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Sample records for nonverbal iq statistically

  1. Neurobiological mechanisms for nonverbal IQ tests: implications for instruction of nonverbal children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Vyshedskiy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the neurological correlates of IQ test questions are characterized qualitatively in terms of ‘control of attention’ and ‘working memory.’ In this report we attempt to characterize each IQ test question quantitatively by two factors: a the number of disparate objects that have to be imagined in concert in order to solve the problem and, b the amount of recruited posterior cortex territory. With such a classification, an IQ test can be understood on a neuronal level and a subject’s IQ score could be interpreted in terms of specific neurological mechanisms available to the subject. Here we present the results of an analysis of the three most popular nonverbal IQ tests: Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (TONI-4, Standard Raven's Progressive Matrices, and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-V. Our analysis shows that approximately half of all questions (52±0.02% are limited to mental computations involving only a single object; these easier questions are found towards the beginning of each test. More difficult questions located towards the end of each test rely on mental synthesis of several disparate objects and the number of objects involved in computations gradually increases with question difficulty. These more challenging questions require the organization of wider posterior cortex networks by the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC. This conclusion is in line with neuroimaging studies showing that activation level of the lateral PFC and the posterior cortex positively correlates with task difficulty. This analysis has direct implications for brain pathophysiology and, specifically, for therapeutic interventions for children with language impairment, most notably for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD and other developmental disorders.

  2. Longitudinal genetic study of verbal and nonverbal IQ from early childhood to young adulthood.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.A.; Bartels, M.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2007-01-01

    In a longitudinal genetic study we explored which factors underlie stability in verbal and nonverbal abilities, and the extent to which the association between these abilities becomes stronger as children grow older. Measures of verbal and nonverbal IQ were collected in Dutch twin pairs at age 5, 7,

  3. Empirical Implications of Matching Children with Specific Language Impairment to Children with Typical Development on Nonverbal IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, F. Sayako; Gallinat, Erica L.; Grela, Bernard G.; Lehto, Alexa; Spaulding, Tammie J.

    2017-01-01

    This study determined the effect of matching children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their peers with typical development (TD) for nonverbal IQ on the IQ test scores of the resultant groups. Studies published between January 2000 and May 2012 reporting standard nonverbal IQ scores for SLI and age-matched TD controls were categorized…

  4. Measurement of Nonverbal IQ in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Scores in Young Adulthood Compared to Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Somer L.; Farmer, Cristan; Thurm, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) was examined in 84 individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) followed from age 2 to 19. Most adults who scored in the range of intellectual disability also received scores below 70 as children, and the majority of adults with scores in the average range had scored in this range by age 3. However, within the lower ranges…

  5. The Relation between Nonverbal IQ and Postoperative CI Outcomes in Cochlear Implant Users: Preliminary Result

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    Mina Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study assessed the correlation between performance intelligence and the postoperative cochlear implant (CI outcome in Korean-speaking children. In addition, the relationship between the performance intelligence subscales and the post-CI speech outcome was evaluated. Materials and Methods. Thirteen pediatric CI users (five males, eight females; median age at implantation 6.2 (range 1.3–14.2 years; median age at intelligence test 9.3 (range 5–16 years who were tested using the Korean Educational Development Institute-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children were studied. The correlations between the intelligence scores and 1-2 years postoperative Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP scores and between subscales of performance and 1-2 years postoperative CAP scores were analyzed. Results. There was no correlation between the categories of verbal intelligence quotient (IQ and performance IQ for “mentally retarded” and “average,” respectively (Spearman’s rho = 0.42, P=0.15. There was a strong correlation between performance IQ and the postoperative CAP scale (Spearman’s rho = 0.8977, P=0.0008. “Picture arrangement” and “picture completion,” reflecting social cognition, were strongly correlated with the postoperative CAP scales. Conclusion. Performance intelligence, especially social cognition, was strongly related to the postoperative CI outcome of cochlear implant users. Therefore, auditory rehabilitation, including social rehabilitation, should maximize the postoperative CI outcomes.

  6. Average State IQ, State Wealth and Racial Composition as Predictors of State Health Statistics: Partial Support for "g" as a Fundamental Cause of Health Disparities

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    Reeve, Charlie L.; Basalik, Debra

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which differences in average IQ across the 50 states was associated with differences in health statistics independent of differences in wealth, health care expenditures and racial composition. Results show that even after controlling for differences in state wealth and health care expenditures, average IQ had…

  7. Does the IQ God Exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Linda S.

    1995-01-01

    Responds to "The Bell Curve" by arguing that IQ is merely a statistical fiction, an artificial construct not corresponding to any real entity. Discusses the "seductive statistical trap of factor analysis" as it relates to IQ tests, multiple intelligences, content and bias of IQ tests, lack of validity of IQ tests for individual…

  8. Specific Language Impairment, Nonverbal IQ, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Cochlear Implants, Bilingualism, and Dialectal Variants: Defining the Boundaries, Clarifying Clinical Conditions, and Sorting Out Causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Mabel L

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this research forum article is to provide an overview of a collection of invited articles on the topic "specific language impairment (SLI) in children with concomitant health conditions or nonmainstream language backgrounds." Topics include SLI, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, cochlear implants, bilingualism, and dialectal language learning contexts. The topic is timely due to current debates about the diagnosis of SLI. An overarching comparative conceptual framework is provided for comparisons of SLI with other clinical conditions. Comparisons of SLI in children with low-normal or normal nonverbal IQ illustrate the unexpected outcomes of 2 × 2 comparison designs. Comparative studies reveal unexpected relationships among speech, language, cognitive, and social dimensions of children's development as well as precise ways to identify children with SLI who are bilingual or dialect speakers. The diagnosis of SLI is essential for elucidating possible causal pathways of language impairments, risks for language impairments, assessments for identification of language impairments, linguistic dimensions of language impairments, and long-term outcomes. Although children's language acquisition is robust under high levels of risk, unexplained individual variations in language acquisition lead to persistent language impairments.

  9. Nonverbal og empatisk kommunikation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Hasche, Erik

    2004-01-01

    Nonverbal kommunikation, empati, sundhedspsykologi, non verbal communication, empathy, health psychology......Nonverbal kommunikation, empati, sundhedspsykologi, non verbal communication, empathy, health psychology...

  10. A comparison of low IQ scores from the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition.

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    Umphress, Thomas B

    2008-06-01

    Twenty people with suspected intellectual disability took the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS; C. R. Reynolds & R. W. Kamphaus, 1998) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-3rd Edition (WAIS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997) to see if the 2 IQ tests produced comparable results. A t test showed that the RIAS Composite Intelligence Index scores were significantly higher than WAIS-III Full Scale IQ scores at the alpha level of .01. There was a significant difference between the RIAS Nonverbal Intelligence and WAIS-III Performance Scale, but there was no significant difference between the RIAS Verbal Intelligence Index and the WAIS-III Verbal Scale IQ. The results raise questions concerning test selection for diagnosing intellectual disability and the use of the correlation statistic for comparing intelligence tests.

  11. Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in Congenital Strabismus.

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    Bagheri, Abbas; Fallahi, Mohammad Reza; Tamannaifard, Shima; Vajebmonfared, Sara; Zonozian, Saideh

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate intelligence quotient (IQ) in patients with congenital strabismus. All patients with congenital strabismus scheduled for surgery were enrolled consecutively over a one year period in a cross-sectional study and were evaluated for verbal, performance and total IQ scores, and compared to the mean normal IQ of 100±15. During the study period, 109 patients with mean age of 18.4±10.5 (range, 4-63) years were included. Educational status in most patients (80%) was less than high-school. Most patients (80%) lived in urban areas and 46 patients (42.2%) had some degrees of unilateral or bilateral amblyopia. Mean verbal IQ was 87.2±19.6 (range, 45-127), performance IQ was 81±15.5 (range, 44-111) and total IQ was 83.5±18.3 (range, 40-120). Total IQ was significantly lower in comparison to the normal population (PIQ levels. Verbal IQ was insignificantly higher in myopes than emmetropes and hyperopes. IQ was better with vertical deviations and was higher in esotropes than exotropes; however, these differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05 for all comparisons). Patients with congenital strabismus in this study had lower mean IQ scores than the normal population which may be due to genetic background or acquired causes secondary to strabismus.

  12. The relationship between nonverbal cognitive functions and hearing loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zekveld, A.A.; Deijen, J.B.; Goverts, S.T.; Kramer, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between hearing loss and memory and attention when nonverbal, visually presented cognitive tests are used. Method: Hearing loss (pure-tone audiometry) and IQ were measured in 30 participants with mild to severe hearing loss. Participants performed

  13. Cholesterol IQ Quiz

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    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cholesterol IQ Quiz Updated:Jul 5,2017 Begin the quiz ... What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean Common Misconceptions Cholesterol IQ Quiz • HDL, LDL, and Triglycerides • Causes of High ...

  14. National Drug IQ Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Drug IQ Challenge 2017 Reto nacional del coeficiente intelectual (CI) sobre las drogas y el alcohol 2016 National Drug IQ Challenge 2016 Reto nacional del coeficiente intelectual (CI) sobre las drogas y el alcohol 2015 ...

  15. Breastfeeding duration and non-verbal IQ in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Sajjad (Ayesha); A. Tharner (Anne); J.C. Kiefte-de Jong (Jessica); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); A. Hofman (Albert); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); O.H. Franco (Oscar); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); S.J. Roza (Sabine)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Breastfeeding has been related to better cognitive development in children. However, due to methodological challenges, such as confounding, recall bias or insufficient power, the mechanism and nature of the relation remains subject to debate. Methods: We included 3761

  16. IQ with limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Isolde Woittiez; Michiel Ras; Debbie Oudijk

    2012-01-01

    Original title: IQ met beperkingen Demand for care for people with intellectual disabilities has grown sharply in the Netherlands in recent years. Earlier reports by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP have described the number of persons with intellectual disabilities who apply for care. Partly at the request of the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, the analyses in this report have been extended to include data on the IQ of persons with intellectual disabilities who ...

  17. Information processing speed as a predictor of IQ in children with and without specific language impairment in grades 3 and 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jisook; Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Miller, Carol A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated (1) whether nonlinguistic processing speed predicts nonverbal IQ in TD children and children with SLI and (2) if the proposed relationship is different at two time points. The participants consisted of a subset of a longitudinal dataset, 55 typically developing children and 55 children with SLI. Children completed four nonverbal speed tasks and four subtests of the WISC-III. The WISC-III subtests requiring timed and untimed responses were examined separately. Linear mixed model analyses indicated that in both groups, processing speed predicted nonverbal IQ subtests that reward speedy responses, but not IQ subtests that do not. The relationships between processing speed and IQ with speed bonuses did not differ at grades 3 and 8, and these relationships also were not significantly different in children with SLI and their TD peers. The results suggest that the presence of processing speed limitations in many children with SLI raises questions about the utility of timed nonverbal IQ measures as tools for diagnosis of SLI. Future studies should investigate other cognitive assessments that could be used as inclusionary criteria for SLI. The reader will be able to (1) describe the relationship between processing speed and nonverbal IQ in children with TD and SLI and (2) discuss problems using an IQ criterion to diagnose children as having SLI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The intellectual profile of abused and neglected children in the Philippines: An analysis of SB5 IQ scores of sexually abused, physically abused and neglected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengwasan, Peejay D

    2018-05-24

    Child abuse and neglect have been associated with cognitive deficits, among other effects on child development. This study explores the prediction that child abuse and neglect has an impact on Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales 5th Edition (SB5) IQ scores, in relation to gender, age and type of abuse experienced. 300 children with experiences of abuse and neglect were included in the study, comprising 100 sexually abused, 100 physically abused and 100 neglected children. Overall, all scores on the SB5 were found to be significantly lower than the minimum average scores on the test. Verbal IQ (VIQ) scores were likewise found to be significantly lower than Nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) scores. Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) scores did not reveal heterogeneity when gender was factored in. Age and type of abuse (with a moderate effect size) on the other hand, showed significant differences among groups. Statistical analyses of SB5 Factor Index Scores revealed that abused children, in general, have significantly higher Visual-Spatial Processing (VS) and Quantitative Reasoning (QR) scores and lower scores in Knowledge (KN). There was a large effect size found in such an analysis. Age (with a large effect size), gender and type of abuse (with moderate effect sizes) give significant variations to this obtained profile. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nonverbal Accommodation in Healthcare Communication

    OpenAIRE

    D’Agostino, Thomas A.; Bylund, Carma L.

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study examined patterns of nonverbal accommodation within healthcare interactions and investigated the impact of communication skills training and gender concordance on nonverbal accommodation behavior. The Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS) was used to code the nonverbal behavior of physicians and patients within 45 oncology consultations. Cases were then placed in one of seven categories based on patterns of accommodation observed across the interaction. Results...

  20. IQ with limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isolde Woittiez; Michiel Ras; Debbie Oudijk

    2012-01-01

    Original title: IQ met beperkingen Demand for care for people with intellectual disabilities has grown sharply in the Netherlands in recent years. Earlier reports by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP have described the number of persons with intellectual disabilities who apply

  1. COMPARISON OF NERVE CONDUCTION VELOCITY IN TEENAGERS WITH DIFFERENT IQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S KHOSRAVI

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Correlation between nerve conduction velocity (NCV in peripheral and central nervous systems and intelligence has been investigated during recent years with different results. To determine whether there is any correlation between peripheral NCV and IQ, we tested median and ulnar NCV in three groups of teenagers with different IQs. Methods. 144 normal subjects aged between 12-17 years were studied in three groups. Group I, with IQ more than 120 (measured with the Wechsler intelligence test, group II, with IQ between 90-110 and group III, with IQ below 70. All three groups matched for age and sex. For each case median and ulnar NCVs were measured in sensory and motor fibers. Mean IQ in study groups were compared using ANOVA. Results. Although the range and mean values of NCV in all tested nerves are in normal ranges but there are statistically significant differences between mean NCVs between study groups. In group I (high IQ mean NCV was higher than groups II and III and mean NCV in group III was less than groups I and II (p<0.05. IQ and NCV were not significantly different in girls and boys (p>0.05. Discussion .It is well established that IQ is a multi-factorial parameter and genetic, environment, hormones and individual physical factors such as size and volume of brain could influence intelligence. This study showed statistically difference between IQ and peripheral NCV in adolescents aged 12-17 years. Investigation of correlation between IQ, NCV and other evoked potentials in different age groups is suggested.

  2. Does IQ influence associations between ADHD symptoms and other cognitive functions in young preschoolers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer-Baumgartner, Nina; Zeiner, Pål; Egeland, Jens; Gustavson, Kristin; Skogan, Annette Holth; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Aase, Heidi

    2014-05-01

    Working memory, inhibition, and expressive language are often impaired in ADHD and many children with ADHD have lower IQ-scores than typically developing children. The aim of this study was to test whether IQ-score influences associations between ADHD symptoms and verbal and nonverbal working memory, inhibition, and expressive language, respectively, in a nonclinical sample of preschool children. In all, 1181 children recruited from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were clinically assessed at the age of 36 to 46 months. IQ-score and working memory were assessed with subtasks from the Stanford Binet test battery, expressive language was reported by preschool teachers (Child Development Inventory), response inhibition was assessed with a subtask from the NEPSY test, and ADHD symptoms were assessed by parent interview (Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment). The results showed an interaction between ADHD symptoms and IQ-score on teacher-reported expressive language. In children with below median IQ-score, a larger number of ADHD symptoms were more likely to be accompanied by reports of lower expressive language skills, while the level of ADHD symptoms exerted a smaller effect on reported language skills in children with above median IQ-score. The associations between ADHD symptoms and working memory and response inhibition, respectively, were not influenced by IQ-score. Level of IQ-score affected the relation between ADHD symptoms and teacher-reported expressive language, whereas associations between ADHD symptoms and working memory and response inhibition, respectively, were significant and of similar sizes regardless of IQ-score. Thus, in preschoolers, working memory and response inhibition should be considered during an ADHD assessment regardless of IQ-score, while language skills of young children are especially important to consider when IQ-scores are average or low.

  3. Nonverbal arithmetic in humans: light from noise.

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    Cordes, Sara; Gallistel, C R; Gelman, Rochel; Latham, Peter

    2007-10-01

    Animal and human data suggest the existence of a cross-species system of analog number representation (e.g., Cordes, Gelman, Gallistel, & Whalen, 2001; Meeck & Church, 1983), which may mediate the computation of statistical regularities in the environment (Gallistel, Gelman, & Cordes, 2006). However, evidence of arithmetic manipulation of these nonverbal magnitude representations is sparse and lacking in depth. This study uses the analysis of variability as a tool for understanding properties of these combinatorial processes. Human subjects participated in tasks requiring responses dependent upon the addition, subtraction, or reproduction of nonverbal counts. Variance analyses revealed that the magnitude of both inputs and answer contributed to the variability in the arithmetic responses, with operand variability dominating. Other contributing factors to the observed variability and implications for logarithmic versus scalar models of magnitude representation are discussed in light of these results.

  4. The Impact of Nonverbal Ability on Prevalence and Clinical Presentation of Language Disorder: Evidence from a Population Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Gooch, Debbie; Wray, Charlotte; Baird, Gillian; Charman, Tony; Simonoff, Emily; Vamvakas, George; Pickles, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of "specific" language impairment traditionally required nonverbal IQ to be within normal limits, often resulting in restricted access to clinical services for children with lower NVIQ. Changes to DSM-5 criteria for language disorder removed this NVIQ requirement. This study sought to delineate the impact of varying…

  5. The Validity of the Lorge Thorndike Nonverbal Battery as a Predictor of the Academic Achievement of International Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigh, Philip A.

    1981-01-01

    Moderate correlations were observed between the grade point average and nonverbal battery IQ scores of the Lorge Thorndike Intelligence Test administered to 27 elementary school students representing 12 countries during their first semester at a private American school overseas. Reasons are cited for additional research needs in the United States…

  6. Are Cross-National Differences in IQ Profiles Stable? A Comparison of Finnish and U.S. WAIS Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roivainen, Eka

    2013-01-01

    To study the concept of national IQ profile, we compared U.S. and Finnish WAIS, WAIS-R, and WAIS III nonverbal and working memory subtest norms. The U.S. standardization samples had consistently higher scores on the Coding and Digit span subtests, while the Finnish samples had higher scores on the Block design subtest. No stable cross-national…

  7. Attracting Assault: Victims' Nonverbal Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Betty; Stein, Morris I.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a study in which prison inmates convicted of assault identified potential victims from videotapes. A lab analysis code was used to determine which nonverbal body movement categories differentiated victims and nonvictims. (JMF)

  8. Does IQ Matter in Adolescents' Reading Disability?

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    Kortteinen, Hanna; Narhi, Vesa; Ahonen, Timo

    2009-01-01

    We studied the connection of IQ, reading disability (RD) and their interaction with reading, spelling and other cognitive skills in adolescents with average IQ and RD (n = 22), average IQ, non-RD (n = 71), below average IQ and RD (n = 29), and below average IQ non-RD (n = 33). IQ was not connected to reading and spelling in subjects without RD,…

  9. Empowerment of Mustaḥiq Zakat Model Towards Business Independency

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    Hamzah Hamzah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zakat has not been utilized intensively for the empowerment of mustaḥiq (zakat beneficiaries in the form of productive economic business. The objective of the research was to analyze the level of mustaḥiqs’ business independency; to analyze dominant factors that influenced mustaḥiqs’ business independency, and to formulate an appropriate strategy to develop the mustaḥiqs’ business independency. The research has been carried out on 254 mustaḥiqs in Bogor Regency (66 mustaḥiqs engaged in vegetable production at Cibungbulang District, 85 mustaḥiqs in skewer business at Tenjolaya District, and 103 mustaḥiqs in shoe business at Taman Sari District. A census sampling, data collection through a questionnaire, an in-depth interview and observation were carried out in 2013. Data were analyzed descriptively and statistically, using structural equation model (SEM. The results of the research showed that: (1 the strategy of mustaḥiq empowerment could be carried out through strengthening the intrinsic motivation, training technical aspects, assisting business capital and assistance. Empowerment can be conducted synergically by the government (arrangement, service, and counseling, private sectors/State Owned Business (BUMN, higher education and community.

  10. Nonverbal Cues: The Key to Classroom Management.

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    Petrie, Garth; Lindauer, Patricia; Bennett, Brenda; Gibson, Sherri

    1998-01-01

    Principals should familiarize teachers with the benefits of nonverbal procedures for classroom management and discipline enforcement. A behavior-management checklist of nonverbal techniques (eye contact, touching, smiling, and frowning) can be used in a series of short visits. At least 75% of control techniques should be nonverbal. Relying on…

  11. Personality, IQ, and Lifetime Earnings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gensowski, Miriam

    2018-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of personality traits and IQ on lifetime earnings of the men and women of the Terman study, a high-IQ U.S. sample. Age-by-age earnings profiles allow a study of when personality traits affect earnings most, and for whom the effects are strongest. I document...... a concave life-cycle pattern in the payoffs to personality traits, with the largest effects between the ages of 40 and 60. An interaction of traits with education reveals that personality matters most for highly educated men. The largest effects are found for Conscientiousness, Extraversion...

  12. Language performance in siblings of nonverbal children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Yonata; Bar-Yuda, Chanit

    2011-05-01

    The study focuses on language and cognitive abilities of siblings of the linguistically most affected children with autism (i.e. siblings of nonverbal children - SIBS-ANV). Twenty-eight SIBS-ANV (17 boys), ages 4-9 years, took part in the study. All children attended regular schools, and none had received a diagnosis of autism. Controls were 27 typically developing children (SIBS-TD; 16 boys) matched to the SIBS-ANV on age, family background, socioeconomic status and type of school they attended. Significant IQ differences, as well as language differences as measured on the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF), emerged between SIBS-ANV and SIBS-TD. However, differences in the language scores mostly disappeared when PIQ and FSIQ were controlled for. Furthermore, grammatical analysis of spontaneous speech samples produced in the course of testing did not reveal any significant differences between the groups. These results add to recent work suggesting that language deficits may not be part of the Broad Autism Phenotype (BAP). It further suggests that the cognitive deficit characteristic of nonverbal people with autism may be familial.

  13. Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ

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    ... Feature: Skin Cancer Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table of Contents 1. ... Sun – Safety First / Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ Summer 2013 Issue: Volume 8 Number 2 Page ...

  14. Linking social cognition with social interaction: Non-verbal expressivity, social competence and "mentalising" in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders

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    Lehmkämper Caroline

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown that patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD can be distinguished from controls on the basis of their non-verbal expression. For example, patients with SSD use facial expressions less than normals to invite and sustain social interaction. Here, we sought to examine whether non-verbal expressivity in patients corresponds with their impoverished social competence and neurocognition. Method Fifty patients with SSD were videotaped during interviews. Non-verbal expressivity was evaluated using the Ethological Coding System for Interviews (ECSI. Social competence was measured using the Social Behaviour Scale and psychopathology was rated using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. Neurocognitive variables included measures of IQ, executive functioning, and two mentalising tasks, which tapped into the ability to appreciate mental states of story characters. Results Non-verbal expressivity was reduced in patients relative to controls. Lack of "prosocial" nonverbal signals was associated with poor social competence and, partially, with impaired understanding of others' minds, but not with non-social cognition or medication. Conclusion This is the first study to link deficits in non-verbal expressivity to levels of social skills and awareness of others' thoughts and intentions in patients with SSD.

  15. IQ and the Wealth of States

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    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    In "IQ and the Wealth of Nations" (2002), Lynn and Vanhanen estimate the mean IQs of 185 nations and demonstrate that national IQs strongly correlate with the macroeconomic performance of the nations, explaining about half of the variance in GDP per capita. I seek to replicate Lynn and Vanhanen's results across states within the United…

  16. Cognitive and neuropsychological outcomes: more than IQ scores.

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    Aylward, Glen P

    2002-01-01

    Improved survival in preterm infants has broadened interest in cognitive and neuropsychological outcomes. The incidence of major disabilities (moderate/severe mental retardation, neurosensory disorders, epilepsy, cerebral palsy) has remained consistent, but high prevalence/low severity dysfunctions (learning disabilities, ADHD, borderline mental retardation, specific neuropsychological deficits, behavioral disorders) have increased. The follow-up literature contains methodologic problems that make generalizations regarding outcome difficult, and these are discussed. Although mean IQs of former VLBW infants generally are in the low average range and are 3-9 points below normal birth weight peers, these scores mask subtle deficits in: visual-motor and visual-perceptual abilities, complex language functions, academics (reading, mathematics, spelling and writing), and attentional skills. There is an increased incidence of non-verbal learning disabilities, need for special educational assistance, and behavioral disorders in children born prematurely. Males have more problems, and there is a trend for worsening outcome over time, due to emergence of more subtle deficits in response to increased performance demands. In addition to IQ and achievement testing in follow-up, there should be evaluation of executive functions and attention, language, sensorimotor functions, visuospatial processes, memory and learning, and behavioral adjustment. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Nonverbal Communication and Human–Dog Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Iben Helene Coakley; Forkman, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Human–dog interaction relies to a large extent on nonverbal communication, and it is therefore plausible that human sensitivity to nonverbal signals affects interactions between human and dog. Experience with dogs is also likely to influence human–dog interactions, and it has been suggested...... and answered a questionnaire on their experience with dogs. The data obtained were then used to investigate the relationship between experience with dogs and sensitivity to human nonverbal communication. The results did not indicate that experience with dogs improves human nonverbal sensitivity. In study 2, 16...... that it influences human social skills. The present study investigated possible links between human nonverbal sensitivity, experience with dogs, and the quality of human–dog interactions. Two studies are reported. In study 1, 97 veterinary students took a psychometric test assessing human nonverbal sensitivity...

  18. Personality, IQ, and Lifetime Earnings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gensowski, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Talented individuals are seen as drivers of long-term growth, but how do they realize their full potential? In this paper, I show that lifetime earnings of high-IQ men and women are substantially influenced by their personality traits, in addition to intelligence and education. Personality traits......, as identified in a factor model, significantly affect earnings, but not for young workers. The effects are furthermore heterogeneous by educational attainment. For women, personality traits do not affect family earnings in the same way as own earnings. Personality and IQ also influence earnings indirectly...... through education, which has sizeable positive rates of return for men in this sample. Women’s returns to education past a bachelor’s degree are lowered through worse marriage prospects, which offset gains to education in terms of own earnings. The causal effect of education is identified through matching...

  19. Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Hayslett, H T

    1991-01-01

    Statistics covers the basic principles of Statistics. The book starts by tackling the importance and the two kinds of statistics; the presentation of sample data; the definition, illustration and explanation of several measures of location; and the measures of variation. The text then discusses elementary probability, the normal distribution and the normal approximation to the binomial. Testing of statistical hypotheses and tests of hypotheses about the theoretical proportion of successes in a binomial population and about the theoretical mean of a normal population are explained. The text the

  20. Training Manual. Focused Observations: Nonverbal Teaching Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Banks; And Others

    Nonverbal teacher behavior is recognized as an important factor in establishing a positive social climate in the classroom. A feedback and analysis instrument is presented focusing on specific nonverbal teacher behaviors. These behaviors--facial expressions, gestures, body movements, and idiosyncratic characteristics--are categorized as either…

  1. Nonverbal Communication in the Contemporary Operating Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    relationship to speech and be affected by issues of stress, intonation, and pacing (Kendon, 1981). Bilinguals generally gesture more than monolinguals ...a stranger: Some commonly used nonverbal signals of aversiveness. Semiotica, 22(3/4), 351-367. Givens, D. B. (2006). The nonverbal dictionary of

  2. Nonverbal and verbal emotional expression and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D S; Pennebaker, J W

    1993-01-01

    The spontaneous nonverbal expression of emotion is related to immediate reductions in autonomic nervous system activity. Similar changes in specific autonomic channels occur when individuals are encouraged to verbally express their emotions. Indeed, these physiological changes are most likely to occur among individuals who are either verbally or nonverbally highly expressive. These data suggest that when individuals must actively inhibit emotional expression, they are at increased risk for a variety of health problems. Several experiments are summarized which indicate that verbally expressing traumatic experiences by writing or talking improves physical health, enhances immune function, and is associated with fewer medical visits. Although less research is available regarding nonverbal expression, it is also likely that the nonverbal expression of emotion bears some relation to health status. We propose that the effectiveness of many common expressive therapies (e.g., art, music, cathartic) would be enhanced if clients are encouraged to both express their feelings nonverbally and to put their experiences into words.

  3. [Non-verbal communication of patients submitted to heart surgery: from awaking after anesthesia to extubation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werlang, Sueli da Cruz; Azzolin, Karina; Moraes, Maria Antonieta; de Souza, Emiliane Nogueira

    2008-12-01

    Preoperative orientation is an essential tool for patient's communication after surgery. This study had the objective of evaluating non-verbal communication of patients submitted to cardiac surgery from the time of awaking from anesthesia until extubation, after having received preoperative orientation by nurses. A quantitative cross-sectional study was developed in a reference hospital of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from March to July 2006. Data were collected in the pre and post operative periods. A questionnaire to evaluate non-verbal communication on awaking from sedation was applied to a sample of 100 patients. Statistical analysis included Student, Wilcoxon, and Mann Whittney tests. Most of the patients responded satisfactorily to non-verbal communication strategies as instructed on the preoperative orientation. Thus, non-verbal communication based on preoperative orientation was helpful during the awaking period.

  4. Non-verbal mother-child communication in conditions of maternal HIV in an experimental environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Paiva, Simone; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag; de Almeida, Paulo César

    2010-01-01

    Non-verbal communication is predominant in the mother-child relation. This study aimed to analyze non-verbal mother-child communication in conditions of maternal HIV. In an experimental environment, five HIV-positive mothers were evaluated during care delivery to their babies of up to six months old. Recordings of the care were analyzed by experts, observing aspects of non-verbal communication, such as: paralanguage, kinesics, distance, visual contact, tone of voice, maternal and infant tactile behavior. In total, 344 scenes were obtained. After statistical analysis, these permitted inferring that mothers use non-verbal communication to demonstrate their close attachment to their children and to perceive possible abnormalities. It is suggested that the mothers infection can be a determining factor for the formation of mothers strong attachment to their children after birth.

  5. Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links to sources of cancer-related statistics, including the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, SEER-Medicare datasets, cancer survivor prevalence data, and the Cancer Trends Progress Report.

  6. IQ and mental disorder in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Jensen, Hans Henrik

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most research investigating the relationship between IQ and risk of mental disorder has focused on schizophrenia. AIMS: To illuminate the relationship between IQ test scores in early adulthood and various mental disorders. METHOD: For 3289 men from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort......, military IQ test scores and information on psychiatric hospitalisation were available. We identified 350 men in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and compared the mean IQ test scores of nine diagnostic categories with the mean scores of 2939 unregistered cohort controls. RESULTS: Schizophrenia...... diagnostic categories, test scores were positively associated with the length of the interval between testing and first admission. ICD mood disorders as well as neuroses and related disorders were not significantly associated with low IQ scores. CONCLUSIONS: Low IQ may be a consequence of mental disease...

  7. Detection of Nonverbal Synchronization through Phase Difference in Human Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jinhwan; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Ono, Eisuke; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal communication is an important factor in human communication, and body movement synchronization in particular is an important part of nonverbal communication. Some researchers have analyzed body movement synchronization by focusing on changes in the amplitude of body movements. However, the definition of "body movement synchronization" is still unclear. From a theoretical viewpoint, phase difference is the most important factor in synchronization analysis. Therefore, there is a need to measure the synchronization of body movements using phase difference. The purpose of this study was to provide a quantitative definition of the phase difference distribution for detecting body movement synchronization in human communication. The phase difference distribution was characterized using four statistical measurements: density, mean phase difference, standard deviation (SD) and kurtosis. To confirm the effectiveness of our definition, we applied it to human communication in which the roles of speaker and listener were defined. Specifically, we examined the difference in the phase difference distribution between two different communication situations: face-to-face communication with visual interaction and remote communication with unidirectional visual perception. Participant pairs performed a task supposing lecture in the face-to-face communication condition and in the remote communication condition via television. Throughout the lecture task, we extracted a set of phase differences from the time-series data of the acceleration norm of head nodding motions between two participants. Statistical analyses of the phase difference distribution revealed the characteristics of head nodding synchronization. Although the mean phase differences in synchronized head nods did not differ significantly between the conditions, there were significant differences in the densities, the SDs and the kurtoses of the phase difference distributions of synchronized head nods. These

  8. Detection of Nonverbal Synchronization through Phase Difference in Human Communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhwan Kwon

    Full Text Available Nonverbal communication is an important factor in human communication, and body movement synchronization in particular is an important part of nonverbal communication. Some researchers have analyzed body movement synchronization by focusing on changes in the amplitude of body movements. However, the definition of "body movement synchronization" is still unclear. From a theoretical viewpoint, phase difference is the most important factor in synchronization analysis. Therefore, there is a need to measure the synchronization of body movements using phase difference. The purpose of this study was to provide a quantitative definition of the phase difference distribution for detecting body movement synchronization in human communication. The phase difference distribution was characterized using four statistical measurements: density, mean phase difference, standard deviation (SD and kurtosis. To confirm the effectiveness of our definition, we applied it to human communication in which the roles of speaker and listener were defined. Specifically, we examined the difference in the phase difference distribution between two different communication situations: face-to-face communication with visual interaction and remote communication with unidirectional visual perception. Participant pairs performed a task supposing lecture in the face-to-face communication condition and in the remote communication condition via television. Throughout the lecture task, we extracted a set of phase differences from the time-series data of the acceleration norm of head nodding motions between two participants. Statistical analyses of the phase difference distribution revealed the characteristics of head nodding synchronization. Although the mean phase differences in synchronized head nods did not differ significantly between the conditions, there were significant differences in the densities, the SDs and the kurtoses of the phase difference distributions of synchronized head

  9. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    For the years 2004 and 2005 the figures shown in the tables of Energy Review are partly preliminary. The annual statistics published in Energy Review are presented in more detail in a publication called Energy Statistics that comes out yearly. Energy Statistics also includes historical time-series over a longer period of time (see e.g. Energy Statistics, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2004.) The applied energy units and conversion coefficients are shown in the back cover of the Review. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in GDP, energy consumption and electricity consumption, Carbon dioxide emissions from fossile fuels use, Coal consumption, Consumption of natural gas, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices in heat production, Fuel prices in electricity production, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Average monthly spot prices at the Nord pool power exchange, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Supplies and total consumption of electricity GWh, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 2003, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 2003, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Price of natural gas by type of consumer, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes, precautionary stock fees and oil pollution fees

  10. [Non-verbal communication in Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiaratura, Loris Tamara

    2008-09-01

    This review underlines the importance of non-verbal communication in Alzheimer's disease. A social psychological perspective of communication is privileged. Non-verbal behaviors such as looks, head nods, hand gestures, body posture or facial expression provide a lot of information about interpersonal attitudes, behavioral intentions, and emotional experiences. Therefore they play an important role in the regulation of interaction between individuals. Non-verbal communication is effective in Alzheimer's disease even in the late stages. Patients still produce non-verbal signals and are responsive to others. Nevertheless, few studies have been devoted to the social factors influencing the non-verbal exchange. Misidentification and misinterpretation of behaviors may have negative consequences for the patients. Thus, improving the comprehension of and the response to non-verbal behavior would increase first the quality of the interaction, then the physical and psychological well-being of patients and that of caregivers. The role of non-verbal behavior in social interactions should be approached from an integrative and functional point of view.

  11. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    For the year 2000, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually, which also includes historical time series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot 1999, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2000, ISSN 0785-3165). The inside of the Review's back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions from the use of fossil fuels, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in 2000, Energy exports by recipient country in 2000, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees on oil products

  12. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    For the year 1999 and 2000, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually, which also includes historical time series over a longer period (see e.g., Energiatilastot 1998, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 1999, ISSN 0785-3165). The inside of the Review's back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in January-March 2000, Energy exports by recipient country in January-March 2000, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees on oil products

  13. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    For the year 1998 and the year 1999, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually, which also includes historical time series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot 1998, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 1999, ISSN 0785-3165). The inside of the Review's back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 1999, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 1999, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees on oil products

  14. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    For the year 2002, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are partly preliminary. The annual statistics of the Energy Review also includes historical time-series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot 2001, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2002). The applied energy units and conversion coefficients are shown in the inside back cover of the Review. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in GDP, energy consumption and electricity consumption, Carbon dioxide emissions from fossile fuels use, Coal consumption, Consumption of natural gas, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices in heat production, Fuel prices in electricity production, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Average monthly spot prices at the Nord pool power exchange, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Supply and total consumption of electricity GWh, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 2003, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 2003, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Price of natural gas by type of consumer, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Excise taxes, precautionary stock fees on oil pollution fees on energy products

  15. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    For the year 2003 and 2004, the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are partly preliminary. The annual statistics of the Energy Review also includes historical time-series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2003, ISSN 0785-3165). The applied energy units and conversion coefficients are shown in the inside back cover of the Review. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in GDP, energy consumption and electricity consumption, Carbon dioxide emissions from fossile fuels use, Coal consumption, Consumption of natural gas, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices in heat production, Fuel prices in electricity production, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Average monthly spot prices at the Nord pool power exchange, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Supplies and total consumption of electricity GWh, Energy imports by country of origin in January-March 2004, Energy exports by recipient country in January-March 2004, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Price of natural gas by type of consumer, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Excise taxes, precautionary stock fees on oil pollution fees

  16. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    For the year 1999 and 2000, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy also includes historical time series over a longer period (see e.g., Energiatilastot 1999, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2000, ISSN 0785-3165). The inside of the Review's back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 2000, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 2000, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees on oil products

  17. Onzin over het IQ van Afrikanen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.

    2010-01-01

    IQ is geen op zichzelf staande eigenschap maar is met allerlei andere variabelen te correleren. Zo blijkt IQ te maken te hebben met cognitieve vaardigheden en opleidingsniveau. Er zijn echter ook andere verbanden te leggen die minder voor de hand liggen en maatschappelijke implicaties hebben.

  18. Heritability Analyses of IQ Scores: Science or Numerology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layzer, David

    1974-01-01

    Examines limitations of the heritability concept and heritability analysis, and discusses a conventional application of heritability analysis, IQ scores as measurements of a phenotypic character, the heritability of IQ, and the relationship of IQ and race. (JR)

  19. Perception of Nonverbal Communication Influenced by Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蒙蒙

    2013-01-01

    The concept of perception influenced by culture is pretty important in the study of intercultural communication. The perceptions of language and nonverbal language formed under various cultures intimate with each other during communication. This paper aims to explore the relationship between perception and culture in nonverbal communication through the study of eye language and body odor, and promote the communication among people of different culture as well.

  20. Comparisons of IQ in Children With and Without Cochlear Implants: Longitudinal Findings and Associations With Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejas, Ivette; Mitchell, Christine M; Hoffman, Michael; Quittner, Alexandra L

    2018-04-05

    To make longitudinal comparisons of intelligence quotient (IQ) in children with cochlear implants (CIs) and typical hearing peers from early in development to the school-age period. Children with additional comorbidities and CIs were also evaluated. To estimate the impact of socioeconomic status and oral language on school-age cognitive performance. This longitudinal study evaluated nonverbal IQ in a multicenter, national sample of 147 children with CIs and 75 typically hearing peers. IQ was evaluated at baseline, prior to cochlear implantation, using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development and the Leiter International Performance Scale. School-age IQ was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children. For the current study, only the Perceptual Reasoning and Processing Speed indices were administered. Oral language was evaluated using the Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language. Children in the CI group scored within the normal range of intelligence at both time points. However, children with additional comorbidities scored significantly worse on the Processing Speed, but not the Perceptual Reasoning Index. Maternal education and language were significantly related to school-age IQ in both groups. Importantly, language was the strongest predictor of intellectual functioning in both children with CIs and normal hearing. These results suggest that children using cochlear implants perform similarly to hearing peers on measures of intelligence, but those with severe comorbidities are at-risk for cognitive deficits. Despite the strong link between socioeconomic status and intelligence, this association was no longer significant once spoken language performance was accounted for. These results reveal the important contributions that early intervention programs, which emphasize language and parent training, contribute to cognitive functioning in school-age children with CIs. For families from economically disadvantaged backgrounds, who are at

  1. IQ and adolescent self-harm behaviours in the ALSPAC birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Chen, Ying-Yeh; Heron, Jon; Kidger, Judi; Lewis, Glyn; Gunnell, David

    2014-01-01

    Low IQ is associated with an increased risk of suicide and suicide attempt in adults, but less is known about the relationship between IQ and aspects of suicidal/self-harm behaviours in adolescence. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a population-based prospective UK cohort. Binomial and multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the association of IQ measured at age 8 with suicide-related outcomes amongst 4810 adolescents aged 16-17 years. There was some evidence that associations differed in boys and girls (p values for interaction ranged between 0.06 and 0.25). In boys higher IQ was associated with increased risk of suicidal thoughts (adjusted odds ratio per 10 point increase in IQ score=1.14, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.01-1.28) and suicidal plans (1.15, 95% CI 0.93-1.43), although statistical evidence for the latter association was limited. There was also evidence for an association with non-suicidal self-harm (1.24, 95% CI 1.08-1.45) but not suicidal self-harm (1.04, 95% CI 0.86-1.25). In girls higher IQ was associated with increased risk of non-suicidal self-harm (1.11, 95% CI 1.02-1.22) but not suicidal thoughts, suicidal plans or suicidal self-harm. Loss to follow up and questionnaire non-response may have led to selection bias. In contrast to previous studies of IQ-suicide associations in adults, we found that higher IQ was associated with an increased risk of non-suicidal self-harm in male and female adolescents and suicidal thoughts in males. Associations of IQ with self-harm differed for self-harm with and without suicidal intent, suggesting that the aetiology of these behaviours may differ. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Agreement between clinicians' and care givers' assessment of intelligence in Nigerian children with intellectual disability: 'ratio IQ' as a viable option in the absence of standardized 'deviance IQ' tests in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguocha Chinyere M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There may be need to assess intelligent quotient (IQ scores in sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability, either for the purpose of educational needs assessment or research. However, modern intelligence scales developed in the western parts of the world suffer limitation of widespread use because of the influence of socio-cultural variations across the world. This study examined the agreement between IQ scores estimation among Nigerian children with intellectual disability using clinicians' judgment based on International Classification of Diseases, tenth Edition (ICD - 10 criteria for mental retardation and caregivers judgment based on 'ratio IQ' scores calculated from estimated mental age in the context of socio-cultural milieu of the children. It proposed a viable option of IQ score assessment among sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability, using a ratio of culture-specific estimated mental age and chronological age of the child in the absence of standardized alternatives, borne out of great diversity in socio-cultural context of sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Clinicians and care-givers independently assessed the children in relation to their socio-cultural background. Clinicians assessed the IQ scores of the children based on the ICD - 10 diagnostic criteria for mental retardation. 'Ratio IQ' scores were calculated from the ratio of estimated mental age and chronological age of each child. The IQ scores as assessed by the clinicians were then compared with the 'ratio IQ' scores using correlation statistics. Results A total of forty-four (44 children with intellectual disability were assessed. There was a significant correlation between clinicians' assessed IQ scores and the 'ratio IQ' scores employing zero order correlation without controlling for the chronological age of the children (r = 0.47, df = 42, p = 0.001. First order correlation controlling for the chronological age of the children

  3. Agreement between clinicians' and care givers' assessment of intelligence in Nigerian children with intellectual disability: 'ratio IQ' as a viable option in the absence of standardized 'deviance IQ' tests in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakare, Muideen O; Ubochi, Vincent N; Okoroikpa, Ifeoma N; Aguocha, Chinyere M; Ebigbo, Peter O

    2009-09-15

    There may be need to assess intelligent quotient (IQ) scores in sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability, either for the purpose of educational needs assessment or research. However, modern intelligence scales developed in the western parts of the world suffer limitation of widespread use because of the influence of socio-cultural variations across the world. This study examined the agreement between IQ scores estimation among Nigerian children with intellectual disability using clinicians' judgment based on International Classification of Diseases, tenth Edition(ICD - 10) criteria for mental retardation and caregivers judgment based on 'ratio IQ' scores calculated from estimated mental age in the context of socio-cultural milieu of the children. It proposed a viable option of IQ score assessment among sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability, using a ratio of culture-specific estimated mental age and chronological age of the child in the absence of standardized alternatives, borne out of great diversity in socio-cultural context of sub-Saharan Africa. Clinicians and care-givers independently assessed the children in relation to their socio-cultural background. Clinicians assessed the IQ scores of the children based on the ICD - 10 diagnostic criteria for mental retardation. 'Ratio IQ' scores were calculated from the ratio of estimated mental age and chronological age of each child. The IQ scores as assessed by the clinicians were then compared with the 'ratio IQ' scores using correlation statistics. A total of forty-four (44) children with intellectual disability were assessed. There was a significant correlation between clinicians' assessed IQ scores and the 'ratio IQ' scores employing zero order correlation without controlling for the chronological age of the children (r = 0.47, df = 42, p = 0.001). First order correlation controlling for the chronological age of the children showed higher correlation score between clinicians

  4. Image quality (IQ) guided multispectral image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Chen, Genshe; Wang, Zhonghai; Blasch, Erik

    2016-05-01

    Image compression is necessary for data transportation, which saves both transferring time and storage space. In this paper, we focus on our discussion on lossy compression. There are many standard image formats and corresponding compression algorithms, for examples, JPEG (DCT -- discrete cosine transform), JPEG 2000 (DWT -- discrete wavelet transform), BPG (better portable graphics) and TIFF (LZW -- Lempel-Ziv-Welch). The image quality (IQ) of decompressed image will be measured by numerical metrics such as root mean square error (RMSE), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), and structural Similarity (SSIM) Index. Given an image and a specified IQ, we will investigate how to select a compression method and its parameters to achieve an expected compression. Our scenario consists of 3 steps. The first step is to compress a set of interested images by varying parameters and compute their IQs for each compression method. The second step is to create several regression models per compression method after analyzing the IQ-measurement versus compression-parameter from a number of compressed images. The third step is to compress the given image with the specified IQ using the selected compression method (JPEG, JPEG2000, BPG, or TIFF) according to the regressed models. The IQ may be specified by a compression ratio (e.g., 100), then we will select the compression method of the highest IQ (SSIM, or PSNR). Or the IQ may be specified by a IQ metric (e.g., SSIM = 0.8, or PSNR = 50), then we will select the compression method of the highest compression ratio. Our experiments tested on thermal (long-wave infrared) images (in gray scales) showed very promising results.

  5. Nonverbal Interaction Analysis. A Method of Systematically Observing and Recording Nonverbal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, Peggy

    These materials will help the educator develop an awareness of nonverbal behavior, which is complimentary to and independent of the verbal realm, to give a complete picture of the classroom. The purpose of the manual is to enable the teacher to identify nonverbal components of behavior, including dimensions other than behavioral of the teacher's…

  6. Basic Information Processing Abilities at 11 years Account for Deficits in IQ Associated with Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan A; Feldman, Judith F; Jankowski, Jeffery J; Van Rossem, Ronan

    2011-07-01

    Although it is well established that preterms as a group do poorly relative to their full-term peers on tests of global cognitive functioning, the basis for this relative deficiency is less understood. The present paper examines preterm deficits in core cognitive abilities and determines their role in mediating preterm/full-term differences in IQ. The performance of 11-year-old children born preterm (birth weight <1750g) and their full-term controls were compared on a large battery of 15 tasks, covering four basic cognitive domains -- memory, attention, speed of processing and representational competence. The validity of these four domains was established using latent variables and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Preterms showed pervasive deficits within and across domains. Additionally, preterm deficits in IQ were completely mediated by these four cognitive domains in a structural equation model involving a cascade from elementary abilities (attention and speed), to more complex abilities (memory and representational competence), to IQ. The similarity of findings to those obtained with this cohort in infancy and toddlerhood suggest that preterm deficits persist - across time, across task, and from the non-verbal to the verbal period.

  7. Impact of IQ on the diagnostic yield of chromosomal microarray in a community sample of adults with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowther, Chelsea; Merico, Daniele; Costain, Gregory; Waserman, Jack; Boyd, Kerry; Noor, Abdul; Speevak, Marsha; Stavropoulos, Dimitri J; Wei, John; Lionel, Anath C; Marshall, Christian R; Scherer, Stephen W; Bassett, Anne S

    2017-11-30

    Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder associated with IQ deficits. Rare copy number variations (CNVs) have been established to play an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Several of the large rare CNVs associated with schizophrenia have been shown to negatively affect IQ in population-based controls where no major neuropsychiatric disorder is reported. The aim of this study was to examine the diagnostic yield of microarray testing and the functional impact of genome-wide rare CNVs in a community ascertained cohort of adults with schizophrenia and low (IQ. We recruited 546 adults of European ancestry with schizophrenia from six community psychiatric clinics in Canada. Each individual was assigned to the low or average IQ group based on standardized tests and/or educational attainment. We used rigorous methods to detect genome-wide rare CNVs from high-resolution microarray data. We compared the burden of rare CNVs classified as pathogenic or as a variant of unknown significance (VUS) between each of the IQ groups and the genome-wide burden and functional impact of rare CNVs after excluding individuals with a pathogenic CNV. There were 39/546 (7.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.2-9.7%) schizophrenia participants with at least one pathogenic CNV detected, significantly more of whom were from the low IQ group (odds ratio [OR] = 5.01 [2.28-11.03], p = 0.0001). Secondary analyses revealed that individuals with schizophrenia and average IQ had the lowest yield of pathogenic CNVs (n = 9/325; 2.8%), followed by those with borderline intellectual functioning (n = 9/130; 6.9%), non-verbal learning disability (n = 6/29; 20.7%), and co-morbid intellectual disability (n = 15/62; 24.2%). There was no significant difference in the burden of rare CNVs classified as a VUS between any of the IQ subgroups. There was a significantly (p=0.002) increased burden of rare genic duplications in individuals with schizophrenia and low IQ

  8. Nonverbal accommodation in health care communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Thomas A; Bylund, Carma L

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study examined patterns of nonverbal accommodation within health care interactions and investigated the impact of communication skills training and gender concordance on nonverbal accommodation behavior. The Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS) was used to code the nonverbal behavior of physicians and patients within 45 oncology consultations. Cases were then placed in one of seven categories based on patterns of accommodation observed across the interaction. Results indicated that across all NAAS behavior categories, physician-patient interactions were most frequently categorized as joint convergence, followed closely by asymmetrical-patient convergence. Among paraverbal behaviors, talk time, interruption, and pausing were most frequently characterized by joint convergence. Among nonverbal behaviors, eye contact, laughing, and gesturing were most frequently categorized as asymmetrical-physician convergence. Differences were predominantly nonsignificant in terms of accommodation behavior between pre- and post-communication skills training interactions. Only gesturing proved significant, with post-communication skills training interactions more likely to be categorized as joint convergence or asymmetrical-physician convergence. No differences in accommodation were noted between gender-concordant and nonconcordant interactions. The importance of accommodation behavior in health care communication is considered from a patient-centered care perspective.

