32, and an excellent retention even for strong testing conditions. Our results proved that high-κ based oxide structures grown by atomic layer deposition can be of interest for the integration into three dimensionally stacked charge trapping devices. - Highlights: ► Charge trapping device with Al–HfO{sub 2} storage layer is fabricated and characterized. ► Al–HfO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2} blocking oxides are deposited by atomic layer deposition. ► The oxide stack shows a good thermal stability after annealing at 900 °C. ► The device can be efficiently programmed/erased and retention is excellent. ► The oxide stack could be used for 3D-stacked Flash non-volatile memories.

  1. Residuals Management and Water Pollution Control Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

    This pamphlet addresses the problems associated with residuals and water quality especially as it relates to the National Water Pollution Control Program. The types of residuals and appropriate management systems are discussed. Additionally, one section is devoted to the role of citizen participation in developing management programs. (CS)

  2. Tank 12H residuals sample analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shine, E. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Diprete, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-06-11

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 12H final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Eleven Tank 12H floor and mound residual material samples and three cooling coil scrape samples were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August of 2014.

  3. Soil water evaporation and crop residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop residues have value when left in the field and also when removed from the field and sold as a commodity. Reducing soil water evaporation (E) is one of the benefits of leaving crop residues in place. E was measured beneath a corn canopy at the soil suface with nearly full coverage by corn stover...

  4. Densification of FL Chains via Residuated Frames

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baldi, Paolo; Terui, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 2 (2016), s. 169-195 ISSN 0002-5240 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1826 Keywords : densifiability * standard completeness * residuated lattices * residuated frames * fuzzy logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.625, year: 2016

  5. Does Bt Corn Really Produce Tougher Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bt corn hybrids produce insecticidal proteins that are derived from a bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis. There have been concerns that Bt corn hybrids produce residues that are relatively resistant to decomposition. We conducted four experiments that examined the decomposition of corn residues und...

  6. Semantic Tagging with Deep Residual Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bjerva, Johannes; Plank, Barbara; Bos, Johan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel semantic tagging task, semtagging, tailored for the purpose of multilingual semantic parsing, and present the first tagger using deep residual networks (ResNets). Our tagger uses both word and character representations and includes a novel residual bypass architecture. We evaluate

  7. Cement production from coal conversion residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.D.; Clavenna, L.R.; Eakman, J.M.; Nahas, N.C.

    1981-01-01

    Cement is produced by feeding residue solids containing carbonaceous material and ash constituents obtained from converting a carbonaceous feed material into liquids and/or gases into a cement-making zone and burning the carbon in the residue solids to supply at least a portion of the energy required to convert the solids into cement

  8. Residual stress concerns in containment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantini, F.; Kulak, R. F.; Pfeiffer, P. A.

    1997-01-01

    The manufacturing of steel containment vessels starts with the forming of flat plates into curved plates. A steel containment structure is made by welding individual plates together to form the sections that make up the complex shaped vessels. The metal forming and welding process leaves residual stresses in the vessel walls. Generally, the effect of metal forming residual stresses can be reduced or virtually eliminated by thermally stress relieving the vesseL In large containment vessels this may not be practical and thus the residual stresses due to manufacturing may become important. The residual stresses could possibly tiect the response of the vessel to internal pressurization. When the level of residual stresses is significant it will affect the vessel's response, for instance the yielding pressure and possibly the failure pressure. The paper will address the effect of metal forming residual stresses on the response of a generic pressure vessel to internal pressurization. A scoping analysis investigated the effect of residual forming stresses on the response of an internally pressurized vessel. A simple model was developed to gain understanding of the mechanics of the problem. Residual stresses due to the welding process were not considered in this investigation

  9. Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) consists of the fly ash, and, in dry and semi-dry systems, also the reaction products from the flue gas cleaning process. APC residue is considered a hazardous waste due to its high alkalinity, high content of salt...

  10. Residuals and the Residual-Based Statistic for Testing Goodness of Fit of Structural Equation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldnes, Njal; Foss, Tron; Olsson, Ulf Henning

    2012-01-01

    The residuals obtained from fitting a structural equation model are crucial ingredients in obtaining chi-square goodness-of-fit statistics for the model. The authors present a didactic discussion of the residuals, obtaining a geometrical interpretation by recognizing the residuals as the result of oblique projections. This sheds light on the…

  11. Recipe for residual oil saturation determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillory, A.J.; Kidwell, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    In 1978, Shell Oil Co., in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, conducted a residual oil saturation study in a deep, hot high-pressured Gulf Coast Reservoir. The work was conducted prior to initiation of CO/sub 2/ tertiary recovery pilot. Many problems had to be resolved prior to and during the residual oil saturation determination. The problems confronted are outlined such that the procedure can be used much like a cookbook in designing future studies in similar reservoirs. Primary discussion centers around planning and results of a log-inject-log operation used as a prime method to determine the residual oil saturation. Several independent methods were used to calculate the residual oil saturation in the subject well in an interval between 12,910 ft (3935 m) and 12,020 ft (3938 m). In general, these numbers were in good agreement and indicated a residual oil saturation between 22% and 24%. 10 references.

  12. Harvesting and handling agricultural residues for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, B.M.; Summer, H.R.

    1986-05-01

    Significant progress in understanding the needs for design of agricultural residue collection and handling systems has been made but additional research is required. Recommendations are made for research to (a) integrate residue collection and handling systems into general agricultural practices through the development of multi-use equipment and total harvest systems; (b) improve methods for routine evaluation of agricultural residue resources, possibly through remote sensing and image processing; (c) analyze biomass properties to obtain detailed data relevant to engineering design and analysis; (d) evaluate long-term environmental, social, and agronomic impacts of residue collection; (e) develop improved equipment with higher capacities to reduce residue collection and handling costs, with emphasis on optimal design of complete systems including collection, transportation, processing, storage, and utilization; and (f) produce standard forms of biomass fuels or products to enhance material handling and expand biomass markets through improved reliability and automatic control of biomass conversion and other utilization systems. 118 references.

  13. Computational prediction of protein hot spot residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, John Kenneth; Zhang, Shuxing

    2012-01-01

    Most biological processes involve multiple proteins interacting with each other. It has been recently discovered that certain residues in these protein-protein interactions, which are called hot spots, contribute more significantly to binding affinity than others. Hot spot residues have unique and diverse energetic properties that make them challenging yet important targets in the modulation of protein-protein complexes. Design of therapeutic agents that interact with hot spot residues has proven to be a valid methodology in disrupting unwanted protein-protein interactions. Using biological methods to determine which residues are hot spots can be costly and time consuming. Recent advances in computational approaches to predict hot spots have incorporated a myriad of features, and have shown increasing predictive successes. Here we review the state of knowledge around protein-protein interactions, hot spots, and give an overview of multiple in silico prediction techniques of hot spot residues.

  14. Computational Prediction of Hot Spot Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, John Kenneth; Zhang, Shuxing

    2013-01-01

    Most biological processes involve multiple proteins interacting with each other. It has been recently discovered that certain residues in these protein-protein interactions, which are called hot spots, contribute more significantly to binding affinity than others. Hot spot residues have unique and diverse energetic properties that make them challenging yet important targets in the modulation of protein-protein complexes. Design of therapeutic agents that interact with hot spot residues has proven to be a valid methodology in disrupting unwanted protein-protein interactions. Using biological methods to determine which residues are hot spots can be costly and time consuming. Recent advances in computational approaches to predict hot spots have incorporated a myriad of features, and have shown increasing predictive successes. Here we review the state of knowledge around protein-protein interactions, hot spots, and give an overview of multiple in silico prediction techniques of hot spot residues. PMID:22316154

  15. Residual stresses in zircaloy welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santisteban, J. R.; Fernandez, L; Vizcaino, P.; Banchik, A.D.; Samper, R; Martinez, R. L; Almer, J; Motta, A.T.; Colas, K.B; Kerr, M.; Daymond, M.R

    2009-01-01

    Welds in Zirconium-based alloys are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement, as H enters the material due to dissociation of water. The yield strain for hydride cracking has a complex dependence on H concentration, stress state and texture. The large thermal gradients produced by the applied heat; drastically changes the texture of the material in the heat affected zone, enhancing the susceptibility to delayed hydride cracking. Normally hydrides tend to form as platelets that are parallel to the normal direction, but when welding plates, hydride platelets may form on cooling with their planes parallel to the weld and through the thickness of the plates. If, in addition to this there are significant tensile stresses, the susceptibility of the heat affected zone to delayed hydride cracking will be increased. Here we have measured the macroscopic and microscopic residual stressed that appear after PLASMA welding of two 6mm thick Zircaloy-4 plates. The measurements were based on neutron and synchrotron diffraction experiments performed at the Isis Facility, UK, and at Advanced Photon Source, USA, respectively. The experiments allowed assessing the effect of a post-weld heat treatment consisting of a steady increase in temperature from room temperature to 450oC over a period of 4.5 hours; followed by cooling with an equivalent cooling rate. Peak tensile stresses of (175± 10) MPa along the longitudinal direction were found in the as-welded specimen, which were moderately reduced to (150±10) MPa after the heat-treatment. The parent material showed intergranular stresses of (56±4) MPa, which disappeared on entering the heat-affected zone. In-situ experiments during themal cyclong of the material showed that these intergranular stresses result from the anisotropy of the thermal expansion coefficient of the hexagonal crystal lattice. [es

  16. Different importance of the volatile and non-volatile fractions of an olfactory signature for individual social recognition in rats versus mice and short-term versus long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Julia; Richter, Karin; Laube, Gregor; Haghgoo, Hojjat Allah; Veh, Rüdiger W; Engelmann, Mario

    2010-11-01

    When tested in the olfactory cued social recognition/discrimination test, rats and mice differ in their retention of a recognition memory for a previously encountered conspecific juvenile: Rats are able to recognize a given juvenile for approximately 45 min only whereas mice show not only short-term, but also long-term recognition memory (≥ 24 h). Here we modified the social recognition/social discrimination procedure to investigate the neurobiological mechanism(s) underlying the species differences. We presented a conspecific juvenile repeatedly to the experimental subjects and monitored the investigation duration as a measure for recognition. Presentation of only the volatile fraction of the juvenile olfactory signature was sufficient for both short- and long-term recognition in mice but not rats. Applying additional volatile, mono-molecular odours to the "to be recognized" juveniles failed to affect short-term memory in both species, but interfered with long-term recognition in mice. Finally immunocytochemical analysis of c-Fos as a marker for cellular activation, revealed that juvenile exposure stimulated areas involved in the processing of olfactory signals in both the main and the accessory olfactory bulb in mice. In rats, we measured an increased c-Fos synthesis almost exclusively in cells of the accessory olfactory bulb. Our data suggest that the species difference in the retention of social recognition memory is based on differences in the processing of the volatile versus non-volatile fraction of the individuals' olfactory signature. The non-volatile fraction is sufficient for retaining a short-term social memory only. Long-term social memory - as observed in mice - requires a processing of both the volatile and non-volatile fractions of the olfactory signature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Residues from waste incineration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astrup, T.; Juul Pedersen, A.; Hyks, J.; Frandsen, F.J.

