WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonverbal teacher immediacy

  1. Students' Perceived Understanding Mediates the Effects of Teacher Clarity and Nonverbal Immediacy on Learner Empowerment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Amber N.; Schrodt, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study examined students' perceived understanding as a mediator of the relationship between student perceptions of teacher clarity, nonverbal immediacy cues, and learner empowerment (i.e., meaningfulness, competence, and impact). Participants included 261 undergraduate students who completed survey instruments. Results of structural equation…

  2. Students' Perceived Understanding Mediates the Effects of Teacher Clarity and Nonverbal Immediacy on Learner Empowerment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Amber N.; Schrodt, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study examined students' perceived understanding as a mediator of the relationship between student perceptions of teacher clarity, nonverbal immediacy cues, and learner empowerment (i.e., meaningfulness, competence, and impact). Participants included 261 undergraduate students who completed survey instruments. Results of structural equation…

  3. Teacher’s Nonverbal Immediacy Behavior in the Classroom and Its Effect on Teacher-Student Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵庆

    2013-01-01

    This essay focuses upon the teacher’s nonverbal immediacy behavior in the classroom. The argument of this essay is that the teacher’ s nonverbal behavior within the classroom will lead to closer teacher-student relationships.%本文主要研究课堂上教师的非语言行为,主要阐述教师在课堂上充分利用非语言行为可促进师生关系的改善。

  4. Understanding Instructor Nonverbal Immediacy, Verbal Immediacy, and Student Motivation at a Small Liberal Arts University

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    Furlich, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Instructor communication behaviors and student motivation to learn relationships were studied at a small liberal arts university. Specifically, relationships between instructor nonverbal immediacy, verbal immediacy behaviors and student motivation to learn were measured. Only instructor verbal immediacy behaviors had a significant linear…

  5. The Relationships among Physician Nonverbal Immediacy and Measures of Patient Satisfaction with Physician Care.

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    Conlee, Connie J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examines the relationship among four dimensions of patient satisfaction with physician care and nonverbal immediacy. Finds a significant positive correlation between nonverbal immediacy and overall patient satisfaction, with the strongest correlation to the attention/respect factor. (SR)

  6. The relationship between nonverbal immediacy, student motivation, and perceived cognitive learning among Japanese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribyl, CHARLES B.; Sakamoto, MASAHIRO; Keaten, JAMES A.

    2004-05-01

    Research in the United States has found a strong and consistent relationship between teacher behavior and learning. Data collected from American college students indicate that perceptions of teacher nonverbal immediacy (NVI) are associated with students' feelings toward learning and perceptions of cognitive learning. The purposes of this study were to accomplish the following: (1) develop standardized Japanese versions of the instruments used to measure teacher nonverbal immediacy, student motivation, and perceived cognitive learning (how much students think they have learned); and (2) assess the relationship between NVI, student motivation, and perceptions of cognitive learning among Japanese college students. Results note that Japanese students report (1) a positive relationship between reported levels of teacher NVI and student motivation; (2) a negative relationship between reported levels of teacher NVI and perceived learning loss; and (3) a negative relationship between student motivation (SM) and perceived learning loss (how much students think they did not learn with their teacher compared to an ideal teacher). Further, cross-cultural comparisons between Japanese and American students were conducted. Results from the cross-cultural comparison suggest that the relationships between reported teacher nonverbal immediacy, student motivation, and learning loss among Japanese college students are similar to those found among American college students, but the dimensional structure of the questionnaires was different.

  7. The Relationships among Teacher Immediacy, Professor/Student Rapport, and Self-Regulated Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estepp, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among teacher immediacy, professor/student rapport, and student self-regulated learning among selected undergraduate students in a college of agriculture. The independent variables for this study were verbal and nonverbal immediacy and professor/student rapport. The dependent variable in…

  8. Nonverbal Immediacy Behaviors and Online Student Engagement: Bringing Past Instructional Research into the Present Virtual Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, Marcia D.; Greenwell, Mackenzie R.; Rogers-Stacy, Christie; Weister, Tyson; Lauer, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Nonverbal immediacy behaviors are underresearched in the online teaching environment. Using social presence theory as a guiding framework, this study explores several online nonverbal immediacy behaviors: emoticons/figurative language, color, cohesion, visual imagery, and audio in course design; response latency, length, time of day, and message…

  9. Nonverbal Immediacy Behaviors and Online Student Engagement: Bringing Past Instructional Research into the Present Virtual Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, Marcia D.; Greenwell, Mackenzie R.; Rogers-Stacy, Christie; Weister, Tyson; Lauer, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Nonverbal immediacy behaviors are underresearched in the online teaching environment. Using social presence theory as a guiding framework, this study explores several online nonverbal immediacy behaviors: emoticons/figurative language, color, cohesion, visual imagery, and audio in course design; response latency, length, time of day, and message…

  10. Teacher Immediacy and its Impacts on Teacher-Student Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙亚兰

    2011-01-01

    Effective communication between teacher and students can help establish a closer relationship between the two sides and motivate the latter to engage in learning activities more efficiently. This paper aims to explore the impacts teacher immediacy has on teacher-student relationship and find some ways to improve teacher immediacy.

  11. Nonverbal Behaviors and Initial Impressions of Trustworthiness in Teacher-Supervisor Relationships.

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    Chamberlin, Carla R.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between nonverbal behaviors of immediacy and dominance on teachers' initial impressions of trust toward a supervisor. Notes that supervisor immediacy resulted in higher perceptions of trust than supervisor dominance, and immediacy also rated higher on measures of appropriateness and effectiveness than dominance.…

  12. TEACHER IMMEDIACY BEHAVIORS AND PARTICIPATION IN COMPUTER MEDIATED COMMUNICATION

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    Mestan KUCUK

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Few concepts in instructional communication literature have received as much attention as teacher immediacy. However, educational communication scholars have thoroughly studied immediacy behaviors mainly in traditional classrooms and these studies are mostly related to student attitudes and learning. Thanks to some growing attempts, recent research has extended these findings to distance education. The difference of this study is to examine the relationship between teacher immediacy behaviors and participation in an online setting. Results indicated that affective and interactive indicators were the least used immediacy behaviors while cohesive indicators were mostly used by teacher in this case. Also data show that teachers’ interactive immediacy behaviors and immediate feedback determine students’ participation in asynchronous computer-mediated communication environment.

  13. The Relationship of Instructor Self-Disclosure, Nonverbal Immediacy, and Credibility to Student Incivility in the College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ann Neville; Katt, James A.; Brown, Tim; Sivo, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined the potential mediating role of instructor credibility in the relationship of instructor self-disclosure and nonverbal immediacy to student incivility in the college classroom. Four hundred thirty-eight students completed online questionnaires regarding the instructor of the class they attended prior to the one in which…

  14. Student and Teacher Perceptions of Teacher Immediacy Behaviors and the Influence of Teacher Immediacy Behaviors on Student Motivation to Learn Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn, Vania

    The National Assessment on Educational Progress signals that American students are not being adequately prepared to compete globally in an ever changing scientific society. As a result, legislation mandated that all students be assessed and show proficiency in scientific literacy beginning in Grade 4 with the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 2002 also known as No Child Left Behind. Research indicates a disturbing decline in the number of U.S. students pursuing more rigorous science courses in high school, majoring in scientific areas in college, and choosing future careers in science. With a need to improve science instruction and enhance science literacy for all students, this study focuses on immediate communication behaviors of the classroom teacher as a deciding factor in the opinions of high school students towards science. The purpose of this study was to reveal high school science student perceptions of teacher communication patterns, both verbal and nonverbal, and how they influence their motivation to learn science. The researcher utilized a nonexperimental, quantitative research design to guide this study. Teacher and student data were collected using the Teacher Communication Behavior Questionnaire (TCBQ). The Student Motivation to Learn Instrument (SMLI) across gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status survey was used to evaluate student motivation in science. Participants were encouraged to be honest in reporting and sharing information concerning teacher communication behaviors. The data revealed that teacher immediacy behaviors, both verbal and nonverbal, were perceived differently in terms of student gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic class. The results showed that teachers who display positive communication behaviors and use challenging questioning followed with positive responses create pathways to potentially powerful relationships. These relationships between teachers and students can lead to increased student

  15. Maximizing the persuasiveness of a salesperson: An exploratory study of the effects of nonverbal immediacy and language power on the extent of persuasion

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    Natavan M. Gadzhiyeva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of a salesperson's use of language power and nonverbal immediacy on the persuasiveness of the salesperson. A high level of language power and a high level of nonverbal immediacy were hypothesized to singularly and jointly increase a salesperson's level of persuasiveness. A sample of 211 undergraduate students voluntarily completed an online survey, which displayed a video clip of a sales presentation. Each participant randomly viewed one of four video clips, which differed in terms of the salesperson's levels of language power (powerful vs. powerless and nonverbal immediacy (high vs. low. A three-way ANOVA indicated that language power had a significant main effect on persuasion in the expected direction, and also revealed a significant interaction between nonverbal immediacy and participant biological sex. However, there were no main effects for nonverbal immediacy and participant biological sex, and no interaction effect was found between language power and nonverbal immediacy. Subsequent data analysis revealed that the perceived power of the speaker mediated the relationship between language power and the extent of persuasion. We conclude the article with a discussion of the implications of our findings for both researchers and practitioners.

  16. The Effect of EFL Teachers’ Extrovert and Introvert Personality on Their Instructional Immediacy

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    Amir Mahdavi Zafarghandi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Language teaching is a complex process influenced by many psychological factors such as personality traits (Tonelson, 1981 and socio-communicative styles (Thomas. Et al. 1994. This research sets out to investigate the effect of Teachers' Introvert and Extrovert personality on their instructional Immediacy. In order to address this issue, a study was conducted on 14 PhD holder university EFL lecturers from Guilan province. Instruments for this research included preliminary Myers-Briggs Personality Type Indicator (MBTI Test, non-verbal immediacy scale, along with verbal immediacy scale observation inventory. After determining the lecturers' Introvert/Extrovert personality, at the next stage, six sessions of direct observation of each lecturer's classroom instructional immediacy were conducted. Statistical analysis of Fisher's exact test between data along with Pearson's correlation was run to determine the relationship between teacher's extrovert personality and their use of verbal immediacy; the results indicate strong, positive correlation (r=.7, p<. 03. Similarly, a strong, positive correlation was found between extrovert personality and use of non-verbal immediacy (r=.75, p<. 01. The other finding of the study was that instructors’ gender showed no significant relation with their verbal and nonverbal instructional immediacy. Keywords: EFL teachers, Introvert / Extrovert personalities, Verbal and Nonverbal instructional immediacy

  17. Teachers' Nonverbal Behavior and Its Impact on Student Achievement

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    Chaudhry, Noureen Asghar; Arif, Manzoor

    2012-01-01

    The observational study was conducted to see the impact of teachers' nonverbal behavior on academic achievement of learners. This also investigated the relationship of nonverbal communication of teachers working in different educational institutions. Main objectives of study were to measure nonverbal behavior of teachers' both male and female…

  18. 教师非语言符号运用的教育传播效果研究%Study of Instructional Communication Effects on Teacher’s Nonverbal Immediacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武文颖; 原茜; 方明豪

    2014-01-01

    Teachers’ nonverbal immediacy is the object of this research .The purpose is to examine the effects on teacher’s nonverbal immediacy ,making comprehensive use of communication ,education ,instructional com-munication and statistics .Four scales were designed to investigate 534 college students from Dalian .The re-sults from the investigation suggest that the level of teachers’ nonverbal immediacy is intermediate except the nonverbal immediacy of tactile sense and space sense . Although teachers’ nonverbal immediacy of sense of smell and time has nothing to do with cognitive learning and behavioral learning ,there exists a positive and strong relation between teachers’ nonverbal immediacy of other types and effects of instructional communica-tion of all levels .%文章以教师的非语言符号作为研究对象,综合运用传播学、教育学、教育传播学等学科知识,实证调查研究教师的非语言符号对教育传播效果的影响。通过设计4组相关量表,对大连地区534名大学生进行问卷调查,结果显示:除触觉和空间感觉非语言符号外,当前我国教师非语言符号传播能力普遍处于中等偏高水平。另外,除嗅觉和时间感觉渠道的教师非语言符号与认知性和行为性效果不相关之外,其他类型的教师非语言符号分别与各层面教育传播效果呈现出正向的、密切相关的关系。

  19. Instructional immediacy in elearning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkem, Kerrie

    2014-01-01

    Instructor immediacy has been positively associated with many desirable academic outcomes including increased student learning. This study extends existing understanding of instructional immediacy behaviours in elearning by describing postgraduate nursing students' reflections on their own experience. An exploratory, descriptive survey design was used to collect qualitative data. Participants were asked what behaviours or activities help to create rapport or a positive interpersonal connection (immediacy) between students and their online teacher(s). Thematic analysis of the data revealed three main themes: acknowledging and affirming student's personal and professional responsibilities; providing clear and timely information; and utilising rich media. These findings give lecturers insight into instructional strategies they may adopt to increase immediacy in elearning and hence improve student learning outcomes.

  20. Use of Teacher Nonverbal Cues with Handicapped Students.

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    Hillison, John; Crunkilton, John R.

    1983-01-01

    Teachers can use nonverbal forms of communication (facial expression, gestures, space, eye contact, body orientation, tone of voice, and head nod/head shake) to enhance the communication process with their handicapped students. (CL)

  1. Race of Student and Nonverbal Behavior of Teacher.

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    Feldman, Robert S.

    White and black subjects, playing the role of teacher, were led to praise verbally a white or black student. It was hypothesized that the race of the student would affect the nonverbal behavior of the teacher. White and black judges, blind to the race of the students and to the hypothesis of the study, rated how pleased the facial expressions of…

  2. Videotutoring, Non-Verbal Communication and Initial Teacher Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, Jon; Watson, Kate

    2000-01-01

    Describes the use of video tutoring for distance education within the context of a post-graduate teacher training course at the University of Exeter. Analysis of the tapes used a protocol based on non-verbal communication research, and findings suggest that the interaction of participants was significantly different from face-to-face…

  3. Nonverbal Communication: How Important Is It for the Language Teacher?

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    Bancroft, W. Jane

    1997-01-01

    Argues that nonverbal communication in the language classroom can have dramatic results for the students' appreciation for the subject and in the cognitive domain. Notes that the personality and expectations of the teachers, their gestures, tone of voice, and facial expressions have an important effect on language acquisition. (29 references)…

  4. Participants' versus Nonparticipants' Perception of Teacher Nonverbal Behavior.

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    Clark, Bettye Mathis; Creswell, John L.

    1978-01-01

    This study indicates that it is possible to define and demonstrate the relevance of a number of nonverbal cues that can be used as raters or reasons for assessment of teacher behavior. Findings indicate a major difference in the order and relevance of predictors used. (JMF)

  5. Videotutoring, Non-Verbal Communication and Initial Teacher Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, Jon; Watson, Kate

    2000-01-01

    Describes the use of video tutoring for distance education within the context of a post-graduate teacher training course at the University of Exeter. Analysis of the tapes used a protocol based on non-verbal communication research, and findings suggest that the interaction of participants was significantly different from face-to-face…

  6. Multimodal Discourse Analysis of College English Teacher ’ s Non-verbal Behaviors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qian

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes College English teacher’s non-verbal behaviors in multimedia classroom from the perspective of Multimodal Discourse Analysis, aiming to explore how the non-verbal behaviors in classroom teaching can be applied in meaning-making process to facilitate teacher-students interaction and realize three metafunctions of language in class.

  7. Who Is Controlling the Interaction? The Effect of Nonverbal Mirroring on Teacher-Student Rapport

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    Jiang-yuan, Zhou; Wei, Guo

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of nonverbal mirroring on teacher-student rapport in one-on-one interactions. Nonverbal mirroring refers to the unconscious mimicry of the postures, mannerisms, facial expressions, and other behaviors of one's interaction partner in social interactions. In a within-subjects paradigm, students had four…

  8. Effects of Therapist's Nonverbal Communication on Rated Skill and Effectiveness.

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    Sherer, Mark; Rogers, Ronald W.

    1980-01-01

    Nonverbal cues of immediacy significantly improved ratings of the therapist's interpersonal skills and effectiveness. A therapist's nonverbal behavior is a basis for interpretations of empathy, warmth, genuineness, and effectiveness. (Author)

  9. Statistics Anxiety and Instructor Immediacy

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    Williams, Amanda S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between instructor immediacy and statistics anxiety. It was predicted that students receiving immediacy would report lower levels of statistics anxiety. Using a pretest-posttest-control group design, immediacy was measured using the Instructor Immediacy scale. Statistics anxiety was…

  10. Statistics Anxiety and Instructor Immediacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amanda S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between instructor immediacy and statistics anxiety. It was predicted that students receiving immediacy would report lower levels of statistics anxiety. Using a pretest-posttest-control group design, immediacy was measured using the Instructor Immediacy scale. Statistics anxiety was…

  11. A Study on the Effects of English Teachers'Nonverbal Behavior on the Classroom Teaching in Higher Vocational College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡兰珍; 赵志霞

    2015-01-01

    The two main communications between the teacher and students in the classroom teaching are teachers'verbal and nonverbal behavior.The teachers teach students knowledge in words and convey a large amount of information using nonverbal behavior.These nonverbal behavior exert a subtle influence on the students,thus affect the classroom teaching.The English teachers'classroom nonverbal behavior in a higher vocational college in Gansu province was investigated through question-naires.The results indicate that the teachers'behaviors affect the different aspects of students and then influence the effective-ness of teaching on English classroom teaching in higher vocational college.

  12. Breaking the Code of Silence: A Study of Teachers' Nonverbal Decoding Accuracy of Foreign Language Anxiety

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    Gregersen, Tammy

    2007-01-01

    This study examined teachers' accuracy in decoding nonverbal behaviour indicative of foreign language anxiety. Teachers and teacher trainees twice observed a videotape without sound of seven beginning French foreign language students as they participated in an oral exam; four of these students were defined as anxious language learners by the…

  13. Interpersonal Interactions in Instrumental Lessons: Teacher/Student Verbal and Non-Verbal Behaviours

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    Zhukov, Katie

    2013-01-01

    This study examined verbal and non-verbal teacher/student interpersonal interactions in higher education instrumental music lessons. Twenty-four lessons were videotaped and teacher/student behaviours were analysed using a researcher-designed instrument. The findings indicate predominance of student and teacher joke among the verbal behaviours with…

  14. Interpersonal Interactions in Instrumental Lessons: Teacher/Student Verbal and Non-Verbal Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Katie

    2013-01-01

    This study examined verbal and non-verbal teacher/student interpersonal interactions in higher education instrumental music lessons. Twenty-four lessons were videotaped and teacher/student behaviours were analysed using a researcher-designed instrument. The findings indicate predominance of student and teacher joke among the verbal behaviours with…

  15. The impact of the teachers' non-verbal communication on success in teaching.

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    Bambaeeroo, Fatemeh; Shokrpour, Nasrin

    2017-04-01

    Non-verbal communication skills, also called sign language or silent language, include all behaviors performed in the presence of others or perceived either consciously or unconsciously. The main aim of this review article was to determine the effect of the teachers' non-verbal communication on success in teaching using the findings of the studies conducted on the relationship between quality of teaching and the teachers' use of non-verbal communication and also its impact on success in teaching. Considering the research method, i.e. a review article, we searched for all articles in this field using key words such as success in teaching, verbal communication and non-verbal communication. In this study, we did not encode the articles. The results of this revealed that there was a strong relationship among the quality, amount and the method of using non-verbal communication by teachers while teaching. Based on the findings of the studies reviewed, it was found that the more the teachers used verbal and non-verbal communication, the more efficacious their education and the students' academic progress were. Under non-verbal communication, some other patterns were used. For example, emotive, team work, supportive, imaginative, purposive, and balanced communication using speech, body, and pictures all have been effective in students' learning and academic success. The teachers' attention to the students' non-verbal reactions and arranging the syllabus considering the students' mood and readiness have been emphasized in the studies reviewed. It was concluded that if this skill is practiced by teachers, it will have a positive and profound effect on the students' mood. Non-verbal communication is highly reliable in the communication process, so if the recipient of a message is between two contradictory verbal and nonverbal messages, logic dictates that we push him toward the non-verbal message and ask him to pay more attention to non-verbal than verbal messages because non-verbal

  16. Preservice Music Teachers' and Therapists' Nonverbal Behaviors and Their Relationship to Perceived Rapport

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    Darrow, Alice-Ann; Johnson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the two studies reported in the article was to determine whether or not a relationship exists between preservice music therapists' and teachers' nonverbal behaviors and their perceived rapport. In study 1, evaluators (N = 56) viewed a stimulus tape consisting of 15 45-second segments of 15 preservice music therapists leading songs…

  17. STUDENTS’ VS. TEACHERS’ PERSPECTIVES ON BEST TEACHER CHARACTERISTICS IN EFL CLASSROOMS

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    Nihta V F Liando

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available his paper discusses the perspectives of students and teachers in a university setting about best teacher characteristics. This is viewed through the perspectives of students and teachers regarding their perceptions of qualities of English teachers, and teachers’ immediacy behavior – verbal or non-verbal - as predictors of student academic motivation. In this study, 126 students and 28 teachers in the English department at State University of Manado, Indonesia were involved. From the questionnaire, this study proved that a teacher was an important personnel in EFL teaching. Both teacher and students believed that a good teacher should display personal and academic attitudes. Both parties also considered that there were certain verbal and nonverbal immediacy behaviors teachers performed which could be the source of motivating as well as de-motivating the students. This study is expected to give understanding of how teaching English in a foreign language context can be better.

  18. THE BARRIERS IN THE NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION BETWEEN TEACHER - STUDENT

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    Norka Arellano

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available From the research “Communication in the Conflict Prevention in High Schools and Professional Educational Institutions”; the objective worked in this article was: To identify the existing barriers in the nonverbal communication between teachers and students of the educative institutions which are the object of study. Research of descriptive type, based on the theories of: Bounds and Woods, Ghio and Hechim, Gordon and Garagorri, Gibson among others. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics, emphasizing the existence of nonverbal communicational barriers, which interfere with an effective communication between teachers and students, becoming necessary the development of a training program for high school headmasters and teachers, in communication and to impel educative projects that form for the coexistence, the assertive communication, the participation, solidarity and the commitment, creating bases for a culture of pace.

  19. Immediation (Cultures of Immediacy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacunko, Slavko

    2017-01-01

    The 21st century´s media praxis is increasingly characterized by the emerging “cultural principle”, “condition” or “culture of immediacy”. The processes summarized under the term immediation suggest the closure of the spatio-temporal “gap” between agencies and the media involved, resulting...... with a complex interplay of social-, security-, science- and economy-related issues. The growing interest in immediation confirms its status as a new but as yet underestimated paradigm for the arts, sciences and humanities which calls for a future-focused inquiry into the cultures of immediacy. However......, in academic and popular discourse, the focus is on documenting either (societal) challenges or (technical) solutions. This paper seeks to address this imbalance by responding to an urgent need for a systematic understanding of immediation’s major forms of appearance: 1. today´s worldwide closed...

  20. The Role of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication between Students with Special Needs and Their Teachers in Middle School

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    Williams, Dottie S.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that a positive relationship between teacher and student improves student performance in school. However, less information is available regarding the verbal and nonverbal communications between the students with special needs and their teachers within this middle school subgroup. Personal attention and support…

  1. Teaching Strategies to Promote Immediacy in Online Graduate Courses

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    Fahara, Manuel Flores; Castro, Armida Lozano

    2015-01-01

    The present study is the result of the research question: How do teachers promote immediacy through interaction with their students in online graduate courses? Research was carried out at Tecnológico de Monterrey, a Mexican private university that offers online courses. The research methodology employed a qualitative approach of virtual…

  2. Online Graduate Study Health Care Learners' Perceptions of Instructional Immediacy

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    Sherri Melrose

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Instructional immediacy is an established communication strategy that teachers can implement to create engaging learning environments. Yet, little is known about experiences distance education learners in graduate study programs have had with immediacy. This article presents findings from a qualitative research project designed to explore healthcare students’ ideas about and activities related to instructional immediacy behaviors within a masters program offered exclusively through a WebCT online environment. A constructivist theoretical perspective and an action research approach framed the study. Data sources included two focus groups and 10 individual audio-tape recorded transcribed interviews. Content was analyzed by both the primary researcher and an assistant for themes and confirmed through ongoing member checking with participants. The following three overarching themes were identified and are used to explain and describe significant features of instructional immediacy behaviors that healthcare learners who graduated from either a Master of Nursing or Master of Health Studies distance education program found valuable: 1 Model engaging and personal ways of connecting; 2 Maintain collegial relationships; and 3 Honor individual learning accomplishments.

  3. Artificial intelligence and immediacy: designing health communication to personally engage consumers and providers.

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    Kreps, Gary L; Neuhauser, Linda

    2013-08-01

    We describe how ehealth communication programs can be improved by using artificial intelligence (AI) to increase immediacy. We analyzed major deficiencies in ehealth communication programs, illustrating how programs often fail to fully engage audiences and can even have negative consequences by undermining the effective delivery of information intended to guide health decision-making and influence adoption of health-promoting behaviors. We examined the use of AI in ehealth practices to promote immediacy and provided examples from the ChronologyMD project. Strategic use of AI is shown to help enhance immediacy in ehealth programs by making health communication more engaging, relevant, exciting, and actionable. AI can enhance the "immediacy" of ehealth by humanizing health promotion efforts, promoting physical and emotional closeness, increasing authenticity and enthusiasm in health promotion efforts, supporting personal involvement in communication interactions, increasing exposure to relevant messages, reducing demands on healthcare staff, improving program efficiency, and minimizing costs. User-centered AI approaches, such as the use of personally involving verbal and nonverbal cues, natural language translation, virtual coaches, and comfortable human-computer interfaces can promote active information processing and adoption of new ideas. Immediacy can improve information access, trust, sharing, motivation, and behavior changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effects of Training Student Teachers in Self-Analysis of Nonverbal Response Patterns.

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    Schum, Willard C.

    An investigation was conducted to study the effects of self-analysis on the nonverbal message (Response Patterns) communicated during student teaching. A study group and control group viewed a series of video tape segments of their own lessons. The study group utilized a systematic schedule in collecting data on their nonverbal behaviors, as…

  5. The Cost of Immediacy for Corporate Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Marco, Rossi

    Liquidity provision in the corporate bond market has become significantly more expensive after the 2008 credit crisis. Using index exclusions as a natural experiment during which uninformed index trackers request immediacy, we find that the price of immediacy has doubled for short-term investment...

  6. The Cost of Immediacy for Corporate Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Marco, Rossi

    Liquidity provision in the corporate bond market has become significantly more expensive after the 2008 credit crisis. Using index exclusions as a natural experiment during which uninformed index trackers request immediacy, we find that the price of immediacy has doubled for short-term investment...

  7. Confronting the Puzzle of Nonverbal Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacca, Dorothy M.

    2001-01-01

    Describes characteristics of students with nonverbal learning disorders and offers teachers suggestions for helping them work with students with these disabilities. Includes story of one nonverbal learning-disabled student's school experience. (PKP)

  8. Dealer Inventory and the Cost of Immediacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens

    This study shows that the recent 80% decrease in dealer inventories of corporate bonds has increased the cost of immediacy. For safe bonds which are quickly turned over again by dealers the increase is up to 15%, while for risky bonds which are kept on inventory by dealers the increase is up to 1...

  9. Non-verbal Behavior in English Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程金花; 付雪芬

    2013-01-01

    This paper first reveals the non-verbal behavior and then further emphasizes the important of body behavior which can be used in class frequently under the classification of the non-verbal behavior. By analyzing the important role of non-verbal behavior plays in communication, the paper discusses the specific and important part that non-verbal behavior serves, especially in foreign language teaching. The paper concludes that non-verbal behavior can perform as a relation maintainer, a structure maker, and a content container. The further suggestions for teacher to facilitate are proposed.

  10. Nonverbal Communication in One-to-One Music Performance Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkul, Wen W.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored nonverbal communication in one-to-one music performance instruction by investigating relationships among nonverbal sensitivity, nonverbal behaviors and lesson effectiveness. Subjects (N = 120) comprised 60 college teachers and 60 of their non-music major students. Using the Music Lesson Evaluation Form, lesson effectiveness was…

  11. METHODS OF USING NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION MORE EFFECTIVELY IN TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea MACIU

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper debates upon several methods of improving nonverbal communication in teaching. We focus on the importance of nonverbal communication in teaching, on what nonverbal communication stands for and what it implies and triggers and we offer specific contexts for teachers in order to reassess themselves in this respect, as well as detailed questions that they may want to answer to for them to improve their nonverbal approach in the classroom.

  12. Student Perceptions of Teachers' Nonverbal and Verbal Communication: A Comparison of Best and Worst Professors across Six Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakopoulos, Alexia; Guerrero, Laura K.

    2010-01-01

    Students from six countries--Australia, Japan, Mexico, Sweden, Taiwan, and the United States--recalled the extent to which their best or worst professors used various forms of communication that have been associated with effective teaching. Across cultures, best professors were perceived to employ more nonverbal expressiveness, relaxed movement,…

  13. Nonverbal og empatisk kommunikation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Hasche, Erik

    2004-01-01

    Nonverbal kommunikation, empati, sundhedspsykologi, non verbal communication, empathy, health psychology......Nonverbal kommunikation, empati, sundhedspsykologi, non verbal communication, empathy, health psychology...

  14. Contributions to the Empirical Study of Immediacy in the Pedagogical Relationship through Self-Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manarte, Joana; Lopes, Amélia; Pereira, Fátima

    2014-01-01

    Pedagogical communication is an action wherein the body, being a part of a relational whole, performs a fundamental role. A bibliographical survey of studies on the interaction between teacher and student confirms that there is a strong correlation between the teacher's nonverbal behavior and the students' level of motivation and…

  15. The Application of Nonverbal Communication in Classroom Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆佳佳

    2013-01-01

    Nonverbal communication plays a vital role not only in intercultural communication, but also in classroom teaching. Using nonverbal communication exactly and compatibly in class can enrich information for the students and improve their learn-ing interests. Also it will help to promote the communication between teachers and students,thus to creat good classroom teach-ing atmosphere and optimize the teaching effects.There are practical benefits for teachers to apply the nonverbal communica-tion in classroom teaching.

  16. 教师课堂非语言沟通调查研究及策略分析%Research and Policy Analysis on Nonverbal Communication of Teachers' Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴军飞

    2012-01-01

    Non-verbal communication is an important way of interpersonal communication.Teachers' non-verbal information in the context of classroom teaching has a very important function.Author through a questionnaire survey conducted empirical research,to obtain first-hand information on the teachers 'non-verbal information and survey results were analyzed,and finally the teachers' classroom teaching non-verbal communication strategies.%非语言沟通是人际沟通的重要方式。教师非语言信息在课堂教学情境中也有着非常重要的功能。本文作者通过问卷调查进行实证研究,获得了关于教师非语言信息的第一手资料,并对调查结果进行了分析,最后提出了教师课堂教学非语言沟通的策略。

  17. Research in Nonverbal Communication and Its Relationship to Pedagogy and Suggestopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    Nonverbal communication in the classroom can produce subtle nonverbal influences, particularly in the affective domain. In Suggestopedia, double-planeness (the role of the environment and the personality of the teacher) is considered an important factor in learning. Suggestopedic teachers are trained to use nonverbal gestures in their presentation…

  18. Using Nonverbal Communication in Efl Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysenil Barabar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at providing information about nonverbal communication and to state its use in EFL classes. Briefly, this paper introduces the definition, aspects and importance of nonverbal communication. Especially, this study explains some ways of using nonverbal communication in EFL classes, in order to have good classroom management in the class. Based upon this assumption, we aimed to shed light on this area of research, by showing that teachers’ nonverbal behaviour plays a highly significant and essential role in foreign language classrooms for managing the students’ behaviour. This study was conducted in Lefke, Northern Cyprus. The participants were two female English language teachers who were working at the English Preparatory School of Lefke. The study was qualitative in design and the data was gathered through interviews and reflective reports. A triangulation technique was used to enhance confidence in the ensuing findings. Cross-case analysis was used to examine and identify common themes between the cases. The results showed that nonverbal communication has a pivotal role in classroom management. In EFL classes in Northern Cyprus, in order to guide teachers to use nonverbal communication before verbal communication, some seminars or workshops should be organized regarding the use of body language in classroom management to improve teachers professionally.

  19. Establishing Credibility in the Multicultural Classroom: When the Instructor Speaks with an Accent

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Chikako Akamatsu

    2007-01-01

    Applying theories of cultural dimensions, teacher credibility, and nonverbal immediacy, this chapter explores classroom management techniques used by Asian female teachers to establish credibility. (Contains 1 note.)

  20. Attitudes, Cognition, and Nonverbal Communicative Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Robert S.; Lobato-Barrera, Debra

    In the first of two experiments, positive and negative expectations about a teacher were induced in a student who was about to be taught by that teacher, and both verbal and nonverbal measurements were taken. Results showed that subjects responded quite directly to the experimental manipulation. In the second experiment, a student simulated some…

  1. Nonverbal Disorders of Learning: The Reverse of Dyslexia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badian, Nathlie A.

    1986-01-01

    Teacher perceptions of the social-behavioral characteristics of 99 boys (aged 7-14) identified by their nonverbal learning abilities found that low nonverbal subjects showed good left-brain functioning, good reading, poor right-brain functioning, poor arithmetic skills, low motivation, poor work habits, disorganization, and poor relationship with…

  2. Teaching is Communicating: Nonverbal Language in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Charles M.

    Improving the act of teaching in a classroom implies the need to study nonverbal cues and events, for many classroom phenomena serve as communicators of information and tend to either facilitate or inhibit learning. Nonverbal language, a reflection of both cultural and individual differences, includes not only the teacher's facial expressions,…

  3. Nonverbal Communication in "Friends"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yanrong

    2006-01-01

    This activity uses video clips from a popular sitcom, "Friends," to help students grasp the relational, rule-governed, and culture-specific nature of nonverbal communication. It opens students' eyes to nonverbal behaviors that are happening on a daily basis so that they not only master the knowledge but are able to apply it. While other popular…

  4. Nonverbal Communication in "Friends"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yanrong

    2006-01-01

    This activity uses video clips from a popular sitcom, "Friends," to help students grasp the relational, rule-governed, and culture-specific nature of nonverbal communication. It opens students' eyes to nonverbal behaviors that are happening on a daily basis so that they not only master the knowledge but are able to apply it. While other popular…

  5. Rapid response: email, immediacy, and medical humanitarianism in Aceh, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayman, Jesse Hession

    2014-11-01

    After more than 20 years of sporadic separatist insurgency, the Free Aceh Movement and the Indonesian government signed an internationally brokered peace agreement in August 2005, just eight months after the Indian Ocean tsunami devastated Aceh's coastal communities. This article presents a medical humanitarian case study based on ethnographic data I collected while working for a large aid agency in post-conflict Aceh from 2005 to 2007. In December 2005, the agency faced the first test of its medical and negotiation capacities to provide psychiatric care to a recently amnestied political prisoner whose erratic behavior upon returning home led to his re-arrest and detention at a district police station. I juxtapose two methodological approaches-an ethnographic content analysis of the agency's email archive and field-based participant-observation-to recount contrasting narrative versions of the event. I use this contrast to illustrate and critique the immediacy of the humanitarian imperative that characterizes the industry. Immediacy is explored as both an urgent moral impulse to assist in a crisis and a form of mediation that seemingly projects neutral and transparent transmission of content. I argue that the sense of immediacy afforded by email enacts and amplifies the humanitarian imperative at the cost of abstracting elite humanitarian actors out of local and moral context. As a result, the management and mediation of this psychiatric case by email produced a bureaucratic model of care that failed to account for complex conditions of chronic political and medical instability on the ground. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhancing On-Line Teaching with Verbal Immediacy through Self-Determination Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlich, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the use of instructor verbal immediacy behaviors for on-line classes. Specifically, it demonstrates how instructor verbal immediacy behaviors found in face-to-face classes can also be displayed for on-line classes. It is argued that self-determination theory describes identification of the student as an important role in the…

  7. The Interrelationship of Student Ratings of Instructors' Immediacy, Verbal Aggressiveness, Homophily, and Interpersonal Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Kelly A.; McCroskey, James C.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the relationships of immediacy and verbal aggression with homophily and interpersonal attraction in the higher education instructional context. Finds that immediacy was negatively related to verbal aggression and positively related to all dimensions of homophily and interpersonal attraction and that verbal aggression was negatively…

  8. Nonverbal Behavior in Tutoring Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Robert S.

    This document reports on a series of studies carried out concerning nonverbal behavior in peer tutoring interactions. The first study examined the encoding (enactment) of nonverbal behavior in a tutoring situation. Results clearly indicated that the tutor's nonverbal behavior was affected by the performance of the tutee. The question of whether or…

  9. Communicating Humanism Nonverbally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillison, John

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the importance of nonverbal communication by counselors in expressing humanistic feeling. Notes that facial expression (i.e., smiling) provides immediate feedback to the observer; use of space (i.e., close proximity) communicates warmth and humaneness; and tone of voice can complement spoken words and give them more meaning. (WAS)

  10. Non-Verbal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinde, R. A., Ed.

    This inter-disciplinary approach to the subject of non-verbal communication includes essays by linguists, zoologists, psychologists, anthropologists and a drama critic. It begins with a theoretical analysis of communicative processes written from the perspective of a communications engineer, compares vocal communication in animals and man, and…

  11. A Meta-study of musicians' non-verbal interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2010-01-01

    Music can be seen as a social skilled practice, since the creation of good music is the result of a group effort. According to current literature, communication through non-verbal cues is an important factor in securing a good performance, since it allows musicians to correct each other without...... the music should be played and the intention to communicate through non-verbal interaction, which allows them to achieve their desire and improve the performance on-the-fly. The BDI model has proven useful in synthesising information and it is believed that this scientific-rational model will bring benefits...... interruptions. Hence, despite the fact that the skill to engage in a non-verbal interaction is described as tacit knowledge, it is fundamental for both musicians and teachers (Davidson and Good 2002). Typical observed non-verbal cues are for example: physical gestures, modulations of sound, steady eye contact...

  12. Nonverbal Behavior and Corrective Feedback in Nine ESL University-Level Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiqing; Loewen, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Nonverbal behavior is an area of recent interest in second language acquisition (SLA). Some researchers have found that teachers' nonverbal behavior plays a role in second language (L2) learners' learning. Furthermore, corrective feedback during L2 interaction can also be facilitative of L2 development; however, little is known about how nonverbal…

  13. Development of the Nonverbal Communication Skills of School Administrators Scale (NCSSAS): Validity, Reliability and Implementation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Tevfik

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop a scale intended for identifying the school administrators' nonverbal communication skills, and establish the relationship between the nonverbal communication skills of school administrators and job performance of teachers. The study was conducted in three stages. The first stage involved the creation…

  14. Nonverbal communication in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Gretchen N; Gentile, Julie P

    2010-06-01

    The mental status examination is the objective portion of any comprehensive psychiatric assessment and has key diagnostic and treatment implications. This includes elements such as a patient's baseline general appearance and behavior, affect, eye contact, and psychomotor functioning. Changes in these parameters from session to session allow the psychiatrist to gather important information about the patient. In psychiatry, much emphasis is placed on not only listening to what patients communicate verbally but also observing their interactions with the environment and the psychiatrist. In a complimentary fashion, psychiatrists must be aware of their own nonverbal behaviors and communication, as these can serve to either facilitate or hinder the patient-physician interaction. In this article, clinical vignettes will be used to illustrate various aspects of nonverbal communication that may occur within the setting of psychotherapy. Being aware of these unspoken subtleties can offer a psychiatrist valuable information that a patient may be unwilling or unable to put into words.

  15. Directions for research on self-disclosure and immediacy: moderation, mediation, and the inverted U.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelso, Charles J; Palma, Beatriz

    2011-12-01

    The psychotherapist's use of self-disclosure (SD) and immediacy has been a controversial topic over the decades. In this article, some ingredients are described that will help advance knowledge in the area of the therapist SD and immediacy. More than has been the case, researchers in this area should construct clear definitions of the SD/immediacy variables being investigated, and make sure that their operationalizations are consistent with these definitions. In addition, it is argued that if the field is to advance, at this point in time researchers need to examine "who, what, when, and where" questions, making use of in-principle moderation, that is, the study of which SD/immediacy responses are most effective with what patients, suffering from what problems and disorders, when offered by which therapists doing what kinds of psychotherapy? In addition, the study of mediation is suggested, as is researchers' taking into account the operation of the inverted U when studying the frequency, intensity, or duration of SD/immediacy.

  16. Aspects in non-verbal communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruth Vilà Baños

    2012-01-01

    .... It proposes an analysis of nonverbal communication highlighting the importance of the nonverbal aspects of communication and the different contributions of studies on the kinesics, the proxemics...

  17. How to Read Nonverbal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Patricia A.; Kleiner, Brian H.

    1992-01-01

    Notes that the ability to read nonverbal communication in the business world can prove to be a valuable tool for the successful manager. Analyzes three modes of nonverbal communication: the physical office setting, an individual's manner of dress, and body language. (SR)

  18. The Effects of Instructor Transformational Leadership and Verbal Immediacy on Learner Autonomy and Creativity in Online Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Janelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Transformational leadership and immediacy behaviors within educational contexts have received a great deal of attention from researchers in the past few decades. Generally, the literature has focused on the impact of instructor transformational behaviors and instructor immediacy behaviors on educational outcomes. However, the relationship between…

  19. The Effects of Instructor Transformational Leadership and Verbal Immediacy on Learner Autonomy and Creativity in Online Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Janelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Transformational leadership and immediacy behaviors within educational contexts have received a great deal of attention from researchers in the past few decades. Generally, the literature has focused on the impact of instructor transformational behaviors and instructor immediacy behaviors on educational outcomes. However, the relationship between…

  20. Nonverbal learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volden, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Nonverbal learning disability (NLD) is described as a subtype of specific learning disability where the source of the disability is a difficulty in processing nonverbal information. The child with NLD presents with problems in visual, spatial, and tactile perception but with strengths in rote verbal skills. Traditionally, these children were recognized by their difficulties in arithmetic which presented a stark contrast with their strengths in spelling and decoding text. They also exhibited a split between their verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) scores with the VIQ being significantly higher than PIQ. Over time, however, diagnostic criteria have evolved and the broadened definition of the NLD syndrome has led many to question the utility and uniqueness of the NLD diagnosis. In addition, shifting diagnostic standards have made research results difficult to replicate. In short, the research to date leaves many unanswered questions about (1) the definition of the NLD syndrome, (2) the pervasiveness of the academic, social and psychopathological difficulties, (3) the source of the NLD syndrome, and (4) the degree to which it overlaps with other conditions. This chapter outlines a brief history of the NLD syndrome, how it is currently conceptualized, and some of the current debate about the unanswered questions above.

  1. Unspoken Words: Understanding Nonverbal Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Alice-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Much of what is communicated in the classroom is through nonverbal means. Sending appropriate nonverbal signals, as well as recognizing and interpreting the nonverbal signals of others, are essential features of the learning process. Students' abilities to encode and decode nonverbal communication have the potential to affect all aspects of their…

  2. The Critical Role of the ID in Interactive Television: The Value of Immediacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Karen L.; Farr, Charlotte W.

    The instructional designer (ID) plays a critical role in the development and viability of each course taught at a distance, particularly in the incorporation of immediacy behaviors, or communication behaviors that convey approachability and communicate interpersonal warmth and closeness. Faculty development must be fostered to encourage immediacy…

  3. Effectiveness of Teacher’s Non-verbal Communication in English Class-rooms of Primary Schools in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔燕

    2013-01-01

    While there is a lot of research in non-verbal communication, a limited of studies are about the situation in primary schools in Chinese context. In this paper, I will argue for the relationship between teacher ’s non-verbal communication and stu⁃dent’s learning interests in primary school.

  4. Nonverbal Communication in Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Xin

    2011-01-01

    Intercultural communication consists of both verbal communication and nonverbal communication. It Cowers such behatiors as postures, gestures, head, hand and arm movement and thcial expresshms. Through investigation, it is found Chinese English learners have a poor knowledge of nonverbal eommunicalion To train advanced language users of a wide spectrum of language and sound practical abilities, we should pay equal attention to the cultivation of verbal and nonerbal communication.

