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Sample records for nonverbal dynamic assessment

  1. A Nonverbal Phoneme Deletion Task Administered in a Dynamic Assessment Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillam, Sandra Laing; Fargo, Jamison; Foley, Beth; Olszewski, Abbie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the project was to design a nonverbal dynamic assessment of phoneme deletion that may prove useful with individuals who demonstrate complex communication needs (CCN) and are unable to communicate using natural speech or who present with moderate-severe speech impairments. Method: A nonverbal dynamic assessment of phoneme…

  2. Using Item Response Theory to Describe the Nonverbal Literacy Assessment (NVLA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Danielle; Wilson, Mark; Ahlgrim-Delzell, Lynn

    2018-01-01

    The Nonverbal Literacy Assessment (NVLA) is a literacy assessment designed for students with significant intellectual disabilities. The 218-item test was initially examined using confirmatory factor analysis. This method showed that the test worked as expected, but the items loaded onto a single factor. This article uses item response theory to…

  3. Assessing potentially gifted students from lower socioeconomic status with nonverbal measures of intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaunessy, Elizabeth; Karnes, Frances A; Cobb, Yolanda

    2004-06-01

    The screening and identification of gifted students has historically been conducted using verbal measures of intelligence. However, the underrepresentation in gifted programs of culturally diverse children, who may have limited English proficiency or cultural values different from those measured in traditional intelligence tests, has prompted researchers to consider other measures. Nonverbal measures of intelligence have been utilized to increase the number of gifted children from diverse backgrounds. Researchers in the current study sought to increase the number of culturally diverse gifted students at a rural public school enrolling predominantly African-American students from low socioeconomic homes. 169 students in Grades 2 through 6 were assessed using three nonverbal measures of intelligence: the Culture-Fair Intelligence Test, the Naglieri Nonverbal Abilities Test, and the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices. The scores on these nonverbal measures indicated that the Culture-Fair Intelligence Test and the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices identified more students than the Naglieri Nonverbal Abilities Test. A discussion of the results and implications for research are presented.

  4. The assessment of nonverbal behavior in schizophrenia through the Formal Psychological Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granziol, Umberto; Spoto, Andrea; Vidotto, Giulio

    2018-03-01

    The nonverbal behavior (NVB) of people diagnosed with schizophrenia consistently interacts with their symptoms during the assessment. Previous studies frequently observed such an interaction when a prevalence of negative symptoms occurred. Nonetheless, a list of NVBs linked to negative symptoms needs to be defined. Furthermore, a list of items that can exhaustively assess such NVBs is still needed. The present study aims to introduce both lists by using the Formal Psychological Assessment. A deep analysis was performed on both the scientific literature and the DSM-5 for constructing the set of nonverbal behaviors; similarly, an initial list of 138 items investigating the behaviors was obtained from instruments used to assess schizophrenia. The Formal Psychological Assessment was then applied to reduce the preliminary list. A final list of 23 items necessary and sufficient to investigate the NVBs emerged. The list also allowed us to analyze specific relations among items. The present study shows how it is possible to deepen a patient's negative symptomatology, starting with the relations between items and the NVBs they investigate. Finally, this study examines the advantages and clinical implications of defining an assessment tool based on the found list of items. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Assessment of Nonverbal and Verbal Apraxia in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

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    Monia Presotto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the presence of nonverbal and verbal apraxia in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD and analyze the correlation between these conditions and patient age, education, duration of disease, and PD stage, as well as evaluate the correlation between the two types of apraxia and the frequency and types of verbal apraxic errors made by patients in the sample. Method. This was an observational prevalence study. The sample comprised 45 patients with PD seen at the Movement Disorders Clinic of the Clinical Hospital of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Patients were evaluated using the Speech Apraxia Assessment Protocol and PD stages were classified according to the Hoehn and Yahr scale. Results. The rate of nonverbal apraxia and verbal apraxia in the present sample was 24.4%. Verbal apraxia was significantly correlated with education (p≤0.05. The most frequent types of verbal apraxic errors were omissions (70.8%. The analysis of manner and place of articulation showed that most errors occurred during the production of trill (57.7% and dentoalveolar (92% phonemes, consecutively. Conclusion. Patients with PD presented nonverbal and verbal apraxia and made several verbal apraxic errors. Verbal apraxia was correlated with education levels.

  6. Test Review: Wechsler, D., & Naglieri, J.A. (2006). "Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability". San Antonio, TX--Harcourt Assessment

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    Massa, Idalia; Rivera, Vivina

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV), a general cognitive ability assessment tool for individuals' aged 4 year 0 months through 21 years 11 months with English language and/or communicative limitations. The test targets a population whose performance on intelligence batteries might be compromised by…

  7. Direct observation of mother-child communication in pediatric cancer: assessment of verbal and non-verbal behavior and emotion.

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    Dunn, Madeleine J; Rodriguez, Erin M; Miller, Kimberly S; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Vannatta, Kathryn; Saylor, Megan; Scheule, C Melanie; Compas, Bruce E

    2011-06-01

    To examine the acceptability and feasibility of coding observed verbal and nonverbal behavioral and emotional components of mother-child communication among families of children with cancer. Mother-child dyads (N=33, children ages 5-17 years) were asked to engage in a videotaped 15-min conversation about the child's cancer. Coding was done using the Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scale (IFIRS). Acceptability and feasibility of direct observation in this population were partially supported: 58% consented and 81% of those (47% of all eligible dyads) completed the task; trained raters achieved 78% agreement in ratings across codes. The construct validity of the IFIRS was demonstrated by expected associations within and between positive and negative behavioral/emotional code ratings and between mothers' and children's corresponding code ratings. Direct observation of mother-child communication about childhood cancer has the potential to be an acceptable and feasible method of assessing verbal and nonverbal behavior and emotion in this population.

  8. Assessing theory of mind nonverbally in those with intellectual disability and ASD: the penny hiding game.

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    San José Cáceres, Antonia; Keren, Noa; Booth, Rhonda; Happé, Francesca

    2014-10-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and low intellectual/language abilities are often omitted from experimental studies because of the challenges of testing these individuals. It is vital to develop appropriate and accessible tasks so that this significant part of the spectrum is not neglected. The theory of mind (ToM) has been extensively assessed in ASD, predominantly in relatively high-functioning individuals with reasonable language skills. This study aims to assess the ToM abilities of a sample of 132 participants with intellectual disability (ID) with and without ASD, matched in verbal mental age (VMA) and chronological age, using a naturalistic and nonverbal deception task: the Penny Hiding Game (PHG). The relationship between performance on the PHG and everyday adaptation was also studied. The PHG proved accessible to most participants, suggesting its suitability for use with individuals with low cognitive skills, attentional problems, and limited language. The ASD + ID group showed significantly more PHG errors, and fewer tricks, than the ID group. PHG performance correlated with Vineland adaptation scores for both groups. VMA was a major predictor of passing the task in both groups, and participants with ASD + ID required, on average, 2 years higher VMA than those with ID only, to achieve the same level of PHG success. VMA moderated the association between PHG performance and real-life social skills for the ASD + ID more than the ID group, suggesting that severely impaired individuals with ASD may rely on verbal ability to overcome their social difficulties, whereas individuals with ID alone may use more intuitive social understanding both in the PHG and everyday situations. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Toward a functional near-infrared spectroscopy-based monitoring of pain assessment for nonverbal patients

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    Fernandez Rojas, Raul; Huang, Xu; Ou, Keng-Liang

    2017-10-01

    Pain diagnosis for nonverbal patients represents a challenge in clinical settings. Neuroimaging methods, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), have shown promising results to assess neuronal function in response to nociception and pain. Recent studies suggest that neuroimaging in conjunction with machine learning models can be used to predict different cognitive tasks. The aim of this study is to expand previous studies by exploring the classification of fNIRS signals (oxyhaemoglobin) according to temperature level (cold and hot) and corresponding pain intensity (low and high) using machine learning models. Toward this aim, we used the quantitative sensory testing to determine pain threshold and pain tolerance to cold and heat in 18 healthy subjects (three females), mean age±standard deviation (31.9±5.5). The classification model is based on the bag-of-words approach, a histogram representation used in document classification based on the frequencies of extracted words and adapted for time series; two learning algorithms were used separately, K-nearest neighbor (K-NN) and support vector machines (SVM). A comparison between two sets of fNIRS channels was also made in the classification task, all 24 channels and 8 channels from the somatosensory region defined as our region of interest (RoI). The results showed that K-NN obtained slightly better results (92.08%) than SVM (91.25%) using the 24 channels; however, the performance slightly dropped using only channels from the RoI with K-NN (91.53%) and SVM (90.83%). These results indicate potential applications of fNIRS in the development of a physiologically based diagnosis of human pain that would benefit vulnerable patients who cannot self-report pain.

  10. Nonverbal og empatisk kommunikation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Hasche, Erik

    2004-01-01

    Nonverbal kommunikation, empati, sundhedspsykologi, non verbal communication, empathy, health psychology......Nonverbal kommunikation, empati, sundhedspsykologi, non verbal communication, empathy, health psychology...