    2009-08-15

    The overall objective of the project was to improve the understanding of the formation and characteristics of residues from waste incineration. This was done focusing on the importance of the waste input and the operational conditions of the furnace. Data and results obtained from the project have been discussed in this report according to the following three overall parts: i) mass flows and element distribution, ii) flue gas/particle partitioning and corrosion/deposition aspects, and iii) residue leaching. This has been done with the intent of structuring the discussion while tacitly acknowledging that these aspects are interrelated and cannot be separated. Overall, it was found that the waste input composition had significant impact of the characteristics of the generated residues. A similar correlation between operational conditions and residue characteristics could not be observed. Consequently, the project recommend that optimization of residue quality should focus on controlling the waste input composition. The project results showed that including specific waste materials (and thereby also excluding the same materials) may have significant effects on the residue composition, residue leaching, aerosol and deposit formation.It is specifically recommended to minimize Cl in the input waste. Based on the project results, it was found that a significant potential for optimization of waste incineration exist. (author)

  18. Use of ultrasound in petroleum residue upgradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawarkar, A.N.; Pandit, A.B.; Samant, S.D.; Joshi, J.B. [Mumbai Univ., Mumbai (India). Inst. of Chemical Technology

    2009-06-15

    The importance of bottom-of-the barrel upgrading has increased in the current petroleum refining scenario because of the progressively heavier nature of crude oil. Heavy residues contain large concentrations of metals such as vanadium and nickel which foul catalysts and reduce the potential effect of residue fluidized catalytic cracking. This study showed that the cavitational energy induced by ultrasound be be successfully used to upgrade hydrocarbon mixtures. Conventional processes for the upgrading of residual feedstocks, such as thermal cracking and catalytic cracking, were carried out in the temperature range of 400-520 degrees C. Experiments were performed on 2 vacuum residues, Arabian mix vacuum residue (AMVR) and Bombay high vacuum residue (BHVR) and 1 Haldia asphalt (HA). These were subjected to acoustic cavitation for different reaction times from 15 to 120 minutes at ambient temperature and pressure. Two acoustic cavitation devices were compared, namely the ultrasonic bath and ultrasonic horn. In particular, this study compared the ability of these 2 devices to upgrade the petroleum residues to lighter, more value-added products. Different surfactants were used to examine the effect of ultrasound on upgrading the residue when emulsified in water. In order to better understand the reaction mechanism, a kinetic model was developed based on the constituents of the residue. The ultrasonic horn was found to be more effective in bringing about the upgrading than ultrasonic bath. The study also showed that the acoustic cavitation of the aqueous emulsified hydrocarbon mixture could reduce the asphaltenes content to a greater extent than the acoustic cavitation of non-emulsified hydrocarbon mixture. 20 refs., 11 tabs., 17 figs.

  19. Residual stress analysis in thick uranium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, A.M.; Foreman, R.J.; Gallegos, G.F.

    2005-01-01

    Residual stress analysis was performed on thick, 1-25 μm, depleted uranium (DU) films deposited on an Al substrate by magnetron sputtering. Two distinct characterization techniques were used to measure substrate curvature before and after deposition. Stress evaluation was performed using the Benabdi/Roche equation, which is based on beam theory of a bi-layer material. The residual stress evolution was studied as a function of coating thickness and applied negative bias voltage (0, -200, -300 V). The stresses developed were always compressive; however, increasing the coating thickness and applying a bias voltage presented a trend towards more tensile stresses and thus an overall reduction of residual stresses

  20. Residues in food derived from animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossklaus, D.

    1989-01-01

    The first chapter presents a survey of fundamentals and methods of the detection and analysis of residues in food derived from animals, also referring to the resulting health hazards to man, and to the relevant legal provisions. The subsequent chapters have been written by experts of the Federal Health Office, each dealing with particular types of residues such as those of veterinary drugs, additives to animal feeds, pesticide residues, and with environmental pollutants and the contamination of animal products with radionuclides. (MG) With 35 figs., 61 tabs [de

  1. Guidelines for selection and presentation of residue values of pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde-Koerts T van der; Hoeven-Arentzen PH van; Ossendorp BC; RIVM-SIR

    2004-01-01

    Pesticide residue assessments are executed to establish legal limits, called Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs). MRLs are derived from the results of these pesticide residue trials, which are performed according to critical Good Agricultural Practice. Only one residue value per residue trial may be

  2. Radiation doses from residual radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Shunzo; Fujita, Shoichiro; Harley, John H.

    1987-01-01

    requires knowing the location of the person to within about 200 m from the time of the explosion to a few weeks afterwards. This is an effort that might be comparable to the present shielding study for survivors. The sizes of the four exposed groups are relatively small; however, the number has been estimated only for those exposed to fallout in the Nishiyama district of Nagasaki. Okajima listed the population of Nishiyama as about 600 at the time of the bomb. No figures are available for the other three groups. The individual exposures from residual radiation may not be significant compared with the direct radiation at the time of the bomb. On the other hand, individuals with potential exposure from these sources are dubious candidates for inclusion in a cohort that was presumably not exposed. For comparison with organ doses estimated in other parts of this program, the exposure estimates are converted to absorbed dose in tissue. The first conversion of exposure to absorbed dose in air uses the factor rad in air 0.87 x exposure in R. UNSCEAR uses an average combined factor of 0.7 to convert absorbed dose in air to absorbed dose in tissue for the whole body. This factor accounts for the change in material (air to tissue) and for backscatter and the shielding afforded by other tissues of the body. No allowance for shielding by buildings has been included here. The cumulative fallout exposures given above become absorbed doses in tissue of 12 to 24 rad for Nagasaki and 0.6 to 2 rad for Hiroshima. The cumulative exposures from induced radioactivity become absorbed doses in tissue of 18 to 24 rad for Nagasaki and about 50 rad for Hiroshima. (author)

  3. Cyolane residues in milk of lactating goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Osman, A.; Fakhr, I.M.I.

    1981-01-01

    Consecutive feeding of lactating goats with 14 C-alkyl labelled cyolane for 5 days at dietary levels 8 and 16 ppm resulted in the appearance of measurable insecticide residues in milk (0.02-0.04 mg/kg). The residue levels were markedly reduced after a withdrawal period of 7 days. Analysis of urine and milk residues showed the presence of similar metabolites in addition to the parent compound. The major part of the residue consisted of mono-, diethyl phosphate and 2 hydrophilic unknown metabolites. The erythrocyte cholinesterase activity was reduced to about 50% after 24 hours whereas the plasma enzyme was only slightly affected. The animals remained symptom-free during the experimental period. (author)

  4. Surgical treatment for residual or recurrent strabismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the surgical treatment is a relatively effective and predictable method for correcting residual or recurrent strabismus, such as posterior fixation sutures, medial rectus marginal myotomy, unilateral or bilateral rectus re-recession and resection, unilateral lateral rectus recession and adjustable suture, no standard protocol is established for the surgical style. Different surgical approaches have been recommended for correcting residual or recurrent strabismus. The choice of the surgical procedure depends on the former operation pattern and the surgical dosages applied on the patients, residual or recurrent angle of deviation and the operator''s preference and experience. This review attempts to outline recent publications and current opinion in the management of residual or recurrent esotropia and exotropia.

  5. Recovery of transuranics from process residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.; Gray, L.W.

    1987-01-01

    Process residues are generated at both the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) and the Savannah River Plant (SRP) during aqueous chemical and pyrochemical operations. Frequently, process operations will result in either impure products or produce residues sufficiently contaminated with transuranics to be nondiscardable as waste. Purification and recovery flowsheets for process residues have been developed to generate solutions compatible with subsequent Purex operations and either solid or liquid waste suitable for disposal. The ''scrub alloy'' and the ''anode heel alloy'' are examples of materials generated at RFP which have been processed at SRP using the developed recovery flowsheets. Examples of process residues being generated at SRP for which flowsheets are under development include LECO crucibles and alpha-contaminated hydraulic oil

  6. U.S. Isostatic Residual Gravity Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — isores.bin - standard grid containing isostatic residual gravity map for U.S. Grid interval = 4 km. Projection is Albers (central meridian = 96 degrees West; base...

  7. Management of stormwater facility maintenance residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Current research on stormwater maintenance residuals has revealed that the source and nature of these materials is extremely variable, that regulation can be ambiguous, and handling can be costly and difficult. From a regulatory perspective, data ind...

  8. Residual stresses in Inconel 718 engine disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahan Yoann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aubert&Duval has developed a methodology to establish a residual stress model for Inconel 718 engine discs. To validate the thermal, mechanical and metallurgical parts of the model, trials on lab specimens with specific geometry were carried out. These trials allow a better understanding of the residual stress distribution and evolution during different processes (quenching, ageing, machining. A comparison between experimental and numerical results reveals the residual stresses model accuracy. Aubert&Duval has also developed a mechanical properties prediction model. Coupled with the residual stress prediction model, Aubert&Duval can now propose improvements to the process of manufacturing in Inconel 718 engine disks. This model enables Aubert&Duval customers and subcontractors to anticipate distortions issues during machining. It could also be usedt to optimise the engine disk life.

  9. [Development of residual voltage testing equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaohui; Wu, Mingjun; Cao, Li; He, Jinyi; Deng, Zhensheng

    2014-07-01

    For the existing measurement methods of residual voltage which can't turn the power off at peak voltage exactly and simultaneously display waveforms, a new residual voltage detection method is put forward in this paper. First, the zero point of the power supply is detected with zero cross detection circuit and is inputted to a single-chip microcomputer in the form of pulse signal. Secend, when the zero point delays to the peak voltage, the single-chip microcomputer sends control signal to power off the relay. At last, the waveform of the residual voltage is displayed on a principal computer or oscilloscope. The experimental results show that the device designed in this paper can turn the power off at peak voltage and is able to accurately display the voltage waveform immediately after power off and the standard deviation of the residual voltage is less than 0.2 V at exactly one second and later.

  10. Residual extrapolation operators for efficient wavefield construction

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-01-01

    and smooth media, the residual implementation based on velocity perturbation optimizes the use of this feature. Most of the other implementations based on the spectral approach are focussed on reducing cost by reducing the number of inverse Fourier transforms

  11. Efficient particle filtering through residual nudging

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Xiaodong

    2013-05-15

    We introduce an auxiliary technique, called residual nudging, to the particle filter to enhance its performance in cases where it performs poorly. The main idea of residual nudging is to monitor and, if necessary, adjust the residual norm of a state estimate in the observation space so that it does not exceed a pre-specified threshold. We suggest a rule to choose the pre-specified threshold, and construct a state estimate accordingly to achieve this objective. Numerical experiments suggest that introducing residual nudging to a particle filter may (substantially) improve its performance, in terms of filter accuracy and/or stability against divergence, especially when the particle filter is implemented with a relatively small number of particles. © 2013 Royal Meteorological Society.