  9. Do organizational strategies mediate nonverbal memory impairment in drug-naïve patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Na Young; Kang, Do-Hyung; Choi, Jung-Seok; Jung, Myung Hun; Jang, Joon Hwan; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2010-07-01

    The present study aimed to examine nonverbal memory and organizational skill functions in psychotropic-naïve patients with OCD. Forty-one drug-naïve, 41 medicated OCD patients and 41 healthy controls, all of whom were matched for gender, age, education and intelligence, were included in the study. The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (RCFT) was administered to evaluate nonverbal memory ability and organizational skill. OCD patients demonstrated impaired nonverbal memory irrespective of medication status (F = 6.54, p organizational strategies (eta(2)p = .079), which mediated nonverbal memory impairment (Z = -2.20, p = .027). The difference of organizational skill between drug-naïve and control groups did not reach statistical significance (eta(2)p = .054) and the association between organization and nonverbal memory was weak in the drug-naïve sample (Z = -1.74, = .081). There was no significant difference between the patient groups in RCFT indices. Our findings suggest that the organizational strategies may not be an effective mediator of nonverbal memory impairment in OCD and indicate that the clinical characteristics may be important to be considered in future research. Further studies are needed to improve understanding of the nature of nonverbal memory dysfunction in OCD.

  10. IQ and Reading Comprehension in Translation Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Askari; Azam Samadi Rahim

    2017-01-01

    Having a deeper understanding of determining factors in the quality of translation is in the interest of almost all scholars of translation studies. Students’ intelligence is being measured constantly in order to determine their aptitude for entering into different programs. However, in translation studies, the variable of intelligence quotient (IQ) has been curiously ignored among researchers. This study aimed to explore the strength of both IQ and reading comprehension in predicting transla...

  11. Low IQ scores in schizophrenia : primary or secondary deficit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beilen, M; Withaar, F; van Zomeren, AH; van den Bosch, R

    Background: Schizophrenia is consistently associated with lower IQ compared to the IQ of control groups, or estimated premorbid IQ. It is not likely that the IQ scores deteriorate during the prodromal phase or first psychotic episode; they are already present before the onset of the prodromal phase

  12. 77 FR 49839 - IndexIQ Advisors LLC and IndexIQ Active ETF Trust; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... Advisors LLC and IndexIQ Active ETF Trust; Notice of Application August 13, 2012. AGENCY: Securities and... IndexIQ Active ETF Trust (the ``Trust''). SUMMARY OF APPLICATION: Applicants request an order that... series, IQ Global Equity Active ETF (``Global Equity ETF''), IQ Global Fixed Income Active ETF (``Global...

  13. Effect of interaction with clowns on vital signs and non-verbal communication of hospitalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcântara, Pauline Lima; Wogel, Ariane Zonho; Rossi, Maria Isabela Lobo; Neves, Isabela Rodrigues; Sabates, Ana Llonch; Puggina, Ana Cláudia

    2016-12-01

    Compare the non-verbal communication of children before and during interaction with clowns and compare their vital signs before and after this interaction. Uncontrolled, intervention, cross-sectional, quantitative study with children admitted to a public university hospital. The intervention was performed by medical students dressed as clowns and included magic tricks, juggling, singing with the children, making soap bubbles and comedic performances. The intervention time was 20minutes. Vital signs were assessed in two measurements with an interval of one minute immediately before and after the interaction. Non-verbal communication was observed before and during the interaction using the Non-Verbal Communication Template Chart, a tool in which nonverbal behaviors are assessed as effective or ineffective in the interactions. The sample consisted of 41 children with a mean age of 7.6±2.7 years; most were aged 7 to 11 years (n=23; 56%) and were males (n=26; 63.4%). There was a statistically significant difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pain and non-verbal behavior of children with the intervention. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased and pain scales showed decreased scores. The playful interaction with clowns can be a therapeutic resource to minimize the effects of the stressing environment during the intervention, improve the children's emotional state and reduce the perception of pain. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Direct and Indirect Effects of IQ, Parental Help, Effort, and Mathematics Self-Concept on Mathematics Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Abu-Hilal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the structural relationships among cognitive constructs (intelligence and achievement and affective constructs (perceived parental help, effort and self-concept. It was proposed that the relationships are not invariant across gender. The sample consisted of 219 boys and 133 girls from elementary and preparatory public schools in Al Ain in the United Arab Emirates. Intelligence (IQ was measured by the Test of Non-verbal Intelligence (TONI and parental help was measured by 4-Likert-type items. Effort was measured by 4-Likert-type items. Self-concept (SC was measured by 8-Likert-type items taken from the SDQ I (Abu-Hilal, 2000. Mathematic Achievement was the scores of students in mathematics from school records. The structural model assumed that IQ would have an effect on parental help, effort, SC and achievement. Parental help would have an effect on effort, SC and achievement. Also, effort would have an effect on SC and achievement. Finally, SC would have an effect on achievement. The structural model was tested for invariance across gender. The measurement model proved to be invariant across gender and so was the structural model. The non-constrained model indicated that the structural relationships among the variables do vary according to gender. For example, boys benefited from parental help by exerting more effort while girls did not. Boys with high IQ exerted more effort than boys with low IQ; but girls with high IQ exerted the same amount of effort as girls with low IQ. The model explained 45% and 39% of the variance in math scores for boys and girls, respectively.

  15. Human Nonverbal Behaviors, Empathy, and Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggers, T. Thorne

    Nonverbal behavior is an important aspect of the film and is one of the several tools that a director uses to communicate to an audience the characters' feelings and relationships. By adding to this information their own personal responses, viewers often experience strong feelings. With reference to the social psychological research of nonverbal…

  16. Emotion Comprehension: The Impact of Nonverbal Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Ottavia; De Stasio, Simona; Di Chiacchio, Carlo; Fiorilli, Caterina; Pons, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    A substantial body of research has established that emotion understanding develops throughout early childhood and has identified three hierarchical developmental phases: external, mental, and reflexive. The authors analyzed nonverbal intelligence and its effect on children's improvement of emotion understanding and hypothesized that cognitive…

  17. Breastfeeding Is Positively Associated with Child Intelligence Even Net of Parental IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Some previous reviews conclude that breastfeeding is not significantly associated with increased intelligence in children once mother's IQ is statistically controlled. The conclusion may potentially have both theoretical and methodological problems. The National Child Development Study allows the examination of the effect of breastfeeding on…

  18. A Study Of The Relation Between IQ And Personality Types Among Male And Female Students Of Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vafaee D

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychologists have been thinking that some personality types may have a higher IQ comparing with the other types, and this could be considered as a general belief. Eysenck, the eminent British psychologist, described the introverted people to have a higher. Intelligence comparing with the extroverted people. Materials and Methods: We maintain two objectives from this study. Firstly if there is a relation between the IQ and personality types or not and secondly the mean IQ of which group is higher and thirdly, what is the relation between sexes. Results: 297 students were selected randomly from Tabriz University and Tabriz Medical Sciences University. Every examination was given both Raven IQ test and Eysenck personality inventory and examination answered the both tests at the same time. Both tests were evaluated by the standard scoring system. The results of both tests were extracted then statistical evaluations ofx and t-test were done. No significant and meaningful relation was found between IQ and personality types pf Eysenck ( introversion- extroversion, neuroticism, emotion stability among male and female students. Also introverted students and extroverted students did not have significant differences in the mean of IQ. Conclusion: Altogether these kinds of findings seem to be interesting, judging about psychological and behavioral characteristic of people needs more studies, and a single IQ or personality test is not sufficient. Therefore reaching an exact conclusion as a scientific fact will be possible by further researches.

  19. Cortex Matures Faster in Youths With Highest IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIH Cortex Matures Faster in Youths With Highest IQ Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... on. Photo: Getty image (StockDisc) Youths with superior IQ are distinguished by how fast the thinking part ...

  20. Natural IQ: Investigating questions about climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babs McDonald; Jessica Nickelsen; Julia Dobish; Elissa Riley; Michelle Andrews; Emily Melear-Daniels

    2014-01-01

    Scientists report their research in journals, which are special booklets that enable scientists to share information with one another. This journal, Natural IQ, was created so that scientists can share their research with you and with other middle school students. Each article tells you about scientific research conducted by scientists in the Forest Service, U.S....

  1. Perancangan Sistem Informasi Akuntansi Pada IQ Salon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika Imam Santoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recording of transactions and financial statements of the manual on IQ Salon raises the risk of error in the financial records are not fast and precise, and cause difficulties with the increasing transaction will occur in the future. The purpose of this research is to design accounting information systems (AIS to prepare financial statements to the income statement and provide convenience in recording daily transactions and the financial statements in order to avoid mistakes. The design used in this study is a Waterfall and programming used is PHP and MySQL as the database. The design uses modeling context diagram, Data Flow Diagrams (DFD, Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD. Accounting information system on IQ Salon built using the programming language PHP and MySQL as the database generates Journal report, Balance Sheet and Income Ledger. The report simplify IQ Salon owners to control and make decisions. It is also easier for employees to serve customers in the event of payment of the services that have been awarded Keywords : DFD; IQ Salon; MySQL; PHP; IAS; Waterfall

  2. The IQ Argument. Race, Intelligence and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysenck, Hans J.

    The controversy over the causes of intelligence--genetic or environmental--is reviewed. More specifically, the subject of the consistently lower intelligence scores for blacks is analyzed. Much attention is devoted to Jensen and his monograph published in the "Harvard Educational Review," entitled "How much can we boost IQ and scholastic…

  3. IQ and Reading Comprehension in Translation Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Askari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Having a deeper understanding of determining factors in the quality of translation is in the interest of almost all scholars of translation studies. Students’ intelligence is being measured constantly in order to determine their aptitude for entering into different programs. However, in translation studies, the variable of intelligence quotient (IQ has been curiously ignored among researchers. This study aimed to explore the strength of both IQ and reading comprehension in predicting translation quality among Iranian translation students.  A sample of forty-six translation students from Alborz University of Qazvin participated in this study. Data were collected using three tests including Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices, Colina’s (2008 componential translation quality rating scheme and the reading comprehension test of IELTS. The results show IQ test scores and reading comprehension significantly predict translation quality assessment. Surprisingly, the most significant finding is that IQ score is by far a better predictor of translation quality than reading comprehension. Overall, it is concluded that translation quality assessment is more of a deeper cognitive function than solely language process, which could lead to more research on cognitive aspects of translation.

  4. IQ Zoo and Teaching Operant Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihm, Elson M.; Gillaspy, J. Arthur, Jr.; Lammers, William J.; Huffman, Stephanie P.

    2010-01-01

    Psychology texts often cite the work of Marian and Keller Breland and their business, Animal Behavior Enterprises (ABE), to demonstrate operant conditioning and the "misbehavior of organisms" from an evolutionary perspective. Now available on the Internet at the official IQ Zoo website (http://www3.uca.edu/iqzoo/), the artifacts of ABE's work, in…

  5. Nonverbal communication in the focus-group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Simona TECĂU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the process of analysing the information obtained through focus group qualitative marketing research, a very important source of data is represented by non-verbal communication. Although the literature reveals an abundance of published material that describes how data obtained through focus group should be analysed, one of the least addressed issue is the interpretation of signals from participants: gestures, posture, dynamic and rhythm of speech or even the silence. This Article addresses precisely aspects of non-verbal communication in the focus group's and although not intended to examine in detail the results of a focus group, it shows how some of signals transmitted by participants of such research have been analysed and interpreted.

  6. Narrative retelling in children with neurodevelopmental disorders: is there a role for nonverbal temporal-sequencing skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnels, Jakob Åsberg; Hagberg, Bibbi; Gillberg, Christopher; Miniscalco, Carmela

    2013-10-01

    Oral narrative retelling is often problematic for children with communicative and neurodevelopmental disorders. However, beyond a suggested role of language level, little is known about the basis of narrative performance. In this study we examine whether oral narrative retelling might be associated not just with language level but also with skills related to nonverbal narrative temporal sequencing. A diagnostically heterogeneous sample of Swedish-speaking children with a full scale IQ >70 was included in the study (N = 55; age 6-9 years). Narrative retelling skills were measured using the three subscores from the bus story test (BST). Independent predictors included (1) temporal sequencing skills according to a picture arrangement test and (2) a language skills factor consisting of definitional vocabulary and receptive grammar. Regression analyses show that language skills predicted BST Sentence Length and Subordinate Clauses subscores, while both temporal sequencing and language were independently linked with the BST Information subscore. When subdividing the sample based on nonverbal temporal sequencing level, a significant subgroup difference was found only for BST Information. Finally, a principal component analysis shows that temporal sequencing and BST Information loaded on a common factor, separately from the language measures. It is concluded that language level is an important correlate of narrative performance more generally in this diagnostically heterogeneous sample, and that nonverbal temporal sequencing functions are important especially for conveying story information. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  7. Dissociating verbal and nonverbal audiovisual object processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Julia; Price, Cathy J

    2009-02-01

    This fMRI study investigates how audiovisual integration differs for verbal stimuli that can be matched at a phonological level and nonverbal stimuli that can be matched at a semantic level. Subjects were presented simultaneously with one visual and one auditory stimulus and were instructed to decide whether these stimuli referred to the same object or not. Verbal stimuli were simultaneously presented spoken and written object names, and nonverbal stimuli were photographs of objects simultaneously presented with naturally occurring object sounds. Stimulus differences were controlled by including two further conditions that paired photographs of objects with spoken words and object sounds with written words. Verbal matching, relative to all other conditions, increased activation in a region of the left superior temporal sulcus that has previously been associated with phonological processing. Nonverbal matching, relative to all other conditions, increased activation in a right fusiform region that has previously been associated with structural and conceptual object processing. Thus, we demonstrate how brain activation for audiovisual integration depends on the verbal content of the stimuli, even when stimulus and task processing differences are controlled.

  8. Nonverbal synchrony and affect in dyadic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang eTschacher

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In an experiment on dyadic social interaction, we invited participants to verbal interactions in cooperative, competitive, and 'fun task' conditions. We focused on the link between interactants' affectivity and their nonverbal synchrony, and explored which further variables contributed to affectivity: interactants' personality traits, sex, and the prescribed interaction tasks. Nonverbal synchrony was quantified by the coordination of interactants' body movement, using an automated video-analysis algorithm (Motion Energy Analysis, MEA. Traits were assessed with standard questionnaires of personality, attachment, interactional style, psychopathology and interpersonal reactivity. We included 168 previously unacquainted individuals who were randomly allocated to same-sex dyads (84 females, 84 males, mean age 27.3 years. Dyads discussed four topics of general interest drawn from an urn of eight topics, and finally engaged in a fun interaction. Each interaction lasted five minutes. In between interactions, participants repeatedly assessed their affect. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we found moderate to strong effect sizes for synchrony to occur, especially in competitive and fun task conditions. Positive affect was associated positively with synchrony, negative affect was associated negatively. As for causal direction, data supported the interpretation that synchrony entailed affect rather than vice versa. The link between nonverbal synchrony and affect was strongest in female dyads. The findings extend previous reports of synchrony and mimicry associated with emotion in relationships and suggest a possible mechanism of the synchrony-affect correlation.

  9. Synthesis and tritium labeling of the food mutagens IQ and methyl-IQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterhouse, A.L.; Rapoport, H.

    1985-01-01

    The mutagens found in cooked meat, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinoline (IQ) and 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (Methyl-IQ), have been synthesized by unambiguous methods that allow for the preparation of sufficient quantities of material for biological studies. These methods avoid difficult separations of regioisomeric mixtures of products and incorporate specific high level tritium labeling, effected by hydrogenolysis of the appropriately substituted 5-bromo precursors. (author)

  10. Birth Order, Sibling IQ Differences, and Family Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfouts, Jane H.

    The differential impact of birth order and IQ on sibling roles were examined with particular interest focused on achievement outcomes. Subjects were a stratified sample of 37 pairs of near-in-age siblings, all within the normal range in personality and IQ, but differing significantly in scores on the Slosson IQ Test. Results indicate that when the…

  11. The New Assault on Equality: IQ and Social Stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Alan, Ed.; And Others

    This book includes nine essays. In the Introduction: "The Lingering Infatuation with IQ," the editors argue that since the IQ test has again risen as an instrument of conservative policy, the test and the arguments built around it must be reexamined. Noam Chomsky criticizes the well-known "Atlantic" article, "IQ" (September, 1971), in "The Fallacy…

  12. IQ Tests: Throwing out the Bathwater, Saving the Baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, James H.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that despite limitations and abuse, IQ tests should play significant role in programs for gifted students. Substance of the Lippmann Terman debates of the 1920s is examined, followed by acknowledgment of major limitations of IQ tests and discussion of rationales for special programs for the gifted. Argument is made for use of IQ tests in an…

  13. IQ and Crime: Dull Behavior and/or Misspecified Theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Brunschot, Erin Gibbs; Brannigan, Augustine

    1995-01-01

    In response to "The Bell Curve," notes that the effects of IQ on crime and delinquency are mediated by gender and age in a fashion that is not readily explained by a reduction to genetic differences. Discusses possible interrelationships among IQ, delinquency, and school performance, and suggests that the causal link between IQ and…

  14. IQ and schizophrenia in a Swedish national sample: their causal relationship and the interaction of IQ with genetic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Ohlsson, Henrik; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2015-03-01

    The authors sought to clarify the relationship between IQ and subsequent risk for schizophrenia. IQ was assessed at ages 18-20 in 1,204,983 Swedish males born between 1951 and 1975. Schizophrenia was assessed by hospital diagnosis through 2010. Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate future risk for schizophrenia in individuals as a function of their IQ score, and then stratified models using pairs of relatives were used to adjust for familial cluster. Finally, regression models were used to examine the interaction between IQ and genetic liability on risk for schizophrenia. IQ had a monotonic relationship with schizophrenia risk across the IQ range, with a mean increase in risk of 3.8% per 1-point decrease in IQ; this association was stronger in the lower than the higher IQ range. Co-relative control analyses showed a similar association between IQ and schizophrenia in the general population and in cousin, half-sibling, and full-sibling pairs. A robust interaction was seen between genetic liability to schizophrenia and IQ in predicting schizophrenia risk. Genetic susceptibility for schizophrenia had a much stronger impact on risk of illness for those with low than high intelligence. The IQ-genetic liability interaction arose largely from IQ differences between close relatives. IQ assessed in late adolescence is a robust risk factor for subsequent onset of schizophrenia. This association is not the result of a declining IQ associated with insidious onset. In this large, representative sample, we found no evidence for a link between genius and schizophrenia. Co-relative control analyses showed that the association between lower IQ and schizophrenia is not the result of shared familial risk factors and may be causal. The strongest effect was seen with IQ differences within families. High intelligence substantially attenuates the impact of genetic liability on the risk for schizophrenia.

  15. 77 FR 41464 - IndexIQ Advisors LLC and IndexIQ Active ETF Trust; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ...] IndexIQ Advisors LLC and IndexIQ Active ETF Trust; Notice of Application July 9, 2012. AGENCY... IndexIQ Active ETF Trust (``Trust''). Filing Dates: The application was filed on September 9, 2011, and... relief is unusual insofar as the requested order seeks relief for an ETF. Applicants note, however, that...

  16. Bilateral and unilateral ECT: effects on verbal and nonverbal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, S R; Slater, P C

    1978-11-01

    The memory loss associated with bilateral and nondominant unilateral ECT was assessed with verbal memory tests known to be sensitive to left temporal lobe dysfunction and with nonverbal memory tests known to be sensitive to right temporal lobe dysfunction. Bilateral ECT markedly impaired delayed retention of verbal and nonverbal material. Right unilateral ECT impaired delayed retention of nonverbal material without measurably affecting retention of verbal material. Nonverbal memory was affected less by right unilateral ECT than by bilateral ECT. These findings, taken together with a consideration of the clinical efficacy of the two types of treatment, make what appears to be a conclusive case for unilateral over bilateral ECT.

  17. Does IQ Really Predict Job Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ken; Norgate, Sarah H.

    2015-01-01

    IQ has played a prominent part in developmental and adult psychology for decades. In the absence of a clear theoretical model of internal cognitive functions, however, construct validity for IQ tests has always been difficult to establish. Test validity, therefore, has always been indirect, by correlating individual differences in test scores with what are assumed to be other criteria of intelligence. Job performance has, for several reasons, been one such criterion. Correlations of around 0.5 have been regularly cited as evidence of test validity, and as justification for the use of the tests in developmental studies, in educational and occupational selection and in research programs on sources of individual differences. Here, those correlations are examined together with the quality of the original data and the many corrections needed to arrive at them. It is concluded that considerable caution needs to be exercised in citing such correlations for test validation purposes. PMID:26405429

  18. Long Term Planning at IQ Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This is a Danish version. This case about long term planning at the owner-managed manufacturing firm IQ Metal shows how the future management and ownership may be organized to utilize owner assets and minimize roadblocks. Initially, the owner-manager Bo Fischer Larsen explains how he acquired...... a stake in 2007 in the company which at that time was named Braendstrup Maskinfabrik. He furthermore expalins how he has developed the company based on a strategic plan focusing on professionalization and outsourcing. Next, the video shows how to type Bo Fischer Larsen's replies to the questions...... in The Owner Strategy Map into the questionnaire available on www.ejerstrategi-kortet.dk. Lastly, the Owner Strategy Map's recommendation of how to organize the future management and ownership of IQ Metal is explained....

  19. Non-verbal communication through sensor fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tairych, Andreas; Xu, Daniel; O'Brien, Benjamin M.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2016-04-01

    When we communicate face to face, we subconsciously engage our whole body to convey our message. In telecommunication, e.g. during phone calls, this powerful information channel cannot be used. Capturing nonverbal information from body motion and transmitting it to the receiver parallel to speech would make these conversations feel much more natural. This requires a sensing device that is capable of capturing different types of movements, such as the flexion and extension of joints, and the rotation of limbs. In a first embodiment, we developed a sensing glove that is used to control a computer game. Capacitive dielectric elastomer (DE) sensors measure finger positions, and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) detects hand roll. These two sensor technologies complement each other, with the IMU allowing the player to move an avatar through a three-dimensional maze, and the DE sensors detecting finger flexion to fire weapons or open doors. After demonstrating the potential of sensor fusion in human-computer interaction, we take this concept to the next level and apply it in nonverbal communication between humans. The current fingerspelling glove prototype uses capacitive DE sensors to detect finger gestures performed by the sending person. These gestures are mapped to corresponding messages and transmitted wirelessly to another person. A concept for integrating an IMU into this system is presented. The fusion of the DE sensor and the IMU combines the strengths of both sensor types, and therefore enables very comprehensive body motion sensing, which makes a large repertoire of gestures available to nonverbal communication over distances.

  20. Premorbid IQ Predicts Postconcussive Symptoms in OEF/OIF/OND Veterans with mTBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Willis, Jada J; Heyanka, Daniel; Proctor-Weber, Zoe; England, Heather; Bruhns, Maya

    2018-03-01

    Extant literature has demonstrated that symptoms of postconcussive syndrome (PCS) persist well beyond the expected 3-month post-injury recovery period in a minority of individuals with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Suboptimal performance on validity measures and pre- and post-injury psychosocial stressors - rather than actual mTBI or current cognitive functioning - have been identified as predictors of chronic PCS. Whether premorbid IQ has any influence on chronic PCS has been understudied, in the context of established psychogenic etiologies. The sample included 31 veterans, who underwent mTBI neuropsychological evaluations six or more months post-injury in a VA outpatient neuropsychology clinic. A two-step multiple linear regression was conducted to examine the effects on the outcome variable, PCS (Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory), of the following predictors: cognitive functioning (Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status; Attention, Immediate Memory, and Delayed Memory Indices), performance validity, depression (Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD Checklist, Civilian Version), quality of sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), pain (Brief Pain Inventory), education, and Premorbid IQ (Wechsler Test of Adult Reading). The overall regression model containing all nine predictor variables was statistically significant. Depression (p IQ (p IQ and greater endorsed symptoms of depression were associated with higher PCS scores. In Step 2 of the multiple linear regression, the WTAR explained an additional 6.7% of the variance in PCS after controlling for psychosocial stressors and current cognitive ability. The findings support premorbid IQ as a unique and relevant predictor of chronic PCS, with significance variance accounted for beyond education, cognitive functioning, and psychosocial variables. Given the predictive relationship between premorbid IQ and PCS, adapting postconcussive

  1. Radiation dosimetry predicts IQ after conformal radiation therapy in pediatric patients with localized ependymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchant, Thomas E.; Kiehna, Erin N.; Li Chenghong; Xiong Xiaoping; Mulhern, Raymond K.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the effects of radiation dose-volume distribution on the trajectory of IQ development after conformal radiation therapy (CRT) in pediatric patients with ependymoma. Methods and Materials: The study included 88 patients (median age, 2.8 years ± 4.5 years) with localized ependymoma who received CRT (54-59.4 Gy) that used a 1-cm margin on the postoperative tumor bed. Patients were evaluated with tests that included IQ measures at baseline (before CRT) and at 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. Differential dose-volume histograms (DVH) were derived for total-brain, supratentorial-brain, and right and left temporal-lobe volumes. The data were partitioned into three dose intervals and integrated to create variables that represent the fractional volume that received dose over the specified intervals (e.g., V 0-20Gy , V 20-40Gy , V 40-65Gy ) and modeled with clinical variables to develop a regression equation to estimate IQ after CRT. Results: A total of 327 IQ tests were performed in 66 patients with infratentorial tumors and 20 with supratentorial tumors. The median follow-up was 29.4 months. For all patients, IQ was best estimated by age (years) at CRT; percent volume of the supratentorial brain that received doses between 0 and 20 Gy, 20 and 40 Gy, and 40 and 65 Gy; and time (months) after CRT. Age contributed significantly to the intercept (p > 0.0001), and the dose-volume coefficients were statistically significant (V 0-20Gy , p = 0.01; V 20-40Gy , p 40-65Gy , p = 0.04). A similar model was developed exclusively for patients with infratentorial tumors but not supratentorial tumors. Conclusion: Radiation dosimetry can be used to predict IQ after CRT in patients with localized ependymoma. The specificity of models may be enhanced by grouping according to tumor location

  2. SAPS, Crime statistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    incidents' refer to 'incidents such as labour disputes and dissatisfaction with service delivery in which violence erupted and SAPS action was required to restore peace and order'.26. It is apparent from both the SAPS statistics and those provided by the Municipal IQ Hotspots. Monitor, that public protests and gatherings are.

  3. Racial IQ Differences among Transracial Adoptees: Fact or Artifact?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Some academic publications infer from studies of transracial adoptees’ IQs that East Asian adoptees raised in the West by Whites have higher IQs than Western Whites, and that White adoptees raised by Whites have higher IQs than Black adoptees raised by Whites. Those publications suggest that this is because genetic differences give East Asians a higher mean IQ than Whites, and Whites a higher mean IQ than Blacks. This paper proposes a parsimonious alternative explanation: the apparent IQ advantage of East Asian adoptees is an artifact caused by ignoring the Flynn effect and adoption’s beneficial effect on IQ, and most of the IQ disadvantage of Black adoptees disappears when one allows for attrition in the Minnesota Transracial Adoption Study, and acknowledges the results of other studies. Diagnosing these artifacts suggests a nil hypothesis: East Asian, White, and Black adoptees raised in the same environment would have similar IQs, hinting at a minimal role for genes in racial IQ differences.

  4. Effects of Nonverbal Behavior on Perceptions of Power Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguinis, Herman; Simonsen, Melissa M.; Pierce, Charles A.

    1998-01-01

    Manipulates three types of nonverbal behaviors and examines their effects on perceptions of power bases. Reports that a relaxed facial expression increased the ratings for five of the selected power bases; furthermore, direct eye contact yielded higher credibility ratings. Provides evidence that various nonverbal behaviors have only additive…

  5. The Relationship between Family Expressiveness and Nonverbal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberstadt, Amy G.

    Although research in nonverbal communication is in its seventh decade, the origins of individual differences in nonverbl sensitivity remain. To investigate the relationship between family norms of emotional expression and nonverbal communication, 64 college students completed the Family Expressiveness Questionnaire, were videotaped while…

  6. How Interviewers' Nonverbal Behaviors Can Affect Children's Perceptions and Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerigogna, Jehanne; Ost, James; Akehurst, Lucy; Fluck, Mike

    2008-01-01

    We conducted two studies to examine how interviewers' nonverbal behaviors affect children's perceptions and suggestibility. In the first study, 42 8- to 10-year-olds watched video clips showing an interviewer displaying combinations of supportive and nonsupportive nonverbal behaviors and were asked to rate the interviewer on six attributes (e.g.,…

  7. A Meta-study of musicians' non-verbal interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2010-01-01

    interruptions. Hence, despite the fact that the skill to engage in a non-verbal interaction is described as tacit knowledge, it is fundamental for both musicians and teachers (Davidson and Good 2002). Typical observed non-verbal cues are for example: physical gestures, modulations of sound, steady eye contact...

  8. Investigating a Relationship between Nonverbal Communication and Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    Clear and effective communication is essential in today's society (Smith & Cotten, 1980; Smith & Land, 1981). Nonverbal communication specifically has a vital role in communication. There is inconsistent data on the effect of nonverbal communication used by instructors and the impact on student learning within the higher education…

  9. Slap What? An Interactive Lesson in Nonverbal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haithcox-Dennis, Melissa J.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the use of nonverbal communication strategies for fostering social health in middle school students. It outlines a teaching technique designed to help students better understand nonverbal cues and their role in maintaining healthy interpersonal relationships. The technique begins with the card game "Slap What?" where the…

  10. Non-Verbal Communication in Children with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallineni, Sharmila; Nutheti, Rishita; Thangadurai, Shanimole; Thangadurai, Puspha

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine: (a) whether children with visual and additional impairments show any non-verbal behaviors, and if so what were the common behaviors; (b) whether two rehabilitation professionals interpreted the non-verbal behaviors similarly; and (c) whether a speech pathologist and a rehabilitation professional interpreted…

  11. Guidelines for Teaching Non-Verbal Communications Through Visual Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Mahima Ranjan

    1976-01-01

    There is a natural unique relationship between non-verbal communication and visual media such as television and film. Visual media will have to be used extensively--almost exclusively--in teaching non-verbal communications, as well as other methods requiring special teaching skills. (Author/ER)

  12. Individual Differences in Working Memory, Nonverbal IQ, and Mathematics Achievement and Brain Mechanisms Associated with Symbolic and Nonsymbolic Number Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullick, Margaret M.; Sprute, Lisa A.; Temple, Elise

    2011-01-01

    Individual differences in mathematics performance may stem from domain-general factors like working memory and intelligence. Parietal and frontal brain areas have been implicated in number processing, but the influence of such cognitive factors on brain activity during mathematics processing is not known. The relationship between brain mechanisms…

  13. Profile-IQ: Web-based data query system for local health department infrastructure and activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Gulzar H; Leep, Carolyn J; Alexander, Dayna

    2014-01-01

    To demonstrate the use of National Association of County & City Health Officials' Profile-IQ, a Web-based data query system, and how policy makers, researchers, the general public, and public health professionals can use the system to generate descriptive statistics on local health departments. This article is a descriptive account of an important health informatics tool based on information from the project charter for Profile-IQ and the authors' experience and knowledge in design and use of this query system. Profile-IQ is a Web-based data query system that is based on open-source software: MySQL 5.5, Google Web Toolkit 2.2.0, Apache Commons Math library, Google Chart API, and Tomcat 6.0 Web server deployed on an Amazon EC2 server. It supports dynamic queries of National Profile of Local Health Departments data on local health department finances, workforce, and activities. Profile-IQ's customizable queries provide a variety of statistics not available in published reports and support the growing information needs of users who do not wish to work directly with data files for lack of staff skills or time, or to avoid a data use agreement. Profile-IQ also meets the growing demand of public health practitioners and policy makers for data to support quality improvement, community health assessment, and other processes associated with voluntary public health accreditation. It represents a step forward in the recent health informatics movement of data liberation and use of open source information technology solutions to promote public health.

  14. THE BARRIERS IN THE NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION BETWEEN TEACHER - STUDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norka Arellano

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available From the research “Communication in the Conflict Prevention in High Schools and Professional Educational Institutions”; the objective worked in this article was: To identify the existing barriers in the nonverbal communication between teachers and students of the educative institutions which are the object of study. Research of descriptive type, based on the theories of: Bounds and Woods, Ghio and Hechim, Gordon and Garagorri, Gibson among others. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics, emphasizing the existence of nonverbal communicational barriers, which interfere with an effective communication between teachers and students, becoming necessary the development of a training program for high school headmasters and teachers, in communication and to impel educative projects that form for the coexistence, the assertive communication, the participation, solidarity and the commitment, creating bases for a culture of pace.

  15. Three IQs of AI Systems and their Testing Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Feng; Shi, Yong; Liu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    The rapid development of artificial intelligence has brought the artificial intelligence threat theory as well as the problem about how to evaluate the intelligence level of intelligent products. Both need to find a quantitative method to evaluate the intelligence level of intelligence systems, including human intelligence. Based on the standard intelligence system and the extended Von Neumann architecture, this paper proposes General IQ, Service IQ and Value IQ evaluation methods for intelli...

  16. IQ AND SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ACROSS REGIONS OF THE UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Noah

    2016-05-01

    Cross-regional correlations between average IQ and socioeconomic development have been documented in many different countries. This paper presents new IQ estimates for the twelve regions of the UK. These are weakly correlated (r=0.24) with the regional IQs assembled by Lynn (1979). Assuming the two sets of estimates are accurate and comparable, this finding suggests that the relative IQs of different UK regions have changed since the 1950s, most likely due to differentials in the magnitude of the Flynn effect, the selectivity of external migration, the selectivity of internal migration or the strength of the relationship between IQ and fertility. The paper provides evidence for the validity of the regional IQs by showing that IQ estimates for UK nations (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland) derived from the same data are strongly correlated with national PISA scores (r=0.99). It finds that regional IQ is positively related to income, longevity and technological accomplishment; and is negatively related to poverty, deprivation and unemployment. A general factor of socioeconomic development is correlated with regional IQ at r=0.72.

  17. How to Improve Interest, IQ, and Motivation of Vocational Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumual, H.; Ombuh, D. M.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of interest, motivation and IQ of students on the learning result. The survey method with quantitative approach was used in this study. The data were then analysed using path paradigm. Data were collected by questionnaire technique, special tests for IQ and documentation for learning outcomes. The results showed that the interest, IQ and the motivation influence significantly and positively on learning result as well as interest to learning motivation. However, no significant influence of IQ on Learning Motivation was detected in this research.

  18. Factors Affecting the IQ of Preterm Born Children of 4-6 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokofeh Radfar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This research was carry out with aim of study of factors affecting the IQ of children 4-6 years old born preterm. Materials and Methods: This analytical-cross sectional study was carried out on 102 premature children with age 4-6 years old during years 2004 to 2006. The tools used in this study were Wechsler intelligence scale for children and questioner including demographical characteristic. In this study we used t-test and spearman correlation and also SPSS-18 was used to analyze data. Results: In this study there was statistical relationship between normal child development and gestational age, birth weight, maternal education, multiple pregnancies, but there were not any statistical significant relationship between the history of preterm birth and child s gender, consanguinity parents, apgar, mother job. Conclusion: IQ in preterm babies who admitted in the NICU was lower than non-admitted preterm or term babies.

  19. Is lower IQ in children with epilepsy due to lower parental IQ? A controlled comparison study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Natalie M; Jackson, Daren C; Dabbs, Kevin; Jones, Jana E; Hsu, David A; Stafstrom, Carl E; Sheth, Raj D; Koehn, Monica A; Seidenberg, Michael; Hermann, Bruce P

    2012-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between parent and child full-scale IQ (FSIQ) in children with epilepsy and in typically developing comparison children and to examine parent–child IQ differences by epilepsy characteristics. Method The study participants were 97 children (50 males, 47 females; age range 8–18y; mean age 12y 3mo, SD 3y.1mo) with recent-onset epilepsy including idiopathic generalized (n=43) and idiopathic localization-related epilepsies (n=54); 69 healthy comparison children (38 females, 31 males; age range 8–18y; mean age 12y 8mo, SD 3y 2mo), and one biological parent per child. All participants were administered the Wechsler Abbreviated Intelligence Scale. FSIQ was compared in children with epilepsy and typically developing children; FSIQ was compared in the parents of typically developing children and the parents of participants with epilepsy; parent–child FSIQ differences were compared between the groups. Results FSIQ was lower in children with epilepsy than in comparison children (pepilepsy did not differ from the FSIQ of the parents of typically developing children. Children with epilepsy had significantly lower FSIQ than their parents (pepilepsy than the comparison group (p=0.043). Epilepsy characteristics were not related to parent–child IQ difference. Interpretation Parent–child IQ difference appears to be a marker of epilepsy impact independent of familial IQ, epilepsy syndrome, and clinical seizure features. This marker is evident early in the course of idiopathic epilepsies and can be tracked over time. PMID:23216381

  20. Non-verbal communication barriers when dealing with Saudi sellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosra Missaoui

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Communication has a major impact on how customers perceive sellers and their organizations. Especially, the non-verbal communication such as body language, appearance, facial expressions, gestures, proximity, posture, eye contact that can influence positively or negatively the first impression of customers and their experiences in stores. Salespeople in many countries, especially the developing ones, are just telling about their companies’ products because they are unaware of the real role of sellers and the importance of non-verbal communication. In Saudi Arabia, the seller profession has been exclusively for foreign labor until 2006. It is very recently that Saudi workforce enters to the retailing sector as sellers. The non-verbal communication of those sellers has never been evaluated from consumer’s point of view. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to explore the non-verbal communication barriers that customers are facing when dealing with Saudi sellers. After discussing the non-verbal communication skills that sellers must have in the light of the previous academic research and the depth interviews with seven focus groups of Saudi customers, this study found that the Saudi customers were not totally satisfied with the current non-verbal communication skills of Saudi sellers. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to develop the non-verbal communication skills of Saudi sellers by intensive trainings, to distinguish more the appearance of their sellers, especially the female ones, to focus on the time of intervention as well as the proximity to customers.

  1. Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Network Analysis of Cerebellum with Respect to IQ and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios C. Pezoulas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, it has been established that the prefrontal and posterior parietal brain lobes, which are mostly related to intelligence, have many connections to cerebellum. However, there is a limited research investigating cerebellum's relationship with cognitive processes. In this study, the network of cerebellum was analyzed in order to investigate its overall organization in individuals with low and high fluid Intelligence Quotient (IQ. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data were selected from 136 subjects in resting-state from the Human Connectome Project (HCP database and were further separated into two IQ groups composed of 69 low-IQ and 67 high-IQ subjects. Cerebellum was parcellated into 28 lobules/ROIs (per subject using a standard cerebellum anatomical atlas. Thereafter, correlation matrices were constructed by computing Pearson's correlation coefficients between the average BOLD time-series for each pair of ROIs inside the cerebellum. By computing conventional graph metrics, small-world network properties were verified using the weighted clustering coefficient and the characteristic path length for estimating the trade-off between segregation and integration. In addition, a connectivity metric was computed for extracting the average cost per network. The concept of the Minimum Spanning Tree (MST was adopted and implemented in order to avoid methodological biases in graph comparisons and retain only the strongest connections per network. Subsequently, six global and three local metrics were calculated in order to retrieve useful features concerning the characteristics of each MST. Moreover, the local metrics of degree and betweenness centrality were used to detect hubs, i.e., nodes with high importance. The computed set of metrics gave rise to extensive statistical analysis in order to examine differences between low and high-IQ groups, as well as between all possible gender-based group combinations. Our results

  2. Exponential Correlation of IQ and the Wealth of Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    Plots of mean IQ and per capita real Gross Domestic Product for groups of 81 and 185 nations, as collected by Lynn and Vanhanen, are best fitted by an exponential function of the form: GDP = "a" * 10["b"*(IQ)], where "a" and "b" are empirical constants. Exponential fitting yields markedly higher correlation coefficients than either linear or…

  3. Shortcomings of the IQ-Based Construct of Underachievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Albert; Ziegler, Albert; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2012-01-01

    Despite being plagued by serious conceptual problems, underachievement ranks among the most popular constructs in research on the gifted. Many of its problems have their roots in the use of the IQ as the supposedly best method of measuring ability levels. Only a few decades ago the opinion was still widespread that the IQ-based construct of…

  4. IQ Predicts Word Decoding Skills in Populations with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Yonata

    2011-01-01

    This is a study of word decoding in adolescents with Down syndrome and in adolescents with Intellectual Deficits of unknown etiology. It was designed as a replication of studies of word decoding in English speaking and in Hebrew speaking adolescents with Williams syndrome ([0230] and [0235]). Participants' IQ was matched to IQ in the groups with…

  5. IQ Gains in Argentina between 1964 and 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, James R.; Rossi-Case, Lilia

    2012-01-01

    The literature on IQ gains in Latin America is sparse. We estimate gains on Raven's Progressive Matrices in the city of La Plata (Argentina) between 1964 and 1998. The gains are robust at the top of the curve as well as at the bottom. Therefore, they are contrary to the hypothesis that nutrition played a major role in recent Argentine IQ gains.…

  6. STATUS/IQ: A Semi-Intelligent Information Retrieval System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearsall, Jayne

    1990-01-01

    Provides background on the problems of traditional text retrieval systems and describes STATUS/IQ, an advanced text retrieval system that incorporates a natural language front-end and an advanced relevance ranking facility. The principles, capabilities, and benefits of the system are discussed, and an example of a STATUS/IQ session is presented…

  7. Sucrose and IQ induced mutations in rat colon by independent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Max; Hald, M. T.; Autrup, H.

    2004-01-01

    Sucrose-rich diets have repeatedly been observed to have co-carcinogenic actions in colon and liver of rats and to increase the number of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) induced aberrant crypt foci in rat colon. To investigate a possible interaction between sucrose and IQ...... on the genotoxicity in rat liver and colon, we gave Big Blue rats(TM) a diet containing sucrose (0%, 3.45% or 13.4% w/w) and/or IQ (70 ppm) for a period of 3 weeks. Sucrose and IQ increased the mutation frequency in the colon. The effect of combined treatments with IQ and sucrose on the mutation frequencies...... was additive indicating that sucrose and IQ act independently. This was supported by the mutation spectra where sucrose expands the background mutations in the colon, whereas IQ, in other studies, more specifically has induced G:C --> T:A transversions. In the liver IQ increased the mutation frequency, whereas...

  8. Comparing Intelligence Quotient (IQ)among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderpanah, Mahboubeh; Farrahi, Feraidoon; Khataminia, Gholamreza; Jahanbakhshi, Ahmad; Rezaei, Leila; Tashakori, Ashraf; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2015-06-25

    This study was designed to compare the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, 108 preschool children with equal numbers of strabismic/non-strabismic disorder (age 3-7 years) were randomly selected from exceptional strabismus clinics of Ahvaz and were evaluated with the preschool and primary scale of intelligence versions of Wechsler (WPPSI). In the current study, 108 children were evaluated. In strabismic patients the mean performance, verbal and total IQ were 89.46±19.79, 89.57±21.57 and 91.54±22.08 respectively.These mean scores in normal children  were 91.89±47.53 , 87.56±15.6 and 89.96±17.62 consecuently. The results showed that these three different IQ subscales were not significantly different among 3 to 7 years old strabismic and nonstrabismic children ((P>0.05 for all comparisons). There was no significant difference in IQ between two sexes (P>0.05) while Persian tribe children had greater IQ score compared to other tribes (PIQ score. IQ score was better in combined deviations and was higher in exotropes than esotropes; however, these differences were not statistically significant.(p>0.05) In this evaluation, we did not found a significant negative interference of strabismus on IQ score of preschool children. It can be concluded that paternal educational level and tribe have a significant effect on intelligent quotient, while this is not the case on sex and ocular deviation.

  9. Expanding the g-Nexus: Further Evidence Regarding the Relations among National IQ, Religiosity and National Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Charlie L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study seeks to better understand how religiosity and health are positioned within the g-nexus. Specifically, the degree to which differences in average IQ across nations is associated with differences in national religiosity (i.e., belief rate) and national health statistics independent of differences in national wealth is examined.…

  10. Nonverbal behavior during face-to-face social interaction in schizophrenia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Mary; Healey, Patrick G T; McCabe, Rosemarie

    2014-01-01

    Patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia display social cognitive deficits. However, little is known about patients' nonverbal communication during their social encounters with others. This review identified 17 studies investigating nonverbal communication in patients' unscripted face-to-face interactions, addressing a) nonverbal differences between patients and others, b) nonverbal behavior of the patients' partners, c) the association between nonverbal behavior and symptoms, and d) the association between nonverbal behavior and social outcomes. Patients displayed fewer nonverbal behaviors inviting interaction, with negative symptoms exacerbating this pattern. Positive symptoms were associated with heightened nonverbal behavior. Patients' partners changed their own nonverbal behavior in response to the patient. Reduced prosocial behaviors, inviting interaction, were associated with poorer social outcomes. The evidence suggests that patients' nonverbal behavior, during face-to-face interaction, is influenced by patients symptoms and impacts the success of their social interactions.

  11. IQ and the values of nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2009-07-01

    The origin of values and preferences is an unresolved theoretical question in behavioural and social sciences. The Savanna-IQ Interaction Hypothesis, derived from the Savanna Principle and a theory of the evolution of general intelligence, suggests that more intelligent individuals may be more likely to acquire and espouse evolutionarily novel values and preferences (such as liberalism and atheism and, for men, sexual exclusivity) than less intelligent individuals, but that general intelligence may have no effect on the acquisition and espousal of evolutionarily familiar values. Macro-level analyses show that nations with higher average intelligence are more liberal (have greater highest marginal individual tax rate and, as a result, lower income inequality), less religious (a smaller proportion of the population believes in God or considers themselves religious) and more monogamous. The average intelligence of a population appears to be the strongest predictor of its level of liberalism, atheism and monogamy.

  12. Nonverbal Behavior of Young Abused and Neglected Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Michael; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated whether abused and neglected children differ from other children in their nonverbal attachment and communicative behavior. Found that in comparison (1) abused children avoided contact and interaction and (2) abused females exhibited more avoidance than males. (PD)

  13. From SOLER to SURETY for effective non-verbal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Theodore

    2011-11-01

    This paper critiques the model for non-verbal communication referred to as SOLER (which stands for: "Sit squarely"; "Open posture"; "Lean towards the other"; "Eye contact; "Relax"). It has been approximately thirty years since Egan (1975) introduced his acronym SOLER as an aid for teaching and learning about non-verbal communication. There is evidence that the SOLER framework has been widely used in nurse education with little published critical appraisal. A new acronym that might be appropriate for non-verbal communication skills training and education is proposed and this is SURETY (which stands for "Sit at an angle"; "Uncross legs and arms"; "Relax"; "Eye contact"; "Touch"; "Your intuition"). The proposed model advances the SOLER model by including the use of touch and the importance of individual intuition is emphasised. The model encourages student nurse educators to also think about therapeutic space when they teach skills of non-verbal communication. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Right-handers have negligibly higher IQ scores than left-handers: Systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntolka, Eleni; Papadatou-Pastou, Marietta

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between intelligence and handedness remains a matter of debate. The present study is a systematic review of 36 studies (totaling 66,108 individuals), which have measured full IQ scores in different handedness groups. Eighteen of those studies were further included in three sets of meta-analyses (totaling 20,442 individuals), which investigated differences in standardized mean IQ scores in (i) left-handers, (ii) non-right-handers, and (iii) mixed-handers compared to right-handers. The bulk of the studies included in the systematic review reported no differences in IQ scores between left- and right-handers. In the meta-analyses, statistically significant differences in mean IQ scores were detected between right-handers and left-handers, but were marginal in magnitude (d=-0.07); the data sets were found to be homogeneous. Significance was lost when the largest study was excluded. No differences in mean IQ scores were found between right-handers and non-right-handers as well as between right-handers and mixed-handers. No sex differences were found. Overall, the intelligence differences between handedness groups in the general population are negligible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of the DSM-V Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Criteria for Diagnosing Children With High IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongseiratch, Therdpong; Worachotekamjorn, Juthamas

    2016-10-01

    This study compared the number of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) cases defined by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-IV versus DSM-V criterion in children who have learning or behavioral problems with high IQ. The medical records of children ≤15 years of age who presented with learning or behavioral problems and underwent a Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)-III IQ test at the Pediatric Outpatient Clinic unit between 2010 and 2015 were reviewed. Information on DSM-IV and DSM-V criteria for ADHD were derived from computer-based medical records. Twenty-eight children who had learning or behavioral problems were identified to have a full-scale IQ ≥120. Sixteen of these high-IQ children met the DSM-IV criteria diagnosis for ADHD. Applying the extension of the age-of-onset criterion from 7 to 12 years in DSM-V led to an increase of three cases, all of which were the inattentive type ADHD. Including the pervasive developmental disorder criterion led to an increase of one case. The total number of ADHD cases also increased from 16 to 20 in this group. The data supported the hypothesis that applying the extension of the age-of-onset ADHD criterion and enabling the diagnosis of children with pervasive developmental disorders will increase the number of ADHD diagnoses among children with high IQ. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. [Nonverbal communication by the presurgical patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freixa García, J; Marcos Sáiz, M

    1999-02-01

    Throughout human history, besides oral language, man has used other forms of communication which are known as non-verbal. From the three components of the basic structure of human communication, language, paralanguage and kinesthesia, we have chosen the last one, kinesthesia, to develop our project. Kinesthesia studies the gestures, mannerisms and postures, or in other words all body movements and positions which occur as part of our speech or independent to it. This project proposes to analyze presurgical patients' kinesthetic manifestations. We have observed that some patients do not verbally express their fears, anxieties, nervousness, etc; nonetheless, bodies do respond with similar gestures and movements in persons of varying age, sex, socio-cultural level and pathology. It is difficult to be certain what another human being feels at any given moment. One may ask a person, but he/she can refuse to answer, he/she can lie or maybe he/she does not even know what his/her feeling is. In spite of the fact that the level of information a patient possesses is higher all the time, since this is one of the primary objectives all health professionals have, one doubt remains: Will a person who has all the possible information regarding his/her surgery at his/her disposition feel the same degree of anxiety as the person who does not have such complete information available to him/her?