  11. Emotion Recognition as a Real Strength in Williams Syndrome: Evidence From a Dynamic Non-verbal Task

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    Laure Ibernon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The hypersocial profile characterizing individuals with Williams syndrome (WS, and particularly their attraction to human faces and their desire to form relationships with other people, could favor the development of their emotion recognition capacities. This study seeks to better understand the development of emotion recognition capacities in WS. The ability to recognize six emotions was assessed in 15 participants with WS. Their performance was compared to that of 15 participants with Down syndrome (DS and 15 typically developing (TD children of the same non-verbal developmental age, as assessed with Raven’s Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM; Raven et al., 1998. The analysis of the three groups’ results revealed that the participants with WS performed better than the participants with DS and also than the TD children. Individuals with WS performed at a similar level to TD participants in terms of recognizing different types of emotions. The study of development trajectories confirmed that the participants with WS presented the same development profile as the TD participants. These results seem to indicate that the recognition of emotional facial expressions constitutes a real strength in people with WS.

  12. Nonverbal Communication and Human–Dog Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Iben Helene Coakley; Forkman, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Human–dog interaction relies to a large extent on nonverbal communication, and it is therefore plausible that human sensitivity to nonverbal signals affects interactions between human and dog. Experience with dogs is also likely to influence human–dog interactions, and it has been suggested...... and answered a questionnaire on their experience with dogs. The data obtained were then used to investigate the relationship between experience with dogs and sensitivity to human nonverbal communication. The results did not indicate that experience with dogs improves human nonverbal sensitivity. In study 2, 16...... that it influences human social skills. The present study investigated possible links between human nonverbal sensitivity, experience with dogs, and the quality of human–dog interactions. Two studies are reported. In study 1, 97 veterinary students took a psychometric test assessing human nonverbal sensitivity...

  13. "You can also save a life!": children's drawings as a non-verbal assessment of the impact of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training.

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    Petriş, Antoniu Octavian; Tatu-Chiţoiu, Gabriel; Cimpoeşu, Diana; Ionescu, Daniela Florentina; Pop, Călin; Oprea, Nadia; Ţînţ, Diana

    2017-04-01

    Drawings made by training children into cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during the special education week called "School otherwise" can be used as non-verbal means of expression and communication to assess the impact of such training. We analyzed the questionnaires and drawings completed by 327 schoolchildren in different stages of education. After a brief overview of the basic life support (BLS) steps and after watching a video presenting the dynamic performance of the BLS sequence, subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire and make a drawing to express main CPR messages. Questionnaires were filled completely in 97.6 % and drawings were done in 90.2 % cases. Half of the subjects had already witnessed a kind of medical emergency and 96.94 % knew the correct "112" emergency phone number. The drawings were single images (83.81 %) and less cartoon strips (16.18 %). Main themes of the slogans were "Save a life!", "Help!", "Call 112!", "Do not be indifferent/insensible/apathic!" through the use of drawings interpretation, CPR trainers can use art as a way to build a better relation with schoolchildren, to connect to their thoughts and feelings and obtain the highest quality education.

  14. Dynamic Speaking Assessments

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    Hill, Kent; Sabet, Mehran

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an attempt to adopt dynamic assessment (DA) methods in classroom speaking assessments. The study reported in this article focused on four particular applications of dynamic speaking assessment (DSA). The first, "mediated assistance" (MA), involves interaction between an assistor and a learner to reveal problems in…

  15. Cortical Auditory Disorders: A Case of Non-Verbal Disturbances Assessed with Event-Related Brain Potentials

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    Sönke Johannes

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In the auditory modality, there has been a considerable debate about some aspects of cortical disorders, especially about auditory forms of agnosia. Agnosia refers to an impaired comprehension of sensory information in the absence of deficits in primary sensory processes. In the non-verbal domain, sound agnosia and amusia have been reported but are frequently accompanied by language deficits whereas pure deficits are rare. Absolute pitch and musicians’ musical abilities have been associated with left hemispheric functions. We report the case of a right handed sound engineer with the absolute pitch who developed sound agnosia and amusia in the absence of verbal deficits after a right perisylvian stroke. His disabilities were assessed with the Seashore Test of Musical Functions, the tests of Wertheim and Botez (Wertheim and Botez, Brain 84, 1961, 19–30 and by event-related potentials (ERP recorded in a modified 'oddball paradigm’. Auditory ERP revealed a dissociation between the amplitudes of the P3a and P3b subcomponents with the P3b being reduced in amplitude while the P3a was undisturbed. This is interpreted as reflecting disturbances in target detection processes as indexed by the P3b. The findings that contradict some aspects of current knowledge about left/right hemispheric specialization in musical processing are discussed and related to the literature concerning cortical auditory disorders.

  16. Cortical auditory disorders: a case of non-verbal disturbances assessed with event-related brain potentials.

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    Johannes, Sönke; Jöbges, Michael E.; Dengler, Reinhard; Münte, Thomas F.

    1998-01-01

    In the auditory modality, there has been a considerable debate about some aspects of cortical disorders, especially about auditory forms of agnosia. Agnosia refers to an impaired comprehension of sensory information in the absence of deficits in primary sensory processes. In the non-verbal domain, sound agnosia and amusia have been reported but are frequently accompanied by language deficits whereas pure deficits are rare. Absolute pitch and musicians' musical abilities have been associated with left hemispheric functions. We report the case of a right handed sound engineer with the absolute pitch who developed sound agnosia and amusia in the absence of verbal deficits after a right perisylvian stroke. His disabilities were assessed with the Seashore Test of Musical Functions, the tests of Wertheim and Botez (Wertheim and Botez, Brain 84, 1961, 19-30) and by event-related potentials (ERP) recorded in a modified 'oddball paradigm'. Auditory ERP revealed a dissociation between the amplitudes of the P3a and P3b subcomponents with the P3b being reduced in amplitude while the P3a was undisturbed. This is interpreted as reflecting disturbances in target detection processes as indexed by the P3b. The findings that contradict some aspects of current knowledge about left/right hemispheric specialization in musical processing are discussed and related to the literature concerning cortical auditory disorders.

  17. Dynamic Assessment of Phonological Awareness for Children with Speech Sound Disorders

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    Gillam, Sandra Laing; Ford, Mikenzi Bentley

    2012-01-01

    The current study was designed to examine the relationships between performance on a nonverbal phoneme deletion task administered in a dynamic assessment format with performance on measures of phoneme deletion, word-level reading, and speech sound production that required verbal responses for school-age children with speech sound disorders (SSDs).…

  18. In-game assessment and training of nonverbal cognitive skills using TagTiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegh, J.; Fontijn, W.F.J.; Aarts, E.H.L.; Resing, W.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a field study with a game for children called 'Tap the little hedgehog', which is played on the TagTiles console, a tangible electronic interface. The game was developed to train and assess cognitive skills and includes tasks which, in isolation, exhibit a high correlation with a number

  19. Mode of Delivery: A Classroom Assessment Technique Comparison between Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication

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    Hogan, Andrea; Daw, Jolene

    2014-01-01

    This study explores how using Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs) in phone conversations with students may help to clarify learning objectives and encourage active learning in distance education. For this study, research was collected from introductory undergraduate online courses at a university in the Southwest. Data was collected from three…

  20. Approbation of the Non-Verbal Technique for Assessment of the Satisfaction with Body Parts

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    Meshkova T.A.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A new assessment tool is proposed for measuring the attitude to individual parts of one's body, applicable to persons with physical disabilities. The forms for testing contain schematic images of the man figure and person's face, on which the sections are marked out. It is necessary to put a specific rating on a 5-point scale in the each segment of body and face. Approbation was carried out in adolescents 11-18 years old with typical development (ATD, 103 people and with motor disabilities and IQ within normal range (AMD, 31 people. Specific and averaged assessments of the face, body, limbs, etc. were obtained. Psychometric analysis showed that the adolescents of both groups basically assess their body with points 4 and 5. In both groups, there are about 9% of respondents with low ratings (below 3.5. There are significant sex differences in the estimates of certain parts of the body. The ANOVA reveals reliable effects of interaction of the factors of sex, age and the presence of disorders in comparison of the ATD and AMD groups. In particular, the lowest scores are typical for girls 11-14 years of the AMD group. The validity of the proposed technique is indicated by regular correlations with other body image estimates, self-esteem and neuroticism. The proposed diagnostic tool can be recommended for research purposes in work with adolescents and adults with physical appearance defects.

  1. The use of virtual characters to assess and train non-verbal communication in high-functioning autism.

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    Georgescu, Alexandra Livia; Kuzmanovic, Bojana; Roth, Daniel; Bente, Gary; Vogeley, Kai

    2014-01-01

    High-functioning autism (HFA) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, which is characterized by life-long socio-communicative impairments on the one hand and preserved verbal and general learning and memory abilities on the other. One of the areas where particular difficulties are observable is the understanding of non-verbal communication cues. Thus, investigating the underlying psychological processes and neural mechanisms of non-verbal communication in HFA allows a better understanding of this disorder, and potentially enables the development of more efficient forms of psychotherapy and trainings. However, the research on non-verbal information processing in HFA faces several methodological challenges. The use of virtual characters (VCs) helps to overcome such challenges by enabling an ecologically valid experience of social presence, and by providing an experimental platform that can be systematically and fully controlled. To make this field of research accessible to a broader audience, we elaborate in the first part of the review the validity of using VCs in non-verbal behavior research on HFA, and we review current relevant paradigms and findings from social-cognitive neuroscience. In the second part, we argue for the use of VCs as either agents or avatars in the context of "transformed social interactions." This allows for the implementation of real-time social interaction in virtual experimental settings, which represents a more sensitive measure of socio-communicative impairments in HFA. Finally, we argue that VCs and environments are a valuable assistive, educational and therapeutic tool for HFA.