  12. Handling of wet residues in industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Alejandro

    is fundamental in most disposal routes for clarifying the possibility of treating the residue. The better the characterisation from the start is, the easier the assessment of the feasible disposal alternatives becomes. The decision about the handling/disposal solution for the residue is a trade-off between......, and can depend on factors such as the investment capacity, the relationships with the stakeholders, or the promotion of its environmental profile....

  13. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Toller, Susanna

    2008-01-01

     In Sweden, utilisation of incinerator residues outside disposal areas is restricted by environmental concerns, as such residues commonly contain greater amounts of potentially toxic trace elements than the natural materials they replace. On the other hand, utilisation can also provide environmental benefits by decreasing the need for landfill and reducing raw material extraction. This thesis provides increased knowledge and proposes better approaches for environmental assessment of incinerat...

  14. Fate and Transport of Colloidal Energetic Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    laser confocal microscopy was developed and evaluated. Spectral imaging has been applied widely for chromosome karyotype analysis (61), as well as...Walsh et al. (2010) (55), who reported that the timeframe for complete disappearance of the residues (based on visual inspection) was shorter than...enhanced disappearance of residues is that the particulates produced by precipitation- driven (or even tidal flooding) weathering lead to faster

  15. Environmental dredging residual generation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patmont, Clay; LaRosa, Paul; Narayanan, Raghav; Forrest, Casey

    2018-05-01

    The presence and magnitude of sediment contamination remaining in a completed dredge area can often dictate the success of an environmental dredging project. The need to better understand and manage this remaining contamination, referred to as "postdredging residuals," has increasingly been recognized by practitioners and investigators. Based on recent dredging projects with robust characterization programs, it is now understood that the residual contamination layer in the postdredging sediment comprises a mixture of contaminated sediments that originate from throughout the dredge cut. This mixture of contaminated sediments initially exhibits fluid mud properties that can contribute to sediment transport and contamination risk outside of the dredge area. This article reviews robust dredging residual evaluations recently performed in the United States and Canada, including the Hudson River, Lower Fox River, Ashtabula River, and Esquimalt Harbour, along with other projects. These data better inform the understanding of residuals generation, leading to improved models of dredging residual formation to inform remedy evaluation, selection, design, and implementation. Data from these projects confirm that the magnitude of dredging residuals is largely determined by site conditions, primarily in situ sediment fluidity or liquidity as measured by dry bulk density. While the generation of dredging residuals cannot be avoided, residuals can be successfully and efficiently managed through careful development and implementation of site-specific management plans. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:335-343. © 2018 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC). © 2018 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC).

  16. Protein structure based prediction of catalytic residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, J Eduardo; Fiser, Andras

    2013-02-22

    Worldwide structural genomics projects continue to release new protein structures at an unprecedented pace, so far nearly 6000, but only about 60% of these proteins have any sort of functional annotation. We explored a range of features that can be used for the prediction of functional residues given a known three-dimensional structure. These features include various centrality measures of nodes in graphs of interacting residues: closeness, betweenness and page-rank centrality. We also analyzed the distance of functional amino acids to the general center of mass (GCM) of the structure, relative solvent accessibility (RSA), and the use of relative entropy as a measure of sequence conservation. From the selected features, neural networks were trained to identify catalytic residues. We found that using distance to the GCM together with amino acid type provide a good discriminant function, when combined independently with sequence conservation. Using an independent test set of 29 annotated protein structures, the method returned 411 of the initial 9262 residues as the most likely to be involved in function. The output 411 residues contain 70 of the annotated 111 catalytic residues. This represents an approximately 14-fold enrichment of catalytic residues on the entire input set (corresponding to a sensitivity of 63% and a precision of 17%), a performance competitive with that of other state-of-the-art methods. We found that several of the graph based measures utilize the same underlying feature of protein structures, which can be simply and more effectively captured with the distance to GCM definition. This also has the added the advantage of simplicity and easy implementation. Meanwhile sequence conservation remains by far the most influential feature in identifying functional residues. We also found that due the rapid changes in size and composition of sequence databases, conservation calculations must be recalibrated for specific reference databases.

  17. Ensemble Kalman filtering with residual nudging

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, X.

    2012-10-03

    Covariance inflation and localisation are two important techniques that are used to improve the performance of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) by (in effect) adjusting the sample covariances of the estimates in the state space. In this work, an additional auxiliary technique, called residual nudging, is proposed to monitor and, if necessary, adjust the residual norms of state estimates in the observation space. In an EnKF with residual nudging, if the residual norm of an analysis is larger than a pre-specified value, then the analysis is replaced by a new one whose residual norm is no larger than a pre-specified value. Otherwise, the analysis is considered as a reasonable estimate and no change is made. A rule for choosing the pre-specified value is suggested. Based on this rule, the corresponding new state estimates are explicitly derived in case of linear observations. Numerical experiments in the 40-dimensional Lorenz 96 model show that introducing residual nudging to an EnKF may improve its accuracy and/or enhance its stability against filter divergence, especially in the small ensemble scenario.

  18. Fluorescence imaging to quantify crop residue cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughtry, C. S. T.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III; Chappelle, E. W.

    1994-01-01

    Crop residues, the portion of the crop left in the field after harvest, can be an important management factor in controlling soil erosion. Methods to quantify residue cover are needed that are rapid, accurate, and objective. Scenes with known amounts of crop residue were illuminated with long wave ultraviolet (UV) radiation and fluorescence images were recorded with an intensified video camera fitted with a 453 to 488 nm band pass filter. A light colored soil and a dark colored soil were used as background for the weathered soybean stems. Residue cover was determined by counting the proportion of the pixels in the image with fluorescence values greater than a threshold. Soil pixels had the lowest gray levels in the images. The values of the soybean residue pixels spanned nearly the full range of the 8-bit video data. Classification accuracies typically were within 3(absolute units) of measured cover values. Video imaging can provide an intuitive understanding of the fraction of the soil covered by residue.

  19. Ensemble Kalman filtering with residual nudging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Luo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Covariance inflation and localisation are two important techniques that are used to improve the performance of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF by (in effect adjusting the sample covariances of the estimates in the state space. In this work, an additional auxiliary technique, called residual nudging, is proposed to monitor and, if necessary, adjust the residual norms of state estimates in the observation space. In an EnKF with residual nudging, if the residual norm of an analysis is larger than a pre-specified value, then the analysis is replaced by a new one whose residual norm is no larger than a pre-specified value. Otherwise, the analysis is considered as a reasonable estimate and no change is made. A rule for choosing the pre-specified value is suggested. Based on this rule, the corresponding new state estimates are explicitly derived in case of linear observations. Numerical experiments in the 40-dimensional Lorenz 96 model show that introducing residual nudging to an EnKF may improve its accuracy and/or enhance its stability against filter divergence, especially in the small ensemble scenario.

  20. Detecting organic gunpowder residues from handgun use

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCrehan, William A.; Ricketts, K. Michelle; Baltzersen, Richard A.; Rowe, Walter F.

    1999-02-01

    The gunpowder residues that remain after the use of handguns or improvised explosive devices pose a challenge for the forensic investigator. Can these residues be reliably linked to a specific gunpowder or ammunition? We investigated the possibility by recovering and measuring the composition of organic additives in smokeless powder and its post-firing residues. By determining gunpowder additives such as nitroglycerin, dinitrotoluene, ethyl- and methylcentralite, and diphenylamine, we hope to identify the type of gunpowder in the residues and perhaps to provide evidence of a match to a sample of unfired powder. The gunpowder additives were extracted using an automated technique, pressurized fluid extraction (PFE). The conditions for the quantitative extraction of the additives using neat and solvent-modified supercritical carbon dioxide were investigated. All of the major gunpowder additives can be determined with baseline resolution using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with a micellar agent and UV absorbance detection. A study of candidate internal standards for use in the CE method is also presented. The PFE/CE technique is used to evaluate a new residue sampling protocol--asking shooters to blow their noses. In addition, an initial investigation of the compositional differences among unfired and post-fired .22 handgun residues is presented.

  1. Disposal of leached residual in heap leaching by neutralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jingmin

    1993-01-01

    The disposal results of leached residual with lime are described. Using the ratio of residual to lime being 100 : 1 the ideal disposal results were obtained with the effluent of the neutralized residual close to neutral

  2. Effect of AlN layer on the bipolar resistive switching behavior in TiN thin film based ReRAM device for non-volatile memory application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ravi; Kaur, Davinder

    2018-05-01

    The effect of an additional AlN layer in the Cu/TiN/AlN/Pt stack configuration deposited using sputtering has been investigated. The Cu/TiN/AlN/Pt device shows a tristate resistive switching. Multilevel switching is facilitated by ionic and metallic filament formation, and the nature of the filaments formed is confirmed by performing a resistance vs. temperature measurement. Ohmic behaviour and trap controlled space charge limited current (SCLC) conduction mechanisms are confirmed as dominant conduction mechanism at low resistance state (LRS) and high resistance state (HRS). High resistance ratio (102) corresponding to HRS and LRS, good write/erase endurance (105) and non-volatile long retention (105s) are also observed. Higher thermal conductivity of the AlN layer is the main reasons for the enhancement of resistive switching performance in Cu/TiN/AlN/Pt cell. The above result suggests the feasibility of Cu/TiN/AlN/Pt devices for multilevel nonvolatile ReRAM application.

  3. Assessing the Availability of Wood Residues and Residue Markets in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Alderman, Delton R. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    A statewide mail survey of primary and secondary wood product manufacturers was undertaken to quantify the production and consumption of wood residues in Virginia. Two hundred and sixty-six wood product manufacturers responded to the study and they provided information on the production, consumption, markets, income or disposal costs, and disposal methods of wood residues. Hardwood and pine sawmills produce approximately 66 percent of Virginia's wood residues. Virginia's wood product man...