  5. A importância da comunicação não-verbal do professor universitário no exercício de sua atividade profissional The importance of non-verbal communication for teachers in the exercise of their professional activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa de Fátima Lucena de Sousa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a importância da comunicação não-verbal do professor no exercício de sua atividade profissional. MÉTODOS: a presente pesquisa foi realizada no período de março a maio de 2008. A população de estudo foi composta por alunos de dois cursos de graduação (Ciências Biológicas e de Fonoaudiologia. Foram escolhidos, aleatoriamente, alunos de cada turma, independente de sexo ou idade, compondo um total de 63 alunos. RESULTADOS: os dados obtidos mostraram que, independente da sua formação (se fonoaudiólogo ou não, todos consideraram que a comunicação não-verbal do professor é um importante fator na transmissão das mensagens. CONCLUSÃO: a pesquisa mostrou que os entrevistados avaliaram a comunicação não-verbal como importante para a efetividade da interação, podendo interferir no desempenho do docente em sala de aula.PURPOSE: to check the importance of non-verbal communication for teachers in the exercise of their professional activities. METHODS: this research was conducted during the period from March to May, 2008. The studied population was made up of students from the two under-graduation courses the (Biological sciences and speech therapy. They were chosen randomly, 63 students, regardless of gender or age. RESULTS: data obtained showed that, regardless of their training (whether or not speech therapist, everybody considered that the non-verbal communication of the teacher is an important factor in the transmission of messages. CONCLUSION: the research showed that the investigated students and teachers evaluated the non-verbal communication as important for the effectiveness of interaction and can interfere in the performance of teachers in the classroom.

  6. Cultivation of College Students’Ability in Cross-cultural Non-verbal Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琳琳

    2015-01-01

    For a long time, students’non-verbal communicative competence is neglected by themselves as well as the teachers. In this paper a research is done to analyze the causes of students’non-verbal communicative failure. And some suggestions are given to cultivate students’ability in cross-cultural non-verbal Communication The students’enhanced communicative competence will help them avoid non-verbal communicative failure and communicate effectively and appropriately in cross-cultural communi⁃cation.

  7. The impact of personalized social cues of immediacy on consumers' information disclosure: a social cognitive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Doohwang; LaRose, Robert

    2011-06-01

    This study examined how personalized social cues of immediacy can affect two types of information disclosure intentions (embarrassing information and descriptive information) directly and indirectly through two positive outcome expectations (social trust and customization outcome expectations) and two negative outcome expectations (embarrassment and information abuse outcome expectations) in the context of a personal health record (PHR) Web-site service. An online experiment was chosen and 252 participants were directed to visit a newly created PHR Web site. The results showed that, regardless of the two different type of information, participants' exposure to the high-immediacy level on the site increased their information disclosure intentions even when their privacy self-efficacy beliefs were controlled. Further, the results of path analyses suggest that such main effect on information disclosure is mediated by social cognitive variables of positive and negative outcome expectations.

  8. Patterns of Non-Verbal Social Interactions within Intensive Mathematics Intervention Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jonathan Norris; Harkness, Shelly Sheats

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the non-verbal patterns of interaction within an intensive mathematics intervention context. Specifically, the authors draw on social constructivist worldview to examine a teacher's use of gesture in this setting. The teacher conducted a series of longitudinal teaching experiments with a small number of young, school-age…

  9. Nonverbal Communication in Commercial Housing Selling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭媚

    2014-01-01

    Nonverbal communication is the process of sending and receiving messages from another person through nonverbal channels. On the ground of importance and main codes of nonverbal communication, skills of which are proposed to grasp in commercial housing selling, serving well for the successful transaction.

  10. Nonverbal Communication and Foreign Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Xining

    2002-01-01

    Nonverbal communication is one of the most important media of human communication. Sometimes noverbal language can compensate verbal behaviors fail to achieve. It is proposed that nonverbal communication be applied as a set of skills in foreign language teaching classrooms in China to assist teaching and improve learning. nonverbal communication skills should serve as lubricant in FLT.

  11. Immediacy bias in emotion perception: current emotions seem more intense than previous emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boven, Leaf; White, Katherine; Huber, Michaela

    2009-08-01

    People tend to perceive immediate emotions as more intense than previous emotions. This immediacy bias in emotion perception occurred for exposure to emotional but not neutral stimuli (Study 1), when emotional stimuli were separated by both shorter (2 s; Studies 1 and 2) and longer (20 min; Studies 3, 4, and 5) delays, and for emotional reactions to pictures (Studies 1 and 2), films (Studies 3 and 4), and descriptions of terrorist threats (Study 5). The immediacy bias may be partly caused by immediate emotion's salience, and by the greater availability of information about immediate compared with previous emotion. Consistent with emotional salience, when people experienced new emotions, they perceived previous emotions as less intense than they did initially (Studies 3 and 5)-a change in perception that did not occur when people did not experience a new immediate emotion (Study 2). Consistent with emotional availability, reminding people that information about emotions naturally decays from memory reduced the immediacy bias by making previous emotions seem more intense (Study 4). Discussed are implications for psychological theory and other judgments and behaviors.

  12. Understanding Social Network Usage: Impact of Co-Presence, Intimacy, and Immediacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Al-Ghaith

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examines individuals’ intentions and behaviour on Social Networking Sites (SNSs. The study proposed model asserts that “Co-presence”, “Intimacy”, “Immediacy”, “Perceived Enjoyment”, and “Perceived ease of use” formed individuals' “Attitude” towards “behavioral intention” to use SNSs. The results support all formulated hypotheses. The proposed model in this study explains 69% of individual’s attitude or feelings towards adoption the SNSs, 59% of the variance in “Behavioral Intention” and 54% of the variance in “Usage Behaviour”. The present study has shown the importance of social presence’s factors, namely co-presence, intimacy, and immediacy, in explaining individuals’ intentions and behavior. The study findings confirmed that social presence positively influence SNS usage indirectly through user attitude, and as aforementioned that three factors, namely co-presence, intimacy, and immediacy are framing the construct of social presence. Thus, this study is the first empirical effort to examine the impact of co-presence, intimacy, and immediacy in determining intention or behaviour.

  13. Pragmatic Failure in inter-cultural Non-verbal Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兑艳霞; 刘凯歌

    2006-01-01

    近年来.随着跨文化交际的日趋频繁,语用失误引起了国内外语语言学家的重视.国内外很多学者对语用失误进行了一系列的研究.其中以Jenny Thomas的研究成果为代表.然而,这些语用失误的定义及分类一般都因忽略了非语言交际而存在局限.本文章阐释了跨文化中的非语言交际语用失误,并分析其理论根源,在此基础上提出克服跨文化非语言交际语用失误的对策.%With the increasing development of intercultural communication between cultures,pragmatic failure has recent caught the attention of linguists and language teachers both at home and abroad. But the usual definition and classification of pragmatic failure has its limitations because of its neglect of nonverbal communication. The present thesis is intended to explore pragmatic failure in intercultural non-verbal communication,analyzing the root causes of intercultural non-verbal pragmatic failure, offering the strategic approaches to avoid intercultural non-verbal pragmatic failure.

  14. An exploratory study of relational, persuasive, and nonverbal communication in requests for tissue donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siminoff, Laura A; Traino, Heather M; Gordon, Nahida H

    2011-10-01

    This study explores the effects of tissue requesters' relational, persuasive, and nonverbal communication on families' final donation decisions. One thousand sixteen (N = 1,016) requests for tissue donation were audiotaped and analyzed using the Siminoff Communication Content and Affect Program, a computer application specifically designed to code and assist with the quantitative analysis of communication data. This study supports the important role of communication strategies in health-related decision making. Families were more likely to consent to tissue donation when confirmational messages (e.g., messages that expressed validation or acceptance) or persuasive tactics such as credibility, altruism, or esteem were used during donation discussions. Consent was also more likely when family members exhibited nonverbal immediacy or disclosed private information about themselves or the patient. The results of a hierarchical log-linear regression revealed that the use of relational communication during requests directly predicted family consent. The results provide information about surrogate decision making in end-of-life situations and may be used to guide future practice in obtaining family consent to tissue donation.

  15. Nonverbal Assessment of Interpersonal Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Gary S.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Two nonverbal methods for assessing degree of interpersonal attraction--placing representative figures on a ruled board and human figure drawing--were explored. Subjects' scores differed as a function of peer liking on the measures of distance, degree of detail, affective peer drawings and peer drawing articulation. (MV)

  16. Nonverbal Communication among Italian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri-Bernardoni, Joseph M.

    Participant observation and author introspection were used to collect data in this study of nonverbal communication among Italian Americans in three large American cities. Discussion is given to kinesics (gestures and signs), haptics (touch), proxemics (interiors of homes, exteriors of homes, and spatial arrangements at a wedding dinner), and…

  17. Presence in a Pocket. Phantasms of Immediacy in Japanese Mobile Telepresence Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Kaerlein

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses prospects of Japanese mobile telepresence robotics where small anthropomorphic devices are designed to act as intermediaries between remote interlocutors. First, an emic perspective of involved scientists and engineers is presented, focusing on example technologies being developed at the Hiroshi Ishiguro Lab in Kyoto (Japan, particularly a „cellphone-type tele-operated android [...] transmitting human presence“ called Elfoid. It represents an attempt to get “behind the veil of the machine” (Sekiguchi/Inami/Tachi 2001, about their RobotPHONE prototype which uses a similar concept in that it is supposed to act as a solid substitute for a dialog partner through evoking a feeling of presence (sonzaikan in Japanese philosophy, the feeling that someone is sharing the same physical space. In such undertakings, specific utopian ideals of communication become apparent. Paradoxically, the high-tech developments aim at constituting seemingly immediate interactions, preferably bypassing any potentially troublesome interface. The existence of a phantasm of immediacy (Bolter/Grusin 2000 can be traced back to decisive moments in media history and belongs to the central promises of new technological interfaces. Interestingly, the engineers’ statements reveal a latent technophobia, an ambition to overcome the limitations of physical devices altogether and to move on to more direct means of communicative exchange (including the mythical dimension of telepathy. Two questions are of particular concern: 1. On what different levels does the notion of immediacy operate? Not only does it refer to a spiritual ideal of unmediated communion, but it also influences practical decisions in interface design. “Natural” and “Tangible” User Interfaces are the result of a practice of disguise in that they mask their factual hypermediacy to allow for a seamless knotting up of real and mediated environments. 2. What is the relationship between

  18. The Role of Teacher Communicator Style in the Delivery of a Middle School Substance Use Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Steven M.; Pankratz, Melinda M.; Ringwalt, Chris; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Hansen, William B.; Bishop, Dana; Dusenbury, Linda; Gottfredson, Nisha

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether teachers' communicator style relates to student engagement, teacher-student relationships, student perceptions of teacher immediacy, as well as observer ratings of delivery skills during the implementation of All Stars, a middle school-based substance use prevention program. Data from 48 teachers who taught All Stars up to 3…

  19. Nonverbal signals speak up: association between perceptual nonverbal dominance and emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Heike; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Brück, Carolin; Nizielski, Sophia; Schütz, Astrid; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Emotional communication uses verbal and nonverbal means. In case of conflicting signals, nonverbal information is assumed to have a stronger impact. It is unclear, however, whether perceptual nonverbal dominance varies between individuals and whether it is linked to emotional intelligence. Using audiovisual stimulus material comprising verbal and nonverbal emotional cues that were varied independently, perceptual nonverbal dominance profiles and their relations to emotional intelligence were examined. Nonverbal dominance was found in every participant, ranging from 55 to 100%. Moreover, emotional intelligence, particularly the ability to understand emotions, correlated positively with nonverbal dominance. Furthermore, higher overall emotional intelligence as well as a higher ability to understand emotions were linked to smaller reaction time differences between emotionally incongruent and congruent stimuli. The association between perceptual nonverbal dominance and emotional intelligence, and more specifically the ability to understand emotions, might reflect an adaptive process driven by the experience of higher authenticity in nonverbal cues.

  20. The impact of the teachers’ non-verbal communication on success in teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    BAMBAEEROO, FATEMEH; SHOKRPOUR, NASRIN

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Non-verbal communication skills, also called sign language or silent language, include all behaviors performed in the presence of others or perceived either consciously or unconsciously. The main aim of this review article was to determine the effect of the teachers’ non-verbal communication on success in teaching using the findings of the studies conducted on the relationship between quality of teaching and the teachers’ use of non-verbal communication and also its impact on success in teaching. Methods: Considering the research method, i.e. a review article, we searched for all articles in this field using key words such as success in teaching, verbal communication and non-verbal communication. In this study, we did not encode the articles. Results: The results of this revealed that there was a strong relationship among the quality, amount and the method of using non-verbal communication by teachers while teaching. Based on the findings of the studies reviewed, it was found that the more the teachers used verbal and non-verbal communication, the more efficacious their education and the students’ academic progress were. Under non-verbal communication, some other patterns were used. For example, emotive, team work, supportive, imaginative, purposive, and balanced communication using speech, body, and pictures all have been effective in students’ learning and academic success. The teachers’ attention to the students’ non-verbal reactions and arranging the syllabus considering the students’ mood and readiness have been emphasized in the studies reviewed. Conclusion: It was concluded that if this skill is practiced by teachers, it will have a positive and profound effect on the students’ mood. Non-verbal communication is highly reliable in the communication process, so if the recipient of a message is between two contradictory verbal and nonverbal messages, logic dictates that we push him toward the non-verbal message and ask him to pay

  1. Nonverbal Communication and Human–Dog Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Iben Helene Coakley; Forkman, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Human–dog interaction relies to a large extent on nonverbal communication, and it is therefore plausible that human sensitivity to nonverbal signals affects interactions between human and dog. Experience with dogs is also likely to influence human–dog interactions, and it has been suggested...... that it influences human social skills. The present study investigated possible links between human nonverbal sensitivity, experience with dogs, and the quality of human–dog interactions. Two studies are reported. In study 1, 97 veterinary students took a psychometric test assessing human nonverbal sensitivity...... and answered a questionnaire on their experience with dogs. The data obtained were then used to investigate the relationship between experience with dogs and sensitivity to human nonverbal communication. The results did not indicate that experience with dogs improves human nonverbal sensitivity. In study 2, 16...

  2. Auditory hallucinations in nonverbal quadriplegics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, J

    1985-11-01

    When a system for communicating with nonverbal, quadriplegic, institutionalized residents was developed, it was discovered that many were experiencing auditory hallucinations. Nine cases are presented in this study. The "voices" described have many similar characteristics, the primary one being that they give authoritarian commands that tell the residents how to behave and to which the residents feel compelled to respond. Both the relationship of this phenomenon to the theoretical work of Julian Jaynes and its effect on the lives of the residents are discussed.

  3. Instructor Reaction to Verbal and Nonverbal-Visual Styles: An Example of Navajo and Caucasian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilmet, George M.

    1979-01-01

    Holds that differences observed in instructor attention to Navajo and Caucasian children are due to the contrasting verbal and nonverbal-visual styles displayed by the two groups. Offers an evaluation program which attempts to offset teachers' tendencies to attend differentially to children displaying diverse behavioral styles in the classroom.…

  4. Cultural Differences, Nonverbal Regulation, and Classroom Interaction: Sociolinguistic Interference in American Indian Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Paul E.; Greenbaum, Susan D.

    1983-01-01

    Various studies of interaction between teachers and American Indian students indicate that nonverbal behaviors interfere with classroom communication and educational performance. American Indian children exhibit such behaviors as less talking, low voice tones, and averted gaze during conservations. These behaviors seem to hinder students in the…

  5. Instructor Reaction to Verbal and Nonverbal-Visual Styles: An Example of Navajo and Caucasian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilmet, George M.

    1979-01-01

    Holds that differences observed in instructor attention to Navajo and Caucasian children are due to the contrasting verbal and nonverbal-visual styles displayed by the two groups. Offers an evaluation program which attempts to offset teachers' tendencies to attend differentially to children displaying diverse behavioral styles in the classroom.…

  6. Body, Identity and Interaction: Interpreting Nonverbal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Allan

    The study of nonverbal communication continues to grow across the spectrum of research in many fields of study. Good textbooks and research studies are available to the scholar and the student, and courses about nonverbal behavior and communication are found in modern curricula. This book focuses on the complex, often hidden, processes that…

  7. Cultural Norms and Nonverbal Communication: An Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yanrong

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal communication takes place in specific cultural contexts and is influenced by cultural norms. Cultural norms are "social rules for what certain types of people should and should not do" (Hall, 2005). Different cultures might have different norms for nonverbal behaviors in specific social, relational, and geographical contexts.…

  8. Non-verbal Effects in Oral Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, G. M.; Pedrosa, M. A.

    1990-01-01

    Investigated the effects of nonverbal communication during oral examinations by testing two groups of British secondary students, one group in a face-to-face situation. Finds nonverbal effects increased the mean scores by two points but could not conclude that the increase was a result of student appearance and gestures. (CH)

  9. Cultural Norms and Nonverbal Communication: An Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yanrong

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal communication takes place in specific cultural contexts and is influenced by cultural norms. Cultural norms are "social rules for what certain types of people should and should not do" (Hall, 2005). Different cultures might have different norms for nonverbal behaviors in specific social, relational, and geographical contexts.…

  10. Accounting: Nonverbal Communication: The Unworded Message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manos, James A.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses kinesics, nonverbal communication or body language; states that business educators must teach the nonverbal aspects of communication along with its written and oral elements; and offers suggestions for incorporating a unit on kinesics in business English or business communications classes. (MF)

  11. Nonverbal Elements of International Business Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltman, John L.

    Because proficiency in nonverbal communication is as important in international business communication as it is in one's own culture, temporary residents need to learn how to improve communication. This paper explores several ways business communication specialists can help improve sojourners' nonverbal fluency for specific cultures. Temporary…

  12. Cross-Cultural Nonverbal Cue Immersive Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Global Assessment Orlando, Florida, 32809 + University of Central Florida Orlando, Florida, 32816 ++ Army Research Institute...technologies incorporating mixed reality training may be used to promote social cooperative learning. 1. INTRODUCTION As a global community...communicated either consciously or unconsciously through various forms of nonverbal cues such as body posture and facial expressions. Nonverbal cues

  13. Nonverbal and verbal emotional expression and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D S; Pennebaker, J W

    1993-01-01

    The spontaneous nonverbal expression of emotion is related to immediate reductions in autonomic nervous system activity. Similar changes in specific autonomic channels occur when individuals are encouraged to verbally express their emotions. Indeed, these physiological changes are most likely to occur among individuals who are either verbally or nonverbally highly expressive. These data suggest that when individuals must actively inhibit emotional expression, they are at increased risk for a variety of health problems. Several experiments are summarized which indicate that verbally expressing traumatic experiences by writing or talking improves physical health, enhances immune function, and is associated with fewer medical visits. Although less research is available regarding nonverbal expression, it is also likely that the nonverbal expression of emotion bears some relation to health status. We propose that the effectiveness of many common expressive therapies (e.g., art, music, cathartic) would be enhanced if clients are encouraged to both express their feelings nonverbally and to put their experiences into words.

  14. (Not) Made by the human hand: media consciousness and immediacy in the cultural production of the real

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Port, M.

    2011-01-01

    Taking its examples from the realm of popular religion and popular culture, this essay shows how sensations of im-mediacy are sought and produced in a great number of fantasy scripts. Some of these scripts seek to undo media-awareness: concealing or denying the involvement of the human hand they pro

  15. Cerebral integration of verbal and nonverbal emotional cues: impact of individual nonverbal dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Heike; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Brück, Carolin; Erb, Michael; Hösl, Franziska; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2012-07-02

    Emotional communication is essential for successful social interactions. Emotional information can be expressed at verbal and nonverbal levels. If the verbal message contradicts the nonverbal expression, usually the nonverbal information is perceived as being more authentic, revealing the "true feelings" of the speaker. The present fMRI study investigated the cerebral integration of verbal (sentences expressing the emotional state of the speaker) and nonverbal (facial expressions and tone of voice) emotional signals using ecologically valid audiovisual stimulus material. More specifically, cerebral activation associated with the relative impact of nonverbal information on judging the affective state of a speaker (individual nonverbal dominance index, INDI) was investigated. Perception of nonverbally expressed emotions was associated with bilateral activation within the amygdala, fusiform face area (FFA), temporal voice area (TVA), and the posterior temporal cortex as well as in the midbrain and left inferior orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)/left insula. Verbally conveyed emotions were linked to increased responses bilaterally in the TVA. Furthermore, the INDI correlated with responses in the left amygdala elicited by nonverbal and verbal emotional stimuli. Correlation of the INDI with the activation within the medial OFC was observed during the processing of communicative signals. These results suggest that individuals with a higher degree of nonverbal dominance have an increased sensitivity not only to nonverbal but to emotional stimuli in general. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Teacher Immediacy and Decreased Student Quantitative Reasoning Anxiety: The Mediating Effect of Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Stephanie; Rice, Christopher; Wyatt, Bryce; Ducking, Johnny; Denton, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    There is global concern regarding the increased prevalence of math anxiety among college students, which is credited for a decrease in analytical degree completion rates and lower self-confidence among students in their ability to complete analytical tasks in the real world. The present study identified that, as expected, displays of instructional…

  17. [Non-verbal communication in Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiaratura, Loris Tamara

    2008-09-01

    This review underlines the importance of non-verbal communication in Alzheimer's disease. A social psychological perspective of communication is privileged. Non-verbal behaviors such as looks, head nods, hand gestures, body posture or facial expression provide a lot of information about interpersonal attitudes, behavioral intentions, and emotional experiences. Therefore they play an important role in the regulation of interaction between individuals. Non-verbal communication is effective in Alzheimer's disease even in the late stages. Patients still produce non-verbal signals and are responsive to others. Nevertheless, few studies have been devoted to the social factors influencing the non-verbal exchange. Misidentification and misinterpretation of behaviors may have negative consequences for the patients. Thus, improving the comprehension of and the response to non-verbal behavior would increase first the quality of the interaction, then the physical and psychological well-being of patients and that of caregivers. The role of non-verbal behavior in social interactions should be approached from an integrative and functional point of view.

  18. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Factory Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tway, Patricia

    1976-01-01

    Examines the verbal and nonverbal behavior patterns associated with two speech styles, one formal and the other informal, among factory workers. Available from: Mouton Publishers, Box 482, the Hague, Netherlands. (AM)

  19. Nonverbal communication: characteristics, functions and classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红霞

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to provide a brief but systematic survey of nonverbal communication in terms of its characteristics, functions, and classification. Nonverbal communication involves all those nonverbal stimuli in a communication setting that are generated by both the source and the receiver. First, unlike verbal communication, it does not have a fixed set of signs, and formal rules and structures; it is innate and continuous. Second, it performs such functions as repeating, complementing, substituting, regulating, and contradicting. Finally, nonverbal communication may be classified into two major types: those produced by the body (including physical appearance, body movements, physical contact, ficial expressions, eye contact, and paralanguage); and those associated with the setting (including space, time, and silence).

  20. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Factory Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tway, Patricia

    1976-01-01

    Examines the verbal and nonverbal behavior patterns associated with two speech styles, one formal and the other informal, among factory workers. Available from: Mouton Publishers, Box 482, the Hague, Netherlands. (AM)

  1. Different Aspects of Intercultural Nonverbal Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kifayat Aghayeva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available It is shown the ways how to manage nonverbal intercultural communication effectively and cultural, political and gender aspects of NVC are investigated in the article. Studies of nonverbal communication indicate that nonverbal communication is constantly used, whether or not people speak to each-other. Non-verbal communication can even alternate a verbal message through mimics, gestures and facial expressions, particularly when people do not speak the same language. A culturally-fluent approach to conflict means working over time to understand these and other ways communication varies across cultures, and applying these understandings in order to enhance relationships across differences. These features influences intercultural communication and can be responsible for increase of conflict when it leads to bad communication or misinterpretation or vice versa can be responsible for escaping of them.

  2. Perception of Nonverbal Communication Influenced by Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蒙蒙

    2013-01-01

    The concept of perception influenced by culture is pretty important in the study of intercultural communication. The perceptions of language and nonverbal language formed under various cultures intimate with each other during communication. This paper aims to explore the relationship between perception and culture in nonverbal communication through the study of eye language and body odor, and promote the communication among people of different culture as well.

  3. Aspects in non-verbal communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Vilà Baños

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural communication is interpersonal communication involving people with cultural references different enough that it may pose a significant barrier that difficult communication efficiency. It proposes an analysis of nonverbal communication highlighting the importance of the nonverbal aspects of communication and the different contributions of studies on the kinesics, the proxemics and some senses like touch and smell, highly influenced by the cultural references of each person. These studies reveal some basic differences in potential intercultural communicative encounter.

  4. Teachers' Opinions about the Use of Body Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzer, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    Effective communication occurs with non-verbal and verbal tools. In this study the body language as non-verbal communication tool is taken to be examined, and teachers' opinions about the use and importance of body language in education are surveyed. Eight open-ended questions are asked to 100 teachers. As a result, it is shown that teachers…

  5. Teachers' Opinions about the Use of Body Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzer, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    Effective communication occurs with non-verbal and verbal tools. In this study the body language as non-verbal communication tool is taken to be examined, and teachers' opinions about the use and importance of body language in education are surveyed. Eight open-ended questions are asked to 100 teachers. As a result, it is shown that teachers…

  6. Decoding Nonverbal Communication in Law Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Otu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This analytical study examined the importance of nonverbal communication in law enforcement work. In many encounters between police and citizens, the primary focus is always on suspects’/citizens’ verbal statements, rather than on how and what their body is conveying while telling the story. This study argues for an integrated approach in which the police officers need to realise that they, too, are communicating nonverbally with suspects. This study reveals that nonverbal communication, also known as body language, proxemic, and kinesics behavior, in many cases tends to constitute a much larger fraction of the police communication model than verbal communication, which should help officers to establish authority and dominance and ensure their safety. Nonverbal communication is not something added onto criminal justice, but rather it is the essence of criminal justice. This results suggest that nonverbal communication is the foundation of a successful relationship/encounter between criminal justice personnel and suspects or criminals, as well as being a powerful method that cannot be feigned.

  7. Nonverbal accommodation in health care communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Thomas A; Bylund, Carma L

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study examined patterns of nonverbal accommodation within health care interactions and investigated the impact of communication skills training and gender concordance on nonverbal accommodation behavior. The Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS) was used to code the nonverbal behavior of physicians and patients within 45 oncology consultations. Cases were then placed in one of seven categories based on patterns of accommodation observed across the interaction. Results indicated that across all NAAS behavior categories, physician-patient interactions were most frequently categorized as joint convergence, followed closely by asymmetrical-patient convergence. Among paraverbal behaviors, talk time, interruption, and pausing were most frequently characterized by joint convergence. Among nonverbal behaviors, eye contact, laughing, and gesturing were most frequently categorized as asymmetrical-physician convergence. Differences were predominantly nonsignificant in terms of accommodation behavior between pre- and post-communication skills training interactions. Only gesturing proved significant, with post-communication skills training interactions more likely to be categorized as joint convergence or asymmetrical-physician convergence. No differences in accommodation were noted between gender-concordant and nonconcordant interactions. The importance of accommodation behavior in health care communication is considered from a patient-centered care perspective.

  8. The role of teacher communicator style in the delivery of a middle school substance use prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Steven M; Pankratz, Melinda M; Ringwalt, Chris; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Hansen, William B; Bishop, Dana; Dusenbury, Linda; Gottfredson, Nisha

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether teachers' communicator style relates to student engagement, teacher-student relationships, student perceptions of teacher immediacy, as well as observer ratings of delivery skills during the implementation of All Stars, a middle school-based substance use prevention program. Data from 48 teachers who taught All Stars up to 3 consecutive years and their respective seventh-grade students (n = 2,240) indicate that having an authoritative communication style is negatively related to student engagement with the curriculum and the quality of the student-teacher relationship, while having an expressive communicator style improves teachers' immediacy to student needs. Adaptations made by a subsample of teachers (n = 27) reveal that those who were more expressive asked students more questions, used more motivational techniques, and introduced more new concepts than authoritarian teachers.

  9. The Role of Nonverbal Behavior in Cross-cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓文

    2014-01-01

    Nonverbal behaviors, such as hand gestures, eye contact and facial expressions etc., play a vital role in communication. Therefore, only by observing and perceiving the nonverbal cues of the communicators, can the effectiveness of communication be enhanced.

  10. A Generational Approach to Using Emoticons as Nonverbal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, Franklin B.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to help determine whether the use of emoticons in computer mediated communication (CMC) are truly nonverbal cues. A review of the literature revealed that the traditional nonverbal theorists failed to predict the future employment of nonverbal cues in electronic CMC. A variety of emoticons are then described…

  11. The Application of Nonverbal Communication in College English Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞彬彬

    2008-01-01

    As an auxiliary means of teaching,nonverbal communication plays a vital role in college English class, Based on the analysis of the three most frequently used aspects in nonverbal communication:gestures,eye contact,and physical distance,this paper is aimed at suggesting the significance of nonverbal communication in college English teaching and the application of it in college English class.

  12. A Comparison of Verbal and Nonverbal Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Virginia; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The FIRO-B by Schutz and the Personal Orientation Inventory by Shostrum were used to assess personality changes in a verbal and a nonverbal T-group. Personality measures used failed to find significant posttreatment differences between groups. Several significant differences occurred within groups. (Author)

  13. A Comparison of Verbal and Nonverbal Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Virginia; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The FIRO-B by Schutz and the Personal Orientation Inventory by Shostrum were used to assess personality changes in a verbal and a nonverbal T-group. Personality measures used failed to find significant posttreatment differences between groups. Several significant differences occurred within groups. (Author)

  14. PREVALENCE OF PHYSICAL, VERBAL AND NONVERBAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    that students who were physically [adjusted OR = 3.950, 95% CI = (1.979, 7.884)] and nonverbally. [(adjusted OR ... dropout and their academic achievements suffer a lot as a result of psychological distress; and the ..... depression, anxiety, and ill-health accompanying ... academic stress, social support, threats due to high.

  15. Facilitative Effects of Practice upon Nonverbal Creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roweton, William E.; Spencer, Herbert L., Jr.

    Numerous studies of verbal creativity indicate that idea originality increases progressively as more ideas are produced. The present study tested the effects of practice upon nonverbal creativity. Thirty-two fifth grade children were administered Form A and/or Form B of Torrance's picture completion task for 5 consecutive days. Figural originality…

  16. Patterns of non-verbal social interactions within intensive mathematics intervention contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jonathan Norris; Harkness, Shelly Sheats

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the non-verbal patterns of interaction within an intensive mathematics intervention context. Specifically, the authors draw on social constructivist worldview to examine a teacher's use of gesture in this setting. The teacher conducted a series of longitudinal teaching experiments with a small number of young, school-age children in the context of early arithmetic development. From these experiments, the authors gathered extensive video records of teaching practice and, from an inductive analysis of these records, identified three distinct patterns of teacher gesture: behavior eliciting, behavior suggesting, and behavior replicating. Awareness of their potential to influence students via gesture may prompt teachers to more closely attend to their own interactions with mathematical tools and take these teacher interactions into consideration when forming interpretations of students' cognition.

  17. Cultural Differences of Etiquette in Nonverbal Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝钰; 朱凡

    2007-01-01

    Cultural difference is one of the greatest hinders in the intercultural communication. This thesis focuses on displaying cultural differences of etiquette in nonverbal communication. It lays emphasis on the comparisons in China (mainly Han Nationality) and Western (mainly Britain and American) as well as the different culture backgrounds that bring about the etiquette variations. These comparative analyses help people smooth the paths of social intercourse and establish pleasant, comfortable, and cooperative relationships.

  18. Cultural Differences of Etiquette in Nonverbal Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝钰; 朱凡

    2007-01-01

    Cultural difference is one of the greatest hinders in the intercultural communication. This thesis focuses on displaying cultural differences of etiquette in nonverbal communication. It lays emphasis on the comparisons in China (mainly Han Nationality)and Western (mainly Britain and American) as well as the different culture backgrounds that bring about the etiquette variations. These comparative analyses help people smooth the paths of social intercourse and establish pleasant, comfortable, and cooperative relationships.

  19. Nonverbal synchrony and affect in dyadic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschacher, Wolfgang; Rees, Georg M; Ramseyer, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    In an experiment on dyadic social interaction, we invited participants to verbal interactions in cooperative, competitive, and 'fun task' conditions. We focused on the link between interactants' affectivity and their nonverbal synchrony, and explored which further variables contributed to affectivity: interactants' personality traits, sex, and the prescribed interaction tasks. Nonverbal synchrony was quantified by the coordination of interactants' body movement, using an automated video-analysis algorithm (motion energy analysis). Traits were assessed with standard questionnaires of personality, attachment, interactional style, psychopathology, and interpersonal reactivity. We included 168 previously unacquainted individuals who were randomly allocated to same-sex dyads (84 females, 84 males, mean age 27.8 years). Dyads discussed four topics of general interest drawn from an urn of eight topics, and finally engaged in a fun interaction. Each interaction lasted 5 min. In between interactions, participants repeatedly assessed their affect. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we found moderate to strong effect sizes for synchrony to occur, especially in competitive and fun task conditions. Positive affect was associated positively with synchrony, negative affect was associated negatively. As for causal direction, data supported the interpretation that synchrony entailed affect rather than vice versa. The link between nonverbal synchrony and affect was strongest in female dyads. The findings extend previous reports of synchrony and mimicry associated with emotion in relationships and suggest a possible mechanism of the synchrony-affect correlation.

  20. Dissociating verbal and nonverbal audiovisual object processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Julia; Price, Cathy J

    2009-02-01

    This fMRI study investigates how audiovisual integration differs for verbal stimuli that can be matched at a phonological level and nonverbal stimuli that can be matched at a semantic level. Subjects were presented simultaneously with one visual and one auditory stimulus and were instructed to decide whether these stimuli referred to the same object or not. Verbal stimuli were simultaneously presented spoken and written object names, and nonverbal stimuli were photographs of objects simultaneously presented with naturally occurring object sounds. Stimulus differences were controlled by including two further conditions that paired photographs of objects with spoken words and object sounds with written words. Verbal matching, relative to all other conditions, increased activation in a region of the left superior temporal sulcus that has previously been associated with phonological processing. Nonverbal matching, relative to all other conditions, increased activation in a right fusiform region that has previously been associated with structural and conceptual object processing. Thus, we demonstrate how brain activation for audiovisual integration depends on the verbal content of the stimuli, even when stimulus and task processing differences are controlled.

  1. Nonverbal synchrony and affect in dyadic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang eTschacher

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In an experiment on dyadic social interaction, we invited participants to verbal interactions in cooperative, competitive, and 'fun task' conditions. We focused on the link between interactants' affectivity and their nonverbal synchrony, and explored which further variables contributed to affectivity: interactants' personality traits, sex, and the prescribed interaction tasks. Nonverbal synchrony was quantified by the coordination of interactants' body movement, using an automated video-analysis algorithm (Motion Energy Analysis, MEA. Traits were assessed with standard questionnaires of personality, attachment, interactional style, psychopathology and interpersonal reactivity. We included 168 previously unacquainted individuals who were randomly allocated to same-sex dyads (84 females, 84 males, mean age 27.3 years. Dyads discussed four topics of general interest drawn from an urn of eight topics, and finally engaged in a fun interaction. Each interaction lasted five minutes. In between interactions, participants repeatedly assessed their affect. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we found moderate to strong effect sizes for synchrony to occur, especially in competitive and fun task conditions. Positive affect was associated positively with synchrony, negative affect was associated negatively. As for causal direction, data supported the interpretation that synchrony entailed affect rather than vice versa. The link between nonverbal synchrony and affect was strongest in female dyads. The findings extend previous reports of synchrony and mimicry associated with emotion in relationships and suggest a possible mechanism of the synchrony-affect correlation.

  2. Three Characteristics of Effective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Natalie A.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses three characteristics that are often associated with successful music educators. The three characteristics discussed include nonverbal communication, teacher self-efficacy, and servant leadership. Although there is no magical combination of characteristics that will produce an effective music teacher, these three attributes…

  3. Three Characteristics of Effective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Natalie A.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses three characteristics that are often associated with successful music educators. The three characteristics discussed include nonverbal communication, teacher self-efficacy, and servant leadership. Although there is no magical combination of characteristics that will produce an effective music teacher, these three attributes…

  4. Non-verbal communication in human resource management

    OpenAIRE

    Babkina, Nadezda

    2011-01-01

    Effective non-verbal communication, communication through body language, is one of the fundamental prerequisites for successful manager's performance. The main goal of this bachelor thesis is to analyze the importance of nonverbal communication in human resource management and, on the example of management style and nonverbal communication of two the most successful managers in the world of information and communication technologies, Steve Jobs and Bill Gates, to formulate basic recommendatio...

  5. Nonverbal social communication and gesture control in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Sebastian; Stegmayer, Katharina; Sulzbacher, Jeanne; Vanbellingen, Tim; Müri, René; Strik, Werner; Bohlhalter, Stephan

    2015-03-01

    Schizophrenia patients are severely impaired in nonverbal communication, including social perception and gesture production. However, the impact of nonverbal social perception on gestural behavior remains unknown, as is the contribution of negative symptoms, working memory, and abnormal motor behavior. Thus, the study tested whether poor nonverbal social perception was related to impaired gesture performance, gestural knowledge, or motor abnormalities. Forty-six patients with schizophrenia (80%), schizophreniform (15%), or schizoaffective disorder (5%) and 44 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and education were included. Participants completed 4 tasks on nonverbal communication including nonverbal social perception, gesture performance, gesture recognition, and tool use. In addition, they underwent comprehensive clinical and motor assessments. Patients presented impaired nonverbal communication in all tasks compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, performance in patients was highly correlated between tasks, not explained by supramodal cognitive deficits such as working memory. Schizophrenia patients with impaired gesture performance also demonstrated poor nonverbal social perception, gestural knowledge, and tool use. Importantly, motor/frontal abnormalities negatively mediated the strong association between nonverbal social perception and gesture performance. The factors negative symptoms and antipsychotic dosage were unrelated to the nonverbal tasks. The study confirmed a generalized nonverbal communication deficit in schizophrenia. Specifically, the findings suggested that nonverbal social perception in schizophrenia has a relevant impact on gestural impairment beyond the negative influence of motor/frontal abnormalities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Significance of Teachers’Nonverbal Symbols in Teaching%教师的非语言符号的教育意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雅文

    2014-01-01

    Nonverbal symbol is very important in the course of communication. Educationn Which mainly concludes verbal symbols and nonverbal symbols is a main form of communication activities. In this paper, the article will describe nonverbal sym-bols and teachers' nonverbal symbols from their characters and functions. Teachers should have a good understanding about the characteristics and functions of nonverbal symbols in the course of teaching and focusing on the research and application to im-prove the teaching quality.%非语言符号是人类传播活动的重要工具。教育是传播知识的重要方式。语言符号和非语言符号是其主要组成部分。该文主要从非语言符号,教师的非语言符号特征入手,了解非语言符号在教育传播过程中的特点及其作用,目的在于有效传播知识,提高教学质量。

  7. Non-verbal communication through sensor fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tairych, Andreas; Xu, Daniel; O'Brien, Benjamin M.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2016-04-01

    When we communicate face to face, we subconsciously engage our whole body to convey our message. In telecommunication, e.g. during phone calls, this powerful information channel cannot be used. Capturing nonverbal information from body motion and transmitting it to the receiver parallel to speech would make these conversations feel much more natural. This requires a sensing device that is capable of capturing different types of movements, such as the flexion and extension of joints, and the rotation of limbs. In a first embodiment, we developed a sensing glove that is used to control a computer game. Capacitive dielectric elastomer (DE) sensors measure finger positions, and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) detects hand roll. These two sensor technologies complement each other, with the IMU allowing the player to move an avatar through a three-dimensional maze, and the DE sensors detecting finger flexion to fire weapons or open doors. After demonstrating the potential of sensor fusion in human-computer interaction, we take this concept to the next level and apply it in nonverbal communication between humans. The current fingerspelling glove prototype uses capacitive DE sensors to detect finger gestures performed by the sending person. These gestures are mapped to corresponding messages and transmitted wirelessly to another person. A concept for integrating an IMU into this system is presented. The fusion of the DE sensor and the IMU combines the strengths of both sensor types, and therefore enables very comprehensive body motion sensing, which makes a large repertoire of gestures available to nonverbal communication over distances.

  8. Slap What? An Interactive Lesson in Nonverbal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haithcox-Dennis, Melissa J.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the use of nonverbal communication strategies for fostering social health in middle school students. It outlines a teaching technique designed to help students better understand nonverbal cues and their role in maintaining healthy interpersonal relationships. The technique begins with the card game "Slap What?" where the…

  9. Nonverbal Social Interaction Skills of Children with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaliotis, Ioannis; Kalyva, Efrosini

    2008-01-01

    Many children with learning disabilities (LD) face problems in their nonverbal communication, which constitutes an important component of their social skills. This study explores the frequency of nonverbal initiations and responses of 36 children with LD and 36 children without LD matched for age and gender, who were observed for 40 min during the…

  10. Generating Nonverbal Signals for a Sensitive Artificial Listener

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Poel, Mannes; Esposito, A.; Faunder-Zanny, M.; Keller, E.; Marinaro, M.

    2007-01-01

    In the Sensitive Artificial Listener project research is performed with the aim to design an embodied agent that not only generates the appropriate nonverbal behaviors that accompany speech, but that also displays verbal and nonverbal behaviors during the production of speech by its conversational

  11. Walking the Walk: Understanding Nonverbal Communication through Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Vernon B., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Nonverbal communication is fundamental to any comprehensive examination of human interaction. This article presents an activity that can be easily applied by any instructor as a starting point for a discussion of nonverbal communication, or as a demonstration of learning points previously discussed. Instructors should have a slight background in…

  12. Investigating a Relationship between Nonverbal Communication and Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    Clear and effective communication is essential in today's society (Smith & Cotten, 1980; Smith & Land, 1981). Nonverbal communication specifically has a vital role in communication. There is inconsistent data on the effect of nonverbal communication used by instructors and the impact on student learning within the higher education…

  13. Socialization Processes in Encoding and Decoding: Learning Effective Nonverbal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Robert S.; Coats, Erik

    This study examined the relationship of nonverbal encoding and decoding skills to the level of exposure to television. Subjects were children in second through sixth grade. Three nonverbal skills (decoding, spontaneous encoding, and posed encoding) were assessed for each of five emotions: anger, disgust, fear or surprise, happiness, and sadness.…

  14. Non-Verbal Communication in Children with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallineni, Sharmila; Nutheti, Rishita; Thangadurai, Shanimole; Thangadurai, Puspha

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine: (a) whether children with visual and additional impairments show any non-verbal behaviors, and if so what were the common behaviors; (b) whether two rehabilitation professionals interpreted the non-verbal behaviors similarly; and (c) whether a speech pathologist and a rehabilitation professional interpreted…

  15. Vocal Nonverbal Communication Skill and Deliberate Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Judith A.

    An experiment tested the hypothesis that the outcome of a vocal nonverbal persuasion attempt can be affected by the participants' skills in nonverbal communication. Subjects' vocal sending or decoding abilities were pretested. Senders and decoders (N=54) were agents and recipients of social influence, respectively, in a field experiment in which…

  16. Effects of Nonverbal Behavior on Perceptions of Power Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguinis, Herman; Simonsen, Melissa M.; Pierce, Charles A.

    1998-01-01

    Manipulates three types of nonverbal behaviors and examines their effects on perceptions of power bases. Reports that a relaxed facial expression increased the ratings for five of the selected power bases; furthermore, direct eye contact yielded higher credibility ratings. Provides evidence that various nonverbal behaviors have only additive…

  17. Slap What? An Interactive Lesson in Nonverbal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haithcox-Dennis, Melissa J.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the use of nonverbal communication strategies for fostering social health in middle school students. It outlines a teaching technique designed to help students better understand nonverbal cues and their role in maintaining healthy interpersonal relationships. The technique begins with the card game "Slap What?" where the…

  18. Effects of Nonverbal Behavior on Perceptions of Power Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguinis, Herman; Simonsen, Melissa M.; Pierce, Charles A.