  2. The Use of Virtual Characters to Assess and Train Non-Verbal Communication in High-Functioning Autism

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    Georgescu, Alexandra Livia; Kuzmanovic, Bojana; Roth, Daniel; Bente, Gary; Vogeley, Kai

    2014-01-01

    High-functioning autism (HFA) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, which is characterized by life-long socio-communicative impairments on the one hand and preserved verbal and general learning and memory abilities on the other. One of the areas where particular difficulties are observable is the understanding of non-verbal communication cues. Thus, investigating the underlying psychological processes and neural mechanisms of non-verbal communication in HFA allows a better understanding of this disorder, and potentially enables the development of more efficient forms of psychotherapy and trainings. However, the research on non-verbal information processing in HFA faces several methodological challenges. The use of virtual characters (VCs) helps to overcome such challenges by enabling an ecologically valid experience of social presence, and by providing an experimental platform that can be systematically and fully controlled. To make this field of research accessible to a broader audience, we elaborate in the first part of the review the validity of using VCs in non-verbal behavior research on HFA, and we review current relevant paradigms and findings from social-cognitive neuroscience. In the second part, we argue for the use of VCs as either agents or avatars in the context of “transformed social interactions.” This allows for the implementation of real-time social interaction in virtual experimental settings, which represents a more sensitive measure of socio-communicative impairments in HFA. Finally, we argue that VCs and environments are a valuable assistive, educational and therapeutic tool for HFA. PMID:25360098

  3. Emotion Recognition in Adolescents with Down Syndrome: A Nonverbal Approach

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    Régis Pochon

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported that persons with Down syndrome (DS have difficulties recognizing emotions; however, there is insufficient research to prove that a deficit of emotional knowledge exists in DS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recognition of emotional facial expressions without making use of emotional vocabulary, given the language problems known to be associated with this syndrome. The ability to recognize six emotions was assessed in 24 adolescents with DS. Their performance was compared to that of 24 typically developing children with the same nonverbal-developmental age, as assessed by Raven’s Progressive Matrices. Analysis of the results revealed no global difference; only marginal differences in the recognition of different emotions appeared. Study of the developmental trajectories revealed a developmental difference: the nonverbal reasoning level assessed by Raven’s matrices did not predict success on the experimental tasks in the DS group, contrary to the typically developing group. These results do not corroborate the hypothesis that there is an emotional knowledge deficit in DS and emphasize the importance of using dynamic, strictly nonverbal tasks in populations with language disorders.

  4. Bilateral and unilateral ECT: effects on verbal and nonverbal memory.

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    Squire, S R; Slater, P C

    1978-11-01

    The memory loss associated with bilateral and nondominant unilateral ECT was assessed with verbal memory tests known to be sensitive to left temporal lobe dysfunction and with nonverbal memory tests known to be sensitive to right temporal lobe dysfunction. Bilateral ECT markedly impaired delayed retention of verbal and nonverbal material. Right unilateral ECT impaired delayed retention of nonverbal material without measurably affecting retention of verbal material. Nonverbal memory was affected less by right unilateral ECT than by bilateral ECT. These findings, taken together with a consideration of the clinical efficacy of the two types of treatment, make what appears to be a conclusive case for unilateral over bilateral ECT.

  5. Nonverbal Accommodation in Healthcare Communication

    OpenAIRE

    D’Agostino, Thomas A.; Bylund, Carma L.

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study examined patterns of nonverbal accommodation within healthcare interactions and investigated the impact of communication skills training and gender concordance on nonverbal accommodation behavior. The Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS) was used to code the nonverbal behavior of physicians and patients within 45 oncology consultations. Cases were then placed in one of seven categories based on patterns of accommodation observed across the interaction. Results...

  6. Nonverbal communication in the focus-group

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    Alina Simona TECĂU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the process of analysing the information obtained through focus group qualitative marketing research, a very important source of data is represented by non-verbal communication. Although the literature reveals an abundance of published material that describes how data obtained through focus group should be analysed, one of the least addressed issue is the interpretation of signals from participants: gestures, posture, dynamic and rhythm of speech or even the silence. This Article addresses precisely aspects of non-verbal communication in the focus group's and although not intended to examine in detail the results of a focus group, it shows how some of signals transmitted by participants of such research have been analysed and interpreted.

  7. Dynamic Assessment in School Psychology

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    Lidz, Carol S.

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic assessment (DA) is a generic term for a variety of procedures that embed intervention within the assessment itself. Typically administered in pretest-intervention-posttest format, DA procedures provide information about the response and responsiveness of the individual to intervention and generate ideas and evidence about potentially…

  8. Attracting Assault: Victims' Nonverbal Cues.

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    Grayson, Betty; Stein, Morris I.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a study in which prison inmates convicted of assault identified potential victims from videotapes. A lab analysis code was used to determine which nonverbal body movement categories differentiated victims and nonvictims. (JMF)

  9. Nonverbal synchrony and affect in dyadic interactions

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    Wolfgang eTschacher

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In an experiment on dyadic social interaction, we invited participants to verbal interactions in cooperative, competitive, and 'fun task' conditions. We focused on the link between interactants' affectivity and their nonverbal synchrony, and explored which further variables contributed to affectivity: interactants' personality traits, sex, and the prescribed interaction tasks. Nonverbal synchrony was quantified by the coordination of interactants' body movement, using an automated video-analysis algorithm (Motion Energy Analysis, MEA. Traits were assessed with standard questionnaires of personality, attachment, interactional style, psychopathology and interpersonal reactivity. We included 168 previously unacquainted individuals who were randomly allocated to same-sex dyads (84 females, 84 males, mean age 27.3 years. Dyads discussed four topics of general interest drawn from an urn of eight topics, and finally engaged in a fun interaction. Each interaction lasted five minutes. In between interactions, participants repeatedly assessed their affect. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we found moderate to strong effect sizes for synchrony to occur, especially in competitive and fun task conditions. Positive affect was associated positively with synchrony, negative affect was associated negatively. As for causal direction, data supported the interpretation that synchrony entailed affect rather than vice versa. The link between nonverbal synchrony and affect was strongest in female dyads. The findings extend previous reports of synchrony and mimicry associated with emotion in relationships and suggest a possible mechanism of the synchrony-affect correlation.

  10. Dynamical systems probabilistic risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, Matthew R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ames, Arlo Leroy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is the primary tool used to risk-inform nuclear power regulatory and licensing activities. Risk-informed regulations are intended to reduce inherent conservatism in regulatory metrics (e.g., allowable operating conditions and technical specifications) which are built into the regulatory framework by quantifying both the total risk profile as well as the change in the risk profile caused by an event or action (e.g., in-service inspection procedures or power uprates). Dynamical Systems (DS) analysis has been used to understand unintended time-dependent feedbacks in both industrial and organizational settings. In dynamical systems analysis, feedback loops can be characterized and studied as a function of time to describe the changes to the reliability of plant Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs). While DS has been used in many subject areas, some even within the PRA community, it has not been applied toward creating long-time horizon, dynamic PRAs (with time scales ranging between days and decades depending upon the analysis). Understanding slowly developing dynamic effects, such as wear-out, on SSC reliabilities may be instrumental in ensuring a safely and reliably operating nuclear fleet. Improving the estimation of a plant's continuously changing risk profile will allow for more meaningful risk insights, greater stakeholder confidence in risk insights, and increased operational flexibility.

  11. Children Use Nonverbal Cues to Make Inferences About Social Power

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    Brey, Elizabeth; Shutts, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Four studies (N=192) tested whether young children use nonverbal information to make inferences about differences in social power. Five- and 6-year-old children were able to determine which of two adults was “in charge” in dynamic videotaped conversations (Study 1) and in static photographs (Study 4) using only nonverbal cues. Younger children (3–4 years) were not successful in Study 1 or Study 4. Removing irrelevant linguistic information from conversations did not improve the performance of 3–4-year-old children (Study 3), but including relevant linguistic cues did (Study 2). Thus, at least by 5 years of age, children show sensitivity to some of the same nonverbal cues adults use to determine other people’s social roles. PMID:25521913

  12. Nonverbal Cues: The Key to Classroom Management.

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    Petrie, Garth; Lindauer, Patricia; Bennett, Brenda; Gibson, Sherri

    1998-01-01

    Principals should familiarize teachers with the benefits of nonverbal procedures for classroom management and discipline enforcement. A behavior-management checklist of nonverbal techniques (eye contact, touching, smiling, and frowning) can be used in a series of short visits. At least 75% of control techniques should be nonverbal. Relying on…

  13. Nonverbal Synchrony in Psychotherapy: Coordinated Body Movement Reflects Relationship Quality and Outcome

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    Ramseyer, Fabian; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors quantified nonverbal synchrony--the coordination of patient's and therapist's movement--in a random sample of same-sex psychotherapy dyads. The authors contrasted nonverbal synchrony in these dyads with a control condition and assessed its association with session-level and overall psychotherapy outcome. Method: Using an…