  4. A survey of residual analysis and a new test of residual trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J J; Calvin, Olivia L; Klapes, Bryan

    2016-05-01

    A survey of residual analysis in behavior-analytic research reveals that existing methods are problematic in one way or another. A new test for residual trends is proposed that avoids the problematic features of the existing methods. It entails fitting cubic polynomials to sets of residuals and comparing their effect sizes to those that would be expected if the sets of residuals were random. To this end, sampling distributions of effect sizes for fits of a cubic polynomial to random data were obtained by generating sets of random standardized residuals of various sizes, n. A cubic polynomial was then fitted to each set of residuals and its effect size was calculated. This yielded a sampling distribution of effect sizes for each n. To test for a residual trend in experimental data, the median effect size of cubic-polynomial fits to sets of experimental residuals can be compared to the median of the corresponding sampling distribution of effect sizes for random residuals using a sign test. An example from the literature, which entailed comparing mathematical and computational models of continuous choice, is used to illustrate the utility of the test. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  5. Sustainable System for Residual Hazards Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

    2004-01-01

    Hazardous, radioactive and other toxic substances have routinely been generated and subsequently disposed of in the shallow subsurface throughout the world. Many of today's waste management techniques do not eliminate the problem, but rather only concentrate or contain the hazardous contaminants. Residual hazards result from the presence of hazardous and/or contaminated material that remains on-site following active operations or the completion of remedial actions. Residual hazards pose continued risk to humans and the environment and represent a significant and chronic problem that require continuous long-term management (i.e. >1000 years). To protect human health and safeguard the natural environment, a sustainable system is required for the proper management of residual hazards. A sustainable system for the management of residual hazards will require the integration of engineered, institutional and land-use controls to isolate residual contaminants and thus minimize the associated hazards. Engineered controls are physical modifications to the natural setting and ecosystem, including the site, facility, and/or the residual materials themselves, in order to reduce or eliminate the potential for exposure to contaminants of concern (COCs). Institutional controls are processes, instruments, and mechanisms designed to influence human behavior and activity. System failure can involve hazardous material escaping from the confinement because of system degradation (i.e., chronic or acute degradation) or by external intrusion of the biosphere into the contaminated material because of the loss of institutional control. An ongoing analysis of contemporary and historic sites suggests that the significance of the loss of institutional controls is a critical pathway because decisions made during the operations/remedial action phase, as well as decisions made throughout the residual hazards management period, are key to the long-term success of the prescribed system. In fact

  6. Pesticide residues in birds and mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; Edwards, C.A.

    1973-01-01

    SUMMARY: Residues of organochlorine pesticides and their breakdown products are present in the tissues of essentially all wild birds throughout the world. These chemicals accumulate in fat from a relatively small environmental exposure. DDE and dieldrin are most prevalent. Others, such as heptachlor epoxide, chlordane, endrin, and benzene hexachloride also occur, the quantities and kinds generally reflecting local or regional use. Accumulation may be sufficient to kill animals following applications for pest control. This has occurred in several large-scale programmes in the United States. Mortality has also resulted from unintentional leakage of chemical from commercial establishments. Residues may persist in the environment for many years, exposing successive generations of animals. In general, birds that eat other birds, or fish, have higher residues than those that eat seeds and vegetation. The kinetic processes of absorption, metabolism, storage, and output differ according to both kind of chemical and species of animal. When exposure is low and continuous, a balance between intake and excretion may be achieved. Residues reach a balance at an approximate animal body equilibrium or plateau; the storage is generally proportional to dose. Experiments with chickens show that dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide have the greatest propensity for storage, endrin next, then DDT, then lindane. The storage of DDT was complicated by its metabolism to DDE and DDD, but other studies show that DDE has a much greater propensity for storage than either DDD or DDT. Methoxychlor has little cumulative capacity in birds. Residues in eggs reflect and parallel those in the parent bird during accumulation, equilibrium, and decline when dosage is discontinued. Residues with the greatest propensity for storage are also lost most slowly. Rate of loss of residues can be modified by dietary components and is speeded by weight loss of the animal. Under sublethal conditions of continuous

  7. Disposal of Rocky Flats residues as waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dustin, D.F.; Sendelweck, V.S.

    1993-01-01

    Work is underway at the Rocky Flats Plant to evaluate alternatives for the removal of a large inventory of plutonium-contaminated residues from the plant. One alternative under consideration is to package the residues as transuranic wastes for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Current waste acceptance criteria and transportation regulations require that approximately 1000 cubic yards of residues be repackaged to produce over 20,000 cubic yards of WIPP certified waste. The major regulatory drivers leading to this increase in waste volume are the fissile gram equivalent, surface radiation dose rate, and thermal power limits. In the interest of waste minimization, analyses have been conducted to determine, for each residue type, the controlling criterion leading to the volume increase, the impact of relaxing that criterion on subsequent waste volume, and the means by which rules changes may be implemented. The results of this study have identified the most appropriate changes to be proposed in regulatory requirements in order to minimize the costs of disposing of Rocky Flats residues as transuranic wastes

  8. Reclamation of plutonium from pyrochemical processing residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Gray, J.H.; Holcomb, H.P.; Chostner, D.F.

    1987-04-01

    Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), Savannah River Plant (SRP), and Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) have jointly developed a process to recover plutonium from molten salt extraction residues. These NaCl, KCL, and MgCl 2 residues, which are generated in the pyrochemical extraction of 241 Am from aged plutonium metal, contain up to 25 wt % dissolved plutonium and up to 2 wt % americium. The overall objective was to develop a process to convert these residues to a pure plutonium metal product and discardable waste. To meet this objective a combination of pyrochemical and aqueous unit operations was used. The first step was to scrub the salt residue with a molten metal (aluminum and magnesium) to form a heterogeneous ''scrub alloy'' containing nominally 25 wt % plutonium. This unit operation, performed at RFP, effectively separated the actinides from the bulk of the chloride salts. After packaging in aluminum cans, the ''scrub alloy'' was then dissolved in a nitric acid - hydrofluoric acid - mercuric nitrate solution at SRP. Residual chloride was separated from the dissolver solution by precipitation with Hg 2 (NO 3 ) 2 followed by centrifuging. Plutonium was then separated from the aluminum, americium and magnesium using the Purex solvent extraction system. The 241 Am was diverted to the waste tank farm, but could be recovered if desired

  9. Rare Earth Element Phases in Bauxite Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Vind

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present work was to provide mineralogical insight into the rare earth element (REE phases in bauxite residue to improve REE recovering technologies. Experimental work was performed by electron probe microanalysis with energy dispersive as well as wavelength dispersive spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. REEs are found as discrete mineral particles in bauxite residue. Their sizes range from <1 μm to about 40 μm. In bauxite residue, the most abundant REE bearing phases are light REE (LREE ferrotitanates that form a solid solution between the phases with major compositions (REE,Ca,Na(Ti,FeO3 and (Ca,Na(Ti,FeO3. These are secondary phases formed during the Bayer process by an in-situ transformation of the precursor bauxite LREE phases. Compared to natural systems, the indicated solid solution resembles loparite-perovskite series. LREE particles often have a calcium ferrotitanate shell surrounding them that probably hinders their solubility. Minor amount of LREE carbonate and phosphate minerals as well as manganese-associated LREE phases are also present in bauxite residue. Heavy REEs occur in the same form as in bauxites, namely as yttrium phosphates. These results show that the Bayer process has an impact on the initial REE mineralogy contained in bauxite. Bauxite residue as well as selected bauxites are potentially good sources of REEs.

  10. Mobility of organic carbon from incineration residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecke, Holger; Svensson, Malin

    2008-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may affect the transport of pollutants from incineration residues when landfilled or used in geotechnical construction. The leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and air pollution control residue (APC) from the incineration of waste wood was investigated. Factors affecting the mobility of DOC were studied in a reduced 2 6-1 experimental design. Controlled factors were treatment with ultrasonic radiation, full carbonation (addition of CO 2 until the pH was stable for 2.5 h), liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, pH, leaching temperature and time. Full carbonation, pH and the L/S ratio were the main factors controlling the mobility of DOC in the bottom ash. Approximately 60 weight-% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the bottom ash was available for leaching in aqueous solutions. The L/S ratio and pH mainly controlled the mobilization of DOC from the APC residue. About 93 weight-% of TOC in the APC residue was, however, not mobilized at all, which might be due to a high content of elemental carbon. Using the European standard EN 13 137 for determination of total organic carbon (TOC) in MSWI residues is inappropriate. The results might be biased due to elemental carbon. It is recommended to develop a TOC method distinguishing between organic and elemental carbon

  11. [Migrants from disposable gloves and residual acrylonitrile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakui, C; Kawamura, Y; Maitani, T

    2001-10-01

    Disposable gloves made from polyvinyl chloride with and without di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (PVC-DEHP, PVC-NP), polyethylene (PE), natural rubber (NR) and nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) were investigated with respect to evaporation residue, migrated metals, migrants and residual acrylonitrile. The evaporation residue found in n-heptane was 870-1,300 ppm from PVC-DEHP and PVC-NP, which was due to the plasticizers. Most of the PE gloves had low evaporation residue levels and migrants, except for the glove designated as antibacterial, which released copper and zinc into 4% acetic acid. For the NR and NBR gloves, the evaporation residue found in 4% acetic acid was 29-180 ppm. They also released over 10 ppm of calcium and 6 ppm of zinc into 4% acetic acid, and 1.68-8.37 ppm of zinc di-ethyldithiocarbamate and zinc di-n-butyldithiocarbamate used as vulcanization accelerators into n-heptane. The acrylonitrile content was 0.40-0.94 ppm in NBR gloves.

  12. New applications of partial residual methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, V.R.

    1999-12-01

    The formulation of a problem of interest in the framework of a statistical analysis starts with collecting the data, choosing a model, making certain assumptions as described in the basic paradigm by Box (1980). This stage is is called model building. Then the estimation stage is in order by pretending as if the formulation of the problem was true to obtain estimates, to make tests and inferences. In the final stage, called diagnostic checking, checking of whether there are some disagreements between the data and the model fitted is done by using diagnostic measures and diagnostic plots. It is well known that statistical methods perform best under the condition that all assumptions related to the methods are satisfied. However it is true that having the ideal case in practice is very difficult. Diagnostics are therefore becoming important so are diagnostic plots because they provide a immediate assessment. Partial residual plots that are the main interest of the present study are playing the major role among the diagnostic plots in multiple regression analysis. In statistical literature it is admitted that partial residual plots are more useful than ordinary residual plots in detecting outliers, nonconstant variance, and especially discovering curvatures. In this study we consider the partial residual methodology in statistical methods rather than multiple regression. We have shown that for the same purpose as in the multiple regression the use of partial residual plots is possible particularly in autoregressive time series models, transfer function models, linear mixed models and ridge regression. (author)

  13. Residual gravimetric method to measure nebulizer output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecellio None, Laurent; Grimbert, Daniel; Bordenave, Joelle; Benoit, Guy; Furet, Yves; Fauroux, Brigitte; Boissinot, Eric; De Monte, Michele; Lemarié, Etienne; Diot, Patrice

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess a residual gravimetric method based on weighing dry filters to measure the aerosol output of nebulizers. This residual gravimetric method was compared to assay methods based on spectrophotometric measurement of terbutaline (Bricanyl, Astra Zeneca, France), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) measurement of tobramycin (Tobi, Chiron, U.S.A.), and electrochemical measurements of NaF (as defined by the European standard). Two breath-enhanced jet nebulizers, one standard jet nebulizer, and one ultrasonic nebulizer were tested. Output produced by the residual gravimetric method was calculated by weighing the filters both before and after aerosol collection and by filter drying corrected by the proportion of drug contained in total solute mass. Output produced by the electrochemical, spectrophotometric, and HPLC methods was determined after assaying the drug extraction filter. The results demonstrated a strong correlation between the residual gravimetric method (x axis) and assay methods (y axis) in terms of drug mass output (y = 1.00 x -0.02, r(2) = 0.99, n = 27). We conclude that a residual gravimetric method based on dry filters, when validated for a particular agent, is an accurate way of measuring aerosol output.