  17. Verbal-spatial IQ discrepancies impact brain activation associated with the resolution of cognitive conflict in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Amy E; Davis, Katie S; Pao, Lisa S; Lewis, Amy; Yang, Xiao; Tau, Gregory; Zhao, Guihu; Wang, Zhishun; Marsh, Rachel

    2018-03-01

    Verbal-spatial discrepancies are common in healthy individuals and in those with neurodevelopmental disorders associated with cognitive control deficits including: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Non-Verbal Learning Disability, Fragile X, 22q11 deletion, and Turner Syndrome. Previous data from healthy individuals suggest that the magnitude of the difference between verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) scores (the VIQ>PIQ discrepancy) is associated with reduced thickness in frontal and parietal cortices (inferior frontal, anterior cingulate, inferior parietal lobule, and supramarginal gyrus) that support cognitive control. Unknown is whether the VIQ>PIQ discrepancy is associated with functional deficits in these areas in healthy or ill children and adolescents. We assessed the effects of the VIQ>PIQ discrepancy on fMRI BOLD response during the resolution of cognitive conflict in 55 healthy children and adolescents during performance of a Simon Spatial Incompatibility task. As the magnitude of the VIQ>PIQ discrepancy increased, activation of fronto-striatal, limbic, and temporal regions decreased during conflict resolution (p PIQ discrepancy was associated with reduced functional connectivity from right inferior frontal gyrus to right thalamus and increased functional connectivity to right supramarginal gyrus (ps PIQ discrepancy may be an important aspect of an individual's cognitive profile and likely contributes to, or is associated with, deficient cognitive control processes characteristic of many childhood disorders. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Health impact from lead: IQ decrement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterly, C

    1994-07-01

    The effects of lead, once it is in the body, are the same no matter how it enters. Exposure to lead is especially dangerous for unborn children, with high levels associated with premature birth and low birth weight. Young children are at risk because they swallow lead when they put toys or other objects soiled with lead-containing dirt in their mouths. A greater proportion of the lead ingested by children enters their bodies than enters the bodies of adults. For infants and young children, lead exposure has been shown in some studies to decrease intelligence (IQ) scores, slow growth, and cause hearing problems. These effects can last as children get older and can be permanent. Realistic risk assessment for lead-induced neurobehavioral deficit in environmentally exposed children must stem from consistent results from independent studies, as well as the documentation of dose-response relationships. At present, studies investigating such effects have not been definitive. However, taken as a whole, there is growing support for the absence of a threshold for adverse effects in exposed children. Summary of selected recent studies and the obtained data are analyzed.

  19. Health impact from lead: IQ decrement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of lead, once it is in the body, are the same no matter how it enters. Exposure to lead is especially dangerous for unborn children, with high levels associated with premature birth and low birth weight. Young children are at risk because they swallow lead when they put toys or other objects soiled with lead-containing dirt in their mouths. A greater proportion of the lead ingested by children enters their bodies than enters the bodies of adults. For infants and young children, lead exposure has been shown in some studies to decrease intelligence (IQ) scores, slow growth, and cause hearing problems. These effects can last as children get older and can be permanent. Realistic risk assessment for lead-induced neurobehavioral deficit in environmentally exposed children must stem from consistent results from independent studies, as well as the documentation of dose-response relationships. At present, studies investigating such effects have not been definitive. However, taken as a whole, there is growing support for the absence of a threshold for adverse effects in exposed children. Summary of selected recent studies and the obtained data are analyzed

  20. Why national IQs do not support evolutionary theories of intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Borsboom, D.; Dolan, C.V.

    2010-01-01

    Kanazawa (2008), Templer (2008), and Templer and Arikawa (2006) claimed to have found empirical support for evolutionary theories of race differences in intelligence by correlating estimates of national IQ with indicators of reproductive strategies, temperature, and geographic distance from Africa.

  1. Investigation of factors affecting the intelligence quotient (IQ) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mirgissa

    significant effect on IQ levels: diagnosis of cerebral palsy, age at onset of speech, duration of education, age at onset of ... addition to biological factors, psychological and social risk factors ..... the child's gender, parents' skin color, number of.

  2. Preparatory power posing affects nonverbal presence and job interview performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Amy J C; Wilmuth, Caroline A; Yap, Andy J; Carney, Dana R

    2015-07-01

    The authors tested whether engaging in expansive (vs. contractive) "power poses" before a stressful job interview--preparatory power posing--would enhance performance during the interview. Participants adopted high-power (i.e., expansive, open) poses or low-power (i.e., contractive, closed) poses, and then prepared and delivered a speech to 2 evaluators as part of a mock job interview. All interview speeches were videotaped and coded for overall performance and hireability and for 2 potential mediators: verbal content (e.g., structure, content) and nonverbal presence (e.g., captivating, enthusiastic). As predicted, those who prepared for the job interview with high- (vs. low-) power poses performed better and were more likely to be chosen for hire; this relation was mediated by nonverbal presence, but not by verbal content. Although previous research has focused on how a nonverbal behavior that is enacted during interactions and observed by perceivers affects how those perceivers evaluate and respond to the actor, this experiment focused on how a nonverbal behavior that is enacted before the interaction and unobserved by perceivers affects the actor's performance, which, in turn, affects how perceivers evaluate and respond to the actor. This experiment reveals a theoretically novel and practically informative result that demonstrates the causal relation between preparatory nonverbal behavior and subsequent performance and outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Nonverbal indicants of comprehension monitoring in language-disordered children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarakis-Doyle, E; MacLellan, N; Mullin, K

    1990-08-01

    This study investigated normal and language-disordered (LD) children's patterns of nonverbal behavior in response to messages varying in degree of ambiguity. Each LD child was matched to two normally developing children: one for comprehension level (LM) and the other for chronological age (CM). All children participated in a videotaped ambiguity detection task. Nonverbal behaviors that were produced between the time the message was completed and the examiner's acknowledgment of the response were scored for type of behavior exhibited including eye contact, hand behavior, body movement, and smile. Results demonstrated that all subjects increased their nonverbal behavior (e.g. eye contact) from unambiguous to ambiguous message conditions, suggesting awareness of the differences in these message types at a rudimentary level. Most often nonverbal indication was the only signal of ambiguity detection exhibited by the LD children and their LM peers. Only the CM children concurrently indicated awareness through more direct means (i.e., verbalization and pointing to all possible referents) in a consistent and accurate manner. The finding that LD children did differentiate inadequate from adequate messages in a rudimentary manner suggests that clinicians might promote the intentionality of these preintentional nonverbal behaviors as a possible intervention strategy.

  4. Nonverbal imitation skills in children with specific language delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohmen, Andrea; Chiat, Shula; Roy, Penny

    2013-10-01

    Research in children with language problems has focussed on verbal deficits, and we have less understanding of children's deficits with nonverbal sociocognitive skills which have been proposed to be important for language acquisition. This study was designed to investigate elicited nonverbal imitation in children with specific language delay (SLD). It is argued that difficulties in nonverbal imitation, which do not involve the processing of structural aspects of language, may be indicative of sociocognitive deficits. Participants were German-speaking typically developing children (n=60) and children with SLD (n=45) aged 2-3 ½ years. A novel battery of tasks measured their ability to imitate a range of nonverbal target acts that to a greater or lesser extent involve sociocognitive skills (body movements, instrumental acts on objects, pretend acts). Significant group differences were found for all body movement and pretend act tasks, but not for the instrumental act tasks. The poorer imitative performance of the SLD sample was not explained by motor or nonverbal cognitive skills. Thus, it appeared that the nature of the task affected children's imitation performance. It is argued that the ability to establish a sense of connectedness with the demonstrator was at the core of children's imitation difficulty in the SLD sample. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Inbreeding Depression and IQ in a Study of 72 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    In this ecological study, a robust negative correlation of r = - 0.62 (P less than 0.01) is reported between national IQs and consanguinity as measured by the log10 transformed percentage of consanguineous marriages for 72 countries. This correlation is reduced in magnitude, when IQ is controlled for GDP per capita (r = - 0.41, P less than 0.01);…

  6. The Role of IQ in the Use of Cognitive Strategies to Learn Information from a Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seokhee

    2010-01-01

    The role of IQ in individual differences in real-life problem solving and strategies use was explored. Repeated trials of learning and recall of information from a map were analyzed with high IQ and average IQ Korean students. IQ correlated with the selection and use of strategies in recall. However, the performance and strategic behaviors of…

  7. Non-verbal communication of the residents living in homes for the older people in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaletel, Marija; Kovacev, Asja Nina; Sustersic, Olga; Kragelj, Lijana Zaletel

    2010-09-01

    Aging of the population is a growing problem in all developed societies. The older people need more health and social services, and their life quality in there is getting more and more important. The study aimed at determining the characteristics of non-verbal communication of the older people living in old people's homes (OPH). The sample consisted of 267 residents of the OPH, aged 65-96 years, and 267 caregivers from randomly selected twenty-seven OPH. Three types of non-verbal communication were observed and analysed using univariate and multivariate statistical methods. In face expressions and head movements about 75% older people looked at the eyes of their caregivers, and about 60% were looking around, while laughing or pressing the lips together was rarely noticed. The differences between genders were not statistically significant while statistically significant differences among different age groups was observed in dropping the eyes (p = 0.004) and smiling (0.008). In hand gestures and trunk movements, majority of older people most often moved forwards and clenched fingers, while most rarely they stroked and caressed their caregivers. The differences between genders were statistically significant in leaning on the table (p = 0.001), and changing the position on the chair (0.013). Statistically significant differences among age groups were registered in leaning forwards (p = 0.006) and pointing to the others (p = 0.036). In different modes of speaking and paralinguistic signs almost 75% older people spoke normally, about 70% kept silent, while they rarely quarrelled. The differences between genders were not statistically significant while statistically significant differences among age groups was observed in persuasive speaking (p = 0.007). The present study showed that older people in OPH in Slovenia communicated significantly less frequently with hand gestures and trunk movements than with face expressions and head movements or different modes of speaking

  8. Children Use Nonverbal Cues to Make Inferences About Social Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, Elizabeth; Shutts, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Four studies (N=192) tested whether young children use nonverbal information to make inferences about differences in social power. Five- and 6-year-old children were able to determine which of two adults was “in charge” in dynamic videotaped conversations (Study 1) and in static photographs (Study 4) using only nonverbal cues. Younger children (3–4 years) were not successful in Study 1 or Study 4. Removing irrelevant linguistic information from conversations did not improve the performance of 3–4-year-old children (Study 3), but including relevant linguistic cues did (Study 2). Thus, at least by 5 years of age, children show sensitivity to some of the same nonverbal cues adults use to determine other people’s social roles. PMID:25521913

  9. Toward Speech and Nonverbal Behaviors Integration for Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to integrate speeches and nonverbal behaviors for a humanoid robot in human-robot interaction. This paper presents an approach using multi-object genetic algorithm to match the speeches and behaviors automatically. Firstly, with humanoid robot's emotion status, we construct a hierarchical structure to link voice characteristics and nonverbal behaviors. Secondly, these behaviors corresponding to speeches are matched and integrated into an action sequence based on genetic algorithm, so the robot can consistently speak and perform emotional behaviors. Our approach takes advantage of relevant knowledge described by psychologists and nonverbal communication. And from experiment results, our ultimate goal, implementing an affective robot to act and speak with partners vividly and fluently, could be achieved.

  10. Expressive suppression and neural responsiveness to nonverbal affective cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrican, Raluca; Rosenbaum, R Shayna; Grady, Cheryl

    2015-10-01

    Optimal social functioning occasionally requires concealment of one's emotions in order to meet one's immediate goals and environmental demands. However, because emotions serve an important communicative function, their habitual suppression disrupts the flow of social exchanges and, thus, incurs significant interpersonal costs. Evidence is accruing that the disruption in social interactions, linked to habitual expressive suppression use, stems not only from intrapersonal, but also from interpersonal causes, since the suppressors' restricted affective displays reportedly inhibit their interlocutors' emotionally expressive behaviors. However, expressive suppression use is not known to lead to clinically significant social impairments. One explanation may be that over the lifespan, individuals who habitually suppress their emotions come to compensate for their interlocutors' restrained expressive behaviors by developing an increased sensitivity to nonverbal affective cues. To probe this issue, the present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to scan healthy older women while they viewed silent videos of a male social target displaying nonverbal emotional behavior, together with a brief verbal description of the accompanying context, and then judged the target's affect. As predicted, perceivers who reported greater habitual use of expressive suppression showed increased neural processing of nonverbal affective cues. This effect appeared to be coordinated in a top-down manner via cognitive control. Greater neural processing of nonverbal cues among perceivers who habitually suppress their emotions was linked to increased ventral striatum activity, suggestive of increased reward value/personal relevance ascribed to emotionally expressive nonverbal behaviors. These findings thus provide neural evidence broadly consistent with the hypothesized link between habitual use of expressive suppression and compensatory development of increased responsiveness to

  11. Hydraulic laboratory testing of Sontek-IQ Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, Janice M.; Kimball, Scott

    2015-11-10

    The SonTek-IQ Plus (IQ Plus) is a bottom-mounted Doppler instrument used for the measurement of water depth and velocity. Evaluation testing of the IQ Plus was performed to assess the accuracy of water depth, discharge, and velocity measurements. The IQ Plus met the manufacturer’s specifications and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) standard for depth accuracy measurement when the unit was installed, according to the manufacturer’s instructions, at 0 degrees pitch and roll. However, because of the limited depth testing conducted, the depth measurement is not recommended as a primary stage measurement. The IQ Plus was tested in a large indoor tilting flume in a 5-foot (ft) wide, approximately 2.3-ft deep section with mean velocities of 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 ft per second. Four IQ Plus instruments using firmware 1.52 tested for water-discharge accuracy using SonTek’s “theoretical” discharge method had a negative bias of -2.4 to -11.6 percent when compared with discharge measured with a SonTek FlowTracker and the midsection discharge method. The IQ Pluses with firmware 1.52 did not meet the manufacturer’s specification of +/-1 percent for measuring velocity. Three IQ Pluses using firmware 1.60 and SonTek’s “theoretical” method had a difference of -1.6 to -7.9 percent when compared with discharge measured with a SonTek FlowTracker and the midsection method. Mean-velocity measurements with firmware 1.60 met the manufacturer’s specification and Price Type AA meter accuracy requirements when compared with FlowTracker measurements. Because of the instrument’s velocity accuracy, the SonTek-IQ Plus with firmware 1.60 is considered acceptable for use as an index velocity instrument for the USGS. The discharge computed by the SonTek-IQ Plus during the tests had a substantial negative bias and will not be as accurate as a discharge computed with the index velocity method. The USGS does not recommend the use of undocumented computation methods, such as Son

  12. Long-latency auditory evoked potentials with verbal and nonverbal stimuli,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Jacques Oppitz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Long-latency auditory evoked potentials represent the cortical activity related to attention, memory, and auditory discrimination skills. Acoustic signal processing occurs differently between verbal and nonverbal stimuli, influencing the latency and amplitude patterns. OBJECTIVE: To describe the latencies of the cortical potentials P1, N1, P2, N2, and P3, as well as P3 amplitude, with different speech stimuli and tone bursts, and to classify them in the presence and absence of these data. METHODS: A total of 30 subjects with normal hearing were assessed, aged 18-32 years old, matched by gender. Nonverbal stimuli were used (tone burst; 1000 Hz - frequent and 4000 Hz - rare; and verbal (/ba/ - frequent; /ga/, /da/, and /di/ - rare. RESULTS: Considering the component N2 for tone burst, the lowest latency found was 217.45 ms for the BA/DI stimulus; the highest latency found was 256.5 ms. For the P3 component, the shortest latency with tone burst stimuli was 298.7 with BA/GA stimuli, the highest, was 340 ms. For the P3 amplitude, there was no statistically significant difference among the different stimuli. For latencies of components P1, N1, P2, N2, P3, there were no statistical differences among them, regardless of the stimuli used. CONCLUSION: There was a difference in the latency of potentials N2 and P3 among the stimuli employed but no difference was observed for the P3 amplitude.

  13. Nonverbal Learning Disabilities and Socioemotional Functioning: A Review of Recent Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Sara S.

    1993-01-01

    This article presents an overview of literature relating to a nonverbal learning disabilities subtype. The article addresses the relationship between nonverbal learning disabilities and socioemotional functioning, generalizability of research outcomes, individual differences, and treatment validity. (Author/JDD)

  14. The Relationships among Physician Nonverbal Immediacy and Measures of Patient Satisfaction with Physician Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlee, Connie J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examines the relationship among four dimensions of patient satisfaction with physician care and nonverbal immediacy. Finds a significant positive correlation between nonverbal immediacy and overall patient satisfaction, with the strongest correlation to the attention/respect factor. (SR)

  15. The Complex Interaction between Home Environment, Socioeconomic Status, Maternal IQ and Early Child Neurocognitive Development: A Multivariate Analysis of Data Collected in a Newborn Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ronfani

    Full Text Available The relative role of socioeconomic status (SES, home environment and maternal intelligence, as factors affecting child cognitive development in early childhood is still unclear. The aim of this study is to analyze the association of SES, home environment and maternal IQ with child neurodevelopment at 18 months.The data were collected prospectively in the PHIME study, a newborn cohort study carried out in Italy between 2007 and 2010. Maternal nonverbal abilities (IQ were evaluated using the Standard Progressive Matrices, a version of the Raven's Progressive Matrices; a direct evaluation of the home environment was carried out with the AIRE instrument, designed using the HOME (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment model; the socioeconomic characteristics were evaluated using the SES index which takes into account parents occupation, type of employment, educational level, homeownership. The study outcome was child neurodevelopment evaluated at 18 months, with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Third Edition (BSID III. Linear regression analyses and mediation analyses were carried out to evaluate the association between the three exposures, and the scaled scores of the three main scales of BSID III (cognitive, language and motor scale, with adjustment for a wide range of potential explanatory variables.Data from 502 mother-child pairs were analyzed. Mediation analysis showed a relationship between SES and maternal IQ, with a complete mediation effect of home environment in affecting cognitive and language domains. A direct significant effect of maternal IQ on the BSID III motor development scale and the mediation effect of home environment were found.Our results show that home environment was the variable with greater influence on neurodevelopment at 18 months. The observation of how parents and children interact in the home context is crucial to adequately evaluate early child development.

  16. Breastfeeding and IQ Growth from Toddlerhood through Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stumm, Sophie; Plomin, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of breastfeeding for cognitive development continue to be hotly debated but are yet to be supported by conclusive empirical evidence. We used here a latent growth curve modeling approach to test the association of breastfeeding with IQ growth trajectories, which allows differentiating the variance in the IQ starting point in early life from variance in IQ gains that occur later in childhood through adolescence. Breastfeeding (yes/ no) was modeled as a direct predictor of three IQ latent growth factors (i.e. intercept, slope and quadratic term) and adjusted for the covariates socioeconomic status, mother's age at birth and gestational stage. Data came from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS), a prospective cohort study of twins born between 1996 and 1994 in the United Kingdom, who were assessed 9 times on IQ between age 2 and 16 years (N = 11,582). Having been breastfed was associated with a small yet significant advantage in IQ at age 2 in girls (β = .07, CI 95% from 0.64 to 3.01; N = 3,035) but not in boys (β = .04, CI 95% from -0.14 to 2.41). Having been breastfeeding was neither associated with the other IQ growth factors in girls (slope: β = .02, CI 95% from -0.25 to 0.43; quadratic: β = .01, CI 95% from -0.02 to 0.02) nor in boys (slope: β = .02, CI 95% from -0.30 to 0.47; quadratic: β = -.01, CI 95% from -0.01 to 0.01). Breastfeeding has little benefit for early life intelligence and cognitive growth from toddlerhood through adolescence.

  17. Breastfeeding and IQ Growth from Toddlerhood through Adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie von Stumm

    Full Text Available The benefits of breastfeeding for cognitive development continue to be hotly debated but are yet to be supported by conclusive empirical evidence.We used here a latent growth curve modeling approach to test the association of breastfeeding with IQ growth trajectories, which allows differentiating the variance in the IQ starting point in early life from variance in IQ gains that occur later in childhood through adolescence. Breastfeeding (yes/ no was modeled as a direct predictor of three IQ latent growth factors (i.e. intercept, slope and quadratic term and adjusted for the covariates socioeconomic status, mother's age at birth and gestational stage. Data came from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS, a prospective cohort study of twins born between 1996 and 1994 in the United Kingdom, who were assessed 9 times on IQ between age 2 and 16 years (N = 11,582.Having been breastfed was associated with a small yet significant advantage in IQ at age 2 in girls (β = .07, CI 95% from 0.64 to 3.01; N = 3,035 but not in boys (β = .04, CI 95% from -0.14 to 2.41. Having been breastfeeding was neither associated with the other IQ growth factors in girls (slope: β = .02, CI 95% from -0.25 to 0.43; quadratic: β = .01, CI 95% from -0.02 to 0.02 nor in boys (slope: β = .02, CI 95% from -0.30 to 0.47; quadratic: β = -.01, CI 95% from -0.01 to 0.01.Breastfeeding has little benefit for early life intelligence and cognitive growth from toddlerhood through adolescence.

  18. Nonverbal Communication in Politics: A Review of Research Developments, 2005-2015

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitrescu, Delia

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews research contributions in political science and communication to the topic of nonverbal communication and politics from 2005 to 2015. The review opens with research on the content of nonverbal communication, then considers studies examining what moderates the impact of nonverbal aspects of political messages on attitudes and behavior and the mechanisms that underpin these effects. Over the period reviewed here, research shows that the nonverbal channel is rich in politica...

  19. Experience in Developing Nonverbal Communication Training for Russian and Chinese Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Gridunova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of effectiveness of intercultural competence in nonverbal communication. The results of measuring the effectiveness of nonverbal communication training, developed on the basis of the studies of ethnic stereotypes about nonverbal communication of Russian and Chinese students are analyzed.

  20. Getting the Message Across; Non-Verbal Communication in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jack

    This handbook presents selected theories, activities, and resources which can be utilized by educators in the area of non-verbal communication. Particular attention is given to the use of non-verbal communication in a cross-cultural context. Categories of non-verbal communication such as proxemics, haptics, kinesics, smiling, sound, clothing, and…

  1. Cross-cultural Differences of Stereotypes about Non-verbal Communication of Russian and Chinese Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I A Novikova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with peculiarities of non-verbal communication as a factor of cross-cultural intercourse and adaptation of representatives of different cultures. The possibility of studying of ethnic stereotypes concerning non-verbal communication is considered. The results of empiric research of stereotypes about non-verbal communication of Russian and Chinese students are presented.

  2. A Survey of the Research on Sex Differences in Nonverbal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blahna, Loretta J.

    Although the bulk of recent research on nonverbal communication has involved studies of the functions of nonverbal behavior (emotion conveying, regulation, and adaption), a few studies have focused on the differences in nonverbal communication variables between men and women. These differences have been found in vocal patterns, intensities, length…

  3. Combined effects of prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and material hardship on child IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevetsky, Julia; Tang, Deliang; Chang, Hsin-Wen; Roen, Emily L; Wang, Ya; Rauh, Virginia; Wang, Shuang; Miller, Rachel L; Herbstman, Julie; Perera, Frederica P

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are common carcinogenic and neurotoxic urban air pollutants. Toxic exposures, including air pollution, are disproportionately high in communities of color and frequently co-occur with chronic economic deprivation. We examined whether the association between child IQ and prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons differed between groups of children whose mothers reported high vs. low material hardship during their pregnancy and through child age 5. We tested statistical interactions between hardships and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as measured by DNA adducts in cord blood, to determine whether material hardship exacerbated the association between adducts and IQ scores. Prospective cohort. Participants were recruited from 1998 to 2006 and followed from gestation through age 7 years. Urban community (New York City) A community-based sample of 276 minority urban youth EXPOSURE MEASURE: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in cord blood as an individual biomarker of prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure. Maternal material hardship self-reported prenatally and at multiple timepoints through early childhood. Child IQ at 7 years assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Significant inverse effects of high cord PAH-DNA adducts on full scale IQ, perceptual reasoning and working memory scores were observed in the groups whose mothers reported a high level of material hardship during pregnancy or recurring high hardship into the child's early years, and not in those without reported high hardship. Significant interactions were observed between high cord adducts and prenatal hardship on working memory scores (β = -8.07, 95% CI (-14.48, -1.66)) and between high cord adducts and recurrent material hardship (β = -9.82, 95% CI (-16.22, -3.42)). The findings add to other evidence that socioeconomic disadvantage can increase the adverse effects of toxic physical "stressors" like air pollutants

  4. Nonverbal auditory agnosia with lesion to Wernicke's area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygin, Ayse Pinar; Leech, Robert; Dick, Frederic

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of patient M, who suffered unilateral left posterior temporal and parietal damage, brain regions typically associated with language processing. Language function largely recovered since the infarct, with no measurable speech comprehension impairments. However, the patient exhibited a severe impairment in nonverbal auditory comprehension. We carried out extensive audiological and behavioral testing in order to characterize M's unusual neuropsychological profile. We also examined the patient's and controls' neural responses to verbal and nonverbal auditory stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We verified that the patient exhibited persistent and severe auditory agnosia for nonverbal sounds in the absence of verbal comprehension deficits or peripheral hearing problems. Acoustical analyses suggested that his residual processing of a minority of environmental sounds might rely on his speech processing abilities. In the patient's brain, contralateral (right) temporal cortex as well as perilesional (left) anterior temporal cortex were strongly responsive to verbal, but not to nonverbal sounds, a pattern that stands in marked contrast to the controls' data. This substantial reorganization of auditory processing likely supported the recovery of M's speech processing.

  5. Get a Little Closer: Further Examination of Nonverbal Comforting Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Connie; Horn, Charlotte

    1995-01-01

    Tests whether a set of nonverbal comforting strategies and their relationships with affective orientation and gender in previous research are generalizable to a broader sample. Concludes gender differences in affective orientation, diversity and number of strategies, and use of specific strategies were supported. Finds that females were more…

  6. Nonverbal Learning Disability Explained: The Link to Shunted Hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissman, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    A nonverbal learning disability is believed to be caused by damage, disorder or destruction of neuronal white matter in the brain's right hemisphere and may be seen in persons experiencing a wide range of neurological diseases such as hydrocephalus and other types of brain injury (Harnadek & Rourke 1994). This article probes the relationship…

  7. A Competitive Nonverbal False Belief Task for Children and Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krachun, Carla; Carpenter, Malinda; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A nonverbal false belief task was administered to children (mean age 5 years) and two great ape species: chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") and bonobos ("Pan paniscus"). Because apes typically perform poorly in cooperative contexts, our task was competitive. Two versions were run: in both, a human competitor witnessed an experimenter hide a reward in…

  8. Training Verbal and Nonverbal Communication Interview Skills to Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Abbie; Panorska, Anna; Gillam, Sandra Laing

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents' verbal and nonverbal communication skills were compared before and after training in a workforce readiness training program, Language for Scholars (LFS), and a study skills program, Ideal Student Workshop (ISW). A cross-over design was used, ensuring that 44 adolescents received both programs and acted as their own control. The LFS…

  9. Introverts' and Extraverts' Responses to Nonverbal Attending Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genthner, Robert W.; Moughan, James

    1977-01-01

    The different responses of introverts and extraverts to two types of helper nonverbal attending were examined. Subjects were 26 introverts and 26 extraverts, as defined by Eysenck and Eysenck's questionnaire. Introverts rated the listener higher than did extraverts, independent of his posture. (Author)

  10. Inappropriate Accommodation in Communication to Elders: Inferences about Nonverbal Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Ellen Bouchard; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Overaccommodation in communication with elders is frequently based on stereotyped expectations of frailty and dependence. In this study, volunteers read either a patronizing or neutral version of a conversation between a nursing home resident and a nurse. The main analyses indicated that negative nonverbal behaviors were rated more likely to occur…

  11. The Relationships between Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Therapeutic Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proefrock, David W.; Bloom, Robert

    The relationship between a therapist's verbal and nonverbal communication of therapeutic effectiveness was investigated. In a design intended to eliminate many of the methodological problems which exist in this area of research, subjects (N=102) were asked to rate videotaped segments showing combinations of three different levels of both verbal…

  12. Young Children's Understanding of Markedness in Non-Verbal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Speakers often anticipate how recipients will interpret their utterances. If they wish some other, less obvious interpretation, they may "mark" their utterance (e.g. with special intonations or facial expressions). We investigated whether two- and three-year-olds recognize when adults mark a non-verbal communicative act--in this case a pointing…

  13. Videotutoring, Non-Verbal Communication and Initial Teacher Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, Jon; Watson, Kate

    2000-01-01

    Describes the use of video tutoring for distance education within the context of a post-graduate teacher training course at the University of Exeter. Analysis of the tapes used a protocol based on non-verbal communication research, and findings suggest that the interaction of participants was significantly different from face-to-face…

  14. Language, Power, Multilingual and Non-Verbal Multicultural Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marácz, L.; Zhuravleva, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to developments in internal migration and mobility there is a proliferation of linguistic diversity, multilingual and non-verbal multicultural communication. At the same time the recognition of the use of one’s first language receives more and more support in international political, legal and

  15. Non-verbal behaviour in nurse-elderly patient communication.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caris-Verhallen, W.M.C.M.; Kerkstra, A.; Bensing, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This study explores the occurence of non-verbal communication in nurse-elderly patient interaction in two different care settings: home nursing and a home for the elderly. In a sample of 181 nursing encounters involving 47 nurses a study was made of videotaped nurse-patient communication. Six

  16. Physical growth and nonverbal intelligence: associations in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Sascha; Reich, Jodi; Thuma, Philip E; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2014-11-01

    To investigate normative developmental body mass index (BMI) trajectories and associations of physical growth indicators--height, weight, head circumference (HC), and BMI--with nonverbal intelligence in an understudied population of children from sub-Saharan Africa. A sample of 3981 students (50.8% male), grades 3-7, with a mean age of 12.75 years was recruited from 34 rural Zambian schools. Children with low scores on vision and hearing screenings were excluded. Height, weight, and HC were measured, and nonverbal intelligence was assessed using the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test, Symbolic Memory subtest and Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition, Triangles subtest. Students in higher grades had a higher BMI over and above the effect of age. Girls had a marginally higher BMI, although that for both boys and girls was approximately 1 SD below the international Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization norms. When controlling for the effect of age, nonverbal intelligence showed small but significant positive relationships with HC (r = 0.17) and BMI (r = 0.11). HC and BMI accounted for 1.9% of the variance in nonverbal intelligence, over and above the contribution of grade and sex. BMI-for-age growth curves of Zambian children follow observed worldwide developmental trajectories. The positive relationships between BMI and intelligence underscore the importance of providing adequate nutritional and physical growth opportunities for children worldwide and in sub-Saharan Africa in particular. Directions for future studies are discussed with regard to maximizing the cognitive potential of all rural African children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. All Digital IQ Servo-System for CERN Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Rohlev, A; Garoby, R

    2003-01-01

    A new VME based system has been developed and built at CERN for the servo loops regulating the field in the linac accelerating structure. It makes use of high speed digital In-phase/Quadrature (IQ) detection, digital processing, and digital IQ modulation. The digital processing and IQ modulation is done in a single PLD. The system incorporates continually variable set points, iterative learning, feed forward as well as extensive diagnostics and other features well suited for digital implementations. Built on a single VME card, it will be first used in the energy ramping RF chain of the CERN Heavy Ion Linac (linac 3) and later for upgrading the present proton linac (linac 2). This system serves also as a prototype for the future Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL). The design principle and the experimental results are described.

  18. Do attention deficits influence IQ assessment in children and adolescents with ADHD?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jens Richardt M; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the relationship between IQ and attention deficits in children with ADHD and to estimate the inattention-related mean influence on IQ when children are tested before stimulant drug treatment has been initiated. METHOD: Studies of various methodologies are reviewed....... RESULTS: Correlation studies show mostly weak associations between IQ scores and attention deficits. Meta-analyses report the average short-term stimulant treatment effect on IQ in children with ADHD to be 2 to 7 IQ points. CONCLUSION: The associations between IQ and attention deficits in ADHD...

  19. Asperger syndrome and nonverbal learning difficulties in adult males: self- and parent-reported autism, attention and executive problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, Bibbi; Billstedt, Eva; Nydén, Agneta; Gillberg, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    A specific overlap between Asperger syndrome (AS) and nonverbal learning difficulties (NLD) has been proposed, based on the observation that, as a group, people with AS tend to have significantly higher verbal IQ (VIQ) than performance IQ (PIQ), one of the core features of NLD. The primary aim was to assess the longer term outcome of NLD--broken down into persistent and transient forms. The present study of 68 individuals was performed in the context of a larger prospective longitudinal study to late adolescence/early adult life of 100 boys with AS. Using self- and parent-report measures, we studied the longer term outcome of the NLD (defined as VIQ > PIQ by 15 points) as regards social communication, repetitive behaviour, attention, and executive function (EF) was studied. Three subgroups were identified: (1) Persistent NLD (P-NLD), (2) Childhood "only" NLD (CO-NLD) and (3) Never NLD (NO-NLD). The P-NLD group had the worst outcome overall. The CO-NLD group had better reported EF scores than the two other AS subgroups. There were no differences between the subgroups regarding social communication, repetitive behaviour, or attentional skills. Low PIQ increased the risk of ADHD symptoms. In the context of AS in males, P-NLD carries a relatively poor outcome, particularly with regard to self-reported EF. However, CO-NLD appears to entail a significantly better outcome. The results underscore the importance of analysing the cognitive profile both at diagnosis and after several years, so as to be able to formulate a realistic prognosis.

  20. Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Network Analysis of Cerebellum with Respect to Crystallized IQ and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezoulas, Vasileios C; Zervakis, Michalis; Michelogiannis, Sifis; Klados, Manousos A

    2017-01-01

    During the last years, it has been established that the prefrontal and posterior parietal brain lobes, which are mostly related to intelligence, have many connections to cerebellum. However, there is a limited research investigating cerebellum's relationship with cognitive processes. In this study, the network of cerebellum was analyzed in order to investigate its overall organization in individuals with low and high crystallized Intelligence Quotient (IQ). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were selected from 136 subjects in resting-state from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) database and were further separated into two IQ groups composed of 69 low-IQ and 67 high-IQ subjects. Cerebellum was parcellated into 28 lobules/ROIs (per subject) using a standard cerebellum anatomical atlas. Thereafter, correlation matrices were constructed by computing Pearson's correlation coefficients between the average BOLD time-series for each pair of ROIs inside the cerebellum. By computing conventional graph metrics, small-world network properties were verified using the weighted clustering coefficient and the characteristic path length for estimating the trade-off between segregation and integration. In addition, a connectivity metric was computed for extracting the average cost per network. The concept of the Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) was adopted and implemented in order to avoid methodological biases in graph comparisons and retain only the strongest connections per network. Subsequently, six global and three local metrics were calculated in order to retrieve useful features concerning the characteristics of each MST. Moreover, the local metrics of degree and betweenness centrality were used to detect hubs, i.e., nodes with high importance. The computed set of metrics gave rise to extensive statistical analysis in order to examine differences between low and high-IQ groups, as well as between all possible gender-based group combinations. Our results reveal that

  1. Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Network Analysis of Cerebellum with Respect to Crystallized IQ and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios C. Pezoulas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, it has been established that the prefrontal and posterior parietal brain lobes, which are mostly related to intelligence, have many connections to cerebellum. However, there is a limited research investigating cerebellum's relationship with cognitive processes. In this study, the network of cerebellum was analyzed in order to investigate its overall organization in individuals with low and high crystallized Intelligence Quotient (IQ. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data were selected from 136 subjects in resting-state from the Human Connectome Project (HCP database and were further separated into two IQ groups composed of 69 low-IQ and 67 high-IQ subjects. Cerebellum was parcellated into 28 lobules/ROIs (per subject using a standard cerebellum anatomical atlas. Thereafter, correlation matrices were constructed by computing Pearson's correlation coefficients between the average BOLD time-series for each pair of ROIs inside the cerebellum. By computing conventional graph metrics, small-world network properties were verified using the weighted clustering coefficient and the characteristic path length for estimating the trade-off between segregation and integration. In addition, a connectivity metric was computed for extracting the average cost per network. The concept of the Minimum Spanning Tree (MST was adopted and implemented in order to avoid methodological biases in graph comparisons and retain only the strongest connections per network. Subsequently, six global and three local metrics were calculated in order to retrieve useful features concerning the characteristics of each MST. Moreover, the local metrics of degree and betweenness centrality were used to detect hubs, i.e., nodes with high importance. The computed set of metrics gave rise to extensive statistical analysis in order to examine differences between low and high-IQ groups, as well as between all possible gender-based group combinations. Our

  2. The role of interaction of verbal and non-verbal means of communication in different types of discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Orlova M. А.

    2010-01-01

    Communication relies on verbal and non-verbal interaction. To be most effective, group members need to improve verbal and non-verbal communication. Non-verbal communication fulfills functions within groups that are sometimes difficult to communicate verbally. But interpreting non-verbal messages requires a great deal of skill because multiple meanings abound in these messages.

  3. The nature and nurture of high IQ: an extended sensitive period for intellectual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, Angela M; Munakata, Yuko; Boomsma, Dorret I; Defries, John C; Haworth, Claire M A; Keller, Matthew C; Martin, Nicholas G; McGue, Matthew; Petrill, Stephen A; Plomin, Robert; Wadsworth, Sally J; Wright, Margaret J; Hewitt, John K

    2013-08-01

    IQ predicts many measures of life success, as well as trajectories of brain development. Prolonged cortical thickening observed in individuals with high IQ might reflect an extended period of synaptogenesis and high environmental sensitivity or plasticity. We tested this hypothesis by examining the timing of changes in the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on IQ as a function of IQ score. We found that individuals with high IQ show high environmental influence on IQ into adolescence (resembling younger children), whereas individuals with low IQ show high heritability of IQ in adolescence (resembling adults), a pattern consistent with an extended sensitive period for intellectual development in more-intelligent individuals. The pattern held across a cross-sectional sample of almost 11,000 twin pairs and a longitudinal sample of twins, biological siblings, and adoptive siblings.

  4. The Correlation of IQ and Emotional Intelligence with Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabanchi, Zargham; Rastegar, Rabe'e

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of both IQ and emotional intelligence on reading comprehension in Iran. Forty-five EFL college students from Payame Noor University of Gonbad and Azad University of Gorgan participated in this study. Three independent tests were administrated, including Bar-On's emotional intelligence inventory…

  5. A genetic analysis of brain volumes and IQ in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, M.; Peper, J.S.; van den Berg, S.M.; Brouwer, R.M.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; Kahn, R.S.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2009-01-01

    In a population-based sample of 112 nine-year old twin pairs, we investigated the association among total brain volume, gray matter and white matter volume, intelligence as assessed by the Raven IQ test, verbal comprehension, perceptual organization and perceptual speed as assessed by the Wechsler

  6. Parallelised Krylov subspace method for reactor kinetics by IQS approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Anurag; Modak, R.S.; Gupta, H.P.; Kumar, Vinod; Bhatt, K.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear reactor kinetics involves numerical solution of space-time-dependent multi-group neutron diffusion equation. Two distinct approaches exist for this purpose: the direct (implicit time differencing) approach and the improved quasi-static (IQS) approach. Both the approaches need solution of static space-energy-dependent diffusion equations at successive time-steps; the step being relatively smaller for the direct approach. These solutions are usually obtained by Gauss-Seidel type iterative methods. For a faster solution, the Krylov sub-space methods have been tried and also parallelised by many investigators. However, these studies seem to have been done only for the direct approach. In the present paper, parallelised Krylov methods are applied to the IQS approach in addition to the direct approach. It is shown that the speed-up obtained for IQS is higher than that for the direct approach. The reasons for this are also discussed. Thus, the use of IQS approach along with parallelised Krylov solvers seems to be a promising scheme

  7. Normal IQ is possible in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroglu, Yasemen; Nguyen-Driver, Mina; Steiner, Robert D; Merkens, Louise; Merkens, Mark; Roullet, Jean-Baptiste; Elias, Ellen; Sarphare, Geeta; Porter, Forbes D; Li, Chumei; Tierney, Elaine; Nowaczyk, Małgorzata J; Freeman, Kurt A

    2017-08-01

    Children with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) are typically reported to have moderate to severe intellectual disability. This study aims to determine whether normal cognitive function is possible in this population and to describe clinical, biochemical and molecular characteristics of children with SLOS and normal intelligent quotient (IQ). The study included children with SLOS who underwent cognitive testing in four centers. All children with at least one IQ composite score above 80 were included in the study. Six girls, three boys with SLOS were found to have normal or low-normal IQ in a cohort of 145 children with SLOS. Major/multiple organ anomalies and low serum cholesterol levels were uncommon. No correlation with IQ and genotype was evident and no specific developmental profile were observed. Thus, normal or low-normal cognitive function is possible in SLOS. Further studies are needed to elucidate factors contributing to normal or low-normal cognitive function in children with SLOS. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Biological Correlates of Northern-Southern Italy Differences in IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templer, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was intended to provide perspective, albeit less than unequivocal, on the research of Lynn (2010) who reported higher IQs in the northern than southern Italian regions. He attributes this to northern Italians having a greater genetic similarity to middle Europeans and southern Italians to Mediterranean people. Higher regional IQ…

  9. A Critical Analysis of IQ Studies of Adopted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ken; Norgate, Sarah H.

    2006-01-01

    The pattern of parent-child correlations in adoption studies has long been interpreted to suggest substantial additive genetic variance underlying variance in IQ. The studies have frequently been criticized on methodological grounds, but those criticisms have not reflected recent perspectives in genetics and developmental theory. Here we apply…

  10. Effects of Aging and IQ on Item and Associative Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Roger; Thapar, Anjali; McKoon, Gail

    2011-01-01

    The effects of aging and IQ on performance were examined in 4 memory tasks: item recognition, associative recognition, cued recall, and free recall. For item and associative recognition, accuracy and the response time (RT) distributions for correct and error responses were explained by Ratcliff's (1978) diffusion model at the level of individual…

  11. The Importance of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation for Measuring IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghans, Lex; Meijers, Huub; ter Weel, Bas

    2013-01-01

    This research provides an economic model of the way people behave during an IQ test. We distinguish a technology that describes how time investment improves performance from preferences that determine how much time people invest in each question. We disentangle these two elements empirically using data from a laboratory experiment. The main…

  12. Rendezvous with IQ: Metacognition in Real-Life Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between metacognition as measured in real-life situations and IQ scores as reflected by performance on the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices Scale. It is also intended in this study to report on whether or not there were significant differences in performance on the metacognitive…

  13. Outsmarting IQ: The Emerging Science of Learnable Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, David

    Pychologists, educators, and others have challenged the idea of a fixed IQ. This book uses recent research and earlier discoveries to argue that intelligence is not genetically set. Noting that the idea of learnable intelligence reflects the belief that intelligence can be taught, the book outlines a theory of learnable intelligence, including…

  14. Correlation of WAIS IQ in 10 Pairs of Brothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarazzo, Joseph D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Pairs of brothers were individually examined with Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale some 10 months apart by an experienced clinical psychologist unaware of the consanguineous relationship. Correlation of .42 for Full Scale IQ is consistent with median correlation reported by Erlenmeyer-Kimling and Jarvik in their 1963 literature review.…

  15. Premorbid IQ varies across different definitions of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urfer Parnas, Annick; Jansson, Lennart; Handest, Peter

    2007-01-01

    -10, St. Louis and Flexible System-Wide. Only the ICD-10 schizophrenia patients exhibited a significantly lower premorbid IQ. There were suggestive differences between the four examined systems as well as between the ICD-10 paranoid and non-paranoid subtypes. Exploration of crucial diagnostic features...

  16. A Genetic Analysis of Brain Volumes and IQ in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Marieke; Peper, Jiska S.; van den Berg, Stephanie M.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Kahn, Rene S.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2009-01-01

    In a population-based sample of 112 nine-year old twin pairs, we investigated the association among total brain volume, gray matter and white matter volume, intelligence as assessed by the Raven IQ test, verbal comprehension, perceptual organization and perceptual speed as assessed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III. Phenotypic…

  17. Defining Learning Disability: Does IQ Have Anything Significant to Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    A debate exists in the research community about replacing the traditional IQ/achievement discrepancy method for learning disability identification with a "response-to-intervention model". This new assessment paradigm uses a student's level of improvement with small-group or individual programming to determine a possible need for…

  18. Maintenance of auditory-nonverbal information in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soemer, Alexander; Saito, Satoru

    2015-12-01

    According to the multicomponent view of working memory, both auditory-nonverbal information and auditory-verbal information are stored in a phonological code and are maintained by an articulation-based rehearsal mechanism (Baddeley, 2012). Two experiments have been carried out to investigate this hypothesis using sound materials that are difficult to label verbally and difficult to articulate. Participants were required to maintain 2 to 4 sounds differing in timbre over a delay of up to 12 seconds while performing different secondary tasks. While there was no convincing evidence for articulatory rehearsal as a main maintenance mechanism for auditory-nonverbal information, the results suggest that processes similar or identical to auditory imagery might contribute to maintenance. We discuss the implications of these results for multicomponent models of working memory.

  19. Non-verbal numerical cognition: from reals to integers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel; Gelman

    2000-02-01

    Data on numerical processing by verbal (human) and non-verbal (animal and human) subjects are integrated by the hypothesis that a non-verbal counting process represents discrete (countable) quantities by means of magnitudes with scalar variability. These appear to be identical to the magnitudes that represent continuous (uncountable) quantities such as duration. The magnitudes representing countable quantity are generated by a discrete incrementing process, which defines next magnitudes and yields a discrete ordering. In the case of continuous quantities, the continuous accumulation process does not define next magnitudes, so the ordering is also continuous ('dense'). The magnitudes representing both countable and uncountable quantity are arithmetically combined in, for example, the computation of the income to be expected from a foraging patch. Thus, on the hypothesis presented here, the primitive machinery for arithmetic processing works with real numbers (magnitudes).

  20. Directed forgetting of visual symbols: evidence for nonverbal selective rehearsal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourihan, Kathleen L; Ozubko, Jason D; MacLeod, Colin M

    2009-12-01

    Is selective rehearsal possible for nonverbal information? Two experiments addressed this question using the item method directed forgetting paradigm, where the advantage of remember items over forget items is ascribed to selective rehearsal favoring the remember items. In both experiments, difficult-to-name abstract symbols were presented for study, followed by a recognition test. Directed forgetting effects were evident for these symbols, regardless of whether they were or were not spontaneously named. Critically, a directed forgetting effect was observed for unnamed symbols even when the symbols were studied under verbal suppression to prevent verbal rehearsal. This pattern indicates that a form of nonverbal rehearsal can be used strategically (i.e., selectively) to enhance memory, even when verbal rehearsal is not possible.

  1. Evidence for Latent Classes of IQ In Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Munson, Jeffrey; Dawson, Geraldine; Sterling, Lindsey; Beauchaine, Theodore; Zhou, Andrew; Koehler, Elizabeth; Lord, Catherine; Rogers, Sally; Sigman, Marian; Estes, Annette; Abbott, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Autism is currently viewed as a spectrum condition including strikingly different severity levels. IQ is consistently described as one of the primary aspects of the heterogeneity in autism. To investigate the possibility of more than one distinct subtype of autism based on IQ, both latent class analysis and taxometric methods were used to classify Mullen IQ scores in a sample of children with autism spectrum disorder (N=456). Evidence for multiple IQ-based subgroups was found using both metho...