  14. Verbal and non-verbal behaviour and patient perception of communication in primary care: an observational study.

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    Little, Paul; White, Peter; Kelly, Joanne; Everitt, Hazel; Gashi, Shkelzen; Bikker, Annemieke; Mercer, Stewart

    2015-06-01

    Few studies have assessed the importance of a broad range of verbal and non-verbal consultation behaviours. To explore the relationship of observer ratings of behaviours of videotaped consultations with patients' perceptions. Observational study in general practices close to Southampton, Southern England. Verbal and non-verbal behaviour was rated by independent observers blind to outcome. Patients competed the Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale (MISS; primary outcome) and questionnaires addressing other communication domains. In total, 275/360 consultations from 25 GPs had useable videotapes. Higher MISS scores were associated with slight forward lean (an 0.02 increase for each degree of lean, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.002 to 0.03), the number of gestures (0.08, 95% CI = 0.01 to 0.15), 'back-channelling' (for example, saying 'mmm') (0.11, 95% CI = 0.02 to 0.2), and social talk (0.29, 95% CI = 0.4 to 0.54). Starting the consultation with professional coolness ('aloof') was helpful and optimism unhelpful. Finishing with non-verbal 'cut-offs' (for example, looking away), being professionally cool ('aloof'), or patronising, ('infantilising') resulted in poorer ratings. Physical contact was also important, but not traditional verbal communication. These exploratory results require confirmation, but suggest that patients may be responding to several non-verbal behaviours and non-specific verbal behaviours, such as social talk and back-channelling, more than traditional verbal behaviours. A changing consultation dynamic may also help, from professional 'coolness' at the beginning of the consultation to becoming warmer and avoiding non-verbal cut-offs at the end. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  15. Counselor Nonverbal Self-Disclosure and Fear of Intimacy during Employment Counseling: An Aptitude-Treatment Interaction Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrein, Cindy; Bernaud, Jean-Luc

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of nonverbal self-disclosure within the dynamic of aptitude-treatment interaction. Participants (N = 94) watched a video of a career counseling session aimed at helping the jobseeker to find employment. The video was then edited to display 3 varying degrees of nonverbal self-disclosure. In conjunction with the…

  16. Dynamic assessment of word learning skills of pre-school children with primary language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Bernard; Law, James

    2014-10-01

    Dynamic assessment has been shown to have considerable theoretical and clinical significance in the assessment of socially disadvantaged and culturally and linguistically diverse children. In this study it is used to enhance assessment of pre-school children with primary language impairment. The purpose of the study was to determine whether a dynamic assessment (DA) has the potential to enhance the predictive capacity of a static measure of receptive vocabulary in pre-school children. Forty pre-school children were assessed using the static British Picture Vocabulary Scale (BPVS), a DA of word learning potential and an assessment of non-verbal cognitive ability. Thirty-seven children were followed up 6 months later and re-assessed using the BPVS. Although the predictive capacity of the static measure was found to be substantial, the DA increased this significantly especially for children with static scores below the 25th centile. The DA of children's word learning has the potential to add value to the static assessment of the child with low language skills, to predict subsequent receptive vocabulary skills and to increase the chance of correctly identifying children in need of ongoing support.

  17. Physical growth and nonverbal intelligence: associations in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Sascha; Reich, Jodi; Thuma, Philip E; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2014-11-01

    To investigate normative developmental body mass index (BMI) trajectories and associations of physical growth indicators--height, weight, head circumference (HC), and BMI--with nonverbal intelligence in an understudied population of children from sub-Saharan Africa. A sample of 3981 students (50.8% male), grades 3-7, with a mean age of 12.75 years was recruited from 34 rural Zambian schools. Children with low scores on vision and hearing screenings were excluded. Height, weight, and HC were measured, and nonverbal intelligence was assessed using the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test, Symbolic Memory subtest and Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition, Triangles subtest. Students in higher grades had a higher BMI over and above the effect of age. Girls had a marginally higher BMI, although that for both boys and girls was approximately 1 SD below the international Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization norms. When controlling for the effect of age, nonverbal intelligence showed small but significant positive relationships with HC (r = 0.17) and BMI (r = 0.11). HC and BMI accounted for 1.9% of the variance in nonverbal intelligence, over and above the contribution of grade and sex. BMI-for-age growth curves of Zambian children follow observed worldwide developmental trajectories. The positive relationships between BMI and intelligence underscore the importance of providing adequate nutritional and physical growth opportunities for children worldwide and in sub-Saharan Africa in particular. Directions for future studies are discussed with regard to maximizing the cognitive potential of all rural African children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Advancing the Assessment of Dynamic Psychological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Aidan G C; Hopwood, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    Most commonly used clinical assessment tools cannot fully capture the dynamic psychological processes often hypothesized as core mechanisms of psychopathology and psychotherapy. There is therefore a gap between our theories of problems and interventions for those problems and the tools we use to understand clients. The purpose of this special issue is to connect theory about clinical dynamics to practice by focusing on methods for collecting dynamic data, statistical models for analyzing dynamic data, and conceptual schemes for implementing dynamic data in applied settings. In this introductory article, we argue for the importance of assessing dynamic processes, highlight recent advances in assessment science that enable their measurement, review challenges in using these advances in applied practice, and adumbrate the articles in this issue.

  19. Training Manual. Focused Observations: Nonverbal Teaching Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Banks; And Others

    Nonverbal teacher behavior is recognized as an important factor in establishing a positive social climate in the classroom. A feedback and analysis instrument is presented focusing on specific nonverbal teacher behaviors. These behaviors--facial expressions, gestures, body movements, and idiosyncratic characteristics--are categorized as either…

  20. Nonverbal Communication in the Contemporary Operating Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    relationship to speech and be affected by issues of stress, intonation, and pacing (Kendon, 1981). Bilinguals generally gesture more than monolinguals ...a stranger: Some commonly used nonverbal signals of aversiveness. Semiotica, 22(3/4), 351-367. Givens, D. B. (2006). The nonverbal dictionary of

  1. Nonverbal and verbal emotional expression and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D S; Pennebaker, J W

    1993-01-01

    The spontaneous nonverbal expression of emotion is related to immediate reductions in autonomic nervous system activity. Similar changes in specific autonomic channels occur when individuals are encouraged to verbally express their emotions. Indeed, these physiological changes are most likely to occur among individuals who are either verbally or nonverbally highly expressive. These data suggest that when individuals must actively inhibit emotional expression, they are at increased risk for a variety of health problems. Several experiments are summarized which indicate that verbally expressing traumatic experiences by writing or talking improves physical health, enhances immune function, and is associated with fewer medical visits. Although less research is available regarding nonverbal expression, it is also likely that the nonverbal expression of emotion bears some relation to health status. We propose that the effectiveness of many common expressive therapies (e.g., art, music, cathartic) would be enhanced if clients are encouraged to both express their feelings nonverbally and to put their experiences into words.

  2. Hearing loss is associated with decreased nonverbal intelligence in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Susan D; Schmitz, Jane; Pillion, Joseph; Wu, Lee; Khatry, Subarna K; Karna, Sureshwar L; LeClerq, Steven C; West, Keith P

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the association between adolescent and young-adult hearing loss and nonverbal intelligence in rural Nepal. Cross-sectional assessment of hearing loss among a population cohort of adolescents and young adults. Sarlahi District, southern Nepal. Seven hundred sixty-four individuals aged 14 to 23 years. Evaluation of hearing loss, defined by World Health Organization criteria of pure-tone average greater than 25 decibels (0.5, 1, 2, 4 kHz), unilaterally and bilaterally. Nonverbal intelligence, as measured by the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, 3rd Edition standardized score (mean, 100; standard deviation, 15). Nonverbal intelligence scores differed between participants with normal hearing and those with bilateral (p = 0.04) but not unilateral (p = 0.74) hearing loss. Demographic and socioeconomic factors including male sex; higher caste; literacy; education level; occupation reported as student; and ownership of a bicycle, watch, and latrine were strongly associated with higher nonverbal intelligence scores (all p intelligence score based on unilateral hearing loss (0.97; 95% confidence interval, -1.67 to 3.61; p = 0.47). Nonverbal intelligence is adversely affected by bilateral hearing loss even at mild hearing loss levels. Socio economic well-being appears compromised in individuals with lower nonverbal intelligence test scores.