  14. Incorporation feasibility of leather residues in bricks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, J.B. [Minho Univ. (Portugal). Civil Engineering Dept.; Valente, A.; Pires, M.J. [Inst. of Development and Innovation Technology of Minho, Braga (Portugal); Tavares, T. [Biological Engineering Dept., Univ. of Minho, Braga (Portugal)

    2002-07-01

    The footwear industry has strips of leather as one of its by-products. These leather residues, due to their high chromium content, can be regarded as a threat to the environment, particularly if no care is taken with their disposal. With the incorporation of the residues in ceramic products, after trituration, is possible to neutralise the eventual toxicity of chromium. In a laboratory study we produced prismatic bricks using clay from the region and incorporating 1, 3 and 5% (by mass) of leather residues. This corresponds at about 20, 60 and 100% (by apparent volume). The moulds were filled up with paste and, in order to have some compactness, the ceramic paste was compressed with a spatula. After that, it began the process of drying and burning the bricks. They were tested to flexure, compression and leaching. The results showed that the toxicity of chromium disappeared in the bricks. The mechanical tests showed a decrease in strength for the specimens with leather residue. The compressive strength decreases about 22% for 1% of incorporation of leather residue. However, as bricks were lighter and more porous, we can expect that they are better for thermal isolation. (orig.)

  15. Methods of measuring residual stresses in components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossini, N.S.; Dassisti, M.; Benyounis, K.Y.; Olabi, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Defining the different methods of measuring residual stresses in manufactured components. ► Comprehensive study on the hole drilling, neutron diffraction and other techniques. ► Evaluating advantage and disadvantage of each method. ► Advising the reader with the appropriate method to use. -- Abstract: Residual stresses occur in many manufactured structures and components. Large number of investigations have been carried out to study this phenomenon and its effect on the mechanical characteristics of these components. Over the years, different methods have been developed to measure residual stress for different types of components in order to obtain reliable assessment. The various specific methods have evolved over several decades and their practical applications have greatly benefited from the development of complementary technologies, notably in material cutting, full-field deformation measurement techniques, numerical methods and computing power. These complementary technologies have stimulated advances not only in measurement accuracy and reliability, but also in range of application; much greater detail in residual stresses measurement is now available. This paper aims to classify the different residual stresses measurement methods and to provide an overview of some of the recent advances in this area to help researchers on selecting their techniques among destructive, semi destructive and non-destructive techniques depends on their application and the availabilities of those techniques. For each method scope, physical limitation, advantages and disadvantages are summarized. In the end this paper indicates some promising directions for future developments.

  16. Drug and chemical residues in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussman, H C

    1975-02-01

    Given the large number of chemical substances that may find their way into the food supply, a system is needed to monitor their presence. The U. S. Department of Agriculture's Meat and Poultry Inspection Program routinely tests for chemical residues in animals coming to slaughter. Pesticides, heavy metals, growth promotants (hormones and hormonelike agents), and antibiotics are included. Samples are taken statistically so that inferences as to national incidence of residues can be drawn. When a problem is identified, a more selective sampling is designed to help follow up on the initial regulatory action. In testing for pesticides, only DDT and dieldrin are found with any frequency and their levels are decreasing; violative residues of any chlorinated hydrocarbon are generally a result of an industrial accident rather than agricultural usage. Analyses for heavy metals have revealed detectable levels of mercury, lead, and others, but none at levels that are considered a health hazard. Of the hormone or hormonelike substances, only diethylstilbestrol has been a residue problem and its future is uncertain. The most extensive monitoring for veterinary drugs is on the antimicrobials, including sulfonamides, streptomycin, and the tetracycline group of antibiotics that constitute the bulk of the violations; their simultaneous use prophylactically and therapeutically has contributed to the problem in certain cases. A strong, well-designed user education program on proper application of pesticides, chemicals, and veterinary drugs appears to be one method of reducing the incidence of unwanted residues.

  17. 77 FR 24671 - Compliance Guide for Residue Prevention and Agency Testing Policy for Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) inspection system, another important component of the NRP is to provide verification of residue control in HACCP systems. As part of the HACCP regulation... guide, and FSIS finds violative residues, the establishment's HACCP system may be inadequate under 9 CFR...

  18. Improved crop residue cover estimates by coupling spectral indices for residue and moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remote sensing assessment of soil residue cover (fR) and tillage intensity will improve our predictions of the impact of agricultural practices and promote sustainable management. Spectral indices for estimating fR are sensitive to soil and residue water content, therefore, the uncertainty of estima...

  19. Distribution of Penicillin G Residues in Culled Dairy Cow Muscles: Implications for Residue Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration sets tolerances for veterinary drug residues in muscle, but does not specify which type of muscle should be analyzed. In order to determine if antibiotic residue levels are dependent on muscle type, 7 culled dairy cows were dosed with Penicillin G (Pen G) from ...

  20. Residual-strength determination in polymetric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, R.M.

    1981-10-01

    Kinetic theory of crack growth is used to predict the residual strength of polymetric materials acted upon by a previous history. Specifically, the kinetic theory is used to characterize the state of growing damage that occurs under a constant-stress (load) state. The load is removed before failure under creep-rupture conditions, and the residual instantaneous strength is determined from the theory by taking account of the damage accumulation under the preceding constant-load history. The rate of change of residual strength is found to be strongest when the duration of the preceding load history is near the ultimate lifetime under that condition. Physical explanations for this effect are given, as are numerical examples. Also, the theoretical prediction is compared with experimental data.

  1. Management of municipal solid waste incineration residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbas, T.; Polettini, A.; Pomi, R.; Astrup, T.; Hjelmar, O.; Mostbauer, P.; Cappai, G.; Magel, G.; Salhofer, S.; Speiser, C.; Heuss-Assbichler, S.; Klein, R.; Lechner, P.

    2003-01-01

    The management of residues from thermal waste treatment is an integral part of waste management systems. The primary goal of managing incineration residues is to prevent any impact on our health or environment caused by unacceptable particulate, gaseous and/or solute emissions. This paper provides insight into the most important measures for putting this requirement into practice. It also offers an overview of the factors and processes affecting these mitigating measures as well as the short- and long-term behavior of residues from thermal waste treatment under different scenarios. General conditions affecting the emission rate of salts and metals are shown as well as factors relevant to mitigating measures or sources of gaseous emissions

  2. Residual strains in girth-welded linepipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacEwen, S.R.; Holden, T.M.; Powell, B.M.; Lazor, R.B.

    1987-07-01

    High resolution neutron diffraction has been used to measure the axial residual strains in and adjacent to a multipass girth weld in a complete section of 914 mm (36 inches) diameter, 16 mm (5/8 inch) wall, linepipe. The experiments were carried out at the NRU reactor, Chalk River using the L3 triple-axis spectrometer. The through-wall distribution of axial residual strain was measured at 0, 4, 8, 20 and 50 mm from the weld centerline; the axial variation was determined 1, 5, 8, and 13 mm from the inside surface of the pipe wall. The results have been compared with strain gauge measurements on the weld surface and with through-wall residual stress distributions determined using the block-layering and removal technique

  3. Residual-strength determination in polymetric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Kinetic theory of crack growth is used to predict the residual strength of polymetric materials acted upon by a previous history. Specifically, the kinetic theory is used to characterize the state of growing damage that occurs under a constant-stress (load) state. The load is removed before failure under creep-rupture conditions, and the residual instantaneous strength is determined from the theory by taking account of the damage accumulation under the preceding constant-load history. The rate of change of residual strength is found to be strongest when the duration of the preceding load history is near the ultimate lifetime under that condition. Physical explanations for this effect are given, as are numerical examples. Also, the theoretical prediction is compared with experimental data

  4. Residual Defect Density in Random Disks Deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topic, Nikola; Pöschel, Thorsten; Gallas, Jason A C

    2015-08-03

    We investigate the residual distribution of structural defects in very tall packings of disks deposited randomly in large channels. By performing simulations involving the sedimentation of up to 50 × 10(9) particles we find all deposits to consistently show a non-zero residual density of defects obeying a characteristic power-law as a function of the channel width. This remarkable finding corrects the widespread belief that the density of defects should vanish algebraically with growing height. A non-zero residual density of defects implies a type of long-range spatial order in the packing, as opposed to only local ordering. In addition, we find deposits of particles to involve considerably less randomness than generally presumed.

  5. Determination of Pesticide Residues in Cannabis Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available to cultivators in commercial products, were investigated in the experiment. Smoke generated from the smoking devices was condensed in tandem chilled gas traps and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Recoveries of residues were as high as 69.5% depending on the device used and the component investigated, suggesting that the potential of pesticide and chemical residue exposures to cannabis users is substantial and may pose a significant toxicological threat in the absence of adequate regulatory frameworks.

  6. Bioenergy from agricultural residues in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    and biomethane under Ghanaian conditions. Detailed characterisations of thirteen of the most common agricultural residues in Ghana are presented, enabling estimations of theoretical bioenergy potentials and identifying specific residues for future biorefinery applications. When aiming at residue-based ethanol...... to pursue increased implementation of anaerobic digestion in Ghana, as the first bioenergy option, since anaerobic digestion is more flexible than ethanol production with regard to both feedstock and scale of production. If possible, the available manure and municipal liquid waste should be utilised first....... A novel model for estimating BMP from compositional data of lignocellulosic biomasses is derived. The model is based on a statistical method not previously used in this area of research and the best prediction of BMP is: BMP = 347 xC+H+R – 438 xL + 63 DA , where xC+H+R is the combined content of cellulose...

  7. Mutational properties of amino acid residues: implications for evolvability of phosphorylatable residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creixell, Pau; Schoof, Erwin M.; Tan, Chris Soon Heng

    2012-01-01

    in terms of their mutational activity. Moreover, we highlight the importance of the genetic code and physico-chemical properties of the amino acid residues as likely causes of these inequalities and uncover serine as a mutational hot spot. Finally, we explore the consequences that these different......; it is typically assumed that all amino acid residues are equally likely to mutate or to result from a mutation. Here, by reconstructing ancestral sequences and computing mutational probabilities for all the amino acid residues, we refute this assumption and show extensive inequalities between different residues...... mutational properties have on phosphorylation site evolution, showing that a higher degree of evolvability exists for phosphorylated threonine and, to a lesser extent, serine in comparison with tyrosine residues. As exemplified by the suppression of serine's mutational activity in phosphorylation sites, our...

  8. Residual generator for cardiovascular anomalies detection

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor

    2014-06-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of using observer-based approaches for cardiovascular anomalies detection and isolation. We consider a lumped parameter model of the cardiovascular system that can be written in a form of nonlinear state-space representation. We show that residuals that are sensitive to variations in some cardiovascular parameters and to abnormal opening and closure of the valves, can be generated. Since the whole state is not easily available for measurement, we propose to associate the residual generator to a robust extended kalman filter. Numerical results performed on synthetic data are provided.