  2. Physical growth and non-verbal intelligence: Associations in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Sascha; Reich, Jodi; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate normative developmental BMI trajectories and associations of physical growth indicators (ie, height, weight, head circumference [HC], body mass index [BMI]) with non-verbal intelligence in an understudied population of children from Sub-Saharan Africa. Study design A sample of 3981 students (50.8% male), grades 3 to 7, with a mean age of 12.75 years was recruited from 34 rural Zambian schools. Children with low scores on vision and hearing screenings were excluded. Height, weight and HC were measured, and non-verbal intelligence was assessed using UNIT-symbolic memory and KABC-II-triangles. Results Results showed that students in higher grades have a higher BMI over and above the effect of age. Girls showed a marginally higher BMI, although that for both boys and girls was approximately 1 SD below the international CDC and WHO norms. Controlling for the effect of age, non-verbal intelligence showed small but significant positive relationships with HC (r = .17) and BMI (r = .11). HC and BMI accounted for 1.9% of the variance in non-verbal intelligence, over and above the contribution of grade and sex. Conclusions BMI-for-age growth curves of Zambian children follow observed worldwide developmental trajectories. The positive relationships between BMI and intelligence underscore the importance of providing adequate nutritional and physical growth opportunities for children worldwide and in sub-Saharan Africa in particular. Directions for future studies are discussed with regard to maximizing the cognitive potential of all rural African children. PMID:25217196

  3. Cross-Cultural Detection of Depression from Nonverbal Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Alghowinem, Sharifa; Goecke, Roland; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Wagner, Michael; Parker, Gordon; Breakspear, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Millions of people worldwide suffer from depression. Do commonalities exist in their nonverbal behavior that would enable cross-culturally viable screening and assessment of severity? We investigated the generalisability of an approach to detect depression severity cross-culturally using video-recorded clinical interviews from Australia, the USA and Germany. The material varied in type of interview, subtypes of depression and inclusion healthy control subjects, cultural background, and record...

  4. Context, culture and (non-verbal) communication affect handover quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Richard M; Flanagan, Mindy; Ebright, Patricia; Bergman, Alicia; O'Brien, Colleen M; Franks, Zamal; Allen, Andrew; Harris, Angela; Saleem, Jason J

    2012-12-01

    Transfers of care, also known as handovers, remain a substantial patient safety risk. Although research on handovers has been done since the 1980s, the science is incomplete. Surprisingly few interventions have been rigorously evaluated and, of those that have, few have resulted in long-term positive change. Researchers, both in medicine and other high reliability industries, agree that face-to-face handovers are the most reliable. It is not clear, however, what the term face-to-face means in actual practice. We studied the use of non-verbal behaviours, including gesture, posture, bodily orientation, facial expression, eye contact and physical distance, in the delivery of information during face-to-face handovers. To address this question and study the role of non-verbal behaviour on the quality and accuracy of handovers, we videotaped 52 nursing, medicine and surgery handovers covering 238 patients. Videotapes were analysed using immersion/crystallisation methods of qualitative data analysis. A team of six researchers met weekly for 18 months to view videos together using a consensus-building approach. Consensus was achieved on verbal, non-verbal, and physical themes and patterns observed in the data. We observed four patterns of non-verbal behaviour (NVB) during handovers: (1) joint focus of attention; (2) 'the poker hand'; (3) parallel play and (4) kerbside consultation. In terms of safety, joint focus of attention was deemed to have the best potential for high quality and reliability; however, it occurred infrequently, creating opportunities for education and improvement. Attention to patterns of NVB in face-to-face handovers coupled with education and practice can improve quality and reliability.

  5. A structural equation modeling of executive functions, IQ and mathematical skills in primary students: Differential effects on number production, mental calculus and arithmetical problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arán Filippetti, Vanessa; Richaud, María Cristina

    2017-10-01

    Though the relationship between executive functions (EFs) and mathematical skills has been well documented, little is known about how both EFs and IQ differentially support diverse math domains in primary students. Inconsistency of results may be due to the statistical techniques employed, specifically, if the analysis is conducted with observed variables, i.e., regression analysis, or at the latent level, i.e., structural equation modeling (SEM). The current study explores the contribution of both EFs and IQ in mathematics through an SEM approach. A total of 118 8- to 12-year-olds were administered measures of EFs, crystallized (Gc) and fluid (Gf) intelligence, and math abilities (i.e., number production, mental calculus and arithmetical problem-solving). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) offered support for the three-factor solution of EFs: (1) working memory (WM), (2) shifting, and (3) inhibition. Regarding the relationship among EFs, IQ and math abilities, the results of the SEM analysis showed that (i) WM and age predict number production and mental calculus, and (ii) shifting and sex predict arithmetical problem-solving. In all of the SEM models, EFs partially or totally mediated the relationship between IQ, age and math achievement. These results suggest that EFs differentially supports math abilities in primary-school children and is a more significant predictor of math achievement than IQ level.

  6. Dominant, open nonverbal displays are attractive at zero-acquaintance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacharkulksemsuk, Tanya; Reit, Emily; Khambatta, Poruz; Eastwick, Paul W; Finkel, Eli J; Carney, Dana R

    2016-04-12

    Across two field studies of romantic attraction, we demonstrate that postural expansiveness makes humans more romantically appealing. In a field study (n = 144 speed-dates), we coded nonverbal behaviors associated with liking, love, and dominance. Postural expansiveness-expanding the body in physical space-was most predictive of attraction, with each one-unit increase in coded behavior from the video recordings nearly doubling a person's odds of getting a "yes" response from one's speed-dating partner. In a subsequent field experiment (n = 3,000), we tested the causality of postural expansion (vs. contraction) on attraction using a popular Global Positioning System-based online-dating application. Mate-seekers rapidly flipped through photographs of potential sexual/date partners, selecting those they desired to meet for a date. Mate-seekers were significantly more likely to select partners displaying an expansive (vs. contractive) nonverbal posture. Mediation analyses demonstrate one plausible mechanism through which expansiveness is appealing: Expansiveness makes the dating candidate appear more dominant. In a dating world in which success sometimes is determined by a split-second decision rendered after a brief interaction or exposure to a static photograph, single persons have very little time to make a good impression. Our research suggests that a nonverbal dominance display increases a person's chances of being selected as a potential mate.

  7. Emotion Recognition in Adolescents with Down Syndrome: A Nonverbal Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Pochon

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported that persons with Down syndrome (DS have difficulties recognizing emotions; however, there is insufficient research to prove that a deficit of emotional knowledge exists in DS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recognition of emotional facial expressions without making use of emotional vocabulary, given the language problems known to be associated with this syndrome. The ability to recognize six emotions was assessed in 24 adolescents with DS. Their performance was compared to that of 24 typically developing children with the same nonverbal-developmental age, as assessed by Raven’s Progressive Matrices. Analysis of the results revealed no global difference; only marginal differences in the recognition of different emotions appeared. Study of the developmental trajectories revealed a developmental difference: the nonverbal reasoning level assessed by Raven’s matrices did not predict success on the experimental tasks in the DS group, contrary to the typically developing group. These results do not corroborate the hypothesis that there is an emotional knowledge deficit in DS and emphasize the importance of using dynamic, strictly nonverbal tasks in populations with language disorders.

  8. Social priming increases nonverbal expressive behaviors in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Del-Monte

    Full Text Available Semantic priming tasks are classically used to influence and implicitly promote target behaviors. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that prosocial semantic priming modulated feelings of social affiliation. The main aim of this study was to determine whether inducing feelings of social affiliation using priming tasks could modulate nonverbal social behaviors in schizophrenia. We used the Scrambled Sentence Task to prime schizophrenia patients according to three priming group conditions: pro-social, non-social or anti-social. Forty-five schizophrenia patients, diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR, were randomly assigned to one of the three priming groups of 15 participants. We evaluated nonverbal social behaviors using the Motor-Affective subscale of the Motor-Affective-Social-Scale. Results showed that schizophrenia patients with pro-social priming had significantly more nonverbal behaviors than schizophrenia patients with anti-social and non-social priming conditions. Schizophrenia patient behaviors are affected by social priming. Our results have several clinical implications for the rehabilitation of social skills impairments frequently encountered among individuals with schizophrenia.

  9. Prosody Predicts Contest Outcome in Non-Verbal Dialogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiss, Amélie N; Chatelain, Philippe G; Roulin, Alexandre; Richner, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Non-verbal communication has important implications for inter-individual relationships and negotiation success. However, to what extent humans can spontaneously use rhythm and prosody as a sole communication tool is largely unknown. We analysed human ability to resolve a conflict without verbal dialogs, independently of semantics. We invited pairs of subjects to communicate non-verbally using whistle sounds. Along with the production of more whistles, participants unwittingly used a subtle prosodic feature to compete over a resource (ice-cream scoops). Winners can be identified by their propensity to accentuate the first whistles blown when replying to their partner, compared to the following whistles. Naive listeners correctly identified this prosodic feature as a key determinant of which whistler won the interaction. These results suggest that in the absence of other communication channels, individuals spontaneously use a subtle variation of sound accentuation (prosody), instead of merely producing exuberant sounds, to impose themselves in a conflict of interest. We discuss the biological and cultural bases of this ability and their link with verbal communication. Our results highlight the human ability to use non-verbal communication in a negotiation process.

  10. Economic, Educational, and IQ Gains in Eastern Germany 1990-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roivainen, Eka

    2012-01-01

    Lynn and Vanhanen (2012) have convincingly established that national IQs correlate positively with GDP, education, and many other social and economic factors. The direction of causality remains debatable. The present study re-examines data from military psychological assessments of the German federal army that show strong IQ gains of 0.5 IQ point…

  11. Relationship of Education and IQ in the WAIS-R Standardization Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarazzo, Joseph D.; Herman, David O.

    1984-01-01

    Analyzed the total number of years of schooling completed against the Verbal IQ (VIQ), Performance IQ (PIQ), and Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) of the 1,880 individuals who were used to standardize the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R). Analysis revealed a progressive increase in mean FSIQ with increasing education. (JAC)

  12. Factors associated with IQ scores in long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, L.L.; Nesbit, M.E. Jr.; Sather, H.N.; Meadows, A.T.; Ortega, J.A.; Hammond, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    To identify factors which might be associated with intellectual function following treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 50 long-term survivors were studied using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. All patients were diagnosed between 1972 and 1974 and were treated on a single clinical trial protocol with identical induction and maintenance chemotherapy plus central nervous system prophylaxis that included cranial radiation. The mean full scale IQ score for the group was 95 (SEM 2.0), with mean verbal IQ of 94.4 and mean performance IQ of 96.9. Factors which were found to be closely associated with a lower IQ score included female sex (in both verbal IQ and full-scale IQ), longer duration of chemotherapy (in performance IQ), and younger age at the time of radiation (in both verbal IQ and full-scale IQ). The age at the time of radiation was found to be significantly correlated with discrepancy between verbal and performance IQ, with younger age being associated with verbal IQ scores higher than performance IQ scores. When analyses were performed within specific subgroups of patients defined by sex and age at the time of radiation, dose of cranial radiation, concomitant intrathecal methotrexate therapy, and duration of therapy were all found to be correlated with a lower level of intellectual function. These preliminary findings provide direction for future studies to help identify high-risk patients

  13. Verbal and Non-verbal Fluency in Adults with Developmental Dyslexia: Phonological Processing or Executive Control Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Spark, James H; Henry, Lucy A; Messer, David J; Zięcik, Adam P

    2017-08-01

    The executive function of fluency describes the ability to generate items according to specific rules. Production of words beginning with a certain letter (phonemic fluency) is impaired in dyslexia, while generation of words belonging to a certain semantic category (semantic fluency) is typically unimpaired. However, in dyslexia, verbal fluency has generally been studied only in terms of overall words produced. Furthermore, performance of adults with dyslexia on non-verbal design fluency tasks has not been explored but would indicate whether deficits could be explained by executive control, rather than phonological processing, difficulties. Phonemic, semantic and design fluency tasks were presented to adults with dyslexia and without dyslexia, using fine-grained performance measures and controlling for IQ. Hierarchical regressions indicated that dyslexia predicted lower phonemic fluency, but not semantic or design fluency. At the fine-grained level, dyslexia predicted a smaller number of switches between subcategories on phonemic fluency, while dyslexia did not predict the size of phonemically related clusters of items. Overall, the results suggested that phonological processing problems were at the root of dyslexia-related fluency deficits; however, executive control difficulties could not be completely ruled out as an alternative explanation. Developments in research methodology, equating executive demands across fluency tasks, may resolve this issue. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Long-latency auditory evoked potentials with verbal and nonverbal stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppitz, Sheila Jacques; Didoné, Dayane Domeneghini; Silva, Débora Durigon da; Gois, Marjana; Folgearini, Jordana; Ferreira, Geise Corrêa; Garcia, Michele Vargas

    2015-01-01

    Long-latency auditory evoked potentials represent the cortical activity related to attention, memory, and auditory discrimination skills. Acoustic signal processing occurs differently between verbal and nonverbal stimuli, influencing the latency and amplitude patterns. To describe the latencies of the cortical potentials P1, N1, P2, N2, and P3, as well as P3 amplitude, with different speech stimuli and tone bursts, and to classify them in the presence and absence of these data. A total of 30 subjects with normal hearing were assessed, aged 18-32 years old, matched by gender. Nonverbal stimuli were used (tone burst; 1000Hz - frequent and 4000Hz - rare); and verbal (/ba/ - frequent; /ga/, /da/, and /di/ - rare). Considering the component N2 for tone burst, the lowest latency found was 217.45ms for the BA/DI stimulus; the highest latency found was 256.5ms. For the P3 component, the shortest latency with tone burst stimuli was 298.7 with BA/GA stimuli, the highest, was 340ms. For the P3 amplitude, there was no statistically significant difference among the different stimuli. For latencies of components P1, N1, P2, N2, P3, there were no statistical differences among them, regardless of the stimuli used. There was a difference in the latency of potentials N2 and P3 among the stimuli employed but no difference was observed for the P3 amplitude. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of Principles of Piaget's Theory Among 4-7-year-old Children and their Correlation with IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Sugandha; Goswami, Mousumi; Vashist, Binny

    2017-08-01

    Cognitive development is a major area of human development and was extensively studied by Jean Piaget. He proposed that the development of intellectual abilities occurs in a series of relatively distinct stages and that a child's way of thinking and viewing the world is different at different stages. To assess Piaget's principles of the intuitive stage of preoperational period among 4-7-year-old children relative to their Intelligence quotient (IQ). Various characteristics as described by Jean Piaget specific for the age group of 4-7 years along with those of the previous (preconceptual stage of preoperational period) and successive periods (concrete operations) were analysed using various experiments in 300 children. These characteristics included the concepts of perceptual and cognitive egocentrism, centration and reversibility. IQ of the children was measured using Seguin form board test. Inferential statistics were performed using Chi-square test and Kruskal Wallis test. The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. The prevalence of perceptual and cognitive egocentrism was 10.7% and 31.7% based on the experiments and 33% based on the interview question. Centration was present in 96.3% of the children. About 99% children lacked the concept of reversibility according to the clay experiment while 97.7% possessed this concept according to the interview question. The mean IQ score of children who possessed perceptual egocentrism, cognitive egocentrism and egocentrism in dental setting was significantly higher than those who lacked these characteristics. Perceptual egocentrism had almost disappeared and prevalence of cognitive egocentrism decreased with increase in age. Centration and lack of reversibility were appreciated in most of the children. There was a gradual reduction in the prevalence of these characters with increasing age. Mean IQ score of children who possessed perceptual egocentrism, cognitive egocentrism and egocentrism in dental setting was

  16. The relationship between executive functions and IQ in Korean children and the comparison with Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyunjoo; Jinyu, An

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between perceived/performance-based executive function and IQ. Additionally, the relationship between perceived executive function and intelligence was investigated cross-culturally between South Korea and China. Korean children (60; M = 34, F = 26, Mean age = 10.35) were included in study 1, and Korean children (43, M = 23, F = 20, Mean age = 10.05) and Chinese children (56; M = 29, F = 27, Mean age = 10.40) were included in study 2. The Korean-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV, the Stroop test, the CTT-2, and the executive function questionnaire were used for Korean subjects, and the Raven's matrix test and the executive function questionnaire were used for Korean and Chinese subjects. Multiple regression showed that CTT-2(RT), emotional control difficulty, and Color Word within a 45' Stroop test trial were significant predictors of total IQ. The cross-cultural analysis showed a statistically significant difference between the two countries in the emotional control aspect of perceived executive function. There were no interactions between country and intelligence. In conclusion, intelligence was related to overall executive function. Korean children and Chinese children showed cultural differences in processing emotion. These results are expected to contribute to developing therapeutic strategies for executive function in children and to exchanging these strategies between Korea and China.

  17. Association of maternal thyroid function during early pregnancy with offspring IQ and brain morphology in childhood: a population-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korevaar, Tim I M; Muetzel, Ryan; Medici, Marco; Chaker, Layal; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Steegers, Eric A P; Visser, Theo J; White, Tonya; Tiemeier, Henning; Peeters, Robin P

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is involved in the regulation of early brain development. Since the fetal thyroid gland is not fully functional until week 18-20 of pregnancy, neuronal migration and other crucial early stages of intrauterine brain development largely depend on the supply of maternal thyroid hormone. Current clinical practice mostly focuses on preventing the negative consequences of low thyroid hormone concentrations, but data from animal studies have shown that both low and high concentrations of thyroid hormone have negative effects on offspring brain development. We aimed to investigate the association of maternal thyroid function with child intelligence quotient (IQ) and brain morphology. In this population-based prospective cohort study, embedded within the Generation R Study (Rotterdam, Netherlands), we investigated the association of maternal thyroid function with child IQ (assessed by non-verbal intelligence tests) and brain morphology (assessed on brain MRI scans). Eligible women were those living in the study area at their delivery date, which had to be between April 1, 2002, and Jan 1, 2006. For this study, women with available serum samples who presented in early pregnancy (brain MRI scans (done at a median of 8·0 years of age [6·2-10·0]) were obtained. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounders including concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin and child thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine. Data for child IQ were available for 3839 mother-child pairs, and MRI scans were available from 646 children. Maternal free thyroxine concentrations showed an inverted U-shaped association with child IQ (p=0·0044), child grey matter volume (p=0·0062), and cortex volume (p=0·0011). For both low and high maternal free thyroxine concentrations, this association corresponded to a 1·4-3·8 points reduction in mean child IQ. Maternal thyroid-stimulating hormone was not associated with child IQ or brain morphology. All associations remained

  18. The impact of the teachers? non-verbal communication on success in teaching

    OpenAIRE

    BAMBAEEROO, FATEMEH; SHOKRPOUR, NASRIN

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Non-verbal communication skills, also called sign language or silent language, include all behaviors performed in the presence of others or perceived either consciously or unconsciously. The main aim of this review article was to determine the effect of the teachers’ non-verbal communication on success in teaching using the findings of the studies conducted on the relationship between quality of teaching and the teachers’ use of non-verbal communication and ...

  19. PERBANDINGAN KOMUNIKASI NONVERBAL PENUTUR ASLI DAN PENUTUR ASING BAHASA INGGRIS DALAM PUBLIC SPEAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Suta Paramarta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk membandingkan fitur-fitur nonverbal penutur asli dan penutur asing dalam public speaking. Perbedaan budaya antara kedua kelompok penutur tersebut menimbulkan perbedaan penggunaan fitur nonverbal dalam public speaking. Desain penelitian ini adalah desain deskriptif kualitatif dengan 10 subjek. 5 subjek adalah video penutur asli Bahasa Inggris dan 5 video subjek yang lain adalah video mahasiswa Jurusan D III Bahasa Inggris Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha. Penutur asli menunjukkan gerakan nonverbal yang jauh lebih variatif dari penutur asing Bahasa Inggris. Penutur asli memiliki gerakan-gerakan spesifik yang mengacu pada makna yang spesifik juga. Di lain pihak, penutur asing menunjukkan gerakan nonverbal yang bersifat umum tanpa rujukan pasti pada maksud yang spesifik. Fitur nonverbal yang dicermati dikelompokkan pada gerakan kepala, gerakan badan, dan kontak mata. Kata kunci: perbandingan, nonverbal, public speaking Abstract The purpose of this research is to compare the nonverbal features of the native speakers and the non-native speakers of English in public speaking. Cultural differences between the two groups make significant differences on using the nonverbal features in public speaking. The design of this research was a descriptive-qualitative design with 10 subjects. 5 subjects were videos of 5 English native speakers and the other 5 subjects were the videos of 5 students of Diploma III English Department Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha. The native speakers showed more variative nonverbal movements compared to the non-native speakers. The native speakers made specific gestures which refered to certain specific meanings. On the other hand, the non-native speakers applied general nonverbal movements without specific referents. The investigated nonverbal features were grouped into head movements, body movements, and eye contacts. Keywords: comparison, nonverbal, public speaking

  20. Subcortical intelligence: caudate volume predicts IQ in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazioplene, Rachael G; G Ryman, Sephira; Gray, Jeremy R; Rustichini, Aldo; Jung, Rex E; DeYoung, Colin G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the association between size of the caudate nuclei and intelligence. Based on the central role of the caudate in learning, as well as neuroimaging studies linking greater caudate volume to better attentional function, verbal ability, and dopamine receptor availability, we hypothesized the existence of a positive association between intelligence and caudate volume in three large independent samples of healthy adults (total N = 517). Regression of IQ onto bilateral caudate volume controlling for age, sex, and total brain volume indicated a significant positive correlation between caudate volume and intelligence, with a comparable magnitude of effect across each of the three samples. No other subcortical structures were independently associated with IQ, suggesting a specific biological link between caudate morphology and intelligence. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Tissue strain rate estimator using ultrafast IQ complex data

    OpenAIRE

    TERNIFI , Redouane; Elkateb Hachemi , Melouka; Remenieras , Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Pulsatile motion of brain parenchyma results from cardiac and breathing cycles. In this study, transient motion of brain tissue was estimated using an Aixplorer® imaging system allowing an ultrafast 2D acquisition mode. The strain was computed directly from the ultrafast IQ complex data using the extended autocorrelation strain estimator (EASE), which provides great SNRs regardless of depth. The EASE first evaluates the autocorrelation function at each depth over a set...

  2. IQ-Station: A Low Cost Portable Immersive Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Whiting; Patrick O' Leary; William Sherman; Eric Wernert

    2010-11-01

    The emergence of inexpensive 3D TV’s, affordable input and rendering hardware and open-source software has created a yeasty atmosphere for the development of low-cost immersive environments (IE). A low cost IE system, or IQ-station, fashioned from commercial off the shelf technology (COTS), coupled with a targeted immersive application can be a viable laboratory instrument for enhancing scientific workflow for exploration and analysis. The use of an IQ-station in a laboratory setting also has the potential of quickening the adoption of a more sophisticated immersive environment as a critical enabler in modern scientific and engineering workflows. Prior work in immersive environments generally required either a head mounted display (HMD) system or a large projector-based implementation both of which have limitations in terms of cost, usability, or space requirements. The solution presented here provides an alternative platform providing a reasonable immersive experience that addresses those limitations. Our work brings together the needed hardware and software to create a fully integrated immersive display and interface system that can be readily deployed in laboratories and common workspaces. By doing so, it is now feasible for immersive technologies to be included in researchers’ day-to-day workflows. The IQ-Station sets the stage for much wider adoption of immersive environments outside the small communities of virtual reality centers.

  3. Anatomical Correlates of Non-Verbal Perception in Dementia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Hsuan Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Patients with dementia who have dissociations in verbal and non-verbal sound processing may offer insights into the anatomic basis for highly related auditory modes. Methods: To determine the neuronal networks on non-verbal perception, 16 patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD, 15 with behavior variant fronto-temporal dementia (bv-FTD, 14 with semantic dementia (SD were evaluated and compared with 15 age-matched controls. Neuropsychological and auditory perceptive tasks were included to test the ability to compare pitch changes, scale-violated melody and for naming and associating with environmental sound. The brain 3D T1 images were acquired and voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used to compare and correlated the volumetric measures with task scores. Results: The SD group scored the lowest among 3 groups in pitch or scale-violated melody tasks. In the environmental sound test, the SD group also showed impairment in naming and also in associating sound with pictures. The AD and bv-FTD groups, compared with the controls, showed no differences in all tests. VBM with task score correlation showed that atrophy in the right supra-marginal and superior temporal gyri was strongly related to deficits in detecting violated scales, while atrophy in the bilateral anterior temporal poles and left medial temporal structures was related to deficits in environmental sound recognition. Conclusions: Auditory perception of pitch, scale-violated melody or environmental sound reflects anatomical degeneration in dementia patients and the processing of non-verbal sounds is mediated by distinct neural circuits.

  4. Drama to promote non-verbal communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Martina; Nixon, Lara; Broadfoot, Kirsten; Hofmeister, Marianna; Dornan, Tim

    2018-05-23

    Non-verbal communication skills (NVCS) help physicians to deliver relationship-centred care, and the effective use of NVCS is associated with improved patient satisfaction, better use of health services and high-quality clinical care. In contrast to verbal communication skills, NVCS training is under developed in communication curricula for the health care professions. One of the challenges teaching NVCS is their tacit nature. In this study, we evaluated drama exercises to raise awareness of NVCS by making familiar activities 'strange'. Workshops based on drama exercises were designed to heighten an awareness of sight, hearing, touch and proxemics in non-verbal communication. These were conducted at eight medical education conferences, held between 2014 and 2016, and were open to all conference participants. Workshops were evaluated by recording narrative data generated during the workshops and an open-ended questionnaire following the workshop. Data were analysed qualitatively, using thematic analysis. Non-verbal communication skills help doctors to deliver relationship-centred care RESULTS: One hundred and twelve participants attended workshops, 73 (65%) of whom completed an evaluation form: 56 physicians, nine medical students and eight non-physician faculty staff. Two themes were described: an increased awareness of NVCS and the importance of NVCS in relationship building. Drama exercises enabled participants to experience NVCS, such as sight, sound, proxemics and touch, in novel ways. Participants reflected on how NCVS contribute to developing trust and building relationships in clinical practice. Drama-based exercises elucidate the tacit nature of NVCS and require further evaluation in formal educational settings. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  5. Association of COMT and PRODH gene variants with intelligence quotient (IQ) and executive functions in 22q11.2DS subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Miri; Zarchi, Omer; Michaelovsky, Elena; Frisch, Amos; Patya, Miriam; Green, Tamar; Gothelf, Doron; Weizman, Abraham

    2014-09-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) carries the highest genetic risk factor for the development of schizophrenia. We investigated the association of genetic variants in two schizophrenia candidate genes with executive function (EF) and IQ in 22q11.2DS individuals. Ninety two individuals with 22q11.2 deletion were studied for the genetic association between COMT and PRODH variants and EF and IQ. Subjects were divided into children (under 12 years old), adolescents (between 12 and 18 years old) and adults (older than 18 years), and genotyped for the COMT Val158Met (rs4680) and PRODH Arg185Trp (rs4819756) polymorphisms. The participants underwent psychiatric evaluation and EF assessment. Our main finding is a significant influence of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism on both IQ and EF performance. Specifically, 22q11.2DS subjects with Met allele displayed higher IQ scores in all age groups compared to Val carriers, reaching significance in both adolescents and adults. The Met allele carriers performed better than Val carriers in EF tasks, being statistically significant in the adult group. PRODH Arg185Trp variant did not affect IQ or EF in our 22q11.2DS cohort. In conclusion, functional COMT variant, but not PRODH, affects IQ and EF in 22q11.2DS subjects during neurodevelopment with a maximal effect at adulthood. Future studies should monitor the cognitive performance of the same individuals from childhood to old age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. In Italy, North-South Differences in IQ Predict Differences in Income, Education, Infant Mortality, Stature, and Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Regional differences in IQ are presented for 12 regions of Italy showing that IQs are highest in the north and lowest in the south. Regional IQs obtained in 2006 are highly correlated with average incomes at r = 0.937, and with stature, infant mortality, literacy and education. The lower IQ in southern Italy may be attributable to genetic…

  7. Mitochondrial DNA Marker EST00083 Is Not Associated with High vs. Average IQ in a German Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moises, Hans W.; Yang, Liu; Kohnke, Michael; Vetter, Peter; Neppert, Jurgen; Petrill, Stephen A.; Plomin, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Tested the association of a mitochondrial DNA marker (EST00083) with high IQ in a sample of 47 German adults with high IQ scores and 77 adults with IQs estimated at lower than 110. Results do not support the hypothesis that high IQ is associated with this marker. (SLD)

  8. Nonverbal communication of intention and attention while playing a game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ditte Hvas

    This poster abstract describes first part of a series of experiments on using the individual’s gesture, grip and direction of face, to infer intentions and attention during interaction with technology. The experiment recorded here studies these patterns of nonverbal communication in order...... to explore how they can be used in an activity-aware setup that seeks adjusts to the individual’s intentions and attention. Results indicate that basic patterns of facial direction, grip and gestures are correlated with intention and/or attention....

  9. Non-verbal Persuasion and Communication in an Affective Agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    André, Elisabeth; Bevacqua, Elisabetta; Heylen, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    the critical role of non-verbal behaviour during face-to-face communication. In this chapter we restrict the discussion to body language. We also consider embodied virtual agents. As is the case with humans, there are a number of fundamental factors to be considered when constructing persuasive agents......This chapter deals with the communication of persuasion. Only a small percentage of communication involves words: as the old saying goes, “it’s not what you say, it’s how you say it”. While this likely underestimates the importance of good verbal persuasion techniques, it is accurate in underlining...

  10. The Role of Modular Robotics in Mediating Nonverbal Social Exchanges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti, P; Giusti, L; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines the use of modular robotics to encourage and facilitate nonverbal communication during therapeutic intervention in dementia care. A set of new socially interactive modular robotic devices called rolling pins (RPs) has been designed and developed to assist the therapist...... is that they are able to communicate with each other or with other devices equipped with the same radio communication technology. The RPs are usually used in pairs, as the local feedback of an RP can be set depending not only on its own speed and orientation but also on the speed and the orientation of the peer RP...

  11. Binding of 14C-labeled food mutagens (IQ, MeIQ, MeIQx) by dietary fiber in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoedin, P.B.; Nyman, M.E.; Nilsson, L.; Asp, N.L.; Jaegerstad, M.

    1985-01-01

    Binding of three mutagens, known to occur in fried or broiled foods, by thirteen different types of dietary fiber was investigated in vitro. Nonspecific binding by other food polymers was minimized by using protease and amylase treatment. Water-insoluble fiber components were responsible for most of the binding capacity. Generally, a slightly larger proportion of 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ) than of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo] -4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) was bound. There was a significant correlation between Klason lignin content and binding of mutagens. Optimum pH for binding was between 4 and 6. Dietary fiber from sorghum had the highest binding capacity, which could be due to the presence of a large Klason lignin fraction

  12. Judging the urgency of non-verbal auditory alarms: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrabito, G Robert; Mondor, Todd; Kent, Kimberley

    2004-06-22

    When designed correctly, non-verbal auditory alarms can convey different levels of urgency to the aircrew, and thereby permit the operator to establish the appropriate level of priority to address the alarmed condition. The conveyed level of urgency of five non-verbal auditory alarms presently used in the Canadian Forces CH-146 Griffon helicopter was investigated. Pilots of the CH-146 Griffon helicopter and non-pilots rated the perceived urgency of the signals using a rating scale. The pilots also ranked the urgency of the alarms in a post-experiment questionnaire to reflect their assessment of the actual situation that triggers the alarms. The results of this investigation revealed that participants' ratings of perceived urgency appear to be based on the acoustic properties of the alarms which are known to affect the listener's perceived level of urgency. Although for 28% of the pilots the mapping of perceived urgency to the urgency of their perception of the triggering situation was statistically significant for three of the five alarms, the overall data suggest that the triggering situations are not adequately conveyed by the acoustic parameters inherent in the alarms. The pilots' judgement of the triggering situation was intended as a means of evaluating the reliability of the alerting system. These data will subsequently be discussed with respect to proposed enhancements in alerting systems as it relates to addressing the problem of phase of flight. These results call for more serious consideration of incorporating situational awareness in the design and assignment of auditory alarms in aircraft.

  13. Error compensation of IQ modulator using two-dimensional DFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohshima, Takashi, E-mail: ohshima@spring8.or.jp [RIKEN, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Maesaka, Hirokazu [RIKEN, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Matsubara, Shinichi [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Institute, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Otake, Yuji [RIKEN, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2016-06-01

    It is important to precisely set and keep the phase and amplitude of an rf signal in the accelerating cavity of modern accelerators, such as an X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) linac. In these accelerators an acceleration rf signal is generated or detected by an In-phase and Quadrature (IQ) modulator, or a demodulator. If there are any deviations of the phase and the amplitude from the ideal values, crosstalk between the phase and the amplitude of the output signal of the IQ modulator or the demodulator arises. This causes instability of the feedback controls that simultaneously stabilize both the rf phase and the amplitude. To compensate for such deviations, we developed a novel compensation method using a two-dimensional Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). Because the observed deviations of the phase and amplitude of an IQ modulator involve sinusoidal and polynomial behaviors on the phase angle and the amplitude of the rf vector, respectively, the DFT calculation with these basis functions makes a good approximation with a small number of compensation coefficients. Also, we can suppress high-frequency noise components arising when we measure the deviation data. These characteristics have advantages compared to a Look Up Table (LUT) compensation method. The LUT method usually demands many compensation elements, such as about 300, that are not easy to treat. We applied the DFT compensation method to the output rf signal of a C-band IQ modulator at SACLA, which is an XFEL facility in Japan. The amplitude deviation of the IQ modulator after the DFT compensation was reduced from 15.0% at the peak to less than 0.2% at the peak for an amplitude control range of from 0.1 V to 0.9 V (1.0 V full scale) and for a phase control range from 0 degree to 360 degrees. The number of compensation coefficients is 60, which is smaller than that of the LUT method, and is easy to treat and maintain.

  14. A qualitative study on non-verbal sensitivity in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2013-07-01

    To explore nursing students' perception of the meanings and roles of non-verbal communication and sensitivity. It also attempts to understand how different factors influence their non-verbal communication style. The importance of non-verbal communication in the health arena lies in the need for good communication for efficient healthcare delivery. Understanding nursing students' non-verbal communication with patients and the influential factors is essential to prepare them for field work in the future. Qualitative approach based on 16 in-depth interviews. Sixteen nursing students from the Master of Nursing and the Year 3 Bachelor of Nursing program were interviewed. Major points in the recorded interviews were marked down for content analysis. Three main themes were developed: (1) understanding students' non-verbal communication, which shows how nursing students value and experience non-verbal communication in the nursing context; (2) factors that influence the expression of non-verbal cues, which reveals the effect of patients' demographic background (gender, age, social status and educational level) and participants' characteristics (character, age, voice and appearance); and (3) metaphors of non-verbal communication, which is further divided into four subthemes: providing assistance, individualisation, dropping hints and promoting interaction. Learning about students' non-verbal communication experiences in the clinical setting allowed us to understand their use of non-verbal communication and sensitivity, as well as to understand areas that may need further improvement. The experiences and perceptions revealed by the nursing students could provoke nurses to reconsider the effects of the different factors suggested in this study. The results might also help students and nurses to learn and ponder their missing gap, leading them to rethink, train and pay more attention to their non-verbal communication style and sensitivity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Perception of Verbal and Nonverbal Emotional Signals in Women With Borderline Personality Disorder: Evidence of a Negative Bias and an Increased Reliance on Nonverbal Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brück, Carolin; Derstroff, Stephanie; Jacob, Heike; Wolf-Arehult, Martina; Wekenmann, Stefanie; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    Studies conducted in patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have documented a variety of anomalies concerning patients' abilities to interpret emotional signals. Attempting to clarify the bases of these anomalies, the current literature draws attention to a possible role of dysfunctional expectations, such as the expectation of social rejection. Dysfunctional expectations, however, may not only bias social interpretations, but may also focus attention on social cues most important in conveying emotional messages, such as nonverbal signals. To explore these assumptions, 30 female BPD patients were tasked to judge the valence of emotional states conveyed by combinations of verbal and nonverbal emotional cues. Compared to controls, BPD patients exhibited a negative bias in their interpretations and relied more on available nonverbal cues. Shifts in the relative importance of nonverbal cues appeared to be rooted mainly in a reduced reliance on positive verbal cues presumably deemed less credible by BPD patients.

  16. Time Parameters of Nonverbal Communication and Personal Communicative Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla K. Bolotova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive behavior in interpersonal relations is always connected with time characteristicssuch as sequence, rhythm, and succession of actions. In our research weattempted to determine the role of time parameters in the development of thefollowing social communications: (a interpersonal relations, (b communicativeacts, and (c the process of structuring social behavior. We intended to show therole of time in acquiring and mastering social contacts. In our research we outlineda number of methods for developing time competence and various consciousand unconscious ways to organize time and to create an atmosphere of understanding,acceptance, and trust in interpersonal nonverbal communication. Thetime characteristics of social behavior and its nonverbal manifestation can exert apositive influence on communicative activity and can determine time competencein communication. Ignoring time parameters in the self-realization and self-actualizationof personality introduces a certain destructive element into the processof interpersonal relations; hence the necessity of teaching competence in communicationarises. Teaching is carried out in the process of training and includesseveral stages: the introductory stage and the stages of intensification, integration,avoidance, and others. Thus, time management and the process of teachingtime management allow one to discover time resources for the self-organizationof one’s personality over a lifetime.

  17. Social influence on metacognitive evaluations: The power of nonverbal cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskenazi, Terry; Montalan, Benoît; Jacquot, Amélie; Proust, Joëlle; Grèzes, Julie; Conty, Laurence

    2016-11-01

    Metacognitive evaluations refer to the processes by which people assess their own cognitive operations with respect to their current goal. Little is known about whether this process is susceptible to social influence. Here we investigate whether nonverbal social signals spontaneously influence metacognitive evaluations. Participants performed a two-alternative forced-choice task, which was followed by a face randomly gazing towards or away from the response chosen by the participant. Participants then provided a metacognitive evaluation of their response by rating their confidence in their answer. In Experiment 1, the participants were told that the gaze direction was irrelevant to the task purpose and were advised to ignore it. The results revealed an effect of implicit social information on confidence ratings even though the gaze direction was random and therefore unreliable for task purposes. In addition, nonsocial cues (car) did not elicit this effect. In Experiment 2, the participants were led to believe that cue direction (face or car) reflected a previous participant's response to the same question-that is, the social information provided by the cue was made explicit, yet still objectively unreliable for the task. The results showed a similar social influence on confidence ratings, observed with both cues (car and face) but with an increased magnitude relative to Experiment 1. We additionally showed in Experiment 2 that social information impaired metacognitive accuracy. Together our results strongly suggest an involuntary susceptibility of metacognitive evaluations to nonverbal social information, even when it is implicit (Experiment 1) and unreliable (Experiments 1 and 2).

  18. EEG correlates of verbal and nonverbal working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danker Jared

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Distinct cognitive processes support verbal and nonverbal working memory, with verbal memory depending specifically on the subvocal rehearsal of items. Methods We recorded scalp EEG while subjects performed a Sternberg task. In each trial, subjects judged whether a probe item was one of the three items in a study list. Lists were composed of stimuli from one of five pools whose items either were verbally rehearsable (letters, words, pictures of common objects or resistant to verbal rehearsal (sinusoidal grating patterns, single dot locations. Results We found oscillatory correlates unique to verbal stimuli in the θ (4–8 Hz, α (9–12 Hz, β (14–28 Hz, and γ (30–50 Hz frequency bands. Verbal stimuli generally elicited greater power than did nonverbal stimuli. Enhanced verbal power was found bilaterally in the θ band, over frontal and occipital areas in the α and β bands, and centrally in the γ band. When we looked specifically for cases where oscillatory power in the time interval between item presentations was greater than oscillatory power during item presentation, we found enhanced β activity in the frontal and occipital regions. Conclusion These results implicate stimulus-induced oscillatory activity in verbal working memory and β activity in the process of subvocal rehearsal.

  19. Individual differences in nonverbal number skills predict math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindskog, Marcus; Winman, Anders; Poom, Leo

    2017-02-01

    Math anxiety (MA) involves negative affect and tension when solving mathematical problems, with potentially life-long consequences. MA has been hypothesized to be a consequence of negative learning experiences and cognitive predispositions. Recent research indicates genetic and neurophysiological links, suggesting that MA stems from a basic level deficiency in symbolic numerical processing. However, the contribution of evolutionary ancient purely nonverbal processes is not fully understood. Here we show that the roots of MA may go beyond symbolic numbers. We demonstrate that MA is correlated with precision of the Approximate Number System (ANS). Individuals high in MA have poorer ANS functioning than those low in MA. This correlation remains significant when controlling for other forms of anxiety and for cognitive variables. We show that MA mediates the documented correlation between ANS precision and math performance, both with ANS and with math performance as independent variable in the mediation model. In light of our results, we discuss the possibility that MA has deep roots, stemming from a non-verbal number processing deficiency. The findings provide new evidence advancing the theoretical understanding of the developmental etiology of MA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Nonverbal auditory working memory: Can music indicate the capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eunju; Ryu, Hokyoung

    2016-06-01

    Different working memory (WM) mechanisms that underlie words, tones, and timbres have been proposed in previous studies. In this regard, the present study developed a WM test with nonverbal sounds and compared it to the conventional verbal WM test. A total of twenty-five, non-music major, right-handed college students were presented with four different types of sounds (words, syllables, pitches, timbres) that varied from two to eight digits in length. Both accuracy and oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) were measured. The results showed significant effects of number of targets on accuracy and sound type on oxyHb. A further analysis showed prefrontal asymmetry with pitch being processed by the right hemisphere (RH) and timbre by the left hemisphere (LH). These findings suggest a potential for employing musical sounds (i.e., pitch and timbre) as a complementary stimuli for conventional nonverbal WM tests, which can additionally examine its asymmetrical roles in the prefrontal regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Nonverbal Phoneme Deletion Task Administered in a Dynamic Assessment Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillam, Sandra Laing; Fargo, Jamison; Foley, Beth; Olszewski, Abbie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the project was to design a nonverbal dynamic assessment of phoneme deletion that may prove useful with individuals who demonstrate complex communication needs (CCN) and are unable to communicate using natural speech or who present with moderate-severe speech impairments. Method: A nonverbal dynamic assessment of phoneme…

  2. The Impact of Discrepant Verbal-Nonverbal Messages in the Teacher-Student Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    Noting that teachers' nonverbal behaviors are frequently inconsistent with their verbal messages, a situation that detracts from student learning, this paper offers an activity for focusing prospective teachers' attentions on the frequency and impact of discrepant verbal-nonverbal messages occurring in the classroom. The step-by-step process is…

  3. Emotional expression in oral history narratives: comparing results of automated verbal and nonverbal analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Lamers, S.M.A.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Sools, A.

    Audiovisual collections of narratives about war-traumas are rich in descriptions of personal and emotional experiences which can be expressed through verbal and nonverbal means. We complement a commonly used verbal analysis with a nonverbal one to study emotional developments in narratives. Using

  4. Emotional expression in oral history narratives: comparing results of automated verbal and nonverbal analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M.G. de Jong (Franciska); K.P. Truong (Khiet); G.J. Westerhof (Gerben); S.M.A. Lamers (Sanne); A. Sools (Anneke)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAudiovisual collections of narratives about war-traumas are rich in descriptions of personal and emotional experiences which can be expressed through verbal and nonverbal means. We complement a commonly used verbal analysis with a nonverbal one to study emotional developments in

  5. Nonverbal Communication, Music Therapy, and Autism: A Review of Literature and Case Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a review of nonverbal literature relating to therapy, music, autism, and music therapy. Included is a case study of a woman with autism who was nonverbal. The case highlights and analyzes behaviors contextually. Interpretations of communication through the music therapy, musical interactions, and the rapport that developed…

  6. A Study of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication in Second Life--The ARCHI21 Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigham, Ciara R.; Chanier, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional synthetic worlds introduce possibilities for nonverbal communication in computer-mediated language learning. This paper presents an original methodological framework for the study of multimodal communication in such worlds. It offers a classification of verbal and nonverbal communication acts in the synthetic world "Second…

  7. The Complementary Effects of Empathy and Nonverbal Communication Training on Persuasion Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin T.; Leonhardt, James M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the possible complementary effects that training in empathy and nonverbal communication may have on persuasion capabilities. The narrative considers implications from the literature and describes an exploratory study in which students, in a managerial setting, were trained in empathy and nonverbal communication. Subsequent…

  8. The Five-Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire in the Czech context

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hřebíčková, Martina

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2010), s. 165-177 ISSN 0039-3320 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : Nonverbal personality measurement * five -factor model * The Five -Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire * FF-NPQ Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.254, year: 2010

  9. An MEG Investigation of Neural Biomarkers and Language in Nonverbal Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    1.Lord C, Risi S, Pickles A. Trajectory of language development in autistic spectrum disorders . In: Rice M, Warren S, eds. Developmental Language...Nonverbal Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kristina McFadden CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER An MEG Investigation of Neural Biomarkers and Language in Nonverbal Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders 5b

  10. Culture and Social Relationship as Factors of Affecting Communicative Non-Verbal Behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipi, Afia Akhter; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes...

  11. Development of the Nonverbal Communication Skills of School Administrators Scale (NCSSAS): Validity, Reliability and Implementation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Tevfik

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop a scale intended for identifying the school administrators' nonverbal communication skills, and establish the relationship between the nonverbal communication skills of school administrators and job performance of teachers. The study was conducted in three stages. The first stage involved the creation…

  12. Universals of Nonverbal Behavior: A Review of Literature and Statement of Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Patrick H.

    Universals in nonverbal behavior represent an important issue in the study of the cross-cultural communication. Perhaps the most well-known research in nonverbal universals was conducted by Paul Ekman, who examined literate and preliterate cultures from various language groups and identified six universal facial expressions: happiness, sadness,…

  13. Who Is Controlling the Interaction? The Effect of Nonverbal Mirroring on Teacher-Student Rapport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang-yuan, Zhou; Wei, Guo

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of nonverbal mirroring on teacher-student rapport in one-on-one interactions. Nonverbal mirroring refers to the unconscious mimicry of the postures, mannerisms, facial expressions, and other behaviors of one's interaction partner in social interactions. In a within-subjects paradigm, students had four…

  14. Nonverbal Synchrony in Psychotherapy: Coordinated Body Movement Reflects Relationship Quality and Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramseyer, Fabian; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors quantified nonverbal synchrony--the coordination of patient's and therapist's movement--in a random sample of same-sex psychotherapy dyads. The authors contrasted nonverbal synchrony in these dyads with a control condition and assessed its association with session-level and overall psychotherapy outcome. Method: Using an…

  15. Oncologists’ non-verbal behavior and analog patients’ recall of information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillen, M.A.; de Haes, H.C.J.M.; van Tienhoven, G.; van Laarhoven, H.W.M.; van Weert, J.C.M.; Vermeulen, D.M.; Smets, E.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Information in oncological consultations is often excessive. Those patients who better recall information are more satisfied, less anxious and more adherent. Optimal recall may be enhanced by the oncologist’s non-verbal communication. We tested the influence of three non-verbal behaviors,

  16. Oncologists' non-verbal behavior and analog patients' recall of information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillen, Marij A.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W. M.; van Weert, Julia C. M.; Vermeulen, Daniëlle M.; Smets, Ellen M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Information in oncological consultations is often excessive. Those patients who better recall information are more satisfied, less anxious and more adherent. Optimal recall may be enhanced by the oncologist's non-verbal communication. We tested the influence of three non-verbal behaviors,

  17. The Effect of Nonverbal Signals on Student Role-Play Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taute, Harry A.; Heiser, Robert S.; McArthur, David N.

    2011-01-01

    Although salespeople have long been urged to recognize and adapt to customer needs and wants by observing communications style and other cues or signals by the buyer, nonverbal communications by the salesperson have received much less empirical scrutiny. However, nonverbal communications may be important in this context; research in several…

  18. Nonverbal Communication and the First Amendment: The Rhetoric of the Streets Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiman, Franklyn S.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews court cases and current issues involving nonverbal communication and the First Amendment. Concludes that many modes of nonverbal expression have won a firm place under the umbrella of protection of the First Amendment but that some modes (flag and draft card burnings, economic boycotts, and coercive persuasion) still raise troublesome…

  19. Virtual Chironomia: A Multimodal Study of Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in a Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulsdonck, Gustav

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the various aspects of multimodal use of non-verbal communication in virtual worlds during dyadic negotiations. Quantitative analysis uncovered a treatment effect whereby people with more rhetorical certainty used more neutral non-verbal communication; whereas people that were rhetorically less certain used more…

  20. Preface (to: Analysis of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication and Enactment: The Procesing Issues)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esposito, Anna; Vinciarelli, Alessandro; Vicsi, Klára; Pelachaud, Catherine; Nijholt, Antinus

    2011-01-01

    This volume brings together the advanced research results obtained by the European COST Action 2102 “Cross Modal Analysis of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication,‿ primarily discussed at the PINK SSPnet-COST 2102 International Conference on “Analysis of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication and

  1. Cross-cultural features of gestures in non-verbal communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chebotariova N. A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available this article is devoted to analysis of the concept of non-verbal communication and ways of expressing it. Gesticulation is studied in detail as it is the main element of non-verbal communication and has different characteristics in various countries of the world.

  2. Spatial short-term memory in children with nonverbal learning disabilities: impairment in encoding spatial configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narimoto, Tadamasa; Matsuura, Naomi; Takezawa, Tomohiro; Mitsuhashi, Yoshinori; Hiratani, Michio

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated whether impaired spatial short-term memory exhibited by children with nonverbal learning disabilities is due to a problem in the encoding process. Children with or without nonverbal learning disabilities performed a simple spatial test that required them to remember 3, 5, or 7 spatial items presented simultaneously in random positions (i.e., spatial configuration) and to decide if a target item was changed or all items including the target were in the same position. The results showed that, even when the spatial positions in the encoding and probe phases were similar, the mean proportion correct of children with nonverbal learning disabilities was 0.58 while that of children without nonverbal learning disabilities was 0.84. The authors argue with the results that children with nonverbal learning disabilities have difficulty encoding relational information between spatial items, and that this difficulty is responsible for their impaired spatial short-term memory.