  3. Nonverbal synchrony of head- and body-movement in psychotherapy: different signals have different associations with outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eRamseyer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The coordination of patient’s and therapist’s bodily movement – nonverbal synchrony – has been empirically shown to be associated with psychotherapy outcome. This finding was based on dynamic movement patterns of the whole body. The present paper is a new analysis of an existing dataset (Ramseyer & Tschacher, 2011, which extends previous findings by differentiating movements pertaining to head and upper-body regions. Method: In a sample of 70 patients (37 female, 33 male treated at an outpatient psychotherapy clinic, we quantified nonverbal synchrony with an automated objective video-analysis algorithm (Motion Energy Analysis, MEA. Head- and body-synchrony was quantified during the initial 15 minutes of video-recorded therapy sessions. Micro-outcome was assessed with self-report post-session questionnaires provided by patients and their therapists. Macro-outcome was measured with questionnaires that quantified attainment of treatment goals and changes in experiencing and behavior at the end of therapy. Results: The differentiation of head- and body-synchrony showed that these two facets of motor coordination were differentially associated with outcome. Head-synchrony predicted global outcome of therapy, while body-synchrony did not, and body-synchrony predicted session outcome, while head-synchrony did not. Conclusions: The results pose an important amendment to previous findings, which showed that nonverbal synchrony embodied both outcome and interpersonal variables of psychotherapy dyads. The separation of head- and body-synchrony suggested that distinct mechanisms may operate in these two regions: Head-synchrony embodied phenomena with a long temporal extension (overall therapy success, while body-synchrony embodied phenomena of a more immediate nature (session-level success. More explorations with fine-grained analyses of synchronized phenomena in nonverbal behavior may shed additional light on the embodiment of

  4. Parents and Physiotherapists Recognition of Non-Verbal Communication of Pain in Individuals with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, Inmaculada; Pades Jiménez, Antonia; Montoya, Pedro

    2017-08-29

    Pain assessment is difficult in individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). This is of particular relevance in children with communication difficulties, when non-verbal pain behaviors could be essential for appropriate pain recognition. Parents are considered good proxies in the recognition of pain in their children; however, health professionals also need a good understanding of their patients' pain experience. This study aims at analyzing the agreement between parents' and physiotherapists' assessments of verbal and non-verbal pain behaviors in individuals with CP. A written survey about pain characteristics and non-verbal pain expression of 96 persons with CP (45 classified as communicative, and 51 as non-communicative individuals) was performed. Parents and physiotherapists displayed a high agreement in their estimations of the presence of chronic pain, healthcare seeking, pain intensity and pain interference, as well as in non-verbal pain behaviors. Physiotherapists and parents can recognize pain behaviors in individuals with CP regardless of communication disabilities.

  5. [Non-verbal communication in Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiaratura, Loris Tamara

    2008-09-01

    This review underlines the importance of non-verbal communication in Alzheimer's disease. A social psychological perspective of communication is privileged. Non-verbal behaviors such as looks, head nods, hand gestures, body posture or facial expression provide a lot of information about interpersonal attitudes, behavioral intentions, and emotional experiences. Therefore they play an important role in the regulation of interaction between individuals. Non-verbal communication is effective in Alzheimer's disease even in the late stages. Patients still produce non-verbal signals and are responsive to others. Nevertheless, few studies have been devoted to the social factors influencing the non-verbal exchange. Misidentification and misinterpretation of behaviors may have negative consequences for the patients. Thus, improving the comprehension of and the response to non-verbal behavior would increase first the quality of the interaction, then the physical and psychological well-being of patients and that of caregivers. The role of non-verbal behavior in social interactions should be approached from an integrative and functional point of view.

  6. Cross-Cultural Detection of Depression from Nonverbal Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Alghowinem, Sharifa; Goecke, Roland; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Wagner, Michael; Parker, Gordon; Breakspear, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Millions of people worldwide suffer from depression. Do commonalities exist in their nonverbal behavior that would enable cross-culturally viable screening and assessment of severity? We investigated the generalisability of an approach to detect depression severity cross-culturally using video-recorded clinical interviews from Australia, the USA and Germany. The material varied in type of interview, subtypes of depression and inclusion healthy control subjects, cultural background, and record...

  7. Ethnic Differences in Nonverbal Pain Behaviors Observed in Older Adults with Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Brianne; Snow, A Lynn; Herr, Keela; Tripp-Reimer, Toni

    2015-10-01

    Research supports using nonverbal pain behaviors to identify pain in persons with dementia. It is unknown whether variations exist among ethnic groups in the expression of nonverbal pain behaviors in this special population. The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine ethnic differences in the presentation and intensity of nonverbal pain behaviors among African American, Caucasian, and Hispanic older adults with dementia when screened for pain by certified nursing assistants. Six certified nursing assistants were trained to review and score 28 video recordings of subjects with dementia for nonverbal pain behaviors using the Non-Communicative Patient's Pain Assessment Instrument. Chi-square was used to examine differences among ethnic groups with regard to the display of nonverbal pain behaviors, and ANOVA was used to evaluate differences in the intensity of overall pain across ethnic groups. Of the 168 assessments, pain words (28%), pain noises (29.8%), and pain faces (28%) were observed most often as indicators of pain. Rubbing, bracing, and restlessness were rarely noted. Chi-square analysis revealed ethnic differences in the expression of pain words (χ(2) = 19.167, p ethnic groups with regards to overall pain intensity. These findings are the first to examine ethnic differences in nonverbal pain behaviors for older adults with dementia. However, future work should examine assessment tendencies of providers in a larger, more diverse sample. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. All rights reserved.

  8. Perception of Nonverbal Communication Influenced by Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蒙蒙

    2013-01-01

    The concept of perception influenced by culture is pretty important in the study of intercultural communication. The perceptions of language and nonverbal language formed under various cultures intimate with each other during communication. This paper aims to explore the relationship between perception and culture in nonverbal communication through the study of eye language and body odor, and promote the communication among people of different culture as well.

  9. Non-verbal communication in meetings of psychiatrists and patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, M; Dimic, S; Wildgrube, C; McCabe, R; Priebe, S

    2015-03-01

    Recent evidence found that patients with schizophrenia display non-verbal behaviour designed to avoid social engagement during the opening moments of their meetings with psychiatrists. This study aimed to replicate, and build on, this finding, assessing the non-verbal behaviour of patients and psychiatrists during meetings, exploring changes over time and its association with patients' symptoms and the quality of the therapeutic relationship. 40-videotaped routine out-patient consultations, involving patients with schizophrenia, were analysed. Non-verbal behaviour of patients and psychiatrists was assessed during three fixed, 2-min intervals using a modified Ethological Coding System for Interviews. Symptoms, satisfaction with communication and the quality of the therapeutic relationship were also measured. Over time, patients' non-verbal behaviour remained stable, whilst psychiatrists' flight behaviour decreased. Patients formed two groups based on their non-verbal profiles, one group (n = 25) displaying pro-social behaviour, inviting interaction and a second (n = 15) displaying flight behaviour, avoiding interaction. Psychiatrists interacting with pro-social patients displayed more pro-social behaviours (P communication (P non-verbal behaviour during routine psychiatric consultations remains unchanged, and is linked to both their psychiatrist's non-verbal behaviour and the quality of the therapeutic relationship. © 2014 The Authors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Investigating the applicability of Dynamic Assessment in Iran: From ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3) Teachers with different levels of education held similar and positive attitudes regarding the applicability of dynamic assessment. Key words: Assessment, Dynamic Assessment, Zone of Proximal Development, Interventionist Dynamic Assessment, Interactionist Dynamic Assessment. La présente étude visait à étudier les ...

  11. Nonverbal intelligence in young children with dysregulation: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basten, Maartje; van der Ende, Jan; Tiemeier, Henning; Althoff, Robert R; Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Hudziak, James J; Verhulst, Frank C; White, Tonya

    2014-11-01

    Children meeting the Child Behavior Checklist Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP) suffer from high levels of co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems. Little is known about the cognitive abilities of these children with CBCL-DP. We examined the relationship between CBCL-DP and nonverbal intelligence. Parents of 6,131 children from a population-based birth cohort, aged 5 through 7 years, reported problem behavior on the CBCL/1.5-5. The CBCL-DP was derived using latent profile analysis on the CBCL/1.5-5 syndrome scales. Nonverbal intelligence was assessed using the Snijders Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test 2.5-7-Revised. We examined the relationship between CBCL-DP and nonverbal intelligence using linear regression. Analyses were adjusted for parental intelligence, parental psychiatric symptoms, socio-economic status, and perinatal factors. In a subsample with diagnostic interview data, we tested if the results were independent of the presence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The results showed that children meeting the CBCL-DP (n = 110, 1.8%) had a 11.0 point lower nonverbal intelligence level than children without problems and 7.2-7.3 points lower nonverbal intelligence level than children meeting other profiles of problem behavior (all p values intelligence in children with CBCL-DP. In conclusion, we found that children with CBCL-DP have a considerable lower nonverbal intelligence score. The CBCL-DP and nonverbal intelligence may share a common neurodevelopmental etiology.

  12. The impact of culture and education on non-verbal neuropsychological measurements: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, Mónica; Ardila, Alfredo

    2003-08-01

    Clinical neuropsychology has frequently considered visuospatial and non-verbal tests to be culturally and educationally fair or at least fairer than verbal tests. This paper reviews the cross-cultural differences in performance on visuoperceptual and visuoconstructional ability tasks and analyzes the impact of education and culture on non-verbal neuropsychological measurements. This paper compares: (1) non-verbal test performance among groups with different educational levels, and the same cultural background (inter-education intra-culture comparison); (2) the test performance among groups with the same educational level and different cultural backgrounds (intra-education inter-culture comparisons). Several studies have demonstrated a strong association between educational level and performance on common non-verbal neuropsychological tests. When neuropsychological test performance in different cultural groups is compared, significant differences are evident. Performance on non-verbal tests such as copying figures, drawing maps or listening to tones can be significantly influenced by the individual's culture. Arguments against the use of some current neuropsychological non-verbal instruments, procedures, and norms in the assessment of diverse educational and cultural groups are discussed and possible solutions to this problem are presented.