    1998-01-01

    Manipulates three types of nonverbal behaviors and examines their effects on perceptions of power bases. Reports that a relaxed facial expression increased the ratings for five of the selected power bases; furthermore, direct eye contact yielded higher credibility ratings. Provides evidence that various nonverbal behaviors have only additive…

  19. Guidelines for Teaching Non-Verbal Communications Through Visual Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Mahima Ranjan

    1976-01-01

    There is a natural unique relationship between non-verbal communication and visual media such as television and film. Visual media will have to be used extensively--almost exclusively--in teaching non-verbal communications, as well as other methods requiring special teaching skills. (Author/ER)

  20. On the Embedded Cognition of Non-verbal Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio; Baceviciute, Sarune

    2014-01-01

    Acknowledging that narratives are an important resource in human communication and cognition, the focus of this article is on the cognitive aspects of involvement with visual and auditory non-verbal narratives, particularly in relation to the newest immersive media and digital interactive...... that are communicated through non-verbal modalities....

  1. Non-Verbal Communication in Children with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallineni, Sharmila; Nutheti, Rishita; Thangadurai, Shanimole; Thangadurai, Puspha

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine: (a) whether children with visual and additional impairments show any non-verbal behaviors, and if so what were the common behaviors; (b) whether two rehabilitation professionals interpreted the non-verbal behaviors similarly; and (c) whether a speech pathologist and a rehabilitation professional interpreted…

  2. Non-verbal Context in the Teaching of EFL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of non-verbal context in foreign language learning and teaching .The first part introduces the development of the context theory. The second part covers the relevance of context to language learning. The last part recommends some ways to use non-verbal context in the teaching of EFL.

  3. An Activity for Teaching the Effects of Nonverbal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Whitney Botsford; King, Eden B.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a novel teaching activity that allows students in diversity, leadership, and communication courses to observe the powerful effects of nonverbal communication. The nonverbal experiences female leaders may encounter as they rise through the ranks of organizations are simulated and consequences discussed. Two student volunteers…

  4. When Tradition meets Immediacy and Interaction. The Integration of Social Media in Journalists’ Everyday Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauke Zeller

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Journalists in Western liberal democracies face similar challenges in melding existing, hierarchical models of media production with emerging communications technologies where knowledge, expertise and authority are networked and distributed. This paper examines the attitudes and approaches of a select group of digital journalists in Canada to the impact of social media on journalism and professional constructs of the journalist. It is based on expert interviews with nine leading senior online news managers and journalists from Canada’s principal news organisations, with a focus on the growing influence of social media, and the professionals’ subjective, experience-based understandings of the current changes in journalism. The interviewees demonstrated a tacit understanding of a shift away from the traditional role of gatekeeper towards a shared ecosystem of news and information. While journalism was conceived as more of a collaborative enterprise, with interviewees seeking to adapt and benefit from a more participatory media environment, the journalists also expressed the occupational boundaries of the profession as a way of rearticulating their authority. While immediacy was mentioned as one of the main new factors in news media reporting, concerns about the impact of immediacy on the quality of news reporting were largely absent from the discourse of the interviewees. The increased velocity of information due to social media was thus framed as a positive development that could enable journalists and newsrooms to be more responsive and relevant to audiences. It was also seen as providing the increased opportunities for interaction with audiences. The study contributes to the body of work on how digital news leaders are negotiating the meaning and value of journalism. As such, our sample is not broadly representative of the attitudes of most journalists, either in Canada or elsewhere. Rather, it represents a select group at the vanguard of

  5. Assessing the Perceived Effectiveness of the Basic Communication Course: An Examination of the Mass-Lecture Format versus the Self-Contained Format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Timothy S.; Tillson, Lou Davidson; Cox, Stephen A.; Malinauskas, Barbara K.

    2000-01-01

    Compares undergraduate college students' attitudes regarding student motivation, student perceptions of teacher verbal and nonverbal immediacy, and student perceptions of teacher credibility in two different instructional formats: mass-lecture/lab versus self-contained. Finds comparable perceptions across both instructional formats and concludes…

  6. Discussion on Nonverbal Communication and English Teaching%浅谈非言语交际与英语教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦俊

    2011-01-01

    Non-verbal communication is an important part in the process of communication.In foreign language teaching, teachers should use non-verbal communication appropriately to create a realistic locale, activate students’ thinking, bridge relations between teachers and students, and enhance students’ motivation; in particular, teachers should pay attention to non-verbal behavior of students, do the teaching feedback in time, and then improve teaching quality.%非言语交际是交际过程中的一个重要组成部分.在外语课堂教学中,教师要恰当地运用非言语交际行为来创造逼真的语言环境,激活学生思维,融洽师生关系,增强学生的学习动机,特别是教师要注意学生的非言语行为,及时做出教学反馈,进而提高教学质量.

  7. Verbal and nonverbal behavior of ability-grouped dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. Gail; Carter, Glenda

    In this study we describe the social interactions of ability-grouped dyads as they constructed knowledge of balance concepts to elucidate the relationship between interactions and conceptual growth. The verbal and nonverbal behaviors of 30 fifth-grade students were recorded as they completed three activities related to balance. These student interactions were examined within a framework of social cognition. For each dyad, characteristics of ability-grouped dyads were identified. Results revealed that high-achieving students effectively used prior experiences, maintained focus on the learning task, and were able to manipulate the equipment effectively to construct knowledge. Low-achieving students exhibited off-task behavior, lacked a metacognitive framework for organizing the learning tasks, centered on irrelevant features of the equipment, and were unable to use language effectively to mediate learning. Within low-high student dyads, high-achieving students typically modeled thinking processes and strategies for manipulating equipment. In addition, they focused the low-achieving students on the components of the tasks while verbally monitoring their progress, thus enabling low students to identify the critical features necessary for concept construction. These results highlighted the differences that students have in the use of language and tools. Low students' inefficient use of tools has implications for the ways science teachers structure lessons and group students for laboratory work.Received: 8 March 1993; Revised: 6 January 1994;

  8. Nonverbal Communication as a Pain Reliever: The Impact of Physician Supportive Nonverbal Behavior on Experimentally Induced Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben, Mollie A; Blanch-Hartigan, Danielle; Hall, Judith A

    2017-08-01

    Despite the evidence for the potential of supportive communication to alleviate physical pain, no study to date has assessed the impact of supportive nonverbal behavior on the objective and subjective experience of pain. This analogue study examined the impact of an actor-physician's supportive nonverbal behavior on experimentally induced pain. Participants (N = 205) were randomly assigned to interact with a videotaped physician conveying high or low supportive nonverbal behaviors. Participant pain was assessed with subjective and objective measures. Participants interacting with the high nonverbal support physicians showed increased pain tolerance and a reduction in the amount of pain expressed compared to those interacting with the low nonverbal support physicians. For subjectively rated pain, a gender difference existed such that for men, high physician nonverbal support decreased pain ratings and memory of pain, but for women, high physician nonverbal support increased pain ratings and memory of pain. These results highlight the importance of nonverbal communication in altering pain with broad implications for clinical care.

  9. House staff nonverbal communication skills and standardized patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Charles H; Wilson, John F; Langer, Shelby; Haist, Steven A

    2003-03-01

    To examine the association of physician nonverbal communication with standardized patient (SP) satisfaction in the context of the "quality" of the interview (i.e., information provided and collected, communication skills). Observational. One university-based internal medicine residency program. Fifty-nine internal medicine residents. INTERVIEWING: The 59 residents were recruited to participate in 3 SP encounters. The scenarios included: 1) a straightforward, primarily "medical" problem (chest pain); 2) a patient with more psychosocial overlay (a depressed patient with a history of sexual abuse); and 3) a counseling encounter (HIV risk factor reduction counseling). Trained SPs rated physician nonverbal behaviors (body lean, open versus closed body posture, eye contact, smiling, tone of voice, nod, facial expressivity) in the 3 encounters. Multiple regression approaches were used to investigate the association of physician nonverbal behavior with patient satisfaction in the context of the "quality" of the interview (SP checklist performance, measures of verbal communication skills), controlling for physician characteristics (gender, postgraduate year). Nonverbal communication skills was an independent predictor of standardized patient satisfaction for all 3 patient stations. The effect sizes were substantial, with nonverbal communication predicting 32% of the variance in patient satisfaction for the chest pain station, 23% of the variance for the depression-sexual abuse station, and 19% of the variance for the HIV counseling station. Better nonverbal communication skills are associated with significantly greater patient satisfaction in a variety of different types of clinical encounters with standardized patients. Formal instruction in nonverbal communication may be an important addition to residency.

  10. Non-verbal communication barriers when dealing with Saudi sellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosra Missaoui

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Communication has a major impact on how customers perceive sellers and their organizations. Especially, the non-verbal communication such as body language, appearance, facial expressions, gestures, proximity, posture, eye contact that can influence positively or negatively the first impression of customers and their experiences in stores. Salespeople in many countries, especially the developing ones, are just telling about their companies’ products because they are unaware of the real role of sellers and the importance of non-verbal communication. In Saudi Arabia, the seller profession has been exclusively for foreign labor until 2006. It is very recently that Saudi workforce enters to the retailing sector as sellers. The non-verbal communication of those sellers has never been evaluated from consumer’s point of view. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to explore the non-verbal communication barriers that customers are facing when dealing with Saudi sellers. After discussing the non-verbal communication skills that sellers must have in the light of the previous academic research and the depth interviews with seven focus groups of Saudi customers, this study found that the Saudi customers were not totally satisfied with the current non-verbal communication skills of Saudi sellers. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to develop the non-verbal communication skills of Saudi sellers by intensive trainings, to distinguish more the appearance of their sellers, especially the female ones, to focus on the time of intervention as well as the proximity to customers.

  11. Nonverbal behavior during face-to-face social interaction in schizophrenia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Mary; Healey, Patrick G T; McCabe, Rosemarie

    2014-01-01

    Patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia display social cognitive deficits. However, little is known about patients' nonverbal communication during their social encounters with others. This review identified 17 studies investigating nonverbal communication in patients' unscripted face-to-face interactions, addressing a) nonverbal differences between patients and others, b) nonverbal behavior of the patients' partners, c) the association between nonverbal behavior and symptoms, and d) the association between nonverbal behavior and social outcomes. Patients displayed fewer nonverbal behaviors inviting interaction, with negative symptoms exacerbating this pattern. Positive symptoms were associated with heightened nonverbal behavior. Patients' partners changed their own nonverbal behavior in response to the patient. Reduced prosocial behaviors, inviting interaction, were associated with poorer social outcomes. The evidence suggests that patients' nonverbal behavior, during face-to-face interaction, is influenced by patients symptoms and impacts the success of their social interactions.

  12. Naturalistic Observations of Nonverbal Children with Autism: A Study of Intentional Communicative Acts in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Drain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined evoked and spontaneous communicative acts in six nonverbal children with autism (10–15 years, M = 12.8, SD = 2.1. All participants attended the same special school for children with autism but were in different classes. Each was observed for 30 minutes during a typical school day. An observer coded the presence/absence of an antecedent, the form and function of the communicative act, and the teacher’s response to the child. One hundred and fifty-five communicative acts were observed, 41% were spontaneous and 59% were evoked. The main antecedents to evoked communicative acts were verbal prompts, and most of the evoked communicative acts were physical in nature (i.e., motor acts and gestures. However, verbalizations and the use of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS were higher for spontaneous communicative acts. The functions of spontaneous communicative acts were primarily requests. Results showed a substantial number of “nonresponses” from teachers, even following evoked communicative acts. These results suggest that teachers may not actively promote intentional communication as much as possible. Therefore, our findings provide information concerning ways in which educators could facilitate intentional communication in non-verbal children with autism.

  13. A Tentative Study on Nonverbal Communication in College English Teaching%大学英语非语言交际教学探微

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢卓

    2012-01-01

    语言交际和非语言交际是人类进行交际的两种方式。但是在大学英语教学中,非语言交际教学长期不被重视。加强非语言文化交际教学需要多方面的努力:学校及相关教学部门重视并制定解决方案;教师须提高跨文化非语言交际能力的素质,改革教学方法,成为具备跨文化交际理论素养和实践能力的“专家”;学生要主动学习非语言文化知识,努力提高自己的跨文化非语言交际能力。%Language communication and nonverbal communication are two kinds of communicative mode. Nonverbal communication has been neglected in college English teaching. Strengthening the nonverbal communication teaching needs efforts from all parties. Firstly, school and relevant teaching departments should pay attention to and develop solutions. Then teachers should improve the intercultural nonverbal communicative competence quality and reform their teaching methods as well. And surely students should be actively learning the knowledge of nonverbal communication.

  14. From SOLER to SURETY for effective non-verbal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Theodore

    2011-11-01

    This paper critiques the model for non-verbal communication referred to as SOLER (which stands for: "Sit squarely"; "Open posture"; "Lean towards the other"; "Eye contact; "Relax"). It has been approximately thirty years since Egan (1975) introduced his acronym SOLER as an aid for teaching and learning about non-verbal communication. There is evidence that the SOLER framework has been widely used in nurse education with little published critical appraisal. A new acronym that might be appropriate for non-verbal communication skills training and education is proposed and this is SURETY (which stands for "Sit at an angle"; "Uncross legs and arms"; "Relax"; "Eye contact"; "Touch"; "Your intuition"). The proposed model advances the SOLER model by including the use of touch and the importance of individual intuition is emphasised. The model encourages student nurse educators to also think about therapeutic space when they teach skills of non-verbal communication. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [The influence of non-verbal communication in nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carla Cristina Viana; Shiratori, Kaneji

    2005-01-01

    The present study is linked to the Center for Researching and Testing in Nursing at the Nursing School Alfredo Pinto - UNIRIO, and it started during the development of a monograph. The object of the study is the meaning of non-verbal communication under the optics of the nursing course undergraduates. The study presents the following objectives: to determine how non-verbal communication is comprehended among college students in nursing and to analyze in what way that comprehension influences nursing care. The methodological approach was qualitative, while the dynamics of sensitivity were applied as strategy for data collection. It was observed that undergraduate students identify the relevance and influence of non-verbal communication along nursing care, however there is a need in amplifying the knowledge of non-verbal communication process prior the implementation of nursing care.

  16. [Individual alpha activity of electroencephalogram and nonverbal creativity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, O M; Aftanas, L I

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of present correlational investigation was to clarify relationships between nonverbal creativity indices and individual electroencephalogram alpha activity indices: individual alpha peak frequency, alpha band width, magnitude of alpha desynchronization and alpha spindle indices such as duration, amplitude, variability and skewness. The EEG was recorded in 98 healthy male right-handed subjects. Scores of nonverbal creativity (i. e., fluency, originality, and flexibility) were assessed using the Torrance test of nonverbal performance. The study showed that fluency in creative performance was associated with individual alpha peak frequency and alpha spindles duration, whereas originality and plasticity--with individual alpha band width and spindle amplitude variability. The findings also show that both highest and lowest individual alpha peak frequency indices are associated with enhanced scores of originality. It is suggested that individual alpha activity indices could be presented as individual predictors of fluency, plasticity and originality of nonverbal creativity.

  17. Disclosing medical errors to patients: effects of nonverbal involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannawa, Annegret F

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to test causal effects of physicians' nonverbal involvement on medical error disclosure outcomes. 216 hospital outpatients were randomly assigned to two experimental treatment groups. The first group watched a video vignette of a verbally effective and nonverbally involved error disclosure. The second group was exposed to a verbally effective but nonverbally uninvolved error disclosure. All patients responded to seven outcome measures. Patients in the nonverbally uninvolved error disclosure treatment group perceived the physician's apology as less sincere and remorseful compared to patients in the involved disclosure group. They also rated the implications of the error as more severe, were more likely to ascribe fault to the physician, and indicated a higher intent to change doctors after the disclosure. The results of this study imply that nonverbal involvement during medical error disclosures facilitates more accurate patient understanding and assessment of the medical error and its consequences on their health and quality of life. In the context of disclosing medical errors, nonverbal involvement increases the likelihood that physicians will be able to continue caring for their patient. Thus, providers are advised to consider adopting this communication skill into their medical practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. On the importance of nonverbal communication in the physician-patient interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Marianne Schmid

    2007-08-01

    The goal of this paper is to show that nonverbal aspects in the physician-patient interaction play an important role. Interpersonal judgment relies mostly on nonverbal and appearance cues of the social interaction partner. This is also true for the physician-patient interaction. Moreover, physicians and patients tend to mirror some of their nonverbal behavior and complement each other on other aspects of their nonverbal behavior. Nonverbal cues emitted by the patient can contain important information for the doctor to use for treatment and diagnosis decisions. The way the physician behaves nonverbally affects patient outcomes, such as, for instance, patient satisfaction. Affilliative nonverbal behavior (e.g., eye gaze and proximity) of the physician is related to higher patient satisfaction. However, how different physician nonverbal behaviors are related to patient satisfaction also depends on personal attributes of the physician such as gender, for instance. Physician training could profit from incorporating knowledge about physician and patient nonverbal behavior.

  19. Can nonverbal communication skills be taught?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Hirono; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kinoshita, Makoto; Yano, Eiji

    2010-01-01

    While nonverbal communication (NVC) is an essential part of a physician's interpersonal skills, it has attracted relatively little attention in medical education. To develop a program for teaching NVC skills, and to examine whether it would improve student's awareness and performance of NVC. A total of 106 preclerkship medical students were randomly assigned to 14 groups for a communication skills training session before an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Five faculty members served as session facilitators, of whom three provided the original program (n = 67) and two provided the NVC intervention program (n = 39). After the training session, students wrote their goals for the OSCE medical interview, which were analyzed for content. The student's performance of NVC was evaluated based on the video recording of the OSCE. Students in NVC group were significantly more likely to write goals related to NVC, but no significant differences were found in the NVC evaluations at the OSCE. The intervention was effective in increasing student's awareness of NVC, but it was not sufficient to change the actual performance. Further research is needed to explore whether additional training would actually improve their NVC performance.

  20. Pitch perception deficits in nonverbal learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Prieto, I; Caprile, C; Tinoco-González, D; Ristol-Orriols, B; López-Sala, A; Póo-Argüelles, P; Pons, F; Navarra, J

    2016-12-01

    The nonverbal learning disability (NLD) is a neurological dysfunction that affects cognitive functions predominantly related to the right hemisphere such as spatial and abstract reasoning. Previous evidence in healthy adults suggests that acoustic pitch (i.e., the relative difference in frequency between sounds) is, under certain conditions, encoded in specific areas of the right hemisphere that also encode the spatial elevation of external objects (e.g., high vs. low position). Taking this evidence into account, we explored the perception of pitch in preadolescents and adolescents with NLD and in a group of healthy participants matched by age, gender, musical knowledge and handedness. Participants performed four speeded tests: a stimulus detection test and three perceptual categorization tests based on colour, spatial position and pitch. Results revealed that both groups were equally fast at detecting visual targets and categorizing visual stimuli according to their colour. In contrast, the NLD group showed slower responses than the control group when categorizing space (direction of a visual object) and pitch (direction of a change in sound frequency). This pattern of results suggests the presence of a subtle deficit at judging pitch in NLD along with the traditionally-described difficulties in spatial processing.

  1. Is nonverbal communication disrupted in interactions involving patients with schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Mary; Healey, Patrick G T; McCabe, Rosemarie

    2013-09-01

    Nonverbal communication is a critical feature of successful social interaction and interpersonal rapport. Social exclusion is a feature of schizophrenia. This experimental study investigated if the undisclosed presence of a patient with schizophrenia in interaction changes nonverbal communication (ie, speaker gesture and listener nodding). 3D motion-capture techniques recorded 20 patient (1 patient, 2 healthy participants) and 20 control (3 healthy participants) interactions. Participants rated their experience of rapport with each interacting partner. Patients' symptoms, social cognition, and executive functioning were assessed. Four hypotheses were tested: (1) Compared to controls, patients display less speaking gestures and listener nods. (2) Patients' increased symptom severity and poorer social cognition are associated with patients' reduced gesture and nods. (3) Patients' partners compensate for patients' reduced nonverbal behavior by gesturing more when speaking and nodding more when listening. (4) Patients' reduced nonverbal behavior, increased symptom severity, and poorer social cognition are associated with others experiencing poorer rapport with the patient. Patients gestured less when speaking. Patients with more negative symptoms nodded less as listeners, while their partners appeared to compensate by gesturing more as speakers. Patients with more negative symptoms also gestured more when speaking, which, alongside increased negative symptoms and poorer social cognition, was associated with others experiencing poorer patient rapport. Patients' symptoms are associated with the nonverbal behavior of patients and their partners. Patients' increased negative symptoms and gesture use are associated with poorer interpersonal rapport. This study provides specific evidence about how negative symptoms impact patients' social interactions.

  2. Nonverbal imitation skills in children with specific language delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohmen, Andrea; Chiat, Shula; Roy, Penny

    2013-10-01

    Research in children with language problems has focussed on verbal deficits, and we have less understanding of children's deficits with nonverbal sociocognitive skills which have been proposed to be important for language acquisition. This study was designed to investigate elicited nonverbal imitation in children with specific language delay (SLD). It is argued that difficulties in nonverbal imitation, which do not involve the processing of structural aspects of language, may be indicative of sociocognitive deficits. Participants were German-speaking typically developing children (n=60) and children with SLD (n=45) aged 2-3 ½ years. A novel battery of tasks measured their ability to imitate a range of nonverbal target acts that to a greater or lesser extent involve sociocognitive skills (body movements, instrumental acts on objects, pretend acts). Significant group differences were found for all body movement and pretend act tasks, but not for the instrumental act tasks. The poorer imitative performance of the SLD sample was not explained by motor or nonverbal cognitive skills. Thus, it appeared that the nature of the task affected children's imitation performance. It is argued that the ability to establish a sense of connectedness with the demonstrator was at the core of children's imitation difficulty in the SLD sample. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Preparatory power posing affects nonverbal presence and job interview performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Amy J C; Wilmuth, Caroline A; Yap, Andy J; Carney, Dana R

    2015-07-01

    The authors tested whether engaging in expansive (vs. contractive) "power poses" before a stressful job interview--preparatory power posing--would enhance performance during the interview. Participants adopted high-power (i.e., expansive, open) poses or low-power (i.e., contractive, closed) poses, and then prepared and delivered a speech to 2 evaluators as part of a mock job interview. All interview speeches were videotaped and coded for overall performance and hireability and for 2 potential mediators: verbal content (e.g., structure, content) and nonverbal presence (e.g., captivating, enthusiastic). As predicted, those who prepared for the job interview with high- (vs. low-) power poses performed better and were more likely to be chosen for hire; this relation was mediated by nonverbal presence, but not by verbal content. Although previous research has focused on how a nonverbal behavior that is enacted during interactions and observed by perceivers affects how those perceivers evaluate and respond to the actor, this experiment focused on how a nonverbal behavior that is enacted before the interaction and unobserved by perceivers affects the actor's performance, which, in turn, affects how perceivers evaluate and respond to the actor. This experiment reveals a theoretically novel and practically informative result that demonstrates the causal relation between preparatory nonverbal behavior and subsequent performance and outcomes.

  4. Toward Speech and Nonverbal Behaviors Integration for Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to integrate speeches and nonverbal behaviors for a humanoid robot in human-robot interaction. This paper presents an approach using multi-object genetic algorithm to match the speeches and behaviors automatically. Firstly, with humanoid robot's emotion status, we construct a hierarchical structure to link voice characteristics and nonverbal behaviors. Secondly, these behaviors corresponding to speeches are matched and integrated into an action sequence based on genetic algorithm, so the robot can consistently speak and perform emotional behaviors. Our approach takes advantage of relevant knowledge described by psychologists and nonverbal communication. And from experiment results, our ultimate goal, implementing an affective robot to act and speak with partners vividly and fluently, could be achieved.

  5. Children use nonverbal cues to make inferences about social power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, Elizabeth; Shutts, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Four studies (N = 192) tested whether young children use nonverbal information to make inferences about differences in social power. Five- and six-year-old children were able to determine which of two adults was "in charge" in dynamic videotaped conversations (Study 1) and in static photographs (Study 4) using only nonverbal cues. Younger children (3-4 years) were not successful in Study 1 or Study 4. Removing irrelevant linguistic information from conversations did not improve the performance of 3- to 4-year-old children (Study 3), but including relevant linguistic cues did (Study 2). Thus, at least by 5 years of age, children show sensitivity to some of the same nonverbal cues adults use to determine other people's social roles.

  6. Recognition of nonverbal communication of emotion after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Julie; Parente, Rick

    2014-01-01

    Individuals who have had a traumatic brain injury (TBI) often have difficulty processing nonverbal communication (Ekman, 1976) The published research in this area has focused on a TBI patient's ability to recognize facial expression, vocal intonation, and postural expression (Croker, 2005; Hopkins, Dywan & Segalowitz, 2002). This study compared the non-verbal processing skills of brain-injured patients versus non-injured controls in all three domains. The stimuli were photographs of facial and postural expressions and audio recordings of intonational expressions. The results indicated that persons with TBI have particular difficulty recognizing non-verbal communication resulting from vocal intonations. The TBI patients had difficulty processing tonality, therefore, it is reasonable to suggest that clinicians, friends, and family members should emphasize the explicit verbal content of spoken language when speaking to a person with TBI.

  7. Review of Researches on Nonverbal Communication in English Class Teaching%英语课堂教学非言语行为研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易敏

    2014-01-01

    English classroom teaching is a-two-way interaction of messages of transmission. However, a large number of English teachers focus on the various kinds of verbal communication and usually ignore the nonverbal form in teacher-and-student com⁃munication. According to Cooper(1988), nonverbal communication is very important for teachers while teaching. In this sense the teacher’s proper nonverbal communication plays a crucial role in the successful teaching. In recent years researchers at home and abroad have conducted numerous studies in this field. This study is expected to provide illuminations to other teachers in col⁃lege English teaching so that they can attach great importance to the use of nonverbal communication.%英语课堂教学是一个信息双向传输的过程,然而,一直以来教师更加重视各种言语交际,而忽视非言语形式的课堂互动。库珀(1988)指出,教师的非言语交际相当重要。所以,教师能否采取适当的非言语交际是保证教学成功的一个至关重要的因素。近年来,国内外对非言语交际和英语课堂教学相联系的研究进行了大量的探索,这些研究能对其他教师的大学英语教学有所启示,使其重视在大学英语听说课上非言语交际的运用,从而增强英语教学效果。

  8. An MEG Investigation of Neural Biomarkers and Language in Nonverbal Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Nonverbal Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kristina McFadden CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER An MEG Investigation of Neural Biomarkers and Language in Nonverbal Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders 5b...group by the end of Year 2. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Autism spectrum disorders , magnetoencephalography (MEG), neural biomarkers, nonverbal 16

  9. The nonverbal communication functions of emoticons in computer-mediated communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shao-Kang

    2008-10-01

    Most past studies assume that computer-mediated communication (CMC) lacks nonverbal communication cues. However, Internet users have devised and learned to use emoticons to assist their communications. This study examined emoticons as a communication tool that, although presented as verbal cues, perform nonverbal communication functions. We therefore termed emoticons quasi-nonverbal cues.

  10. Exploring the Incremental Validity of Nonverbal Social Aggression: The Utility of Peer Nominations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Jamilia J.; Kim, Eun Sook; Lease, A. Michele

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the construct validity of nonverbal social aggression and the relation of nonverbal social aggression to dimensions of children's social status. Peer nominations of verbal social, nonverbal social, direct veral, and physical aggression, as well as social dominance, perceived popularity, and social acceptance, were collected…

  11. The Impact of Nonverbal Communication in Organizations: A Survey of Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Gerald H.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Discusses a survey of 505 respondents from business organizations. Reports that self-described good decoders of nonverbal communication consider nonverbal communication more important than do other decoders. Notes that both men and women perceive women as both better decoders and encoders of nonverbal cues. Recommends paying more attention to…

  12. Getting the Message Across; Non-Verbal Communication in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jack

    This handbook presents selected theories, activities, and resources which can be utilized by educators in the area of non-verbal communication. Particular attention is given to the use of non-verbal communication in a cross-cultural context. Categories of non-verbal communication such as proxemics, haptics, kinesics, smiling, sound, clothing, and…

  13. Case illustration of a boy with nonverbal learning disorder and Asperger's features: neuropsychological and personality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalof, Jed

    2006-08-01

    I present a case study of a latency-age boy referred for assessment of a nonverbal learning disability/disorder (NLD) who also had features of Asperger's syndrome (AS). I review NLD terminology, presumed brain-behavior relationship, neuropsychological profile, and diagnosis/classification issues. I discuss the challenge of differentiating NLD from AS in relation to the client's pattern of visual-spatial, communication, social-emotional, and behavioral NLD correlates. I integrate neuropsychological and personality assessment data with interviews, observations, prior testing, and input from teacher and therapist in formulating a diagnostic impression. I discuss Rorschach (Exner, 2003) and neuropsychological consultations in relation to subtle language and interpersonal features of the client's communication style. I provide parent feedback at 18 and 24 months posttesting. I discuss implications relative to a model of school neuropsychological assessment that includes the Rorschach test.

  14. On the immediacy of unconscious truth: understanding Betty Joseph's 'here and now' through comparison with alternative views of it outside of and within Kleinian thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blass, Rachel B

    2011-10-01

    Psychoanalysis emphasizes that in discovering psychic truth what is needed is not abstract or distant knowledge of this truth but rather an immediate encounter with it. In this paper the author examines the meaning of this immediacy through the study of Betty Joseph's notion of 'here and now,' which in recent years has been most directly associated with it. The author shows how Joseph's notion of 'here and now' continues a legacy beginning in Freud and taken up by Klein regarding the immediacy of unconscious truth that differs from other available analytic formulations of the term. To highlight the uniqueness of Joseph's contribution the author goes on to examine what distinguishes it within the kleinian framework. She does this in part through comparison with the clinical approach of Hanna Segal, whose focus on unconscious phantasy adheres to the same foundational legacy. The author points to the differences between Joseph and Segal and their significance, which have not been sufficiently elaborated in the analytic literature. She argues that viewing these differences within the context of a shared perspective on the role of unconscious truth in the analytic process and task enriches our understanding of the complexity of kleinian thinking and the meaning of truth in psychoanalysis. This understanding is also furthered by the recognition that many uses of the term 'here and now' in the analytic literature refer to something very different from what Joseph refers to and are based on a perspective that is fundamentally opposed to hers.

  15. Children's Talking and Listening within the Classroom: Teachers' Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosacki, Sandra; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Coplan, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that social communication (verbal and non-verbal) plays a key role in students' and teachers' elementary-school experiences. Within the framework of sociocognitive developmental theory, this qualitative study investigates teachers' experiences and perceptions of children's talking and listening habits within the elementary-grade…

  16. Children's Talking and Listening within the Classroom: Teachers' Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosacki, Sandra; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Coplan, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that social communication (verbal and non-verbal) plays a key role in students' and teachers' elementary-school experiences. Within the framework of sociocognitive developmental theory, this qualitative study investigates teachers' experiences and perceptions of children's talking and listening habits within the elementary-grade…

  17. Introverts' and Extraverts' Responses to Nonverbal Attending Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genthner, Robert W.; Moughan, James

    1977-01-01

    The different responses of introverts and extraverts to two types of helper nonverbal attending were examined. Subjects were 26 introverts and 26 extraverts, as defined by Eysenck and Eysenck's questionnaire. Introverts rated the listener higher than did extraverts, independent of his posture. (Author)

  18. Nonverbal Communication and Counseling/Psychotherapy: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstein, Gerald A.

    1974-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on non-verbal communication (NVC) as it pertains to the counseling/therapy process, although it also includes discussion of issues in the general NVC literature. Extensive appendixes are included (an alphabetical list and description of NVC references and examples of NVC classification and measuring systems).…

  19. Nonverbal Communication Skills in Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chung-Hsin; Soong, Wei-Tsuen; Lin, Tzu-Ling; Rogers, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The study was to examine nonverbal communication in young children with autism. Methods: The participants were 23 young children with autism (mean CA = 32.79 months), 23 CA and MA-matched children with developmental delay and 22 18-20-month-old, and 22 13-15-month-old typically developing toddlers and infants. The abbreviated Early…

  20. Nonverbal communication of intention and attention while playing a game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ditte Hvas

    This poster abstract describes first part of a series of experiments on using the individual’s gesture, grip and direction of face, to infer intentions and attention during interaction with technology. The experiment recorded here studies these patterns of nonverbal communication in order...

  1. Decoding of Children's Nonverbal Responses. Technical Report No. 365.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Vernon L.; Feldman, Robert S.

    The experiment was designed to see whether children differ from adults in the ability to understand nonverbal responses of other children. Ten third-grade children were secretly filmed while watching a very easy and a very hard math lesson. Third graders, sixth graders, and adults (college students) were asked to judge, based on a film of each…

  2. The Relationship between Nonverbal Cognitive Functions and Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekveld, Adriana A.; Deijen, Jan Berend; Goverts, S. Theo; Kramer, Sophia E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between hearing loss and memory and attention when nonverbal, visually presented cognitive tests are used. Method: Hearing loss (pure-tone audiometry) and IQ were measured in 30 participants with mild to severe hearing loss. Participants performed cognitive tests of pattern recognition memory,…

  3. Judging Attraction from Nonverbal Behavior: The Gain Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clore, Gerald L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Describes two experiments conducted to explore non-verbal behaviors and their capacity to convey attraction between men and women. Examines in particular the gain phenomenon which is the idea that people are more attracted to a person who is initially punishing and then rewarding than to one who is always rewarding. (Author/EJT)

  4. Comparing non-verbal vocalisations in conversational speech corpora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trouvain, Jürgen; Truong, Khiet P.; Devillers, L.; Schuller, B.; Batliner, A.; Rosso, P.; Douglas-Cowie, E.; Cowie, R.; Pelachaud, C.

    2012-01-01

    Conversations do not only consist of spoken words but they also consist of non-verbal vocalisations. Since there is no standard to define and to classify (possible) non-speech sounds the annotations for these vocalisations differ very much for various corpora of conversational speech. There seems to

  5. Non-verbal Means in Cross-cultural Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shara Mazhitaeva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the non-verbal means of communication which are significant factors of cross-cultural communication. Authors dwell on the features of kinetic components of speech and confirm the idea that language is universal in its basis and national according to different ways of expression.

  6. Young Children's Understanding of Markedness in Non-Verbal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Speakers often anticipate how recipients will interpret their utterances. If they wish some other, less obvious interpretation, they may "mark" their utterance (e.g. with special intonations or facial expressions). We investigated whether two- and three-year-olds recognize when adults mark a non-verbal communicative act--in this case a pointing…

  7. Non-verbal behaviour in nurse-elderly patient communication.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caris-Verhallen, W.M.C.M.; Kerkstra, A.; Bensing, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This study explores the occurence of non-verbal communication in nurse-elderly patient interaction in two different care settings: home nursing and a home for the elderly. In a sample of 181 nursing encounters involving 47 nurses a study was made of videotaped nurse-patient communication. Six

  8. Language, Power, Multilingual and Non-Verbal Multicultural Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marácz, L.; Zhuravleva, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to developments in internal migration and mobility there is a proliferation of linguistic diversity, multilingual and non-verbal multicultural communication. At the same time the recognition of the use of one’s first language receives more and more support in international political, legal and

  9. Reading the Client: Nonverbal Communication as an Interviewing Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Tom H.

    The importance of effective communication skills between lawyers and clients is equalled only by the imperative need for sustained instruction in the development of communicative skills for the lawyer. Especially important are the nonverbal communication skills in "reading the client." The subtleties of intonation, posture, gesture, and eye…

  10. Nonverbal Learning Disability Explained: The Link to Shunted Hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissman, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    A nonverbal learning disability is believed to be caused by damage, disorder or destruction of neuronal white matter in the brain's right hemisphere and may be seen in persons experiencing a wide range of neurological diseases such as hydrocephalus and other types of brain injury (Harnadek & Rourke 1994). This article probes the relationship…

  11. Learning to Decode Nonverbal Cues in Cross-Cultural Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    tactile / haptic communication (via touch), paralanguage (auditory utterances that affect meaning), silence, olfaction, and chronemics (time and...and eyes. Spatial communication focuses on the space between us and others. Tactile communication describes the physical contact between people...his subordinate (body communication) and touches him ( tactile communication) in a meeting. Finally, nonverbal cues may be used to mean

  12. Nonverbal Sensitivity: Consequences for Learning and Satisfaction in Genetic Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roter, D. L.; Erby, L. H.; Hall, J. A.; Larson, S.; Ellington, L.; Dudley, W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore the role of interactants' nonverbal sensitivity, anxiety and sociodemographic characteristics in learning and satisfaction within the genetic counseling context. Design/methodology/approach: This is a combined simulation and analogue study. Simulations were videotaped with 152 prenatal and cancer genetic…

  13. Teaching Nonverbal Communication in the Second Language Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Stephen S.; Moore, Jean

    Because the nonverbal component of communication is culture-specific, effective communication in a second language requires knowledge of the body language typical of speakers of that language. For example, Americans and Hispanics have a different sense of proxemics, Hispanics favoring closeness during conversation. Instruction in nonverbal…

  14. Nonverbal auditory agnosia with lesion to Wernicke's area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygin, Ayse Pinar; Leech, Robert; Dick, Frederic

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of patient M, who suffered unilateral left posterior temporal and parietal damage, brain regions typically associated with language processing. Language function largely recovered since the infarct, with no measurable speech comprehension impairments. However, the patient exhibited a severe impairment in nonverbal auditory comprehension. We carried out extensive audiological and behavioral testing in order to characterize M's unusual neuropsychological profile. We also examined the patient's and controls' neural responses to verbal and nonverbal auditory stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We verified that the patient exhibited persistent and severe auditory agnosia for nonverbal sounds in the absence of verbal comprehension deficits or peripheral hearing problems. Acoustical analyses suggested that his residual processing of a minority of environmental sounds might rely on his speech processing abilities. In the patient's brain, contralateral (right) temporal cortex as well as perilesional (left) anterior temporal cortex were strongly responsive to verbal, but not to nonverbal sounds, a pattern that stands in marked contrast to the controls' data. This substantial reorganization of auditory processing likely supported the recovery of M's speech processing.

  15. Non-Verbal and Verbal Fluency in Prodromal Huntington's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarja-Brita Robins Wahlin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study examines non-verbal (design and verbal (phonemic and semantic fluency in prodromal Huntington's disease (HD. An accumulating body of research indicates subtle deficits in cognitive functioning among prodromal mutation carriers for HD. Methods: Performance was compared between 32 mutation carriers and 38 non-carriers in order to examine the magnitude of impairment across fluency tasks. The predicted years to onset (PYTO in mutation carriers was calculated by a regression equation and used to divide the group according to whether onset was predicted as less than 12.75 years (HD+CLOSE; n = 16 or greater than 12.75 years (HD+DISTANT; n = 16. Results: The results indicate that both non-verbal and verbal fluency is sensitive to subtle impairment in prodromal HD. HD+CLOSE group produced fewer items in all assessed fluency tasks compared to non-carriers. HD+DISTANT produced fewer drawings than non-carriers in the non-verbal task. PYTO correlated significantly with all measures of non-verbal and verbal fluency. Conclusion: The pattern of results indicates that subtle cognitive deficits exist in prodromal HD, and that less structured tasks with high executive demands are the most sensitive in detecting divergence from the normal range of functioning. These selective impairments can be attributed to the early involvement of frontostriatal circuitry and frontal lobes.

  16. Matched False-Belief Performance during Verbal and Nonverbal Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungan, James; Saxe, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Language has been shown to play a key role in the development of a child's theory of mind, but its role in adult belief reasoning remains unclear. One recent study used verbal and nonverbal interference during a false-belief task to show that accurate belief reasoning in adults necessarily requires language (Newton & de Villiers, 2007). The…

  17. Language, Power, Multilingual and Non-Verbal Multicultural Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marácz, L.; Zhuravleva, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to developments in internal migration and mobility there is a proliferation of linguistic diversity, multilingual and non-verbal multicultural communication. At the same time the recognition of the use of one’s first language receives more and more support in international political, legal and i

  18. Young Children's Understanding of Markedness in Non-Verbal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Speakers often anticipate how recipients will interpret their utterances. If they wish some other, less obvious interpretation, they may "mark" their utterance (e.g. with special intonations or facial expressions). We investigated whether two- and three-year-olds recognize when adults mark a non-verbal communicative act--in this case a pointing…

  19. Non-verbal behaviour in nurse-elderly patient communication.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caris-Verhallen, W.M.C.M.; Kerkstra, A.; Bensing, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This study explores the occurence of non-verbal communication in nurse-elderly patient interaction in two different care settings: home nursing and a home for the elderly. In a sample of 181 nursing encounters involving 47 nurses a study was made of videotaped nurse-patient communication. Six non-ve

  20. Nonverbal communication behaviors of internationally educated nurses and patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yu; Staples, Shelley; Shen, Jay J

    2012-01-01

    Because of language barriers and cultural differences, internationally educated nurses (IENs) face documented communication challenges in health care delivery. Yet, it is unknown how and to what extent nonverbal behaviors affect patient care because of research gap in the existing nursing literature. This is an exploratory study evaluating nonverbal communication behaviors of IENs interacting with standardized patients (SPs) in a controlled clinical setting through videotape analysis. Participants included 52 IENs from two community hospitals in the same hospital system in a southwestern metropolitan area in the United States. Twelve nonverbal behaviors were rated using a 4-point Likert scale with 4 indicating the best performance by the research team after watching videos of SP-IEN interactions. The global communication performance was also ranked in four areas: genuineness, spontaneity, appropriateness, and effectiveness. The relationships between these four areas and the nonverbal behaviors were explored. Finally, a qualitative analysis of two extreme cases was conducted and supplemented the quantitative findings. The IENs received average scores under 2 in 5 out of the 12 nonverbal behaviors. They were "hugging" (1.06), "lowering body position to patient's level" (1.07), "leaning forward" (1.26), "shaking hands" (1.64), and "therapeutic touch" (1.66). The top three scores were for "no distractive movement," "eye contact," and "smile" (3.80, 3.73, and 3.57, respectively). The average overall global impression score was 2.98. The average score for spontaneity was 2.80, which was significantly lower than the scores for genuineness (3.15), appropriateness (3.11), but comparable to the average score for effectiveness (2.85). Finally, therapeutic touch, interpersonal space, eye contact, smiling, and hugging were all significantly correlated with one or more of the global impression scores, with therapeutic touch showing moderate correlations with all of the scores as

  1. The role of interaction of verbal and non-verbal means of communication in different types of discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Orlova M. А.

    2010-01-01

    Communication relies on verbal and non-verbal interaction. To be most effective, group members need to improve verbal and non-verbal communication. Non-verbal communication fulfills functions within groups that are sometimes difficult to communicate verbally. But interpreting non-verbal messages requires a great deal of skill because multiple meanings abound in these messages.

  2. Nonverbal behavior during clinical interviews: similarities and dissimilarities among schizophrenia, mania, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annen, Sigrid; Roser, Patrik; Brüne, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that patients with schizophrenia and depression differ from nonclinical subjects in nonverbal behavior. In contrast, there is a paucity of studies addressing differences in nonverbal communication between diagnostic groups and as to what extent nonverbal communication feeds into standard ratings of psychopathology. Twenty-six patients with schizophrenia were compared with 24 patients with affective disorders (13 depressed, 11 manic) regarding their nonverbal behavior using the Ethological Coding System for Interviews. Symptom severity was rated using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Patients with mania displayed more illustrative gestures than did patients with schizophrenia or depression. Subtler behavioral differences between the groups occurred regarding assertive behaviors and displacement activities suggestive of hostility and motivational conflict, respectively. Distinct correlations between nonverbal communication and psychopathology ratings emerged in all three groups. Patients with schizophrenia, depression, and mania differ in nonverbal behavior. Nonverbal communication seems to be a significant contributor to clinicians' intuitive ratings.