  3. Shared temporoparietal dysfunction in dyslexia and typical readers with discrepantly high IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Roeland; Gabrieli, John D E; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2016-12-01

    It is currently believed that reading disability (RD) should be defined by reading level without regard to broader aptitude (IQ). There is debate, however, about how to classify individuals who read in the typical range but less well than would be expected by their higher IQ. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 49 children to examine whether those with typical, but discrepantly low reading ability relative to IQ, show dyslexia-like activation patterns during reading. Children who were typical readers with high-IQ discrepancy showed reduced activation in left temporoparietal neocortex relative to two control groups of typical readers without IQ discrepancy. This pattern was consistent and spatially overlapping with results in children with RD compared to typically reading children. The results suggest a shared neurological atypicality in regions associated with phonological processing between children with dyslexia and children with typical reading ability that is substantially below their IQ.

  4. Intelligence is in the eye of the beholder: investigating repeated IQ measurements in forensic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habets, Petra; Jeandarme, Inge; Uzieblo, Kasia; Oei, Karel; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    A stable assessment of cognition is of paramount importance for forensic psychiatric patients (FPP). The purpose of this study was to compare repeated measures of IQ scores in FPPs with and without intellectual disability. Repeated measurements of IQ scores in FPPs (n = 176) were collected. Differences between tests were computed, and each IQ score was categorized. Additionally, t-tests and regression analyses were performed. Differences of 10 points or more were found in 66% of the cases comparing WAIS-III with RAVEN scores. Fisher's exact test revealed differences between two WAIS-III scores and the WAIS categories. The WAIS-III did not predict other IQs (WAIS or RAVEN) in participants with intellectual disability. This study showed that stability or interchangeability of scores is lacking, especially in individuals with intellectual disability. Caution in interpreting IQ scores is therefore recommended, and the use of the unitary concept of IQ should be discouraged. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A brain-computer interface for potential non-verbal facial communication based on EEG signals related to specific emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashihara, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Unlike assistive technology for verbal communication, the brain-machine or brain-computer interface (BMI/BCI) has not been established as a non-verbal communication tool for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. Face-to-face communication enables access to rich emotional information, but individuals suffering from neurological disorders, such as ALS and autism, may not express their emotions or communicate their negative feelings. Although emotions may be inferred by looking at facial expressions, emotional prediction for neutral faces necessitates advanced judgment. The process that underlies brain neuronal responses to neutral faces and causes emotional changes remains unknown. To address this problem, therefore, this study attempted to decode conditioned emotional reactions to neutral face stimuli. This direction was motivated by the assumption that if electroencephalogram (EEG) signals can be used to detect patients' emotional responses to specific inexpressive faces, the results could be incorporated into the design and development of BMI/BCI-based non-verbal communication tools. To these ends, this study investigated how a neutral face associated with a negative emotion modulates rapid central responses in face processing and then identified cortical activities. The conditioned neutral face-triggered event-related potentials that originated from the posterior temporal lobe statistically significantly changed during late face processing (600-700 ms) after stimulus, rather than in early face processing activities, such as P1 and N170 responses. Source localization revealed that the conditioned neutral faces increased activity in the right fusiform gyrus (FG). This study also developed an efficient method for detecting implicit negative emotional responses to specific faces by using EEG signals. A classification method based on a support vector machine enables the easy classification of neutral faces that trigger specific individual emotions. In

  6. The Importance of Nonverbal Aspects of Communication in Teaching and the Pre- and Inservice Teacher Education Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinzing, Hans Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    The ability to express and decode nonverbal cues is assumed to be an essential quality in communication and teaching. To validate, generalize and expand upon earlier research on the importance of nonverbal competencies in communication and teaching, i.e., the relationship of nonverbal competencies (e.g., expressiveness/"charisma" and…

  7. Differential brain development with low and high IQ in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick de Zeeuw

    Full Text Available Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and intelligence (IQ are both heritable phenotypes. Overlapping genetic effects have been suggested to influence both, with neuroimaging work suggesting similar overlap in terms of morphometric properties of the brain. Together, this evidence suggests that the brain changes characteristic of ADHD may vary as a function of IQ. This study investigated this hypothesis in a sample of 108 children with ADHD and 106 typically developing controls, who participated in a cross-sectional anatomical MRI study. A subgroup of 64 children also participated in a diffusion tensor imaging scan. Brain volumes, local cortical thickness and average cerebral white matter microstructure were analyzed in relation to diagnostic group and IQ. Dimensional analyses investigated possible group differences in the relationship between anatomical measures and IQ. Second, the groups were split into above and below median IQ subgroups to investigate possible differences in the trajectories of cortical development. Dimensionally, cerebral gray matter volume and cerebral white matter microstructure were positively associated with IQ for controls, but not for ADHD. In the analyses of the below and above median IQ subgroups, we found no differences from controls in cerebral gray matter volume in ADHD with below-median IQ, but a delay of cortical development in a number of regions, including prefrontal areas. Conversely, in ADHD with above-median IQ, there were significant reductions from controls in cerebral gray matter volume, but no local differences in the trajectories of cortical development.In conclusion, the basic relationship between IQ and neuroanatomy appears to be altered in ADHD. Our results suggest that there may be multiple brain phenotypes associated with ADHD, where ADHD combined with above median IQ is characterized by small, more global reductions in brain volume that are stable over development, whereas ADHD with

  8. Differential Brain Development with Low and High IQ in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zeeuw, Patrick; Schnack, Hugo G.; van Belle, Janna; Weusten, Juliette; van Dijk, Sarai; Langen, Marieke; Brouwer, Rachel M.; van Engeland, Herman; Durston, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and intelligence (IQ) are both heritable phenotypes. Overlapping genetic effects have been suggested to influence both, with neuroimaging work suggesting similar overlap in terms of morphometric properties of the brain. Together, this evidence suggests that the brain changes characteristic of ADHD may vary as a function of IQ. This study investigated this hypothesis in a sample of 108 children with ADHD and 106 typically developing controls, who participated in a cross-sectional anatomical MRI study. A subgroup of 64 children also participated in a diffusion tensor imaging scan. Brain volumes, local cortical thickness and average cerebral white matter microstructure were analyzed in relation to diagnostic group and IQ. Dimensional analyses investigated possible group differences in the relationship between anatomical measures and IQ. Second, the groups were split into above and below median IQ subgroups to investigate possible differences in the trajectories of cortical development. Dimensionally, cerebral gray matter volume and cerebral white matter microstructure were positively associated with IQ for controls, but not for ADHD. In the analyses of the below and above median IQ subgroups, we found no differences from controls in cerebral gray matter volume in ADHD with below-median IQ, but a delay of cortical development in a number of regions, including prefrontal areas. Conversely, in ADHD with above-median IQ, there were significant reductions from controls in cerebral gray matter volume, but no local differences in the trajectories of cortical development. In conclusion, the basic relationship between IQ and neuroanatomy appears to be altered in ADHD. Our results suggest that there may be multiple brain phenotypes associated with ADHD, where ADHD combined with above median IQ is characterized by small, more global reductions in brain volume that are stable over development, whereas ADHD with below median IQ is

  9. The Stability of IQ in People with Low Intellectual Ability: An Analysis of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Simon

    2008-01-01

    A meta-analysis of the stability of low IQ (IQ less than 80) was performed on IQ tests that have been commonly used--tests that were derived by D. Wechsler (1949, 1955, 1974, 1981, 1991, 1997) and those based on the Binet scales (L. M. Terman, 1960; L. M. Terman & Merrill, 1972). Weighted-mean stability coefficients of 0.77 and 0.78 were found…

  10. Understanding Statistics - Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual reports of U.S. cancer statistics including new cases, deaths, trends, survival, prevalence, lifetime risk, and progress toward Healthy People targets, plus statistical summaries for a number of common cancer types.

  11. Nitrite and hypochlorite treatments in determination of the contributions of IQ-type and non-IQ-type heterocyclic amines to the mutagenicities in crude pyrolyzed materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuda, M.; Negishi, C.; Makino, R.; Sato, S.; Yamaizumi, Z.; Hirayama, T.; Sugimura, T.

    1985-12-01

    The mutagenic heterocyclic amines Glu-P-2, MeA alpha C and Phe-P-1, which possess a 2-aminopyridine structure in their molecule (non-IQ-type mutagens), were found to be inactivated by nitrite treatment under acidic conditions, as observed previously with Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2, Glu-P-1 and A alpha C. In contrast, MeIQx, 4,8- and 7,8-DiMeIQx, which were originally isolated from fried beef or heated model mixtures of creatinine, amino acids and glucose, and which have a 2-aminoimidazole moiety in their molecules (IQ-type mutagens), were very resistant to nitrite treatment like IQ and MeIQ. Both types of mutagenic heterocyclic amines were completely inactivated by treatment with hypochlorite. This differential inactivation of mutagenic heterocyclic amines by nitrite and hypochlorite was used in determination of the contributions of IQ-type and non-IQ-type mutagens to the total mutagenicities of various pyrolyzed materials. The percentage contributions of IQ-type mutagens to the mutagenicities of broiled sardine, fried beef, broiled horse mackerel, cigarette smoke condensate and albumin tar were 88, 75, 48, 6 and 4, respectively.

  12. Reductions in Corpus Callosum Volume Partially Mediate Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on IQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevie C. Biffen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Disproportionate volume reductions in the basal ganglia, corpus callosum (CC and hippocampus have been reported in children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE. However, few studies have investigated these reductions in high prevalence communities, such as the Western Cape Province of South Africa, and only one study made use of manual tracing, the gold standard of volumetric analysis. The present study examined the effects of PAE on subcortical neuroanatomy using manual tracing and the relation of volumetric reductions in these regions to IQ and performance on the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C, a list learning task sensitive to PAE. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired, using a sequence optimized for morphometric neuroanatomical analysis, on a Siemens 3T Allegra MRI scanner from 71 right-handed, 9- to 11-year-old children [9 fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS, 19 partial FAS (PFAS, 24 non-syndromal heavily exposed (HE and 19 non-exposed controls]. Frequency of maternal drinking was ascertained prospectively during pregnancy using timeline follow-back interviews. PAE was examined in relation to volumes of the CC and left and right caudate nuclei, nucleus accumbens and hippocampi. All structures were manually traced using Multitracer. Higher levels of PAE were associated with reductions in CC volume after adjustment for TIV. Although the effect of PAE on CC was confounded with smoking and lead exposure, additional analyses showed that it was not accounted for by these exposures. Amongst dysmorphic children, smaller CC was associated with poorer IQ and CVLT-C scores and statistically mediated the effect of PAE on IQ. In addition, higher levels of PAE were associated with bilateral volume reductions in caudate nuclei and hippocampi, effects that remained significant after control for TIV, child sex and age, socioeconomic status, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and childhood lead exposure. These data confirm

  13. Meta-Analysis of Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitch, Amitai; Anholt, Gideon; Raveh-Gottfried, Sagi; Hamo, Naama; Abramowitz, Jonathan S

    2018-03-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with a moderate degree of underperformance on cognitive tests, including deficient processing speed. However, despite little research focusing on Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in OCD, it has long been speculated that the disorder is associated with elevated intellectual capacity. The present meta-analytic study was, therefore, conducted to quantitatively summarize the literature on IQ in OCD systematically. We identified 98 studies containing IQ data among individuals with OCD and non-psychiatric comparison groups, and computed 108 effect sizes for Verbal IQ (VIQ, n = 55), Performance IQ (PIQ, n = 13), and Full Scale IQ (FSIQ, n = 40). Across studies, small effect sizes were found for FSIQ and VIQ, and a moderate effect size for PIQ, exemplifying reduced IQ in OCD. However, mean IQ scores across OCD samples were in the normative range. Moderator analyses revealed no significant moderating effect across clinical and demographic indices. We conclude that, although lower than controls, OCD is associated with normative FSIQ and VIQ, and relatively lowered PIQ. These results are discussed in light of neuropsychological research in OCD, and particularly the putative impact of reduced processing speed in this population. Recommendations for utilization of IQ tests in OCD, and directions for future studies are offered.

  14. IQ Score of Children with Persistent or Perennial Allergic Rhinitis: A Comparison with Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Javad; Abbaskhanian, Ali; Jalili, Masumeh; Yazdani Charati, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of allergies is different around the world. Allergic rhinitis is a common chronic disease in children. Intelligence quotient (IQ) is an indicator of efficacy and many factors including chronic diseases may affect it. This study compares the IQs of children diagnosed with persistent or perennial allergic rhinitis with healthy children. This was a comparative study that was conducted from June 2011-May 2013 in an academic referral clinic. In this study, 90 patients aged 6- to 14-yearsold who were diagnosed with persistent or perennial allergic rhinitis and were compared to 90 age and gender match healthy patients from their respective families. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children was used to divide and calculate overall IQ, verbal IQ, and practical IQ. The t-test and chi square were used to analyze quantitative variables and qualitative variables, respectively. In this study, out of total 180 children, 90 (50%) in the case group and 90 children (50%), the control group participated for IQ comparison. One hundred (57%) were male and 80 (43%) were female. The overall IQ for allergic rhinitis patients and healthy patients was 109.2 and 107.5, respectively. This difference was not considered significant. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the IQ scores of males and females. Although allergic rhinitis is a chronic disease and effects quality of life, there were no identifiable negative effects on IQ.

  15. IQ variations across time, race, and nationality: an artifact of differences in literacy skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, David F

    2010-06-01

    A body of data on IQ collected over 50 years has revealed that average population IQ varies across time, race, and nationality. An explanation for these differences may be that intelligence test performance requires literacy skills not present in all people to the same extent. In eight analyses, population mean full scale IQ and literacy scores yielded correlations ranging from .79 to .99. In cohort studies, significantly larger improvements in IQ occurred in the lower half of the IQ distribution, affecting the distribution variance and skewness in the predicted manner. In addition, three Verbal subscales on the WAIS show the largest Flynn effect sizes and all four Verbal subscales are among those showing the highest racial IQ differences. This pattern of findings supports the hypothesis that both secular and racial differences in intelligence test scores have an environmental explanation: secular and racial differences in IQ are an artifact of variation in literacy skills. These findings suggest that racial IQ distributions will converge if opportunities are equalized for different population groups to achieve the same high level of literacy skills. Social justice requires more effective implementation of policies and programs designed to eliminate inequities in IQ and literacy.

  16. Widely Linear Equalization for IQ Imbalance and Skew Compensation in Optical Coherent Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porto da Silva, Edson; Zibar, Darko

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an alternative approach to design linear equalization algorithms for optical coherent receivers is introduced. Using widely linear complex analysis, a general analytical model it is shown, where In-phase/quadrature (IQ) imbalances and IQ skew at the coherent receiver front-end are ......In this paper, an alternative approach to design linear equalization algorithms for optical coherent receivers is introduced. Using widely linear complex analysis, a general analytical model it is shown, where In-phase/quadrature (IQ) imbalances and IQ skew at the coherent receiver front...

  17. Measuring social capital through multivariate analyses for the IQ-SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Ana Cristina Viana; Borges, Carolina Marques; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte; Gomes, Viviane Elisangela; Lucas, Simone Dutra; Ferreira e Ferreira, Efigênia

    2015-01-20

    Social capital can be viewed as a societal process that works toward the common good as well as toward the good of the collective based on trust, reciprocity, and solidarity. Our study aimed to present two multivariate statistical analyses to examine the formation of latent classes of social capital using the IQ-SC and to identify the most important factors in building an indicator of individual social capital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009 among working adolescents supported by a Brazilian NGO. The sample consisted of 363 individuals, and data were collected using the World Bank Questionnaire for measuring social capital. First, the participants were grouped by a segmentation analysis using the Two Step Cluster method based on the Euclidian distance and the centroid criteria as the criteria for aggregate answers. Using specific weights for each item, discriminant analysis was used to validate the cluster analysis in an attempt to maximize the variance among the groups with respect to the variance within the clusters. "Community participation" and "trust in one's neighbors" contributed significantly to the development of the model with two distinct discriminant functions (p < 0.001). The majority of cases (95.0%) and non-cases (93.1%) were correctly classified by discriminant analysis. The two multivariate analyses (segmentation analysis and canonical discriminant analysis), used together, can be considered good choices for measuring social capital. Our results indicate that it is possible to form three social capital groups (low, medium and high) using the IQ-SC.

  18. The Uncanny Valley and Nonverbal Communication in Virtual Characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinwell, Angela; Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Abdel Nabi, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of a current research project investigating the Uncanny Valley phenomenon in realistic, human-like virtual characters. !e research methods used in this Work include a retrospective of both empirical studies and philosophical writings on the Uncanny. No other...... research has explored the notion that realistic, human-like, virtual characters are regarded less favorably due to a perceived diminished degree of responsiveness in facial expression, specifically, nonverbal communication (NVC) in the upper face region. So far, this research project has provided the first...... empirical evidence to test the Uncanny Valley phenomenon in the domain of animated video game characters with speech, as opposed to just still, unresponsive images, as used in previous studies. Based on the results of these experiments, a conceptual framework of the Uncanny Valley in virtual characters has...

  19. Aphasic and amnesic patients' verbal vs. nonverbal retentive abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, L S; Tarlow, S

    1978-03-01

    Four different groups of patients (aphasics, alcoholic Korsakoffs, chronic alcoholics, and control patients) were asked to detect either repeated words presented orally, repeated words presented visually, repeated pictures or repeated shapes, during the presentation of a list of similarly constructed stimuli. It was discovered that on the verbal tasks, the number of words intervening between repetitions had more effect on the aphasics than on the other groups of patients. However, for the nonverbal picture repetition and shape repetition tasks, the aphasics' performance was normal, while the alcoholic Korsakoff patients were most affected by the number of intervening items. It was concluded that the aphasics' memory deficit demonstrated by the use of this paradigm was specific to the presentation of verbal material.

  20. Comparisons of memory for nonverbal auditory and visual sequential stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, D J; Cacace, A T

    1995-01-01

    Properties of auditory and visual sensory memory were compared by examining subjects' recognition performance of randomly generated binary auditory sequential frequency patterns and binary visual sequential color patterns within a forced-choice paradigm. Experiment 1 demonstrated serial-position effects in auditory and visual modalities consisting of both primacy and recency effects. Experiment 2 found that retention of auditory and visual information was remarkably similar when assessed across a 10s interval. Experiments 3 and 4, taken together, showed that the recency effect in sensory memory is affected more by the type of response required (recognition vs. reproduction) than by the sensory modality employed. These studies suggest that auditory and visual sensory memory stores for nonverbal stimuli share similar properties with respect to serial-position effects and persistence over time.

  1. [Snijders-Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test: useful for the elderly?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, M; Berg, I; Deelman, B

    2001-02-01

    The feasibility of the SON-R 5 1/2-17, a non-verbal intelligence test for deaf children, was investigated in a group of older adults, with a view to the future use of the test in older neurological patients. In a group of 58 healthy elderly persons intelligence was measured with the SON, the Raven Progressive Matrices and a Dutch reading test. The subjects were also asked for their subjective judgements of the tests. The SON-R 5 1/2-17 appears to be a user-friendly test. The high correlations between the subtests, and between the SON and other measures of intelligence suggest that the SON is a valid test for measuring fluid intelligence in elderly persons. The existing norms are not suitable when the SON is used in elderly people, new norms for adults should therefore be developed.

  2. The Nonverbal Communication of Positive Emotions: An Emotion Family Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Disa A

    2017-07-01

    This review provides an overview of the research on nonverbal expressions of positive emotions, organised into emotion families, that is, clusters sharing common characteristics. Epistemological positive emotions (amusement, relief, awe, and interest) are found to have distinct, recognisable displays via vocal or facial cues, while the agency-approach positive emotions (elation and pride) appear to be associated with recognisable visual, but not auditory, cues. Evidence is less strong for the prosocial emotions (love, compassion, gratitude, and admiration) in any modality other than touch, and there is little support for distinct recognisable signals of the savouring positive emotions (contentment, sensory pleasure, and desire). In closing, some limitations of extant work are noted and some proposals for future research are outlined.

  3. On the embedded cognition of non-verbal narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio; Baceviciute, Sarune

    2014-01-01

    Acknowledging that narratives are an important resource in human communication and cognition, the focus of this article is on the cognitive aspects of involvement with visual and auditory non-verbal narratives, particularly in relation to the newest immersive media and digital interactive...... representational technologies. We consider three relevant trends in narrative studies that have emerged in the 60 years of cognitive and digital revolution. The issue at hand could have implications for developmental psychology, pedagogics, cognitive science, cognitive psychology, ethology and evolutionary studies...... of language. In particular, it is of great importance for narratology in relation to interactive media and new representational technologies. Therefore we outline a research agenda for a bio-cognitive semiotic interdisciplinary investigation on how people understand, react to, and interact with narratives...

  4. Hearing loss is associated with decreased nonverbal intelligence in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Susan D; Schmitz, Jane; Pillion, Joseph; Wu, Lee; Khatry, Subarna K; Karna, Sureshwar L; LeClerq, Steven C; West, Keith P

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the association between adolescent and young-adult hearing loss and nonverbal intelligence in rural Nepal. Cross-sectional assessment of hearing loss among a population cohort of adolescents and young adults. Sarlahi District, southern Nepal. Seven hundred sixty-four individuals aged 14 to 23 years. Evaluation of hearing loss, defined by World Health Organization criteria of pure-tone average greater than 25 decibels (0.5, 1, 2, 4 kHz), unilaterally and bilaterally. Nonverbal intelligence, as measured by the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, 3rd Edition standardized score (mean, 100; standard deviation, 15). Nonverbal intelligence scores differed between participants with normal hearing and those with bilateral (p = 0.04) but not unilateral (p = 0.74) hearing loss. Demographic and socioeconomic factors including male sex; higher caste; literacy; education level; occupation reported as student; and ownership of a bicycle, watch, and latrine were strongly associated with higher nonverbal intelligence scores (all p intelligence score based on unilateral hearing loss (0.97; 95% confidence interval, -1.67 to 3.61; p = 0.47). Nonverbal intelligence is adversely affected by bilateral hearing loss even at mild hearing loss levels. Socio economic well-being appears compromised in individuals with lower nonverbal intelligence test scores.

  5. The role of non-verbal behaviour in racial disparities in health care: implications and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Cynthia S; Ambady, Nalini

    2013-09-01

    People from racial minority backgrounds report less trust in their doctors and have poorer health outcomes. Although these deficiencies have multiple roots, one important set of explanations involves racial bias, which may be non-conscious, on the part of providers, and minority patients' fears that they will be treated in a biased way. Here, we focus on one mechanism by which this bias may be communicated and reinforced: namely, non-verbal behaviour in the doctor-patient interaction. We review 2 lines of research on race and non-verbal behaviour: (i) the ways in which a patient's race can influence a doctor's non-verbal behaviour toward the patient, and (ii) the relative difficulty that doctors can have in accurately understanding the nonverbal communication of non-White patients. Further, we review research on the implications that both lines of work can have for the doctor-patient relationship and the patient's health. The research we review suggests that White doctors interacting with minority group patients are likely to behave and respond in ways that are associated with worse health outcomes. As doctors' disengaged non-verbal behaviour towards minority group patients and lower ability to read minority group patients' non-verbal behaviours may contribute to racial disparities in patients' satisfaction and health outcomes, solutions that target non-verbal behaviour may be effective. A number of strategies for such targeting are discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effects of Emotional Intelligence on the Impression of Irony Created by the Mismatch between Verbal and Nonverbal Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Heike; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Nizielski, Sophia; Schütz, Astrid; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Emotional information is conveyed through verbal and nonverbal signals, with nonverbal cues often being considered the decisive factor in the judgment of others' emotional states. The aim of the present study was to examine how verbal and nonverbal cues are integrated by perceivers. More specifically, we tested whether the mismatch between verbal and nonverbal information was perceived as an expression of irony. Moreover, we investigated the effects of emotional intelligence on the impression of irony. The findings revealed that the mismatch between verbal and nonverbal information created the impression of irony. Furthermore, participants higher in emotional intelligence were faster at rating such stimuli as ironic expressions.

  7. Effects of Emotional Intelligence on the Impression of Irony Created by the Mismatch between Verbal and Nonverbal Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Heike; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Nizielski, Sophia; Schütz, Astrid; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Emotional information is conveyed through verbal and nonverbal signals, with nonverbal cues often being considered the decisive factor in the judgment of others’ emotional states. The aim of the present study was to examine how verbal and nonverbal cues are integrated by perceivers. More specifically, we tested whether the mismatch between verbal and nonverbal information was perceived as an expression of irony. Moreover, we investigated the effects of emotional intelligence on the impression of irony. The findings revealed that the mismatch between verbal and nonverbal information created the impression of irony. Furthermore, participants higher in emotional intelligence were faster at rating such stimuli as ironic expressions. PMID:27716831

  8. Callosotomy affects performance IQ: A meta-analysis of individual participant data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhausen, René; Karud, Celine M R

    2018-02-05

    Morphometric neuroimaging studies on healthy adult individuals regularly report a positive association between intelligence test performance (IQ) and structural properties of the corpus callosum (CC). At the same time, studies examining the effect of callosotomy on epilepsy patients report only negligible changes in IQ as result of the surgery, partially contradicting the findings of the morphometry studies. Objective of the present meta-analysis of individual participant data (IPD) of 87 cases from 16 reports was to re-investigate the effect of callosotomy on full scale IQ as well as on the verbal and performance subscale under special consideration of two possible moderating factors: pre-surgical IQ levels and the extent of the surgery (complete vs. anterior transsection). The main finding was that callosotomy selectively affects performance IQ, whereby the effect is modulated by the pre-surgical level of performance. Patients with an above-median pre-surgery performance IQ level show a significant average decrease of -5.44 (CI 95% : - 8.33 to - 2.56) IQ points following the surgery, while the below-median group does not reveal a significant change in IQ (mean change: 1.01 IQ points; CI 95% : -1.83 to 3.86). Thus, the present analyses support the notion that callosotomy has a negative effect on the patients' performance IQ, but only in those patients, who at least have an average performance levels before the surgery. This observation also lends support to the findings of previous morphometry studies, indicating that the frequently observed CC-IQ correlation might indeed reflect a functional contribution of callosal interhemispheric connectivity to intelligence-test performance. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of Novel Calmodulin Binding Domains within IQ Motifs of IQGAP1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Deok-Jin; Ban, Byungkwan; Lee, Jin-A

    2011-01-01

    IQ motif-containing GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1), which is a well-known calmodulin (CaM) binding protein, is involved in a wide range of cellular processes including cell proliferation, tumorigenesis, adhesion, and migration. Interaction of IQGAP1 with CaM is important for its cellular functions. Although each IQ domain of IQGAP1 for CaM binding has been characterized in a Ca2+-dependent or -independent manner, it was not clear which IQ motifs are physiologically relevant for CaM binding in the cells. In this study, we performed immunoprecipitation using 3xFLAGhCaM in mammalian cell lines to characterize the domains of IQGAP1 that are key for CaM binding under physiological conditions. Interestingly, using this method, we identified two novel domains, IQ(2.7-3) and IQ(3.5-4.4), within IQGAP1 that were involved in Ca2+-independent or -dependent CaM binding, respectively. Mutant analysis clearly showed that the hydrophobic regions within IQ(2.7-3) were mainly involved in apoCaM binding, while the basic amino acids and hydrophobic region of IQ(3.5-4.4) were required for Ca2+/CaM binding. Finally, we showed that IQ(2.7-3) was the main apoCaM binding domain and both IQ(2.7-3) and IQ(3.5-4.4) were required for Ca2+/CaM binding within IQ(1- 2-3-4). Thus, we identified and characterized novel direct CaM binding motifs essential for IQGAP1. This finding indicates that IQGAP1 plays a dynamic role via direct interactions with CaM in a Ca2+-dependent or -independent manner. PMID:22080369

  10. A Parameter-based Model for Generating Culturally Adaptive Nonverbal Behaviors in Embodied Conversational Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipi, Afia Akhter; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to integrate culture as a computational term in embodied conversational agents by employing an empirical data-driven approach as well as a theoretical model-driven approach. We propose a parameter-based model that predicts nonverbal expressions appropriate for specific...... cultures. First, we introduce the Hofstede theory to describe socio-cultural characteristics of each country. Then, based on the previous studies in cultural differences of nonverbal behaviors, we propose expressive parameters to characterize nonverbal behaviors. Finally, by integrating socio-cultural...

  11. A population-based longitudinal study of suicide risk in male schizophrenia patients: Proximity to hospital discharge and the moderating effect of premorbid IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Mark; Kapra, Ori; Werbeloff, Nomi; Goldberg, Shira; Fenchel, Daphna; Reichenberg, Abraham; Yoffe, Rinat; Ginat, Keren; Fruchter, Eyal; Davidson, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Suicide is a major cause of death in schizophrenia. Identifying factors which increase the risk of suicide among schizophrenia patients might help focus prevention efforts. This study examined risk of suicide in male schizophrenia patients using population-based data, examining the timing of suicide in relation to the last hospital discharge, and the effect of premorbid IQ on risk of suicide. Data on 930,000 male adolescents from the Israeli military draft board were linked with data from the Israeli Psychiatric Hospitalization Case Registry and vital statistics from the Israeli Ministry of Health. The relationship between premorbid IQ and risk for suicide was examined among 2881 males hospitalized with schizophrenia and compared to a control group of 566,726 males from the same cohort, who were not hospitalized for a psychiatric disorder, using survival analysis methods. Over a mean follow-up period of 9.9 years (SD=5.8, range: 0-22 years), 77/3806 males with schizophrenia died by suicide (a suicide rate of 204.4 per 100,000 person-years). Approximately 48% of the suicides occurred within a year of discharge from the last hospital admission for schizophrenia. Risk of suicide was higher in male schizophrenia patients with high premorbid IQ (HR=4.45, 95% CI=1.37-14.43) compared to those with normal premorbid IQ. These data indicate that male schizophrenia patients with high premorbid IQ are at particularly high risk of suicide, and the time of peak risk is during the first year after the last hospitalization discharge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 78 FR 79519 - IndexIQ ETF Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... ETF Trust, et al.; Notice of Application December 23, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission... instruments. Applicants: IndexIQ ETF Trust, IndexIQ Active ETF Trust (each, a ``Trust,'' and collectively, the..., to operate as exchange-traded funds (collectively, ``ETFs'' and each, an ``ETF''). In addition...

  13. IQs Are Very Strong but Imperfect Indicators of Psychometric "g": Results from Joint Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Ryan L.; Floyd, Randy G.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Kranzler, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The most global score yielded by intelligence tests, IQs, are supported by substantial validity evidence and have historically been central to the identification of intellectual disabilities, learning disabilities, and giftedness. This study examined the extent to which IQs measure the ability they target, psychometric "g." Data from…

  14. Value Innovation in Hospital: Increase Organizational IQ by Managing Intellectual Capitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Mahtab; Torabi, Mashallah

    2015-02-01

    Hospital is a complex organization rich in intellectual capitals. Effective management of these assets in line with innovating value to reach strategic goals and objectives can lead to increasing organizational IQ. In hospital with high organizational IQ, Increasing syntropy in intellectual capitals can convert it to an agile, learner, innovative, and smart organization.

  15. Association of IQ Changes and Progressive Brain Changes in Patients With Schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kubota, Manabu; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Haijma, Sander V.; Schnack, Hugo G.; Cahn, Wiepke; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Kahn, Rene S.

    IMPORTANCE Although schizophrenia is characterized by impairments in intelligence and the loss of brain volume, the relationship between changes in IQ and brain measures is not clear. OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between IQ and brain measures in patients with schizophrenia across time.

  16. IQ at Age Four in Relation to Maternal Alcohol Use and Smoking during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streissguth, Ann Pytkowicz; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Multiple regression analyses on data from 421 children indicated that mother's use of more than 1.5 ounces (approximately three drinks) of alcohol per day during pregnancy was significantly related to average IQ decrement at four years of age of almost five IQ points even after adjustment for numerous variables. Readers cautioned against using…

  17. Are We Getting Smarter? Rising IQ in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The "Flynn effect" is a surprising finding, identified by James R. Flynn, that IQ test scores have significantly increased from one generation to the next over the past century. Flynn now brings us an exciting new book which aims to make sense of this rise in IQ scores and considers what this tells us about our intelligence, our minds…

  18. A possible correlation between performance IQ, visuomotor adaptation ability and mu suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Muhammad Nabeel; Navid, Muhammad Samran; Khan, Mushtaq; Kitajo, Keiichi

    2015-04-07

    Psychometric, anatomical and functional brain studies suggest that individuals differ in the way that they perceive and analyze information and strategically control and execute movements. Inter-individual differences are also observed in neural correlates of specific and general cognitive ability. As a result, some individuals perceive and adapt to environmental conditions and perform motor activities better than others. The aim of this study was to identify a common factor that predicts adaptation of a reaching movement to a visual perturbation and suppression of movement-related brain activity (mu rhythms). Twenty-eight participants participated in two different experiments designed to evaluate visuomotor adaptation and mu suppression ability. Performance intelligence quotient (IQ) was assessed using the revised Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Performance IQ predicted adaptation index of visuomotor performance (r=0.43, p=0.02) and suppression of mu rhythms (r=-0.59; pIQ were faster at adapting to a visuomotor perturbation and better at suppressing mu activity than participants with low performance IQ. We found a possible link between performance IQ and mu suppression, and performance IQ and the initial rate of adaptation. Individuals with high performance IQ were better in suppressing mu rhythms and were quicker at associating motor command and required movement than individuals with low performance IQ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effect of Age-Correction on IQ Scores among School-Aged Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rachel M.; George, Wing Man; Cole, Carolyn; Marshall, Peter; Ellison, Vanessa; Fabel, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of age-correction on IQ scores among preterm school-aged children. Data from the Flinders Medical Centre Neonatal Unit Follow-up Program for 81 children aged five years and assessed with the WPPSI-III, and 177 children aged eight years and assessed with the WISC-IV, were analysed. Corrected IQ scores were…

  20. Do Attention Deficits Influence IQ Assessment in Children and Adolescents with ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Jens Richardt M.; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the relationship between IQ and attention deficits in children with ADHD and to estimate the inattention-related mean influence on IQ when children are tested before stimulant drug treatment has been initiated. Method: Studies of various methodologies are reviewed. Results: Correlation studies show mostly weak…

  1. Small Family, Smart Family? Family Size and the IQ Scores of Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses Norwegian data to estimate the effect of family size on IQ scores of men. Instrumental variables (IV) estimates using sex composition as an instrument show no significant negative effect of family size; however, IV estimates using twins imply that family size has a negative effect on IQ scores. Our results suggest that the effect…

  2. Value Innovation in Hospital: Increase Organizational IQ by Managing Intellectual Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Mahtab; Torabi, Mashallah

    2015-01-01

    Hospital is a complex organization rich in intellectual capitals. Effective management of these assets in line with innovating value to reach strategic goals and objectives can lead to increasing organizational IQ. In hospital with high organizational IQ, Increasing syntropy in intellectual capitals can convert it to an agile, learner, innovative, and smart organization. PMID:25870494

  3. Evolution, brain size, and the national IQ of peoples around 3000 years B.C.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Borsboom, D.; Dolan, C.V.

    2010-01-01

    In this rejoinder, we respond to comments by Lynn, Rushton, and Templer on our previous paper in which we criticized the use of national IQs in studies of evolutionary theories of race differences in intelligence. We reiterate that because of the Flynn Effect and psychometric issues, national IQs

  4. A Systematic Literature Review of the Average IQ of Sub-Saharan Africans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicherts, Jelte M.; Dolan, Conor V.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of several reviews of the literature, Lynn [Lynn, R., (2006). Race differences in intelligence: An evolutionary analysis. Augusta, GA: Washington Summit Publishers.] and Lynn and Vanhanen [Lynn, R., & Vanhanen, T., (2006). IQ and global inequality. Augusta, GA: Washington Summit Publishers.] concluded that the average IQ of the…

  5. Widely Linear Blind Adaptive Equalization for Transmitter IQ-Imbalance/Skew Compensation in Multicarrier Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porto da Silva, Edson; Zibar, Darko

    2016-01-01

    Simple analytical widely linear complex-valued models for IQ-imbalance and IQ-skew effects in multicarrier transmitters are presented. To compensate for such effects, a 4×4 MIMO widely linear adaptive equalizer is proposed and experimentally validated....

  6. Older and Wiser? Birth Order and IQ of Young Men. NBER Working Paper No. 13237

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2007-01-01

    While recent research finds strong evidence that birth order affects children's outcomes such as education and earnings, the evidence on the effects of birth order on IQ is decidedly mixed. This paper uses a large dataset on the population of Norway that allows us to precisely measure birth order effects on IQ using both cross-sectional and…

  7. Intelligence Is in the Eye of the Beholder: Investigating Repeated IQ Measurements in Forensic Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habets, Petra; Jeandarme, Inge; Uzieblo, Kasia; Oei, Karel; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background: A stable assessment of cognition is of paramount importance for forensic psychiatric patients (FPP). The purpose of this study was to compare repeated measures of IQ scores in FPPs with and without intellectual disability. Methods: Repeated measurements of IQ scores in FPPs (n = 176) were collected. Differences between tests were…

  8. Parents' Reactions to Finding Out That Their Children Have Average or above Average IQ Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Jean; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Parents of 41 children who had been given an individually-administered intelligence test were contacted 19 months after testing. Parents of average IQ children were less accurate in their memory of test results. Children with above average IQ experienced extremely low frequencies of sibling rivalry, conceit or pressure. (Author/HLM)

  9. Conduct Problems, IQ, and Household Chaos: A Longitudinal Multi-Informant Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Mullineaux, Paula Y.; Beekman, Charles; Petrill, Stephen A.; Schatschneider, Chris; Thompson, Lee A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: We tested the hypothesis that household chaos would be associated with lower child IQ and more child conduct problems concurrently and longitudinally over two years while controlling for housing conditions, parent education/IQ, literacy environment, parental warmth/negativity, and stressful events. Methods: The sample included 302…

  10. Evidence for Latent Classes of IQ in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Jeffrey; Dawson, Geraldine; Sterling, Lindsey; Beauchaine, Theodore; Zhou, Andrew; Koehler, Elizabeth; Lord, Catherine; Rogers, Sally; Sigman, Marian; Estes, Annette; Abbott, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Autism is currently viewed as a spectrum condition that includes strikingly different severity levels; IQ is consistently described as one of the primary aspects of the heterogeneity in autism. To investigate the possibility of more than one distinct subtype of autism based on IQ, both latent class analysis and taxometrics methods were used to…

  11. Why do IQ Scores Predict Job Performance? An Alternative, Sociological Explanation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.K. Byington (Eliza); W.A. Felps (William)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT During the past century, IQ testing has become a pervasive tool for allocating scarce resources in the United States and beyond. IQ-reflective tests are used in primary and secondary schools to sort students into groups, and by universities and employers to select between

  12. The Mean Southern Italian Children IQ Is Not Particularly Low: A Reply to R. Lynn (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornoldi, Cesare; Belacchi, Carmen; Giofre, David; Martini, Angela; Tressoldi, Patrizio

    2010-01-01

    Working with data from the PISA study (OECD, 2007), Lynn (2010) has argued that individuals from South Italy average an IQ approximately 10 points lower than individuals from North Italy, and has gone on to put forward a series of conclusions on the relationship between average IQ, latitude, average stature, income, etc. The present paper…

  13. The secular rise in IQs in the Netherlands: Is the Flynn Effect on g?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Nijenhuis, J.; van der Flier, H.

    2007-01-01

    IQ scores have been increasing over the last half century, a phenomenon known as the Flynn effect. In this study, we focused on the question to what extent these secular gains are on the g factor. Two IQ batteries: the Interest-School achievement-Intelligence Test (ISI) and the Groningen Final

  14. The identical-twin transfusion syndrome: a source of error in estimating IQ resemblance and heritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsinger, H

    1977-01-01

    Published studies show that among identical twins, lower birthweight is associated with lower adult intelligence. However, no such relation between birthweight and adult IQ exists among fraternal twins. A likely explanation for the association between birthweight and intelligence among identical twins is the identical twin transfusion syndrome which occurs only between some monochorionic identical twin pairs. The IQ scores from separated identical twins were reanalysed to explore the consequences of identical twin transfusion syndrome for IQ resemblance and heritability. Among 129 published cases of identical twin pairs reared apart, 76 pairs contained some birthweight information. The 76 pairs were separated into three classes: 23 pairs in which there was clear evidence of a substantial birthweight differences (indicating the probable existence of the identical twin transfusion syndrome), 27 pairs in which the information on birthweight was ambiguous (?), and 26 pairs in which there was clear evidence that the twins were similar in birthweight. The reanalyses showed: (1) birthweight differences are positively associated with IQ differences in the total sample of separated identical twins; (2) within the group of 23 twin pairs who showed large birthweight differences, there was a positive relation between birthweight differences and IQ differences; (3) when heritability of IQ is estimated for those twins who do not suffer large birthweight differences, the resemblance (and thus, h2/b) of the separated identical twins' IG is 0-95. Given that the average reliability of the individual IQ test is around 0-95, these data suggest that genetic factors and errors of measurement cause the individual differences in IQ among human beings. Because of the identical twin transfusion syndrome, previous studies of MZ twins have underestimated the effect of genetic factors on IQ. An analysis of the IQs for heavier and lighter birthweight twins suggests that the main effect of the

  15. IQ-SPECT for thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging: effect of normal databases on quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Takahiro; Nakajima, Kenichi; Okuda, Koichi; Yoneyama, Hiroto; Matsuo, Shinro; Shibutani, Takayuki; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Kinuya, Seigo

    2017-07-01

    Although IQ-single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provides rapid acquisition and attenuation-corrected images, the unique technology may create characteristic distribution different from the conventional imaging. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of IQ-SPECT using Japanese normal databases (NDBs) with that of the conventional SPECT for thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). A total of 36 patients underwent 1-day 201 Tl adenosine stress-rest MPI. Images were acquired with IQ-SPECT at approximately one-quarter of the standard time of conventional SPECT. Projection data acquired with the IQ-SPECT system were reconstructed via an ordered subset conjugate gradient minimizer method with or without scatter and attenuation correction (SCAC). Projection data obtained using the conventional SPECT were reconstructed via a filtered back projection method without SCAC. The summed stress score (SSS) was calculated using NDBs created by the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine working group, and scores were compared between IQ-SPECT and conventional SPECT using the acquisition condition-matched NDBs. The diagnostic performance of the methods for the detection of coronary artery disease was also compared. SSSs were 6.6 ± 8.2 for the conventional SPECT, 6.6 ± 9.4 for IQ-SPECT without SCAC, and 6.5 ± 9.7 for IQ-SPECT with SCAC (p = n.s. for each comparison). The SSS showed a strong positive correlation between conventional SPECT and IQ-SPECT (r = 0.921 and p IQ-SPECT with and without SCAC was also good (r = 0.907 and p IQ-SPECT without SCAC; and 88.5, 86.8, and 87.3%, respectively, for IQ-SPECT with SCAC, respectively. The area under the curve obtained via receiver operating characteristic analysis were 0.77, 0.80, and 0.86 for conventional SPECT, IQ-SPECT without SCAC, and IQ-SPECT with SCAC, respectively (p = n.s. for each comparison). When appropriate NDBs were used, the diagnostic performance of 201 Tl IQ

  16. IQ subgroups in relation to neurocognitive profiles, psychopathology and brain volume in first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Høj; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Rostrup, Egill

    . low) using the healthy controls as reference. The IQ subgroups were compared using psychopathology ratings (Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale), neuropsychological assessments (Brief Assessment of Cognition in schizophrenia and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery) and a combined 3T......Background and Aim: Approximately half of patients with schizophrenia experience a deterioration in IQ before or around illness onset and recent studies have found apositive association between IQ and brain volume in first episode schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine the combined...... impact of estimated IQ trajectory and IQ level at illness onset on psychopathology, neurocognitive profiles and brain volume. Materials and methods: The design is a cross-sectional, case-control study of 60 first-episode antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients and 60 matched healthy controls...

  17. The relationship between IQ and performance on the MATRICS consensus cognitive battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Mohn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The associations between IQ and individual tests of neurocognitive function are well studied. However, there is a lack of information as to how IQ relates to performance on neuropsychological test batteries as a whole and in the same individuals. In this study, 250 healthy participants aged 20-69 years were tested with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI and the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB. In correlation analyses, IQ was significantly related to all MCCB scores, except the Social Cognition domain. Hierarchical regression analyses including gender, age, and education confirmed this association. For overall cognitive function, 50% of the variance was explained by IQ and demographic characteristics. For the domains Speed of Processing, Working Memory, Visual and Verbal Learning, IQ explained a larger proportion of the variance than the demographic factors did. The implication is that these domains may provide information of a person’s intelligence level.

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF IQ ON THEORY OF MIND SKILLS IN A GROUP OF SCHIZOPHRENICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz López Herrero

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia sufferers may have Theory of Mind (ToM deficits. These deficits are not as severe as those shown by people with other disorders such as autism, because schizophrenic patients can solve simple ToM tests using their Intelligence Quotient (IQ and general problemsolving skills. Our aim was to study ToM by asking a group of schizophrenics to perform a mental verbs task. We then identified the categories into which the mental verbs were grouped and their use profile, and assessed the influence of intelligence quotient. We observed that those with a higher IQ had lower ToM deficits. Subjects with average IQs grouped the mental activities quite well and those with low IQ performed the task poorly as a result of the combined effects of schizophrenia processes and low IQ.

  19. Confiabilidad de la Prueba de Habilidad Intelectual DAP:IQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Honores Mendoza

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of the scores of Draw-A-Person Intellectual Ability Test for Children, Adolescents and Adults, DAP: IQ is examined with a sample of 155 children aged 6 to 11 years. Alpha coefficients were obtained from 0.63 to 0.74, the average alpha for the total sample was 0.68; It also was the difference in alpha coefficients confirmed that the low reliability of all our data with regard to the normative study. The agreement interscorer was 0.91. The results were not consistent with those reported by the authors of the test. We suggest a cautious use of this instrument for the assessment of groups with similar characteristics.

  20. Absolute dimensions and masses of eclipsing binaries. V. IQ Persei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, C.H.; Frueh, M.L.; McDonald Observatory, Austin)

    1985-01-01

    New photometric and spectroscopic observations of the 1.7 day eclipsing binary IQ Persei (B8 + A6) have been analyzed to yield very accurate fundamental properties of the system. Reticon spectroscopic observations obtained at McDonald Observatory were used to determine accurate radial velocities of both stars in this slightly eccentric large light-ratio binary. A new set of VR light curves obtained at McDonald Observatory were analyzed by synthesis techniques, and previously published UBV light curves were reanalyzed to yield accurate photometric orbits. Orbital parameters derived from both sets of photometric observations are in excellent agreement. The absolute dimensions, masses, luminosities, and apsidal motion period (140 yr) derived from these observations agree well with the predictions of theoretical stellar evolution models. The A6 secondary is still very close to the zero-age main sequence. The B8 primary is about one-third of the way through its main-sequence evolution. 27 references

  1. Surveying the Effectiveness of the Drama Therapy on Increasing of Motor Skills and the Hearing Memory of the Persons with Mentally Disabeled with an I.Q 55-70

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Fakhri; Hakimeh Aghaei; Hamdollah Khajeh-Hosseini

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Survey on the effectiveness of drama therapy on increasing of motor skills and hearing skills of Male intellectual disabled with an I.Q between 55-70 in the Age Range of 10-15 years. Materials & Methods: The statistical community consisted of intellectual disabled students wich are the coverage exceptional training within an education organization in Tehran in school year of 2004-5 with an IQ between 55-70 in the age range of 10-15. Research sample that were selected randomly c...

  2. Phenomenology of non-verbal communication as a representation of sports activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liubov Karpets

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The priority of language professional activity in sports is such non-verbal communication as body language. Purpose: to delete the main aspects of non-verbal communication as a representation of sports activities. Material & Methods: in the study participated members of sports teams, individual athletes, in particular, for such sports: basketball, handball, volleyball, football, hockey, bodybuilding. Results: in the process of research it was revealed that in sports activities such nonverbal communication as gestures, facial expressions, physique, etc., are lapped, and, as a consequence, the position "everything is language" (Lyotard is embodied. Conclusions: non-verbal communication is one of the most significant forms of communication in sports. Additional means of communication through the "language" of the body help the athletes to realize themselves and self-determination.

  3. Audience perceptions of candidates' appropriateness as a function of nonverbal behaviors displayed during televised political debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiter, John S; Weger, Harry

    2005-04-01

    Compared to televised debates using a single-screen format, such debates using a split screen presenting both debaters simultaneously show viewers the nonverbal reactions of each debater's opponent. The authors examined how appropriate or inappropriate such nonverbal behaviors are perceived to be. Students watched one of four versions of a televised debate. One version used a single-screen format, showing only the speaker, whereas the other three versions used a split-screen format in which the speaker's oppodent displayed constant, occasional, or no nonverbal disagreement with the speaker. Students then rated the debaters' appropriateness. Analysis indicated that the opponent was perceived to be less appropriate when he displayed any background disagreement compared to when he did not. The students perceived the speaker as most appropriate when his opponent displayed constant nonverbal disagreement.

  4. Parents and Physiotherapists Recognition of Non-Verbal Communication of Pain in Individuals with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, Inmaculada; Pades Jiménez, Antonia; Montoya, Pedro

    2017-08-29

    Pain assessment is difficult in individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). This is of particular relevance in children with communication difficulties, when non-verbal pain behaviors could be essential for appropriate pain recognition. Parents are considered good proxies in the recognition of pain in their children; however, health professionals also need a good understanding of their patients' pain experience. This study aims at analyzing the agreement between parents' and physiotherapists' assessments of verbal and non-verbal pain behaviors in individuals with CP. A written survey about pain characteristics and non-verbal pain expression of 96 persons with CP (45 classified as communicative, and 51 as non-communicative individuals) was performed. Parents and physiotherapists displayed a high agreement in their estimations of the presence of chronic pain, healthcare seeking, pain intensity and pain interference, as well as in non-verbal pain behaviors. Physiotherapists and parents can recognize pain behaviors in individuals with CP regardless of communication disabilities.