  13. Evaluating verbal and non-verbal communication skills, in an ethnogeriatric OSCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lauren G; Schrimmer, Anne; Diamond, James; Burke, Janice

    2011-05-01

    Communication during medical interviews plays a large role in patient adherence, satisfaction with care, and health outcomes. Both verbal and non-verbal communication (NVC) skills are central to the development of rapport between patients and healthcare professionals. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of non-verbal and verbal communication skills on evaluations by standardized patients during an ethnogeriatric Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Interviews from 19 medical students, residents, and fellows in an ethnogeriatric OSCE were analyzed. Each interview was videotaped and evaluated on a 14 item verbal and an 8 item non-verbal communication checklist. The relationship between verbal and non-verbal communication skills on interview evaluations by standardized patients were examined using correlational analyses. Maintaining adequate facial expression (FE), using affirmative gestures (AG), and limiting both unpurposive movements (UM) and hand gestures (HG) had a significant positive effect on perception of interview quality during this OSCE. Non-verbal communication skills played a role in perception of overall interview quality as well as perception of culturally competent communication. Incorporating formative and summative evaluation of both verbal and non-verbal communication skills may be a critical component of curricular innovations in ethnogeriatrics, such as the OSCE. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nonverbal Interaction Analysis. A Method of Systematically Observing and Recording Nonverbal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, Peggy

    These materials will help the educator develop an awareness of nonverbal behavior, which is complimentary to and independent of the verbal realm, to give a complete picture of the classroom. The purpose of the manual is to enable the teacher to identify nonverbal components of behavior, including dimensions other than behavioral of the teacher's…

  15. Physical growth and non-verbal intelligence: Associations in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Sascha; Reich, Jodi; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate normative developmental BMI trajectories and associations of physical growth indicators (ie, height, weight, head circumference [HC], body mass index [BMI]) with non-verbal intelligence in an understudied population of children from Sub-Saharan Africa. Study design A sample of 3981 students (50.8% male), grades 3 to 7, with a mean age of 12.75 years was recruited from 34 rural Zambian schools. Children with low scores on vision and hearing screenings were excluded. Height, weight and HC were measured, and non-verbal intelligence was assessed using UNIT-symbolic memory and KABC-II-triangles. Results Results showed that students in higher grades have a higher BMI over and above the effect of age. Girls showed a marginally higher BMI, although that for both boys and girls was approximately 1 SD below the international CDC and WHO norms. Controlling for the effect of age, non-verbal intelligence showed small but significant positive relationships with HC (r = .17) and BMI (r = .11). HC and BMI accounted for 1.9% of the variance in non-verbal intelligence, over and above the contribution of grade and sex. Conclusions BMI-for-age growth curves of Zambian children follow observed worldwide developmental trajectories. The positive relationships between BMI and intelligence underscore the importance of providing adequate nutritional and physical growth opportunities for children worldwide and in sub-Saharan Africa in particular. Directions for future studies are discussed with regard to maximizing the cognitive potential of all rural African children. PMID:25217196

  16. Ambulatory assessment of ankle and foot dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H. Martin; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    Ground reaction force (GRF) measurement is important in the analysis of human body movements. The main drawback of the existing measurement systems is the restriction to a laboratory environment. This paper proposes an ambulatory system for assessing the dynamics of ankle and foot, which integrates

  17. Nonverbal accommodation in health care communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Thomas A; Bylund, Carma L

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study examined patterns of nonverbal accommodation within health care interactions and investigated the impact of communication skills training and gender concordance on nonverbal accommodation behavior. The Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS) was used to code the nonverbal behavior of physicians and patients within 45 oncology consultations. Cases were then placed in one of seven categories based on patterns of accommodation observed across the interaction. Results indicated that across all NAAS behavior categories, physician-patient interactions were most frequently categorized as joint convergence, followed closely by asymmetrical-patient convergence. Among paraverbal behaviors, talk time, interruption, and pausing were most frequently characterized by joint convergence. Among nonverbal behaviors, eye contact, laughing, and gesturing were most frequently categorized as asymmetrical-physician convergence. Differences were predominantly nonsignificant in terms of accommodation behavior between pre- and post-communication skills training interactions. Only gesturing proved significant, with post-communication skills training interactions more likely to be categorized as joint convergence or asymmetrical-physician convergence. No differences in accommodation were noted between gender-concordant and nonconcordant interactions. The importance of accommodation behavior in health care communication is considered from a patient-centered care perspective.

  18. Negative Symptoms and Avoidance of Social Interaction: A Study of Non-Verbal Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worswick, Elizabeth; Dimic, Sara; Wildgrube, Christiane; Priebe, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Non-verbal behaviour is fundamental to social interaction. Patients with schizophrenia display an expressivity deficit of non-verbal behaviour, exhibiting behaviour that differs from both healthy subjects and patients with different psychiatric diagnoses. The present study aimed to explore the association between non-verbal behaviour and symptom domains, overcoming methodological shortcomings of previous studies. Standardised interviews with 63 outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia were videotaped. Symptoms were assessed using the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Calgary Depression Scale. Independent raters later analysed the videos for non-verbal behaviour, using a modified version of the Ethological Coding System for Interviews (ECSI). Patients with a higher level of negative symptoms displayed significantly fewer prosocial (e.g., nodding and smiling), gesture, and displacement behaviours (e.g., fumbling), but significantly more flight behaviours (e.g., looking away, freezing). No gender differences were found, and these associations held true when adjusted for antipsychotic medication dosage. Negative symptoms are associated with both a lower level of actively engaging non-verbal behaviour and an increased active avoidance of social contact. Future research should aim to identify the mechanisms behind flight behaviour, with implications for the development of treatments to improve social functioning. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Effect of interaction with clowns on vital signs and non-verbal communication of hospitalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcântara, Pauline Lima; Wogel, Ariane Zonho; Rossi, Maria Isabela Lobo; Neves, Isabela Rodrigues; Sabates, Ana Llonch; Puggina, Ana Cláudia

    2016-12-01

    Compare the non-verbal communication of children before and during interaction with clowns and compare their vital signs before and after this interaction. Uncontrolled, intervention, cross-sectional, quantitative study with children admitted to a public university hospital. The intervention was performed by medical students dressed as clowns and included magic tricks, juggling, singing with the children, making soap bubbles and comedic performances. The intervention time was 20minutes. Vital signs were assessed in two measurements with an interval of one minute immediately before and after the interaction. Non-verbal communication was observed before and during the interaction using the Non-Verbal Communication Template Chart, a tool in which nonverbal behaviors are assessed as effective or ineffective in the interactions. The sample consisted of 41 children with a mean age of 7.6±2.7 years; most were aged 7 to 11 years (n=23; 56%) and were males (n=26; 63.4%). There was a statistically significant difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pain and non-verbal behavior of children with the intervention. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased and pain scales showed decreased scores. The playful interaction with clowns can be a therapeutic resource to minimize the effects of the stressing environment during the intervention, improve the children's emotional state and reduce the perception of pain. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Persistent non-verbal memory impairment in remitted major depression - caused by encoding deficits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnken, Andreas; Schöning, Sonja; Gerss, Joachim; Konrad, Carsten; de Jong-Meyer, Renate; Zwanzger, Peter; Arolt, Volker

    2010-04-01

    While neuropsychological impairments are well described in acute phases of major depressive disorders (MDD), little is known about the neuropsychological profile in remission. There is evidence for episodic memory impairments in both acute depressed and remitted patients with MDD. Learning and memory depend on individuals' ability to organize information during learning. This study investigates non-verbal memory functions in remitted MDD and whether nonverbal memory performance is mediated by organizational strategies whilst learning. 30 well-characterized fully remitted individuals with unipolar MDD and 30 healthy controls matching in age, sex and education were investigated. Non-verbal learning and memory were measured by the Rey-Osterrieth-Complex-Figure-Test (RCFT). The RCFT provides measures of planning, organizational skills, perceptual and non-verbal memory functions. For assessing the mediating effects of organizational strategies, we used the Savage Organizational Score. Compared to healthy controls, participants with remitted MDD showed more deficits in their non-verbal memory function. Moreover, participants with remitted MDD demonstrated difficulties in organizing non-verbal information appropriately during learning. In contrast, no impairments regarding visual-spatial functions in remitted MDD were observed. Except for one patient, all the others were taking psychopharmacological medication. The neuropsychological function was solely investigated in the remitted phase of MDD. Individuals with MDD in remission showed persistent non-verbal memory impairments, modulated by a deficient use of organizational strategies during encoding. Therefore, our results strongly argue for additional therapeutic interventions in order to improve these remaining deficits in cognitive function. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessing hypotheses about nesting site occupancy dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bled, Florent; Royle, J. Andrew; Cam, Emmanuelle