  3. Social functioning using direct and indirect measures with children with High Functioning Autism, nonverbal learning disability, and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Bledsoe, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    Social perception is an important underlying foundation for emotional development and overall adaptation. The majority of studies with children with High Functioning Autism (HFA) or nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) evaluating social functioning have used measures of parent and/or teacher ratings. The present study utilized parent and teacher ratings of behavior as well as executive functioning in addition to direct measures of social perception. Three groups participated in this study (control [n = 38] HFA [n = 36], NLD [n = 31]). Results indicated that the HFA group experienced the most difficulty understanding emotional cues on the direct measure while both the HFA and NLD groups experienced difficulty with nonverbal cues. Significant difficulties were reported on the parent rating scale for sadness and social withdrawal for both clinical groups. Executive functioning was found to be particularly problematic for the clinical groups. The direct social perception measure was highly correlated with the measures of executive functioning and reflects the contribution that executive functions have on social functioning. These findings suggest that the clinical presentation on behavior rating scales may be very similar for children with HFA and NLD. Moreover, it appears that measures of executive functioning are sensitive to the clinical difficulties these groups experience. The findings also suggest there is a commonality in these disorders that warrants further investigation.

  4. Parts of Speech in Non-typical Function: (A)symmetrical Encoding of Non-verbal Predicates in Erzya

    OpenAIRE

    Rigina Turunen

    2011-01-01

    Erzya non-verbal conjugation refers to symmetric paradigms in which non-verbal predicates behave morphosyntactically in a similar way to verbal predicates. Notably, though, non-verbal conjugational paradigms are asymmetric, which is seen as an outcome of paradigmatic neutralisation in less frequent/less typical contexts. For non-verbal predicates it is not obligatory to display the same amount of behavioural potential as it is for verbal predicates, and the lexical class of non-verbal predica...

  5. On Non-verbal Communication in the English Class%谈英语课堂中的非言语交际

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈巍

    2014-01-01

    Non-verbal communication is an important component of communicative behavior. In the English class, the teachers should adopt non-verbal communication appropriately so as to achieve the purpose of stimulating students' enthusiasm about English learning, strengthening the communication between themselves and students and having a good teaching effect.%非言语交际是交际行为的一个重要组成部分。在英语课堂教学中,教师可以恰当地运用非言语交际来提高学生的学习积极性,加强师生的交流,从而达到良好的教学效果。

  6. Replication of the training program in nonverbal communication in gerontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimidt, Teresa Cristina Gioia; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    to measure the rate of assimilation of applied content at immediate and subsequent moments after a nonverbal communication in gerontology training program. descriptive and exploratory fi eld study developed in three state administered hospitals, which attend Brazilian National Health Service (SUS) clients. The duration of the training was twelve hours, applied with 102 healthcare professionals. the results revealed that the rate of assimilation of the content immediately after the program was satisfactory, as well as being satisfactory in the aspects concept of aging; strategies to foster the independence and autonomy of the elderly person; communication interferences linked to the elderly and the professional; recognition of non-verbal functions and dimensions. The exception was the professional perception faced with aspects that influence the success of communication. it was concluded that the replication of this program was relevant and current for the hospital context, remaining effi cient for healthcare professionals.

  7. Semiotic aspects of human nonverbal vocalizations: a functional imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Susanne; Hertrich, Ingo; Alter, Kai; Ischebeck, Anja; Ackermann, Hermann

    2007-12-03

    Humans produce a variety of distinct nonverbal vocalizations. Whereas affective bursts, for example, laughter, have an intrinsic communicative role bound to social behavior, vegetative sounds, for example, snoring, just signal autonomic-physiological states. However, the latter events, for example, belching, may also be used as intentional communicative actions (vocal gestures), characterized by an arbitrary culture-dependent sound-to-meaning (semiotic) relationship, comparable to verbal utterances. Using a decision task, hemodynamic responses to affective bursts, vegetative sounds, and vocal gestures were measured by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Affective bursts elicited activation of anterior left superior temporal gyrus. In contrast, arbitrary vocal gestures yielded hemodynamic reactions of the left temporo-parietal junction. Conceivably, a listener's interpretation of nonverbal utterances as intentional events depends upon a left-hemisphere temporo-parietal 'auditory-to-meaning interface' related to our mechanisms of speech processing.

  8. Nonverbal Communication and Aircrew Coordination in Army Aviation: Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    the cockpit of Army rotary-wing aircraft. The following operational definition is used in this literature review: Nonverbal communication ( NVC ) is...DefintRions: 0 Schras: El Methodologiel:E] NVC - Body Movement and Gestures: E] NVC - Time and Spaicec NVC - Facial Displays and Eye Movement: E...Related Topics Accident Investigation, Crew Composition, Automation Reviewed Not Included Face relationship to NVC but determined not relevant Definitions

  9. Study on Nonverbal Communication by Avatars and Pictograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoe, Yuta; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko; Nosu, Kiyoshi; Ogawa, Koji

    This paper describes the design guideline of webs that use avatars and pictograms to promote nonverbal communication smoothly in a virtual space. The shops for clothes, consumer electronic, and furniture are constructed in the virtual space. The web sites using the avatar and the pictogram for shopping were examined. To investigate the usability, three kinds of the web layered structures were examined. The screen layout evaluation by the eyeball movement measurement was also carried out.

  10. Detection of Nonverbal Synchronization through Phase Difference in Human Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jinhwan; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Ono, Eisuke; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal communication is an important factor in human communication, and body movement synchronization in particular is an important part of nonverbal communication. Some researchers have analyzed body movement synchronization by focusing on changes in the amplitude of body movements. However, the definition of "body movement synchronization" is still unclear. From a theoretical viewpoint, phase difference is the most important factor in synchronization analysis. Therefore, there is a need to measure the synchronization of body movements using phase difference. The purpose of this study was to provide a quantitative definition of the phase difference distribution for detecting body movement synchronization in human communication. The phase difference distribution was characterized using four statistical measurements: density, mean phase difference, standard deviation (SD) and kurtosis. To confirm the effectiveness of our definition, we applied it to human communication in which the roles of speaker and listener were defined. Specifically, we examined the difference in the phase difference distribution between two different communication situations: face-to-face communication with visual interaction and remote communication with unidirectional visual perception. Participant pairs performed a task supposing lecture in the face-to-face communication condition and in the remote communication condition via television. Throughout the lecture task, we extracted a set of phase differences from the time-series data of the acceleration norm of head nodding motions between two participants. Statistical analyses of the phase difference distribution revealed the characteristics of head nodding synchronization. Although the mean phase differences in synchronized head nods did not differ significantly between the conditions, there were significant differences in the densities, the SDs and the kurtoses of the phase difference distributions of synchronized head nods. These

  11. Detection of Nonverbal Synchronization through Phase Difference in Human Communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhwan Kwon

    Full Text Available Nonverbal communication is an important factor in human communication, and body movement synchronization in particular is an important part of nonverbal communication. Some researchers have analyzed body movement synchronization by focusing on changes in the amplitude of body movements. However, the definition of "body movement synchronization" is still unclear. From a theoretical viewpoint, phase difference is the most important factor in synchronization analysis. Therefore, there is a need to measure the synchronization of body movements using phase difference. The purpose of this study was to provide a quantitative definition of the phase difference distribution for detecting body movement synchronization in human communication. The phase difference distribution was characterized using four statistical measurements: density, mean phase difference, standard deviation (SD and kurtosis. To confirm the effectiveness of our definition, we applied it to human communication in which the roles of speaker and listener were defined. Specifically, we examined the difference in the phase difference distribution between two different communication situations: face-to-face communication with visual interaction and remote communication with unidirectional visual perception. Participant pairs performed a task supposing lecture in the face-to-face communication condition and in the remote communication condition via television. Throughout the lecture task, we extracted a set of phase differences from the time-series data of the acceleration norm of head nodding motions between two participants. Statistical analyses of the phase difference distribution revealed the characteristics of head nodding synchronization. Although the mean phase differences in synchronized head nods did not differ significantly between the conditions, there were significant differences in the densities, the SDs and the kurtoses of the phase difference distributions of synchronized head

  12. Context, culture and (non-verbal) communication affect handover quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Richard M; Flanagan, Mindy; Ebright, Patricia; Bergman, Alicia; O'Brien, Colleen M; Franks, Zamal; Allen, Andrew; Harris, Angela; Saleem, Jason J

    2012-12-01

    Transfers of care, also known as handovers, remain a substantial patient safety risk. Although research on handovers has been done since the 1980s, the science is incomplete. Surprisingly few interventions have been rigorously evaluated and, of those that have, few have resulted in long-term positive change. Researchers, both in medicine and other high reliability industries, agree that face-to-face handovers are the most reliable. It is not clear, however, what the term face-to-face means in actual practice. We studied the use of non-verbal behaviours, including gesture, posture, bodily orientation, facial expression, eye contact and physical distance, in the delivery of information during face-to-face handovers. To address this question and study the role of non-verbal behaviour on the quality and accuracy of handovers, we videotaped 52 nursing, medicine and surgery handovers covering 238 patients. Videotapes were analysed using immersion/crystallisation methods of qualitative data analysis. A team of six researchers met weekly for 18 months to view videos together using a consensus-building approach. Consensus was achieved on verbal, non-verbal, and physical themes and patterns observed in the data. We observed four patterns of non-verbal behaviour (NVB) during handovers: (1) joint focus of attention; (2) 'the poker hand'; (3) parallel play and (4) kerbside consultation. In terms of safety, joint focus of attention was deemed to have the best potential for high quality and reliability; however, it occurred infrequently, creating opportunities for education and improvement. Attention to patterns of NVB in face-to-face handovers coupled with education and practice can improve quality and reliability.

  13. Emotion Recognition in Adolescents with Down Syndrome: A Nonverbal Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Pochon

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported that persons with Down syndrome (DS have difficulties recognizing emotions; however, there is insufficient research to prove that a deficit of emotional knowledge exists in DS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recognition of emotional facial expressions without making use of emotional vocabulary, given the language problems known to be associated with this syndrome. The ability to recognize six emotions was assessed in 24 adolescents with DS. Their performance was compared to that of 24 typically developing children with the same nonverbal-developmental age, as assessed by Raven’s Progressive Matrices. Analysis of the results revealed no global difference; only marginal differences in the recognition of different emotions appeared. Study of the developmental trajectories revealed a developmental difference: the nonverbal reasoning level assessed by Raven’s matrices did not predict success on the experimental tasks in the DS group, contrary to the typically developing group. These results do not corroborate the hypothesis that there is an emotional knowledge deficit in DS and emphasize the importance of using dynamic, strictly nonverbal tasks in populations with language disorders.

  14. Social priming increases nonverbal expressive behaviors in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Del-Monte

    Full Text Available Semantic priming tasks are classically used to influence and implicitly promote target behaviors. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that prosocial semantic priming modulated feelings of social affiliation. The main aim of this study was to determine whether inducing feelings of social affiliation using priming tasks could modulate nonverbal social behaviors in schizophrenia. We used the Scrambled Sentence Task to prime schizophrenia patients according to three priming group conditions: pro-social, non-social or anti-social. Forty-five schizophrenia patients, diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR, were randomly assigned to one of the three priming groups of 15 participants. We evaluated nonverbal social behaviors using the Motor-Affective subscale of the Motor-Affective-Social-Scale. Results showed that schizophrenia patients with pro-social priming had significantly more nonverbal behaviors than schizophrenia patients with anti-social and non-social priming conditions. Schizophrenia patient behaviors are affected by social priming. Our results have several clinical implications for the rehabilitation of social skills impairments frequently encountered among individuals with schizophrenia.

  15. Prosody Predicts Contest Outcome in Non-Verbal Dialogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiss, Amélie N; Chatelain, Philippe G; Roulin, Alexandre; Richner, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Non-verbal communication has important implications for inter-individual relationships and negotiation success. However, to what extent humans can spontaneously use rhythm and prosody as a sole communication tool is largely unknown. We analysed human ability to resolve a conflict without verbal dialogs, independently of semantics. We invited pairs of subjects to communicate non-verbally using whistle sounds. Along with the production of more whistles, participants unwittingly used a subtle prosodic feature to compete over a resource (ice-cream scoops). Winners can be identified by their propensity to accentuate the first whistles blown when replying to their partner, compared to the following whistles. Naive listeners correctly identified this prosodic feature as a key determinant of which whistler won the interaction. These results suggest that in the absence of other communication channels, individuals spontaneously use a subtle variation of sound accentuation (prosody), instead of merely producing exuberant sounds, to impose themselves in a conflict of interest. We discuss the biological and cultural bases of this ability and their link with verbal communication. Our results highlight the human ability to use non-verbal communication in a negotiation process.

  16. Emotion Recognition in Adolescents with Down Syndrome: A Nonverbal Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochon, Régis; Touchet, Claire; Ibernon, Laure

    2017-05-23

    Several studies have reported that persons with Down syndrome (DS) have difficulties recognizing emotions; however, there is insufficient research to prove that a deficit of emotional knowledge exists in DS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recognition of emotional facial expressions without making use of emotional vocabulary, given the language problems known to be associated with this syndrome. The ability to recognize six emotions was assessed in 24 adolescents with DS. Their performance was compared to that of 24 typically developing children with the same nonverbal-developmental age, as assessed by Raven's Progressive Matrices. Analysis of the results revealed no global difference; only marginal differences in the recognition of different emotions appeared. Study of the developmental trajectories revealed a developmental difference: the nonverbal reasoning level assessed by Raven's matrices did not predict success on the experimental tasks in the DS group, contrary to the typically developing group. These results do not corroborate the hypothesis that there is an emotional knowledge deficit in DS and emphasize the importance of using dynamic, strictly nonverbal tasks in populations with language disorders.

  17. Dominant, open nonverbal displays are attractive at zero-acquaintance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacharkulksemsuk, Tanya; Reit, Emily; Khambatta, Poruz; Eastwick, Paul W; Finkel, Eli J; Carney, Dana R

    2016-04-12

    Across two field studies of romantic attraction, we demonstrate that postural expansiveness makes humans more romantically appealing. In a field study (n = 144 speed-dates), we coded nonverbal behaviors associated with liking, love, and dominance. Postural expansiveness-expanding the body in physical space-was most predictive of attraction, with each one-unit increase in coded behavior from the video recordings nearly doubling a person's odds of getting a "yes" response from one's speed-dating partner. In a subsequent field experiment (n = 3,000), we tested the causality of postural expansion (vs. contraction) on attraction using a popular Global Positioning System-based online-dating application. Mate-seekers rapidly flipped through photographs of potential sexual/date partners, selecting those they desired to meet for a date. Mate-seekers were significantly more likely to select partners displaying an expansive (vs. contractive) nonverbal posture. Mediation analyses demonstrate one plausible mechanism through which expansiveness is appealing: Expansiveness makes the dating candidate appear more dominant. In a dating world in which success sometimes is determined by a split-second decision rendered after a brief interaction or exposure to a static photograph, single persons have very little time to make a good impression. Our research suggests that a nonverbal dominance display increases a person's chances of being selected as a potential mate.

  18. Social priming increases nonverbal expressive behaviors in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Monte, Jonathan; Raffard, Stéphane; Capdevielle, Delphine; Salesse, Robin N; Schmidt, Richard C; Varlet, Manuel; Bardy, Benoît G; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Gély-Nargeot, Marie-Christine; Marin, Ludovic

    2014-01-01

    Semantic priming tasks are classically used to influence and implicitly promote target behaviors. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that prosocial semantic priming modulated feelings of social affiliation. The main aim of this study was to determine whether inducing feelings of social affiliation using priming tasks could modulate nonverbal social behaviors in schizophrenia. We used the Scrambled Sentence Task to prime schizophrenia patients according to three priming group conditions: pro-social, non-social or anti-social. Forty-five schizophrenia patients, diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR, were randomly assigned to one of the three priming groups of 15 participants. We evaluated nonverbal social behaviors using the Motor-Affective subscale of the Motor-Affective-Social-Scale. Results showed that schizophrenia patients with pro-social priming had significantly more nonverbal behaviors than schizophrenia patients with anti-social and non-social priming conditions. Schizophrenia patient behaviors are affected by social priming. Our results have several clinical implications for the rehabilitation of social skills impairments frequently encountered among individuals with schizophrenia.

  19. Nonverbal communication skills in young children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chung-Hsin; Soong, Wei-Tsuen; Lin, Tzu-Ling; Rogers, Sally J

    2008-11-01

    The study was to examine nonverbal communication in young children with autism. The participants were 23 young children with autism (mean CA = 32.79 months), 23 CA and MA-matched children with developmental delay and 22 18-20-month-old, and 22 13-15-month-old typically developing toddlers and infants. The abbreviated Early Social Communication Scales [Mundy et al. 1996, Early social communication scales (ESCS)] were used to test three types of nonverbal communicative skills, i.e., joint attention, requesting, and social interaction. Both frequency and proportion analyses were done in group comparisons. (1) Two- to three-year-old children with autism displayed deficits in joint attention ability, especially high-level skills. (2) The deficit in terms of frequency of communication was marked even compared with typically developing infants with younger mental age. (3) Young children with autism had different nonverbal communication profile compared with all three comparison groups. Early social-communicative difficulties in autism involve early triadic communications involving joint attention and possibly dyadic turn-taking skills, which has implications for both early screening and early intervention.

  20. The nonverbal basis of attraction: flirtation, courtship, and seduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, D B

    1978-11-01

    According to a familiar phrase, the "language" of love is universal. Recent ethological studies of nonlinguistic communication in courtship using facial expression, gesture, posture, distance, paralanguage, and gaze have begun to establish that a universal, culture-free, nonverbal sign system may exist (Eibl-Eibesfeldt, 1975), which is available to all persons for negotiating sexual relationships. The nonverbal mode, more powerful than the verbal for expressing such fundamental contingencies in social relationships as liking, disliking, superiority, timidity, fear and so on, appears to be rooted firmly in man's zoological heritage (Bateson, 1966, 1968). Paralleling a vertebrate-wide plan, human courtship expressivity often relies on nonverbal signs of submissiveness (meekness, harmlessness) and affiliation (willingness to form a social bond). Adoption of a submissive-affiliative social pose enables a person to convey an engaging, nonthreatening image that tends to attract potential mates. This report explores several conspicuous nonlinguistic cues that appear to be used widely in contexts of flirtation, courtship, and seduction. The expressive units are discussed from the standpoint of their occurence in five phases of courtship, and are illustrated by four cases.

  1. Impaired non-verbal emotion processing in Pathological Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornreich, Charles; Saeremans, Mélanie; Delwarte, Jennifer; Noël, Xavier; Campanella, Salvatore; Verbanck, Paul; Ermer, Elsa; Brevers, Damien

    2016-02-28

    Impaired perception of emotion in others has been described and confirmed in addictions with substances, but no such data exists regarding addictions without substances. As it has been hypothesized that toxic effect of substances on the brain was responsible for the impairments described, studying addictions without substances could be of interest to confirm this hypothesis. Twenty-two male pathological gamblers were compared to 22 male healthy controls matched for age and education level on non-verbal emotion perception tasks including faces, voices, and musical excerpts. Depression and anxiety levels were controlled for. Pathological gamblers significantly underestimated the intensity of peacefulness in music, and overall they were less accurate when reading emotion in voices and faces. They also overestimated emotional intensity in neutral voices and faces. Although anxiety levels did account for accuracy problems when detecting fear in voices and for overestimating emotions in neutral faces, anxiety levels did not explain the range of deficits observed. This is the first study showing non-verbal perception deficits in a purely behavioural addiction. These findings show that deficits in decoding non-verbal signals are associated with addictive behaviours per se, and are not due solely to toxic effects of substances on the brain.

  2. An Analysis on the Reasons for the Cultivation of Nonverbal Communicative Competency Being Neglected in FLT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱芬

    2012-01-01

    Cross-cultural nonverbal communicative competency constitutes a very important part of foreign language proficiency. However, for many reasons, the cultivation of cross-cultural nonverbal communicative competency has for a long time been neglected in the process of Foreign Language Teaching (FLT). This paper is devoted to analyzing the reasons for the cultivation of nonverbal communicative competency being a blind area in FLT.

  3. The Cultural Differences of Non-verbal Communication between Western Countries and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周月

    2013-01-01

      Communication behavior consists of verbal and nonverbal communication. Nonverbal communication between human beings has drawn great attention to its study and research nowadays. The paper tries to show the culture differences in non-verbal communication through body language, paralanguage, object language, and environmental language. The ultimate goal of this paper is to improve such kinds of awareness and get a better understanding of cultural differences among different countries in the aspect of nonverbal communication so as to help smooth our communication barriers with people of different culture background.

  4. Further Validation of the Learning Alliance Inventory: The Roles of Working Alliance, Rapport, and Immediacy in Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Daniel T.

    2015-01-01

    This study further examined the reliability and validity of the Learning Alliance Inventory (LAI), a self-report measure designed to assess the working alliance between a student and a teacher. The LAI was found to have good internal consistency and test--retest reliability, and it demonstrated the predicted convergence with measures of immediacy…

  5. A qualitative study on non-verbal sensitivity in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2013-07-01

    To explore nursing students' perception of the meanings and roles of non-verbal communication and sensitivity. It also attempts to understand how different factors influence their non-verbal communication style. The importance of non-verbal communication in the health arena lies in the need for good communication for efficient healthcare delivery. Understanding nursing students' non-verbal communication with patients and the influential factors is essential to prepare them for field work in the future. Qualitative approach based on 16 in-depth interviews. Sixteen nursing students from the Master of Nursing and the Year 3 Bachelor of Nursing program were interviewed. Major points in the recorded interviews were marked down for content analysis. Three main themes were developed: (1) understanding students' non-verbal communication, which shows how nursing students value and experience non-verbal communication in the nursing context; (2) factors that influence the expression of non-verbal cues, which reveals the effect of patients' demographic background (gender, age, social status and educational level) and participants' characteristics (character, age, voice and appearance); and (3) metaphors of non-verbal communication, which is further divided into four subthemes: providing assistance, individualisation, dropping hints and promoting interaction. Learning about students' non-verbal communication experiences in the clinical setting allowed us to understand their use of non-verbal communication and sensitivity, as well as to understand areas that may need further improvement. The experiences and perceptions revealed by the nursing students could provoke nurses to reconsider the effects of the different factors suggested in this study. The results might also help students and nurses to learn and ponder their missing gap, leading them to rethink, train and pay more attention to their non-verbal communication style and sensitivity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Nonverbal Communication and English Classes in Universities%非语言交际在大学英语教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱珍

    2013-01-01

      One of the most important aims for foreign languages teaching is to improve students' intercultural communication competence. Nonverbal communication is a significant part in intercultural communication, therefore, English teachers must be aware of the significant place of nonverbal communication in teaching, and introduce nonverbal communication to classes,meanwhile, make use of it to enhance the qualities of teaching.%  提高学生的跨文化交际能力是外语教学的一个重要目的,同时非语言交际也是跨文化交际中不可忽视的一部分,所以英语教师必须认识到非语言交际在英语教学中的重要性,将非语言交际教学引入英语课堂中,同时利用非语言交际提高教学质量。

  7. Anatomical Correlates of Non-Verbal Perception in Dementia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Hsuan Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Patients with dementia who have dissociations in verbal and non-verbal sound processing may offer insights into the anatomic basis for highly related auditory modes. Methods: To determine the neuronal networks on non-verbal perception, 16 patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD, 15 with behavior variant fronto-temporal dementia (bv-FTD, 14 with semantic dementia (SD were evaluated and compared with 15 age-matched controls. Neuropsychological and auditory perceptive tasks were included to test the ability to compare pitch changes, scale-violated melody and for naming and associating with environmental sound. The brain 3D T1 images were acquired and voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used to compare and correlated the volumetric measures with task scores. Results: The SD group scored the lowest among 3 groups in pitch or scale-violated melody tasks. In the environmental sound test, the SD group also showed impairment in naming and also in associating sound with pictures. The AD and bv-FTD groups, compared with the controls, showed no differences in all tests. VBM with task score correlation showed that atrophy in the right supra-marginal and superior temporal gyri was strongly related to deficits in detecting violated scales, while atrophy in the bilateral anterior temporal poles and left medial temporal structures was related to deficits in environmental sound recognition. Conclusions: Auditory perception of pitch, scale-violated melody or environmental sound reflects anatomical degeneration in dementia patients and the processing of non-verbal sounds is mediated by distinct neural circuits.

  8. Anatomical Correlates of Non-Verbal Perception in Dementia Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pin-Hsuan; Chen, Hsiu-Hui; Chen, Nai-Ching; Chang, Wen-Neng; Huang, Chi-Wei; Chang, Ya-Ting; Hsu, Shih-Wei; Hsu, Che-Wei; Chang, Chiung-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with dementia who have dissociations in verbal and non-verbal sound processing may offer insights into the anatomic basis for highly related auditory modes. Methods: To determine the neuronal networks on non-verbal perception, 16 patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD), 15 with behavior variant fronto-temporal dementia (bv-FTD), 14 with semantic dementia (SD) were evaluated and compared with 15 age-matched controls. Neuropsychological and auditory perceptive tasks were included to test the ability to compare pitch changes, scale-violated melody and for naming and associating with environmental sound. The brain 3D T1 images were acquired and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to compare and correlated the volumetric measures with task scores. Results: The SD group scored the lowest among 3 groups in pitch or scale-violated melody tasks. In the environmental sound test, the SD group also showed impairment in naming and also in associating sound with pictures. The AD and bv-FTD groups, compared with the controls, showed no differences in all tests. VBM with task score correlation showed that atrophy in the right supra-marginal and superior temporal gyri was strongly related to deficits in detecting violated scales, while atrophy in the bilateral anterior temporal poles and left medial temporal structures was related to deficits in environmental sound recognition. Conclusions: Auditory perception of pitch, scale-violated melody or environmental sound reflects anatomical degeneration in dementia patients and the processing of non-verbal sounds are mediated by distinct neural circuits. PMID:27630558

  9. 非言语行为在麻醉教学中的应用%Effects of nonverbal behavior on anesthesiology teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任力; 闵苏

    2015-01-01

    As the burden of anesthesiology teaching is heavy in undergraduate course, teachers can communicate with the students by nonverbal behaviors, such as eye contact, silent language, facial expression, paralanguage, which can make class atmosphere active, develop harmonious teacher-student relationship, and improve the quality of class teaching. Teachers of anesthesiology should take some measures, such as rehearsing lessons, summing up the experience of the lessons in time, accu-mulating the experience of nonverbal behaviors, and doing some exercise for the nonverbal behavior as much as possible, so as to set up an excellent atmosphere for teaching ,and meanwhile improve the quality of anesthesiology teaching.%本科麻醉学教学课程负担较重,教师在课堂上可以通过丰富的目光语、沉默语、面部表情、副语言等非言语行为与学生积极交流,从而活跃课堂气氛,促进和谐师生关系的发展,进而提高课堂教学质量。麻醉专业授课教师可以通过实施有效的试讲制度、总结授课经验、注重非语言行为的累积、加强非言语行为的训练,逐渐形成授课教师优良的教学风格,从整体上提高麻醉学教学质量。

  10. Crossed-Brain Representation of Verbal and Nonverbal Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Matute

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 74-year-old, left-handed man presented with a rapidly evolving loss of strength in his right leg associated with difficulty in walking. MR images disclosed an extensive left hemisphere tumor. A neuropsychological examination revealed that language was broadly normal but that the patient presented with severe nonlinguistic abnormalities, including hemineglect (both somatic and spatial, constructional defects, and general spatial disturbances; symptoms were usually associated with right hemisphere pathologies. No ideomotor apraxia was found. The implications of crossed-brain representations of verbal and nonverbal functions are analyzed.

  11. Cultural differences in interpersonal responses to depressives' nonverbal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanger, P; Summerfield, A B; Rosen, B K; Watson, J P

    1991-01-01

    The Social Impression and Interpersonal Attraction of British depressed patients was rated by British and German subjects on the basis of the patients' video-recorded nonverbal behaviour. Depressives were rated negatively by all subjects. Males in both cultural groups agreed in their ratings of depressives but German females expressed a more negative attitude than British females. This is attributed to cultural differences in sex-appropriate interactive behaviour. The importance of studying the expression of depression and its meaning within a particular cultural context is indicated and the role of cultural differences in interactive behaviour is discussed with respect to intercultural assessment and treatment of depression.

  12. Altruists are trusted based on non-verbal cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Ryo; Naganawa, Takuya; Yamauchi, Shinsaku; Yamagata, Noriko; Matsumoto-Oda, Akiko

    2009-12-23

    The identification of altruists based on non-verbal cues might offer a solution to the problem of subtle cheating. Previous studies have indicated that the ability to discriminate altruists from non-altruists emerges during evolution. However, behavioural differences with regard to social exchanges involving altruists and non-altruists have not been studied. We investigated differences in responses to videotaped altruists and non-altruists with the Faith Game. Participants tended to entrust real money to altruists more than to non-altruists, providing strong evidence that cognitive adaptations evolve as counter-strategies to subtle cheating.

  13. [Communicating the results in breast oncology: nonverbal and verbal exchange].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreau, B; Tastet, S

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the different modalities of communication to be used in the breast oncology context. Verbal and nonverbal communication are explained. Rewording, synthesis, listening, and silence with empathy during the consultation are processes that facilitate the patient's comprehension of the disease. These models of patient notification should be modulated within the doctor-patient relationship. Meaningful communication improves the comprehension of information, increases patient compliance and satisfaction, and in the short and long term, it allows an adapted psychological adjustment to breast cancer.

  14. The Uncanny Valley and Nonverbal Communication in Virtual Characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinwell, Angela; Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Abdel Nabi, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    research has explored the notion that realistic, human-like, virtual characters are regarded less favorably due to a perceived diminished degree of responsiveness in facial expression, specifically, nonverbal communication (NVC) in the upper face region. So far, this research project has provided the first...... empirical evidence to test the Uncanny Valley phenomenon in the domain of animated video game characters with speech, as opposed to just still, unresponsive images, as used in previous studies. Based on the results of these experiments, a conceptual framework of the Uncanny Valley in virtual characters has...... of psychology, social psychology, game studies, animation and graphics, and human computer interaction....

  15. Nonverbal Synchrony in Psychotherapy: Coordinated Body Movement Reflects Relationship Quality and Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramseyer, Fabian; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors quantified nonverbal synchrony--the coordination of patient's and therapist's movement--in a random sample of same-sex psychotherapy dyads. The authors contrasted nonverbal synchrony in these dyads with a control condition and assessed its association with session-level and overall psychotherapy outcome. Method: Using an…

  16. Preface (to: Analysis of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication and Enactment: The Procesing Issues)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esposito, Anna; Vinciarelli, Alessandro; Vicsi, Klára; Pelachaud, Catherine; Nijholt, Antinus

    2011-01-01

    This volume brings together the advanced research results obtained by the European COST Action 2102 “Cross Modal Analysis of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication,‿ primarily discussed at the PINK SSPnet-COST 2102 International Conference on “Analysis of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication and

  17. Analysis of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication and Enactment. The Processing Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esposito, Anna; Vinciarelli, Alessandro; Vicsi, Klára; Pelachaud, Catherine; Nijholt, Antinus

    2011-01-01

    This volume brings together the advanced research results obtained by the European COST Action 2102 “Cross Modal Analysis of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication,‿ primarily discussed at the PINK SSPnet-COST 2102 International Conference on “Analysis of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication and

  18. A Study of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication in Second Life--The ARCHI21 Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigham, Ciara R.; Chanier, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional synthetic worlds introduce possibilities for nonverbal communication in computer-mediated language learning. This paper presents an original methodological framework for the study of multimodal communication in such worlds. It offers a classification of verbal and nonverbal communication acts in the synthetic world "Second…

  19. Culture and nonverbal expressions of empathy in clinical settings: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorié, Áine; Reinero, Diego A; Phillips, Margot; Zhang, Linda; Riess, Helen

    2017-03-01

    To conduct a systematic review of studies examining how culture mediates nonverbal expressions of empathy with the aim to improve clinician cross-cultural competency. We searched three databases for studies of nonverbal expressions of empathy and communication in cross-cultural clinical settings, yielding 16,143 articles. We examined peer-reviewed, experimental or observational articles. Sixteen studies met inclusion criteria. Nonverbal expressions of empathy varied across cultural groups and impacted the quality of communication and care. Some nonverbal behaviors appeared universally desired and others, culturally specific. Findings revealed the impact of nonverbal communication on patient satisfaction, affective tone, information exchange, visit length, and expression decoding during cross-cultural clinical encounters. Racial discordance, patients' perception of physician racism, and physician implicit bias are among factors that appear to influence information exchange in clinical encounters. Culture-based norms impact expectations for specific nonverbal expressions within patient-clinician dyads. Nonverbal communication plays a significant role in fostering trusting provider-patient relationships, and is critical to high quality care. Medical education should include training in interpretation of nonverbal behavior to optimize empathic cross-cultural communication and training efforts should accommodate norms of local patient populations. These efforts should reduce implicit biases in providers and perceived prejudice in patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Two-Year-Olds Are Vigilant of Others' Non-Verbal Cues to Credibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Susan A. J.; Akmal, Nazanin; Frampton, Kristen L.

    2010-01-01

    Data from three experiments provide the first evidence that children, at least as young as age two, are vigilant of others' non-verbal cues to credibility, and flexibly use these cues to facilitate learning. Experiment 1 revealed that 2- and 3-year-olds prefer to learn about objects from someone who appears, through non-verbal cues, to be…

  1. Navajo and Caucasian Children's Verbal and Nonverbal-Visual Behavior in the Urban Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilmet, George M.

    1978-01-01

    A formal observation technique was used in an urban classroom context to assess the verbal and nonverbal-visual behavior of 17 Navajo and 7 Caucasian children. Two statistical techniques revealed significant intergroup differences in verbal and nonverbal-visual style. ( Author)

  2. Lack of association between conversation partners' nonverbal behavior predicts recurrence of depression, independently of personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, EH; Bouhuys, AL; Geerts, E; Van Os, TWDP; Ormel, J

    2006-01-01

    High neuroticism and low extraversion are related to depression and its recurrence. We investigated whether nonverbal involvement behavior during social interaction is one of the factors via which these relations are effectuated. We measured nonverbal expressions of involvement from videotaped behav

  3. Emotional expression in oral history narratives: comparing results of automated verbal and nonverbal analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M.G. de Jong (Franciska); K.P. Truong (Khiet); G.J. Westerhof (Gerben); S.M.A. Lamers (Sanne); A. Sools (Anneke)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAudiovisual collections of narratives about war-traumas are rich in descriptions of personal and emotional experiences which can be expressed through verbal and nonverbal means. We complement a commonly used verbal analysis with a nonverbal one to study emotional developments in narrativ

  4. Virtual Chironomia: A Multimodal Study of Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in a Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulsdonck, Gustav

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the various aspects of multimodal use of non-verbal communication in virtual worlds during dyadic negotiations. Quantitative analysis uncovered a treatment effect whereby people with more rhetorical certainty used more neutral non-verbal communication; whereas people that were rhetorically less certain used more…

  5. Recognizing Non-Verbal Social Cues Promotes Social Performance in LD Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbank, Alicia; Sharon, Assia

    2013-01-01

    The research examined whether an educational intervention could enhance the ability of learning disabled (LD) adolescents to recognize non-verbal emotional messages and thus their social functioning. Most LD children have problems recognizing non-verbal cues, particularly emotional ones, and have social difficulties. The study examined the…

  6. The Complementary Effects of Empathy and Nonverbal Communication Training on Persuasion Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin T.; Leonhardt, James M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the possible complementary effects that training in empathy and nonverbal communication may have on persuasion capabilities. The narrative considers implications from the literature and describes an exploratory study in which students, in a managerial setting, were trained in empathy and nonverbal communication. Subsequent…

  7. Emotional expression in oral history narratives: comparing results of automated verbal and nonverbal analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M.G. de Jong (Franciska); K.P. Truong (Khiet); G.J. Westerhof (Gerben); S.M.A. Lamers (Sanne); A. Sools (Anneke)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAudiovisual collections of narratives about war-traumas are rich in descriptions of personal and emotional experiences which can be expressed through verbal and nonverbal means. We complement a commonly used verbal analysis with a nonverbal one to study emotional developments in narrativ

  8. The Effects of Nonverbal Involvement and Communication Apprehension on State Anxiety, Interpersonal Attraction, and Speech Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remland, Martin S.; Jones, Tricia S.

    1989-01-01

    Examines whether communication apprehension mediates the effect of nonverbal involvement cues (head nods, eye contact, body orientation, etc.) on state anxiety, interpersonal attraction, and speech duration in information gathering interviews. Finds that nonverbal cues affect loquacity and liking, but that a speaker's communication apprehension…

  9. Effects of Nonverbal Behavior on Perceptions of a Female Employee's Power Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguinis, Herman; Henle, Christine A.

    2001-01-01

    Examines whether nonverbal behavior affects how people perceive a female employee's power base. U.S. undergraduate students read vignettes describing a female employee engaged in three types of nonverbal behavior, then rated their perception of her power base. Reports an increase in student perception of coercive power when direct eye contact was…

  10. The Effect of Nonverbal Signals on Student Role-Play Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taute, Harry A.; Heiser, Robert S.; McArthur, David N.

    2011-01-01

    Although salespeople have long been urged to recognize and adapt to customer needs and wants by observing communications style and other cues or signals by the buyer, nonverbal communications by the salesperson have received much less empirical scrutiny. However, nonverbal communications may be important in this context; research in several…

  11. The Effect of Nonverbal Signals on Student Role-Play Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taute, Harry A.; Heiser, Robert S.; McArthur, David N.

    2011-01-01

    Although salespeople have long been urged to recognize and adapt to customer needs and wants by observing communications style and other cues or signals by the buyer, nonverbal communications by the salesperson have received much less empirical scrutiny. However, nonverbal communications may be important in this context; research in several…

  12. Broader Autism Phenotype and Nonverbal Sensitivity: Evidence for an Association in the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Brooke

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between characteristics of the Broader Autism Phenotype (BAP) and nonverbal sensitivity, the ability to interpret nonverbal aspects of communication, in a non-clinical sample of college students. One hundred and two participants completed a self-report measure of the BAP, the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), and…

  13. Navajo and Caucasian Children's Verbal and Nonverbal-Visual Behavior in the Urban Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilmet, George M.

    1978-01-01

    A formal observation technique was used in an urban classroom context to assess the verbal and nonverbal-visual behavior of 17 Navajo and 7 Caucasian children. Two statistical techniques revealed significant intergroup differences in verbal and nonverbal-visual style. ( Author)

  14. Universals of Nonverbal Behavior: A Review of Literature and Statement of Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Patrick H.

    Universals in nonverbal behavior represent an important issue in the study of the cross-cultural communication. Perhaps the most well-known research in nonverbal universals was conducted by Paul Ekman, who examined literate and preliterate cultures from various language groups and identified six universal facial expressions: happiness, sadness,…

  15. Universals of Nonverbal Behavior: A Review of Literature and Statement of Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Patrick H.

    Universals in nonverbal behavior represent an important issue in the study of the cross-cultural communication. Perhaps the most well-known research in nonverbal universals was conducted by Paul Ekman, who examined literate and preliterate cultures from various language groups and identified six universal facial expressions: happiness, sadness,…

  16. Assessing Nonverbal Communication Skills through Video Recording and Debriefing of Clinical Skill Simulation Exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinerichs, Scott; Cattano, Nicole M.; Morrison, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Nonverbal communication (NVC) skills are a critical component to clinician interactions with patients, and no research exists on the investigation of athletic training students' nonverbal communication skills. Video recording and debriefing have been identified as methods to assess and educate students' NVC skills in other allied health…

  17. Effects of Nonverbal Behavior on Perceptions of a Female Employee's Power Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguinis, Herman; Henle, Christine A.

    2001-01-01

    Examines whether nonverbal behavior affects how people perceive a female employee's power base. U.S. undergraduate students read vignettes describing a female employee engaged in three types of nonverbal behavior, then rated their perception of her power base. Reports an increase in student perception of coercive power when direct eye contact was…

  18. Assessing Nonverbal Communication Skills through Video Recording and Debriefing of Clinical Skill Simulation Exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinerichs, Scott; Cattano, Nicole M.; Morrison, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Nonverbal communication (NVC) skills are a critical component to clinician interactions with patients, and no research exists on the investigation of athletic training students' nonverbal communication skills. Video recording and debriefing have been identified as methods to assess and educate students' NVC skills in other allied health…

  19. Virtual Chironomia: A Multimodal Study of Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in a Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulsdonck, Gustav

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the various aspects of multimodal use of non-verbal communication in virtual worlds during dyadic negotiations. Quantitative analysis uncovered a treatment effect whereby people with more rhetorical certainty used more neutral non-verbal communication; whereas people that were rhetorically less certain used more…

  20. Nonverbal Communication, Music Therapy, and Autism: A Review of Literature and Case Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a review of nonverbal literature relating to therapy, music, autism, and music therapy. Included is a case study of a woman with autism who was nonverbal. The case highlights and analyzes behaviors contextually. Interpretations of communication through the music therapy, musical interactions, and the rapport that developed…

  1. Nonverbal Communication, Music Therapy, and Autism: A Review of Literature and Case Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a review of nonverbal literature relating to therapy, music, autism, and music therapy. Included is a case study of a woman with autism who was nonverbal. The case highlights and analyzes behaviors contextually. Interpretations of communication through the music therapy, musical interactions, and the rapport that developed…

  2. Conservation without Conversation? An Alternative, Non-Verbal Paradigm for Assessing Conservation of Liquid Quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheldall, Kevin; Poborca, Barbara

    1980-01-01

    A nonverbal paradigm for assessing conservation based on an operant discrimination learning procedure is described. Initial results suggest that young children who could not conserve within the traditional verbal procedure were more likely to demonstrate conservation within the nonverbal paradigm and that traditional Piagetian tasks are verbally…

  3. A Study of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication in Second Life--The ARCHI21 Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigham, Ciara R.; Chanier, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional synthetic worlds introduce possibilities for nonverbal communication in computer-mediated language learning. This paper presents an original methodological framework for the study of multimodal communication in such worlds. It offers a classification of verbal and nonverbal communication acts in the synthetic world "Second…

  4. Perception of Verbal and Nonverbal Emotional Signals in Women With Borderline Personality Disorder: Evidence of a Negative Bias and an Increased Reliance on Nonverbal Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brück, Carolin; Derstroff, Stephanie; Jacob, Heike; Wolf-Arehult, Martina; Wekenmann, Stefanie; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    Studies conducted in patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have documented a variety of anomalies concerning patients' abilities to interpret emotional signals. Attempting to clarify the bases of these anomalies, the current literature draws attention to a possible role of dysfunctional expectations, such as the expectation of social rejection. Dysfunctional expectations, however, may not only bias social interpretations, but may also focus attention on social cues most important in conveying emotional messages, such as nonverbal signals. To explore these assumptions, 30 female BPD patients were tasked to judge the valence of emotional states conveyed by combinations of verbal and nonverbal emotional cues. Compared to controls, BPD patients exhibited a negative bias in their interpretations and relied more on available nonverbal cues. Shifts in the relative importance of nonverbal cues appeared to be rooted mainly in a reduced reliance on positive verbal cues presumably deemed less credible by BPD patients.

  5. Stressful life events as a link between problems in nonverbal communication and recurrence of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Elisabeth H; Bouhuys, Antoinette L; Geerts, Erwin; van Os, Titus W D P; Ormel, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Interpersonal difficulties and stressful life events are important etiological factors in (recurrence of) depression. This study examines whether stressful life events mediate the influence of problems in nonverbal communication on recurrence of depression. We registered nonverbal expressions of involvement from videotaped behavior of 101 remitted outpatients and their interviewers. During a 2-year follow-up, we assessed stressful life events and recurrence of depression. The less congruent the levels of nonverbal involvement behavior of participants and interviewers, the higher the incidence of stressful life events, and -via these - the risk of recurrence. Nonverbal behavior was measured in an experimental setting. The results suggest that lack of nonverbal congruence during social interaction contributes to the occurrence of stressful life events, which in turn may trigger depression.