  9. Lindane residues in fish inhabiting Nigerian rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okereke, G.U.; Dje, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis for residues of lindane in fish collected from various rivers close to rice agroecosystems showed that the concentrations of lindane ranged from none detectable to 3.4 mg kg -1 . Fish from rivers where strict regulations prohibits its use had no detectable lindane residues while appreciable amounts of lindane were found in fish were such restriction was not enforced with the variation attributed to the extent of use of lindane in the area of contamination. The investigation confirms that the use of lindane in rice production in Nigeria can cause the contamination of fish in nearby rivers. (author). 16 refs, 2 tab

  10. Fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpela, T.; Kudjoi, A.; Hippinen, I.; Heinolainen, A.; Suominen, M.; Lu Yong [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab of Energy Economics and Power Plant Engineering

    1996-12-01

    Partial gasification processes have been presented as possibilities for future power production. In the processes, the solid materials removed from a gasifier (i.e. fly ash and bed material) contain unburnt fuel and the fuel conversion is increased by burning this gasification residue either in an atmospheric or a pressurised fluidised-bed. In this project, which is a part of European JOULE 2 EXTENSION research programme, the main research objectives are the behaviour of calcium and sulphur compounds in solids and the emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O) in pressurised fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residues. (author)

  11. Fate of leptophos residues in milk products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Mohammed, S.I.

    1981-01-01

    The fate of leptophos residues in various milk products was studied using 14 C-phenyl labelled leptophos. Milk products were prepared from milk fortified with the radioactive insecticide by methods simulating those used in industry. The highest leptophos level was found in butter and the lowest in skim milk and whey. Analysis of the radioactive residues in all products showed the presence of leptophos alone. A trace of the oxon could be detected in whey. The results obtained in this investigation indicated that processing of milk did not affect the nature of leptophos to any appreciable extent. (author)

  12. Residual stress in Ni-W electrodeposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mizushima, Io; Tang, Peter Torben; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, the residual stress in Ni–W layers electrodeposited from electrolytes based on NiSO4 and Na2WO4, is investigated. Citrate, glycine and triethanolamine were used as complexing agents, enabling complex formation between the nickel ion and tungstate. The results show that the type...... of complexing agent and the current efficiency have an influence on the residual stress. In all cases, an increase in tensile stress in the deposit with time after deposition was observed. Pulse plating could improve the stress level for the electrolyte containing equal amounts of citrate...

  13. Residual radioactivity of treated green diamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassette, Philippe; Notari, Franck; Lépy, Marie-Christine; Caplan, Candice; Pierre, Sylvie; Hainschwang, Thomas; Fritsch, Emmanuel

    2017-08-01

    Treated green diamonds can show residual radioactivity, generally due to immersion in radium salts. We report various activity measurements on two radioactive diamonds. The activity was characterized by alpha and gamma ray spectrometry, and the radon emanation was measured by alpha counting of a frozen source. Even when no residual radium contamination can be identified, measurable alpha and high-energy beta emissions could be detected. The potential health impact of radioactive diamonds and their status with regard to the regulatory policy for radioactive products are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Residual water treatment for gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez, L.

    1990-01-01

    The treatment of residual water by means of gamma radiation for its use in agricultural irrigation is evaluated. Measurements of physical, chemical, biological and microbiological contamination indicators were performed. For that, samples from the treatment center of residual water of San Juan de Miraflores were irradiated up to a 52.5 kGy dose. The study concludes that gamma radiation is effective to remove parasites and bacteria, but not for removal of the organic and inorganic matter. (author). 15 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  15. Some problems of residual activity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katrik, P.; Mustafin, E.; Strasik, I.; Pavlovic, M.

    2013-01-01

    As a preparatory work for constructing the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI Darmstadt, samples of copper were irradiated by 500 MeV/u 238 U ion beam and investigated by gamma-ray spectroscopy. The nuclides that contribute dominantly to the residual activity have been identified and their contributions have been quantified by two different methods: from the whole-target gamma spectra and by integration of depth-profiles of residual activity of individual nuclides. Results obtained by these two methods are compared and discussed in this paper. (authors)

  16. Color center formation in plutonium electrorefining residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.E.; Eller, P.G.; Hobart, D.E.; Eastman, M.P.; McCurry, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    Plutonium electrorefining residues containing Pu(III) in KCl exhibit dramatic reversible, light-induced color changes. Similar color changes were observed in Ln-doped (Ln = La, Nd, Gd, and Lu) and undoped KCl samples which were subjected to intense gamma irradiation. Diffuse reflectance electronic and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies were used to show conclusively that Pu(III) is present in both the bleached and unbleached plutonium-bearing residues and the spectacular color changes are the result of color center formation and alternation by visible light. (orig.)

  17. Residual and Destroyed Accessible Information after Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Rui; Leuchs, Gerd; Grassl, Markus

    2018-04-01

    When quantum states are used to send classical information, the receiver performs a measurement on the signal states. The amount of information extracted is often not optimal due to the receiver's measurement scheme and experimental apparatus. For quantum nondemolition measurements, there is potentially some residual information in the postmeasurement state, while part of the information has been extracted and the rest is destroyed. Here, we propose a framework to characterize a quantum measurement by how much information it extracts and destroys, and how much information it leaves in the residual postmeasurement state. The concept is illustrated for several receivers discriminating coherent states.

  18. Residual dust charges in discharge afterglow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coueedel, L.; Mikikian, M.; Boufendi, L.; Samarian, A. A.

    2006-01-01

    An on-ground measurement of dust-particle residual charges in the afterglow of a dusty plasma was performed in a rf discharge. An upward thermophoretic force was used to balance the gravitational force. It was found that positively charged, negatively charged, and neutral dust particles coexisted for more than 1 min after the discharge was switched off. The mean residual charge for 200-nm-radius particles was measured. The dust particle mean charge is about -5e at a pressure of 1.2 mbar and about -3e at a pressure of 0.4 mbar

  19. Rigid Residue Scan Simulations Systematically Reveal Residue Entropic Roles in Protein Allostery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kalescky

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intra-protein information is transmitted over distances via allosteric processes. This ubiquitous protein process allows for protein function changes due to ligand binding events. Understanding protein allostery is essential to understanding protein functions. In this study, allostery in the second PDZ domain (PDZ2 in the human PTP1E protein is examined as model system to advance a recently developed rigid residue scan method combining with configurational entropy calculation and principal component analysis. The contributions from individual residues to whole-protein dynamics and allostery were systematically assessed via rigid body simulations of both unbound and ligand-bound states of the protein. The entropic contributions of individual residues to whole-protein dynamics were evaluated based on covariance-based correlation analysis of all simulations. The changes of overall protein entropy when individual residues being held rigid support that the rigidity/flexibility equilibrium in protein structure is governed by the La Châtelier's principle of chemical equilibrium. Key residues of PDZ2 allostery were identified with good agreement with NMR studies of the same protein bound to the same peptide. On the other hand, the change of entropic contribution from each residue upon perturbation revealed intrinsic differences among all the residues. The quasi-harmonic and principal component analyses of simulations without rigid residue perturbation showed a coherent allosteric mode from unbound and bound states, respectively. The projection of simulations with rigid residue perturbation onto coherent allosteric modes demonstrated the intrinsic shifting of ensemble distributions supporting the population-shift theory of protein allostery. Overall, the study presented here provides a robust and systematic approach to estimate the contribution of individual residue internal motion to overall protein dynamics and allostery.

  20. 40 CFR 180.564 - Indoxacarb; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indoxacarb; tolerances for residues...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.564 Indoxacarb; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of...

  1. Management of industrial solid residues; Gerenciamento de residuos solidos industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This chapter gives an overview on the management of industrial solid wastes, approaching the following subjects: classification of industrial solid residues; directives and methodologies for the management of industrial solid residues; instruments for the management of industrial solid residues; handling, packing, storage and transportation; treatment of industrial solid residues; final disposal - landfill for industrial residues; the problem of treatment and final disposer of domestic garbage in Brazil; recycling of the lubricant oils used in brazil; legislation.

  2. Corn residue removal and CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) are the primary greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted from the soil due to agricultural activities. In the short-term, increases in CO2 emissions indicate increased soil microbial activity. Soil micro-organisms decompose crop residues and release...

  3. Preliminary characterization of residual biomass from Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces are mainly used for different agro-food and beverages applications. The residual biomass generated contains various useful substances that were extracted and characterized. It contained 23% (w/w) soluble pectic material, a food additive, extracted with hot acidified water (80°C, pH = 1.5) and ...

  4. Residual strength evaluation of concrete structural components ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents methodologies for residual strength evaluation of concrete structural components using linear elastic and nonlinear fracture mechanics principles. The effect of cohesive forces due to aggregate bridging has been represented mathematically by employing tension softening models. Various tension ...

  5. Residual stresses in plastic random systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alava, M.J.; Karttunen, M.E.J.; Niskanen, K.J.

    1995-01-01

    We show that yielding in elastic plastic materials creates residual stresses when local disorder is present. The intensity of these stresses grows with the external stress and degree of initial disorder. The one-dimensional model we employ also yields a discontinuous transition to perfect plasticity

  6. Recent advances in residual stress measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withers, P.J.; Turski, M.; Edwards, L.; Bouchard, P.J.; Buttle, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    Until recently residual stresses have been included in structural integrity assessments of nuclear pressure vessels and piping in a very primitive manner due to the lack of reliable residual stress measurement or prediction tools. This situation is changing the capabilities of newly emerging destructive (i.e. the contour method) and non-destructive (i.e. magnetic and high-energy synchrotron X-ray strain mapping) residual stress measurement techniques for evaluating ferritic and austenitic pressure vessel components are contrasted against more well-established methods. These new approaches offer the potential for obtaining area maps of residual stress or strain in welded plants, mock-up components or generic test-pieces. The mapped field may be used directly in structural integrity calculations, or indirectly to validate finite element process/structural models on which safety cases for pressurised nuclear systems are founded. These measurement methods are complementary in terms of application to actual plant, cost effectiveness and measurements in thick sections. In each case an exemplar case study is used to illustrate the method and to highlight its particular capabilities

  7. Geostatistical methods applied to field model residuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maule, Fox; Mosegaard, K.; Olsen, Nils

    consists of measurement errors and unmodelled signal), and is typically assumed to be uncorrelated and Gaussian distributed. We have applied geostatistical methods to analyse the residuals of the Oersted(09d/04) field model [http://www.dsri.dk/Oersted/Field_models/IGRF_2005_candidates/], which is based...

  8. Vitrification for stability of scrap and residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-05-01

    A conference breakout discussion was held on the subject of vitrification for stabilization of plutonium scrap and residue. This was one of four such sessions held within the vitrification workshop for participants to discuss specific subjects in further detail. The questions and issues were defined by the participants.

  9. Thermal Adsorption Processing Of Hydrocarbon Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudad H. Al.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The raw materials of secondary catalytic processes must be pre-refined. Among these refining processes are the deasphalting and demetallization including their thermo adsorption or thermo-contact adsorption variety. In oil processing four main processes of thermo-adsorption refining of hydrocarbon residues are used ART Asphalt Residual Treating - residues deasphaltizing 3D Discriminatory Destructive Distillation developed in the US ACT Adsorption-Contact Treatment and ETCC Express Thermo-Contact Cracking developed in Russia. ART and ACT are processes with absorbers of lift type reactor while 3D and ETCC processes are with an adsorbing reactor having ultra-short contact time of the raw material with the adsorbent. In all these processes refining of hydrocarbon residues is achieved by partial Thermo-destructive transformations of hydrocarbons and hetero-atomic compounds with simultaneous adsorption of the formed on the surface of the adsorbents resins asphaltene and carboids as well as metal- sulphur - and nitro-organic compounds. Demetallized and deasphalted light and heavy gas oils or their mixtures are a quality raw material for secondary deepening refining processes catalytic and hydrogenation cracking etc. since they are characterized by low coking ability and low content of organometallic compounds that lead to irreversible deactivation of the catalysts of these deepening processes.