  5. Culture and Social Relationship as Factors of Affecting Communicative Non-verbal Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter Lipi, Afia; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Mathias

    The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes of agent's nonverbal behaviors in HAI. As the first step, a comparative corpus analysis is done for two cultures in two specific social relationships. Next, by integrating the cultural and social parameters factors with the empirical data from corpus analysis, we establish a model that predicts posture. The predictions from our model successfully demonstrate that both cultural background and social relationship moderate communicative non-verbal behaviors.

  6. Non-verbal communication of compassion: measuring psychophysiologic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Kathi J; Shaltout, Hossam A

    2011-12-20

    Calm, compassionate clinicians comfort others. To evaluate the direct psychophysiologic benefits of non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC), it is important to minimize the effect of subjects' expectation. This preliminary study was designed to a) test the feasibility of two strategies for maintaining subject blinding to non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC), and b) determine whether blinded subjects would experience psychophysiologic effects from NVCC. Subjects were healthy volunteers who were told the study was evaluating the effect of time and touch on the autonomic nervous system. The practitioner had more than 10 years' experience with loving-kindness meditation (LKM), a form of NVCC. Subjects completed 10-point visual analog scales (VAS) for stress, relaxation, and peacefulness before and after LKM. To assess physiologic effects, practitioners and subjects wore cardiorespiratory monitors to assess respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) throughout the 4 10-minute study periods: Baseline (both practitioner and subjects read neutral material); non-tactile-LKM (subjects read while the practitioner practiced LKM while pretending to read); tactile-LKM (subjects rested while the practitioner practiced LKM while lightly touching the subject on arms, shoulders, hands, feet, and legs); Post-Intervention Rest (subjects rested; the practitioner read). To assess blinding, subjects were asked after the interventions what the practitioner was doing during each period (reading, touch, or something else). Subjects' mean age was 43.6 years; all were women. Blinding was maintained and the practitioner was able to maintain meditation for both tactile and non-tactile LKM interventions as reflected in significantly reduced RR. Despite blinding, subjects' VAS scores improved from baseline to post-intervention for stress (5.5 vs. 2.2), relaxation (3.8 vs. 8.8) and peacefulness (3.8 vs. 9.0, P non-tactile LKM. It is possible to test the

  7. The Five-Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire in the Czech context

    OpenAIRE

    Hřebíčková, M. (Martina)

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on the psychometric properties of the Five-Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire (FF-NPQ) in a sample of 1,113 people. The FF-NPQ is a non-verbal measure of the Big Five personality dimensions (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, Openness to Experience). The presented psychometric measures include scale internal consistencies, intercorrelations, and convergences with two verbal Big Five measures. Gender and age differences are reported. Further...

  8. All eyes on the patient: the influence of oncologists? nonverbal communication on breast cancer patients? trust

    OpenAIRE

    Hillen, Marij A.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Bijker, Nina; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W. M.; Vermeulen, Dani?lle M.; Smets, Ellen M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Trust in the oncologist is crucial for breast cancer patients. It reduces worry, enhances decision making, and stimulates adherence. Optimal nonverbal communication by the oncologist, particularly eye contact, body posture, and smiling, presumably benefits patients? trust. We were the first to experimentally examine (1) how the oncologist?s nonverbal behavior influences trust, and (2) individual differences in breast cancer patients? trust. Analogue patients (APs) viewed one out of eight vers...

  9. Training Soldiers to Decode Nonverbal Cues in Cross-Cultural Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    stylistic differences do not necessarily have a specific purpose or meaning; thus, they differ from display and decoding rules, which are conscious...rapport. They found that cognitive feedback—that is, receiving general information about the nonverbal cues that are typically diagnostic in... Cognition and Emotion, 18, 613-629. Feldman, R. S., Philippot, P., & Custrini, R. J. (1992). Social competence and nonverbal behavior. In R. S

  10. Nonverbal intelligence in young children with dysregulation: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basten, Maartje; van der Ende, Jan; Tiemeier, Henning; Althoff, Robert R; Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Hudziak, James J; Verhulst, Frank C; White, Tonya

    2014-11-01

    Children meeting the Child Behavior Checklist Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP) suffer from high levels of co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems. Little is known about the cognitive abilities of these children with CBCL-DP. We examined the relationship between CBCL-DP and nonverbal intelligence. Parents of 6,131 children from a population-based birth cohort, aged 5 through 7 years, reported problem behavior on the CBCL/1.5-5. The CBCL-DP was derived using latent profile analysis on the CBCL/1.5-5 syndrome scales. Nonverbal intelligence was assessed using the Snijders Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test 2.5-7-Revised. We examined the relationship between CBCL-DP and nonverbal intelligence using linear regression. Analyses were adjusted for parental intelligence, parental psychiatric symptoms, socio-economic status, and perinatal factors. In a subsample with diagnostic interview data, we tested if the results were independent of the presence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The results showed that children meeting the CBCL-DP (n = 110, 1.8%) had a 11.0 point lower nonverbal intelligence level than children without problems and 7.2-7.3 points lower nonverbal intelligence level than children meeting other profiles of problem behavior (all p values intelligence in children with CBCL-DP. In conclusion, we found that children with CBCL-DP have a considerable lower nonverbal intelligence score. The CBCL-DP and nonverbal intelligence may share a common neurodevelopmental etiology.

  11. Ethnic Differences in Nonverbal Pain Behaviors Observed in Older Adults with Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Brianne; Snow, A Lynn; Herr, Keela; Tripp-Reimer, Toni

    2015-10-01

    Research supports using nonverbal pain behaviors to identify pain in persons with dementia. It is unknown whether variations exist among ethnic groups in the expression of nonverbal pain behaviors in this special population. The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine ethnic differences in the presentation and intensity of nonverbal pain behaviors among African American, Caucasian, and Hispanic older adults with dementia when screened for pain by certified nursing assistants. Six certified nursing assistants were trained to review and score 28 video recordings of subjects with dementia for nonverbal pain behaviors using the Non-Communicative Patient's Pain Assessment Instrument. Chi-square was used to examine differences among ethnic groups with regard to the display of nonverbal pain behaviors, and ANOVA was used to evaluate differences in the intensity of overall pain across ethnic groups. Of the 168 assessments, pain words (28%), pain noises (29.8%), and pain faces (28%) were observed most often as indicators of pain. Rubbing, bracing, and restlessness were rarely noted. Chi-square analysis revealed ethnic differences in the expression of pain words (χ(2) = 19.167, p ethnic groups with regards to overall pain intensity. These findings are the first to examine ethnic differences in nonverbal pain behaviors for older adults with dementia. However, future work should examine assessment tendencies of providers in a larger, more diverse sample. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. All rights reserved.

  12. On Manipulating Nonverbal Interaction Style to Increase Anthropomorphic Computer Character Credibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowell, Andrew J.; Stanney, Kay M.

    2003-09-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of enhancing humanagentinteraction through the use of nonverbal behaviors. Ataxonomy is described, which organizes nonverbal behaviorsinto functional categories and the manner in which they can beembodied (i.e. through gesture, posture, paralanguage, eyecontact and facial expression). Prototype computer characterswere created according to guidelines extracted from thetaxonomy and their efficacy was empirical evaluated. Theresults indicate that by including trusting nonverbal behaviors,the perceived credibility of a computer character was enhanced,although addition of trusting bodily nonverbal behaviorprovided little in addition to trusting facial nonverbal behavior.Perhaps more importantly, a character expressing non-trustingnonverbal behaviors was perceived to be the least credible of allcharacters examined (including a character that expressed nononverbal behavior). Participants that interacted with thispersona perceived the task to be more demanding, madesignificantly more errors, and rated their interaction lesspositively and more monotonous than those using trustingpersonas. They also rated this character to be less likable,accurate, and intelligent. Taken together, the results from thisstudy suggest that there may indeed be benefit to endowingcomputer characters with nonverbal trusting behaviors, as longas those behaviors are accurately and appropriately portrayed.Such behaviors may lead to a more trusting environment andpositive experience for users. Negative character behavior,however, such as non-trusting behavior, may squander theadvantages that embodiment brings.

  13. The impact of culture and education on non-verbal neuropsychological measurements: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, Mónica; Ardila, Alfredo

    2003-08-01

    Clinical neuropsychology has frequently considered visuospatial and non-verbal tests to be culturally and educationally fair or at least fairer than verbal tests. This paper reviews the cross-cultural differences in performance on visuoperceptual and visuoconstructional ability tasks and analyzes the impact of education and culture on non-verbal neuropsychological measurements. This paper compares: (1) non-verbal test performance among groups with different educational levels, and the same cultural background (inter-education intra-culture comparison); (2) the test performance among groups with the same educational level and different cultural backgrounds (intra-education inter-culture comparisons). Several studies have demonstrated a strong association between educational level and performance on common non-verbal neuropsychological tests. When neuropsychological test performance in different cultural groups is compared, significant differences are evident. Performance on non-verbal tests such as copying figures, drawing maps or listening to tones can be significantly influenced by the individual's culture. Arguments against the use of some current neuropsychological non-verbal instruments, procedures, and norms in the assessment of diverse educational and cultural groups are discussed and possible solutions to this problem are presented.

  14. Non-verbal communication in meetings of psychiatrists and patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, M; Dimic, S; Wildgrube, C; McCabe, R; Priebe, S

    2015-03-01

    Recent evidence found that patients with schizophrenia display non-verbal behaviour designed to avoid social engagement during the opening moments of their meetings with psychiatrists. This study aimed to replicate, and build on, this finding, assessing the non-verbal behaviour of patients and psychiatrists during meetings, exploring changes over time and its association with patients' symptoms and the quality of the therapeutic relationship. 40-videotaped routine out-patient consultations, involving patients with schizophrenia, were analysed. Non-verbal behaviour of patients and psychiatrists was assessed during three fixed, 2-min intervals using a modified Ethological Coding System for Interviews. Symptoms, satisfaction with communication and the quality of the therapeutic relationship were also measured. Over time, patients' non-verbal behaviour remained stable, whilst psychiatrists' flight behaviour decreased. Patients formed two groups based on their non-verbal profiles, one group (n = 25) displaying pro-social behaviour, inviting interaction and a second (n = 15) displaying flight behaviour, avoiding interaction. Psychiatrists interacting with pro-social patients displayed more pro-social behaviours (P communication (P non-verbal behaviour during routine psychiatric consultations remains unchanged, and is linked to both their psychiatrist's non-verbal behaviour and the quality of the therapeutic relationship. © 2014 The Authors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Evaluating verbal and non-verbal communication skills, in an ethnogeriatric OSCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lauren G; Schrimmer, Anne; Diamond, James; Burke, Janice

    2011-05-01

    Communication during medical interviews plays a large role in patient adherence, satisfaction with care, and health outcomes. Both verbal and non-verbal communication (NVC) skills are central to the development of rapport between patients and healthcare professionals. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of non-verbal and verbal communication skills on evaluations by standardized patients during an ethnogeriatric Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Interviews from 19 medical students, residents, and fellows in an ethnogeriatric OSCE were analyzed. Each interview was videotaped and evaluated on a 14 item verbal and an 8 item non-verbal communication checklist. The relationship between verbal and non-verbal communication skills on interview evaluations by standardized patients were examined using correlational analyses. Maintaining adequate facial expression (FE), using affirmative gestures (AG), and limiting both unpurposive movements (UM) and hand gestures (HG) had a significant positive effect on perception of interview quality during this OSCE. Non-verbal communication skills played a role in perception of overall interview quality as well as perception of culturally competent communication. Incorporating formative and summative evaluation of both verbal and non-verbal communication skills may be a critical component of curricular innovations in ethnogeriatrics, such as the OSCE. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Patients' perceptions of GP non-verbal communication: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinowicz, Ludmila; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Godlewski, Cezary

    2010-02-01

    During doctor-patient interactions, many messages are transmitted without words, through non-verbal communication. To elucidate the types of non-verbal behaviours perceived by patients interacting with family GPs and to determine which cues are perceived most frequently. In-depth interviews with patients of family GPs. Nine family practices in different regions of Poland. At each practice site, interviews were performed with four patients who were scheduled consecutively to see their family doctor. Twenty-four of 36 studied patients spontaneously perceived non-verbal behaviours of the family GP during patient-doctor encounters. They reported a total of 48 non-verbal cues. The most frequent features were tone of voice, eye contact, and facial expressions. Less frequent were examination room characteristics, touch, interpersonal distance, GP clothing, gestures, and posture. Non-verbal communication is an important factor by which patients spontaneously describe and evaluate their interactions with a GP. Family GPs should be trained to better understand and monitor their own non-verbal behaviours towards patients.

  17. Parts of Speech in Non-typical Function: (Asymmetrical Encoding of Non-verbal Predicates in Erzya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigina Turunen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Erzya non-verbal conjugation refers to symmetric paradigms in which non-verbal predicates behave morphosyntactically in a similar way to verbal predicates. Notably, though, non-verbal conjugational paradigms are asymmetric, which is seen as an outcome of paradigmatic neutralisation in less frequent/less typical contexts. For non-verbal predicates it is not obligatory to display the same amount of behavioural potential as it is for verbal predicates, and the lexical class of non-verbal predicate operates in such a way that adjectival predicates are more likely to be conjugated than nominals. Further, besides symmetric paradigms and constructions, in Erzya there are non-verbal predicate constructions which display a more overt structural encoding than do verbal ones, namely, copula constructions. Complexity in the domain of non-verbal predication in Erzya decreases the symmetry of the paradigms. Complexity increases in asymmetric constructions, as well as in paradigmatic neutralisation when non-verbal predicates cannot be inflected in all the tenses and moods occurring in verbal predication. The results would be the reverse if we were to measure complexity in terms of the morphological structure. The asymmetric features in non-verbal predication are motivated language-externally, because non-verbal predicates refer to states and occur less frequently as predicates than verbal categories. The symmetry of the paradigms and constructions is motivated language-internally: a grammatical system with fewer rules is economical.

  18. Feasibility of one-eighth time gated myocardial perfusion SPECT functional imaging using IQ-SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caobelli, Federico; Thackeray, James T.; Bengel, Frank M. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Hannover (Germany); Soffientini, Alberto; Pizzocaro, Claudio; Guerra, Ugo Paolo [Fondazione Poliambulanza, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brescia (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    IQ-SPECT, an add-on to general purpose cameras based on multifocal collimation, can reduce myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) acquisition times to one-fourth that of standard procedures (to 12 s/view). In a phantom study, a reduction of the acquisition time to one-eighth of the standard time (to 6 s/view) was demonstrated as feasible. It remains unclear whether such a reduction could be extended to clinical practice. Fifty patients with suspected or diagnosed CAD underwent a 2-day stress-rest {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi MPI protocol. Two consecutive SPECT acquisitions (6 and 12 s/view) were performed. Electrocardiogram-gated images were reconstructed with and without attenuation correction (AC). Polar maps were generated and visually scored by two blinded observers for image quality and perfusion in 17 segments. Global and regional summed stress score (SSS), summed rest score (SRS) and summed difference score (SDS) were determined. Left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction were calculated based on automated contour detection. Image quality was scored higher with the 12 s/view acquisition, both with and without AC. Summed scores were statistically comparable between the 6 s/view and the 12 s/view acquisition, both globally and in individual coronary territories (e.g. in images with AC, SSS were 6.6 ± 8.3 and 6.2 ± 8.2 with 6 s and 12 s/view, respectively, p = 0.10; SRS were 3.9 ± 5.6 and 3.5 ± 5.3, respectively, p = 0.19; and SDS were 2.8 ± 5.7 and 2.6 ± 5.7, respectively, p = 0.59). Both acquisitions allowed MPI-based diagnosis of CAD in 25 of the 50 patients (with AC). Calculated end-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV) were modestly higher with the 6 s/view acquisition than with the 12 s/view acquisition (EDV +4.8 ml at rest and +3.7 ml after stress, p = 0.003; ESV +4.1 ml at rest and +2.6 ml after stress, p = 0.01), whereas the ejection fraction did not differ (-1.2 % at rest, p = 0.20, and -0.9 % after stress, p = 0.27). Image quality and

  19. Temporal Stability of ADHD in the High-IQ Population: Results from the MGH Longitudinal Family Studies of ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antshel, Kevin M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Maglione, Katherine; Doyle, Alysa; Fried, Ronna; Seidman, Larry; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to establish the relationship between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity (ADHD) disorder and high-IQ children and whether ADHD has a high predictive value among youths with high-IQ. Results further supported the hypothesis for the predictive validity of ADHD in high-IQ youths.

  20. Pre-morbid IQ in mental disorders: a Danish draft-board study of 7486 psychiatric patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urfer-Parnas, A; Lykke Mortensen, E; Sæbye, D

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Longitudinal studies indicate that future schizophrenia patients exhibit lower IQ than healthy controls. Recent studies suggest that future patients with other mental illnesses obtain lower pre-morbid IQ. The aims of this study were to compare pre-morbid IQ among five diagnostic...

  1. Is low IQ related to risk of death by homicide? Testing an hypothesis using data from a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batty, George David; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Gale, Catharine R

    2008-01-01

    Lower IQ test scores are related to an increased risk of violent assault. We tested the relation between IQ and death by homicide. In a prospective cohort study of 14,537 men (21 homicides), the association between lower IQ and an increased risk of homicide was lost after multiple adjustment....

  2. Stanford-Binet and WAIS IQ Differences and Their Implications for Adults with Intellectual Disability (aka Mental Retardation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Wayne; Miezejeski, Charles; Ryan, Robert; Zigman, Warren; Krinsky-McHale, Sharon; Urv, Tiina

    2010-01-01

    Stanford-Binet and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) IQs were compared for a group of 74 adults with intellectual disability (ID). In every case, WAIS Full Scale IQ was higher than the Stanford-Binet Composite IQ, with a mean difference of 16.7 points. These differences did not appear to be due to the lower minimum possible score for the…

  3. Decay uncovered in nonverbal short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Tom; McKeown, Denis

    2014-02-01

    Decay theory posits that memory traces gradually fade away over the passage of time unless they are actively rehearsed. Much recent work exploring verbal short-term memory has challenged this theory, but there does appear to be evidence for trace decay in nonverbal auditory short-term memory. Numerous discrimination studies have reported a performance decline as the interval separating two tones is increased, consistent with a decay process. However, most of this tone comparison research can be explained in other ways, without reference to decay, and these alternative accounts were tested in the present study. In Experiment 1, signals were employed toward the end of extended retention intervals to ensure that listeners were alert to the presence and frequency content of the memoranda. In Experiment 2, a mask stimulus was employed in an attempt to distinguish between a highly detailed sensory trace and a longer-lasting short-term memory, and the distinctiveness of the stimuli was varied. Despite these precautions, slow-acting trace decay was observed. It therefore appears that the mere passage of time can lead to forgetting in some forms of short-term memory.

  4. Cross-Cultural Detection of Depression from Nonverbal Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghowinem, Sharifa; Goecke, Roland; Cohn, Jeffrey F; Wagner, Michael; Parker, Gordon; Breakspear, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Millions of people worldwide suffer from depression. Do commonalities exist in their nonverbal behavior that would enable cross-culturally viable screening and assessment of severity? We investigated the generalisability of an approach to detect depression severity cross-culturally using video-recorded clinical interviews from Australia, the USA and Germany. The material varied in type of interview, subtypes of depression and inclusion healthy control subjects, cultural background, and recording environment. The analysis focussed on temporal features of participants' eye gaze and head pose. Several approaches to training and testing within and between datasets were evaluated. The strongest results were found for training across all datasets and testing across datasets using leave-one-subject-out cross-validation. In contrast, generalisability was attenuated when training on only one or two of the three datasets and testing on subjects from the dataset(s) not used in training. These findings highlight the importance of using training data exhibiting the expected range of variability.

  5. NONVERBAL TREATMENT OF NEUROSIS—Techniques for General Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, Charles T.

    1959-01-01

    “Psychosomatic medicine” does not demand that the general practitioner function as a psychiatrist; rather, it is a psychiatric orientation that can increase the effectiveness of purely medical treatment for such conditions as neuroses. The general practitioner to whom the patient turns may achieve permanent results with nonverbal techniques where formal psychotherapy would be impracticable or unacceptable. The first aim is to relieve pressure so that the patient can regain his mental balance and thereby his self-confidence. Arts, hobbies, sports, and the like can be prescribed rather specifically according to the patient's personality and needs. Nutrition can be improved simply at first by prescribing needed additions to diet rather than imposing restrictions. Vitamin deficiency may by itself be the cause of neurosis or more serious mental disease, whereas psychic stress by itself may create a need for additional vitamin intake. Hormone therapy may be extremely helpful but must be based on clear indication and limited to specific purposes. Since lack of sleep and rest quickly impairs mental function, it is important for neurotic persons to learn relaxation as a necessity for sleep. Sedatives may be used in a crisis but should be abandoned as soon as possible. With all drugs there are problems of excess and habituation. The least, the mildest, the shortest dosage is the ideal. The initial steps of psychotherapy are available to any physician: Establishing rapport, noting how complaints are stated, encouraging ventilation, winning confidence rather than immediate results. PMID:13638823

  6. Effects of proactive interference on non-verbal working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Marilyn; Nee, Derek E; Nelson, Eric; Senger, Thea; Jonides, John; Malapani, Chara

    2017-02-01

    Working memory (WM) is a cognitive system responsible for actively maintaining and processing relevant information and is central to successful cognition. A process critical to WM is the resolution of proactive interference (PI), which involves suppressing memory intrusions from prior memories that are no longer relevant. Most studies that have examined resistance to PI in a process-pure fashion used verbal material. By contrast, studies using non-verbal material are scarce, and it remains unclear whether the effect of PI is domain-general or whether it applies solely to the verbal domain. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of PI in visual WM using both objects with high and low nameability. Using a Directed-Forgetting paradigm, we varied discriminability between WM items on two dimensions, one verbal (high-nameability vs. low-nameability objects) and one perceptual (colored vs. gray objects). As in previous studies using verbal material, effects of PI were found with object stimuli, even after controlling for verbal labels being used (i.e., low-nameability condition). We also found that the addition of distinctive features (color, verbal label) increased performance in rejecting intrusion probes, most likely through an increase in discriminability between content-context bindings in WM.

  7. Verbal and nonverbal behavior of ability-grouped dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. Gail; Carter, Glenda

    In this study we describe the social interactions of ability-grouped dyads as they constructed knowledge of balance concepts to elucidate the relationship between interactions and conceptual growth. The verbal and nonverbal behaviors of 30 fifth-grade students were recorded as they completed three activities related to balance. These student interactions were examined within a framework of social cognition. For each dyad, characteristics of ability-grouped dyads were identified. Results revealed that high-achieving students effectively used prior experiences, maintained focus on the learning task, and were able to manipulate the equipment effectively to construct knowledge. Low-achieving students exhibited off-task behavior, lacked a metacognitive framework for organizing the learning tasks, centered on irrelevant features of the equipment, and were unable to use language effectively to mediate learning. Within low-high student dyads, high-achieving students typically modeled thinking processes and strategies for manipulating equipment. In addition, they focused the low-achieving students on the components of the tasks while verbally monitoring their progress, thus enabling low students to identify the critical features necessary for concept construction. These results highlighted the differences that students have in the use of language and tools. Low students' inefficient use of tools has implications for the ways science teachers structure lessons and group students for laboratory work.Received: 8 March 1993; Revised: 6 January 1994;

  8. Prevalence of Principles of Piaget’s Theory Among 4-7-year-old Children and their Correlation with IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Sugandha; Vashist, Binny

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Cognitive development is a major area of human development and was extensively studied by Jean Piaget. He proposed that the development of intellectual abilities occurs in a series of relatively distinct stages and that a child’s way of thinking and viewing the world is different at different stages. Aim To assess Piaget’s principles of the intuitive stage of preoperational period among 4-7-year-old children relative to their Intelligence quotient (IQ). Materials and Methods Various characteristics as described by Jean Piaget specific for the age group of 4-7 years along with those of the previous (preconceptual stage of preoperational period) and successive periods (concrete operations) were analysed using various experiments in 300 children. These characteristics included the concepts of perceptual and cognitive egocentrism, centration and reversibility. IQ of the children was measured using Seguin form board test. Inferential statistics were performed using Chi-square test and Kruskal Wallis test. The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05. Results The prevalence of perceptual and cognitive egocentrism was 10.7% and 31.7% based on the experiments and 33% based on the interview question. Centration was present in 96.3% of the children. About 99% children lacked the concept of reversibility according to the clay experiment while 97.7% possessed this concept according to the interview question. The mean IQ score of children who possessed perceptual egocentrism, cognitive egocentrism and egocentrism in dental setting was significantly higher than those who lacked these characteristics. Conclusion Perceptual egocentrism had almost disappeared and prevalence of cognitive egocentrism decreased with increase in age. Centration and lack of reversibility were appreciated in most of the children. There was a gradual reduction in the prevalence of these characters with increasing age. Mean IQ score of children who possessed perceptual egocentrism

  9. A comparison of IQ and memory cluster solutions in moderate and severe pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Nicholas S; Terranova, Jennifer; Turner, Alisa; Mayfield, Joan; Allen, Daniel N

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have examined heterogeneous neuropsychological outcomes in childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) using cluster analysis. These studies have identified homogeneous subgroups based on tests of IQ, memory, and other cognitive abilities that show some degree of association with specific cognitive, emotional, and behavioral outcomes, and have demonstrated that the clusters derived for children with TBI are different from those observed in normal populations. However, the extent to which these subgroups are stable across abilities has not been examined, and this has significant implications for the generalizability and clinical utility of TBI clusters. The current study addressed this by comparing IQ and memory profiles of 137 children who sustained moderate-to-severe TBI. Cluster analysis of IQ and memory scores indicated that a four-cluster solution was optimal for the IQ scores and a five-cluster solution was optimal for the memory scores. Three clusters on each battery differed primarily by level of performance, while the others had pattern variations. Cross-plotting the clusters across respective IQ and memory test scores indicated that clusters defined by level were generally stable, while clusters defined by pattern differed. Notably, children with slower processing speed exhibited low-average to below-average performance on memory indexes. These results provide some support for the stability of previously identified memory and IQ clusters and provide information about the relationship between IQ and memory in children with TBI.

  10. In Vivo Assessment of Neurodegeneration in Type C Niemann-Pick Disease by IDEAL-IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ruo-Mi; Li, Qing-Ling; Luo, Zhong-Xing; Tang, Wen; Jiao, Ju; Wang, Jin; Kang, Zhuang; Chen, Shao-Qiong; Zhang, Yong

    2018-01-01

    To noninvasively assess the neurodegenerative changes in the brain of patients with Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease by measuring the lesion tissue with the iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least square estimation-iron quantification (IDEAL-IQ). Routine brain MRI, IDEAL-IQ and 1 H-proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS, served as control) were performed on 12 patients with type C Niemann-Pick disease (4 males and 8 females; age range, 15-61 years; mean age, 36 years) and 20 healthy subjects (10 males and 10 females; age range, 20-65 years; mean age, 38 years). The regions with lesion and the normal appearing regions (NARs) of patients were measured and analyzed based on the fat/water signal intensity on IDEAL-IQ and the lipid peak on 1 H-MRS. Niemann-Pick type C patients showed a higher fat/water signal intensity ratio with IDEAL-IQ on T2 hyperintensity lesions and NARs (3.7-4.9%, p IQ instead of 1 H-MRS. The findings of this study suggested that IDEAL-IQ may be useful as a noninvasive and objective method in the evaluation of patients with NPC; additionally, IDEAL-IQ can be used to quantitatively measure the brain parenchymal adipose content and monitor patient follow-up after treatment of NPC.

  11. The City Intelligence Quotient (City IQ Evaluation System: Conception and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available After a systematic review of 38 current intelligent city evaluation systems (ICESs from around the world, this research analyzes the secondary and tertiary indicators of these 38 ICESs from the perspectives of scale structuring, approaches and indicator selection, and determines their common base. From this base, the fundamentals of the City Intelligence Quotient (City IQ Evaluation System are developed and five dimensions are selected after a clustering analysis. The basic version, City IQ Evaluation System 1.0, involves 275 experts from 14 high-end research institutions, which include the Chinese Academy of Engineering, the National Academy of Science and Engineering (Germany, the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences, the Planning Management Center of the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of China, and the Development Research Center of the State Council of China. City IQ Evaluation System 2.0 is further developed, with improvements in its universality, openness, and dynamic adjustment capability. After employing deviation evaluation methods in the IQ assessment, City IQ Evaluation System 3.0 was conceived. The research team has conducted a repeated assessment of 41 intelligent cities around the world using City IQ Evaluation System 3.0. The results have proved that the City IQ Evaluation System, developed on the basis of intelligent life, features more rational indicators selected from data sources that can offer better universality, openness, and dynamics, and is more sensitive and precise.

  12. Brain function during probabilistic learning in relation to IQ and level of education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Wouter; Crone, Eveline A; Güroğlu, Berna

    2012-02-15

    Knowing how to adapt your behavior based on feedback lies at the core of successful learning. We investigated the relation between brain function, grey matter volume, educational level and IQ in a Dutch adolescent sample. In total 45 healthy volunteers between ages 13 and 16 were recruited from schools for pre-vocational and pre-university education. For each individual, IQ was estimated using two subtests from the WISC-III-R (similarities and block design). While in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, participants performed a probabilistic learning task. Behavioral comparisons showed that participants with higher IQ used a more adaptive learning strategy after receiving positive feedback. Analysis of neural activation revealed that higher IQ was associated with increased activation in DLPFC and dACC when receiving positive feedback, specifically for rules with low reward probability (i.e., unexpected positive feedback). Furthermore, VBM analyses revealed that IQ correlated positively with grey matter volume within these regions. These results provide support for IQ-related individual differences in the developmental time courses of neural circuitry supporting feedback-based learning. Current findings are interpreted in terms of a prolonged window of flexibility and opportunity for adolescents with higher IQ scores. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A longitudinal twin study of the direction of effects between ADHD symptoms and IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel, Anna Sophie; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Greven, Corina U; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2015-01-01

    While the negative association between ADHD symptoms and IQ is well documented, our knowledge about the direction and aetiology of this association is limited. Here, we examine the association of ADHD symptoms with verbal and performance IQ longitudinally in a population-based sample of twins. In a population-based sample of 4,771 twin pairs, DSM-IV ADHD symptoms were obtained from the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised. Verbal (vocabulary) and performance (Raven's Progressive Matrices) IQ were assessed online. ADHD symptom ratings and IQ scores were obtained at ages 12, 14 and 16 years. Making use of the genetic sensitivity and time-ordered nature of our data, we use a cross-lagged model to examine the direction of effects, while modelling the aetiologies of the association between ADHD symptoms with vocabulary and Raven's scores over time. Although time-specific aetiological influences emerged for each trait at ages 14 and 16 years, the aetiological factors involved in the association between ADHD symptoms and IQ were stable over time. ADHD symptoms and IQ scores significantly predicted each other over time. ADHD symptoms at age 12 years were a significantly stronger predictor of vocabulary and Raven's scores at age 14 years than vice versa, whereas no differential predictive effects emerged from age 14 to 16 years. The results suggest that ADHD symptoms may put adolescents at risk for decreased IQ scores. Persistent genetic influences seem to underlie the association of ADHD symptoms and IQ over time. Early intervention is likely to be key to reducing ADHD symptoms and the associated risk for lower IQ.

  14. A longitudinal twin study of the direction of effects between ADHD symptoms and IQ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sophie Rommel

    Full Text Available While the negative association between ADHD symptoms and IQ is well documented, our knowledge about the direction and aetiology of this association is limited. Here, we examine the association of ADHD symptoms with verbal and performance IQ longitudinally in a population-based sample of twins. In a population-based sample of 4,771 twin pairs, DSM-IV ADHD symptoms were obtained from the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised. Verbal (vocabulary and performance (Raven's Progressive Matrices IQ were assessed online. ADHD symptom ratings and IQ scores were obtained at ages 12, 14 and 16 years. Making use of the genetic sensitivity and time-ordered nature of our data, we use a cross-lagged model to examine the direction of effects, while modelling the aetiologies of the association between ADHD symptoms with vocabulary and Raven's scores over time. Although time-specific aetiological influences emerged for each trait at ages 14 and 16 years, the aetiological factors involved in the association between ADHD symptoms and IQ were stable over time. ADHD symptoms and IQ scores significantly predicted each other over time. ADHD symptoms at age 12 years were a significantly stronger predictor of vocabulary and Raven's scores at age 14 years than vice versa, whereas no differential predictive effects emerged from age 14 to 16 years. The results suggest that ADHD symptoms may put adolescents at risk for decreased IQ scores. Persistent genetic influences seem to underlie the association of ADHD symptoms and IQ over time. Early intervention is likely to be key to reducing ADHD symptoms and the associated risk for lower IQ.

  15. Nonverbal Learning Disabilities : What kind of communication challenges do parents face when communicating with their children with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities, and what kind of strategies the parents use to overcome the challenges?

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Alexandra Jacinta

    2011-01-01

    This is a qualitative study that explores and tries to understand what kind of communicational challenges do parents face when communicating with their children with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities, and to comprehend what kind of strategies these parents use to overcome these challenges. The designation of the Nonverbal Learning Disabilities (NLD) was formerly proposed by Johnson and Myklebust. NLD were firstly described by Myklebust as an inability to read and understand nonverbal aspect...

  16. CLINICAL AND LABORATORY CORRELATES OF INTELLIGENCE LEVEL (IQ IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES AND OBESITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Starostina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Level of intelligence influences compliance of diabetic patients and their active and conscious participation in self-care. A potential association between IQ and surrogate efficacy markers of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM treatment has not been studied in Russia.Aim: To assess potential association between level of intelligence, glucose control, blood pressure (BP control and obesity in T2DM patients.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study included 161 T2DM patients (28 males, 133 females aged from 37 to 79 years with diabetes duration from 0,5 to 30 years. All patients underwent standard clinical and laboratory assessment, including glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c measurement and were seen by a psychiatrist to diagnose possible depressive and cognitive disorders according to International Classification of Diseases-10 criteria. Each participant underwent psychometrical assessment, including Hachinski Ischemia Scale and a battery of cognitive tests. IQ was measured with Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS.Results: Mean (± SD IQ was 100,6 ± 14,9, which corresponds to average IQ. There was no correlation between IQ and patients age. There were no differences in IQ in T2DM patients from various bodyweight categories. Correlation between HbA1c and IQ in the whole group was non-significant (r = -0,13. Only patients with high and very high IQ (≥ 110 had lower HbA1c than the rest of the group (with IQ < 110: 8,1 ± 2,4 и 8,9 ± 1,9%, respectively (р < 0,05. Level of education did not influence glucose control, BP and body mass index (BMI; HbA1c, BMI and BP values in patients with primary and higher education was virtually similar.Conclusion: Level of intelligence of T2DM patients does not contribute to risk factor control, such as bodyweight and BP. In majority of T2DM patients, glycemic control does not depend on their IQ and educational level; significantly better glucose control is achieved only by patients with higher

  17. The impact of the teachers’ non-verbal communication on success in teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATEMEH BAMBAEEROO

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Non-verbal communication skills, also called sign language or silent language, include all behaviors performed in the presence of others or perceived either consciously or unconsciously. The main aim of this review article was to determine the effect of the teachers’ non-verbal communication on success in teaching using the findings of the studies conducted on the relationship between quality of teaching and the teachers’ use of non-verbal communication and also its impact on success in teaching. Methods: Considering the research method, i.e. a review article, we searched for all articles in this field using key words such as success in teaching, verbal communication and non-verbal communication. In this study, we did not encode the articles. Results: The results of this revealed that there was a strong relationship among the quality, amount and the method of using non-verbal communication by teachers while teaching. Based on the findings of the studies reviewed, it was found that the more the teachers used verbal and non-verbal communication, the more efficacious their education and the students’ academic progress were. Under non-verbal communication, some other patterns were used. For example, emotive, team work, supportive, imaginative, purposive, and balanced communication using speech, body, and pictures all have been effective in students’ learning and academic success. The teachers’ attention to the students’ non-verbal reactions and arranging the syllabus considering the students’ mood and readiness have been emphasized in the studies reviewed. Conclusion: It was concluded that if this skill is practiced by teachers, it will have a positive and profound effect on the students’ mood. Non-verbal communication is highly reliable in the communication process, so if the recipient of a message is between two contradictory verbal and nonverbal messages, logic dictates that we push him toward the non-verbal message

  18. The impact of the teachers' non-verbal communication on success in teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambaeeroo, Fatemeh; Shokrpour, Nasrin

    2017-04-01

    Non-verbal communication skills, also called sign language or silent language, include all behaviors performed in the presence of others or perceived either consciously or unconsciously. The main aim of this review article was to determine the effect of the teachers' non-verbal communication on success in teaching using the findings of the studies conducted on the relationship between quality of teaching and the teachers' use of non-verbal communication and also its impact on success in teaching. Considering the research method, i.e. a review article, we searched for all articles in this field using key words such as success in teaching, verbal communication and non-verbal communication. In this study, we did not encode the articles. The results of this revealed that there was a strong relationship among the quality, amount and the method of using non-verbal communication by teachers while teaching. Based on the findings of the studies reviewed, it was found that the more the teachers used verbal and non-verbal communication, the more efficacious their education and the students' academic progress were. Under non-verbal communication, some other patterns were used. For example, emotive, team work, supportive, imaginative, purposive, and balanced communication using speech, body, and pictures all have been effective in students' learning and academic success. The teachers' attention to the students' non-verbal reactions and arranging the syllabus considering the students' mood and readiness have been emphasized in the studies reviewed. It was concluded that if this skill is practiced by teachers, it will have a positive and profound effect on the students' mood. Non-verbal communication is highly reliable in the communication process, so if the recipient of a message is between two contradictory verbal and nonverbal messages, logic dictates that we push him toward the non-verbal message and ask him to pay more attention to non-verbal than verbal messages because non-verbal

  19. The impact of the teachers’ non-verbal communication on success in teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    BAMBAEEROO, FATEMEH; SHOKRPOUR, NASRIN

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Non-verbal communication skills, also called sign language or silent language, include all behaviors performed in the presence of others or perceived either consciously or unconsciously. The main aim of this review article was to determine the effect of the teachers’ non-verbal communication on success in teaching using the findings of the studies conducted on the relationship between quality of teaching and the teachers’ use of non-verbal communication and also its impact on success in teaching. Methods: Considering the research method, i.e. a review article, we searched for all articles in this field using key words such as success in teaching, verbal communication and non-verbal communication. In this study, we did not encode the articles. Results: The results of this revealed that there was a strong relationship among the quality, amount and the method of using non-verbal communication by teachers while teaching. Based on the findings of the studies reviewed, it was found that the more the teachers used verbal and non-verbal communication, the more efficacious their education and the students’ academic progress were. Under non-verbal communication, some other patterns were used. For example, emotive, team work, supportive, imaginative, purposive, and balanced communication using speech, body, and pictures all have been effective in students’ learning and academic success. The teachers’ attention to the students’ non-verbal reactions and arranging the syllabus considering the students’ mood and readiness have been emphasized in the studies reviewed. Conclusion: It was concluded that if this skill is practiced by teachers, it will have a positive and profound effect on the students’ mood. Non-verbal communication is highly reliable in the communication process, so if the recipient of a message is between two contradictory verbal and nonverbal messages, logic dictates that we push him toward the non-verbal message and ask him to pay

  20. Dissociation of neural correlates of verbal and non-verbal visual working memory with different delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endestad Tor

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, posterior parietal cortex, and regions in the occipital cortex have been identified as neural sites for visual working memory (WM. The exact involvement of the DLPFC in verbal and non-verbal working memory processes, and how these processes depend on the time-span for retention, remains disputed. Methods We used functional MRI to explore the neural correlates of the delayed discrimination of Gabor stimuli differing in orientation. Twelve subjects were instructed to code the relative orientation either verbally or non-verbally with memory delays of short (2 s or long (8 s duration. Results Blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD 3-Tesla fMRI revealed significantly more activity for the short verbal condition compared to the short non-verbal condition in bilateral superior temporal gyrus, insula and supramarginal gyrus. Activity in the long verbal condition was greater than in the long non-verbal condition in left language-associated areas (STG and bilateral posterior parietal areas, including precuneus. Interestingly, right DLPFC and bilateral superior frontal gyrus was more active in the non-verbal long delay condition than in the long verbal condition. Conclusion The results point to a dissociation between the cortical sites involved in verbal and non-verbal WM for long and short delays. Right DLPFC seems to be engaged in non-verbal WM tasks especially for long delays. Furthermore, the results indicate that even slightly different memory maintenance intervals engage largely differing networks and that this novel finding may explain differing results in previous verbal/non-verbal WM studies.

  1. Persistent non-verbal memory impairment in remitted major depression - caused by encoding deficits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnken, Andreas; Schöning, Sonja; Gerss, Joachim; Konrad, Carsten; de Jong-Meyer, Renate; Zwanzger, Peter; Arolt, Volker

    2010-04-01

    While neuropsychological impairments are well described in acute phases of major depressive disorders (MDD), little is known about the neuropsychological profile in remission. There is evidence for episodic memory impairments in both acute depressed and remitted patients with MDD. Learning and memory depend on individuals' ability to organize information during learning. This study investigates non-verbal memory functions in remitted MDD and whether nonverbal memory performance is mediated by organizational strategies whilst learning. 30 well-characterized fully remitted individuals with unipolar MDD and 30 healthy controls matching in age, sex and education were investigated. Non-verbal learning and memory were measured by the Rey-Osterrieth-Complex-Figure-Test (RCFT). The RCFT provides measures of planning, organizational skills, perceptual and non-verbal memory functions. For assessing the mediating effects of organizational strategies, we used the Savage Organizational Score. Compared to healthy controls, participants with remitted MDD showed more deficits in their non-verbal memory function. Moreover, participants with remitted MDD demonstrated difficulties in organizing non-verbal information appropriately during learning. In contrast, no impairments regarding visual-spatial functions in remitted MDD were observed. Except for one patient, all the others were taking psychopharmacological medication. The neuropsychological function was solely investigated in the remitted phase of MDD. Individuals with MDD in remission showed persistent non-verbal memory impairments, modulated by a deficient use of organizational strategies during encoding. Therefore, our results strongly argue for additional therapeutic interventions in order to improve these remaining deficits in cognitive function. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Non-verbal communication in severe aphasia: influence of aphasia, apraxia, or semantic processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogrefe, Katharina; Ziegler, Wolfram; Weidinger, Nicole; Goldenberg, Georg

    2012-09-01

    Patients suffering from severe aphasia have to rely on non-verbal means of communication to convey a message. However, to date it is not clear which patients are able to do so. Clinical experience indicates that some patients use non-verbal communication strategies like gesturing very efficiently whereas others fail to transmit semantic content by non-verbal means. Concerns have been expressed that limb apraxia would affect the production of communicative gestures. Research investigating if and how apraxia influences the production of communicative gestures, led to contradictory outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of limb apraxia on spontaneous gesturing. Further, linguistic and non-verbal semantic processing abilities were explored as potential factors that might influence non-verbal expression in aphasic patients. Twenty-four aphasic patients with highly limited verbal output were asked to retell short video-clips. The narrations were videotaped. Gestural communication was analyzed in two ways. In the first part of the study, we used a form-based approach. Physiological and kinetic aspects of hand movements were transcribed with a notation system for sign languages. We determined the formal diversity of the hand gestures as an indicator of potential richness of the transmitted information. In the second part of the study, comprehensibility of the patients' gestural communication was evaluated by naive raters. The raters were familiarized with the model video-clips and shown the recordings of the patients' retelling without sound. They were asked to indicate, for each narration, which story was being told and which aspects of the stories they recognized. The results indicate that non-verbal faculties are the most important prerequisites for the production of hand gestures. Whereas results on standardized aphasia testing did not correlate with any gestural indices, non-verbal semantic processing abilities predicted the formal diversity

  3. Can music lessons increase the performance of preschool children in IQ tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviani, Hossein; Mirbaha, Hilda; Pournaseh, Mehrangiz; Sagan, Olivia

    2014-02-01

    The impact of music on human cognition has a distinguished history as a research topic in psychology. The focus of the present study was on investigating the effects of music instruction on the cognitive development of preschool children. From a sample of 154 preschool children of Tehran kindergartens, 60 children aged between 5 and 6 were randomly assigned to two groups, one receiving music lessons and the other (matched for sex, age and mother's educational level) not taking part in any music classes. Children were tested before the start of the course of music lessons and at its end with 4 subtests of the Tehran-Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (TSB). The experimental group participated in twelve 75-min weekly music lessons. Statistical analysis showed significant IQ increase in participants receiving music lessons, specifically on the TSB verbal reasoning and short-term memory subtests. The numerical and visual/abstract reasoning abilities did not differ for the two groups after lessons. These data support studies that found similar skills enhancements in preschool children, despite vast differences in the setting in which the instruction occurred. These findings appear to be consistent with some neuroimaging and neurological observations which are discussed in the paper.

  4. Association Between Low IQ Scores and Early Mortality in Men and Women: Evidence From a Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenner, Matthew J; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R

    2015-05-01

    Lower (versus higher) IQ scores have been shown to increase the risk of early mortality, however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood and previous studies underrepresent individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and women. This study followed one third of all senior-year students (approximately aged 17) attending public high school in Wisconsin, U.S. in 1957 (n  =  10,317) until 2011. Men and women with the lowest IQ test scores (i.e., IQ scores ≤ 85) had increased rates of mortality compared to people with the highest IQ test scores, particularly for cardiovascular disease. Importantly, when educational attainment was held constant, people with lower IQ test scores did not have higher mortality by age 70 than people with higher IQ test scores. Individuals with lower IQ test scores likely experience multiple disadvantages throughout life that contribute to increased risk of early mortality.

  5. Pu-238 assay performance with the Canberra IQ3 system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, L.; Gillespie, B.; Seaman, G.

    1997-11-01

    Canberra Industries has recently completed a demonstration project at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site (WSRC) to characterize 55-gallon drums containing Pu-238 contaminated waste. The goal of this project was to detect and quantify Pu-238 contaminated waste. The goal of this project was to detect and quantify Pu-238 waste to detection limits of less than 50 nCi/g using gamma assay techniques. This would permit reclassification of these drums from transuranic (TRU) waste to low-level waste (LLW). The instrument used for this assay was a Canberra IQ3 high sensitivity gamma assay system, mounted in a trailer. The results of the measurements demonstrate achievement of detection levels as low as 1 nCi/g for low density waste drums, and good correlation with known concentrations in several test drums. In addition, the data demonstrates significant advantages for using large area low-energy germanium detectors for achieving the lowest possible MDAs for gamma rays in the 80-250 keV range. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. 10 year course of IQ in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barder, Helene Eidsmo; Sundet, Kjetil; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd

    2015-01-01

    A substantial proportion of patients suffering from schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSDs) exhibit a general intellectual impairment at illness onset, but the subsequent intellectual course remains unclear. Relationships between accumulated time in psychosis and long-term intellectual functionin...... performance on test of immediate verbal recall/working memory (WAIS-R Digit Span). This indicates a relationship between accumulated duration of psychosis and long-term intellectual course, irrespective of diagnostic category, in a significant subgroup of patients.......A substantial proportion of patients suffering from schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSDs) exhibit a general intellectual impairment at illness onset, but the subsequent intellectual course remains unclear. Relationships between accumulated time in psychosis and long-term intellectual functioning...... categories were defined: core versus non-core SSDs. No significant change in IQ was found for the total sample. Intellectual course was not related to DUP or stringency of diagnostic category. However, a subgroup with long DAT demonstrated a significant intellectual decline, mainly associated with a weaker...

  7. Analysis and compensation of I/Q imbalance in amplify-and-forward cooperative systems

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Jian; Aissa, Sonia; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, dual-hop amplify-and-forward (AF) cooperative systems in the presence of in-phase and quadrature-phase (I/Q) imbalance, which refers to the mismatch between components in I and Q branches, are investigated. First, we analyze the performance of the considered AF cooperative protocol without compensation for I/Q imbalance as the benchmark. Furthermore, a compensation algorithm for I/Q imbalance is proposed, which makes use of the received signals at the destination, from the source and relay nodes, together with their conjugations to detect the transmitted signal. The performance of the AF cooperative system under study is evaluated in terms of average symbol error probability (SEP), which is derived considering transmission over Rayleigh fading channels. Numerical results are provided and show that the proposed compensation algorithm can efficiently mitigate the effect of I/Q imbalance. © 2012 IEEE.

  8. Webinar Presentation: Prenatal Residential Proximity to Agricultural Pesticide Applications and IQ in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Prenatal Residential Proximity to Agricultural Pesticide Applications and IQ in Children, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Brain Health held on Aug. 12, 2015.

  9. IQ imbalance tolerable parallel-channel DMT transmission for coherent optical OFDMA access network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sang-Min; Mun, Kyoung-Hak; Jung, Sun-Young; Han, Sang-Kook

    2016-12-01

    Phase diversity of coherent optical communication provides spectrally efficient higher-order modulation for optical communications. However, in-phase/quadrature (IQ) imbalance in coherent optical communication degrades transmission performance by introducing unwanted signal distortions. In a coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) passive optical network (PON), IQ imbalance-induced signal distortions degrade transmission performance by interferences of mirror subcarriers, inter-symbol interference (ISI), and inter-channel interference (ICI). We propose parallel-channel discrete multitone (DMT) transmission to mitigate transceiver IQ imbalance-induced signal distortions in coherent orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmissions. We experimentally demonstrate the effectiveness of parallel-channel DMT transmission compared with that of OFDM transmission in the presence of IQ imbalance.