  6. Spatial short-term memory in children with nonverbal learning disabilities: impairment in encoding spatial configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narimoto, Tadamasa; Matsuura, Naomi; Takezawa, Tomohiro; Mitsuhashi, Yoshinori; Hiratani, Michio

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated whether impaired spatial short-term memory exhibited by children with nonverbal learning disabilities is due to a problem in the encoding process. Children with or without nonverbal learning disabilities performed a simple spatial test that required them to remember 3, 5, or 7 spatial items presented simultaneously in random positions (i.e., spatial configuration) and to decide if a target item was changed or all items including the target were in the same position. The results showed that, even when the spatial positions in the encoding and probe phases were similar, the mean proportion correct of children with nonverbal learning disabilities was 0.58 while that of children without nonverbal learning disabilities was 0.84. The authors argue with the results that children with nonverbal learning disabilities have difficulty encoding relational information between spatial items, and that this difficulty is responsible for their impaired spatial short-term memory.

  7. The Effectiveness of Social Skills Intervention Targeting Nonverbal Communication for Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome and Related Pervasive Developmental Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhill, Gena P.; Cook, Katherine Tapscott; Tebbenkamp, Kelly; Myles, Brenda Smith

    2002-01-01

    A study investigated the effectiveness of an 8-week social skills intervention targeting nonverbal communication for eight adolescents with Asperger syndrome. Although minimal nonverbal communication skills development was apparent, some social relationships were developed and the ability of some participants to read the nonverbal communication of…

  8. The Role of Pictures and Gestures as Nonverbal Aids in Preschoolers' Word Learning in a Novel Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Silverman, Rebecca D.; Mullan, Bridget E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that presenting redundant nonverbal semantic information in the form of gestures and/or pictures may aid word learning in first and foreign languages. But do nonverbal supports help all learners equally? We address this issue by examining the role of gestures and pictures as nonverbal supports for word learning in a…

  9. School effects on non-verbal intelligence and nutritional status in rural Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Sascha; Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to examine the school factors (i.e., related to school organization and teacher and student body) associated with non-verbal intelligence (NI) and nutritional status (i.e., body mass index; BMI) of 4204 3rd to 7th graders in rural areas of Southern Province, Zambia. Results showed that 23.5% and 7.7% of the NI and BMI variance, respectively, were conditioned by differences between schools. The set of 14 school factors accounted for 58.8% and 75.9% of the between-school differences in NI and BMI, respectively. Grade-specific HLM yielded higher between-school variation of NI (41%) and BMI (14.6%) for students in grade 3 compared to grades 4 to 7. School factors showed a differential pattern of associations with NI and BMI across grades. The distance to a health post and teacher’s teaching experience were the strongest predictors of NI (particularly in grades 4, 6 and 7); the presence of a preschool was linked to lower BMI in grades 4 to 6. Implications for improving access and quality of education in rural Zambia are discussed. PMID:27175053

  10. Does verbal and nonverbal communication of pain correlate with disability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Stein J; Ter Meulen, Dirk P; Nota, Sjoerd P F T; Hageman, Michiel G J S; Ring, David

    2015-01-01

    Illness (symptoms and disability) consistently correlates more with coping strategies and symptoms of depression than with pathophysiology or impairment. This study tested the primary null hypothesis that there is no correlation between verbal and nonverbal communication of pain (pain behavior) and upper extremity-specific disability in patients with hand and upper extremity illness. A total of 139 new and followed up adult patients completed the QuickDASH, an ordinal rating of pain, and 4 Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Computer Adaptive Testing instruments: (1) PROMIS pain behavior, (2) PROMIS pain interference (measuring the degree to which pain interferes with achieving ones physical goals), (3) PROMIS physical function, and (4) PROMIS depression. Factors associated with a higher QuickDASH score in bivariate analysis included a higher PROMIS pain behavior score, not working, being separated/divorced or widowed, having sought treatment before, having other pain conditions, a higher PROMIS pain interference score, a higher PROMIS depression score, and lower education level. The final multivariable model of factors associated with QuickDASH included PROMIS pain interference, having other pain conditions, and being separated/divorced or widowed, and it explained 64% of the variability. PROMIS pain behavior (verbal and nonverbal communication of pain) correlates with upper extremity disability, but PROMIS pain interference (the degree to which pain interferes with activity) is a more important factor. Level IV, cross-sectional study. Copyright © 2015 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Time Parameters of Nonverbal Communication and Personal Communicative Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla K. Bolotova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive behavior in interpersonal relations is always connected with time characteristicssuch as sequence, rhythm, and succession of actions. In our research weattempted to determine the role of time parameters in the development of thefollowing social communications: (a interpersonal relations, (b communicativeacts, and (c the process of structuring social behavior. We intended to show therole of time in acquiring and mastering social contacts. In our research we outlineda number of methods for developing time competence and various consciousand unconscious ways to organize time and to create an atmosphere of understanding,acceptance, and trust in interpersonal nonverbal communication. Thetime characteristics of social behavior and its nonverbal manifestation can exert apositive influence on communicative activity and can determine time competencein communication. Ignoring time parameters in the self-realization and self-actualizationof personality introduces a certain destructive element into the processof interpersonal relations; hence the necessity of teaching competence in communicationarises. Teaching is carried out in the process of training and includesseveral stages: the introductory stage and the stages of intensification, integration,avoidance, and others. Thus, time management and the process of teachingtime management allow one to discover time resources for the self-organizationof one’s personality over a lifetime.

  12. Nonverbal auditory working memory: Can music indicate the capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eunju; Ryu, Hokyoung

    2016-06-01

    Different working memory (WM) mechanisms that underlie words, tones, and timbres have been proposed in previous studies. In this regard, the present study developed a WM test with nonverbal sounds and compared it to the conventional verbal WM test. A total of twenty-five, non-music major, right-handed college students were presented with four different types of sounds (words, syllables, pitches, timbres) that varied from two to eight digits in length. Both accuracy and oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) were measured. The results showed significant effects of number of targets on accuracy and sound type on oxyHb. A further analysis showed prefrontal asymmetry with pitch being processed by the right hemisphere (RH) and timbre by the left hemisphere (LH). These findings suggest a potential for employing musical sounds (i.e., pitch and timbre) as a complementary stimuli for conventional nonverbal WM tests, which can additionally examine its asymmetrical roles in the prefrontal regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Individual differences in nonverbal number skills predict math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindskog, Marcus; Winman, Anders; Poom, Leo

    2017-02-01

    Math anxiety (MA) involves negative affect and tension when solving mathematical problems, with potentially life-long consequences. MA has been hypothesized to be a consequence of negative learning experiences and cognitive predispositions. Recent research indicates genetic and neurophysiological links, suggesting that MA stems from a basic level deficiency in symbolic numerical processing. However, the contribution of evolutionary ancient purely nonverbal processes is not fully understood. Here we show that the roots of MA may go beyond symbolic numbers. We demonstrate that MA is correlated with precision of the Approximate Number System (ANS). Individuals high in MA have poorer ANS functioning than those low in MA. This correlation remains significant when controlling for other forms of anxiety and for cognitive variables. We show that MA mediates the documented correlation between ANS precision and math performance, both with ANS and with math performance as independent variable in the mediation model. In light of our results, we discuss the possibility that MA has deep roots, stemming from a non-verbal number processing deficiency. The findings provide new evidence advancing the theoretical understanding of the developmental etiology of MA.

  14. The role of verbal and nonverbal means in image creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikileva L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article various means that are used for creating the image of Elizabeth II are studied. The choice of the subject matter for the analysis is determined by the interest to the British royal family. The author considers various definitions of the concept “image” and analyzes its characteristic features. It is noted that image can be positive and negative, controlled and uncontrolled, desired and actual. The image helps to show particular traits of a personality. It is based on the person’s appearance, his or her manners, hobbies, interests, speech peculiarities. It is known that such factors as family environment, sports, pets and hobbies play a great role in the creation of the image. There are the following aspects of the image: professional, social and portrait. Special attention is paid to verbal and non-verbal means of creating an image. The main lexical, phonetic and stylistic characteristic features of the monarch’s Christmas Broadcasts have been singled out. A positive image of the monarch is created with the help of verbal and nonverbal means. The Queen’s public addresses and Christmas broadcasts may serve as an example of verbal means used for image creation. Patriotism, sense of duty, loyalty to traditions, adherence to the rules of Royal etiquette is evident in the communicative behavior of the Queen. It is noted that public addresses play a certain role in the creation of a positive image of the English Queen.

  15. Perceptual cues in nonverbal vocal expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Disa A; Eisner, Frank; Calder, Andrew J; Scott, Sophie K

    2010-11-01

    Work on facial expressions of emotions (Calder, Burton, Miller, Young, & Akamatsu, [2001]) and emotionally inflected speech (Banse & Scherer, [1996]) has successfully delineated some of the physical properties that underlie emotion recognition. To identify the acoustic cues used in the perception of nonverbal emotional expressions like laugher and screams, an investigation was conducted into vocal expressions of emotion, using nonverbal vocal analogues of the "basic" emotions (anger, fear, disgust, sadness, and surprise; Ekman & Friesen, [1971]; Scott et al., [1997]), and of positive affective states (Ekman, [1992], [2003]; Sauter & Scott, [2007]). First, the emotional stimuli were categorized and rated to establish that listeners could identify and rate the sounds reliably and to provide confusion matrices. A principal components analysis of the rating data yielded two underlying dimensions, correlating with the perceived valence and arousal of the sounds. Second, acoustic properties of the amplitude, pitch, and spectral profile of the stimuli were measured. A discriminant analysis procedure established that these acoustic measures provided sufficient discrimination between expressions of emotional categories to permit accurate statistical classification. Multiple linear regressions with participants' subjective ratings of the acoustic stimuli showed that all classes of emotional ratings could be predicted by some combination of acoustic measures and that most emotion ratings were predicted by different constellations of acoustic features. The results demonstrate that, similarly to affective signals in facial expressions and emotionally inflected speech, the perceived emotional character of affective vocalizations can be predicted on the basis of their physical features.

  16. Effects of Emotional Intelligence on the Impression of Irony Created by the Mismatch between Verbal and Nonverbal Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Heike; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Nizielski, Sophia; Schütz, Astrid; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Emotional information is conveyed through verbal and nonverbal signals, with nonverbal cues often being considered the decisive factor in the judgment of others' emotional states. The aim of the present study was to examine how verbal and nonverbal cues are integrated by perceivers. More specifically, we tested whether the mismatch between verbal and nonverbal information was perceived as an expression of irony. Moreover, we investigated the effects of emotional intelligence on the impression of irony. The findings revealed that the mismatch between verbal and nonverbal information created the impression of irony. Furthermore, participants higher in emotional intelligence were faster at rating such stimuli as ironic expressions.

  17. Exploring physicians' verbal and nonverbal responses to cues/concerns: Learning from incongruent communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorawara-Bhat, R; Hafskjold, L; Gulbrandsen, P; Eide, H

    2017-06-27

    Explore physicians' verbal and nonverbal responses to cues/concerns in consultations with older-patients. Two teams independently coded a sample of Norwegian consultations (n=24) on verbal and nonverbal dimensions of communication using VR-CoDES and NDEPT instruments. Consultations exploring older-patients' verbal emotional expressions were labeled 'Acknowledging of patients' emotional expressions', and 'Distancing from patients' emotional expressions.' Based on type and extent of nonverbal expressiveness, consultations were labeled 'Affective' and 'Prescriptive.' Congruency of verbal and nonverbal communication was assessed and categorized into four types. Incongruent consultations were qualitatively analyzed. Types 1 and 2 consultations were described as 'Congruent,' i.e. both verbal and nonverbal behaviors facilitate or inhibit emotional expressions. Types 3 and 4 were considered 'Incongruent,' i.e. verbal inhibits, but nonverbal facilitates emotional expressions or vice versa. Type 3 incongruent encounters occurred most often when it was challenging to meet patients' needs. Frequently physicians' display incongruent behavior in challenging situations. Older patients' may perceive this as either alleviating or increasing distress, depending on their needs. Type 3 consultations may shed light on reasons for physicians' incongruent behavior; therefore, independent measurement and analyses of verbal and nonverbal communication are recommended. Older-patients' perceptions of incongruent communication should be further explored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of non-verbal behaviour in racial disparities in health care: implications and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Cynthia S; Ambady, Nalini

    2013-09-01

    People from racial minority backgrounds report less trust in their doctors and have poorer health outcomes. Although these deficiencies have multiple roots, one important set of explanations involves racial bias, which may be non-conscious, on the part of providers, and minority patients' fears that they will be treated in a biased way. Here, we focus on one mechanism by which this bias may be communicated and reinforced: namely, non-verbal behaviour in the doctor-patient interaction. We review 2 lines of research on race and non-verbal behaviour: (i) the ways in which a patient's race can influence a doctor's non-verbal behaviour toward the patient, and (ii) the relative difficulty that doctors can have in accurately understanding the nonverbal communication of non-White patients. Further, we review research on the implications that both lines of work can have for the doctor-patient relationship and the patient's health. The research we review suggests that White doctors interacting with minority group patients are likely to behave and respond in ways that are associated with worse health outcomes. As doctors' disengaged non-verbal behaviour towards minority group patients and lower ability to read minority group patients' non-verbal behaviours may contribute to racial disparities in patients' satisfaction and health outcomes, solutions that target non-verbal behaviour may be effective. A number of strategies for such targeting are discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Daily verbal and nonverbal expression of osteoarthritis pain and spouse responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephanie J; Martire, Lynn M; Keefe, Francis J; Mogle, Jacqueline A; Stephens, Mary Ann Parris; Schulz, Richard

    2013-10-01

    The current study applied a model of pain communication to examine the distinction between verbal and nonverbal pain expression in their prediction of punishing, empathic, and solicitous spouse responses to patient pain. It was hypothesized that on days when patients engaged in more nonverbal expression, spouses would respond more positively (ie, with less punishing and more solicitous and empathic behavior). The same pattern was predicted for verbal expression. In addition, it was expected that associations between patient nonverbal pain expression and positive spouse responses would be strengthened, and that the association with punishing responses would be weakened, on days when levels of verbal pain expression were higher than usual, regardless of daily pain severity. In a 22-day diary study, 144 individuals with knee osteoarthritis and their spouses completed daily measures of pain expression, spouse responses, health, and affect. The predicted positive main effect of nonverbal expression on empathic and solicitous responses was supported by the data, as was the positive main effect for verbal pain expression. Results from moderation analyses partially supported our hypothesis in that patients' nonverbal pain expression was even more strongly related to empathic and solicitous spouse responses on days of high verbal pain expression, and patients were buffered from spouse punishing responses on days when both nonverbal and verbal expression were high. These findings suggest that pain expression in both verbal and nonverbal modes of communication is important for positive and negative spousal responses.

  20. The role of nonverbal and verbal communication in a multimedia informed consent process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasek, Joseph M; Pieczkiewicz, David S; Mahnke, Andrea N; McCarty, Catherine A; Starren, Justin B; Westra, Bonnie L

    2011-01-01

    Nonverbal and verbal communication elements enhance and reinforce the consent form in the informed consent process and need to be transferred appropriately to multimedia formats using interaction design when re-designing the process. Observational, question asking behavior, and content analyses were used to analyze nonverbal and verbal elements of an informed consent process. A variety of gestures, interruptions, and communication styles were observed. In converting a verbal conversation about a textual document to multimedia formats, all aspects of the original process including verbal and nonverbal variation should be one part of an interaction community-centered design approach.

  1. A Cross-cultural Corpus of Annotated Verbal and Nonverbal Behaviors in Receptionist Encounters

    CERN Document Server

    Makatchev, Maxim; Sakr, Majd

    2012-01-01

    We present the first annotated corpus of nonverbal behaviors in receptionist interactions, and the first nonverbal corpus (excluding the original video and audio data) of service encounters freely available online. Native speakers of American English and Arabic participated in a naturalistic role play at reception desks of university buildings in Doha, Qatar and Pittsburgh, USA. Their manually annotated nonverbal behaviors include gaze direction, hand and head gestures, torso positions, and facial expressions. We discuss possible uses of the corpus and envision it to become a useful tool for the human-robot interaction community.

  2. The Nonverbal Communication of Positive Emotions: An Emotion Family Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Disa A

    2017-07-01

    This review provides an overview of the research on nonverbal expressions of positive emotions, organised into emotion families, that is, clusters sharing common characteristics. Epistemological positive emotions (amusement, relief, awe, and interest) are found to have distinct, recognisable displays via vocal or facial cues, while the agency-approach positive emotions (elation and pride) appear to be associated with recognisable visual, but not auditory, cues. Evidence is less strong for the prosocial emotions (love, compassion, gratitude, and admiration) in any modality other than touch, and there is little support for distinct recognisable signals of the savouring positive emotions (contentment, sensory pleasure, and desire). In closing, some limitations of extant work are noted and some proposals for future research are outlined.

  3. Verbal and non-verbal samples from a TV interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Faria Dalacorte Ferreira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the analysis of verbal and non-verbal elements displayed by the participants of the interview TV program Roda Viva. The study also focuses on the investigation of the possible influences of such effects on the social and interactional process during the TV show. The structure of the program includes the main interviewer, Marilia Gabriela, the guest, in this case, the actor Wagner Moura, and other journalists that are all seated around the guest. The study reveals that, throughout the conversation, overlaps and raising tone of voice, produced especially by the main interviewer, occur in relevant moments of the interview, possibly to collaborate with the guest, who exhibited a lot of hesitations in what would be considered a non-preferred topic. These strategies may also reveal a unique marc of Marilia Gabriela’s conversational style.

  4. The Uncanny Valley and Nonverbal Communication in Virtual Characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinwell, Angela; Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Abdel Nabi, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    empirical evidence to test the Uncanny Valley phenomenon in the domain of animated video game characters with speech, as opposed to just still, unresponsive images, as used in previous studies. Based on the results of these experiments, a conceptual framework of the Uncanny Valley in virtual characters has......This chapter provides an overview of a current research project investigating the Uncanny Valley phenomenon in realistic, human-like virtual characters. !e research methods used in this Work include a retrospective of both empirical studies and philosophical writings on the Uncanny. No other...... research has explored the notion that realistic, human-like, virtual characters are regarded less favorably due to a perceived diminished degree of responsiveness in facial expression, specifically, nonverbal communication (NVC) in the upper face region. So far, this research project has provided the first...

  5. Reliability and validity of nonverbal thin slices in social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Nora A; Hall, Judith A; Schmid Mast, Marianne; Ruben, Mollie A; Frauendorfer, Denise; Blanch-Hartigan, Danielle; Roter, Debra L; Nguyen, Laurent

    2015-02-01

    Four studies investigated the reliability and validity of thin slices of nonverbal behavior from social interactions including (a) how well individual slices of a given behavior predict other slices in the same interaction; (b) how well a slice of a given behavior represents the entirety of that behavior within an interaction; (c) how long a slice is necessary to sufficiently represent the entirety of a behavior within an interaction; (d) which slices best capture the entirety of behavior, across different behaviors; and (e) which behaviors (of six measured behaviors) are best captured by slices. Notable findings included strong reliability and validity for thin slices of gaze and nods, and that a 1.5-min slice from the start of an interaction may adequately represent some behaviors. Results provide useful information to researchers making decisions about slice measurement of behavior.

  6. [EEG correlates for efficiency of the nonverbal creative performance (drawing)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharchenko, D V; Sviderskaia, N E

    2008-01-01

    This work was aimed at a search for EEG corellates of efficiency of nonverbal creative performance. Standardized Torrens technique which makes it possible to quantitatively assess creativity was used. The EEG records were performed before and during test performance, EEG parameters were compared to Torrens scores on three scales: flexibility, originality and efficiency. Absolute values of spatial synchronization, coherence and spectral power both in the baseline and during the performance were calculated. Changes in these parameters were traced during the transition from the state of quiet wakefulness to creative performance. The narrow-band analysis of coherence and spectral power allowed the number and orientation of processes associated with creativity scales to be assessed. The absence of substantial EEG changes during the test performance is indicative of the steady, nondynamical functional state of the brain.

  7. The Role of Modular Robotics in Mediating Nonverbal Social Exchanges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti, P; Giusti, L; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2009-01-01

    . The system is not used as a therapeutic tool per se but as a facilitator and a mediator of social dynamics during normal therapy to counteract social isolation that can result in dementia through the loss of social skills. An experiment is reported that shows that by using the RPs, the patients participated...... in interacting with dementia-affected patients. The RPs are semitransparent plastic tubes that are capable of measuring their orientation and the speed of their rotation; at a local level, they have three types of feedback: red, green, and blue light, sound, and vibration. The peculiarity of the RPs......This paper outlines the use of modular robotics to encourage and facilitate nonverbal communication during therapeutic intervention in dementia care. A set of new socially interactive modular robotic devices called rolling pins (RPs) has been designed and developed to assist the therapist...

  8. Intercultural Nonverbal Communication and Foreign Language Teaching%跨文化非言语交际与外语教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐高元; 张玉哲

    2004-01-01

    Nonverbal communication, which is often consciously or unconsciously neglected in foreign language teaching, is an inseparable part in human communication process. This paper will give a brief account of nonverbal communication and an analysis of the significance in improving the students' nonverbal communicative ability in FLT. It will also provide some workable suggestions to the students on enriching their cultural knowledge of nonverbal communication so as to improve their nonverbal communicative competence in ELT.

  9. Why introverts can't always tell who likes them: multitasking and nonverbal decoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, M D; Rosenthal, R

    2001-02-01

    Despite personality theories suggesting that extraversion correlates with social skill, most studies have not found a positive correlation between extraversion and nonverbal decoding. The authors propose that introverts are less able to multitask and thus are poorer at nonverbal decoding, but only when it is a secondary task. Prior research has uniformly extracted the nonverbal decoding from its multitasking context and, consequently, never tested this hypothesis. In Studies 1-3, introverts exhibited a nonverbal decoding deficit, relative to extraverts, but only when decoding was a secondary rather than a primary task within a multitasking context. In Study 4, extraversion was found to correlate with central executive efficiency (r = .42) but not with storage capacity (r = .04). These results are discussed in terms of arousal theories of extraversion and the role of catecholamines (dopamine and norepinephrine) in prefrontal function.

  10. African American students' reactions to Benjamin Cooke's "Nonverbal Communication Among Afro-Americans: An Initial Classification".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Deric M; Stewart, Felicia R

    2011-01-01

    The nonverbal communication behavior of Black people continues to take new forms as time progresses. In Kochman's 1972 book, Rappin' and Stylin' Out: Communication in Urban Black America, Benjamin Cooke introduced an initial classification and code of nonverbal behaviors among people of African descent. In this study, students react to Cooke's study conducted in the late 1960s by commenting on Cooke's initial findings in comparison to nonverbal behaviors practiced among Black people as of late. Respondents suggest that while differences and variations exist between the expression of nonverbal behaviors exhibited by the original group studied and people recently observed, there yet remains a similarity in the cultural significance and motivation behind the displays.

  11. Stressful life events as a link between problems in nonverbal communication and recurrence of depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Elisabeth H.; Bouhuys, Antoinette L.; Geerts, Eirwin; van Os, Titus W. D. P.; Ormel, Johan

    Background.- Interpersonal difficulties and stressful life events are important etiological factors in (recurrence of) depression. This study examines whether stressful life events mediate the influence of problems in nonverbal communication on recurrence of depression. Methods.- We registered

  12. The Role of Nonverbal Communication Behaviors in Clinical Trial and Research Study Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Susan E; Occa, Aurora; Mouton, Ashton; Potter, JoNell

    2017-04-01

    Few studies have examined the communication behaviors of those who recruit for clinical trials and research studies, particularly of nonmedical professionals who often do the bulk of recruiting. This focus-group study of 63 recruiters analyzes the ways in which nonverbal communication behaviors support the process of recruitment, using the lens of communication accommodation theory. Results indicate that recruiters first "read" potential study participants' nonverbal communication for clues about their state of mind, then use nonverbal communication to achieve a sense of convergence. Specific nonverbal communication behaviors were discussed by recruiters, including smiling, variations in the use of voice, adjusting body position, the appropriate use of physical touch, the management of eye contact, and the effect of clothing and physical appearance. Implications for recruitment practice are discussed.

  13. Stressful life events as a link between problems in nonverbal communication and recurrence of depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Elisabeth H.; Bouhuys, Antoinette L.; Geerts, Eirwin; van Os, Titus W. D. P.; Ormel, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Background.- Interpersonal difficulties and stressful life events are important etiological factors in (recurrence of) depression. This study examines whether stressful life events mediate the influence of problems in nonverbal communication on recurrence of depression. Methods.- We registered nonve

  14. Parents and Physiotherapists Recognition of Non-Verbal Communication of Pain in Individuals with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, Inmaculada; Pades Jiménez, Antonia; Montoya, Pedro

    2017-08-29

    Pain assessment is difficult in individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). This is of particular relevance in children with communication difficulties, when non-verbal pain behaviors could be essential for appropriate pain recognition. Parents are considered good proxies in the recognition of pain in their children; however, health professionals also need a good understanding of their patients' pain experience. This study aims at analyzing the agreement between parents' and physiotherapists' assessments of verbal and non-verbal pain behaviors in individuals with CP. A written survey about pain characteristics and non-verbal pain expression of 96 persons with CP (45 classified as communicative, and 51 as non-communicative individuals) was performed. Parents and physiotherapists displayed a high agreement in their estimations of the presence of chronic pain, healthcare seeking, pain intensity and pain interference, as well as in non-verbal pain behaviors. Physiotherapists and parents can recognize pain behaviors in individuals with CP regardless of communication disabilities.

  15. Practicing a musical instrument in childhood is associated with enhanced verbal ability and nonverbal reasoning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Forgeard, Marie; Winner, Ellen; Norton, Andrea; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2008-01-01

    .... While these results are correlational only, the strong predictive effect of training duration suggests that instrumental music training may enhance auditory discrimination, fine motor skills, vocabulary, and nonverbal reasoning. Alternative explanations for these results are discussed.

  16. [Non-verbal communication of patients submitted to heart surgery: from awaking after anesthesia to extubation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werlang, Sueli da Cruz; Azzolin, Karina; Moraes, Maria Antonieta; de Souza, Emiliane Nogueira

    2008-12-01

    Preoperative orientation is an essential tool for patient's communication after surgery. This study had the objective of evaluating non-verbal communication of patients submitted to cardiac surgery from the time of awaking from anesthesia until extubation, after having received preoperative orientation by nurses. A quantitative cross-sectional study was developed in a reference hospital of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from March to July 2006. Data were collected in the pre and post operative periods. A questionnaire to evaluate non-verbal communication on awaking from sedation was applied to a sample of 100 patients. Statistical analysis included Student, Wilcoxon, and Mann Whittney tests. Most of the patients responded satisfactorily to non-verbal communication strategies as instructed on the preoperative orientation. Thus, non-verbal communication based on preoperative orientation was helpful during the awaking period.

  17. Non-verbal mother-child communication in conditions of maternal HIV in an experimental environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Paiva, Simone; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag; de Almeida, Paulo César

    2010-01-01

    Non-verbal communication is predominant in the mother-child relation. This study aimed to analyze non-verbal mother-child communication in conditions of maternal HIV. In an experimental environment, five HIV-positive mothers were evaluated during care delivery to their babies of up to six months old. Recordings of the care were analyzed by experts, observing aspects of non-verbal communication, such as: paralanguage, kinesics, distance, visual contact, tone of voice, maternal and infant tactile behavior. In total, 344 scenes were obtained. After statistical analysis, these permitted inferring that mothers use non-verbal communication to demonstrate their close attachment to their children and to perceive possible abnormalities. It is suggested that the mothers infection can be a determining factor for the formation of mothers strong attachment to their children after birth.

  18. Culture and Social Relationship as Factors of Affecting Communicative Non-verbal Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter Lipi, Afia; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Mathias

    The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes of agent's nonverbal behaviors in HAI. As the first step, a comparative corpus analysis is done for two cultures in two specific social relationships. Next, by integrating the cultural and social parameters factors with the empirical data from corpus analysis, we establish a model that predicts posture. The predictions from our model successfully demonstrate that both cultural background and social relationship moderate communicative non-verbal behaviors.

  19. 试析非言语交际在大学英语教学中的应用%On the Application of Nonverbal Communication to the College English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦俊

    2011-01-01

    非言语交际是交际行为的一个重要组成部分。在英语课堂教学中,教师可以恰当地运用非言语交际来创造生动的语言环境,激发学生思维,加强师生交流,提高学生的学习积极性。教师也可以根据课堂上学生的非言语行为,及时做出教学反馈,从而提高教学质量。%Nonverbal communication is one important component of communicative behaviors. In English class, teachers can utilize the nonverbal communication appropriately so as to create the vivid language environment, stimulate students" thinking, strengthen the co

  20. The Five-Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire in the Czech context

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on the psychometric properties of the Five-Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire (FF-NPQ) in a sample of 1,113 people. The FF-NPQ is a non-verbal measure of the Big Five personality dimensions (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, Openness to Experience). The presented psychometric measures include scale internal consistencies, intercorrelations, and convergences with two verbal Big Five measures. Gender and age differences are reported. Further...

  1. Lie detection based on nonverbal expressions - study of the Czech Republic Police employees

    OpenAIRE

    Hedvika Boukalová; Lenka Mynaříková

    2014-01-01

    Lie detection based on nonverbal behavior is not a standard method, it is an intuitive process, applied by lay persons, but also professionals. Some of the major sources (e.g. widespread Interrogation Manual by F. Inbau et al., 2004) offer clear recommendations about the nonverbal behavior of liars to investigators of serious crime. These findings are not supported by the research, moreover they can lead to lowering the ability to detect lie (Blair, Kooi 2004). Another topic is mapping the sk...

  2. Nonverbal intelligence in young children with dysregulation: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basten, Maartje; van der Ende, Jan; Tiemeier, Henning; Althoff, Robert R; Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Hudziak, James J; Verhulst, Frank C; White, Tonya

    2014-11-01

    Children meeting the Child Behavior Checklist Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP) suffer from high levels of co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems. Little is known about the cognitive abilities of these children with CBCL-DP. We examined the relationship between CBCL-DP and nonverbal intelligence. Parents of 6,131 children from a population-based birth cohort, aged 5 through 7 years, reported problem behavior on the CBCL/1.5-5. The CBCL-DP was derived using latent profile analysis on the CBCL/1.5-5 syndrome scales. Nonverbal intelligence was assessed using the Snijders Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test 2.5-7-Revised. We examined the relationship between CBCL-DP and nonverbal intelligence using linear regression. Analyses were adjusted for parental intelligence, parental psychiatric symptoms, socio-economic status, and perinatal factors. In a subsample with diagnostic interview data, we tested if the results were independent of the presence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The results showed that children meeting the CBCL-DP (n = 110, 1.8%) had a 11.0 point lower nonverbal intelligence level than children without problems and 7.2-7.3 points lower nonverbal intelligence level than children meeting other profiles of problem behavior (all p values children with CBCL-DP scored 8.3 points lower than children without problems (p intelligence in children with CBCL-DP. In conclusion, we found that children with CBCL-DP have a considerable lower nonverbal intelligence score. The CBCL-DP and nonverbal intelligence may share a common neurodevelopmental etiology.

  3. Interactional style and nonverbal meaning: Mazahua children learning how to be separate-but-together

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Paradise

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Young children’s experience with nonverbally organized social interaction constitutes a primary kind of enculturation. As they acquire the ability to participate in everyday interactions, they simultaneously learn the cultural meanings embedded in them. This article describes the acquisition by Mazahua children of a separate-but-together interactional style. An appreciation of the nonverbal meanings involved an further our understanding of the nature of culturally defined interactional styles and their impact on school learning.

  4. What Is Suspicious When Trying to be Inconspicuous? Criminal Intentions Inferred From Nonverbal Behavioral Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Corinne I; Wetter, Olive E; Hofer, Franziska

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates whether nonverbal behavioral cues to hidden criminal intentions during the build-up phase of a criminal act can be measured. To this end, we created recordings of actors once in a search situation and once committing a mock crime (theft or bomb placing) in a public crowded area. For ecological validation, we used authentic CCTV footage of real crimes in Experiment I. In this experiment, the two behavioral clusters pattern of movement in space and nonverbal communication behavior were analyzed. The results showed a deviance in pattern of movement in space for offenders' compared with the nonoffenders' condition as well as a bystanders' baseline. There was no significant difference between nonverbal communication behavior in the offenders' and nonoffenders' conditions. Experiment 2 was conducted to examine the two behavior clusters use of object- and self-adaptors while controlling for interpersonal differences. The results showed an increased use of object- and decreased use of self-adaptors during the build-up phase of a mock crime compared with a control condition (search). Thus, nonverbal behavior of offenders seems to differ from nonverbal behavior of nonoffenders. However, this holds only under the conditions of a valid baseline and of judging not only a single, typical behavioral cue but a whole cluster of nonverbal behaviors, such as pattern of movement in space or use of object-adaptors in general.

  5. Empathic nonverbal behavior increases ratings of both warmth and competence in a medical context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinero, Diego A.; Kelley, John M.; Heberlein, Andrea S.; Baer, Lee; Riess, Helen

    2017-01-01

    In medicine, it is critical that clinicians demonstrate both empathy (perceived as warmth) and competence. Perceptions of these qualities are often intuitive and are based on nonverbal behavior. Emphasizing both warmth and competence may prove problematic, however, because there is evidence that they are inversely related in other settings. We hypothesize that perceptions of physician competence will instead be positively correlated with perceptions of physician warmth and empathy, potentially due to changing conceptions of the physician’s role. We test this hypothesis in an analog medical context using a large online sample, manipulating physician nonverbal behaviors suggested to communicate empathy (e.g. eye contact) and competence (the physician’s white coat). Participants rated physicians displaying empathic nonverbal behavior as more empathic, warm, and more competent than physicians displaying unempathic nonverbal behavior, adjusting for mood. We found no warmth/competence tradeoff and, additionally, no significant effects of the white coat. Further, compared with male participants, female participants perceived physicians displaying unempathic nonverbal behavior as less empathic. Given the significant consequences of clinician empathy, it is important for clinicians to learn how nonverbal behavior contributes to perceptions of warmth, and use it as another tool to improve their patients’ emotional and physical health. PMID:28505180

  6. Non-verbal communication in meetings of psychiatrists and patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, M; Dimic, S; Wildgrube, C; McCabe, R; Priebe, S

    2015-03-01

    Recent evidence found that patients with schizophrenia display non-verbal behaviour designed to avoid social engagement during the opening moments of their meetings with psychiatrists. This study aimed to replicate, and build on, this finding, assessing the non-verbal behaviour of patients and psychiatrists during meetings, exploring changes over time and its association with patients' symptoms and the quality of the therapeutic relationship. 40-videotaped routine out-patient consultations, involving patients with schizophrenia, were analysed. Non-verbal behaviour of patients and psychiatrists was assessed during three fixed, 2-min intervals using a modified Ethological Coding System for Interviews. Symptoms, satisfaction with communication and the quality of the therapeutic relationship were also measured. Over time, patients' non-verbal behaviour remained stable, whilst psychiatrists' flight behaviour decreased. Patients formed two groups based on their non-verbal profiles, one group (n = 25) displaying pro-social behaviour, inviting interaction and a second (n = 15) displaying flight behaviour, avoiding interaction. Psychiatrists interacting with pro-social patients displayed more pro-social behaviours (P communication (P non-verbal behaviour during routine psychiatric consultations remains unchanged, and is linked to both their psychiatrist's non-verbal behaviour and the quality of the therapeutic relationship. © 2014 The Authors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Evaluating verbal and non-verbal communication skills, in an ethnogeriatric OSCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lauren G; Schrimmer, Anne; Diamond, James; Burke, Janice

    2011-05-01

    Communication during medical interviews plays a large role in patient adherence, satisfaction with care, and health outcomes. Both verbal and non-verbal communication (NVC) skills are central to the development of rapport between patients and healthcare professionals. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of non-verbal and verbal communication skills on evaluations by standardized patients during an ethnogeriatric Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Interviews from 19 medical students, residents, and fellows in an ethnogeriatric OSCE were analyzed. Each interview was videotaped and evaluated on a 14 item verbal and an 8 item non-verbal communication checklist. The relationship between verbal and non-verbal communication skills on interview evaluations by standardized patients were examined using correlational analyses. Maintaining adequate facial expression (FE), using affirmative gestures (AG), and limiting both unpurposive movements (UM) and hand gestures (HG) had a significant positive effect on perception of interview quality during this OSCE. Non-verbal communication skills played a role in perception of overall interview quality as well as perception of culturally competent communication. Incorporating formative and summative evaluation of both verbal and non-verbal communication skills may be a critical component of curricular innovations in ethnogeriatrics, such as the OSCE. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Patients' perceptions of GP non-verbal communication: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinowicz, Ludmila; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Godlewski, Cezary

    2010-02-01

    During doctor-patient interactions, many messages are transmitted without words, through non-verbal communication. To elucidate the types of non-verbal behaviours perceived by patients interacting with family GPs and to determine which cues are perceived most frequently. In-depth interviews with patients of family GPs. Nine family practices in different regions of Poland. At each practice site, interviews were performed with four patients who were scheduled consecutively to see their family doctor. Twenty-four of 36 studied patients spontaneously perceived non-verbal behaviours of the family GP during patient-doctor encounters. They reported a total of 48 non-verbal cues. The most frequent features were tone of voice, eye contact, and facial expressions. Less frequent were examination room characteristics, touch, interpersonal distance, GP clothing, gestures, and posture. Non-verbal communication is an important factor by which patients spontaneously describe and evaluate their interactions with a GP. Family GPs should be trained to better understand and monitor their own non-verbal behaviours towards patients.

  9. "Explicitly implicit": examining the importance of physician nonverbal involvement during error disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannawa, Annegret F

    2012-05-09

    Medical errors are prevalent, but physicians commonly lack the training and skills to disclose them to their patients. Existing research has yielded a set of verbal messages physicians should communicate during error disclosures. However, considering the emotional message contents, patients likely derive much of the meaning from physicians' nonverbal behaviours. The purpose of this study was to test the causal effects of physicians' nonverbal communication on error disclosure outcomes. At a university hospital in the Southeastern United States, 318 patients were randomly assigned to three treatment groups. The first group watched a video vignette of a verbally and nonverbally competent error disclosure by a person acting as a physician. The second group was exposed to a verbally competent but nonverbally incompetent error disclosure. The third group read an error disclosure transcript. Then, all patients responded to measures of closeness, trust, forgiveness, satisfaction, distress, empathy, and avoidance. The results evidenced that holding the verbal message content constant, physician nonverbal involvement was significantly associated with higher patient ratings of closeness, trust, empathy, satisfaction, and forgiveness, and with lower ratings of patient emotional distress and avoidance. These associations were not affected by patient predispositions such as sex, ethnicity, religion and previous experiences with medical errors. The findings of this study imply that nonverbal communication has a significant impact on error disclosure outcomes and thus should be considered as an important component of future research and disclosure training efforts.

  10. Culture and Social Relationship as Factors of Affecting Communicative Non-Verbal Behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipi, Afia Akhter; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes....... The predictions from our model successfully demonstrate that both cultural background and social relationship moderate communicative non-verbal behaviors.......The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes...... of agent's non-verbal behaviors in HAI. As the first step, a comparative corpus analysis is done for two cultures in two specific social relationships. Next, by integrating the cultural and social parameters factors with the empirical data from corpus analysis, we establish a model that predicts posture...

  11. Transient nonverbal learning disorder in a child suffering from Familial Hemiplegic Migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podestà, Barbara; Briatore, Eleonora; Boghi, Andrea; Marenco, Daniela; Calzolari, Stefano

    2011-10-01

    To study the link between nonverbal learning disorder and right cerebral hemisphere dysfunction due to migraine attack in a case of Familial Hemiplegic Migraine. Familial Hemiplegic Migraine can cause neuropsychological deficits besides the motor ones. The nonverbal learning disorder is thought to be caused by a right hemisphere dysfunction. We describe a child with Familial Hemiplegic Migraine type 2 who showed a transient neuropsychological impairment featuring a nonverbal learning disorder during and after a Hemiplegic migraine attack. Clinical and neuropsychological data showed a nonverbal learning disorder. A mutation in the ATP1A2 gene on chromosome 1q23 was found. Symptoms of nonverbal learning disorder outlasted the left hemiparesis. Two months later he showed a full recovery. Neurophysiological and neuroradiological evaluations were congruent with clinical course and with right hemisphere involvement. The link between nonverbal learning disorder and right cerebral hemisphere dysfunction due to migraine attack is confirmed. Familial Hemiplegic Migraine can cause transient complex neuropsychological syndromes that can be overlooked if not appropriately investigated.

  12. On Manipulating Nonverbal Interaction Style to Increase Anthropomorphic Computer Character Credibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowell, Andrew J.; Stanney, Kay M.

    2003-09-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of enhancing humanagentinteraction through the use of nonverbal behaviors. Ataxonomy is described, which organizes nonverbal behaviorsinto functional categories and the manner in which they can beembodied (i.e. through gesture, posture, paralanguage, eyecontact and facial expression). Prototype computer characterswere created according to guidelines extracted from thetaxonomy and their efficacy was empirical evaluated. Theresults indicate that by including trusting nonverbal behaviors,the perceived credibility of a computer character was enhanced,although addition of trusting bodily nonverbal behaviorprovided little in addition to trusting facial nonverbal behavior.Perhaps more importantly, a character expressing non-trustingnonverbal behaviors was perceived to be the least credible of allcharacters examined (including a character that expressed nononverbal behavior). Participants that interacted with thispersona perceived the task to be more demanding, madesignificantly more errors, and rated their interaction lesspositively and more monotonous than those using trustingpersonas. They also rated this character to be less likable,accurate, and intelligent. Taken together, the results from thisstudy suggest that there may indeed be benefit to endowingcomputer characters with nonverbal trusting behaviors, as longas those behaviors are accurately and appropriately portrayed.Such behaviors may lead to a more trusting environment andpositive experience for users. Negative character behavior,however, such as non-trusting behavior, may squander theadvantages that embodiment brings.