    2011-01-01

    Hypotheses about habitat selection developed in the evolutionary ecology framework assume that individuals, under some conditions, select breeding habitat based on expected fitness in different habitat. The relationship between habitat quality and fitness may be reflected by breeding success of individuals, which may in turn be used to assess habitat quality. Habitat quality may also be assessed via local density: if high-quality sites are preferentially used, high density may reflect high-quality habitat. Here we assessed whether site occupancy dynamics vary with site surrogates for habitat quality. We modeled nest site use probability in a seabird subcolony (the Black-legged Kittiwake, Rissa tridactyla) over a 20-year period. We estimated site persistence (an occupied site remains occupied from time t to t + 1) and colonization through two subprocesses: first colonization (site creation at the timescale of the study) and recolonization (a site is colonized again after being deserted). Our model explicitly incorporated site-specific and neighboring breeding success and conspecific density in the neighborhood. Our results provided evidence that reproductively "successful'' sites have a higher persistence probability than "unsuccessful'' ones. Analyses of site fidelity in marked birds and of survival probability showed that high site persistence predominantly reflects site fidelity, not immediate colonization by new owners after emigration or death of previous owners. There is a negative quadratic relationship between local density and persistence probability. First colonization probability decreases with density, whereas recolonization probability is constant. This highlights the importance of distinguishing initial colonization and recolonization to understand site occupancy. All dynamics varied positively with neighboring breeding success. We found evidence of a positive interaction between site-specific and neighboring breeding success. We addressed local

  2. Human Nonverbal Behaviors, Empathy, and Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggers, T. Thorne

    Nonverbal behavior is an important aspect of the film and is one of the several tools that a director uses to communicate to an audience the characters' feelings and relationships. By adding to this information their own personal responses, viewers often experience strong feelings. With reference to the social psychological research of nonverbal…

  3. Emotion Comprehension: The Impact of Nonverbal Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Ottavia; De Stasio, Simona; Di Chiacchio, Carlo; Fiorilli, Caterina; Pons, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    A substantial body of research has established that emotion understanding develops throughout early childhood and has identified three hierarchical developmental phases: external, mental, and reflexive. The authors analyzed nonverbal intelligence and its effect on children's improvement of emotion understanding and hypothesized that cognitive…

  4. Nonverbal Synchrony in Social Interactions of Patients with Schizophrenia Indicates Socio-Communicative Deficits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeno Kupper

    Full Text Available Disordered interpersonal communication can be a serious problem in schizophrenia. Recent advances in computer-based measures allow reliable and objective quantification of nonverbal behavior. Research using these novel measures has shown that objective amounts of body and head movement in patients with schizophrenia during social interactions are closely related to the symptom profiles of these patients. In addition to and above mere amounts of movement, the degree of synchrony, or imitation, between patients and normal interactants may be indicative of core deficits underlying various problems in domains related to interpersonal communication, such as symptoms, social competence, and social functioning.Nonverbal synchrony was assessed objectively using Motion Energy Analysis (MEA in 378 brief, videotaped role-play scenes involving 27 stabilized outpatients diagnosed with paranoid-type schizophrenia.Low nonverbal synchrony was indicative of symptoms, low social competence, impaired social functioning, and low self-evaluation of competence. These relationships remained largely significant when correcting for the amounts of patients' movement. When patients showed reduced imitation of their interactants' movements, negative symptoms were likely to be prominent. Conversely, positive symptoms were more prominent in patients when their interaction partners' imitation of their movements was reduced.Nonverbal synchrony can be an objective and sensitive indicator of the severity of patients' problems. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of nonverbal synchrony may provide novel insights into specific relationships between symptoms, cognition, and core communicative problems in schizophrenia.

  5. [Non-verbal communication and executive function impairment after traumatic brain injury: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainson, C

    2007-05-01

    Following post-traumatic impairment in executive function, failure to adjust to communication situations often creates major obstacles to social and professional reintegration. The analysis of pathological verbal communication has been based on clinical scales since the 1980s, but that of nonverbal elements has been neglected, although their importance should be acknowledged. The aim of this research was to study non-verbal aspects of communication in a case of executive-function impairment after traumatic brain injury. During the patient's conversation with an interlocutor, all nonverbal parameters - coverbal gestures, gaze, posture, proxemics and facial expressions - were studied in as much an ecological way as possible, to closely approximate natural conversation conditions. Such an approach highlights the difficulties such patients experience in communicating, difficulties of a pragmatic kind, that have so far been overlooked by traditional investigations, which mainly take into account the formal linguistic aspects of language. The analysis of the patient's conversation revealed non-verbal dysfunctions, not only on a pragmatic and interactional level but also in terms of enunciation. Moreover, interactional adjustment phenomena were noted in the interlocutor's behaviour. The two inseparable aspects of communication - verbal and nonverbal - should be equally assessed in patients with communication difficulties; highlighting distortions in each area might bring about an improvement in the rehabilitation of such people.

  6. Coccygeal movement: Assessment with dynamic MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi, Roberto; Lombardi, Giulio; Reginelli, Alfonso; Capasso, Francesco; Romano, Francesco; Floriani, Irene; Colacurci, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Chronic coccygodynia is a difficult problem diagnostically and therapeutically. Moreover, there is no deep knowledge especially in the field of imaging of chronic coccygodynia. In this study several possible measurements are proposed, which all are able to demonstrate coccygeal movement during defecation, in order to assess coccygeal mobility using dynamic MRI during maximum contraction and during straining-evacuation. Materials and methods: A dynamic MRI study of the pelvic floor was performed in 112 patients. Five methods of measurement were assessed. Coccygeal movements were determined through the evaluation of three angles pair and two different distances measured during the phase of maximum contraction and during the phase of straining-evacuation. Results were compared according to age, sex, parity and experience of minor trauma. No patient included in the study had coccygodynia. Measurements taken by two radiologist were compared to determine interobserver agreement. Results: The maximum measurement values of the two distances are homogeneous, between 9 and 9.4 mm. The maximum measurement values of the three angles showed a difference that is between 21 deg. and 38 deg. Two of three angles showed a major measurement values in the funtional texts. In only one patient the coccyx was not mobile. Conclusion: Our dynamic MRI study indicates that the coccyx is mobile during defecation and that it is possible to demonstrate coccygeal excursions by assessing the difference between its positions at maximum contraction and during straining-evacuation. The measurement methods used in this study for evaluating coccygeal movements resulted in variably sized observed differences, but all yielded statistically significant results in demonstrating coccygeal excursion. Among the five measurement methods, two resulted in the largest differences. Our data indicate no correlation between coccygeal movements and age, sex, parity, minor trauma and coccygodynia

  7. Assessing the performance of dynamical trajectory estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröcker, Jochen

    2014-06-01

    Estimating trajectories and parameters of dynamical systems from observations is a problem frequently encountered in various branches of science; geophysicists for example refer to this problem as data assimilation. Unlike as in estimation problems with exchangeable observations, in data assimilation the observations cannot easily be divided into separate sets for estimation and validation; this creates serious problems, since simply using the same observations for estimation and validation might result in overly optimistic performance assessments. To circumvent this problem, a result is presented which allows us to estimate this optimism, thus allowing for a more realistic performance assessment in data assimilation. The presented approach becomes particularly simple for data assimilation methods employing a linear error feedback (such as synchronization schemes, nudging, incremental 3DVAR and 4DVar, and various Kalman filter approaches). Numerical examples considering a high gain observer confirm the theory.

  8. Nonverbal arithmetic in humans: light from noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Sara; Gallistel, C R; Gelman, Rochel; Latham, Peter

    2007-10-01

    Animal and human data suggest the existence of a cross-species system of analog number representation (e.g., Cordes, Gelman, Gallistel, & Whalen, 2001; Meeck & Church, 1983), which may mediate the computation of statistical regularities in the environment (Gallistel, Gelman, & Cordes, 2006). However, evidence of arithmetic manipulation of these nonverbal magnitude representations is sparse and lacking in depth. This study uses the analysis of variability as a tool for understanding properties of these combinatorial processes. Human subjects participated in tasks requiring responses dependent upon the addition, subtraction, or reproduction of nonverbal counts. Variance analyses revealed that the magnitude of both inputs and answer contributed to the variability in the arithmetic responses, with operand variability dominating. Other contributing factors to the observed variability and implications for logarithmic versus scalar models of magnitude representation are discussed in light of these results.

  9. Nonverbal interpersonal attunement and extravert personality predict outcome of light treatment in seasonal affective disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, E; Kouwert, E; Bouhuys, N; Meesters, Y; Jansen, J

    We investigated whether personality and nonverbal interpersonal processes can predict the subsequent response to light treatment in seasonal affective disorder (SAD) patients. In 60 SAD patients, Neuroticism and Extraversion were assessed prior to light treatment (4 days with 30 min of 10.000 lux).