  10. INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT (IQ AS A PREDICTOR OF READING COMPREHENSION AND WRITING ACHIEVEMENT OF EFL LEARNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ary Setya B. Ningrum

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating Intelligent Quotient (IQ as a predictor of reading comprehension and writing achievement as well as to correlate the students‟ reading comprehension with their writing achievement. The participant of the study were 32 senior high school Indonesian students. There are three instruments used in this study, those are IQ test, reading comprehension test, and writing test. Upon obtaining the whole data needed, Pearson Product Moment formula was employed to determine the correlation of IQ with reading comprehension and writing achievement as well as reading comprehension with writing achievement. The result of this study revealed that IQ made significant contribution in predicting reading comprehension (23.42% and writing achievement (16.08%. In addition, the correlation coefficient of reading comprehension and writing achievement shows that they are moderately correlated (r=.587, meaning that reading comprehension contributes as many as 34.45% to writing achievement.

  11. Bifactor model of WISC-IV: Applicability and measurement invariance in low and normal IQ groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson; Vance, Alasdair; Watson, Shaun

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the applicability and measurement invariance of the bifactor model of the 10 Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) core subtests in groups of children and adolescents (age range from 6 to 16 years) with low (IQ ≤79; N = 229; % male = 75.9) and normal (IQ ≥80; N = 816; % male = 75.0) IQ scores. Results supported this model in both groups, and there was good support for measurement invariance for this model across these groups. For all participants together, the omega hierarchical and explained common variance (ECV) values were high for the general factor and low to negligible for the specific factors. Together, the findings favor the use of the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) scores of the WISC-IV, but not the subscale index scores. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Analysis and compensation of I/Q imbalance in amplify-and-forward cooperative systems

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Jian

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, dual-hop amplify-and-forward (AF) cooperative systems in the presence of in-phase and quadrature-phase (I/Q) imbalance, which refers to the mismatch between components in I and Q branches, are investigated. First, we analyze the performance of the considered AF cooperative protocol without compensation for I/Q imbalance as the benchmark. Furthermore, a compensation algorithm for I/Q imbalance is proposed, which makes use of the received signals at the destination, from the source and relay nodes, together with their conjugations to detect the transmitted signal. The performance of the AF cooperative system under study is evaluated in terms of average symbol error probability (SEP), which is derived considering transmission over Rayleigh fading channels. Numerical results are provided and show that the proposed compensation algorithm can efficiently mitigate the effect of I/Q imbalance. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. Assessing potentially gifted students from lower socioeconomic status with nonverbal measures of intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaunessy, Elizabeth; Karnes, Frances A; Cobb, Yolanda

    2004-06-01

    The screening and identification of gifted students has historically been conducted using verbal measures of intelligence. However, the underrepresentation in gifted programs of culturally diverse children, who may have limited English proficiency or cultural values different from those measured in traditional intelligence tests, has prompted researchers to consider other measures. Nonverbal measures of intelligence have been utilized to increase the number of gifted children from diverse backgrounds. Researchers in the current study sought to increase the number of culturally diverse gifted students at a rural public school enrolling predominantly African-American students from low socioeconomic homes. 169 students in Grades 2 through 6 were assessed using three nonverbal measures of intelligence: the Culture-Fair Intelligence Test, the Naglieri Nonverbal Abilities Test, and the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices. The scores on these nonverbal measures indicated that the Culture-Fair Intelligence Test and the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices identified more students than the Naglieri Nonverbal Abilities Test. A discussion of the results and implications for research are presented.

  14. Nonverbal Synchrony in Social Interactions of Patients with Schizophrenia Indicates Socio-Communicative Deficits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeno Kupper

    Full Text Available Disordered interpersonal communication can be a serious problem in schizophrenia. Recent advances in computer-based measures allow reliable and objective quantification of nonverbal behavior. Research using these novel measures has shown that objective amounts of body and head movement in patients with schizophrenia during social interactions are closely related to the symptom profiles of these patients. In addition to and above mere amounts of movement, the degree of synchrony, or imitation, between patients and normal interactants may be indicative of core deficits underlying various problems in domains related to interpersonal communication, such as symptoms, social competence, and social functioning.Nonverbal synchrony was assessed objectively using Motion Energy Analysis (MEA in 378 brief, videotaped role-play scenes involving 27 stabilized outpatients diagnosed with paranoid-type schizophrenia.Low nonverbal synchrony was indicative of symptoms, low social competence, impaired social functioning, and low self-evaluation of competence. These relationships remained largely significant when correcting for the amounts of patients' movement. When patients showed reduced imitation of their interactants' movements, negative symptoms were likely to be prominent. Conversely, positive symptoms were more prominent in patients when their interaction partners' imitation of their movements was reduced.Nonverbal synchrony can be an objective and sensitive indicator of the severity of patients' problems. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of nonverbal synchrony may provide novel insights into specific relationships between symptoms, cognition, and core communicative problems in schizophrenia.

  15. Negative Symptoms and Avoidance of Social Interaction: A Study of Non-Verbal Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worswick, Elizabeth; Dimic, Sara; Wildgrube, Christiane; Priebe, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Non-verbal behaviour is fundamental to social interaction. Patients with schizophrenia display an expressivity deficit of non-verbal behaviour, exhibiting behaviour that differs from both healthy subjects and patients with different psychiatric diagnoses. The present study aimed to explore the association between non-verbal behaviour and symptom domains, overcoming methodological shortcomings of previous studies. Standardised interviews with 63 outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia were videotaped. Symptoms were assessed using the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Calgary Depression Scale. Independent raters later analysed the videos for non-verbal behaviour, using a modified version of the Ethological Coding System for Interviews (ECSI). Patients with a higher level of negative symptoms displayed significantly fewer prosocial (e.g., nodding and smiling), gesture, and displacement behaviours (e.g., fumbling), but significantly more flight behaviours (e.g., looking away, freezing). No gender differences were found, and these associations held true when adjusted for antipsychotic medication dosage. Negative symptoms are associated with both a lower level of actively engaging non-verbal behaviour and an increased active avoidance of social contact. Future research should aim to identify the mechanisms behind flight behaviour, with implications for the development of treatments to improve social functioning. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. [Non-verbal communication and executive function impairment after traumatic brain injury: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainson, C

    2007-05-01

    Following post-traumatic impairment in executive function, failure to adjust to communication situations often creates major obstacles to social and professional reintegration. The analysis of pathological verbal communication has been based on clinical scales since the 1980s, but that of nonverbal elements has been neglected, although their importance should be acknowledged. The aim of this research was to study non-verbal aspects of communication in a case of executive-function impairment after traumatic brain injury. During the patient's conversation with an interlocutor, all nonverbal parameters - coverbal gestures, gaze, posture, proxemics and facial expressions - were studied in as much an ecological way as possible, to closely approximate natural conversation conditions. Such an approach highlights the difficulties such patients experience in communicating, difficulties of a pragmatic kind, that have so far been overlooked by traditional investigations, which mainly take into account the formal linguistic aspects of language. The analysis of the patient's conversation revealed non-verbal dysfunctions, not only on a pragmatic and interactional level but also in terms of enunciation. Moreover, interactional adjustment phenomena were noted in the interlocutor's behaviour. The two inseparable aspects of communication - verbal and nonverbal - should be equally assessed in patients with communication difficulties; highlighting distortions in each area might bring about an improvement in the rehabilitation of such people.

  17. Parental Socioeconomic Status or IQ? An Exploration of Major Determinants of U.S. Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Dillon Montgomery

    2018-01-01

    The Bell Curve by Charles Murray and Richard Herrnstein is one of the most controversial academic works of the last few decades. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youths (1979), we performed a number of regressions of poverty status in 1989 on parental socioeconomic status, IQ, race, sex, and age. We replicate their results which show that IQ is a more important predictor of poverty status than parental socioeconomic status (SES). We extend their analysis to other groupings ...

  18. Joint IQ Skew and Chromatic Dispersion Estimation for Coherent Optical Communication Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medeiros Diniz, Júlio César; Porto da Silva, Edson; Piels, Molly

    2016-01-01

    A low-complexity scanning method for joint estimation of receiver IQ skew and chromatic dispersion is proposed. This method shows less than 1 ps skew error for a 1200-km 32-GBd DP-16QAM optical transmission experiment.......A low-complexity scanning method for joint estimation of receiver IQ skew and chromatic dispersion is proposed. This method shows less than 1 ps skew error for a 1200-km 32-GBd DP-16QAM optical transmission experiment....

  19. Investigating the predictive roles of working memory and IQ in academic attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Alloway, Ross G.

    2010-01-01

    There is growing evidence for the relationship between working memory and academic attainment. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether working memory is simply a proxy for IQ or whether there is a unique contribution to learning outcomes. The findings indicate that children's working memory skills at 5 years of age were the best predictor of literacy and numeracy 6 years later. IQ in contrast, accounted for a smaller portion of unique variance to these learning outcomes. The r...

  20. A Meta-Analysis of Differences in IQ Profiles between Individuals with Asperger's Disorder and High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsu-Min; Tsai, Luke Y.; Cheung, Ying Kuen; Brown, Alice; Li, Huacheng

    2014-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to examine differences in IQ profiles between individuals with Asperger's disorder (AspD) and high-functioning autism (HFA). Fifty-two studies were included for this study. The results showed that (a) individuals with AspD had significantly higher full-scale IQ, verbal IQ (VIQ), and performance IQ (PIQ) than did…

  1. Statistical thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Gyeong Hui

    2008-03-01

    This book consists of 15 chapters, which are basic conception and meaning of statistical thermodynamics, Maxwell-Boltzmann's statistics, ensemble, thermodynamics function and fluctuation, statistical dynamics with independent particle system, ideal molecular system, chemical equilibrium and chemical reaction rate in ideal gas mixture, classical statistical thermodynamics, ideal lattice model, lattice statistics and nonideal lattice model, imperfect gas theory on liquid, theory on solution, statistical thermodynamics of interface, statistical thermodynamics of a high molecule system and quantum statistics

  2. Relationships between Cerebral Blood Flow and IQ in Typically Developing Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilroy, Emily; Liu, Collin Y; Yan, Lirong; Kim, Yoon Chun; Dapretto, Mirella; Mendez, Mario F; Wang, Danny J J

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between IQ and cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured by arterial spin labeling (ASL) in children and adolescents. ASL was used to collect perfusion MRI data on 39 healthy participants aged 7 to 17. The Wechsler Abbreviated Intelligence Scale was administered to determine IQ scores. Multivariate regression was applied to reveal correlations between CBF and IQ scores, accounting for age, sex and global mean CBF. Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) analysis, which measures regional cortical volume, was performed as a control. Regression analyses were further performed on CBF data with adjustment of regional gray matter density (GMD). A positive correlation between CBF and IQ scores was primarily seen in the subgenual/anterior cingulate, right orbitofrontal, superior temporal and right inferior parietal regions. An inverse relationship between CBF and IQ was mainly observed in bilateral posterior temporal regions. After adjusting for regional GMD, the correlations between CBF and IQ in the subgenual/anterior cingulate cortex, right orbitofrontal, superior temporal regions and left insula remained significant. These findings support the Parieto-Frontal Integration Theory of intelligence, especially the role of the subgenual/anterior cingulate cortex in the neural networks associated with intelligence. The present study also demonstrates the unique value of CBF in assessing brain-behavior relationships, in addition to structural morphometric measures.

  3. Cannabis users have higher premorbid IQ than other patients with first onset psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Laura; Russo, Manuela; O'Connor, Jennifer; Wiffen, Benjamin D R; Falcone, Maria Aurora; Sideli, Lucia; Gardner-Sood, Poonam; Stilo, Simona; Trotta, Antonella; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Taylor, Heather; Friedman, Bess; Sallis, Hannah; La Cascia, Caterina; La Barbera, Daniele; David, Anthony S; Reichenberg, Abraham; Murray, Robin M; Di Forti, Marta

    2013-10-01

    A number of studies have reported that patients with psychosis who use cannabis have better cognitive performance than those who do not. This is surprising as cannabis can impair cognition in healthy subjects. An obvious question is whether the better current performance of psychotic patients who have used cannabis is a reflection of their having a higher premorbid IQ than those psychotic patients who haven't used cannabis. In a sample of patients at their first episode of psychosis, we tested the hypothesis that patients who smoked cannabis would have a higher premorbid IQ than patients who did not. 279 participants (119 patients and 160 healthy controls) were assessed in order to obtain current and premorbid IQ measures and detailed information on cannabis use. We examined the association between cannabis use and both premorbid and current IQ in patients and controls. Patients who had ever smoked cannabis had significantly higher current (pIQ (p=.004) compared to patients who had never used cannabis. This difference was not found among controls. These findings suggest that the better cognitive performance of patients with their first episode of psychosis who have used cannabis compared with those who haven't is due to the better premorbid IQ of the former. © 2013.

  4. IQ, the Urban Environment, and Their Impact on Future Schizophrenia Risk in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulopoulou, Timothea; Picchioni, Marco; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Petersen, Liselotte

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to an urban environment during early life and low IQ are 2 well-established risk factors for schizophrenia. It is not known, however, how these factors might relate to one another. Data were pooled from the North Jutland regional draft board IQ assessments and the Danish Conscription Registry for men born between 1955 and 1993. Excluding those who were followed up for less than 1 year after the assessment yielded a final cohort of 153170 men of whom 578 later developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. We found significant effects of having an urban birth, and also experiencing an increase in urbanicity before the age of 10 years, on adult schizophrenia risk. The effect of urban birth was independent of IQ. However, there was a significant interaction between childhood changes in urbanization in the first 10 years and IQ level on the future adult schizophrenia risk. In short, those subjects who moved to more or less urban areas before their 10th birthday lost the protective effect of IQ. When thinking about adult schizophrenia risk, the critical time window of childhood sensitivity to changes in urbanization seems to be linked to IQ. Given the prediction that by 2050, over 80% of the developed world's population will live in an urban environment, this represents a major future public health issue. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Carrier Frequency Offset Estimation and I/Q Imbalance Compensation for OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Omair Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of radio-frequency front-end imperfections, that is, carrier frequency offset and the inphase/quadrature (I/Q imbalance are considered for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM communication systems. A preamble-assisted carrier frequency estimator is proposed along with an I/Q imbalance compensation scheme. The new frequency estimator reveals the relationship between the inphase and the quadrature components of the received preamble and extracts the frequency offset from the phase shift caused by the frequency offset and the cross-talk interference due to the I/Q imbalance. The proposed frequency estimation algorithm is fast, efficient, and robust to I/Q imbalance. An I/Q imbalance estimation/compensation algorithm is also presented by solving a least-square problem formulated using the same preamble as employed for the frequency offset estimation. The computational complexity of the I/Q estimation scheme is further reduced by using part of the short symbols with a little sacrifice in the estimation accuracy. Computer simulation and comparison with some of the existing algorithms are conducted, showing the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Health, wealth and IQ in sub-Saharan Africa: challenges facing the 'Savanna Principle' as an explanation for global inequalities in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, George T H

    2007-05-01

    Kanazawa's (2006) national- and individual-level analyses seem to support his hypothesis that: IQ scores are better predictors of health than wealth or inequality, except in 'evolutionarily familiar' sub-Saharan Africa which offers limited selection for intelligence (British Journal of Health Psychology 11: 623-42). However, the present paper exposes the flawed assumptions, questionable data, inappropriate analyses and biased interpretations on which this thesis was based. It questions the assumptions that: IQ scores are markers of adaptive genetic differences in intelligence; humans evolved within a predictable 'environment of evolutionary adaptedness': and this environment characterizes contemporary sub-Saharan Africa, offering little selection for intelligence. It also demonstrates that the macro-level data on which these analyses were based were collected across a range of different years, using a range of different sources, and were significantly intercorrelated. While none of these analyses adjusted for study year or study type, all were susceptible to multicollinearity and the 'ecological fallacy'. These flaws were compounded by the selective presentation and partial interpretation of the analyses, which focused on the absence of an 'independent' relationship between 'national IQ' and health within sub-Saharan Africa, but ignored the fact that this is also true for every other region of the world. Likewise, the individual-level analyses did not explore the relationship between IQ scores, self-reported income and health by race, which would have demonstrated the impact of the ecological fallacy. Instead, Kanazawa (2006) mistook statistical associations for evidence of causality and falsely concluded that populations in sub-Saharan Africa are less healthy because they are unintelligent and not because they are poor.

  7. A Brain–Computer Interface for Potential Nonverbal Facial Communication Based on EEG Signals Related to Specific Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji eKashihara

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Unlike assistive technology for verbal communication, the brain–machine or brain–computer interface (BMI/BCI has not been established as a nonverbal communication tool for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS patients. Face-to-face communication enables access to rich emotional information, but individuals suffering from neurological disorders, such as ALS and autism, may not express their emotions or communicate their negative feelings. Although emotions may be inferred by looking at facial expressions, emotional prediction for neutral faces necessitates advanced judgment. The process that underlies brain neuronal responses to neutral faces and causes emotional changes remains unknown. To address this problem, therefore, this study attempted to decode conditioned emotional reactions to neutral face stimuli. This direction was motivated by the assumption that if electroencephalogram (EEG signals can be used to detect patients’ emotional responses to specific inexpressive faces, the results could be incorporated into the design and development of BMI/BCI-based nonverbal communication tools. To these ends, this study investigated how a neutral face associated with a negative emotion modulates rapid central responses in face processing and then identified cortical activities. The conditioned neutral face-triggered event-related potentials that originated from the posterior temporal lobe statistically significantly changed during late face processing (600–700 ms after stimulus, rather than in early face processing activities, such as P1 and N170 responses. Source localization revealed that the conditioned neutral faces increased activity in the right fusiform gyrus. This study also developed an efficient method for detecting implicit negative emotional responses to specific faces by using EEG signals.

  8. Association of Childhood Infection With IQ and Adult Nonaffective Psychosis in Swedish Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalman, Christina; Kappelmann, Nils; Stochl, Jan; Dal, Henrik; Kosidou, Kyriaki; Jones, Peter B.; Karlsson, Håkan

    2018-01-01

    Importance Associations between childhood infection, IQ, and adult nonaffective psychosis (NAP) are well established. However, examination of sensitive periods for exposure, effect of familial confounding, and whether IQ provides a link between childhood infection and adult NAP may elucidate pathogenesis of psychosis further. Objectives To test the association of childhood infection with IQ and adult NAP, to find whether shared familial confounding explains the infection-NAP and IQ-NAP associations, and to examine whether IQ mediates and/or moderates the childhood infection-NAP association. Design, Setting, and Participants Population-based longitudinal cohort study using linkage of Swedish national registers. The risk set included all Swedish men born between 1973 and 1992 and conscripted into the military until the end of 2010 (n = 771 698). We included 647 515 participants in the analysis. Measurement of Exposures Hospitalization with any infection from birth to age 13 years. Main Outcomes and Measures Hospitalization with an International Classification of Diseases diagnosis of NAP until the end of 2011. At conscription around age 18 years, IQ was assessed for all participants. Results At the end of follow-up, the mean (SD) age of participants was 30.73 (5.3) years. Exposure to infections, particularly in early childhood, was associated with lower IQ (adjusted mean difference for infection at birth to age 1 year: –1.61; 95% CI, −1.74 to −1.47) and with increased risk of adult NAP (adjusted hazard ratio for infection at birth to age 1 year: 1.19; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.33). There was a linear association between lower premorbid IQ and adult NAP, which persisted after excluding prodromal cases (adjusted hazard ratio per 1-point increase in IQ: 0.976; 95% CI, 0.974 to 0.978). The infection-NAP and IQ-NAP associations were similar in the general population and in full-sibling pairs discordant for exposure. The association between infection and NAP was both

  9. Nonverbal communication and conversational contribution in breast cancer genetic counseling: are counselors' nonverbal communication and conversational contribution associated with counselees' satisfaction, needs fulfillment and state anxiety in breast cancer genetic counseling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.; Albada, A.; Klöckner Cronauer, C.; Ausems, M.G.E.M.; Dulmen, S. van

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The current study aimed to examine how counselors’ nonverbal communication (i.e. nonverbal encouragements and counselee-directed eye gaze) and conversational contribution (i.e. verbal dominance and interactivity) during the final visit within breast cancer genetic counseling relate to

  10. The Effects of Verbal and Non-Verbal Features on the Reception of DRTV Commercials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiljana Komar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of consumer response are important for successful advertising as they help advertisers to find new, original and successful ways of persuasion. Successful advertisements have to boost the product’s benefits but they also have to appeal to consumers’ emotions. In TV advertisements, this is done by means of verbal and non-verbal strategies. The paper presents the results of an empirical investigation whose purpose was to examine the viewers’ emotional responses to a DRTV commercial induced by different verbal and non-verbal features, the amount of credibility and persuasiveness of the commercial and its general acceptability. Our findings indicate that (1 an overload of the same verbal and non-verbal information decreases persuasion; and (2 highly marked prosodic delivery is either exaggerated or funny, while the speaker is perceived as annoying.

  11. Does IQ affect the functional brain network involved in pseudoword reading in students with reading disability? A magnetoencephalography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis G Simos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined whether individual differences in performance and verbal IQ affect the profiles of reading-related regional brain activation in 127 students experiencing reading difficulties and typical readers. Using magnetoencephalography in a pseudoword read-aloud task, we compared brain activation profiles of students experiencing word-level reading difficulties who did (n=29 or did not (n=36 meet the IQ-reading achievement discrepancy criterion. Typical readers assigned to a lower-IQ (n=18 or a higher IQ (n=44 subgroup served as controls. Minimum norm estimates of regional cortical activity revealed that the degree of hypoactivation in the left superior temporal and supramarginal gyri in both RD subgroups was not affected by IQ. Moreover, IQ did not moderate the positive association between degree of activation in the left fusiform gyrus and phonological decoding ability. We did find, however, that the hypoactivation of the left pars opercularis in RD was restricted to lower-IQ participants. In accordance with previous morphometric and fMRI studies, degree of activity in inferior frontal and inferior parietal regions correlated with IQ across reading ability subgroups. Results are consistent with current views questioning the relevance of IQ measures and IQ-discrepancy criteria in the diagnosis of dyslexia.

  12. "Preparatory power posing affects nonverbal presence and job interview performance": Correction to Cuddy et al. (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    Reports an error in "Preparatory power posing affects nonverbal presence and job interview performance" by Amy J. C. Cuddy, Caroline A. Wilmuth, Andy J. Yap and Dana R. Carney ( Journal of Applied Psychology , 2015[Jul], Vol 100[4], 1286-1295). In the article, the degrees of freedom associated with the three F-tests noted on pages 1289 and 1290 should be 1 and 59 (and not 1 and 60, as previously reported). Also, on p. 1290, in the first sentence under the "Mediation" heading, it should be noted that the dependent variables were regressed onto the mediators, and not the other way around. Finally, in Figures 2 and 3 (on p.interview-preparatory power posing-would enhance performance during the interview. Participants adopted high-power (i.e., expansive, open) poses or low-power (i.e., contractive, closed) poses, and then prepared and delivered a speech to 2 evaluators as part of a mock job interview. All interview speeches were videotaped and coded for overall performance and hireability and for 2 potential mediators: verbal content (e.g., structure, content) and nonverbal presence (e.g., captivating, enthusiastic). As predicted, those who prepared for the job interview with high- (vs. low-) power poses performed better and were more likely to be chosen for hire; this relation was mediated by nonverbal presence, but not by verbal content. Although previous research has focused on how a nonverbal behavior that is enacted during interactions and observed by perceivers affects how those perceivers evaluate and respond to the actor, this experiment focused on how a nonverbal behavior that is enacted before the interaction and unobserved by perceivers affects the actor's performance, which, in turn, affects how perceivers evaluate and respond to the actor. This experiment reveals a theoretically novel and practically informative result that demonstrates the causal relation between preparatory nonverbal behavior and subsequent performance and outcomes. (PsycINFO Database

  13. Covalent binding of food carcinogens MeIQx, MeIQ and IQ to DNA and protein in microsomal incubations and isolated rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, H.; Holme, J.A.; Alexander, J.

    1992-01-01

    The metabolic activation of 14 C-labelled food carcinogens 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx),2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline(MeIQ) and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) to macromolecular bound species was studied in microsomal and hepatocellular incubations. Several data indicated that the covalent binding was dependent on P450 enzymes: It was dependent on NADPH, it was induced many times by the P450 IA1 and IA2 upregulators β-naphthoflavone and polychlorinated biphenyls, and was inhibited by the P450 IA1 and IA2 inhibitor α-naphtoflavone. In both hepatocellular and microsomal incubations the three compounds bound with similar efficiency, with IQ being somewhat more potent compared to MeIQx and MeIQ. The binding appeared to follow saturation kinetics with K m values less than 20 μM. In incubations with hepatocytes the compounds bound to both cellular DNA and to bovine serum albumin in the medium. The fact that 13-26% of total adducts were formed with bovine serum albumin, indicates that reactive metabolites of the compounds may be transported and react at distant sites from their formation without any further activation. (au)

  14. IQ and obesity in adolescence: a population-based, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, S; Werbeloff, N; Fruchter, E; Portuguese, S; Davidson, M; Weiser, M

    2014-12-01

    Low IQ is associated with high BMI in childhood. There are inconsistent findings on the association between low SES and high BMI. Youth with low IQ have been reported to have poorer health behaviors, such as poor nutrition and less physical activity. Low IQ is significantly associated with obesity for both male and female adolescents, though more strongly for female adolescents. Physical activity has a mediating effect on the association between low IQ and obesity among both male and female adolescents, though more strongly for male adolescents. The association between low IQ and obesity is strongest among adolescents from high SES backgrounds. Previous studies have shown an association between low intelligence quotient (IQ), high body mass index and low socioeconomic status (SES). This study examined the cross-sectional association between IQ and obesity, exploring the roles of gender, SES and physical activity in this association. Subjects were 235,663 male and 169,259 female adolescents assessed by the Israeli military draft board. Low IQ was significantly associated with increased odds of obesity among male (odds ratio [OR] = 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.36-1.52) and female adolescents (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.51-1.73); this association was significantly stronger among female adolescents. Sobel tests indicated that physical activity had a significant mediating effect on this association for male and female adolescents, although more strongly for male adolescents. Dividing the sample according to SES, the association between low IQ and obesity was strongest in the high SES group (male adolescents: OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.10-1.43, female adolescents: OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.38-1.89), even when controlling for physical activity. The findings suggest that low IQ is associated with increased odds of obesity, particularly in female adolescents and in adolescents with high SES. Physical activity has a mediating effect on this

  15. Assessment of PlanIQ Feasibility DVH for head and neck treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, David V; Chera, Bhishamjit S; Das, Shiva K

    2017-09-01

    Designing a radiation plan that optimally delivers both target coverage and normal tissue sparing is challenging. There are limited tools to determine what is dosimetrically achievable and frequently the experience of the planner/physician is relied upon to make these determinations. PlanIQ software provides a tool that uses target and organ at risk (OAR) geometry to indicate the difficulty of achieving different points for organ dose-volume histograms (DVH). We hypothesized that PlanIQ Feasibility DVH may aid planners in reducing dose to OARs. Clinically delivered head and neck treatments (clinical plan) were re-planned (re-plan) putting high emphasis on maximally sparing the contralateral parotid gland, contralateral submandibular gland, and larynx while maintaining routine clinical dosimetric objectives. The planner was blinded to the results of the clinically delivered plan as well as the Feasibility DVHs from PlanIQ. The re-plan treatments were designed using 3-arc VMAT in Raystation (RaySearch Laboratories, Sweden). The planner was then given the results from the PlanIQ Feasibility DVH analysis and developed an additional plan incorporating this information using 4-arc VMAT (IQ plan). The DVHs across the three treatment plans were compared with what was deemed "impossible" by PlanIQ's Feasibility DVH (Impossible DVH). The impossible DVH (red) is defined as the DVH generated using the minimal dose that any voxel outside the targets must receive given 100% target coverage. The re-plans performed blinded to PlanIQ Feasibilty DVH achieved superior sparing of aforementioned OARs compared to the clinically delivered plans and resulted in discrepancies from the impossible DVHs by an average of 200-700 cGy. Using the PlanIQ Feasibility DVH led to additionalOAR sparing compared to both the re-plans and clinical plans and reduced the discrepancies from the impossible DVHs to an average of approximately 100 cGy. The dose reduction from clinical to re-plan and re-plan to

  16. Relationships of Big Five personality traits and nonverbal intelligence at high school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronina Irina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of study on the relationship of personality traits and intelligence in Russian high school students. The study focused on Big Five personality traits - Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness - and the structure of their relationships with nonverbal intelligence, as measured by the test “Standard Progressive Matrices”. Significant correlations were only found between nonverbal intelligence and Openness (r = 0.26, p < 0.05. The results are interpreted in the context of investment theory, which assumes that personality traits can promote the formation of individual differences in intelligence.

  17. Association of childhood blood-lead levels with cognitive function and socioeconomic status at age 38 years and with IQ change and socioeconomic mobility between childhood and adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, Aaron; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W.; Broadbent, Jonathan; Harrington, Honalee; Sugden, Karen; Houts, Renate M.; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2017-01-01

    -associated deficits in Verbal Comprehension and Processing Speed were not statistically significant. After adjusting for confounders, each 5μg/dL higher level of blood-lead in childhood was associated with a 1.79-unit lower score (95%CI: −3.17, −0.40) in socioeconomic status. An association between greater blood-lead levels and a decline in IQ and socioeconomic status from childhood to adulthood was observed, with 40% of the association with downward mobility mediated by cognitive decline from childhood. Conclusion and Relevance In this cohort born in New Zealand in 1972–1973, childhood lead exposure was associated with lower cognitive function and socioeconomic status at age 38 years and with declines in IQ and downward social mobility. Childhood lead exposure may have long-term ramifications. PMID:28350927

  18. Association of Childhood Blood Lead Levels With Cognitive Function and Socioeconomic Status at Age 38 Years and With IQ Change and Socioeconomic Mobility Between Childhood and Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, Aaron; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Broadbent, Jonathan; Harrington, Honalee; Sugden, Karen; Houts, Renate M; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2017-03-28

    verbal comprehension and processing speed were not statistically significant. After adjusting for confounders, each 5-µg/dL higher level of blood lead in childhood was associated with a 1.79-unit lower score (95% CI, -3.17 to -0.40) in socioeconomic status. An association between greater blood lead levels and a decline in IQ and socioeconomic status from childhood to adulthood was observed with 40% of the association with downward mobility mediated by cognitive decline from childhood. In this cohort born in New Zealand in 1972-1973, childhood lead exposure was associated with lower cognitive function and socioeconomic status at age 38 years and with declines in IQ and with downward social mobility. Childhood lead exposure may have long-term ramifications.

  19. Short-Term Memory Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment: The Effect of Verbal and Nonverbal Task Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botting, Nicola; Psarou, Popi; Caplin, Tamara; Nevin, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Background and Design: In recent years, evidence has emerged that suggests specific language impairment (SLI) does not exclusively affect linguistic skill. Studies have revealed memory difficulties, including those measured using nonverbal tasks. However, there has been relatively little research into the nature of the verbal/nonverbal boundaries…

  20. Counselor Nonverbal Self-Disclosure and Fear of Intimacy during Employment Counseling: An Aptitude-Treatment Interaction Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrein, Cindy; Bernaud, Jean-Luc

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of nonverbal self-disclosure within the dynamic of aptitude-treatment interaction. Participants (N = 94) watched a video of a career counseling session aimed at helping the jobseeker to find employment. The video was then edited to display 3 varying degrees of nonverbal self-disclosure. In conjunction with the…

  1. The Relationship Between Attitudes Toward the Handicapped and Nonverbal Behavior with Educators of Special Needs Students: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, Robert A.; And Others

    Examined were the relationships between attitudes toward the handicapped and nonverbal behavior of 60 special education teachers involved in inservice or preservice coursework. Ss were administered the Attitudes Toward Handicapped Individuals (ATHI) Scale and the Nonverbal Behavior Characteristics Scale (NBCS). Analysis of the data indicated a…

  2. Multi-level prediction of short-term outcome of depression : non-verbal interpersonal processes, cognitions and personality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, E; Bouhuys, N

    1998-01-01

    It was hypothesized that personality factors determine the short-term outcome of depression, and that they may do this via non-verbal interpersonal interactions and via cognitive interpretations of non-verbal behaviour. Twenty-six hospitalized depressed patients entered the study. Personality

  3. Non-verbal Communication in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Video Audit Using Non-verbal Immediacy Scale (NIS-O).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimbalkar, Somashekhar Marutirao; Raval, Himalaya; Bansal, Satvik Chaitanya; Pandya, Utkarsh; Pathak, Ajay

    2018-05-03

    Effective communication with parents is a very important skill for pediatricians especially in a neonatal setup. The authors analyzed non-verbal communication of medical caregivers during counseling sessions. Recorded videos of counseling sessions from the months of March-April 2016 were audited. Counseling episodes were scored using Non-verbal Immediacy Scale Observer Report (NIS-O). A total of 150 videos of counseling sessions were audited. The mean (SD) total score on (NIS-O) was 78.96(7.07). Female counseled sessions had significantly higher proportion of low scores (p communication skills in a neonatal unit. This study lays down a template on which other Neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) can carry out gap defining audits.

  4. A longitudinal twin study on IQ, executive functioning, and attention problems during childhood and early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polderman, Tinca J C; Gosso, M Florencia; Posthuma, Danielle; Van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Heutink, Peter; Verhulst, Frank C; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2006-12-01

    Variation in human behavior may be caused by differences in genotype and by non-genetic differences ("environment") between individuals. The relative contributions of genotype (G) and environment (E) to phenotypic variation can be assessed with the classical twin design. We illustrate this approach with longitudinal data collected in 5 and 12-year-old Dutch twins. At age 5 data on cognitive abilities as assessed with a standard intelligence test (IQ), working memory, selective and sustained attention, and attention problems were collected in 237 twin pairs. Seven years later, 172 twin pairs participated again when they were 12 years old and underwent a similar protocol. Results showed that variation in all phenotypes was influenced by genetic factors. For IQ the heritability estimates increased from 30% at age 5, to 80% at age 12. For executive functioning performance genetic factors accounted for around 50% of the variance at both ages. Attention problems showed high heritabilities (above 60%) at both ages, for maternal and teacher ratings. Longitudinal analyses revealed that executive functioning during childhood was weakly correlated with IQ scores at age 12. Attention problems during childhood, as rated by the mother and the teacher were stronger predictors (r = -0.28 and -0.36, respectively). This association could be attributed to a partly overlapping set of genes influencing attention problems at age 5 and IQ at age 12. IQ performance at age 5 was the best predictor of IQ at age 12. IQ at both ages was influenced by the same genes, whose influence was amplified during development.

  5. Improving IQ measurement in intellectual disabilities using true deviation from population norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Stephanie M; Schneider, Andrea; Bickel, Erika; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Prescott, Christina; Hessl, David

    2014-01-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by global cognitive deficits, yet the very IQ tests used to assess ID have limited range and precision in this population, especially for more impaired individuals. We describe the development and validation of a method of raw z-score transformation (based on general population norms) that ameliorates floor effects and improves the precision of IQ measurement in ID using the Stanford Binet 5 (SB5) in fragile X syndrome (FXS; n = 106), the leading inherited cause of ID, and in individuals with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 205). We compared the distributional characteristics and Q-Q plots from the standardized scores with the deviation z-scores. Additionally, we examined the relationship between both scoring methods and multiple criterion measures. We found evidence that substantial and meaningful variation in cognitive ability on standardized IQ tests among individuals with ID is lost when converting raw scores to standardized scaled, index and IQ scores. Use of the deviation z- score method rectifies this problem, and accounts for significant additional variance in criterion validation measures, above and beyond the usual IQ scores. Additionally, individual and group-level cognitive strengths and weaknesses are recovered using deviation scores. Traditional methods for generating IQ scores in lower functioning individuals with ID are inaccurate and inadequate, leading to erroneously flat profiles. However assessment of cognitive abilities is substantially improved by measuring true deviation in performance from standardization sample norms. This work has important implications for standardized test development, clinical assessment, and research for which IQ is an important measure of interest in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders and other forms of cognitive impairment.

  6. Breastfeeding and Childhood IQ: The Mediating Role of Gray Matter Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Joan L; Belden, Andy C; Whalen, Diana; Harms, Michael P; Barch, Deanna M

    2016-05-01

    A substantial body of literature has established the positive effect of breastfeeding on child developmental outcomes. There is increasing consensus that breastfed children have higher IQs after accounting for key variables, including maternal education, IQ, and socioeconomic status. Cross-sectional investigations of the effects of breastfeeding on structural brain development suggest that breastfed infants have larger whole brain, cortical, and white matter volumes. To date, few studies have related these measures of brain structure to IQ in breastfed versus nonbreastfed children in a longitudinal sample. Data were derived from the Preschool Depression Study (PDS), a prospective longitudinal study in which children and caregivers were assessed annually for 8 waves over 11 years. A subset completed neuroimaging between the ages of 9.5 and 14.11 years. A total of 148 individuals had breastfeeding data at baseline and complete data on all variables of interest, including IQ and structural neuroimaging. General linear models and process mediation models were used. Breastfed children had significantly higher IQ scores and larger whole brain, total gray matter, total cortical gray matter, and subcortical gray matter volumes compared with the nonbreastfed group in models that covaried for key variables. Subcortical gray matter volume significantly mediated the association between breastfeeding and children's IQ scores. The study findings suggest that the effects of breastfeeding on child IQ are mediated through subcortical gray volume. This effect and putative mechanism is of public health significance and further supports the importance of breastfeeding in mental health promotion. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Glue Ear, Hearing Loss and IQ: An Association Moderated by the Child’s Home Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Amanda J.; Maw, Richard; Midgley, Elizabeth; Golding, Jean; Steer, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Background Glue ear or otitis media with effusion (OME) is common in children and may be associated with hearing loss (HL). For most children it has no long lasting effects on cognitive development but it is unclear whether there are subgroups at higher risk of sequelae. Objectives To examine the association between a score comprising the number of times a child had OME and HL (OME/HL score) in the first four/five years of life and IQ at age 4 and 8. To examine whether any association between OME/HL and IQ is moderated by socioeconomic, child or family factors. Methods Prospective, longitudinal cohort study: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). 1155 children tested using tympanometry on up to nine occasions and hearing for speech (word recognition) on up to three occasions between age 8 months and 5 years. An OME/HL score was created and associations with IQ at ages 4 and 8 were examined. Potential moderators included a measure of the child’s cognitive stimulation at home (HOME score). Results For the whole sample at age 4 the group with the highest 10% OME/HL scores had performance IQ 5 points lower [95% CI −9, −1] and verbal IQ 6 points lower [95% CI −10, −3] than the unaffected group. By age 8 the evidence for group differences was weak. There were significant interactions between OME/HL and the HOME score: those with high OME/HL scores and low 18 month HOME scores had lower IQ at age 4 and 8 than those with high OME/HL scores and high HOME scores. Adjusted mean differences ranged from 5 to 8 IQ points at age 4 and 8. Conclusions The cognitive development of children from homes with lower levels of cognitive stimulation is susceptible to the effects of glue ear and hearing loss. PMID:24498289

  8. Breastfeeding and Childhood IQ: The Mediating Role of Gray Matter Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Joan L.; Belden, Andy C.; Whalen, Diana; Harms, Michael P.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective A substantial body of literature has established the positive effect of breastfeeding on child developmental outcomes. There is increasing consensus that breastfed children have higher IQs after accounting for key variables, including maternal education, IQ, and socioeconomic status. Cross-sectional investigations of the effects of breastfeeding on structural brain development suggest that breastfed infants have larger whole brain, cortical, and white matter volumes. To date, few studies have related these measures of brain structure to IQ in breastfed versus nonbreastfed children in a longitudinal sample. Method Data were derived from the Preschool Depression Study (PDS), a prospective longitudinal study in which children and caregivers were assessed annually for 8 waves over 11 years. A subset completed neuroimaging between the ages of 9.5 and 14.11 years. A total of 148 individuals had breastfeeding data at baseline and complete data on all variables of interest, including IQ and structural neuroimaging. General linear models and process mediation models were used. Results Breastfed children had significantly higher IQ scores and larger whole brain, total gray matter, total cortical gray matter, and subcortical gray matter volumes compared with the nonbreastfed group in models that covaried for key variables. Subcortical gray matter volume significantly mediated the association between breast-feeding and children's IQ scores. Conclusion The study findings suggest that the effects of breastfeeding on child IQ are mediated through subcortical gray volume. This effect and putative mechanism is of public health significance and further supports the importance of breastfeeding in mental health promotion. PMID:27126850

  9. Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Cancer Statistics Cancer has a major impact on society in ... success of efforts to control and manage cancer. Statistics at a Glance: The Burden of Cancer in ...

  10. Stanford-Binet & WAIS IQ Differences and Their Implications for Adults with Intellectual Disability (aka Mental Retardation)

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Wayne; Miezejeski, Charles; Ryan, Robert; Zigman, Warren; Krinsky-McHale, Sharon; Urv, Tiina

    2010-01-01

    Stanford-Binet and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) IQs were compared for a group of 74 adults with intellectual disability (ID). In every case, WAIS Full Scale IQ was higher than the Stanford-Binet Composite IQ, with a mean difference of 16.7 points. These differences did not appear to be due to the lower minimum possible score for the Stanford-Binet. Additional comparisons with other measures suggested that the WAIS might systematically underestimate severity of intellectual impairm...

  11. Using the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) 7 Nonverbal Battery to Identify the Gifted/Talented: An Investigation of Demographic Effects and Norming Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Carol A.; Walther, Christine A. P.; Bartsch, Robert A.

    2018-01-01

    The nonverbal battery of the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) is one of the two most common nonverbal measures used in gifted identification, yet the relationships between demographic variables and CogAT7 performance has not yet been fully examined. Additionally, the effect of using the CogAT7 nonverbal battery on the identification of diverse…

  12. Contribution of brain size to IQ and educational underperformance in extremely preterm adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanie L Y Cheong

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Extremely preterm (EP survivors have smaller brains, lower IQ, and worse educational achievement than their term-born peers. The contribution of smaller brain size to the IQ and educational disadvantages of EP is unknown. This study aimed (i to compare brain volumes from multiple brain tissues and structures between EP-born (< 28 weeks and term-born (≥ 37 weeks control adolescents, (ii to explore the relationships of brain tissue volumes with IQ and basic educational skills and whether this differed by group, and (iii to explore how much total brain tissue volume explains the underperformance of EP adolescents compared with controls. METHODS: Longitudinal cohort study of 148 EP and 132 term controls born in Victoria, Australia in 1991-92. At age 18, magnetic resonance imaging-determined brain volumes of multiple tissues and structures were calculated. IQ and educational skills were measured using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI and the Wide Range Achievement Test(WRAT-4, respectively. RESULTS: Brain volumes were smaller in EP adolescents compared with controls (mean difference [95% confidence interval] of -5.9% [-8.0, -3.7%] for total brain tissue volume. The largest relative differences were noted in the thalamus and hippocampus. The EP group had lower IQs(-11.9 [-15.4, -8.5], spelling(-8.0 [-11.5, -4.6], math computation(-10.3 [-13.7, -6.9] and word reading(-5.6 [-8.8, -2.4] scores than controls; all p-values<0.001. Volumes of total brain tissue and other brain tissues and structures correlated positively with IQ and educational skills, a relationship that was similar for both the EP and controls. Total brain tissue volume explained between 20-40% of the IQ and educational outcome differences between EP and controls. CONCLUSIONS: EP adolescents had smaller brain volumes, lower IQs and poorer educational performance than controls. Brain volumes of multiple tissues and structures are related to IQ and

  13. Childhood IQ and risk of bipolar disorder in adulthood: prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel J; Anderson, Jana; Zammit, Stanley; Meyer, Thomas D; Pell, Jill P; Mackay, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Intellectual ability may be an endophenotypic marker for bipolar disorder. Within a large birth cohort, we aimed to assess whether childhood IQ (including both verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) subscales) was predictive of lifetime features of bipolar disorder assessed in young adulthood. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a large UK birth cohort, to test for an association between measures of childhood IQ at age 8 years and lifetime manic features assessed at age 22-23 years using the Hypomania Checklist-32 (HCL-32; n =1881 individuals). An ordinary least squares linear regression model was used, with normal childhood IQ (range 90-109) as the referent group. We adjusted analyses for confounding factors, including gender, ethnicity, handedness, maternal social class at recruitment, maternal age, maternal history of depression and maternal education. There was a positive association between IQ at age 8 years and lifetime manic features at age 22-23 years (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.159 (95% CI 0.120-0.198), P >0.001). Individuals in the lowest decile of manic features had a mean full-scale IQ (FSIQ) which was almost 10 points lower than those in the highest decile of manic features: mean FSIQ 100.71 (95% CI 98.74-102.6) v . 110.14 (95% CI 107.79-112.50), P >0.001. The association between IQ and manic features was present for FSIQ, VIQ and for PIQ but was strongest for VIQ. A higher childhood IQ score, and high VIQ in particular, may represent a marker of risk for the later development of bipolar disorder. This finding has implications for understanding of how liability to bipolar disorder may have been selected through generations. It will also inform future genetic studies at the interface of intelligence, creativity and bipolar disorder and is relevant to the developmental trajectory of bipolar disorder. It may also improve approaches to earlier detection and treatment of bipolar disorder in adolescents

  14. Regular breakfast consumption is associated with increased IQ in kindergarten children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Dickerman, Barbra; Compher, Charlene

    2013-04-01

    Studies have documented a positive relationship between regular breakfast consumption and cognitive outcomes in youth. However, most of these studies have emphasized specific measures of cognition rather than cognitive performance as a broad construct (e.g., IQ test scores) and have been limited to Western samples of school-age children and adolescents. This study aims to extend the literature on breakfast consumption and cognition by examining these constructs in a sample of Chinese kindergarten-age children. This cross-sectional study consisted of a sample of 1269 children (697 boys and 572 girls) aged 6 years from the Chinese city of Jintan. Cognition was assessed with the Chinese version of the Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence-revised. Breakfast habits were assessed through parental questionnaire. Analyses of variance and linear regression models were used to analyze the association between breakfast habits and IQ. Socioeconomic and parental psychosocial variables related to intelligence were controlled for. Findings showed that children who regularly have breakfast on a near-daily basis had significantly higher full scale, verbal, and performance IQ test scores (all pbreakfast. This relationship persisted for VIQ (verbal IQ) and FIQ (full IQ) even after adjusting for gender, current living location, parental education, parental occupation, and primary child caregiver. Findings may reflect nutritional as well as social benefits of regular breakfast consumption on cognition, and regular breakfast consumption should be encouraged among young children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance IQ in children is associated with blood cadmium concentration in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyoung Sook; Park, Hyewon; Ha, Eunhee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Ha, Mina; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Lee, Bo-Eun; Lee, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Kyung Yeon; Kim, Ja Hyeong; Kim, Yangho

    2015-04-01

    To investigate whether performance IQ in children is associated with maternal blood cadmium concentration in early pregnancy. The present study is a component of the Mothers' and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study, a multi-center birth cohort project in Korea that began in 2006. The study cohort consisted of 119 children whose mothers underwent testing of blood cadmium during early pregnancy. All children were evaluated using the Korean version of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, revised edition (WPPSI-R), at 60 months of age. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to analyze the correlation between IQ in children and maternal blood cadmium concentration in early pregnancy, after adjustment for covariates. Maternal blood cadmium concentration during early pregnancy was inversely associated with performance IQ, after adjustment for covariates such as sex, educational levels of both parents, family income, and maternal BMI. Maternal blood cadmium concentration, however, was not associated with cognitive IQ. Performance IQ in children is associated with maternal blood cadmium concentration in early pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Future Cognitive Ability: US IQ Prediction until 2060 Based on NAEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The US National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) measures cognitive competences in reading and mathematics of US students (last 2012 survey N = 50,000). The long-term development based on results from 1971 to 2012 allows a prediction of future cognitive trends. For predicting US averages also demographic trends have to be considered. The largest groups’ (White) average of 1978/80 was set at M = 100 and SD = 15 and was used as a benchmark. Based on two past NAEP development periods for 17-year-old students, 1978/80 to 2012 (more optimistic) and 1992 to 2012 (more pessimistic), and demographic projections from the US Census Bureau, cognitive trends until 2060 for the entire age cohort and ethnic groups were estimated. Estimated population averages for 2060 are 103 (optimistic) or 102 (pessimistic). The average rise per decade is dec = 0.76 or 0.45 IQ points. White-Black and White-Hispanic gaps are declining by half, Asian-White gaps treble. The catch-up of minorities (their faster ability growth) contributes around 2 IQ to the general rise of 3 IQ; however, their larger demographic increase reduces the general rise at about the similar amount (-1.4 IQ). Because minorities with faster ability growth also rise in their population proportion the interactive term is positive (around 1 IQ). Consequences for economic and societal development are discussed. PMID:26460731

  17. The Effect of Maternal Stress during Pregnancy on IQ and ADHD Symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizenko, Natalie; Fortier, Marie-Ève; Gaudreau-Simard, Mathilde; Jolicoeur, Claude; Joober, Ridha

    2015-01-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy (MSDP) has been linked to a decrease in Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in the general population. The purpose of this study is to first examine the association between MSDP and IQ in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and second, to confirm, in a large sample, the link between MSDP and ADHD behavioral symptomatology. Four hundred ten children diagnosed with ADHD, ages six to 12, were consecutively recruited from the ADHD clinic and day hospital at the Douglas Institute from 1999 to 2013. IQ was assessed using the WISC III and IV. Symptom severity was evaluated using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Connor's Global Index for Parents (CGI-P) and Teachers (CGI-T). No significant effect of MSDP on full scale IQ was observed, but MSDP had a significant effect on CBCL and CGI scores. Elevated MSDP was significantly associated with increased CBCL internalizing scores (β=4.2, pemotional lability scores (β=3.1, p=.02), and CGI-T restless-impulsive (β=2.2, p=.05) and emotional lability (β=3.4, p=.04) scores. MSDP increased the variance explained of ADHD symptomatology even after controlling for various factors (i.e. familial income, parental education, smoking and drinking during pregnancy, gender and age). The study demonstrates that in children with ADHD, MSDP does not have an impact on IQ but rather on ADHD symptomatology, highlighting the importance of potentially offering psychological and social support to mothers who experience stress during pregnancy.