  13. Non-verbal communication of compassion: measuring psychophysiologic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemper Kathi J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calm, compassionate clinicians comfort others. To evaluate the direct psychophysiologic benefits of non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC, it is important to minimize the effect of subjects' expectation. This preliminary study was designed to a test the feasibility of two strategies for maintaining subject blinding to non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC, and b determine whether blinded subjects would experience psychophysiologic effects from NVCC. Methods Subjects were healthy volunteers who were told the study was evaluating the effect of time and touch on the autonomic nervous system. The practitioner had more than 10 years' experience with loving-kindness meditation (LKM, a form of NVCC. Subjects completed 10-point visual analog scales (VAS for stress, relaxation, and peacefulness before and after LKM. To assess physiologic effects, practitioners and subjects wore cardiorespiratory monitors to assess respiratory rate (RR, heart rate (HR and heart rate variability (HRV throughout the 4 10-minute study periods: Baseline (both practitioner and subjects read neutral material; non-tactile-LKM (subjects read while the practitioner practiced LKM while pretending to read; tactile-LKM (subjects rested while the practitioner practiced LKM while lightly touching the subject on arms, shoulders, hands, feet, and legs; Post-Intervention Rest (subjects rested; the practitioner read. To assess blinding, subjects were asked after the interventions what the practitioner was doing during each period (reading, touch, or something else. Results Subjects' mean age was 43.6 years; all were women. Blinding was maintained and the practitioner was able to maintain meditation for both tactile and non-tactile LKM interventions as reflected in significantly reduced RR. Despite blinding, subjects' VAS scores improved from baseline to post-intervention for stress (5.5 vs. 2.2, relaxation (3.8 vs. 8.8 and peacefulness (3.8 vs. 9.0, P

  14. Non-verbal communication of compassion: measuring psychophysiologic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Kathi J; Shaltout, Hossam A

    2011-12-20

    Calm, compassionate clinicians comfort others. To evaluate the direct psychophysiologic benefits of non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC), it is important to minimize the effect of subjects' expectation. This preliminary study was designed to a) test the feasibility of two strategies for maintaining subject blinding to non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC), and b) determine whether blinded subjects would experience psychophysiologic effects from NVCC. Subjects were healthy volunteers who were told the study was evaluating the effect of time and touch on the autonomic nervous system. The practitioner had more than 10 years' experience with loving-kindness meditation (LKM), a form of NVCC. Subjects completed 10-point visual analog scales (VAS) for stress, relaxation, and peacefulness before and after LKM. To assess physiologic effects, practitioners and subjects wore cardiorespiratory monitors to assess respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) throughout the 4 10-minute study periods: Baseline (both practitioner and subjects read neutral material); non-tactile-LKM (subjects read while the practitioner practiced LKM while pretending to read); tactile-LKM (subjects rested while the practitioner practiced LKM while lightly touching the subject on arms, shoulders, hands, feet, and legs); Post-Intervention Rest (subjects rested; the practitioner read). To assess blinding, subjects were asked after the interventions what the practitioner was doing during each period (reading, touch, or something else). Subjects' mean age was 43.6 years; all were women. Blinding was maintained and the practitioner was able to maintain meditation for both tactile and non-tactile LKM interventions as reflected in significantly reduced RR. Despite blinding, subjects' VAS scores improved from baseline to post-intervention for stress (5.5 vs. 2.2), relaxation (3.8 vs. 8.8) and peacefulness (3.8 vs. 9.0, P < 0.05 for all comparisons). Subjects also

  15. Socialization and nonverbal communication in atypically developing infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konst, Matthew J; Matson, Johnny L; Goldin, Rachel L; Williams, Lindsey W

    2014-12-01

    Emphasis on early identification of atypical development has increased as evidence supporting the efficacy of intervention has grown. These increases have also directly affected the availability of funding and providers of early intervention services. A majority of research has focused on interventions specific to an individual's primary diagnoses. For example, interventions for those with cerebral palsy (CP) have traditionally focused on physiological symptoms, while intervention for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) focus on socialization, communication, and restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. However deficits in areas other than those related to their primary diagnoses (e.g., communication, adaptive behaviors, and social skills) are prevalent in atypically developing populations and are significant predictors of quality of life. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to examine impairments in socialization and nonverbal communication in individuals with Down's syndrome (DS), CP, and those with CP and comorbid ASD. Individuals with comorbid CP and ASD exhibited significantly greater impairments than any diagnostic group alone. However, individuals with CP also exhibited significantly greater impairments than those with DS. The implications of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nonverbal communication of caregivers in Slovenian nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaletel, Marija; Kovacev, Asja Nina; Mikus, Ruza Pandel; Kragelj, Lijana Zaletel

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the characteristics of nonverbal communication (NVC) of caregivers in Slovene nursing homes. The cross-sectional study was performed on 267 randomly selected caregivers from 27 randomly selected nursing homes. Facial expressions/head movements, hand gestures/trunk movements, and modes of speaking/paralinguistic signals were observed. The caregivers manifested altogether 11,324 NVC expressions. Those definitely reflecting positive attitude prevailed and accounted for 59.3% of all expressions, whereas those definitely reflecting negative attitude were very rare and accounted for 9.1% of all expressions, at a ratio of 6.5:1 (p<0.001). Differences were statistically highly significant between genders (men manifested negative attitude expressions significantly more frequently, 11.8%) and professions (social helpers manifested positive attitude expressions significantly less frequently, 56.4%; other professionals manifested negative attitude expressions significantly less frequently, 5.4%) (p<0.001). The results were similar within groups of NVC expressions. Although our study showed that caregivers in Slovene nursing homes use positive attitude expressions much more frequently than negative there is a reason for concern due to a general decline in positive values and beliefs in Slovene society. Promoting positive attitude NVC among new generations of caregivers in nursing homes need to become one of the most important contents of their life-long learning and training. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Young children's understanding of markedness in non-verbal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-09-01

    Speakers often anticipate how recipients will interpret their utterances. If they wish some other, less obvious interpretation, they may 'mark' their utterance (e.g. with special intonations or facial expressions). We investigated whether two- and three-year-olds recognize when adults mark a non-verbal communicative act--in this case a pointing gesture--as special, and so search for a not-so-obvious referent. We set up the context of cleaning up and then pointed to an object. Three-year-olds inferred that the adult intended the pointing gesture to indicate that object, and so cleaned it up. However, when the adult marked her pointing gesture (with exaggerated facial expression) they took the object's hidden contents or a hidden aspect of it as the intended referent. Two-year-olds' appreciation of such marking was less clear-cut. These results demonstrate that markedness is not just a linguistic phenomenon, but rather something concerning the pragmatics of intentional communication more generally.

  18. Investigation of non-Verbal Elements in Speech Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    s Rahimbeigi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Speech poetry in the past two decades has expanded considerably and has led to various discussions and different claims about it. However, no impartial and independent research has been done to collect and classify views about it and proposing a scientific claim by comparing those views with poetic examples critically. By analyzing nonverbal features of speech poem in four main branches, that is, music, imagination, structure and content, the particular features of this kind of poem are explained critically. More than anything else, this kind of poem depends on language-based elements. Language in this poem is simple and, in most cases, free of the traditional aesthetic aspects and even modern experiences of contemporary poetry. Various matters that make up its content, often instead of using common methods of imagery, are depicted with sentimental tone and with simple and non-rhythmic language derived from the nature of spoken language. In speech poetry, we are facing with two trends. First we have meaningful spoken poems which have a consistent structure second we have meaning-escaping spoken poems which lack any kind of coherence. The poets of this movement claim that they are looking for literariness in popular language. It seems that they have somehow achieved what they want especially in the domains of language, rhyme and imagery.

  19. Perceived gesture dynamics in nonverbal expression of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dael, Nele; Goudbeek, Martijn; Scherer, K R

    2013-01-01

    Recent judgment studies have shown that people are able to fairly correctly attribute emotional states to others' bodily expressions. It is, however, not clear which movement qualities are salient, and how this applies to emotional gesture during speech-based interaction. In this study we investigated how the expression of emotions that vary on three major emotion dimensions-that is, arousal, valence, and potency-affects the perception of dynamic arm gestures. Ten professional actors enacted 12 emotions in a scenario-based social interaction setting. Participants (N = 43) rated all emotional expressions with muted sound and blurred faces on six spatiotemporal characteristics of gestural arm movement that were found to be related to emotion in previous research (amount of movement, movement speed, force, fluency, size, and height/vertical position). Arousal and potency were found to be strong determinants of the perception of gestural dynamics, whereas the differences between positive or negative emotions were less pronounced. These results confirm the importance of arm movement in communicating major emotion dimensions and show that gesture forms an integrated part of multimodal nonverbal emotion communication.

  20. Non-verbal communication in severe aphasia: influence of aphasia, apraxia, or semantic processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogrefe, Katharina; Ziegler, Wolfram; Weidinger, Nicole; Goldenberg, Georg

    2012-09-01

    Patients suffering from severe aphasia have to rely on non-verbal means of communication to convey a message. However, to date it is not clear which patients are able to do so. Clinical experience indicates that some patients use non-verbal communication strategies like gesturing very efficiently whereas others fail to transmit semantic content by non-verbal means. Concerns have been expressed that limb apraxia would affect the production of communicative gestures. Research investigating if and how apraxia influences the production of communicative gestures, led to contradictory outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of limb apraxia on spontaneous gesturing. Further, linguistic and non-verbal semantic processing abilities were explored as potential factors that might influence non-verbal expression in aphasic patients. Twenty-four aphasic patients with highly limited verbal output were asked to retell short video-clips. The narrations were videotaped. Gestural communication was analyzed in two ways. In the first part of the study, we used a form-based approach. Physiological and kinetic aspects of hand movements were transcribed with a notation system for sign languages. We determined the formal diversity of the hand gestures as an indicator of potential richness of the transmitted information. In the second part of the study, comprehensibility of the patients' gestural communication was evaluated by naive raters. The raters were familiarized with the model video-clips and shown the recordings of the patients' retelling without sound. They were asked to indicate, for each narration, which story was being told and which aspects of the stories they recognized. The results indicate that non-verbal faculties are the most important prerequisites for the production of hand gestures. Whereas results on standardized aphasia testing did not correlate with any gestural indices, non-verbal semantic processing abilities predicted the formal diversity

  1. Old and recent approaches to the problem of non-verbal conceptual disorders in aphasic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainotti, Guido

    2014-04-01

    From the first research on aphasia, it has been shown that, in addition to verbal communication disorders, aphasic patients often have difficulty on non-verbal cognitive tasks, which can actually be solved without the use of language. In this survey, I will discuss in a historical perspective the different interpretations provided by classical and contemporary authors to explain this puzzling observation. First, I will take into account the different positions of classical authorities on this topic, starting from the first debates (mainly based on anatomo-clinical observations) on the organisation of language in the brain. Then, I will attempt to summarize the work of authors who have tackled this complex issue more recently, in systematic investigations using methods drawn from experimental psychology, to clarify the meaning of non-verbal cognitive disorders in aphasia. Finally, in the last part of the survey, I will discuss the interpretation of proponents of the 'semantic hub' hypothesis who have tried to analyse and explain the differences between the non-verbal semantic defects of patients with semantic dementia and aphasic stroke patients. The hypothesis which assumes that most non-verbal cognitive disorders observed in aphasic patients are due to a preverbal conceptual disorder, which cannot be attributed to a loss of semantic representations but rather to a defect in their controlled retrieval, seems substantially confirmed. Nevertheless, two main issues must still be clarified. The first is that some of the non-verbal cognitive defects of aphasic patients seem due to the negative influence of language disturbances on abstract non-verbal cognitive activities, rather than to a preverbal conceptual disorder. The second issue concerns the exact nature and the neuroanatomical correlates of the defective controlled retrieval of unimpaired conceptual representations, which should subsume most of the non-verbal cognitive disorders of aphasic patients.

  2. Sensory processing in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Relationship with non-verbal IQ, autism severity and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Cervera, Pilar; Pastor-Cerezuela, Gemma; Fernández-Andrés, Maria-Inmaculada; Tárraga-Mínguez, Raul

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze in a sample of children with ASD the relationship between sensory processing, social participation and praxis impairments and some of the child's characteristics, such as non-verbal IQ, severity of ASD symptoms and the number of ADHD symptoms (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity), both in the home and main-classroom environments. Participants were the parents and teachers of 41 children with ASD from 5 to 8 years old (M=6.09). They completed the Sensory Processing Measure (SPM) to evaluate sensory processing, social participation and praxis; the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS-2) to evaluate autism severity; and a set of items (the DSM-IV-TR criteria) to evaluate the number of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms in the child. Non-verbal IQ - measured by the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices Test - did not show a relationship with any of the SPM variables. The SPM variables were significant predictors of autism severity and had similar weights in the two environments. In the case of ADHD symptoms, the SPM variables had a greater weight in the home than in the classroom environment, and they were significant predictors of both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity - especially inattention - only in the family context. The moderate association between inattention and auditory processing found in the main-classroom suggests the possible utility of certain measures aimed to simplify any classroom's acoustic environment.

  3. Nonverbal Synchrony in Social Interactions of Patients with Schizophrenia Indicates Socio-Communicative Deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Zeno; Ramseyer, Fabian; Hoffmann, Holger; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Disordered interpersonal communication can be a serious problem in schizophrenia. Recent advances in computer-based measures allow reliable and objective quantification of nonverbal behavior. Research using these novel measures has shown that objective amounts of body and head movement in patients with schizophrenia during social interactions are closely related to the symptom profiles of these patients. In addition to and above mere amounts of movement, the degree of synchrony, or imitation, between patients and normal interactants may be indicative of core deficits underlying various problems in domains related to interpersonal communication, such as symptoms, social competence, and social functioning. Nonverbal synchrony was assessed objectively using Motion Energy Analysis (MEA) in 378 brief, videotaped role-play scenes involving 27 stabilized outpatients diagnosed with paranoid-type schizophrenia. Low nonverbal synchrony was indicative of symptoms, low social competence, impaired social functioning, and low self-evaluation of competence. These relationships remained largely significant when correcting for the amounts of patients' movement. When patients showed reduced imitation of their interactants' movements, negative symptoms were likely to be prominent. Conversely, positive symptoms were more prominent in patients when their interaction partners' imitation of their movements was reduced. Nonverbal synchrony can be an objective and sensitive indicator of the severity of patients' problems. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of nonverbal synchrony may provide novel insights into specific relationships between symptoms, cognition, and core communicative problems in schizophrenia.

  4. Nonverbal communication in a Caribbean medical school: "Touch is a touchy issue".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stella; Harricharan, Michelle; Sa, Bidyadhar

    2013-01-01

    The heath communication curriculum at the Trinidad campus of the University of the West Indies was developed out of practices advocated in large Western countries. Many students and tutors observed that the nonverbal skills advocated in these approaches did not fit the complex cultural dynamics of the Caribbean. A study was developed to understand the problems Caribbean students faced with these nonverbal communication practices. Thirty-six students representing different Caribbean territories were randomly selected from the two compulsory communication skills courses: Communication Skills for Health Personnel and Communication Skills for the Health Professions class list. These students participated in 4 focus group discussions (FGD). The FGD questions were formulated on the nonverbal skills advanced in the Calgary-Cambridge Guide to the doctor-patient interview. The findings supported the view that recommended nonverbal skills were in conflict with expected doctor-patient behavior in different Caribbean territories. Students felt that nonverbal communication needed to be treated with greater cultural sensitivity. These findings stimulated changes to the health communication program. this article identifies changes made to the communication skills program in response to cultural difference.

  5. When a Small Thing Means so Much: Nonverbal Cues as Turning Points in Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Docan-Morgan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates reports of transformative nonverbal behaviors: cues that act as important interactional triggers for a change in or between people in a relationship. To explore such behaviors, we asked participants to report on any situation in which they recalled one or more nonverbal cues that they or others used and that changed something for them. The most commonly reported nonverbal cues that instigated transformation were facial expressions, eye behavior, touch, and the use of personal space. Vocal cues (particularly silence, gestures and other kinesic cues (e.g., walking away, use of time, and attire were also mentioned. Using the constant comparative approach, we found four large categories of changes the participants reported as resulting from these nonverbal cues and provide examples of these change types from our data corpus. We labeled these “relational,” “perceptual,” “affective,” and “behavior”. Our analyses revealed that judgments of the behavior/event’s valence correlated positively with judgments of their relationship, the other person, and themselves, suggesting that the affective judgment of a nonverbal turning point event may have strong implications for other important judgments. Vocal cues seemed to be involved in events that were labeled more negatively, and touch was a cue in events labeled more positively. Finally, eye behaviors were consistently a part of events that were reported to result in changes in perception.

  6. [Non-verbal communication and executive function impairment after traumatic brain injury: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainson, C

    2007-05-01

    Following post-traumatic impairment in executive function, failure to adjust to communication situations often creates major obstacles to social and professional reintegration. The analysis of pathological verbal communication has been based on clinical scales since the 1980s, but that of nonverbal elements has been neglected, although their importance should be acknowledged. The aim of this research was to study non-verbal aspects of communication in a case of executive-function impairment after traumatic brain injury. During the patient's conversation with an interlocutor, all nonverbal parameters - coverbal gestures, gaze, posture, proxemics and facial expressions - were studied in as much an ecological way as possible, to closely approximate natural conversation conditions. Such an approach highlights the difficulties such patients experience in communicating, difficulties of a pragmatic kind, that have so far been overlooked by traditional investigations, which mainly take into account the formal linguistic aspects of language. The analysis of the patient's conversation revealed non-verbal dysfunctions, not only on a pragmatic and interactional level but also in terms of enunciation. Moreover, interactional adjustment phenomena were noted in the interlocutor's behaviour. The two inseparable aspects of communication - verbal and nonverbal - should be equally assessed in patients with communication difficulties; highlighting distortions in each area might bring about an improvement in the rehabilitation of such people.

  7. Effect of interaction with clowns on vital signs and non-verbal communication of hospitalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcântara, Pauline Lima; Wogel, Ariane Zonho; Rossi, Maria Isabela Lobo; Neves, Isabela Rodrigues; Sabates, Ana Llonch; Puggina, Ana Cláudia

    2016-12-01

    Compare the non-verbal communication of children before and during interaction with clowns and compare their vital signs before and after this interaction. Uncontrolled, intervention, cross-sectional, quantitative study with children admitted to a public university hospital. The intervention was performed by medical students dressed as clowns and included magic tricks, juggling, singing with the children, making soap bubbles and comedic performances. The intervention time was 20minutes. Vital signs were assessed in two measurements with an interval of one minute immediately before and after the interaction. Non-verbal communication was observed before and during the interaction using the Non-Verbal Communication Template Chart, a tool in which nonverbal behaviors are assessed as effective or ineffective in the interactions. The sample consisted of 41 children with a mean age of 7.6±2.7 years; most were aged 7 to 11 years (n=23; 56%) and were males (n=26; 63.4%). There was a statistically significant difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pain and non-verbal behavior of children with the intervention. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased and pain scales showed decreased scores. The playful interaction with clowns can be a therapeutic resource to minimize the effects of the stressing environment during the intervention, improve the children's emotional state and reduce the perception of pain. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of interaction with clowns on vital signs and non-verbal communication of hospitalized children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcântara, Pauline Lima; Wogel, Ariane Zonho; Rossi, Maria Isabela Lobo; Neves, Isabela Rodrigues; Sabates, Ana Llonch; Puggina, Ana Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Compare the non-verbal communication of children before and during interaction with clowns and compare their vital signs before and after this interaction. Methods: Uncontrolled, intervention, cross-sectional, quantitative study with children admitted to a public university hospital. The intervention was performed by medical students dressed as clowns and included magic tricks, juggling, singing with the children, making soap bubbles and comedic performances. The intervention time was 20min. Vital signs were assessed in two measurements with an interval of 1min immediately before and after the interaction. Non-verbal communication was observed before and during the interaction using the Non-Verbal Communication Template Chart, a tool in which non-verbal behaviors are assessed as effective or ineffective in the interactions. Results: The sample consisted of 41 children with a mean age of 7.6±2.7 years; most were aged 7-11 years (n=23; 56%) and were males (n=26; 63.4%). There was a statistically significant difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pain and non-verbal behavior of children with the intervention. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased and pain scales showed decreased scores. Conclusions: The playful interaction with clowns can be a therapeutic resource to minimize the effects of the stressing environment during the intervention, improve the children's emotional state and reduce the perception of pain. PMID:27080219

  9. Nonverbal Synchrony in Social Interactions of Patients with Schizophrenia Indicates Socio-Communicative Deficits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeno Kupper

    Full Text Available Disordered interpersonal communication can be a serious problem in schizophrenia. Recent advances in computer-based measures allow reliable and objective quantification of nonverbal behavior. Research using these novel measures has shown that objective amounts of body and head movement in patients with schizophrenia during social interactions are closely related to the symptom profiles of these patients. In addition to and above mere amounts of movement, the degree of synchrony, or imitation, between patients and normal interactants may be indicative of core deficits underlying various problems in domains related to interpersonal communication, such as symptoms, social competence, and social functioning.Nonverbal synchrony was assessed objectively using Motion Energy Analysis (MEA in 378 brief, videotaped role-play scenes involving 27 stabilized outpatients diagnosed with paranoid-type schizophrenia.Low nonverbal synchrony was indicative of symptoms, low social competence, impaired social functioning, and low self-evaluation of competence. These relationships remained largely significant when correcting for the amounts of patients' movement. When patients showed reduced imitation of their interactants' movements, negative symptoms were likely to be prominent. Conversely, positive symptoms were more prominent in patients when their interaction partners' imitation of their movements was reduced.Nonverbal synchrony can be an objective and sensitive indicator of the severity of patients' problems. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of nonverbal synchrony may provide novel insights into specific relationships between symptoms, cognition, and core communicative problems in schizophrenia.

  10. Effect of interaction with clowns on vital signs and non-verbal communication of hospitalized children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Lima Alcântara

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Compare the non-verbal communication of children before and during interaction with clowns and compare their vital signs before and after this interaction. Methods: Uncontrolled, intervention, cross-sectional, quantitative study with children admitted to a public university hospital. The intervention was performed by medical students dressed as clowns and included magic tricks, juggling, singing with the children, making soap bubbles and comedic performances. The intervention time was 20min. Vital signs were assessed in two measurements with an interval of 1min immediately before and after the interaction. Non-verbal communication was observed before and during the interaction using the Non-Verbal Communication Template Chart, a tool in which non-verbal behaviors are assessed as effective or ineffective in the interactions. Results: The sample consisted of 41 children with a mean age of 7.6±2.7 years; most were aged 7-11 years (n=23; 56% and were males (n=26; 63.4%. There was a statistically significant difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pain and non-verbal behavior of children with the intervention. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased and pain scales showed decreased scores. Conclusions: The playful interaction with clowns can be a therapeutic resource to minimize the effects of the stressing environment during the intervention, improve the children's emotional state and reduce the perception of pain.

  11. Nonverbal communication and conversational contribution in breast cancer genetic counseling: Are counselors' nonverbal communication and conversational contribution associated with counselees' satisfaction, needs fulfillment and state anxiety in breast cancer genetic counseling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.; Albada, A.; Cronauer, C. Klockner; Ausems, M.G.; Dulmen, S. van

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to examine how counselors' nonverbal communication (i.e. nonverbal encouragements and counselee-directed eye gaze) and conversational contribution (i.e. verbal dominance and interactivity) during the final visit within breast cancer genetic counseling relate to

  12. Nonverbal communication and conversational contribution in breast cancer genetic counseling: are counselors' nonverbal communication and conversational contribution associated with counselees' satisfaction, needs fulfillment and state anxiety in breast cancer genetic counseling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.; Albada, A.; Klöckner Cronauer, C.; Ausems, M.G.E.M.; Dulmen, S. van

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The current study aimed to examine how counselors’ nonverbal communication (i.e. nonverbal encouragements and counselee-directed eye gaze) and conversational contribution (i.e. verbal dominance and interactivity) during the final visit within breast cancer genetic counseling relate to

  13. Nonverbal communication and conversational contribution in breast cancer genetic counseling: are counselors' nonverbal communication and conversational contribution associated with counselees' satisfaction, needs fulfillment and state anxiety in breast cancer genetic counseling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.; Albada, A.; Klöckner Cronauer, C.; Ausems, M.G.E.M.; Dulmen, S. van

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The current study aimed to examine how counselors’ nonverbal communication (i.e. nonverbal encouragements and counselee-directed eye gaze) and conversational contribution (i.e. verbal dominance and interactivity) during the final visit within breast cancer genetic counseling relate to coun

  14. Nonverbal communication and conversational contribution in breast cancer genetic counseling: Are counselors' nonverbal communication and conversational contribution associated with counselees' satisfaction, needs fulfillment and state anxiety in breast cancer genetic counseling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.; Albada, A.; Cronauer, C. Klockner; Ausems, M.G.; Dulmen, S. van

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to examine how counselors' nonverbal communication (i.e. nonverbal encouragements and counselee-directed eye gaze) and conversational contribution (i.e. verbal dominance and interactivity) during the final visit within breast cancer genetic counseling relate to cou

  15. Association between restricted and repetitive behaviors and nonverbal IQ in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Somer L; Richler, Jennifer; Lord, Catherine

    2006-08-01

    The present study explored the relationship between nonverbal IQ and restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in 830 children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. The role of chronological age as a moderator of this relationship was also investigated. For many behaviors, there was a significant interaction between nonverbal IQ and chronological age, such that nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) was more strongly related to the prevalence of RRBs in older children. For the majority of such behaviors (e.g. repetitive use of objects, hand and finger mannerisms), RRB prevalence was negatively associated with NVIQ. However, the prevalence of certain behaviors (e.g. circumscribed interests) showed positive relationships with NVIQ, which provides some support for the idea of different classes of RRBs. For the severity of different RRBs, there were several significant effects for age and NVIQ, but few interactions.

  16. The Effects of Verbal and Non-Verbal Features on the Reception of DRTV Commercials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiljana Komar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of consumer response are important for successful advertising as they help advertisers to find new, original and successful ways of persuasion. Successful advertisements have to boost the product’s benefits but they also have to appeal to consumers’ emotions. In TV advertisements, this is done by means of verbal and non-verbal strategies. The paper presents the results of an empirical investigation whose purpose was to examine the viewers’ emotional responses to a DRTV commercial induced by different verbal and non-verbal features, the amount of credibility and persuasiveness of the commercial and its general acceptability. Our findings indicate that (1 an overload of the same verbal and non-verbal information decreases persuasion; and (2 highly marked prosodic delivery is either exaggerated or funny, while the speaker is perceived as annoying.

  17. Introducing PrEmo2: New directions for the non-verbal measurement of emotion in design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurans, G.F.G.; Desmet, P.M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Non-verbal emotion self-report methods have flourished in the last 10 years. We present the theoretical basis underlying non-verbal self-report, review available tools, and discuss perspectives for further progress in measurement practices in design-oriented emotion research. We describe a new quest

  18. Non-Verbal Behavior of Children Who Disclose or Do Not Disclose Child Abuse in Investigative Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Carmit; Hershkowitz, Irit; Malloy, Lindsay C.; Lamb, Michael E.; Atabaki, Armita; Spindler, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study focused on children's nonverbal behavior in investigative interviews exploring suspicions of child abuse. The key aims were to determine whether non-verbal behavior in the pre-substantive phases of the interview predicted whether or not children would disclose the alleged abuse later in the interview and to identify…

  19. Nonverbal communication sets the conditions for the relationship between parental bonding and the short-term treatment response in depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Erwin; Van Os, Titus; Gerlsma, Coby

    2009-01-01

    The role of parental bonding and nonverbal communication in the short-term treatment response was investigated in 104 depressed outpatients. At baseline patients completed the Parental Bonding Instrument. We registered the nonverbal involvement behaviour of patients and interviewers from video recor

  20. Short-Term Memory Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment: The Effect of Verbal and Nonverbal Task Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botting, Nicola; Psarou, Popi; Caplin, Tamara; Nevin, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Background and Design: In recent years, evidence has emerged that suggests specific language impairment (SLI) does not exclusively affect linguistic skill. Studies have revealed memory difficulties, including those measured using nonverbal tasks. However, there has been relatively little research into the nature of the verbal/nonverbal boundaries…

  1. Nonverbal communication sets the conditions for the relationship between parental bonding and the short-term treatment response in depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Erwin; Van Os, Titus; Gerlsma, Coby

    2009-01-01

    The role of parental bonding and nonverbal communication in the short-term treatment response was investigated in 104 depressed outpatients. At baseline patients completed the Parental Bonding Instrument. We registered the nonverbal involvement behaviour of patients and interviewers from video

  2. Counselor Nonverbal Self-Disclosure and Fear of Intimacy during Employment Counseling: An Aptitude-Treatment Interaction Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrein, Cindy; Bernaud, Jean-Luc

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of nonverbal self-disclosure within the dynamic of aptitude-treatment interaction. Participants (N = 94) watched a video of a career counseling session aimed at helping the jobseeker to find employment. The video was then edited to display 3 varying degrees of nonverbal self-disclosure. In conjunction with the…

  3. The Silent Language of Fingers and Hands-The Role of Finger and Hand Motions in Non-verbal Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周樱

    2013-01-01

    This paper engages in the discussion about nonverbal intercultural communication from the perspective of hand and finger gestures, probing into the functions of non-verbal cues in cross-cultural interaction, talking over two different attitudes to⁃ward gestures, and giving a detailed analysis about the silent language of some specific gestures with fingers and hands in different cultures.

  4. Multi-level prediction of short-term outcome of depression : non-verbal interpersonal processes, cognitions and personality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, E; Bouhuys, N

    1998-01-01

    It was hypothesized that personality factors determine the short-term outcome of depression, and that they may do this via non-verbal interpersonal interactions and via cognitive interpretations of non-verbal behaviour. Twenty-six hospitalized depressed patients entered the study. Personality factor

  5. Non-Verbal Intelligence in Primary School Students: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davydova Yulia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the results of a cross-cultural study of non-verbal intelligence in primary school students. Significant differences with the effect size of 9% were found in non-verbal intelligence scores of 1057 students from Russia and Kyrgyzstan. The differences were also found for city and countryside residents (effect size of 10%. These results might be explained both by the features of educational systems and socio-economic development level in Russia and Kyrgyzstan.

  6. Winning Faces Vary by Ideology: How Nonverbal Source Cues Influence Election and Communication Success in Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Lasse; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2016-01-01

    Not just the content of a communication but also the source of the communication shapes its persuasiveness. Recent research in political communication suggests that important source cues are nonverbal and relate to the physical traits of the source such that attractive- and competent......-looking sources have better success in attracting votes and policy support. Yet, are all nonverbal source cues similarly received irrespective of audience, or does their reception vary across audiences? Specifically, we ask whether some physical traits are received positively by some audiences but backfire...

  7. Relationships of Big Five personality traits and nonverbal intelligence at high school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronina Irina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of study on the relationship of personality traits and intelligence in Russian high school students. The study focused on Big Five personality traits - Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness - and the structure of their relationships with nonverbal intelligence, as measured by the test “Standard Progressive Matrices”. Significant correlations were only found between nonverbal intelligence and Openness (r = 0.26, p < 0.05. The results are interpreted in the context of investment theory, which assumes that personality traits can promote the formation of individual differences in intelligence.

  8. Umbilical cord androgens and estrogens in relation to verbal and nonverbal abilities at age 10 in the general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keelan, Jeffrey A.; Russell-Smith, Suzanna N.; Hickey, Martha; Maybery, Murray T.; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.

    2017-01-01

    Sex differences in verbal and nonverbal abilities are a contentious area of research. Prenatal steroids have been shown to have masculinizing effects on the brain that may affect the development of nonverbal and verbal abilities in later life. The current study examined a wide range of biologically active sex steroids (both androgens and estrogens) in umbilical cord blood at birth in a large pregnancy cohort in relation to performance on nonverbal (Raven’s Coloured Progressive Matrices) and verbal (Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-3 and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III) measures at age 10 years. Overall, Androgen and Estrogen composites in cord blood were not found to be predictive of performance on verbal and nonverbal measures at age 10. These data suggest that late gestation sex steroids do not exert a major effect on nonverbal and verbal abilities in middle childhood. PMID:28278304

  9. The role of nonverbal working memory in morphosyntactic processing by school-aged monolingual and bilingual children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Davidson, Meghan M; Ellis Weismer, Susan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined the relationship between nonverbal working memory and morphosyntactic processing in monolingual native speakers of English and bilingual speakers of English and Spanish. We tested 42 monolingual children and 42 bilingual children between the ages of 8 and 10years matched on age and nonverbal IQ. Children were administered an auditory Grammaticality Judgment task in English to measure morphosyntactic processing and a visual N-Back task and Corsi Blocks task to measure nonverbal working memory capacity. Analyses revealed that monolinguals were more sensitive to English morphosyntactic information than bilinguals, but the groups did not differ in reaction times or response bias. Furthermore, higher nonverbal working memory capacity was associated with greater sensitivity to morphosyntactic violations in bilinguals but not in monolinguals. The findings suggest that nonverbal working memory skills link more tightly to syntactic processing in populations with lower levels of language knowledge.

  10. The role of non-verbal working memory in morphosyntactic processing by school-aged monolingual and bilingual children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Davidson, Meghan M.; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between non-verbal working memory and morphosyntactic processing in monolingual native speakers of English and bilingual speakers of English and Spanish. We tested 42 monolingual children and 42 bilingual children between the ages of 8 and 10, matched on age and non-verbal IQ. Children were administered an auditory Grammaticality Judgment task in English to measure morphosyntatic processing, and a visual N-Back task and a Corsi Blocks task to measure non-verbal working memory capacity. Analyses revealed that monolinguals were more sensitive to English morphosyntactic information than bilinguals, but the groups did not differ in reaction times or response bias. Furthermore, higher non-verbal working memory capacity was associated with greater sensitivity to morphosyntactic violations in bilinguals, but not in monolinguals. The findings suggest that non-verbal working memory skills link more tightly to syntactic processing in populations with lower levels of language knowledge. PMID:26550957

  11. Nonverbal Communication: Implications for the Global Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, Sharyn L.; Bolton, Jami

    2013-01-01

    Many American schools today have richly diverse classrooms composed of immigrants with a limited vocabulary or little command of the English language. Now more than ever, music educators must explore new, creative, and effective ways to communicate with this ever-changing student population. Although most teachers rely primarily on verbal…

  12. Group Rapport: Posture Sharing as a Nonverbal Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFrance, Marianne; Broadbent, Maida

    1976-01-01

    Systematic observation and a questionnaire format were used to investigate the relationship between posture sharing and self-report indications of rapport in a group situation--college seminar classrooms. The greater the amount of mirroring and congruent postures evidenced by students vis-a-vis the teacher, the higher the ratings of involvement.…

  13. Nonverbal Communications in the Poetry of Hafez: The Role of Non-verbal Communications in the Interpretation and Acceptance of Hafez by the Audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghobadi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Different aspects of the poetry of Hafez have been studied so far. The material and non-material features of his poetry have been examined in different fields such as literature and anthropology. Due to the influence and importance of Hafez’s poetry, it seems that it can be studied from the perspective of other fields as well. Communications science is among these fields, dealing with how and why communications are established between the speaker and the audience. In the present article the nonverbal aspects in the poetry of Hafez are studied. It seems that the verbal aspects of his poetry are not the only factors that have made it remain popular with the audience through generations; nonverbal aspects have played a great part as well. This article aims to examine the literary work in terms of nonverbal communications in order to demonstrate the skill of the poet in establishing communications with its audience beyond the boundaries of speech; the poet’s mastery over this feature is also culturally interpreted. The utilized method is qualitative content analysis.

  14. LA NECESIDAD DE ARTICULAR UN DISCURSO NO VERBAL Y PARAVERBAL COHERENTE EN EL AULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdan Al Shehri

    2012-12-01

    Mounting research findings demonstrate that one of the decisive factors to be taken into consideration within the current peer learning, affecting team building training, are definitely non-verbal immediacy behaviours. This theoretical article analyses current major categories and factors of non-verbal immediacy behaviours in classroom, in order to provide a better understanding and action-oriented coherence.

  15. Is There an Increased Familial Prevalence of Psychopathology in Children with Nonverbal Learning Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antshel, Kevin M.; Khan, Fahad M.

    2008-01-01

    The cognitive and behavioral symptoms of nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) have been described by previous investigators. Nevertheless, we know far less about the potential genetic contributions that may predispose a child to have NLD. An endophenotype model was investigated in 5 samples of children ages 9 to 15 years: NLD (n = 32); reading…

  16. Client Verbal and Nonverbal Reinforcement of Counselor Behavior: Its Impact on Interviewing Behavior and Postinterview Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Yul; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Examined effects of client reinforcement on counselor behavior and on attitudinal judgments about the client. Counselor-trainees interviewed a standard client. Counselors in verbal and verbal plus nonverbal conditions showed increases in reflection of feeling statements. Differences in counselor attraction and clinical impression of the client…

  17. Effect of Race, Sex, Nonverbal Communication and Verbal Communication of Perception of Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitter, A. George; And Others

    1975-01-01

    A 2X2X2X2 study tested the effect of a) nonverbal communication (NVC), b) verbal communication (VC), 3) race of communicator, and d) sex of perceiver on the perception of leadership. Results indicated that when one pits NVC against VC, NVC proved to be more potent in the perception of leadership. (Author/NQ)

  18. Trust and Perceptions of Physicians' Nonverbal Behavior Among Women with Immigrant Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillen, Marij A; de Haes, Hanneke C J M; Verdam, Mathilde G E; Smets, Ellen M A

    2017-04-08

    Previous findings suggest immigrant patients have lower trust in their physicians, and perceive nonverbal communication differently compared to non-immigrant patients. We tested discrepancies in trust and the impact of non-verbal behavior between immigrants and non-immigrants in The Netherlands. Nonverbal communication of an oncologist was systematically varied in an experimental video vignettes design. Breast cancer patients (n = 34) and healthy women (n = 34) viewed one of eight video versions and evaluated trust and perceived friendliness of the oncologist. In a matched control design, women with immigrant and non-immigrant backgrounds were paired. Immigrant women reported stronger trust. Nonverbal communication by the oncologist did not influence trust differently for immigrants compared to for non-immigrants. However, smiling strongly enhanced perceived friendliness for non-immigrants, but not for immigrants. Immigrant patients' strong trust levels may be formed a priori, instead of based on physicians' communication. Physicians may need to make extra efforts to optimize their communication.

  19. An Examination of the Relative Effectiveness of Training in Nonverbal Communication: Personal Selling Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin T.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the potential effectiveness of training in nonverbal communication for sales representatives. The literature on this subject was reviewed, and a study using students as sales representatives was conducted to evaluate the potential of training in body language. The research results provide support for the proposition that such…

  20. Ethics in the communicative encounter: seriously ill patients' experiences of health professionals' nonverbal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermann, Connie; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Birkelund, Regner

    2017-03-01

    The communicative encounter has been described as a fundamental element in caring for the patients, and further, in this encounter, the nonverbal body language and the tone of speech are agued to play a crucial role. This study explores how seriously ill hospitalised patients experience and assign meaning to the health professionals' communication with special attention to the nonverbal body language and tone of speech. The study is part of a larger study exploring how seriously ill patients experience and assign meaning to the sensory impressions in the physical hospital environment as well as to the health professionals' communication. The study is based on qualitative interviews supplemented by observations and applies Paul Ricoeur's phenomenological-hermeneutic theory of interpretation in processing the collected data. We included twelve patients with potentially life-threatening illnesses such as cancer, severe lung, liver and heart disease. Through analysis and interpretation of the interviews, we identified two themes in the text: (i) Being confirmed, (ii) Being ignored and an inconvenience. The patients experienced that the health professionals' nonverbal communication was imperative for their experience of being confirmed or in contrast, their experience of being ignored and an inconvenience. The health professionals' nonverbal communication proved essential for the seriously ill patients' experience of well-being in the form of positive thoughts and emotions. Consequently, this sensory dimension of the communicative encounter represents a significant ethical element in caring for the patients. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  1. The pantomime of persuasion : Fit between nonverbal communication and influence strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, Bob M.; Stel, Marielle

    How can we be more successful in persuading others and increase the odds of behavioral compliance? We argue that when a verbal influence strategy is embedded in a nonverbal style that fits its orientation, this boosts the strategy's effectiveness, whereas a misfit attenuates its impact. In

  2. Communicating in a Multicultural Classroom: A Study of Students' Nonverbal Behavior and Attitudes toward Faculty Attire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, Ephraim; Washington, Melvin

    2011-01-01

    Economic and market globalization in the United States has engendered a multicultural learning environment that challenges both faculty and students. Diversity in the classroom is further complicated by nonverbal communication, which impacts on students' attitudes toward faculty members. Because today's classrooms are changing and undergoing rapid…

  3. Gender-Specific Development of Nonverbal Behaviours and Mild Depression in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beek, Yolanda; Van Dolderen, Marlies S. M.; Demon Dubas, Judith J. S.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Individual differences in depressive symptoms have been linked with social skill deficits in adults and children, yet empirical studies on adolescents are lacking. The present research examines age and gender differences in nonverbal behaviour between mildly depressed and nondepressed (pre-) adolescents during conversations with an…

  4. Recognition, Expression, and Understanding Facial Expressions of Emotion in Adolescents with Nonverbal and General Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Elana; Heath, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD) have been found to be worse at recognizing facial expressions than children with verbal learning disabilities (LD) and without LD. However, little research has been done with adolescents. In addition, expressing and understanding facial expressions is yet to be studied among adolescents with LD…

  5. Concurrent Validity of the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test and the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, V. Scott; Bell, Sherry Mee

    2006-01-01

    One hundred elementary- and middle-school students were administered the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT; B.A. Bracken & R.S. McCallum, 1998) and the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R; G.H. Roid & L.J. Miller, 1997). Correlations between UNIT and Leiter-R scores were statistically significant ( p less than…

  6. The pantomime of persuasion : Fit between nonverbal communication and influence strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, Bob M.; Stel, Marielle

    2011-01-01

    How can we be more successful in persuading others and increase the odds of behavioral compliance? We argue that when a verbal influence strategy is embedded in a nonverbal style that fits its orientation, this boosts the strategy's effectiveness, whereas a misfit attenuates its impact. In field-exp

  7. The Use and Frequency of Verbal and Non-Verbal Praise in Nurture Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Nurture groups are a form of provision for children with social, emotional, behavioural and learning difficulties. The study examines the interactions between children and staff--in particular, the frequency and effects of verbal and non-verbal praise--and discusses how this contributes to its effectiveness as a positive intervention instrument…

  8. Quality Matters! Differences between Expressive and Receptive Non-Verbal Communication Skills in Adolescents with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Ruth B.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed several studies of non-verbal communication (prosody and facial expressions) completed in our lab and conducted a secondary analysis to compare performance on receptive vs. expressive tasks by adolescents with ASD and their typically developing peers. Results show a significant between-group difference for the aggregate score of…

  9. Interactive use of communication by verbal and non-verbal autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Cibelle Albuquerque de la Higuera; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

    2010-01-01

    Communication of autistic children. To assess the communication functionality of verbal and non-verbal children of the autistic spectrum and to identify possible associations amongst the groups. Subjects were 20 children of the autistic spectrum divided into two groups: V with 10 verbal children and NV with 10 non-verbal children with ages varying between 2y10m and 10y6m. All subjects were video recorded during 30 minutes of spontaneous interaction with their mothers. The samples were analyzed according to the functional communicative profile and comparisons within and between groups were conducted. Data referring to the occupation of communicative space suggest that there is an even balance between each child and his mother. The number of communicative acts per minute shows a clear difference between verbal and non-verbal children. Both verbal and non-verbal children use mostly the gestual communicative mean in their interactions. Data about the use of interpersonal communicative functions point out to the autistic children's great interactive impairment. The characterization of the functional communicative profile proposed in this study confirmed the autistic children's difficulties with interpersonal communication and that these difficulties do not depend on the preferred communicative mean.

  10. Non-Verbal Communication Training: An Avenue for University Professionalizing Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazaille, Mariane

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with today's workplace expectations, many university programs identify the ability to communicate as a crucial asset for future professionals. Yet, if the teaching of verbal communication is clearly identifiable in most university programs, the same cannot be said of non-verbal communication (NVC). Knowing the importance of the…

  11. Non-verbal communication between primary care physicians and older patients: how does race matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanikova, Irena; Zhang, Qian; Wieland, Darryl; Eleazer, G Paul; Stewart, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Non-verbal communication is an important aspect of the diagnostic and therapeutic process, especially with older patients. It is unknown how non-verbal communication varies with physician and patient race. To examine the joint influence of physician race and patient race on non-verbal communication displayed by primary care physicians during medical interviews with patients 65 years or older. Video-recordings of visits of 209 patients 65 years old or older to 30 primary care physicians at three clinics located in the Midwest and Southwest. Duration of physicians' open body position, eye contact, smile, and non-task touch, coded using an adaption of the Nonverbal Communication in Doctor-Elderly Patient Transactions form. African American physicians with African American patients used more open body position, smile, and touch, compared to the average across other dyads (adjusted mean difference for open body position = 16.55, p non-verbal communication with older patients. Its influence is best understood when physician race and patient race are considered jointly.

  12. The Introduction of Non-Verbal Communication in Greek Education: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatis, Panagiotis J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The introductory part of this paper underlines the research interest of the educational community in the issue of non-verbal communication in education. The question for the introduction of this scientific field in Greek education enter within the context of this research which include many aspects. Method: The paper essentially…

  13. An executable model of the interaction between verbal and non-verbal communication.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, W.C.A.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an executable generic process model is proposed for combined verbal and non-verbal communication processes and their interaction. The model has been formalised by three-levelled partial temporal models, covering both the material and mental processes and their relations. The generic

  14. Consonant Differentiation Mediates the Discrepancy between Non-verbal and Verbal Abilities in Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, A. P.; Yoder, P. J.; Stone, W. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate verbal communication disorders reflected in lower verbal than non-verbal abilities. The present study examined the extent to which this discrepancy is associated with atypical speech sound differentiation. Methods: Differences in the amplitude of auditory event-related…

  15. Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication and Coordination in Mission Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkhuyzen, Erik; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    In this talk I will present some video-materials gathered in Mission Control during simulations. The focus of the presentation will be on verbal and non-verbal communication between the officers in the front and backroom, especially the practices that have evolved around a peculiar communications technology called voice loops.