  10. EFFECTS OF MUCUNA ( MUCUNA UTILIS L.) RESIDUE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The field experiment was conducted at two locations: University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (UNAAB) and Olowo-Papa (OP) in Ogun state both in Forest-savannah transition zone of Nigeria to investigate the response of three upland rice cultivars (O.sativa) to mucuna residue incorporation and Nitrogen (N) fertilizer and the ...

  11. The measurement of residual stresses in claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, G.; Bender, N.

    1978-01-01

    The ring core method, a variation of the hole drilling method for the measurement of biaxial residual stresses, has been extended to measure stresses from depths of about 5 to 25mm. It is now possible to measure the stress profiles of clad material. Examples of measured stress profiles are shown and compared with those obtained with a sectioning technique. (author)

  12. Characterization of residual oils for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Antonio Canesin

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The obtained results suggesting that it is possible to take advantage of these residues for biodiesel production as the obtained products were approved according to the rules established by the National Association of Petroleum (ANP; the bovine samples were the exception regarding moisture and acidity.

  13. Contaminant transport at a waste residue deposit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard; Traberg, Rikke

    1996-01-01

    Contaminant transport in an aquifer at an incinerator waste residue deposit in Denmark is simulated. A two-dimensional, geochemical transport code is developed for this purpose and tested by comparison to results from another code, The code is applied to a column experiment and to the field site...

  14. Pemanfaatan Residu Pembakaran Sampah Organik Rumah Tangga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Naryono

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pembakaran sampah organik rumah tangga menghasilkan residu padat 25-30% yang terdiri dari abu bawah (BA, abu atas (FA dan kondensat air yang mengandung tar. Abu bawah sebagian besar terdiri dari bahan anorganik seperti Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, K, Na, Cl dan logam berat antara lain Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb dan Zn, sedangkan abu atas tersusun dari bahan organik dan anorganik. Bahan organik yang terdapat dalam residu antara lain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH, chloro benzene (CB, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioksin (PCDD dan furan (PCDF. Residu pembakaran biomass perlu diolah atau dimanfaatkan agar tidak mengganggu lingkungan. Salah satu metode pengolahan yang mudah diterapkan dan aman terhadap lingkungan adalah pemadatan dan stabilisasi menggunakan semen atau lempung sebagai binder. Pemanfaatan produk ini dapat digunakan untuk batako atau batu bata. Berdasarkan prediksi, pembakaran sampah kota Malang sebesar 400 ton/hari menghasilkan abu 72 ton/hari. Pemakaian abu sebesar 25% pada pembuatan batako dengan perbandingan semen : pasir : abu sebesar 3,75 : 30 : 1,25 dapat menghasilkan batako setiap hari 366545 buah. Kata kunci : Abu, Batako, Residu, Pemadatan, Sampah organik rumah tangga

  15. Formulation of morning product using food residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Rosário de Fátima Padilha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, there is resistance of the population to the use of stalks, leaves, peels and seeds of vegetables and fruits, leading to trash important parts of the food in good physiological conditions and with the presence of potential nutrients. In this research, a morning product was elaborated using green and dry coconut residue, jerimum and melon seed, crystallized sicilian lemon peel, cashew nut, common rapadura sweet and ginger. The bacteriological tests proved the hygienic-sanitary quality of the product, therefore suitable for consumption, that is, according to RDC 12/2001. It was also observed that the dehydration of all the residues reached the legal levels and accepted by ANVISA that limits in 25% the water content in the dehydrated foods. As for the centesimal composition, it was observed that the elaborated product with residues and other ingredients had a good content of macro nutrients. A use of the type of waste as a new food proposal constitutes an alternative to avoid and reduce: the serious environmental problem caused by the large residual volume generated, and the inadequate places in which they are stored or deposited, aggravating the scenario of food-borne pollutants.

  16. Valorization of Furfural Residue by Hydrothermal Carbonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Fen; Zhang, Jia; Pedersen, Christian Marcus

    2017-01-01

    Furfural residue (FR) is a low-cost by-product generated in the furfural production from corncobs, which is mainly composed of cellulose and lignin. In this report, hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of deashed FR was conducted at various reaction temperatures (200, 220 and 240 °C) and reaction times...

  17. Chlorinated pesticide residues in marine sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; SenGupta, R.

    of pesticide in contaminated river water into the Bay of Bengal. Con centration ranges of all these pesticide residues detected were, aldrine: 0.02-0.53, gamma BHC: 0.01-0.21, dieldrine: 0.05-0.51, and total DDT: 0.02-0.78, all in mu g g sup(-1) (wet wt)....

  18. Satellite Magnetic Residuals Investigated With Geostatistical Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox Maule, Chaterine; Mosegaard, Klaus; Olsen, Nils

    2005-01-01

    (which consists of measurement errors and unmodeled signal), and is typically assumed to be uncorrelated and Gaussian distributed. We have applied geostatistical methods to analyze the residuals of the Oersted (09d/04) field model (www.dsri.dk/Oersted/Field models/IGRF 2005 candidates/), which is based...

  19. Agrochemicals and Residues Newsletter. No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This newsletter provides very brief summaries of the current coordinated research programs and of the completed coordinated research program on the study of the biological activity and bioavailability of bound pesticide residues using nuclear techniques (a more complete report will be published in the IAEA Panel Proceedings series). Research in progress at the Agrochemicals Unit of the IAEA Laboratory in Seibersdorf is also described

  20. QA/QC in pesticide residue analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrus, A [Agrochemicals Unit, Agency' s Laboratories, Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2002-07-01

    This paper outlines problems related to pesticide residue analysis in a regulatory laboratory that are related to: availability of reference materials, as over 1000 pesticide active ingredients are currently in use and over 400 crops represent a large part of a healthy diet; analysis time; availability of samples in sufficient numbers; uncertainties of the procedures.

  1. QA/QC in pesticide residue analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrus, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper outlines problems related to pesticide residue analysis in a regulatory laboratory that are related to: availability of reference materials, as over 1000 pesticide active ingredients are currently in use and over 400 crops represent a large part of a healthy diet; analysis time; availability of samples in sufficient numbers; uncertainties of the procedures

  2. Residual Stress Testing of Outer 3013 Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, K.

    2004-01-01

    A Gas Tungsten Arc Welded (GTAW) outer 3013 container and a laser welded outer 3013 container have been tested for residual stresses according to the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) Standard G-36-94 [1]. This ASTM standard describes a procedure for conducting stress-corrosion cracking tests in boiling magnesium chloride (MgCl2) solution. Container sections in both the as-fabricated condition as well as the closure welded condition were evaluated. Significantly large residual stresses were observed in the bottom half of the as-fabricated container, a result of the base to can fabrication weld because through wall cracks were observed perpendicular to the weld. This observation indicates that regardless of the closure weld technique, sufficient residual stresses exist in the as-fabricated container to provide the stress necessary for stress corrosion cracking of the container, at the base fabrication weld. Additionally, sufficiently high residual stresses were observed in both the lid and the body of the GTAW as well as the laser closure welded containers. The stresses are oriented perpendicular to the closure weld in both the container lid and the container body. Although the boiling MgCl2 test is not a quantitative test, a comparison of the test results from the closure welds shows that there are noticeably more through wall cracks in the laser closure welded container than in the GTAW closure welded container

  3. Bioaccumulation and distribution of organochlorine residues across ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighteen organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues were measured in the water, sediment, plankton, benthic invertebrates and fish in various sections of the Lagos Lagoon in 2014 to investigate their bioaccumulation and distribution in the food web. The analysis was done using gas chromatography with an electron capture ...

  4. Proceedings of the 7. biennial residue-to-revenue residual wood conference 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raulin, J.

    2007-01-01

    This conference provided information on the highest and best use of residual wood, which is quickly becoming a valuable commodity. Issues concerning forest residues, sawmill wastes, agricultural residues and urban organic materials were discussed along with trends in Canadian surplus mill waste production. The evolving nature and technologies of the biomass business were highlighted with particular focus on how to generate energy and save money through the use of residual wood. Residual wood energy projects and developments in Canada, North America and Europe were outlined along with biomass development in relation to forest fires and insect disturbances. Cogeneration technologies using wood wastes for thermal heat, steam and electricity were also presented, along with transportation fuel technologies for the production of ethanol. It was noted that with the rising cost of energy, the forest industry is seeking energy solutions based on the use of residual wood. The range of economically practical residual wood solutions continues to grow as energy prices increase. The conference was attended by more than 200 delegates from the forest industry, suppliers and government representatives, to discuss policies and procedures currently in place. Industry investment is being stimulated by the potential for biofuels and biochemicals, as well as the co-operation between the forest and energy sectors. The conference featured 23 presentations, of which 12 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  5. Antibiotic Residues - A Global Health Hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha A.R.

    Full Text Available Use of Antibiotic that might result in deposition of residues in meat, milk and eggs must not be permitted in food intended for human consumption. If use of antibiotics is necessary as in prevention and treatment of animal diseases, a withholding period must be observed until the residues are negligible or no longer detected. The use of antibiotics to bring about improved performance in growth and feed efficiency, to synchronize or control of reproductive cycle and breeding performance also often lead to harmful residual effects. Concern over antibiotic residues in food of animal origin occurs in two times; one which produces potential threat to direct toxicity in human, second is whether the low levels of antibiotic exposure would result in alteration of microflora, cause disease and the possible development of resistant strains which cause failure of antibiotic therapy in clinical situations. A withdrawal period is established to safeguard human from exposure of antibiotic added food. The withdrawal time is the time required for the residue of toxicological concern to reach safe concentration as defined by tolerance. It is the interval from the time an animal is removed from medication until permitted time of slaughter. Heavy responsibility is placed on the veterinarian and livestock producer to observe the period for a withdrawal of a drug prior to slaughter to assure that illegal concentration of drug residue in meat, milk and egg do not occur. Use of food additives may improve feed efficiency 17% in beef cattle, 10% in lambs, 15% in poultry and 15% in swine. But their indiscriminate use will produce toxicity in consumers. WHO and FAO establish tolerances for a drug, pesticide or other chemical in the relevant tissues of food producing animals. The tolerance is the tissue concentration below, which a marker residue for the drug or chemical must fall in the target tissue before that animal edible tissues are considered safe for human

  6. Identification of non-volatile compounds and their migration from hot melt adhesives used in food packaging materials characterized by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Paula; Canellas, Elena; Nerín, Cristina

    2013-05-01

    The identification of unknown non-volatile migrant compounds from adhesives used in food contact materials is a very challenging task because of the number of possible compounds involved, given that adhesives are complex mixtures of chemicals. The use of ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/QTOF) is shown to be a successful tool for identifying non-targeted migrant compounds from two hot melt adhesives used in food packaging laminates. Out of the seven migrants identified and quantified, five were amides and one was a compound classified in Class II of the Cramer toxicity. None of the migration values exceeded the recommended Cramer exposure values.