  18. Developmental Trajectories for Children With Dyslexia and Low IQ Poor Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Reading difficulties are found in children with both high and low IQ and it is now clear that both groups exhibit difficulties in phonological processing. Here, we apply the developmental trajectories approach, a new methodology developed for studying language and cognitive impairments in developmental disorders, to both poor reader groups. The trajectory methodology enables identification of atypical versus delayed development in datasets gathered using group matching designs. Regarding the cognitive predictors of reading, which here are phonological awareness, phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and rapid automatized naming (RAN), the method showed that trajectories for the two groups diverged markedly. Children with dyslexia showed atypical development in phonological awareness, while low IQ poor readers showed developmental delay. Low IQ poor readers showed atypical PSTM and RAN development, but children with dyslexia showed developmental delay. These divergent trajectories may have important ramifications for supporting each type of poor reader, although all poor readers showed weakness in all areas. Regarding auditory processing, the developmental trajectories were very similar for the two poor reader groups. However, children with dyslexia demonstrated developmental delay for auditory discrimination of Duration, while the low IQ children showed atypical development on this measure. The data show that, regardless of IQ, poor readers have developmental trajectories that differ from typically developing children. The trajectories approach enables differences in trajectory classification to be identified across poor reader group, as well as specifying the individual nature of these trajectories. PMID:27110928

  19. High Maternal Blood Mercury Level Is Associated with Low Verbal IQ in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyoung Sook; Park, Hyewon; Ha, Eunhee; Shin, Jiyoung; Hong, Yun Chul; Ha, Mina; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Bung Nyun; Lee, Boeun; Lee, Soo Jeong; Lee, Kyung Yeon; Kim, Ja Hyeong; Kim, Yangho

    2017-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship of IQ in children with maternal blood mercury concentration during late pregnancy. The present study is a component of the Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study, a multi-center birth cohort project in Korea that began in 2006. The study cohort consisted of 553 children whose mothers underwent testing for blood mercury during late pregnancy. The children were given the Korean language version of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, revised edition (WPPSI-R) at 60 months of age. Multivariate linear regression analysis, with adjustment for covariates, was used to assess the relationship between verbal, performance, and total IQ in children and blood mercury concentration of mothers during late pregnancy. The results of multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that a doubling of blood mercury was associated with the decrease in verbal and total IQ by 2.482 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.749-4.214) and 2.402 (95% CI, 0.526-4.279), respectively, after adjustment. This inverse association remained after further adjustment for blood lead concentration. Fish intake is an effect modifier of child IQ. In conclusion, high maternal blood mercury level is associated with low verbal IQ in children. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  20. Physical activity during pregnancy and offspring neurodevelopment and IQ in the first 4 years of life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlos R Domingues

    Full Text Available Maternal physical activity during pregnancy could alter offspring's IQ and neurodevelopment in childhood.Children belonging to a birth cohort were followed at 3, 12, 24 and 48 months of age. Physical activity during pregnancy was assessed retrospectively at birth. Neurodevelopment was evaluated by Battelle's Development Inventory (12, 24 and 48 months and IQ by the Weschler's Intelligence Scale (48 months. Neurodevelopment was based on Battelles' (90th percentile and also analyzed as a continuous outcome. IQ was analyzed as a continuous outcome. Potential confounders were: family income, mother's age, schooling, skin color, number of previous births and smoking; and newborns': preterm birth, sex and low birth weight.From birth to 48 months, sample size decreased from 4231 to 3792. Crude analysis showed that IQ at 48 months was slightly higher (5 points among children from active women. The Battelle's score at 12 and 24 months was higher among offspring from active mothers. After controlling for confounders, physical activity during pregnancy was positively associated to the Battelle's Inventory at 12 months IQ, however, at 48 months no association was observed.Physical activity during pregnancy does not seem to impair children's neurodevelopment and children from active mothers presented better performance at 12 months.

  1. Multi-hop amplify-and-forward relaying cooperation in the presence of I/Q imbalance

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Jian; Aï ssa, Sonia; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, multi-hop cooperative networks implementing channel state information (CSI)-assisted amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying in the presence of in-phase and quadrature-phase (I/Q) imbalance are investigated. We propose a compensation algorithm for the I/Q imbalance. The performance of the multi-hop CSI-assisted AF cooperative networks with and without compensation for I/Q imbalance in Nakagami-m fading environment is evaluated in terms of average symbol error probability. Numerical results are provided and show that the proposed compensation method can effectively mitigate the impact of I/Q imbalance. © 2013 IEEE.

  2. Are WISC IQ scores in children with mathematical learning disabilities underestimated? The influence of a specialized intervention on test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Katharina; Spinath, Birgit

    2018-01-01

    Intelligence measures play a pivotal role in the diagnosis of mathematical learning disabilities (MLD). Probably as a result of math-related material in IQ tests, children with MLD often display reduced IQ scores. However, it remains unclear whether the effects of math remediation extend to IQ scores. The present study investigated the impact of a special remediation program compared to a control group receiving private tutoring (PT) on the WISC IQ scores of children with MLD. We included N=45 MLD children (7-12 years) in a study with a pre- and post-test control group design. Children received remediation for two years on average. The analyses revealed significantly greater improvements in the experimental group on the Full-Scale IQ, and the Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, and Working Memory indices, but not Processing Speed, compared to the PT group. Children in the experimental group showed an average WISC IQ gain of more than ten points. Results indicate that the WISC IQ scores of MLD children might be underestimated and that an effective math intervention can improve WISC IQ test performance. Taking limitations into account, we discuss the use of IQ measures more generally for defining MLD in research and practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Multi-hop amplify-and-forward relaying cooperation in the presence of I/Q imbalance

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Jian

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, multi-hop cooperative networks implementing channel state information (CSI)-assisted amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying in the presence of in-phase and quadrature-phase (I/Q) imbalance are investigated. We propose a compensation algorithm for the I/Q imbalance. The performance of the multi-hop CSI-assisted AF cooperative networks with and without compensation for I/Q imbalance in Nakagami-m fading environment is evaluated in terms of average symbol error probability. Numerical results are provided and show that the proposed compensation method can effectively mitigate the impact of I/Q imbalance. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. project SENSE : multimodal simulation with full-body real-time verbal and nonverbal interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miri, Hossein; Kolkmeier, Jan; Taylor, Paul Jonathon; Poppe, Ronald; Heylen, Dirk; Poppe, Ronald; Meyer, John-Jules; Veltkamp, Remco; Dastani, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a multimodal simulation system, project-SENSE, that combines virtual reality and full-body motion capture technologies with real-time verbal and nonverbal communication. We introduce the technical setup and employed hardware and software of a first prototype. We discuss the

  5. Description of Communication Breakdown Repair Strategies Produced by Nonverbal Students with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincer, Baris; Erbas, Dilek

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the communication repair behaviors used by nonverbal students with developmental disabilities in the interactions they were involved in with their teachers during free play activities. All children were students at centers serving student with developmental disabilities at Anadolu University in Turkey. Data were collected by…

  6. Non-Verbal Psychotherapy of Deaf Children with Disorders in Personality Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska, Marina

    1989-01-01

    Discussed are principles of nonverbal therapy for deaf children with disorders in the development of self, and the possible existence of a relationship between lack of auditory experiences in deaf children and disorders in mother-child bonding. A case study presents a three-year-old deaf boy successfully treated through a nonverbal…

  7. Executive functioning and non-verbal intelligence as predictors of bullying in early elementary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinden, Marina; Veenstra, René; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Jansen, P.W.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, F.C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    Executive function and intelligence are negatively associated with aggression, yet the role of executive function has rarely been examined in the context of school bullying. We studied whether different domains of executive function and non-verbal intelligence are associated with bullying

  8. The Effect of Nonverbal Cues on the Interpretation of Utterances by People with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak-Wernicka, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this article is to explore the effect of nonverbal information (gestures and facial expressions) provided in real time on the interpretation of utterances by people with total blindness. Methods: The article reports on an exploratory study performed on two groups of participants with visual impairments who were tested…

  9. Do Nonverbal Emotional Cues Matter? Effects of Video Casting in Synchronous Virtual Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Heeyoung

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an instructor's use of video casting as a nonverbal emotional cue in synchronous discussion sessions on students' social presence, satisfaction, and learning achievement. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the effect of video casting in a synchronous virtual classroom. The research setting was a…

  10. Sensory Symptoms and Processing of Nonverbal Auditory and Visual Stimuli in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Claire R.; Sanchez, Sandra S.; Grenesko, Emily L.; Brown, Christine M.; Chen, Colleen P.; Keehn, Brandon; Velasquez, Francisco; Lincoln, Alan J.; Müller, Ralph-Axel

    2016-01-01

    Atypical sensory responses are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While evidence suggests impaired auditory-visual integration for verbal information, findings for nonverbal stimuli are inconsistent. We tested for sensory symptoms in children with ASD (using the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile) and examined unisensory and bisensory…

  11. Visual Processing of Verbal and Nonverbal Stimuli in Adolescents with Reading Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Catherine; Brodeur, Darlene A.

    1999-01-01

    A study investigated whether 32 adolescents with reading disabilities (RD) were slower at processing visual information compared to children of comparable age and reading level, or whether their deficit was specific to the written word. Adolescents with RD demonstrated difficulties in processing rapidly presented verbal and nonverbal visual…

  12. The Influence of Nonverbal Behavior on Person Perception in Television Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepplinger, Hans Mathias; And Others

    A controlled experiment was conducted to test the extent to which nonverbal behavior between a journalist and a politician in a televised interview influences the way in which they are perceived by a television audience. Nine test films were produced that showed different versions of an interview in which the participants exhibited aggressive or…

  13. Early lexical development and risk of verbal and nonverbal cognitive delay at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghassabian, A.; Rescorla, L.; Henrichs, J.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Verhulst, F.C.; Tiemeier, H.W.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To characterise the relationship between preschool lexical delay and language comprehension and nonverbal intelligence at school age. Methods The mothers of 2724 children completed the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory when their child reached 1.5 years and the Language Development

  14. The Use of Non-Verbal and Body Movement Techniques in Working with Families with Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James M.

    1979-01-01

    Presents an experiential-educational approach to families with infants integrating dance and movement therapy with family therapy theories and techniques. Nonverbal techniques are the only possible methods of working directly with infants present with their parents in these workshops. The focus is on negotiations and exchanges of feelings in…

  15. Toward a digitally mediated, transgenerational negotiation of verbal and non-verbal concepts in daycare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    an adult researcher’s research problem and her/his conceptual knowledge of the child-adult-digital media interaction are able to do justice to what the children actually intend to communicate about their experiences and actions, both verbally and non-verbally, by and large remains little explored...

  16. Increasing Social Interaction Using Prelinguistic Milieu Teaching with Nonverbal School-Age Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Jessica H.; Davis, Barbara L.; Davis, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Children with autism display marked deficits in initiating and maintaining social interaction. Intervention using play routines can create a framework for developing and maintaining social interaction between these children and their communication partners. Method: Six nonverbal 5- to 8-year-olds with autism were taught to engage in…

  17. Students' Perceived Understanding Mediates the Effects of Teacher Clarity and Nonverbal Immediacy on Learner Empowerment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Amber N.; Schrodt, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study examined students' perceived understanding as a mediator of the relationship between student perceptions of teacher clarity, nonverbal immediacy cues, and learner empowerment (i.e., meaningfulness, competence, and impact). Participants included 261 undergraduate students who completed survey instruments. Results of structural equation…

  18. Nonverbal interpersonal attunement and extravert personality predict outcome of light treatment in seasonal affective disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, E; Kouwert, E; Bouhuys, N; Meesters, Y; Jansen, J

    We investigated whether personality and nonverbal interpersonal processes can predict the subsequent response to light treatment in seasonal affective disorder (SAD) patients. In 60 SAD patients, Neuroticism and Extraversion were assessed prior to light treatment (4 days with 30 min of 10.000 lux).

  19. Male/Female Differential Encoding and Intercultural Differential Decoding of Nonverbal Affective Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Martin, Gail McAllister

    In order to investigate the process of nonverbal communication of emotions in a simulated intercultural context, videotapes were made in which two white Americans (one male and one female) responded to paragraphs which evoked the following emotions: sadness, disgust, anger, surprise, happiness, and fear. These portrayals were then viewed by male…

  20. “Communication by impact” and other forms of non-verbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article aims to review the importance, place and especially the emotional impact of non-verbal communication in psychiatry. The paper argues that while biological psychiatry is in the ascendency with increasing discoveries being made about the functioning of the brain and psycho-pharmacology, it is important to try ...

  1. Communicating in a Multicultural Classroom: A Study of Students' Nonverbal Behavior and Attitudes toward Faculty Attire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, Ephraim; Washington, Melvin

    2011-01-01

    Economic and market globalization in the United States has engendered a multicultural learning environment that challenges both faculty and students. Diversity in the classroom is further complicated by nonverbal communication, which impacts on students' attitudes toward faculty members. Because today's classrooms are changing and undergoing rapid…

  2. Development of non-verbal intellectual capacity in school-age children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, D. W.; Ketelaar, M.; Gorter, J. W.; van Schie, P. E.; Becher, J. G.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M. J.

    Background Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are at greater risk for a limited intellectual development than typically developing children. Little information is available which children with CP are most at risk. This study aimed to describe the development of non-verbal intellectual capacity of

  3. Presentation Trainer: a toolkit for learning non-verbal public speaking skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Jan; Börner, Dirk; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents and outlines the demonstration of Presentation Trainer, a prototype that works as a public speaking instructor. It tracks and analyses the body posture, movements and voice of the user in order to give in- structional feedback on non-verbal communication skills. Besides exploring

  4. She Wore a Flower in Her Hair: The Effect of Ornamentation on Nonverbal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, JeriJayne W.; Hensley, Wayne E.

    Six waitresses in a restaurant of a large midwestern city agreed to participate in a study of the nonverbal effects of ornamentation. The hypothesis was that diners would leave larger tips for a waitress who wore a flower in her hair than for the same waitress without a flower. During the four nights that data were collected, the waitresses…

  5. Using Item Response Theory to Describe the Nonverbal Literacy Assessment (NVLA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Danielle; Wilson, Mark; Ahlgrim-Delzell, Lynn

    2018-01-01

    The Nonverbal Literacy Assessment (NVLA) is a literacy assessment designed for students with significant intellectual disabilities. The 218-item test was initially examined using confirmatory factor analysis. This method showed that the test worked as expected, but the items loaded onto a single factor. This article uses item response theory to…

  6. A Communication-Based Intervention for Nonverbal Children with Autism: What Changes? Who Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Kate; Pasco, Greg; McElduff, Fiona; Wade, Angie; Howlin, Pat; Charman, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the form and function of spontaneous communication and outcome predictors in nonverbal children with autism following classroom-based intervention (Picture Exchange Communication System [PECS] training). Method: 84 children from 15 schools participated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of PECS (P. Howlin, R.…

  7. Social attraction in video-mediated communication : The role of nonverbal affiliative behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croes, Emmelyn; Antheunis, Marjolijn; Schouten, Alexander; Krahmer, Emiel

    2018-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to analyze video-mediated communication (VMC), in comparison to face-to-face (FTF) communication, and the effect it has on how communicators express nonverbal affiliative behaviors relevant for social attraction. Second, this study aimed to discover whether these

  8. Encoding Specificity and Nonverbal Cue Context: An Expansion of Episodic Memory Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, W. Gill; Folger, Joseph P.

    1981-01-01

    Reports two studies demonstrating the ability of nonverbal contextual cues to act as retrieval mechanisms for co-occurring language. Suggests that visual contextual cues, such as speech primacy and motor primacy gestures, can access linguistic target information. Motor primacy cues are shown to act as stronger retrieval cues. (JMF)

  9. Understanding Instructor Nonverbal Immediacy, Verbal Immediacy, and Student Motivation at a Small Liberal Arts University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlich, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Instructor communication behaviors and student motivation to learn relationships were studied at a small liberal arts university. Specifically, relationships between instructor nonverbal immediacy, verbal immediacy behaviors and student motivation to learn were measured. Only instructor verbal immediacy behaviors had a significant linear…

  10. Organizational strategies mediate nonverbal memory impairment in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, C R; Baer, L; Keuthen, N J; Brown, H D; Rauch, S L; Jenike, M A

    1999-04-01

    Previous neuropsychological studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have indicated impaired executive functioning and nonverbal memory. The extent to which impaired executive functioning impacts nonverbal memory has not been established. The current study investigated the mediating effects of organizational strategies used when copying a figure on subsequent nonverbal memory for that figure. We examined neuropsychological performance in 20 unmedicated subjects with OCD and 20 matched normal control subjects. Subjects were administered the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (RCFT) and neuropsychological tests assessing various aspects of executive function. OCD subjects differed significantly from healthy control subjects in the organizational strategies used to copy the RCFT figure, and they recalled significantly less information on both immediate and delayed testing. Multiple regression analyses indicated that group differences in immediate percent recall were significantly mediated by copy organizational strategies. Further exploratory analyses indicated that organizational problems in OCD may be related to difficulties shifting mental and/or spatial set. Immediate nonverbal memory problems in OCD subjects were mediated by impaired organizational strategies used during the initial copy of the RCFT figure. Thus, the primary deficit was one affecting executive function, which then had a secondary effect on immediate memory. These findings are consistent with current theories proposing frontal-striatal system dysfunction in OCD.

  11. Effects of Training on Accuracy of Decoding Complex Nonverbal Behavior. Working Paper No. 267.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Michael L.; And Others

    Two studies investigated the effects of training on how accurately observers (college students) decoded a complex nonverbal stimulus. In the first experiment, observers viewed silent videotapes of 16 third and fourth-grade school children who were listening to an easy or a difficult lesson. Half of the children were responding spontaneously, while…

  12. Power in the Classroom VI: Verbal Control Strategies, Nonverbal Immediacy and Affective Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plax, Timothy G.; And Others

    Recognizing that nonverbal behaviors typically provide the framework for interpreting verbal messages, this project (the sixth in a series of projects designed to examine teacher power in the classroom) proposed and sequentially tested a heuristic model of student affective learning as a function of behavior alteration techniques and teacher…

  13. Vedic Science Based Education and Nonverbal Intelligence: A Preliminary Longitudinal Study in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, Lee C.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study investigated the effects on students' nonverbal intelligence of implementing an approach to higher education based on Vedic science, developed by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and including transcendental meditation. The approach was implemented in two Cambodian universities and its effects assessed in 70 undergraduate students. An increase in…

  14. Nonverbal behavior observation : collaborative gaming method for prediction of conflicts during long-term missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voynarovskaya, N.; Gorbunov, R.D.; Barakova, E.I.; Ahn, R.M.C.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Yang, H.S.; et al., xx

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method for monitoring mental state of small isolated crews during long-term missions (such as space mission, polar expeditions, submarine crews, meteorological stations, and etc). It combines the records of negotiation game with monitoring of the nonverbal behavior of the

  15. All eyes on the patient: the influence of oncologists' nonverbal communication on breast cancer patients' trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillen, Marij A.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Bijker, Nina; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W. M.; Vermeulen, Daniëlle M.; Smets, Ellen M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Trust in the oncologist is crucial for breast cancer patients. It reduces worry, enhances decision making, and stimulates adherence. Optimal nonverbal communication by the oncologist, particularly eye contact, body posture, and smiling, presumably benefits patients' trust. We were the first to

  16. Cultural Difference in Stereotype Perceptions and Performances in Nonverbal Deductive Reasoning and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Regine; Niu, Weihua

    2013-01-01

    A total of 182 undergraduate students from China and the United States participated in a study examining the presence of stereotypical perceptions regarding creativity and deductive reasoning abilities, as well as the influence of stereotype on participants' performance on deductive reasoning and creativity in nonverbal form. The results showed…

  17. Anxiety and Depression in Children with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities, Reading Disabilities, or Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammarella, Irene C.; Ghisi, Marta; Bomba, Monica; Bottesi, Gioia; Caviola, Sara; Broggi, Fiorenza; Nacinovich, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of the present study was to shed further light on the psychological characteristics of children with different learning disability profiles aged between 8 and 11 years, attending from third to sixth grade. Specifically, children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD), reading disabilities (RD), or a typical development (TD) were…

  18. Non-verbal communication between primary care physicians and older patients: how does race matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanikova, Irena; Zhang, Qian; Wieland, Darryl; Eleazer, G Paul; Stewart, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Non-verbal communication is an important aspect of the diagnostic and therapeutic process, especially with older patients. It is unknown how non-verbal communication varies with physician and patient race. To examine the joint influence of physician race and patient race on non-verbal communication displayed by primary care physicians during medical interviews with patients 65 years or older. Video-recordings of visits of 209 patients 65 years old or older to 30 primary care physicians at three clinics located in the Midwest and Southwest. Duration of physicians' open body position, eye contact, smile, and non-task touch, coded using an adaption of the Nonverbal Communication in Doctor-Elderly Patient Transactions form. African American physicians with African American patients used more open body position, smile, and touch, compared to the average across other dyads (adjusted mean difference for open body position = 16.55, p non-verbal communication with older patients. Its influence is best understood when physician race and patient race are considered jointly.

  19. Interactive use of communication by verbal and non-verbal autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Cibelle Albuquerque de la Higuera; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

    2010-01-01

    Communication of autistic children. To assess the communication functionality of verbal and non-verbal children of the autistic spectrum and to identify possible associations amongst the groups. Subjects were 20 children of the autistic spectrum divided into two groups: V with 10 verbal children and NV with 10 non-verbal children with ages varying between 2y10m and 10y6m. All subjects were video recorded during 30 minutes of spontaneous interaction with their mothers. The samples were analyzed according to the functional communicative profile and comparisons within and between groups were conducted. Data referring to the occupation of communicative space suggest that there is an even balance between each child and his mother. The number of communicative acts per minute shows a clear difference between verbal and non-verbal children. Both verbal and non-verbal children use mostly the gestual communicative mean in their interactions. Data about the use of interpersonal communicative functions point out to the autistic children's great interactive impairment. The characterization of the functional communicative profile proposed in this study confirmed the autistic children's difficulties with interpersonal communication and that these difficulties do not depend on the preferred communicative mean.

  20. An executable model of the interaction between verbal and non-verbal communication.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, W.C.A.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an executable generic process model is proposed for combined verbal and non-verbal communication processes and their interaction. The model has been formalised by three-levelled partial temporal models, covering both the material and mental processes and their relations. The generic

  1. Consonant Differentiation Mediates the Discrepancy between Non-verbal and Verbal Abilities in Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, A. P.; Yoder, P. J.; Stone, W. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate verbal communication disorders reflected in lower verbal than non-verbal abilities. The present study examined the extent to which this discrepancy is associated with atypical speech sound differentiation. Methods: Differences in the amplitude of auditory event-related…

  2. Non-Verbal Communication Training: An Avenue for University Professionalizing Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazaille, Mariane

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with today's workplace expectations, many university programs identify the ability to communicate as a crucial asset for future professionals. Yet, if the teaching of verbal communication is clearly identifiable in most university programs, the same cannot be said of non-verbal communication (NVC). Knowing the importance of the…

  3. An Executable Model of the Interaction between Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, W.C.A.; Dignum, F.; Greaves, M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an executable generic process model is proposed for combined verbal and non-verbal communication processes and their interaction. The model has been formalised by three-levelled partial temporal models, covering both the material and mental processes and their relations. The generic

  4. Automated Video Analysis of Non-verbal Communication in a Medical Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Yuval; Czerniak, Efrat; Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Mayo, Avraham E; Ziv, Amitai; Biegon, Anat; Citron, Atay; Alon, Uri

    2016-01-01

    Non-verbal communication plays a significant role in establishing good rapport between physicians and patients and may influence aspects of patient health outcomes. It is therefore important to analyze non-verbal communication in medical settings. Current approaches to measure non-verbal interactions in medicine employ coding by human raters. Such tools are labor intensive and hence limit the scale of possible studies. Here, we present an automated video analysis tool for non-verbal interactions in a medical setting. We test the tool using videos of subjects that interact with an actor portraying a doctor. The actor interviews the subjects performing one of two scripted scenarios of interviewing the subjects: in one scenario the actor showed minimal engagement with the subject. The second scenario included active listening by the doctor and attentiveness to the subject. We analyze the cross correlation in total kinetic energy of the two people in the dyad, and also characterize the frequency spectrum of their motion. We find large differences in interpersonal motion synchrony and entrainment between the two performance scenarios. The active listening scenario shows more synchrony and more symmetric followership than the other scenario. Moreover, the active listening scenario shows more high-frequency motion termed jitter that has been recently suggested to be a marker of followership. The present approach may be useful for analyzing physician-patient interactions in terms of synchrony and dominance in a range of medical settings.

  5. Quality Matters! Differences between Expressive and Receptive Non-Verbal Communication Skills in Adolescents with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Ruth B.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed several studies of non-verbal communication (prosody and facial expressions) completed in our lab and conducted a secondary analysis to compare performance on receptive vs. expressive tasks by adolescents with ASD and their typically developing peers. Results show a significant between-group difference for the aggregate score of…

  6. Interpersonal Interactions in Instrumental Lessons: Teacher/Student Verbal and Non-Verbal Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Katie

    2013-01-01

    This study examined verbal and non-verbal teacher/student interpersonal interactions in higher education instrumental music lessons. Twenty-four lessons were videotaped and teacher/student behaviours were analysed using a researcher-designed instrument. The findings indicate predominance of student and teacher joke among the verbal behaviours with…

  7. The Introduction of Non-Verbal Communication in Greek Education: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatis, Panagiotis J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The introductory part of this paper underlines the research interest of the educational community in the issue of non-verbal communication in education. The question for the introduction of this scientific field in Greek education enter within the context of this research which include many aspects. Method: The paper essentially…

  8. Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication and Coordination in Mission Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkhuyzen, Erik; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    In this talk I will present some video-materials gathered in Mission Control during simulations. The focus of the presentation will be on verbal and non-verbal communication between the officers in the front and backroom, especially the practices that have evolved around a peculiar communications technology called voice loops.

  9. Recognition, Expression, and Understanding Facial Expressions of Emotion in Adolescents with Nonverbal and General Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Elana; Heath, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD) have been found to be worse at recognizing facial expressions than children with verbal learning disabilities (LD) and without LD. However, little research has been done with adolescents. In addition, expressing and understanding facial expressions is yet to be studied among adolescents with LD…

  10. Trauma team leaders' non-verbal communication: video registration during trauma team training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härgestam, Maria; Hultin, Magnus; Brulin, Christine; Jacobsson, Maritha

    2016-03-25

    There is widespread consensus on the importance of safe and secure communication in healthcare, especially in trauma care where time is a limiting factor. Although non-verbal communication has an impact on communication between individuals, there is only limited knowledge of how trauma team leaders communicate. The purpose of this study was to investigate how trauma team members are positioned in the emergency room, and how leaders communicate in terms of gaze direction, vocal nuances, and gestures during trauma team training. Eighteen trauma teams were audio and video recorded during trauma team training in the emergency department of a hospital in northern Sweden. Quantitative content analysis was used to categorize the team members' positions and the leaders' non-verbal communication: gaze direction, vocal nuances, and gestures. The quantitative data were interpreted in relation to the specific context. Time sequences of the leaders' gaze direction, speech time, and gestures were identified separately and registered as time (seconds) and proportions (%) of the total training time. The team leaders who gained control over the most important area in the emergency room, the "inner circle", positioned themselves as heads over the team, using gaze direction, gestures, vocal nuances, and verbal commands that solidified their verbal message. Changes in position required both attention and collaboration. Leaders who spoke in a hesitant voice, or were silent, expressed ambiguity in their non-verbal communication: and other team members took over the leader's tasks. In teams where the leader had control over the inner circle, the members seemed to have an awareness of each other's roles and tasks, knowing when in time and where in space these tasks needed to be executed. Deviations in the leaders' communication increased the ambiguity in the communication, which had consequences for the teamwork. Communication cannot be taken for granted; it needs to be practiced

  11. IQ of four-year-olds who go on to develop dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, E.; de Jong, P.F.; Maassen, B.; Krikhaar, E.; Plakas, A.; van der Leij, A.

    2014-01-01

    Do children who go on to develop dyslexia show normal verbal and nonverbal development before reading onset? According to the aptitude-achievement discrepancy model, dyslexia is defined as a discrepancy between intelligence and reading achievement. One of the underlying assumptions is that the

  12. IQ of Four-Year-Olds Who Go on to Develop Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F.; Maassen, Ben; Krikhaar, Evelien; Plakas, Anna; van der Leij, Aryan

    2014-01-01

    Do children who go on to develop dyslexia show normal verbal and nonverbal development before reading onset? According to the aptitude-achievement discrepancy model, dyslexia is defined as a discrepancy between intelligence and reading achievement. One of the underlying assumptions is that the general cognitive development of children who fail to…

  13. IQ of Four-Year-Olds Who Go On to Develop Dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F.; Maassen, Ben; Krikhaar, Evelien; Plakas, Anna; van der Leij, Aryan

    2014-01-01

    Do children who go on to develop dyslexia show normal verbal and nonverbal development before reading onset? According to the aptitude–achievement discrepancy model, dyslexia is defined as a discrepancy between intelligence and reading achievement. One of the underlying assumptions is that the

  14. Receiver IQ mismatch estimation in PDM CO-OFDM system using training symbol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dandan; Ma, Xiurong; Yao, Xin; Zhang, Haoyuan

    2017-07-01

    Receiver in-phase/quadrature (IQ) mismatch is hard to mitigate at the receiver via using conventional method in polarization division multiplexed (PDM) coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) system. In this paper, a novel training symbol structure is proposed to estimate IQ mismatch and channel distortion. Combined this structure with Gram Schmidt orthogonalization procedure (GSOP) algorithm, we can get lower bit error rate (BER). Meanwhile, based on this structure one estimation method is deduced in frequency domain which can achieve the estimation of IQ mismatch and channel distortion independently and improve the system performance obviously. Numerical simulation shows that the proposed two methods have better performance than compared method at 100 Gb/s after 480 km fiber transmission. Besides, the calculation complexity is also analyzed.

  15. An IQ mismatch calibration and compensation technique for wideband wireless transceivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Jin; Zhou Liguo; Yao Heng; Yuan Fang; Shi Yin; Fang Zhi

    2014-01-01

    An IQ mismatch calibration and compensation technique based on the digital baseband for wideband wireless communication transmitters is proposed. The digital baseband transmits the signal used for IQ mismatch calibration. The signal passes through the RF transmitter path, the calibration loop (which is composed of a square power detector and a band-pass filter in the RF transceiver) and the variable gain amplifier of the receiver. The digital baseband samples the signal for IQ mismatch estimation and compensates for it. Compared with the self-calibration technique in the RF chip, the proposed technique saves area and power consumption for the wireless local area network solution. This technique has been successfully used for the 802.11n system and satisfies the requirement of the standard by achieving over 50 dB image suppression. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  16. Pervasiveness of the IQ rise: a cross-temporal meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Pietschnig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Generational IQ gains in the general population (termed the Flynn effect show an erratic pattern across different nations as well as across different domains of intelligence (fluid vs crystallized. Gains of fluid intelligence in different countries have been subject to extensive research, but less attention was directed towards gains of crystallized intelligence, probably due to evidence from the Anglo-American sphere suggesting only slight gains on this measure. In the present study, development of crystallized intelligence in the German speaking general population is assessed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate whether IQ gains for crystallized intelligence are in progress in German-speaking countries, two independent meta-analyses were performed. By means of a cited reference search in ISI Web of Science, all studies citing test manuals and review articles of two widely-used salient measures of crystallized intelligence were obtained. Additionally, the electronic database for German academic theses was searched to identify unpublished studies employing these tests. All studies reporting participants mean IQ or raw scores of at least one of the two measures were included in the present analyses, yielding over 500 studies (>1,000 samples; >45,000 individuals. We found a significant positive association between years of test performance and intelligence (1971-2007 amounting to about 3.5 IQ points per decade. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study clearly demonstrates that crystallized IQ gains are substantial and of comparable strength as Flynn effects typically observed for measures of fluid intelligence in Central Europe. Since mean IQ was assessed in a large number of small, non-representative samples, our evidence suggests a remarkable robustness of these gains. Moreover, in both meta-analyses strength of gains was virtually identical. On the whole, results of the present study demonstrate a pervasive and generalizing

  17. The IQ-wall and IQ-station -- harnessing our collective intelligence to realize the potential of ultra-resolution and immersive visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric A. Wernert; William R. Sherman; Chris Eller; David Reagan; Patrick D. Beard; Eric T. Whiting; Patrick O' Leary

    2012-03-01

    We present a pair of open-recipe, affordably-priced, easy-to-integrate, and easy-to-use visualization systems. The IQ-wall is an ultra-resolution tiled display wall that scales up to 24 screens with a single PC. The IQ-station is a semi-immersive display system that utilizes commodity stereoscopic displays, lower cost tracking systems, and touch overlays. These systems have been designed to support a wide range of research, education, creative activities, and information presentations. They were designed to work equally well as stand-alone installations or as part of a larger distributed visualization ecosystem. We detail the hardware and software components of these systems, describe our deployments and experiences in a variety of research lab and university environments, and share our insights for effective support and community development.

  18. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 5-year-old children: a cohort based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliddal, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Støvring, Henrik; Eriksen, Hanne-Lise F; Kesmodel, Ulrik S; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Nøhr, Ellen A

    2014-01-01

    An association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and childhood intelligence quotient (IQ) has repeatedly been found but it is unknown if this association is causal or due to confounding caused by genetic or social factors. We used a cohort of 1,783 mothers and their 5-year-old children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The children participated between 2003 and 2008 in a neuropsychological assessment of cognitive ability including IQ tests taken by both the mother and the child. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between parental BMI and child IQ adjusted for a comprehensive set of potential confounders. Child IQ was assessed with the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scales of Intelligence--Revised (WPPSI-R). The crude association between maternal BMI and child IQ showed that BMI was adversely associated with child IQ with a reduction in IQ of -0.40 point for each one unit increase in BMI. This association was attenuated after adjustment for social factors and maternal IQ to a value of -0.27 (-0.50 to -0.03). After mutual adjustment for the father's BMI and all other factors except maternal IQ, the association between paternal BMI and child IQ yielded a regression coefficient of -0.26 (-0.59 to 0.07), which was comparable to that seen for maternal BMI (-0.20 (-0.44 to 0.04)). Although maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was inversely associated with the IQ of her child, the similar association with paternal BMI suggests that it is not a specific pregnancy related adiposity effect.

  19. Premorbid IQ subgroups in first episode non affective psychosis patients: Long-term sex differences in function and neurocognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Setién-Suero, Esther; Neergaard, Karl David; Belzunces, Àuria Albacete; Contreras, Fernando; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto

    2017-12-21

    Low IQ has been associated with schizophrenia, even to the point of being posited as a possible causal factor for psychosis. However, individuals with normal and high IQ also develop psychotic illnesses. The aim of this study was to characterize premorbid IQ subgroups at first episode of psychosis (FEP). The study sample comes from a large epidemiological, 3-year longitudinal, intervention program on psychosis containing individuals living in a catchment area in Spain. Estimated premorbid IQ (epIQ) scores were used to build low (110) epIQ subgroups in samples of FEP patients (N=292) and healthy controls (N=199). The epIQ subgroups were compared in sociodemographic, neuropsychological, clinical and premorbid characteristics. Long-term functional and cognitive outcome, with a focus on sex differences, were also explored. Low-epIQ was more frequently found in FEP patients (28.8%) than in healthy controls (14.6%). Low-epIQ patients were more likely to have worse premorbid adjustment, belong to low socioeconomic status families, have less years of education, and to be single, unemployed, and younger. They presented more severe impairments in processing speed, executive and global cognitive function. Female patients with low-epIQ showed better baseline function and more stable outcome than males. Our results indicate that low premorbid IQ is a morbid manifestation, easily detected in a subgroup of FEP patients that predicts poorer outcome particularly in males. This perspective provides important information for the tailoring of subgroup-specific early intervention programs for psychosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Real-time feedback on nonverbal clinical communication. Theoretical framework and clinician acceptance of ambient visual design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzler, A L; Patel, R A; Czerwinski, M; Pratt, W; Roseway, A; Chandrasekaran, N; Back, A

    2014-01-01

    This article is part of the focus theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Pervasive Intelligent Technologies for Health". Effective nonverbal communication between patients and clinicians fosters both the delivery of empathic patient-centered care and positive patient outcomes. Although nonverbal skill training is a recognized need, few efforts to enhance patient-clinician communication provide visual feedback on nonverbal aspects of the clinical encounter. We describe a novel approach that uses social signal processing technology (SSP) to capture nonverbal cues in real time and to display ambient visual feedback on control and affiliation--two primary, yet distinct dimensions of interpersonal nonverbal communication. To examine the design and clinician acceptance of ambient visual feedback on nonverbal communication, we 1) formulated a model of relational communication to ground SSP and 2) conducted a formative user study using mixed methods to explore the design of visual feedback. Based on a model of relational communication, we reviewed interpersonal communication research to map nonverbal cues to signals of affiliation and control evidenced in patient-clinician interaction. Corresponding with our formulation of this theoretical framework, we designed ambient real-time visualizations that reflect variations of affiliation and control. To explore clinicians' acceptance of this visual feedback, we conducted a lab study using the Wizard-of-Oz technique to simulate system use with 16 healthcare professionals. We followed up with seven of those participants through interviews to iterate on the design with a revised visualization that addressed emergent design considerations. Ambient visual feedback on non- verbal communication provides a theoretically grounded and acceptable way to provide clinicians with awareness of their nonverbal communication style. We provide implications for the design of such visual feedback that encourages empathic patient

  1. Study on improved Ip-iq APF control algorithm and its application in micro grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xifeng; Shi, Hua; Deng, Haiyingv

    2018-01-01

    In order to enhance the tracking velocity and accuracy of harmonic detection by ip-iq algorithm, a novel ip-iq control algorithm based on the Instantaneous reactive power theory is presented, the improved algorithm adds the lead correction link to adjust the zero point of the detection system, the Fuzzy Self-Tuning Adaptive PI control is introduced to dynamically adjust the DC-link Voltage, which meets the requirement of the harmonic compensation of the micro grid. Simulation and experimental results verify the proposed method is feasible and effective in micro grid.

  2. Genetic priming of a proinflammatory profile predicts low IQ in octogenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, K. S.; Mortensen, E. L.; Avlund, K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within interleukin (IL)-18, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 gene promoter regions are risk factors for cognitive decline in healthy octogenarians, and to isolate the strongest inflammatory biomarkers...... of cognitive function in the peripheral blood. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale was administered to 112 individuals at ages 80 and 85. An IL-18 haplotype was an independent risk factor of poor Performance IQ. The TNF-308GA genotype was related to individual declines in Verbal IQ, and the IL-10-592 CC...

  3. Usage Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/usestatistics.html MedlinePlus Statistics To use the sharing features on this page, ... By Quarter View image full size Quarterly User Statistics Quarter Page Views Unique Visitors Oct-Dec-98 ...

  4. Mathematical statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Pestman, Wiebe R

    2009-01-01

    This textbook provides a broad and solid introduction to mathematical statistics, including the classical subjects hypothesis testing, normal regression analysis, and normal analysis of variance. In addition, non-parametric statistics and vectorial statistics are considered, as well as applications of stochastic analysis in modern statistics, e.g., Kolmogorov-Smirnov testing, smoothing techniques, robustness and density estimation. For students with some elementary mathematical background. With many exercises. Prerequisites from measure theory and linear algebra are presented.

  5. A shift to glycolysis accompanies the inflammatory changes in PBMCs from individuals with an IQ-discrepant memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Hannah; Hannigan, Caoimhe; O'Sullivan, Michael; Carroll, Liam Barry; Brennan, Sabina; Lawlor, Brian; Robertson, Ian H; Lynch, Marina

    2018-04-15

    Identification of a blood-based biomarker that can detect early cognitive decline presents a significant healthcare challenge. We prepared peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from individuals who had a poorer than predicted performance in their delayed recall performance on the Logical Memory II Subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) relative to their IQ estimated by the National Adult Reading Test (NART); we described these individuals as IQ-discrepant, compared with IQ-consistent, individuals. Stimulation with Aβ + LPS increased production of TNFα to a greater extent in cells from IQ-discrepant, compared with IQ-consistent, individuals. This was associated with a shift towards glycolysis and the evidence indicates that 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase (PFKFB)3 plays a role in driving glycolysis. A similar shift towards glycolysis was observed in MDMs prepared from IQ-discrepant, compared with IQ-consistent, individuals. The important finding here is that we have established an increased sensitivity to Aβ + LPS stimulation in PBMCs from individuals that under-perform on a memory task, relative to their estimated premorbid IQ, which may be an indicator of early cognitive decline. This may be a useful tool in determining the presence of early cognitive dysfunction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. IQ is an independent predictor of glycated haemoglobin level in young and middle-aged adults with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, T; Miki, T; Itoh, T; Ohnishi, H; Asari, M; Chihiro, S; Yamamoto, A; Aotsuka, K; Kawakami, N; Ichikawa, J; Hirota, Y; Miura, T

    2015-01-01

    Here we examined whether intellectual disability is independently associated with hyperglycaemia. We recruited 233 consecutive young and middle-aged adults with intellectual disability. After exclusion of subjects on medication for metabolic diseases or with severe intellectual disability (IQ IQ into a group with moderate intellectual disability (35 ≤ IQ ≤ 50), a mild intellectual disability group (51 ≤ IQ ≤ 70) and a borderline group (IQ > 70). HbA1c level was higher in subjects with moderate intellectual disability (42 ± 9 mmol/mol; 6.0 ± 0.8%) than those in the borderline group (36 ± 4 mmol/mol; 5.5 ± 0.3%) and mild intellectual disability group (37 ± 5 mmol/mol; 5.5 ± 0.5%) groups. HbA1c level was correlated with age, BMI, blood pressure, serum triglycerides and IQ in simple linear regression analysis. Multiple regression analysis indicated that IQ, age, BMI and diastolic blood pressure were independent explanatory factors of HbA1c level. An unfavourable effect of intellectual disability on lifestyle and untoward effect of hyperglycaemia on cognitive function may underlie the association of low IQ with hyperglycaemia. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  7. 78 FR 56978 - In the Matter of Carbiz, Inc., InZon Corporation, IQ Micro, Inc., Irwin Financial Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] In the Matter of Carbiz, Inc., InZon Corporation, IQ Micro, Inc., Irwin Financial Corporation, and Princeton Media Group, Inc.; Order of Suspension... information concerning the securities of IQ Micro, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since...

  8. Judicial Reliance on Parental IQ in Appellate-Level Child Welfare Cases Involving Parents with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callow, Ella; Tahir, Munazza; Feldman, Maurice

    2017-01-01

    Background: Parents with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) are over-represented in child welfare cases. Although IQ "per se" is an invalid indicator of parenting abilities, this study examined the prevalence of judicial consideration of parental IQ test evidence in US appellate cases. Methods: The present authors…

  9. Graduate Student WAIS-III Scoring Accuracy Is a Function of Full Scale IQ and Complexity of Examiner Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Richard, David C. S.

    2005-01-01

    Research on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) suggests that practicing clinical psychologists and graduate students make item-level scoring errors that affect IQ, index, and subtest scores. Studies have been limited in that Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) and examiner administration,…

  10. Frog Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole Frog Project and Virtual Frog Dissection Statistics wwwstats output for January 1 through duplicate or extraneous accesses. For example, in these statistics, while a POST requesting an image is as well. Note that this under-represents the bytes requested. Starting date for following statistics

  11. There Is No Difference in IQ between Suicide and Non-Suicide Psychiatric Patients: A Retrospective Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Jin; Yi, Kikyoung; Lee, Joon Deuk; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2015-07-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the association between IQ and suicide in psychiatric patients. We conducted a nested case-control study using data obtained from psychiatric patients affiliated with a general hospital in Seoul, Korea. In a one-to-two ratio the psychiatric patients who died of suicide (Suicide Group; n=35) were matched to those who didn't (Non-suicide Group; n=70) by age, gender, psychiatric diagnosis and approximate time of first treatment. IQ was measured using the Korean version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised. There were no significant differences in any type of IQ between suicide patients and non-suicide patients. Logistic regression showed no evidence of an association between IQ and suicide. These results do not support the existence of an association between IQ and suicide.

  12. Roles of Education and IQ in Cognitive Reserve in Parkinson’s Disease-Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Armstrong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The role of cognitive reserve in Parkinson’s disease (PD-mild cognitive impairment (MCI is incompletely understood. Methods: The relationships between PD-MCI, years of education, and estimated premorbid IQ were examined in 119 consecutive non-demented PD patients using logistic regression models. Results: Higher education and IQ were associated with reduced odds of PD-MCI in univariate analysis. In multivariable analysis, a higher IQ was associated with a significantly decreased odds of PD-MCI, but education was not. Conclusion: The association of higher IQ and decreased odds of PD-MCI supports a role for cognitive reserve in PD, but further studies are needed to clarify the interaction of IQ and education and the impact of other contributors such as employment and hobbies.

  13. Longitudinal Patterns of Employment and Postsecondary Education for Adults with Autism and Average-Range IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Henninger, Natalie A.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined correlates of participation in postsecondary education and employment over 12?years for 73 adults with autism spectrum disorders and average-range IQ whose families were part of a larger, longitudinal study. Correlates included demographic (sex, maternal education, paternal education), behavioral (activities of daily living,…

  14. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy BMI and Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in 5-Year-Old Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Støvring, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    -old children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The children participated between 2003 and 2008 in a neuropsychological assessment of cognitive ability including IQ tests taken by both the mother and the child. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between parental BMI...

  15. IQ, Skin Color, Crime, HIV/AIDS, and Income in 50 U.S. States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templer, Donald I.; Rushton, J. Philippe

    2011-01-01

    In 50 U.S. states, we found a positive manifold across 11 measures including IQ, skin color, birth rate, infant mortality, life expectancy, HIV/AIDS, violent crime, and state income with the first principal component accounting for 33% of the variance (median factor loading = 0.34). The correlation with a composite of total violent crime was…

  16. Parental Stress and ASD: Relationship with Autism Symptom Severity, IQ, and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Cerezuela, Gemma; Fernández-Andrés, M. Inmaculada; Tárraga-Mínguez, Raúl; Navarro-Peña, J. Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (a) to evaluate parental stress in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD group) and compare it with the stress in parents of children with typical development (comparison group); (b) to study the relationship between parental stress, autism severity, and both verbal and performance IQ; and (c) to…

  17. Relationship of Mathematics Olympiad Performance of Gifted Students with IQ and Mathematics Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali İhsan BORAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate relationship of mathematics Olympiad (analysis-algebra and geometry scores of gifted students with IQ scores (verbal, performance and general and mathematics achievement scores of the gifted students. Study group of the study included 64 gifted students (27 girls and 37 boys who took courses from one Science and Art Center. Data of study involved scores of the participants on mathematics Olympiad exam, WISC-R test and school mathematics achievement. For analysis of the data Pearson correlation analysis, Spearman correlation analysis, independent groups’ t-test and Mann Whitney U test were utilized. The findings showed that there was no significant relationship between the Olympiad scores on analysis-algebra and geometry and IQ scores (general, performance and verbal. But the Olympiad scores on analysis-algebra and geometry factors were significantly related to school mathematics achievement. Comparing IQ scores of highest and lowest scorer groups on the Olympiad scores showed that there were no significant differences between IQ scores (general, performance and verbal of the groups. However school mathematics scores of the participants significantly differed in terms of groups determined based on analysis-algebra and geometry scores.

  18. Direct and Indirect Effects of Brain Volume, Socioeconomic Status and Family Stress on Child IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus Jenkins, Jade V; Woolley, Donald P; Hooper, Stephen R; De Bellis, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    1.1. Background A large literature documents the detrimental effects of socioeconomic disparities on intelligence and neuropsychological development. Researchers typically measure environmental factors such as socioeconomic status (SES), using income, parent's occupation and education. However, SES is more complex, and this complexity may influence neuropsychological outcomes. 1.2. Methods This studyused principal components analysis to reduce 14 SES and 28 family stress indicators into their core dimensions (e.g. community and educational capital, financial resources, marital conflict). Core dimensions were used in path analyses to examine their relationships with parent IQ and cerebral volume (white matter, grey matter and total brain volume), to predict child IQ in a sample of typically developing children. 1.3. Results Parent IQ affected child IQ directly and indirectly through community and educational capital, demonstrating how environmental factors interact with familial factors in neuro-development. There were no intervening effects of cerebral white matter, grey matter, or total brain volume. 1.4. Conclusions Findings may suggest that improving community resources can foster the intellectual development of children. PMID:24533427

  19. Developmental Trajectories for Children with Dyslexia and Low IQ Poor Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppen, Sarah E. A.; Goswami, Usha

    2016-01-01

    Reading difficulties are found in children with both high and low IQ and it is now clear that both groups exhibit difficulties in phonological processing. Here, we apply the developmental trajectories approach, a new methodology developed for studying language and cognitive impairments in developmental disorders, to both poor reader groups. The…

  20. Basic Auditory Processing Skills and Phonological Awareness in Low-IQ Readers and Typically Developing Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppen, Sarah; Huss, Martina; Fosker, Tim; Fegan, Natasha; Goswami, Usha

    2011-01-01

    We explore the relationships between basic auditory processing, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and word reading in a sample of 95 children, 55 typically developing children, and 40 children with low IQ. All children received nonspeech auditory processing tasks, phonological processing and literacy measures, and a receptive vocabulary task.…