  16. English Face-to-Face: The Non-Verbal Dimension of Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, James K.

    Nonverbal communication is important in foreign language teaching and learning because of its variation in form, meaning and distribution from one culture to another and because of its extensive use in the communicative process. Cross-cultural misunderstandings result from incorrect interpretations of the tone of voice, body motions, facial…

  17. The pantomime of persuasion : Fit between nonverbal communication and influence strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, Bob M.; Stel, Marielle

    2011-01-01

    How can we be more successful in persuading others and increase the odds of behavioral compliance? We argue that when a verbal influence strategy is embedded in a nonverbal style that fits its orientation, this boosts the strategy's effectiveness, whereas a misfit attenuates its impact. In field-exp

  18. The Effects of Nonverbal Communication and Gender on Impression Formation in Opening Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barge, J. Kevin; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines the influence of nonverbal cues and attorney gender on juror impression formation. Concludes that (1) attorney gender may not influence the impression formation process in the courtroom; and (2) delivery styles produce expectations for the appropriateness of disfluencies in speech. (MM)

  19. The Effect of Nonverbal Cues on the Interpretation of Utterances by People with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak-Wernicka, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this article is to explore the effect of nonverbal information (gestures and facial expressions) provided in real time on the interpretation of utterances by people with total blindness. Methods: The article reports on an exploratory study performed on two groups of participants with visual impairments who were tested…

  20. A Review of Observational Pain Scales in Nonverbal Elderly with Cognitive Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juyoung; Castellanos-Brown, Karen; Belcher, John

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Pain assessment for nonverbal older adults with cognitive impairments or dementia presents many challenges, and it is important to determine which scales are most useful in assessing pain among this population. Method: In this review 11 observational scales for assessment of pain in older adults with dementia or cognitive impairments…

  1. Nonverbal interpersonal attunement and extravert personality predict outcome of light treatment in seasonal affective disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, E; Kouwert, E; Bouhuys, N; Meesters, Y; Jansen, J

    We investigated whether personality and nonverbal interpersonal processes can predict the subsequent response to light treatment in seasonal affective disorder (SAD) patients. In 60 SAD patients, Neuroticism and Extraversion were assessed prior to light treatment (4 days with 30 min of 10.000 lux).

  2. Americans and Japanese Nonverbal Communication. Linguistic Communications 15 (Papers in Japanese Linguistics 3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Harvey M.

    Each culture has its own nonverbal as well as its verbal language. Movements, gestures and sounds have distinct and often conflicting interpretations in different countries. For Americans communicating with Japanese, misunderstandings are of two types: Japanese behavior which is completely new to the American, and Japanese behavior which is…

  3. The Use of Non-Verbal and Body Movement Techniques in Working with Families with Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James M.

    1979-01-01

    Presents an experiential-educational approach to families with infants integrating dance and movement therapy with family therapy theories and techniques. Nonverbal techniques are the only possible methods of working directly with infants present with their parents in these workshops. The focus is on negotiations and exchanges of feelings in…

  4. The Development of the Control of Adult Instructions Over Non-Verbal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duyne, H. John

    The purpose of the study was (1) to examine the results from a two-association perceptual-motor task as to their implications for Luria's theory about the development of verbal control of non-verbal behavior; (2) to explore the effects of various learning experiences upon this development. The sample consisted of 20 randomly selected children in…

  5. A Model to Guide the Conceptualization, Assessment, and Diagnosis of Nonverbal Learning Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    Although many learning disability types are formally recognized in major classification systems such as "DSM-IV-TR" and ICD-10, Nonverbal Learning Disorder (NLD) is not despite over 40 years of literature addressing its theoretical and neuropsychological foundation, its major features, and the methods by which to assess and diagnose it. Currently,…

  6. Addictions Counselors' Credibility: The Impact of Interactional Style, Recovery Status, and Nonverbal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriello, Paul J.; Strohmer, Douglas C.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of addictions counselors' interactional style (confrontational vs. motivational), recovery status (recovering vs. nonrecovering), and nonverbal behavior (facilitative vs. neutral) on 116 clients' perceptions of addictions counselor credibility was examined in a fully crossed factorial design. Significant results were found, and…

  7. A Model to Guide the Conceptualization, Assessment, and Diagnosis of Nonverbal Learning Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    Although many learning disability types are formally recognized in major classification systems such as "DSM-IV-TR" and ICD-10, Nonverbal Learning Disorder (NLD) is not despite over 40 years of literature addressing its theoretical and neuropsychological foundation, its major features, and the methods by which to assess and diagnose it. Currently,…

  8. The Role of Timing in Testing Nonverbal IQ in Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonigle-Chalmers, Margaret; McSweeney, Meabh

    2013-01-01

    15 School-aged high functioning children on the autistic spectrum were compared with a neurotypical cohort on the WISC-III and the KABC-II, to determine the impact of the relatively more strict timing criteria of the former test on the evaluation of nonverbal intelligence. Significant group effects, showing lower performance by the ASD group were…

  9. Presentation Trainer: a toolkit for learning non-verbal public speaking skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Jan; Börner, Dirk; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents and outlines the demonstration of Presentation Trainer, a prototype that works as a public speaking instructor. It tracks and analyses the body posture, movements and voice of the user in order to give in- structional feedback on non-verbal communication skills. Besides exploring

  10. Video-Mediated Judgements of Personal Characteristics Based upon Non-Verbal Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargie, Owen D. W.; Dickson, David A.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of making judgments about other people and forming first impressions focuses on a study in Northern Ireland that was concerned with the accuracy of first impressions based on nonverbal information. The use of video recordings is described, and correlations between actual and observed characteristics are examined. (22 references) (LRW)

  11. Development of non-verbal intellectual capacity in school-age children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, D. W.; Ketelaar, M.; Gorter, J. W.; van Schie, P. E.; Becher, J. G.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are at greater risk for a limited intellectual development than typically developing children. Little information is available which children with CP are most at risk. This study aimed to describe the development of non-verbal intellectual capacity of sch

  12. Nonverbal Behavior and the Vertical Dimension of Social Relations: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Judith A.; Coats, Erik J.; LeBeau, Lavonia Smith

    2005-01-01

    The vertical dimension of interpersonal relations (relating to dominance, power, and status) was examined in association with nonverbal behaviors that included facial behavior, gaze, interpersonal distance, body movement, touch, vocal behaviors, posed encoding skill, and others. Results were separately summarized for people's beliefs (perceptions)…

  13. "Ain't Misbehavin'": Bench Conduct and Nonverbal Expectancy Effects in Criminal Jury Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Wayne

    The possibility that judges' expectancy effects may adversely affect the results of jury trials is a problem that needs careful theoretical analysis and innovative methods of resolution. Traditional efforts by the legal community to counteract the threat of verbal/nonverbal bias by judges include the "Code of Judicial Conduct," curative…

  14. The Development of the Control of Adult Instructions Over Non-Verbal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duyne, H. John

    The purpose of the study was (1) to examine the results from a two-association perceptual-motor task as to their implications for Luria's theory about the development of verbal control of non-verbal behavior; (2) to explore the effects of various learning experiences upon this development. The sample consisted of 20 randomly selected children in…

  15. An Examination of the Relative Effectiveness of Training in Nonverbal Communication: Personal Selling Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin T.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the potential effectiveness of training in nonverbal communication for sales representatives. The literature on this subject was reviewed, and a study using students as sales representatives was conducted to evaluate the potential of training in body language. The research results provide support for the proposition that such…

  16. Consonant Differentiation Mediates the Discrepancy between Non-verbal and Verbal Abilities in Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, A. P.; Yoder, P. J.; Stone, W. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate verbal communication disorders reflected in lower verbal than non-verbal abilities. The present study examined the extent to which this discrepancy is associated with atypical speech sound differentiation. Methods: Differences in the amplitude of auditory event-related…

  17. Anxiety and Depression in Children with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities, Reading Disabilities, or Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammarella, Irene C.; Ghisi, Marta; Bomba, Monica; Bottesi, Gioia; Caviola, Sara; Broggi, Fiorenza; Nacinovich, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of the present study was to shed further light on the psychological characteristics of children with different learning disability profiles aged between 8 and 11 years, attending from third to sixth grade. Specifically, children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD), reading disabilities (RD), or a typical development (TD) were…

  18. Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication and Coordination in Mission Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkhuyzen, Erik; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    In this talk I will present some video-materials gathered in Mission Control during simulations. The focus of the presentation will be on verbal and non-verbal communication between the officers in the front and backroom, especially the practices that have evolved around a peculiar communications technology called voice loops.

  19. Presentation Trainer: a toolkit for learning non-verbal public speaking skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Jan; Börner, Dirk; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents and outlines the demonstration of Presentation Trainer, a prototype that works as a public speaking instructor. It tracks and analyses the body posture, movements and voice of the user in order to give in- structional feedback on non-verbal communication skills. Besides exploring

  20. An executable model of the interaction between verbal and non-verbal communication.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, W.C.A.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an executable generic process model is proposed for combined verbal and non-verbal communication processes and their interaction. The model has been formalised by three-levelled partial temporal models, covering both the material and mental processes and their relations. The generic pr

  1. Automated Video Analysis of Non-verbal Communication in a Medical Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Yuval; Czerniak, Efrat; Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Mayo, Avraham E; Ziv, Amitai; Biegon, Anat; Citron, Atay; Alon, Uri

    2016-01-01

    Non-verbal communication plays a significant role in establishing good rapport between physicians and patients and may influence aspects of patient health outcomes. It is therefore important to analyze non-verbal communication in medical settings. Current approaches to measure non-verbal interactions in medicine employ coding by human raters. Such tools are labor intensive and hence limit the scale of possible studies. Here, we present an automated video analysis tool for non-verbal interactions in a medical setting. We test the tool using videos of subjects that interact with an actor portraying a doctor. The actor interviews the subjects performing one of two scripted scenarios of interviewing the subjects: in one scenario the actor showed minimal engagement with the subject. The second scenario included active listening by the doctor and attentiveness to the subject. We analyze the cross correlation in total kinetic energy of the two people in the dyad, and also characterize the frequency spectrum of their motion. We find large differences in interpersonal motion synchrony and entrainment between the two performance scenarios. The active listening scenario shows more synchrony and more symmetric followership than the other scenario. Moreover, the active listening scenario shows more high-frequency motion termed jitter that has been recently suggested to be a marker of followership. The present approach may be useful for analyzing physician-patient interactions in terms of synchrony and dominance in a range of medical settings.

  2. The Introduction of Non-Verbal Communication in Greek Education: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatis, Panagiotis J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The introductory part of this paper underlines the research interest of the educational community in the issue of non-verbal communication in education. The question for the introduction of this scientific field in Greek education enter within the context of this research which include many aspects. Method: The paper essentially…

  3. Non-Verbal Communication Training: An Avenue for University Professionalizing Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazaille, Mariane

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with today's workplace expectations, many university programs identify the ability to communicate as a crucial asset for future professionals. Yet, if the teaching of verbal communication is clearly identifiable in most university programs, the same cannot be said of non-verbal communication (NVC). Knowing the importance of the…

  4. Quality Matters! Differences between Expressive and Receptive Non-Verbal Communication Skills in Adolescents with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Ruth B.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed several studies of non-verbal communication (prosody and facial expressions) completed in our lab and conducted a secondary analysis to compare performance on receptive vs. expressive tasks by adolescents with ASD and their typically developing peers. Results show a significant between-group difference for the aggregate score of…

  5. project SENSE : multimodal simulation with full-body real-time verbal and nonverbal interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miri, Hossein; Kolkmeier, Jan; Taylor, Paul Jonathon; Poppe, Ronald; Heylen, Dirk; Poppe, Ronald; Meyer, John-Jules; Veltkamp, Remco; Dastani, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a multimodal simulation system, project-SENSE, that combines virtual reality and full-body motion capture technologies with real-time verbal and nonverbal communication. We introduce the technical setup and employed hardware and software of a first prototype. We discuss the

  6. The Use and Frequency of Verbal and Non-Verbal Praise in Nurture Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Nurture groups are a form of provision for children with social, emotional, behavioural and learning difficulties. The study examines the interactions between children and staff--in particular, the frequency and effects of verbal and non-verbal praise--and discusses how this contributes to its effectiveness as a positive intervention instrument…

  7. Executive functioning and non-verbal intelligence as predictors of bullying in early elementary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinden, Marina; Veenstra, René; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Jansen, P.W.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, F.C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Executive function and intelligence are negatively associated with aggression, yet the role of executive function has rarely been examined in the context of school bullying. We studied whether different domains of executive function and non-verbal intelligence are associated with bullying involvemen

  8. Video-Mediated Judgements of Personal Characteristics Based upon Non-Verbal Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargie, Owen D. W.; Dickson, David A.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of making judgments about other people and forming first impressions focuses on a study in Northern Ireland that was concerned with the accuracy of first impressions based on nonverbal information. The use of video recordings is described, and correlations between actual and observed characteristics are examined. (22 references) (LRW)

  9. Social Cognition and Its Relation to Psychosocial Adjustment in Children with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galway, Tanya M.; Metsala, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined social cognitive skills in children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) compared to normally achieving (NA) children. The relation between social cognitive skills and psychosocial adjustment was also investigated. There were no group differences on children's ability to represent orally presented social vignettes.…

  10. Communicating in a Multicultural Classroom: A Study of Students' Nonverbal Behavior and Attitudes toward Faculty Attire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, Ephraim; Washington, Melvin

    2011-01-01

    Economic and market globalization in the United States has engendered a multicultural learning environment that challenges both faculty and students. Diversity in the classroom is further complicated by nonverbal communication, which impacts on students' attitudes toward faculty members. Because today's classrooms are changing and undergoing rapid…

  11. Trauma team leaders' non-verbal communication: video registration during trauma team training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härgestam, Maria; Hultin, Magnus; Brulin, Christine; Jacobsson, Maritha

    2016-03-25

    There is widespread consensus on the importance of safe and secure communication in healthcare, especially in trauma care where time is a limiting factor. Although non-verbal communication has an impact on communication between individuals, there is only limited knowledge of how trauma team leaders communicate. The purpose of this study was to investigate how trauma team members are positioned in the emergency room, and how leaders communicate in terms of gaze direction, vocal nuances, and gestures during trauma team training. Eighteen trauma teams were audio and video recorded during trauma team training in the emergency department of a hospital in northern Sweden. Quantitative content analysis was used to categorize the team members' positions and the leaders' non-verbal communication: gaze direction, vocal nuances, and gestures. The quantitative data were interpreted in relation to the specific context. Time sequences of the leaders' gaze direction, speech time, and gestures were identified separately and registered as time (seconds) and proportions (%) of the total training time. The team leaders who gained control over the most important area in the emergency room, the "inner circle", positioned themselves as heads over the team, using gaze direction, gestures, vocal nuances, and verbal commands that solidified their verbal message. Changes in position required both attention and collaboration. Leaders who spoke in a hesitant voice, or were silent, expressed ambiguity in their non-verbal communication: and other team members took over the leader's tasks. In teams where the leader had control over the inner circle, the members seemed to have an awareness of each other's roles and tasks, knowing when in time and where in space these tasks needed to be executed. Deviations in the leaders' communication increased the ambiguity in the communication, which had consequences for the teamwork. Communication cannot be taken for granted; it needs to be practiced

  12. I can't keep your face and voice out of my head: neural correlates of an attentional bias toward nonverbal emotional cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Heike; Brück, Carolin; Domin, Martin; Lotze, Martin; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2014-06-01

    Emotional information can be conveyed by verbal and nonverbal cues with the latter often suggested to exert a greater influence in shaping our perceptions of others. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study sought to explore attentional biases toward nonverbal signals by investigating the interaction of verbal and nonverbal cues. Results obtained in this study underline the previous suggestions of a "nonverbal dominance" in emotion communication by evidencing implicit effects of nonverbal cues on emotion judgements even when attention is directed away from nonverbal signals and focused on verbal cues. Attentional biases toward nonverbal signals appeared to be reflected in increasing activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) assumed to reflect increasing difficulties to suppress nonverbal cues during task conditions that asked to shift attention away from nonverbal signals. Aside the DLPFC, results suggest the right amygdala to play a role in attention control mechanisms related to the processing of emotional cues. Analyses conducted to determine the cerebral correlates of the individual ability to shift attention between verbal and nonverbal sources of information indicated that higher task-switching abilities seem to be associated with the up-regulation of right amygdala activation during explicit judgments of nonverbal cues, whereas difficulties in task-switching seem to be related to a down-regulation.

  13. Intentional communication in nonverbal and verbal low-functioning children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maljaars, Jarymke; Noens, Ilse; Jansen, Rianne; Scholte, Evert; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina

    2011-01-01

    In this study we characterized profiles of communicative functions and forms of children with autism and intellectual disability (n=26), as compared to typically developing children (n=26) with a comparable nonverbal mental age (2-5 years). Videotapes of the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales - Developmental Profile were analyzed using a standardized observation scheme in which three main functions were distinguished: behavior regulation, social interaction, and joint attention. Different forms of communication were also investigated: gestures, vocalizations/verbalizations, and eye gaze. Results indicated that in typically developing children the proportion of communication for the purpose of joint attention was much higher than for behavior regulation, whereas in children with autism the opposite pattern was seen. Low-functioning nonverbal children with autism mainly communicated for behavior regulation and not or only rarely for declarative purposes. Generally, this subgroup used the least complex forms to communicate. Low-functioning verbal children with autism differed from typically developing children only in the rate, not in the proportion of communication for specific functions. Combinations of three different communicative forms were used by verbal children with autism less frequently than by typically developing children. After reading this paper, readers should be able to: (1) describe early development of communicative functions, (2) explain differences in communication profiles with respect to form and function between verbal and nonverbal low-functioning children with autism and typically developing children matched on nonverbal mental age and (3) discuss clinical implications of the findings for communication interventions in verbal and nonverbal low-functioning children with autism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Teacher communication behavior and its association with students' cognitive and attitudinal outcomes in science in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Hsiao-Ching; Fisher, Darrell

    2002-01-01

    In the study described in this article a questionnaire was employed that can be used to assess students' and teachers' perceptions of science teachers' interpersonal communication behaviors in their classroom learning environments. The Teacher Communication Behavior Questionnaire (TCBQ) has five scales: Challenging, Encouragement and Praise, Non-Verbal Support, Understanding and Friendly, and Controlling. The TCBQ was used with a large sample of secondary science students in Taiwan, which provided additional validation data for the TCBQ for use in Taiwan and cross-validation data for its use in English-speaking countries. Girls perceived their teachers as more understanding and friendly than did boys, and teachers in biological science classrooms exhibited more favorable behavior toward their students than did those in physical science classrooms. Differences were also noted between the perceptions of the students and their teachers. Positive relationships were found between students' perceptions of their teachers' communication behaviors and their attitudes toward science. Students' cognitive achievement scores were higher when students perceived their teacher as using more challenging questions, as giving more nonverbal support, and as being more understanding and friendly. The development of both teacher and student versions of the TCBQ enhances the possibility of the use of the instrument by teachers.

  15. Real-time feedback on nonverbal clinical communication. Theoretical framework and clinician acceptance of ambient visual design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzler, A L; Patel, R A; Czerwinski, M; Pratt, W; Roseway, A; Chandrasekaran, N; Back, A

    2014-01-01

    This article is part of the focus theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Pervasive Intelligent Technologies for Health". Effective nonverbal communication between patients and clinicians fosters both the delivery of empathic patient-centered care and positive patient outcomes. Although nonverbal skill training is a recognized need, few efforts to enhance patient-clinician communication provide visual feedback on nonverbal aspects of the clinical encounter. We describe a novel approach that uses social signal processing technology (SSP) to capture nonverbal cues in real time and to display ambient visual feedback on control and affiliation--two primary, yet distinct dimensions of interpersonal nonverbal communication. To examine the design and clinician acceptance of ambient visual feedback on nonverbal communication, we 1) formulated a model of relational communication to ground SSP and 2) conducted a formative user study using mixed methods to explore the design of visual feedback. Based on a model of relational communication, we reviewed interpersonal communication research to map nonverbal cues to signals of affiliation and control evidenced in patient-clinician interaction. Corresponding with our formulation of this theoretical framework, we designed ambient real-time visualizations that reflect variations of affiliation and control. To explore clinicians' acceptance of this visual feedback, we conducted a lab study using the Wizard-of-Oz technique to simulate system use with 16 healthcare professionals. We followed up with seven of those participants through interviews to iterate on the design with a revised visualization that addressed emergent design considerations. Ambient visual feedback on non- verbal communication provides a theoretically grounded and acceptable way to provide clinicians with awareness of their nonverbal communication style. We provide implications for the design of such visual feedback that encourages empathic patient

  16. The Contributions of Memory and Vocabulary to Non-Verbal Ability Scores in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungkhetklang, Chantanee; Bavin, Edith L.; Crewther, Sheila G.; Goharpey, Nahal; Parsons, Carl

    2016-01-01

    It is usually assumed that performance on non-verbal intelligence tests reflects visual cognitive processing and that aspects of working memory (WM) will be involved. However, the unique contribution of memory to non-verbal scores is not clear, nor is the unique contribution of vocabulary. Thus, we aimed to investigate these contributions. Non-verbal test scores for 17 individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and 39 children with typical development (TD) of similar mental age were compared to determine the unique contribution of visual and verbal short-term memory (STM) and WM and the additional variance contributed by vocabulary scores. No significant group differences were found in the non-verbal test scores or receptive vocabulary scores, but there was a significant difference in expressive vocabulary. Regression analyses indicate that for the TD group STM and WM (both visual and verbal) contributed similar variance to the non-verbal scores. For the ID group, visual STM and verbal WM contributed most of the variance to the non-verbal test scores. The addition of vocabulary scores to the model contributed greater variance for both groups. More unique variance was contributed by vocabulary than memory for the TD group, whereas for the ID group memory contributed more than vocabulary. Visual and auditory memory and vocabulary contributed significantly to solving visual non-verbal problems for both the TD group and the ID group. However, for each group, there were different weightings of these variables. Our findings indicate that for individuals with TD, vocabulary is the major factor in solving non-verbal problems, not memory, whereas for adolescents with ID, visual STM, and verbal WM are more influential than vocabulary, suggesting different pathways to achieve solutions to non-verbal problems. PMID:28082922

  17. [Psychophysiological structure of verbal and nonverbal intellect in 6-7 year old children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezrukikh, M M; Loginova, E S

    2011-01-01

    Wechsler test revealed the peculiarities of intellectual development of children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). It is shown that the psychophysiological structure of intelligence in 6-7 year old children without any signs of ADHD is characterized by a high level of development and close interaction between verbal and nonverbal components. Their peers with ADHD demonstrate an insufficient level of development of visual-spatial perception, voluntary activity organization and regulation, and a lower level of interaction between verbal and nonverbal components. Significant differences between verbal and nonverbal integral indices are the evidence of the deficit in voluntary attention and voluntary regulation and in the integrity of operational cognitive structures.

  18. [Patients' preferences for nurses' nonverbal expressions of warmth during nursing rounds and administration of oral medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H S; Kim, M S

    1990-12-01

    Nursing involves deep human interpersonal relationships between nurses and patients. But in modern Korea, the nurse-patient relationship tends to be ritualistic and mechanestic. Patients usually express the hope that nurses be more tender and kind. Patients expect nurses to express their warmth especially through nonverbal behaviour. This study was conducted to identify patients' preferences for nurse's nonverbal expressions of warmth. Through the confirmation of these preferences, nurses may learn how to enhance their interpersonal relationships with patients. Subjects for the study were 73 patients who had been admitted to a university teaching hospital for at least three days and agreed to be interviewed by the investigator. The interactions were studied nonverbal expressions of warmth during nursing rounds and administration of oral medication. The interview schedule was especially designed by the investigator to measure the nurse's posture, the distance between the nurse and the patient, the nurse's eye contact, facial expression, hand motion and head nodding. Data analysis included frequencies, percentages and X2-test. The results of this study may be summerized as follows: 1. Patient's preferences for nurse's nonverbal expressions of warmth during nursing rounds. Preferred nurse's posture was sitting (50.7%) or standing (49.3%) opposite the patient. Preferred distance between the nurse and the patient was close to the bed (93.2%), less than 1m. Preferred eye contact was directed to the patient's eyes or their affected part (41.1%). Preferred facial expression was a smile (97.3%). Preferred hand motions were light gestures (41.1%). Patients preferred head nodding which approved their own opinions (69.9%). 2. Patient's preferences for nurse's nonverbal expressions of warmth during administration of oral medication. Preferred nurse's posture was standing and waiting to confirm that the medication had been taken (58.9%). Preferred distance from the patient was

  19. Nonverbal behavioral similarity between patients with depression in remission and interviewers in relation to satisfaction and recurrence of depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Erwin; van Os, Titus; Ormel, Johan; Bouhuys, Netty

    2006-01-01

    Unsatisfying interpersonal relationships are involved in the onset and course of depression. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. In this study we investigated the nonverbal communication between 101 patients with remitted depression and interviewers. We related the interaction

  20. Nonverbal behavioral similarity between patients with depression in remission and interviewers in relation to satisfaction and recurrence of depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Erwin; van Os, Titus; Ormel, Johan; Bouhuys, Netty

    2006-01-01

    Unsatisfying interpersonal relationships are involved in the onset and course of depression. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. In this study we investigated the nonverbal communication between 101 patients with remitted depression and interviewers. We related the interaction

  1. Non-verbal Communication and Foreign Language Teaching%非言语交际与外语教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红艳

    2010-01-01

    本文通过分析言语交际与非言语交际的关系,非言语交际在外语教学中的主要表现以及实现非言语交际在外语教学中重要作用的主要途径,揭示了在外语教学中非言语交际的重要性不容忽视.%By analyzing the relationship between verbal communication and non-verbal communication ,as well as the important role that non-verbal communication plays in foreign language teaching, this paper discusses the content and method of non-verbal communication in foreign language teaching. And the equal stress should be laid to both verbal communication and non-verbal communication in foreign language teaching.

  2. A Survey of Special Educators' Awareness of, Experiences with, and Attitudes toward Nonverbal Communication Aids in the Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrewsbury, Rosemary G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Results of surveys completed by 237 special educators indicate respondents' limited awareness, understanding, and experiences with nonverbal communication aids. Results have implications for preservice and continuing education programs for special educators. (Author/CL)

  3. Nonverbal Strategy in Natural Pharmaceutical Chemistry Teaching%天然药物化学教学中教师非语言策略探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张阿琴

    2015-01-01

    非语言策略是指使用不属于语言的方式和手段来交流思想、传递信息的一种沟通策略,主要包括体态语(手势、眼神、体态等)、视频、图片、实物演示、网络技术等形式. 教师在天然药物化学课程教学过程中要根据教学内容、学科特点、学生基础的情况,灵活巧妙地运用非语言策略,形象地、富有感染力地向学生传授知识,从而达到激励学生乐学情感、增强语言教学效果、促进学生各项能力发展、增加教育的说服力的效果,使学生在教师的带领下学好这门既重要又难学的专业课,为学好后续课程、成为合格的药学类专业人才打下坚实的基础.%Nonverbal strategies refer to the way which is not use language to exchange ideas and transfer information,including body language (gestures,eyes,body ),video,pictures,real demonstration,network technology and other forms .The teacher should flexible bly and clever the use nonverbal strategy as to make students learn happily ,enhance language teaching effect ,promote the development of students ability , and increase the persuasive effect of education .

  4. E.M.P.A.T.H.Y.: a tool to enhance nonverbal communication between clinicians and their patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riess, Helen; Kraft-Todd, Gordon

    2014-08-01

    There is a gap in the medical education literature on teaching nonverbal detection and expression of empathy. Many articles do not address nonverbal interactions, instead focusing on "what to say" rather than "how to be." This focus on verbal communication overlooks the essential role nonverbal signals play in the communication of emotions, which has significant effects on patient satisfaction, health outcomes, and malpractice claims. This gap is addressed with a novel teaching tool for assessing nonverbal behavior using the acronym E.M.P.A.T.H.Y.-E: eye contact; M: muscles of facial expression; P: posture; A: affect; T: tone of voice; H: hearing the whole patient; Y: your response. This acronym was the cornerstone of a randomized controlled trial of empathy training at Massachusetts General Hospital, 2010-2012. Used as an easy-to-remember checklist, the acronym orients medical professionals to key aspects of perceiving and responding to nonverbal emotional cues. An urgent need exists to teach nonverbal aspects of communication as medical practices must be reoriented to the increasing cultural diversity represented by patients presenting for care. Where language proficiency may be limited, nonverbal communication becomes more crucial for understanding patients' communications. Furthermore, even in the absence of cultural differences, many patients are reluctant to disagree with their clinicians, and subtle nonverbal cues may be the critical entry point for discussions leading to shared medical decisions. A detailed description of the E.M.P.A.T.H.Y. acronym and a brief summary of the literature that supports each component of the teaching tool are provided.

  5. On the study of nonverbal communication is used in the teaching of dance sport review%关于非语言交流运用于体育舞蹈教学研究的综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建新

    2015-01-01

    该文结合体育舞蹈教学与非语言方式展开研究,我们认为,教师的的语言与非语言方式作为教学方式线索提供给学生,学生在推导教师交际意图时,语言和非语言措施已经蕴含在他们的认知方式中,利用此种方式,出现的每一种语言,一定会有与之相匹配的对应的非语言形式,两者互相结合生成的语言意义独特且有更深层的涵义。表达不同目的非语言交流可以表达不同的目的。具有真实性非语言交流有时是无意识的,它不像语言性交流时可以更有意识地控制词语的选择,所以非语言行为比语言行为更具有真实性。%In this paper,combining with the research of sports dance teaching and non language way,We believe that teachers language and non-language as a way of teaching cues available to students,Teachers of students in the derivation of communicative intent, verbal and non-verbal cognitive style measures already contained in them, Using this method,every language that appears,will have to match the corresponding non-language form,Combine the two generated unique linguistic meaning and has a deeper meaning. Expression of non-verbal communication can express different purposes for different purposes.Have the authenticity of non-verbal communication is sometimes unconscious,it is not as verbal communication can be more conscious control over the choice of words, nonverbal behavior more than the language of authenticity.

  6. Beyond "One Size Fits All": Physician Nonverbal Adaptability to Patients' Need for Paternalism and Its Positive Consultation Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrard, Valérie; Schmid Mast, Marianne; Cousin, Gaëtan

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we tested whether physicians' ability to adapt their nonverbal behavior to their patients' preferences for a paternalistic interaction style is related to positive consultation outcomes. We hypothesized that the more physicians adapt their nonverbal dominance behavior to match their patients' preferences for physician paternalism, the more positively the patients perceive the medical interaction. We assessed the actual nonverbal dominance behavior of 32 general practitioners when interacting with two of their patients and compared it with each of their patients' preferences for paternalism to obtain a measure of adaptability. Additionally, we measured patient outcomes with a questionnaire assessing patient satisfaction, trust in the physician, and evaluation of physician competence. Results show that the more nonverbal dominance the physician shows toward the patient who prefers a more paternalistic physician, as compared to toward the patient who prefers a less paternalistic physician (i.e., the more the physician shows nonverbal behavioral adaptability), the more positive the consultation outcomes are. This means that physicians' ability to adapt aspects of their nonverbal dominance behavior to their individual patients' preferences is related to better outcomes for patients. As this study shows, it is advantageous for patients when a physician behaves flexibly instead of showing the same behavior towards all patients. Physician training might want to focus more on teaching a diversity of different behavior repertoires instead of a given set of behaviors.

  7. The influence of electronic medical record usage on nonverbal communication in the medical interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, John M; Arar, Nedal H; Pugh, Jacqueline A

    2007-06-01

    This study examined nonverbal communication in relation to electronic medical record (EMR) use during the medical interview. Six physicians were videotaped during their consultations with 50 different patients at a single setting Veterans Administration Hospital. Three different office spatial designs were identified and named 'open,' 'closed' and 'blocked'. The ;open' arrangement put physicians in a position to establish better eye contact and physical orientation than did the alternative 'closed' and 'blocked' office configurations. Physicians who accessed the EMR and took 'breakpoints' (short periods of no computer use and sustained eye contact with patients) used more nonverbal cues than physicians who tended to talk with their patients while continuously working on the computer. Long pauses in conversational turn taking associated with EMR use may have positively influenced doctor-patient communication. High EMR use interviews were associated with patients asking more questions than they did in low EMR use interviews. Implications for medical education and future research are discussed.

  8. [Mediate evaluation of replicating a Training Program in Nonverbal Communication in Gerontology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimidt, Teresa Cristina Gioia; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Silva, Maria Julia Paes da

    2015-04-01

    Replicating the training program in non-verbal communication based on the theoretical framework of interpersonal communication; non-verbal coding, valuing the aging aspects in the perspective of active aging, checking its current relevance through the content assimilation index after 90 days (mediate) of its application. A descriptive and exploratory field study was conducted in three hospitals under direct administration of the state of São Paulo that caters exclusively to Unified Health System (SUS) patients. The training lasted 12 hours divided in three meetings, applied to 102 health professionals. Revealed very satisfactory and satisfactory mediate content assimilation index in 82.9%. The program replication proved to be relevant and updated the setting of hospital services, while remaining efficient for healthcare professionals.

  9. Mediate evaluation of replicating a Training Program in Nonverbal Communication in Gerontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Gioia Schimidt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Replicating the training program in non-verbal communication based on the theoretical framework of interpersonal communication; non-verbal coding, valuing the aging aspects in the perspective of active aging, checking its current relevance through the content assimilation index after 90 days (mediate of its application. METHOD A descriptive and exploratory field study was conducted in three hospitals under direct administration of the state of São Paulo that caters exclusively to Unified Health System (SUS patients. The training lasted 12 hours divided in three meetings, applied to 102 health professionals. RESULTS Revealed very satisfactory and satisfactory mediate content assimilation index in 82.9%. CONCLUSION The program replication proved to be relevant and updated the setting of hospital services, while remaining efficient for healthcare professionals.

  10. Relationships between symbolic play, functional play, verbal and non-verbal ability in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, V; Boucher, J; Lupton, L; Watson, S

    2000-01-01

    It is well established that certain aspects of play in young children are related to their emerging linguistic skills. The present study examined the relationships between functional play, symbolic play, non-verbal ability, and expressive and receptive language in normally developing children aged between 1 and 6 years using standardized assessment procedures, including a recently developed Test of Pretend Play (ToPP). When effects of chronological age were partialled out, symbolic play remained significantly correlated with both expressive and receptive language, but not with functional play or non-verbal ability; and functional play was only correlated significantly with expressive language. It is concluded that ToPP will provide practitioners with a useful way of assessing symbolic ability in children between the ages of 1 and 6 years, and will contribute to the assessment and diagnosis of a number of communication difficulties, and have implications for intervention.

  11. Brain morphology and neuropsychological profiles in a family displaying dyslexia and superior nonverbal intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craggs, Jason G; Sanchez, Juliana; Kibby, Michelle Y; Gilger, Jeffrey W; Hynd, George W

    2006-11-01

    Behavioral research suggests that individuals with dyslexia may have exceptional skills in nonverbal cognitive processes, while genetic studies have noted that giftedness, high IQ and/or special talents tend to run in families. Taken together, these results suggest that persons within families (particularly offspring) may share similar cortical systems supporting those functions. Postmortem and in vivo imaging studies have linked dyslexia to abnormalities in the structures associated with the parietal operculum (PO) (e.g., planum temporale, supramarginal gyrus, and angular gyrus). In this paper we present data on a single family showing a link between dyslexia, superior nonverbal IQ and atypical PO presentation. We consider the psychometric and neurological patterns of this family as a tentative etiological test of the putative dyslexia-talent association.

  12. Broadening the units of analysis in communication: speech and nonverbal behaviours in pragmatic comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, S D

    2001-06-01

    Recently, much research has explored the role that nonverbal pointing behaviours play in children's early acquisition of language, for example during word learning. However, few researchers have considered the possibility that these behaviours may continue to play a role in language comprehension as children develop more sophisticated language skills. The present study investigates the role that eye gaze and pointing gestures play in three- to five-year-olds understanding of complex pragmatic communication. Experiment 1 demonstrates that children (N = 29) better understand videotapes of a mother making indirect requests to a child when the requests are accompanied by nonverbal pointing behaviours. Experiment 2 uses a different methodology in which children (N = 27) are actual participants rather than observers in order to generalize the findings to naturalistic, face-to-face interactions. The results from both experiments suggest that broader units of analysis beyond the verbal message may be needed in studying children's continuing understanding of pragmatic processes.

  13. Nonverbal Communication of Confidence in Soccer Referees: An Experimental Test of Darwin's Leakage Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furley, Philip; Schweizer, Geoffrey

    2016-12-01

    The goal of the present paper was to investigate whether soccer referees' nonverbal behavior (NVB) differed based on the difficulty of their decisions and whether perceivers could detect these systematic variations. On the one hand, communicating confidence via NVB is emphasized in referee training. On the other hand, it seems feasible from a theoretical point of view that particularly following relatively difficult decisions referees have problems controlling their NVB. We conducted three experiments to investigate this question. Experiment 1 (N = 40) and Experiment 2 (N = 60) provided evidence that perceivers regard referees' NVB as less confident following ambiguous decisions as compared with following unambiguous decisions. Experiment 3 (N = 58) suggested that perceivers were more likely to debate with the referee when referees nonverbally communicated less confidence. We discuss consequences for referee training.

  14. Have We Forgotten Auditory Sensory Memory? Retention Intervals in Studies of Nonverbal Auditory Working Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Michael A. Nees

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have shown increased interest in mechanisms of working memory for nonverbal sounds such as music and environmental sounds. These studies often have used two-stimulus comparison tasks: two sounds separated by a brief retention interval (often 3 to 5 s) are compared, and a same or different judgment is recorded. Researchers seem to have assumed that sensory memory has a negligible impact on performance in auditory two-stimulus comparison tasks. This assumption is examined in detai...

  15. Have We Forgotten Auditory Sensory Memory? Retention Intervals in Studies of Nonverbal Auditory Working Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Michael A. Nees

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have shown increased interest in mechanisms of working memory for nonverbal sounds such as music and environmental sounds. These studies often have used two-stimulus comparison tasks: two sounds separated by a brief retention interval (often 3–5 s) are compared, and a “same” or “different” judgment is recorded. Researchers seem to have assumed that sensory memory has a negligible impact on performance in auditory two-stimulus comparison tasks. This assumption is examined in detail...

  16. Verbal and Nonverbal Neuropsychological Test Performance in Subjects With Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Voglmaier, Martina M.; Seidman, Larry Joel; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A.; Dickey, Chandlee C.; Shenton, Martha Elizabeth; McCarley, Robert William

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The authors contrasted verbal and nonverbal measures of attention and memory in patients with DSM-IV-defined schizotypal personality disorder in order to expand on their previous findings of verbal learning deficits in these patients and to understand better the neuropsychological profile of schizotypal personality disorder. Method: Cognitive test performance was examined in 16 right-handed men who met diagnostic criteria for schizotypal personality disorder and 16 matched male com...

  17. Deaf children's non-verbal working memory is impacted by their language experience

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Chloë; Jones, Anna; Denmark, Tanya; Mason, Kathryn; Atkinson, Joanna; Botting, Nicola; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that deaf children perform more poorly on working memory tasks compared to hearing children, but these studies have not been able to determine whether this poorer performance arises directly from deafness itself or from deaf children's reduced language exposure. The issue remains unresolved because findings come mostly from (1) tasks that are verbal as opposed to non-verbal, and (2) involve deaf children who use spoken communication and therefore may have...

  18. Assessment of Nonverbal and Verbal Apraxia in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Monia Presotto; Maira Rozenfeld Olchik; Artur Francisco Shumacher Shuh; Rieder, Carlos R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the presence of nonverbal and verbal apraxia in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and analyze the correlation between these conditions and patient age, education, duration of disease, and PD stage, as well as evaluate the correlation between the two types of apraxia and the frequency and types of verbal apraxic errors made by patients in the sample. Method. This was an observational prevalence study. The sample comprised 45 patients with PD seen at the Movement Disor...

  19. Oncologists' non-verbal behavior and analog patients' recall of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillen, Marij A; de Haes, Hanneke C J M; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; van Weert, Julia C M; Vermeulen, Daniëlle M; Smets, Ellen M A

    2016-06-01

    Background Information in oncological consultations is often excessive. Those patients who better recall information are more satisfied, less anxious and more adherent. Optimal recall may be enhanced by the oncologist's non-verbal communication. We tested the influence of three non-verbal behaviors, i.e. eye contact, body posture and smiling, on patients' recall of information and perceived friendliness of the oncologist. Moreover, the influence of patient characteristics on recall was examined, both directly or as a moderator of non-verbal communication. Material and methods Non-verbal communication of an oncologist was experimentally varied using video vignettes. In total 194 breast cancer patients/survivors and healthy women participated as 'analog patients', viewing a randomly selected video version while imagining themselves in the role of the patient. Directly after viewing, they evaluated the oncologist. From 24 to 48 hours later, participants' passive recall, i.e. recognition, and free recall of information provided by the oncologist were assessed. Results Participants' recognition was higher if the oncologist maintained more consistent eye contact (β = 0.17). More eye contact and smiling led to a perception of the oncologist as more friendly. Body posture and smiling did not significantly influence recall. Older age predicted significantly worse recognition (β = -0.28) and free recall (β = -0.34) of information. Conclusion Oncologists may be able to facilitate their patients' recall functioning through consistent eye contact. This seems particularly relevant for older patients, whose recall is significantly worse. These findings can be used in training, focused on how to maintain eye contact while managing computer tasks.

  20. Maternal Nonverbal Attunement, Depression Symptoms, Emotion Regulation Strategies And Child's Behaviour Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Kristīne Vende

    2014-01-01

    Summary The research aimed to determine whether and what are the correlations between maternal nonverbal attunement with a child, maternal depression symptoms, maternal emotion regulation strategies and rates of child's externalizing and internalizing behaviour problems. The research was held in two phases. At the first phase, 218 mothers with children aged 7 to 11 years, filled in the Child Behaviour Checklist (Manual for the ASEBA school-age forms & profiles; Achenbach &Re...

  1. Five days at outdoor education camp without screens improves preteen skills with nonverbal emotion cues

    OpenAIRE

    Uhls, Yalda T.; Michikyan, Minas; Morris, Jordan; Garcia, Debra; Small, Gary W.; Zgourou, Eleni; Greenfield, Patricia M.

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment examined whether increasing opportunities for face-to-face interaction while eliminating the use of screen-based media and communication tools improved nonverbal emotion-cue recognition in preteens. Fifty-one preteens spent five days at an overnight nature camp where television, computers and mobile phones were not allowed; this group was compared with school-based matched controls (n = 54) that retained usual media practices. Both groups took pre- and post-tests that requi...

  2. Executive functioning and non-verbal intelligence as predictors of bullying in early elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, Marina; Veenstra, René; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Jansen, Pauline W; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2014-08-01

    Executive function and intelligence are negatively associated with aggression, yet the role of executive function has rarely been examined in the context of school bullying. We studied whether different domains of executive function and non-verbal intelligence are associated with bullying involvement in early elementary school. The association was examined in a population-based sample of 1,377 children. At age 4 years we assessed problems in inhibition, shifting, emotional control, working memory and planning/organization, using a validated parental questionnaire (the BRIEF-P). Additionally, we determined child non-verbal IQ at age 6 years. Bullying involvement as a bully, victim or a bully-victim in grades 1-2 of elementary school (mean age 7.7 years) was measured using a peer-nomination procedure. Individual bullying scores were based on the ratings by multiple peers (on average 20 classmates). Analyses were adjusted for various child and maternal socio-demographic and psychosocial covariates. Child score for inhibition problems was associated with the risk of being a bully (OR per SD = 1.35, 95%CI: 1.09-1.66), victim (OR per SD = 1.21, 95%CI: 1.00-1.45) and a bully-victim (OR per SD = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.10-2.17). Children with higher non-verbal IQ were less likely to be victims (OR = 0.99, 95%CI: 0.98-1.00) and bully-victims (OR = 95%CI: 0.93-0.98, respectively). In conclusion, our study showed that peer interactions may be to some extent influenced by children's executive function and non-verbal intelligence. Future studies should examine whether training executive function skills can reduce bullying involvement and improve the quality of peer relationships.