  7. Effect of ZnO channel thickness on the device behaviour of nonvolatile memory thin film transistors with double-layered gate insulators of Al2O3 and ferroelectric polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sung-Min; Yang, Shin-Hyuk; Ko Park, Sang-Hee; Jung, Soon-Won; Cho, Doo-Hee; Byun, Chun-Won; Kang, Seung-Youl; Hwang, Chi-Sun; Yu, Byoung-Gon

    2009-01-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene) and ZnO were employed for nonvolatile memory thin film transistors as ferroelectric gate insulator and oxide semiconducting channel layers, respectively. It was proposed that the thickness of the ZnO layer be carefully controlled for realizing the lower programming voltage, because the serially connected capacitor by the formation of a fully depleted ZnO channel had a critical effect on the off programming voltage. The fabricated memory transistor with Al/P(VDF-TrFE) (80 nm)/Al 2 O 3 (4 nm)/ZnO (5 nm) exhibits encouraging behaviour such as a memory window of 3.8 V at the gate voltage of -10 to 12 V, and 10 7 on/off ratio, and a gate leakage current of 10 -11 A.

  8. Pesticide management and their residues in sediments and surface and drinking water in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toan, Pham Van; Sebesvari, Zita; Bläsing, Melanie; Rosendahl, Ingrid; Renaud, Fabrice G

    2013-05-01

    Public concern in Vietnam is increasing with respect to pesticide pollution of the environment and of drinking water resources. While established monitoring programs in the Mekong Delta (MD) focus on the analysis of organochlorines and some organophosphates, the environmental concentrations of more recently used pesticides such as carbamates, pyrethroides, and triazoles are not monitored. In the present study, household level pesticide use and management was therefore surveyed and combined with a one year environmental monitoring program of thirteen relevant pesticides (buprofezin, butachlor, cypermethrin, α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, endosulfan-sulfate, fenobucarb, fipronil, isoprothiolane, pretilachlor, profenofos, propanil, and propiconazole) in surface water, soil, and sediment samples. The surveys showed that household level pesticide management remains suboptimal in the Mekong Delta. As a consequence, a wide range of pesticide residues were present in water, soil, and sediments throughout the monitoring period. Maximum concentrations recorded were up to 11.24 μg l(-1) in water for isoprothiolane and up to 521 μg kg(-1) dm in sediment for buprofezin. Annual average concentrations ranged up to 3.34 μg l(-1) in water and up to 135 μg kg(-1) dm in sediment, both for isoprothiolane. Occurrence of pesticides in the environment throughout the year and co-occurrence of several pesticides in the samples indicate a considerable chronic exposure of biota and humans to pesticides. This has a high relevance in the delta as water for drinking is often extracted from canals and rivers by rural households (GSO, 2005, and own surveys). The treatment used by the households for preparing surface water prior to consumption (flocculation followed by boiling) is insufficient for the removal of the studied pesticides and boiling can actually increase the concentration of non-volatile pollutants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Stabilization of plutonium bearing residues at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronson, M.C.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Ebbinghaus, B.B.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (US DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has plutonium holdings including metal, oxide and residue materials, all of which need stabilization of some type. Residue materials include calcined ash, calcined precipitates, pyrochemical salts, glove box sweepings, metallurgical samples, graphite, and pyrochemical ceramic crucibles. These residues are typical of residues stored throughout the US DOE plutonium sites. The stabilization process selected for each of these residues requires data on chemical impurities, physical attributes, and chemical forms of the plutonium. This paper outlines the characterization and stabilization of LLNL ash residues, pyrochemical salts, and graphite

  10. Isotopic tracer aided studies of fenvalerate residues in stored rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varca, L.M.; Sanchez, T.E.; Magallona, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    Following application of 14 C-fenvalerate to milled rice and paddy rice at a concentration of 0.33 mg/kg, only insignificant losses were measured after 9 months. Distribution patterns in surface, methanol extractable and bound residues were studied. Paddy rice contained less extractable residues than milled rice, with the major part being found in the husk. Bound residues in both milled and paddy rice decreased also with length of storage; as much as 30% was found as bound residues after nine months. Cooking reduced the insecticide residues in milled rice by 33-40% and residues in paddy rice by 58%. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  11. Electroremediation of air pollution control residues in a continuous reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ferreira, Célia M. D.; Hansen, Henrik K.

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration is considered hazardous waste due to its alkalinity and high content of salts and mobile heavy metals. Various solutions for the handling of APC-residue exist, however most commercial solutions involve landfilling. A demand...... were made with raw residue, water-washed residue, acid washed residue and acid-treated residue with emphasis on reduction of heavy metal mobility. Main results indicate that the reactor successfully removes toxic elements lead, copper, cadmium and zinc from the feed stream, suggesting...

  12. An application of residual current protective device at electrical installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firman Silitonga

    2008-01-01

    In an electrical installation, a protection for overload and short circuit are always to be installed. In addition to the installation, it is necessary to be installed a protection device for residual current because both the short circuit and the overload device protection will not work for the residual current. The quantity of the residual current must be defined first at any electrical installation to define an appropriate residual current protection so that not every residual current will break the circuit down. This paper will explain a method how to install a residual protection device for 3500 VA or more at TN and TT of earthing system. (author)

  13. On the parametrization of the Δ residue function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasan, S.S.

    1976-01-01

    The complex residues at the Δ(1236) and Δ(1950) poles in the relevant partial-wave amplitudes provide information on the behaviour of the Δ Regge residue function in the resonance region u>0. Attempts to incorporate this information in parametrizations of the residue by functions that are real on the real u-axis result in residues which have unsatisfactory behaviour in the region u 2 . The choice of complex functions for the trajectory and residue removes this undesirable feature and provides a better representation of the residue in the resonance region, suggesting that complex parametrizations would be better suited to Regge analyses of near-backward scattering. (Auth.)

  14. Sun drying of residual annatto seed powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyego da Costa Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual annatto seeds are waste from bixin extraction in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Most of this by-product is currently discarded; however, the use of these seeds in human foods through the elaboration of powder added to other commercial powders is seen as a viable option. This study aimed at drying of residual annatto powder, with and without the oil layer derived from the industrial extraction of bixin, fitting different mathematical models to experimental data and calculating the effective moisture diffusivity of the samples. Powder containing oil exhibited the shortest drying time, highest drying rate (≈ 5.0 kg kg-1 min-1 and highest effective diffusivity (6.49 × 10-12 m2 s-1. All mathematical models assessed were a suitable representation of the drying kinetics of powders with and without oil, with R2 above 0.99 and root mean square error values lower than 1.0.

  15. Residual effects of hypnotics: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarch, I

    1991-07-01

    The sedative/hypnotic benzodiazepines introduced worldwide in the early 1960s were acclaimed for their low chemical toxicity and safety in clinical use. A decade later, some researchers and clinicians found that while all the drugs had undoubted potency and efficacy as sleep inducers and maintainers, the trade-off in residual effects (e.g., excessive daytime tiredness, poor concentration, impaired psychomotor performance, lowered mental abilities) was cause for concern. These sequelae not only affected patients' safety and ability to perform daytime tasks, but were also counter-therapeutic; the daytime sleep that was produced interfered with the natural nocturnal sleep. In a recent study, the degree to which patient abilities were impaired was measured by a number of psychomotor tests. Benzodiazepines with a duration of clinical effect of less than 8 to 10 hours produced fewer, less frequent residual effects than those with a measurable activity in excess of the normal nocturnal sleep period.

  16. [Waste over history: perceptions about residues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velloso, Marta Pimenta

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how Man, over history, felt about the residues produced by human activity. The text is divided into three parts: In the first part it tells the story of the black plague pandemic during the XIV century, showing how this disease was associated with the residues produced by the human body. In the second part it explains how the first notions of waste were, and still are, related to dirt, disease and death. Finally, in the third part, it describes the first measures of hygiene in the Renaissance and refers to the first public health actions at the beginning of the XX century, starting to combat the agents of infectious diseases and their vectors.

  17. On quadratic residue codes and hyperelliptic curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Joyner

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For an odd prime p and each non-empty subset S⊂GF(p, consider the hyperelliptic curve X S defined by y 2 =f S (x, where f S (x = ∏ a∈S (x-a. Using a connection between binary quadratic residue codes and hyperelliptic curves over GF(p, this paper investigates how coding theory bounds give rise to bounds such as the following example: for all sufficiently large primes p there exists a subset S⊂GF(p for which the bound |X S (GF(p| > 1.39p holds. We also use the quasi-quadratic residue codes defined below to construct an example of a formally self-dual optimal code whose zeta function does not satisfy the ``Riemann hypothesis.''

  18. On locating steganographic payload using residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, Tu-Thach

    2011-02-01

    Locating steganographic payload usingWeighted Stego-image (WS) residuals has been proven successful provided a large number of stego images are available. In this paper, we revisit this topic with two goals. First, we argue that it is a promising approach to locate payload by showing that in the ideal scenario where the cover images are available, the expected number of stego images needed to perfectly locate all load-carrying pixels is the logarithm of the payload size. Second, we generalize cover estimation to a maximum likelihood decoding problem and demonstrate that a second-order statistical cover model can be used to compute residuals to locate payload embedded by both LSB replacement and LSB matching steganography.

  19. Persistence of malathion residues in stored wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, M.; Zayed, S.M.A.D.

    1990-01-01

    The persistence of succinate- 14 C-malathion in stored wheat was investigated under local conditions during a storage period of 32 weeks. The insecticide penetrated readily into the seed and up to 16% of the applied dose was found to be bound after 32 weeks in storage. Total terminal residues declined to 9.3 and 21.0 mg/kg from initially applied doses of 12.2 and 24.4 mg/kg respectively. A small percentage of malaoxon was detected only during the early weeks after treatment (3-5%). Malathion was the major constituent of the extractable residues. In addition, seven degradation products were detected and identified. (author). 6 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Alkali activation processes for incinerator residues management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancellotti, Isabella; Ponzoni, Chiara; Barbieri, Luisa; Leonelli, Cristina

    2013-08-01

    Incinerator bottom ash (BA) is produced in large amount worldwide and in Italy, where 5.1 millionstons of municipal solid residues have been incinerated in 2010, corresponding to 1.2-1.5 millionstons of produced bottom ash. This residue has been used in the present study for producing dense geopolymers containing high percentage (50-70 wt%) of ash. The amount of potentially reactive aluminosilicate fraction in the ash has been determined by means of test in NaOH. The final properties of geopolymers prepared with or without taking into account this reactive fraction have been compared. The results showed that due to the presence of both amorphous and crystalline fractions with a different degree of reactivity, the incinerator BA geopolymers exhibit significant differences in terms of Si/Al ratio and microstructure when reactive fraction is considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.