  3. Linguistic analysis of verbal and non-verbal communication in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alison; Butt, David; Ellis-Clarke, Jodie; Cartmill, John

    2010-12-01

    Surgery can be a triumph of co-operation, the procedure evolving as a result of joint action between multiple participants. The communication that mediates the joint action of surgery is conveyed by verbal but particularly by non-verbal signals. Competing priorities superimposed by surgical learning must also be negotiated within this context and this paper draws on techniques of systemic functional linguistics to observe and analyse the flow of information during such a phase of surgery.

  4. A Contrastive Study of Intercultural Nonverbal Communication-Gestures Between English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜自敏; 杨艳

    2008-01-01

    Non-verbal communication as well as verbal communication is the carrier of culture.It is a lso a very important form,which supplement and improve the verbal communication.In sonle specific circumstances,it plays an important role that verbal language Can't take.This thesis,compared with chinese,introduce the gesture and its cultural connotation in English-spewing countries.

  5. Cross-cultural recognition of basic emotions through nonverbal emotional vocalizations

    OpenAIRE

    Sauter, D.; Eisner, F.; Ekman, P.; Scott, S.

    2010-01-01

    Emotional signals are crucial for sharing important information, with conspecifics, for example, to warn humans of danger. Humans use a range of different cues to communicate to others how they feel, including facial, vocal, and gestural signals. We examined the recognition of nonverbal emotional vocalizations, such as screams and laughs, across two dramatically different cultural groups. Western participants were compared to individuals from remote, culturally isolated Namibian villages. Voc...

  6. Asperger syndrome: how does it relate to non-verbal learning disability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryburn, B; Anderson, V; Wales, R

    2009-03-01

    The syndrome of non-verbal learning disabilities (NLD) is associated with prominent non-verbal deficits such as reduced perceptual and spatial abilities, against a background of relatively intact verbal abilities. Asperger syndrome is one of the several developmental disorders for which Byron Rourke has claimed that almost all the signs and symptoms of NLD are present. This study investigated the claim utilizing a battery of neuropsychological tests that were found to be sensitive to NLD in the original learning disordered populations used to describe the syndrome. Children aged between 8 and 14 were recruited to form two groups: (1) children with Asperger syndrome (N=14) and (2) normal healthy schoolchildren (N=20). By contrast to the main principle outlined in the NLD model, children with Asperger syndrome did not display a relative difficulty with spatial- or problem-solving tasks; indeed, they displayed significantly higher performance on some non-verbal tasks in comparison with verbal tasks. It was only in relation to their high levels of psychosocial and interpersonal difficulties, which are also predicted on the basis of their psychiatric diagnosis, that the children with Asperger syndrome were clearly consistent with the NLD model in this study. These results raise questions about the relevance of the syndrome of NLD for children with Asperger syndrome.

  7. Association between nonverbal communication during clinical interactions and outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Stephen G; Fuhrel-Forbis, Andrea; Rogers, Mary A M; Eggly, Susan

    2012-03-01

    To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting associations between patients' and clinicians' nonverbal communication during real clinical interactions and clinically relevant outcomes. We searched 10 electronic databases, reference lists, and expert contacts for English-language studies examining associations between nonverbal communication measured through direct observation and either clinician or patient outcomes in adults. Data were systematically extracted and random effects meta-analyses were performed. 26 observational studies met inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis was performed for patient satisfaction, which was assessed in 65% of studies. Mental and physical health status were evaluated in 23% and 19% of included studies, respectively. Both clinician warmth and clinician listening were associated with greater patient satisfaction (pnonverbal measures existed across studies. Greater clinician warmth, less nurse negativity, and greater clinician listening were associated with greater patient satisfaction. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the impact of nonverbal communication on patients' mental and physical health. Communication-based interventions that target clinician warmth and listening and nurse negativity may lead to greater patient satisfaction. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Nonverbal channel use in communication of emotion: how may depend on why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    App, Betsy; McIntosh, Daniel N; Reed, Catherine L; Hertenstein, Matthew J

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that different emotions are most effectively conveyed through specific, nonverbal channels of communication: body, face, and touch. Experiment 1 assessed the production of emotion displays. Participants generated nonverbal displays of 11 emotions, with and without channel restrictions. For both actual production and stated preferences, participants favored the body for embarrassment, guilt, pride, and shame; the face for anger, disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness; and touch for love and sympathy. When restricted to a single channel, participants were most confident about their communication when production was limited to the emotion's preferred channel. Experiment 2 examined the reception or identification of emotion displays. Participants viewed videos of emotions communicated in unrestricted and restricted conditions and identified the communicated emotions. Emotion identification in restricted conditions was most accurate when participants viewed emotions displayed via the emotion's preferred channel. This study provides converging evidence that some emotions are communicated predominantly through different nonverbal channels. Further analysis of these channel-emotion correspondences suggests that the social function of an emotion predicts its primary channel: The body channel promotes social-status emotions, the face channel supports survival emotions, and touch supports intimate emotions.

  9. All eyes on the patient: the influence of oncologists' nonverbal communication on breast cancer patients' trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillen, Marij A; de Haes, Hanneke C J M; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Bijker, Nina; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; Vermeulen, Daniëlle M; Smets, Ellen M A

    2015-08-01

    Trust in the oncologist is crucial for breast cancer patients. It reduces worry, enhances decision making, and stimulates adherence. Optimal nonverbal communication by the oncologist, particularly eye contact, body posture, and smiling, presumably benefits patients' trust. We were the first to experimentally examine (1) how the oncologist's nonverbal behavior influences trust, and (2) individual differences in breast cancer patients' trust. Analogue patients (APs) viewed one out of eight versions of a video vignette displaying a consultation about chemotherapy treatment. All eight versions varied only in the oncologist's amount of eye contact (consistent vs. inconsistent), body posture (forward leaning vs. varying), and smiling (occasional smiling vs. no smiling). Primary outcome was trust in the observed oncologist (Trust in Oncologist Scale). 214 APs participated. Consistent eye contact led to stronger trust (β = -.13, p = .04). This effect was largely explained by lower educated patients, for whom the effect of consistent eye contact was stronger than for higher educated patients (β = .18, p = .01). A forward leaning body posture did not influence trust, nor did smiling. However, if the oncologist smiled more, he was perceived as more friendly (rs = .31, p nonverbal communication with breast cancer patients while simultaneously managing increased time pressure and computer use during the consultation.

  10. Nurses' nonverbal methods of communicating with patients in the terminal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowska, Lena; Doboszynska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain what methods of communication nurses use during interactions with patients nearing the end of their lives, with a particular focus on nonverbal communication. A questionnaire containing 24 questions was completed by 95 nurses working in one of five hospices in Poland. A total of 48% of the sample reported frequently using nonverbal communication consciously and with a certain aim, and a further 37 (39%) reported that they sometimes use it. The sample's responses indicate that for patients the best form of touch is holding hands. In addition, 63% of the respondents stated that they had been educated in communicating with palliative care patients, but only 56% thought that nurses' communication knowledge and skills were satisfactory, and 50% would like to undergo training in communication skills specific to palliative care. Most nurses are aware of the importance of nonverbal communication to their interactions with palliative care patients, but a substantial proportion think that they need to be better educated in theoretical and practical aspects of communication.

  11. Testosterone metabolism: a possible biological underpinning of non-verbal IQ in intellectually gifted girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durdiaková, Jaroslava; Celec, Peter; Laznibatová, Jolana; Minárik, Gabriel; Ostatníková, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The extraordinary giftedness is apparently a unique manifestation of a mutual interconnection between genes and environment. One of the possible etiological factors of intellectual giftedness is testosterone which is believed to affect the brain organization and function. The aim of our study was to analyze associations between 2D:4D digit ratio (a proxy of prenatal testosterone) and/or salivary testosterone levels with non-verbal IQ in intellectually gifted girls. Fifty-one girls with an age range of 10 to18 years and IQ scores higher than 130 were tested. Saliva samples were collected to obtain levels of salivary testosterone. 2D:4D digit ratio was measured on both hands as an indicator of prenatal testosterone. IQ parameters were assessed employing standardized set of tests. The CAG repeat polymorphism in exon 1 of the androgen receptor gene was analyzed to assess the sensitivity of androgen receptor. Testing of between-subjects effects proved significant interactions between right and left 2D:4D ratio, genetic variability in androgen receptor, and also salivary testosterone level with non-verbal IQ in gifted girls. Our results point out that the variability in parameters of androgenicity contributes to the variability of nonverbal IQ in gifted girls. However, the exact molecular mechanism of how testosterone acts on the brain and affects this cognitive domain remains still unclear.

  12. The impact of nonverbal communication on iranian young EFL learners’ attitudes and understanding of lexical items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimi, Manoochehr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research sets at investigating the importance of nonverbal communication (NVC in L2 teaching and learning. More specifically, it studies the effect of teaching gestures that can be perceived and do not come directly from physical language. Communication is a means of sharing ideas, feelings, and attitudes. It is separated into two parts; verbal and nonverbal. Verbal communication uses language, while nonverbal communication is behaviors that can be perceived indirectly from physical language. The participants of the study included 60 Iranian young learners of English selected from among a population of 100 EFL young learners at a private language institute. The participants were divided into two experimental and control groups based on random sampling. Both groups were instructed 15 lexical items. Experimental group was taught using NVC such as gesture and some pertinent pictures whereas control group was instructed using verbal communication (VC and some relevant pictures for six sessions during a month. Then the participants in both groups were tested orally to check their amount of progress. The data were fed into the computer and were analyzed by SPSS using t-test. The results show significant differences between experimental and control groups displaying that experimental group outperformed control group. Also, a questionnaire was distributed among the participants based on Likert scale. The achieved data were analyzed by SPSS and the mean score showed high positive attitudes towards NVC in L2 teaching and learning

  13. Manipulation of Non-verbal Interaction Style and Demographic Embodiment to Increase Anthropomorphic Computer Character Credibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowell, Andrew J.; Stanney, Kay M.

    2005-02-01

    For years, people have sought more natural means of communicating with their computers. Many have suggested that interaction with a computer should be as easy as interacting with other people, taking advantage of the multimodal nature of human communication. While users should, in theory, gravitate to such anthropomorphic embodiments, quite the contrary has been experienced; users generally have been dissatisfied and abandoned their use. This suggests a disconnect between the factors that make human-human communication engaging and those used by designers to support human-agent interaction. This paper discusses a set of empirical studies that attempted to replicate human-human nonverbal behavior. The focus revolved around the behaviors that portrayed a credible façade, helping the embodied conversational agent (ECA) to form a successful cooperative dyad with the user. Based on a review of the nonverbal literature, a framework was created that identified trustworthy and credible nonverbal behaviors across five areas and formed design guidelines for character interaction. The design suggestions for those areas emanating from the facial region (facial expression, eye contact and paralanguage) were experimentally supported but there was no concordant increase in perceived trust when bodily regions (posture and gesture) were added. In addition, in examining the importance of demographic elements in the embodiment, it was found that users prefer to interact with characters that match their ethnicity and are young looking. There was no significant preference for gender. The implications of these results, as well as other interesting consequences are discussed.

  14. Evaluating medical students' non-verbal communication during the objective structured clinical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Hirono; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kinoshita, Makoto; Fujimori, Shin; Shimizu, Teruo; Yano, Eiji

    2006-12-01

    Non-verbal communication (NVC) in medical encounters is an important method of exchanging information on emotional status and contextualising the meaning of verbal communication. This study aimed to assess the impact of medical students' NVC on interview evaluations by standardised patients (SPs). A total of 89 medical interviews in an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) for post-clerkship medical students were analysed. All interviews were videotaped and evaluated on 10 non-verbal behaviour items. In addition, the quality of the interview content was rated by medical faculty on 5 items and the interview was rated by SPs on 5 items. The relationships between student NVC and SP evaluation were examined by multivariate regression analyses controlling for the quality of the interview content. Standardised patients were likely to give higher ratings when students faced them directly, used facilitative nodding when listening to their talk, looked at them equally when talking and listening, and spoke at a similar speed and voice volume to them. These effects of NVC remained significant after controlling for the quality of the interview content. This study provided evidence of specific non-verbal behaviours of doctors that may have additional impacts on the patient's perception of his or her visit, independently of the interview content. Education in basic NVC should be incorporated into medical education alongside verbal communication.

  15. [Syntactic awareness: probable correlations with central coherence and non-verbal intelligence in autism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanda, Cristina de Andrade; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate syntactic awareness, central coherence, non-verbal intelligence, social and communication development, interests and behavior of children with autistic spectrum disorders and to examine their probable correlations. Participants were ten subjects diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorder, eight male and two female, with ages between 4 years e 9 months and 13 years and 4 months (mean age 9 years), who used oral language for communication. The following tests were used: Syntactic Awareness Test - Adapted (Prova de Consciência Sintática - Adaptada), Computerized jigsaw puzzles with picture and background and only with background; and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices - Special Scale. Subjects' parents answered the protocol Autism Diagnostic Interview - Revised (ADI-R). The children with autism presented syntactic awareness performance similar to that of 6-year-old children with typical development. Sixty percent of the subjects showed non-verbal intelligence at a superior or average level. There were no correlations between the performances in syntactic awareness and the other tested variables. There was no relationship between the performance in syntactic awareness and the results related to central coherence, non-verbal intelligence and social interaction deficits, difficulties in communication and restrict patterns interests of subjects with autism. The results suggest that these children seem to follow the development pattern of typically developing 6-year-old children in syntactic awareness abilities, only delayed.

  16. The Impact of Robot Tutor Nonverbal Social Behavior on Child Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kennedy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have indicated that interacting with social robots in educational contexts may lead to a greater learning than interactions with computers or virtual agents. As such, an increasing amount of social human–robot interaction research is being conducted in the learning domain, particularly with children. However, it is unclear precisely what social behavior a robot should employ in such interactions. Inspiration can be taken from human–human studies; this often leads to an assumption that the more social behavior an agent utilizes, the better the learning outcome will be. We apply a nonverbal behavior metric to a series of studies in which children are taught how to identify prime numbers by a robot with various behavioral manipulations. We find a trend, which generally agrees with the pedagogy literature, but also that overt nonverbal behavior does not account for all learning differences. We discuss the impact of novelty, child expectations, and responses to social cues to further the understanding of the relationship between robot social behavior and learning. We suggest that the combination of nonverbal behavior and social cue congruency is necessary to facilitate learning.

  17. The Application of Body Language in Nonverbal Communication between America and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳

    2014-01-01

    Body language plays an important role in nonverbal communication and it is associated with culture. In order to make successful application of body language in nonverbal communication, we should know the body language from different cultures. And we should realize that body language from different cultures has many differences because of different tradition culture, ethnic character traits and social customs. And it is restricted by its culture and has different cultural connotations. That is to say, the same body language has different meanings in different cultures. This paper devotes to the application of body language in nonverbal communication between America and China by contrast of body language between America and China in terms of eye language, gestures, postures, facial expressions and touch. It aims to il ustrate the differences of body language and put forward some factors contributing to the differences then raise ifve strategies of reducing barriers so as to avoid misunderstanding and achieve efifcient application of body language in Sino-American communication.

  18. Language skills and nonverbal cognitive processes associated with reading comprehension in deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daza, María Teresa; Phillips-Silver, Jessica; Ruiz-Cuadra, María del Mar; López-López, Francisco

    2014-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship between language skills (vocabulary knowledge and phonological awareness), nonverbal cognitive processes (attention, memory and executive functions) and reading comprehension in deaf children. Participants were thirty prelingually deaf children (10.7 ± 1.6 years old; 18 boys, 12 girls), who were classified as either good readers or poor readers by their scores on two reading comprehension tasks. The children were administered a rhyme judgment task and seven computerized neuropsychological tasks specifically designed and adapted for deaf children to evaluate vocabulary knowledge, attention, memory and executive functions in deaf children. A correlational approach was also used to assess the association between variables. Although the two groups did not show differences in phonological awareness, good readers showed better vocabulary and performed significantly better than poor readers on attention, memory and executive functions measures. Significant correlations were found between better scores in reading comprehension and better scores on tasks of vocabulary and non-verbal cognitive processes. The results suggest that in deaf children, vocabulary knowledge and nonverbal cognitive processes such as selective attention, visuo-spatial memory, abstract reasoning and sequential processing may be especially relevant for the development of reading comprehension.

  19. Non-verbal development of children with deafness with and without cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlumberger, Emilie; Narbona, Juan; Manrique, Manuel

    2004-09-01

    Deprivation of sensory input affects neurological development. Our objective was to explore clinically the role of hearing in development of sensorimotor integration and non-verbal cognition. The study involved 54 children (15 males, 839 females; 5 to 9 years old) with severe or profound bilateral prelocutive deafness but without neurological or cognitive impairment. Of these, 25 had received an early cochlear implant (CIm). Patients were compared with 40 children with normal hearing. All were given a battery of non-verbal neuropsychological tests and a balance test, and were timed for simple and complex movement of limbs. Deafness, whether treated by CIm or not, resulted in a delay in development of complex motor sequences and balance. Lack of auditory input was also associated with lower, but non-pathological, scores in visual gnoso-praxic tasks and sustained attention. Such differences were not observed in children with CIm. Hearing contributes to clinical development of spatial integration, motor control, and attention. An early CIm enables good verbal development and might also improve non-verbal capacities.

  20. Exploring visuospatial abilities and their contribution to constructional abilities and nonverbal intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojano, Luigi; Siciliano, Mattia; Cristinzio, Chiara; Grossi, Dario

    2017-01-09

    The present study aimed at exploring relationships among the visuospatial tasks included in the Battery for Visuospatial Abilities (BVA), and at assessing the relative contribution of different facets of visuospatial processing on tests tapping constructional abilities and nonverbal abstract reasoning. One hundred forty-four healthy subjects with a normal score on Mini Mental State Examination completed the BVA plus Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices and Constructional Apraxia test. We used Principal Axis Factoring and Parallel Analysis to investigate relationships among the BVA visuospatial tasks, and performed regression analyses to assess the visuospatial contribution to constructional abilities and nonverbal abstract reasoning. Principal Axis Factoring and Parallel Analysis revealed two eigenvalues exceeding 1, accounting for about 60% of the variance. A 2-factor model provided the best fit. Factor 1 included sub-tests exploring "complex" visuospatial skills, whereas Factor 2 included two subtests tapping "simple" visuospatial skills. Regression analyses revealed that both Factor 1 and Factor 2 significantly affected performance on Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, whereas only the Factor 1 affected performance on Constructional Apraxia test. Our results supported functional segregation proposed by De Renzi, suggesting clinical caution to utilize a single test to assess visuospatial domain, and qualified the visuospatial contribution in drawing and non-verbal intelligence test.

  1. Have We Forgotten Auditory Sensory Memory? Retention Intervals in Studies of Nonverbal Auditory Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nees, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have shown increased interest in mechanisms of working memory for nonverbal sounds such as music and environmental sounds. These studies often have used two-stimulus comparison tasks: two sounds separated by a brief retention interval (often 3-5 s) are compared, and a "same" or "different" judgment is recorded. Researchers seem to have assumed that sensory memory has a negligible impact on performance in auditory two-stimulus comparison tasks. This assumption is examined in detail in this comment. According to seminal texts and recent research reports, sensory memory persists in parallel with working memory for a period of time following hearing a stimulus and can influence behavioral responses on memory tasks. Unlike verbal working memory studies that use serial recall tasks, research paradigms for exploring nonverbal working memory-especially two-stimulus comparison tasks-may not be differentiating working memory from sensory memory processes in analyses of behavioral responses, because retention interval durations have not excluded the possibility that the sensory memory trace drives task performance. This conflation of different constructs may be one contributor to discrepant research findings and the resulting proliferation of theoretical conjectures regarding mechanisms of working memory for nonverbal sounds.

  2. Have We Forgotten Auditory Sensory Memory? Retention Intervals in Studies of Nonverbal Auditory Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Nees

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have shown increased interest in mechanisms of working memory for nonverbal sounds such as music and environmental sounds. These studies often have used two-stimulus comparison tasks: two sounds separated by a brief retention interval (often 3 to 5 s are compared, and a same or different judgment is recorded. Researchers seem to have assumed that sensory memory has a negligible impact on performance in auditory two-stimulus comparison tasks. This assumption is examined in detail in this comment. According to seminal texts and recent research reports, sensory memory persists in parallel with working memory for a period of time following hearing a stimulus and can influence behavioral responses on memory tasks. Unlike verbal working memory studies that use serial recall tasks, research paradigms for exploring nonverbal working memory—especially two-stimulus comparison tasks—may not be differentiating working memory from sensory memory processes in analyses of behavioral responses, because retention interval durations have not excluded the possibility that the sensory memory trace drives task performance. This conflation of different constructs may be one contributor to discrepant research findings and the resulting proliferation of theoretical conjectures regarding mechanisms of working memory for nonverbal sounds.

  3. Network structure underlying resolution of conflicting non-verbal and verbal social information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Yahata, Noriaki; Kawakubo, Yuki; Inoue, Hideyuki; Takano, Yosuke; Iwashiro, Norichika; Natsubori, Tatsunobu; Takao, Hidemasa; Sasaki, Hiroki; Gonoi, Wataru; Murakami, Mizuho; Katsura, Masaki; Kunimatsu, Akira; Abe, Osamu; Kasai, Kiyoto; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2014-06-01

    Social judgments often require resolution of incongruity in communication contents. Although previous studies revealed that such conflict resolution recruits brain regions including the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG), functional relationships and networks among these regions remain unclear. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the functional dissociation and networks by measuring human brain activity during resolving incongruity between verbal and non-verbal emotional contents. First, we found that the conflict resolutions biased by the non-verbal contents activated the posterior dorsal mPFC (post-dmPFC), bilateral anterior insula (AI) and right dorsal pIFG, whereas the resolutions biased by the verbal contents activated the bilateral ventral pIFG. In contrast, the anterior dmPFC (ant-dmPFC), bilateral superior temporal sulcus and fusiform gyrus were commonly involved in both of the resolutions. Second, we found that the post-dmPFC and right ventral pIFG were hub regions in networks underlying the non-verbal- and verbal-content-biased resolutions, respectively. Finally, we revealed that these resolution-type-specific networks were bridged by the ant-dmPFC, which was recruited for the conflict resolutions earlier than the two hub regions. These findings suggest that, in social conflict resolutions, the ant-dmPFC selectively recruits one of the resolution-type-specific networks through its interaction with resolution-type-specific hub regions.

  4. Non-verbal auditory cognition in patients with temporal epilepsy before and after anterior temporal lobectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Bidet-Caulet

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For patients with pharmaco-resistant temporal epilepsy, unilateral anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL - i.e. the surgical resection of the hippocampus, the amygdala, the temporal pole and the most anterior part of the temporal gyri - is an efficient treatment. There is growing evidence that anterior regions of the temporal lobe are involved in the integration and short-term memorization of object-related sound properties. However, non-verbal auditory processing in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE has raised little attention. To assess non-verbal auditory cognition in patients with temporal epilepsy both before and after unilateral ATL, we developed a set of non-verbal auditory tests, including environmental sounds. We could evaluate auditory semantic identification, acoustic and object-related short-term memory, and sound extraction from a sound mixture. The performances of 26 TLE patients before and/or after ATL were compared to those of 18 healthy subjects. Patients before and after ATL were found to present with similar deficits in pitch retention, and in identification and short-term memorisation of environmental sounds, whereas not being impaired in basic acoustic processing compared to healthy subjects. It is most likely that the deficits observed before and after ATL are related to epileptic neuropathological processes. Therefore, in patients with drug-resistant TLE, ATL seems to significantly improve seizure control without producing additional auditory deficits.

  5. The Effect of Vocal Hygiene and Behavior Modification Instruction on the Self-Reported Vocal Health Habits of Public School Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackworth, Rhonda S.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of vocal hygiene and behavior modification instruction on self-reported behaviors of music teachers. Subjects (N = 76) reported daily behaviors for eight weeks: water consumption, warm-up, talking over music/noise, vocal rest, nonverbal commands, and vocal problems. Subjects were in experimental group 1 or 2, or the…

  6. Negotiating with Global Managers and Entrepreneurs in sub-Saharan Africa - Nigeria: An Analysis of Nonverbal Behavior in Intercultural Business Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Ephraim Okoro; Christine R. Day

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a critical analysis of nonverbal behavior in intercultural communication between Nigerians and Non-Nigerians during business transactions. Findings from survey of more than one hundred respondents (Nigerian business men and women) residing in Nigeria and in the United States over a period of eight months (2011–2012) were interpreted and analyzed. Specific nonverbal communication variables of the study included silence, non-verbal feedback, facial expressions, voice volume,...

  7. Nonverbal communication and conversational contribution in breast cancer genetic counseling: are counselors' nonverbal communication and conversational contribution associated with counselees' satisfaction, needs fulfillment and state anxiety in breast cancer genetic counseling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Henriëtta; Albada, Akke; Klöckner Cronauer, Christina; Ausems, Margreet G E M; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2013-11-01

    The current study aimed to examine how counselors' nonverbal communication (i.e. nonverbal encouragements and counselee-directed eye gaze) and conversational contribution (i.e. verbal dominance and interactivity) during the final visit within breast cancer genetic counseling relate to counselee satisfaction, needs fulfillment and anxiety. Breast cancer counselees (N=85) completed questionnaires measuring satisfaction, needs fulfillment and anxiety after the final consultation and anxiety before the initial visit. Consultations were videotaped. Counselor nonverbal encouragements and counselee-directed eye gaze were coded. Verbal dominance and interactivity were measured using the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). More counselor nonverbal encouragements and higher counselor verbal dominance were both significantly related to higher post-visit anxiety. Furthermore, counselor verbal dominance was associated with lower perceived needs fulfillment. No significant associations with eye gaze and interactivity were found. More research is needed on the relationship between nonverbal encouragements and anxiety. Given the unfavorable association of counselor verbal dominance with anxiety and needs fulfillment, more effort could be devoted to involve counselees in the dialog and reduce the counselor's verbal contribution during the consultation. Interventions focused on increasing counselees' contribution in the consultation may be beneficial to counselees. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Preservice Teacher Preparation in International Contexts: A Case-Study Examination of the International Student Teacher Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. James Jacob

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the teacher preparation experiences of preservice teachers in six international contexts: China, Fiji, Kiribati, Mexico, Samoa, and Tonga. More specifically, it looks at the value-added components in an international teacher education program, with an emphasis on effective teaching and employability. Theoretically the study is based on Straus and Corbin’s (1998a substantive grounded theory and Patton’s (1997 Theory of Action Framework. Verbal and non-verbal forms of feedback were identified as essential aspects of the international preservice training experience. Cultural diversity, teaching English as a second language, collaboration, and exposure to a different educational system were identified among several components as advantages to individuals who conduct their preservice teacher training in international settings.

  9. The role of nonverbal cognitive ability in the association of adverse life events with dysfunctional attitudes and hopelessness in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Panourgia, Constantina

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether nonverbal cognitive ability buffers the effect of life stress (number of adverse life events in the last year) on diatheses for depression. It was expected that, as problem-solving aptitude, nonverbal cognitive ability would moderate the effect of life stress on those diatheses (such as dysfunctional attitudes) that are depressogenic because they represent deficits in information-processing or problem-solving skills, but not on diatheses (such as hopelessness) that are depressogenic because they represent deficits in motivation or effort to apply problem-solving skills. The sample included 558 10- to 19-year-olds from a state secondary school in London. Nonverbal cognitive ability was negatively associated with both dysfunctional attitudes and hopelessness. As expected, nonverbal cognitive ability moderated the association between life adversity and dysfunctional attitudes. However, hopelessness was not related to life stress, and therefore, there was no life stress effect for nonverbal cognitive ability to moderate. This study adds to knowledge about the association between problem-solving ability and depressogenic diatheses. By identifying life stress as a risk factor for dysfunctional attitudes but not hopelessness, it highlights the importance of considering outcome specificity in models predicting adolescent outcomes from adverse life events. Importantly for practice, it suggests that an emphasis on recent life adversity will likely underestimate the true level of hopelessness among adolescents.

  10. Grammatical tense deficits in children with SLI and nonspecific language impairment: relationships with nonverbal IQ over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Mabel L; Tomblin, J Bruce; Hoffman, Lesa; Richman, W Allen; Marquis, Janet

    2004-08-01

    The relationship between children's language acquisition and their nonverbal intelligence has a long tradition of scientific inquiry. Current attention focuses on the use of nonverbal IQ level as an exclusionary criterion in the definition of specific language impairment (SLI). Grammatical tense deficits are known as a clinical marker of SLI, but the relationship with nonverbal intelligence below the normal range has not previously been systematically studied. This study documents the levels of grammatical tense acquisition (for third-person singular -s, regular and irregular past tense morphology) in a large, epidemiologically ascertained sample of kindergarten children that comprises 4 groups: 130 children with SLI, 100 children with nonspecific language impairments (NLI), 73 children with low cognitive levels but language within normal limits (LC), and 117 unaffected control children. The study also documents the longitudinal course of acquisition for the SLI and NLI children between the ages of 6 and 10 years. The LC group did not differ from the unaffected controls at kindergarten, showing a dissociation of nonverbal intelligence and grammatical tense marking, so that low levels of nonverbal intelligence did not necessarily yield low levels of grammatical tense. The NLI group's level of performance was lower than that of the SLI group and showed a greater delay in resolution of the overgeneralization phase of irregular past tense mastery, indicating qualitative differences in growth. Implications for clinical groupings for research and clinical purposes are discussed.

  11. Development of a Nonverbal Behavior Expression Coding System for Children's Pride%幼儿自豪的非言语行为表达编码系统编制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽珠; 姜月; 张丽华

    2012-01-01

    选取352名幼儿教师,对与幼儿自豪的非言语行为表达相关的2套图片进行识别。旨在确定幼儿自豪的非言语行为表达的动作成分和动作单元,并以此为基础编制编码系统。结果表明:(1)幼儿自豪的非言语行为表达包括4个方面7个动作成分,即I微笑和大笑的面部表情,Ⅱ舒展的身体姿势,Ⅲ头稍微后倾的头部动作,Ⅳ双手叉腰、高举和在胸前握拳的手臂动作;(2)幼儿自豪的非言语行为表达包括12个动作单元;(3)幼儿自豪的非言语行为表达编码系统具有较高的信度和效度,可以作为测评幼儿自豪发展的工具。%In order to develop a nonverbal behavior expression coding system for children' s pride, 352 kindergarten teachers were selected to recognize two set of pictures of behavioral movement about children' s pride. The behavioral components and behavioral units were determined in the present research. The result indicates : ( 1 ) The nonverbal behavior expression of children' s pride includes seven behavioral components which are the facial expression of smile and laugh, expanded posture, slightly tilted back head, and the arm actions such as arms akimbo, arms raised above the head and arms raised in front of the chest with hands in fists; (2) The nonverbal behavior expression of children's pride includes twelve behavioral units; (3)The reliability and validity on the nonverbal behavior expression coding system for children' s pride are acceptable, and qualify this system as an assessment of the development of children' s pride.

  12. Perception of ‘Back-Channeling’ Nonverbal Feedback in Musical Duo Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Nikki; Hadley, Lauren V.; Bader, Maria; Keller, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    In witnessing face-to-face conversation, observers perceive authentic communication according to the social contingency of nonverbal feedback cues (‘back-channeling’) by non-speaking interactors. The current study investigated the generality of this function by focusing on nonverbal communication in musical improvisation. A perceptual experiment was conducted to test whether observers can reliably identify genuine versus fake (mismatched) duos from musicians’ nonverbal cues, and how this judgement is affected by observers’ musical background and rhythm perception skill. Twenty-four musicians were recruited to perform duo improvisations, which included solo episodes, in two styles: standard jazz (where rhythm is based on a regular pulse) or free improvisation (where rhythm is non-pulsed). The improvisations were recorded using a motion capture system to generate 16 ten-second point-light displays (with audio) of the soloist and the silent non-soloing musician (‘back-channeler’). Sixteen further displays were created by splicing soloists with back-channelers from different duos. Participants (N = 60) with various musical backgrounds were asked to rate the point-light displays as either real or fake. Results indicated that participants were sensitive to the real/fake distinction in the free improvisation condition independently of musical experience. Individual differences in rhythm perception skill did not account for performance in the free condition, but were positively correlated with accuracy in the standard jazz condition. These findings suggest that the perception of back-channeling in free improvisation is not dependent on music-specific skills but is a general ability. The findings invite further study of the links between interpersonal dynamics in conversation and musical interaction. PMID:26086593

  13. A Brief Introduction of Nonverbal Communication%浅谈非言语交际

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李威

    2002-01-01

    In our daily interaction,we communicate both verbally and nonverbally. Most people are hardly aware of the importance of nonverbal communication and do not realize its potential.The scholars studying communication state that in face-to-face communication over 70% of all information is necessary and meaningfrl because it plays such an important role speaking .The knowledge of nonverbal communication is necessary and neaningful because it plays such an important role in social communication.This paper intends to give a general introduction of this discipline from its historical background,its classifications,its communtcative functions and its characteristics.%人们在日常生活中的交际方式有两种:言语交际和非言语交际.许多人很难意识到非言语交际的重要性及其潜力.许多学者的研究表明:在面对面交际中有70%的信息是通过非言语手段进行的,用言语方式表达的只有30%.由于非言语交际在人类的交际中占有举足轻重的地位,了解这门学科不仅是必要的而且也是很重要的.作者从非言语交际的历史背景、基本分类、交际功能及主要特征这几方面对非言语交际这门学科作了简要阐述.

  14. Incongruence between Verbal and Non-Verbal Information Enhances the Late Positive Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Shu; Osumi, Michihiro; Shiotani, Mayu; Nobusako, Satoshi; Maeoka, Hiroshi; Okada, Yohei; Hiyamizu, Makoto; Matsuo, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Smooth social communication consists of both verbal and non-verbal information. However, when presented with incongruence between verbal information and nonverbal information, the relationship between an individual judging trustworthiness in those who present the verbal-nonverbal incongruence and the brain activities observed during judgment for trustworthiness are not clear. In the present study, we attempted to identify the impact of incongruencies between verbal information and facial expression on the value of trustworthiness and brain activity using event-related potentials (ERP). Combinations of verbal information [positive/negative] and facial expressions [smile/angry] expressions were presented randomly on a computer screen to 17 healthy volunteers. The value of trustworthiness of the presented facial expression was evaluated by the amount of donation offered by the observer to the person depicted on the computer screen. In addition, the time required to judge the value of trustworthiness was recorded for each trial. Using electroencephalography, ERP were obtained by averaging the wave patterns recorded while the participants judged the value of trustworthiness. The amount of donation offered was significantly lower when the verbal information and facial expression were incongruent, particularly for [negative × smile]. The amplitude of the early posterior negativity (EPN) at the temporal lobe showed no significant difference between all conditions. However, the amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP) at the parietal electrodes for the incongruent condition [negative × smile] was higher than that for the congruent condition [positive × smile]. These results suggest that the LPP amplitude observed from the parietal cortex is involved in the processing of incongruence between verbal information and facial expression.

  15. Age of second language acquisition affects nonverbal conflict processing in children: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohades, Seyede Ghazal; Struys, Esli; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Baeken, Chris; Van De Craen, Piet; Luypaert, Robert

    2014-09-01

    In their daily communication, bilinguals switch between two languages, a process that involves the selection of a target language and minimization of interference from a nontarget language. Previous studies have uncovered the neural structure in bilinguals and the activation patterns associated with performing verbal conflict tasks. One question that remains, however is whether this extra verbal switching affects brain function during nonverbal conflict tasks. In this study, we have used fMRI to investigate the impact of bilingualism in children performing two nonverbal tasks involving stimulus-stimulus and stimulus-response conflicts. Three groups of 8-11-year-old children--bilinguals from birth (2L1), second language learners (L2L), and a control group of monolinguals (1L1)--were scanned while performing a color Simon and a numerical Stroop task. Reaction times and accuracy were logged. Compared to monolingual controls, bilingual children showed higher behavioral congruency effect of these tasks, which is matched by the recruitment of brain regions that are generally used in general cognitive control, language processing or to solve language conflict situations in bilinguals (caudate nucleus, posterior cingulate gyrus, STG, precuneus). Further, the activation of these areas was found to be higher in 2L1 compared to L2L. The coupling of longer reaction times to the recruitment of extra language-related brain areas supports the hypothesis that when dealing with language conflicts the specialization of bilinguals hampers the way they can process with nonverbal conflicts, at least at early stages in life.

  16. In the ear of the beholder: how age shapes emotion processing in nonverbal vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, César F; Alves, Tiago; Scott, Sophie K; Castro, São Luís

    2014-02-01

    It is well established that emotion recognition of facial expressions declines with age, but evidence for age-related differences in vocal emotions is more limited. This is especially true for nonverbal vocalizations such as laughter, sobs, or sighs. In this study, 43 younger adults (M = 22 years) and 43 older ones (M = 61.4 years) provided multiple emotion ratings of nonverbal emotional vocalizations. Contrasting with previous research, which often includes only one positive emotion (happiness) versus several negative ones, we examined 4 positive and 4 negative emotions: achievement/triumph, amusement, pleasure, relief, anger, disgust, fear, and sadness. We controlled for hearing loss and assessed general cognitive decline, cognitive control, verbal intelligence, working memory, current affect, emotion regulation, and personality. Older adults were less sensitive than younger ones to the intended vocal emotions, as indicated by decrements in ratings on the intended emotion scales and accuracy. These effects were similar for positive and negative emotions, and they were independent of age-related differences in cognitive, affective, and personality measures. Regression analyses revealed that younger and older participants' responses could be predicted from the acoustic properties of the temporal, intensity, fundamental frequency, and spectral profile of the vocalizations. The two groups were similarly efficient in using the acoustic cues, but there were differences in the patterns of emotion-specific predictors. This study suggests that ageing produces specific changes on the processing of nonverbal vocalizations. That decrements were not attenuated for positive emotions indicates that they cannot be explained by a positivity effect in older adults.

  17. Perception of 'Back-Channeling' Nonverbal Feedback in Musical Duo Improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Nikki; Hadley, Lauren V; Bader, Maria; Keller, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    In witnessing face-to-face conversation, observers perceive authentic communication according to the social contingency of nonverbal feedback cues ('back-channeling') by non-speaking interactors. The current study investigated the generality of this function by focusing on nonverbal communication in musical improvisation. A perceptual experiment was conducted to test whether observers can reliably identify genuine versus fake (mismatched) duos from musicians' nonverbal cues, and how this judgement is affected by observers' musical background and rhythm perception skill. Twenty-four musicians were recruited to perform duo improvisations, which included solo episodes, in two styles: standard jazz (where rhythm is based on a regular pulse) or free improvisation (where rhythm is non-pulsed). The improvisations were recorded using a motion capture system to generate 16 ten-second point-light displays (with audio) of the soloist and the silent non-soloing musician ('back-channeler'). Sixteen further displays were created by splicing soloists with back-channelers from different duos. Participants (N = 60) with various musical backgrounds were asked to rate the point-light displays as either real or fake. Results indicated that participants were sensitive to the real/fake distinction in the free improvisation condition independently of musical experience. Individual differences in rhythm perception skill did not account for performance in the free condition, but were positively correlated with accuracy in the standard jazz condition. These findings suggest that the perception of back-channeling in free improvisation is not dependent on music-specific skills but is a general ability. The findings invite further study of the links between interpersonal dynamics in conversation and musical interaction.

  18. Perception of 'Back-Channeling' Nonverbal Feedback in Musical Duo Improvisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki Moran

    Full Text Available In witnessing face-to-face conversation, observers perceive authentic communication according to the social contingency of nonverbal feedback cues ('back-channeling' by non-speaking interactors. The current study investigated the generality of this function by focusing on nonverbal communication in musical improvisation. A perceptual experiment was conducted to test whether observers can reliably identify genuine versus fake (mismatched duos from musicians' nonverbal cues, and how this judgement is affected by observers' musical background and rhythm perception skill. Twenty-four musicians were recruited to perform duo improvisations, which included solo episodes, in two styles: standard jazz (where rhythm is based on a regular pulse or free improvisation (where rhythm is non-pulsed. The improvisations were recorded using a motion capture system to generate 16 ten-second point-light displays (with audio of the soloist and the silent non-soloing musician ('back-channeler'. Sixteen further displays were created by splicing soloists with back-channelers from different duos. Participants (N = 60 with various musical backgrounds were asked to rate the point-light displays as either real or fake. Results indicated that participants were sensitive to the real/fake distinction in the free improvisation condition independently of musical experience. Individual differences in rhythm perception skill did not account for performance in the free condition, but were positively correlated with accuracy in the standard jazz condition. These findings suggest that the perception of back-channeling in free improvisation is not dependent on music-specific skills but is a general ability. The findings invite further study of the links between interpersonal dynamics in conversation and musical interaction.

  19. Deaf children’s non-verbal working memory is impacted by their language experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe eMarshall

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that deaf children perform more poorly on working memory tasks compared to hearing children, but do not say whether this poorer performance arises directly from deafness itself or from deaf children’s reduced language exposure. The issue remains unresolved because findings come from (1 tasks that are verbal as opposed to non-verbal, and (2 involve deaf children who use spoken communication and therefore may have experienced impoverished input and delayed language acquisition. This is in contrast to deaf children who have been exposed to a sign language since birth from Deaf parents (and who therefore have native language-learning opportunities. A more direct test of how the type and quality of language exposure impacts working memory is to use measures of non-verbal working memory (NVWM and to compare hearing children with two groups of deaf signing children: those who have had native exposure to a sign language, and those who have experienced delayed acquisition compared to their native-signing peers. In this study we investigated the relationship between NVWM and language in three groups aged 6-11 years: hearing children (n=27, deaf native users of British Sign Language (BSL; n=7, and deaf children non native signers (n=19. We administered a battery of non-verbal reasoning, NVWM, and language tasks. We examined whether the groups differed on NVWM scores, and if language tasks predicted scores on NVWM tasks. For the two NVWM tasks, the non-native signers performed less accurately than the native signer and hearing groups (who did not differ from one another. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the vocabulary measure predicted scores on NVWM tasks. Our results suggest that whatever the language modality – spoken or signed – rich language experience from birth, and the good language skills that result from this early age of aacquisition, play a critical role in the development of NVWM and in performance on NVWM

  20. Deaf children's non-verbal working memory is impacted by their language experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Chloë; Jones, Anna; Denmark, Tanya; Mason, Kathryn; Atkinson, Joanna; Botting, Nicola; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that deaf children perform more poorly on working memory tasks compared to hearing children, but these studies have not been able to determine whether this poorer performance arises directly from deafness itself or from deaf children's reduced language exposure. The issue remains unresolved because findings come mostly from (1) tasks that are verbal as opposed to non-verbal, and (2) involve deaf children who use spoken communication and therefore may have experienced impoverished input and delayed language acquisition. This is in contrast to deaf children who have been exposed to a sign language since birth from Deaf parents (and who therefore have native language-learning opportunities within a normal developmental timeframe for language acquisition). A more direct, and therefore stronger, test of the hypothesis that the type and quality of language exposure impact working memory is to use measures of non-verbal working memory (NVWM) and to compare hearing children with two groups of deaf signing children: those who have had native exposure to a sign language, and those who have experienced delayed acquisition and reduced quality of language input compared to their native-signing peers. In this study we investigated the relationship between NVWM and language in three groups aged 6-11 years: hearing children (n = 28), deaf children who were native users of British Sign Language (BSL; n = 8), and deaf children who used BSL but who were not native signers (n = 19). We administered a battery of non-verbal reasoning, NVWM, and language tasks. We examined whether the groups differed on NVWM scores, and whether scores on language tasks predicted scores on NVWM tasks. For the two executive-loaded NVWM tasks included in our battery, the non-native signers performed less accurately than the native signer and hearing groups (who did not differ from one another). Multiple regression analysis revealed that scores on the vocabulary measure