  10. Vedic Science Based Education and Nonverbal Intelligence: A Preliminary Longitudinal Study in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, Lee C.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study investigated the effects on students' nonverbal intelligence of implementing an approach to higher education based on Vedic science, developed by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and including transcendental meditation. The approach was implemented in two Cambodian universities and its effects assessed in 70 undergraduate students. An increase in…

  11. Dynamic Assessment and Its Implications for RTI Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard K.; Compton, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic assessment refers to assessment that combines elements of instruction for the purpose of learning something about an individual that cannot be learned as easily or at all from conventional assessment. The origins of dynamic assessment can be traced to Thorndike (1924), Rey (1934), and Vygotsky (1962), who shared three basic assumptions.…

  12. Dissociating verbal and nonverbal audiovisual object processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Julia; Price, Cathy J

    2009-02-01

    This fMRI study investigates how audiovisual integration differs for verbal stimuli that can be matched at a phonological level and nonverbal stimuli that can be matched at a semantic level. Subjects were presented simultaneously with one visual and one auditory stimulus and were instructed to decide whether these stimuli referred to the same object or not. Verbal stimuli were simultaneously presented spoken and written object names, and nonverbal stimuli were photographs of objects simultaneously presented with naturally occurring object sounds. Stimulus differences were controlled by including two further conditions that paired photographs of objects with spoken words and object sounds with written words. Verbal matching, relative to all other conditions, increased activation in a region of the left superior temporal sulcus that has previously been associated with phonological processing. Nonverbal matching, relative to all other conditions, increased activation in a right fusiform region that has previously been associated with structural and conceptual object processing. Thus, we demonstrate how brain activation for audiovisual integration depends on the verbal content of the stimuli, even when stimulus and task processing differences are controlled.

  13. Social influence on metacognitive evaluations: The power of nonverbal cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskenazi, Terry; Montalan, Benoît; Jacquot, Amélie; Proust, Joëlle; Grèzes, Julie; Conty, Laurence

    2016-11-01

    Metacognitive evaluations refer to the processes by which people assess their own cognitive operations with respect to their current goal. Little is known about whether this process is susceptible to social influence. Here we investigate whether nonverbal social signals spontaneously influence metacognitive evaluations. Participants performed a two-alternative forced-choice task, which was followed by a face randomly gazing towards or away from the response chosen by the participant. Participants then provided a metacognitive evaluation of their response by rating their confidence in their answer. In Experiment 1, the participants were told that the gaze direction was irrelevant to the task purpose and were advised to ignore it. The results revealed an effect of implicit social information on confidence ratings even though the gaze direction was random and therefore unreliable for task purposes. In addition, nonsocial cues (car) did not elicit this effect. In Experiment 2, the participants were led to believe that cue direction (face or car) reflected a previous participant's response to the same question-that is, the social information provided by the cue was made explicit, yet still objectively unreliable for the task. The results showed a similar social influence on confidence ratings, observed with both cues (car and face) but with an increased magnitude relative to Experiment 1. We additionally showed in Experiment 2 that social information impaired metacognitive accuracy. Together our results strongly suggest an involuntary susceptibility of metacognitive evaluations to nonverbal social information, even when it is implicit (Experiment 1) and unreliable (Experiments 1 and 2).

  14. An empirical method for dynamic camouflage assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitch, John G.

    2011-06-01

    As camouflage systems become increasingly sophisticated in their potential to conceal military personnel and precious cargo, evaluation methods need to evolve as well. This paper presents an overview of one such attempt to explore alternative methods for empirical evaluation of dynamic camouflage systems which aspire to keep pace with a soldier's movement through rapidly changing environments that are typical of urban terrain. Motivating factors are covered first, followed by a description of the Blitz Camouflage Assessment (BCA) process and results from an initial proof of concept experiment conducted in November 2006. The conclusion drawn from these results, related literature and the author's personal experience suggest that operational evaluation of personal camouflage needs to be expanded beyond its foundation in signal detection theory and embrace the challenges posed by high levels of cognitive processing.

  15. Non-verbal communication through sensor fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tairych, Andreas; Xu, Daniel; O'Brien, Benjamin M.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2016-04-01

    When we communicate face to face, we subconsciously engage our whole body to convey our message. In telecommunication, e.g. during phone calls, this powerful information channel cannot be used. Capturing nonverbal information from body motion and transmitting it to the receiver parallel to speech would make these conversations feel much more natural. This requires a sensing device that is capable of capturing different types of movements, such as the flexion and extension of joints, and the rotation of limbs. In a first embodiment, we developed a sensing glove that is used to control a computer game. Capacitive dielectric elastomer (DE) sensors measure finger positions, and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) detects hand roll. These two sensor technologies complement each other, with the IMU allowing the player to move an avatar through a three-dimensional maze, and the DE sensors detecting finger flexion to fire weapons or open doors. After demonstrating the potential of sensor fusion in human-computer interaction, we take this concept to the next level and apply it in nonverbal communication between humans. The current fingerspelling glove prototype uses capacitive DE sensors to detect finger gestures performed by the sending person. These gestures are mapped to corresponding messages and transmitted wirelessly to another person. A concept for integrating an IMU into this system is presented. The fusion of the DE sensor and the IMU combines the strengths of both sensor types, and therefore enables very comprehensive body motion sensing, which makes a large repertoire of gestures available to nonverbal communication over distances.

  16. Comparisons of memory for nonverbal auditory and visual sequential stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, D J; Cacace, A T

    1995-01-01

    Properties of auditory and visual sensory memory were compared by examining subjects' recognition performance of randomly generated binary auditory sequential frequency patterns and binary visual sequential color patterns within a forced-choice paradigm. Experiment 1 demonstrated serial-position effects in auditory and visual modalities consisting of both primacy and recency effects. Experiment 2 found that retention of auditory and visual information was remarkably similar when assessed across a 10s interval. Experiments 3 and 4, taken together, showed that the recency effect in sensory memory is affected more by the type of response required (recognition vs. reproduction) than by the sensory modality employed. These studies suggest that auditory and visual sensory memory stores for nonverbal stimuli share similar properties with respect to serial-position effects and persistence over time.

  17. Organizational strategies mediate nonverbal memory impairment in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, C R; Baer, L; Keuthen, N J; Brown, H D; Rauch, S L; Jenike, M A

    1999-04-01

    Previous neuropsychological studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have indicated impaired executive functioning and nonverbal memory. The extent to which impaired executive functioning impacts nonverbal memory has not been established. The current study investigated the mediating effects of organizational strategies used when copying a figure on subsequent nonverbal memory for that figure. We examined neuropsychological performance in 20 unmedicated subjects with OCD and 20 matched normal control subjects. Subjects were administered the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (RCFT) and neuropsychological tests assessing various aspects of executive function. OCD subjects differed significantly from healthy control subjects in the organizational strategies used to copy the RCFT figure, and they recalled significantly less information on both immediate and delayed testing. Multiple regression analyses indicated that group differences in immediate percent recall were significantly mediated by copy organizational strategies. Further exploratory analyses indicated that organizational problems in OCD may be related to difficulties shifting mental and/or spatial set. Immediate nonverbal memory problems in OCD subjects were mediated by impaired organizational strategies used during the initial copy of the RCFT figure. Thus, the primary deficit was one affecting executive function, which then had a secondary effect on immediate memory. These findings are consistent with current theories proposing frontal-striatal system dysfunction in OCD.

  18. Interactive use of communication by verbal and non-verbal autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Cibelle Albuquerque de la Higuera; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

    2010-01-01

    Communication of autistic children. To assess the communication functionality of verbal and non-verbal children of the autistic spectrum and to identify possible associations amongst the groups. Subjects were 20 children of the autistic spectrum divided into two groups: V with 10 verbal children and NV with 10 non-verbal children with ages varying between 2y10m and 10y6m. All subjects were video recorded during 30 minutes of spontaneous interaction with their mothers. The samples were analyzed according to the functional communicative profile and comparisons within and between groups were conducted. Data referring to the occupation of communicative space suggest that there is an even balance between each child and his mother. The number of communicative acts per minute shows a clear difference between verbal and non-verbal children. Both verbal and non-verbal children use mostly the gestual communicative mean in their interactions. Data about the use of interpersonal communicative functions point out to the autistic children's great interactive impairment. The characterization of the functional communicative profile proposed in this study confirmed the autistic children's difficulties with interpersonal communication and that these difficulties do not depend on the preferred communicative mean.

  19. Effects of Nonverbal Behavior on Perceptions of Power Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguinis, Herman; Simonsen, Melissa M.; Pierce, Charles A.

    1998-01-01

    Manipulates three types of nonverbal behaviors and examines their effects on perceptions of power bases. Reports that a relaxed facial expression increased the ratings for five of the selected power bases; furthermore, direct eye contact yielded higher credibility ratings. Provides evidence that various nonverbal behaviors have only additive…

  20. The Relationship between Family Expressiveness and Nonverbal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberstadt, Amy G.

    Although research in nonverbal communication is in its seventh decade, the origins of individual differences in nonverbl sensitivity remain. To investigate the relationship between family norms of emotional expression and nonverbal communication, 64 college students completed the Family Expressiveness Questionnaire, were videotaped while…

  1. How Interviewers' Nonverbal Behaviors Can Affect Children's Perceptions and Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerigogna, Jehanne; Ost, James; Akehurst, Lucy; Fluck, Mike

    2008-01-01

    We conducted two studies to examine how interviewers' nonverbal behaviors affect children's perceptions and suggestibility. In the first study, 42 8- to 10-year-olds watched video clips showing an interviewer displaying combinations of supportive and nonsupportive nonverbal behaviors and were asked to rate the interviewer on six attributes (e.g.,…

  2. A Meta-study of musicians' non-verbal interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2010-01-01

    interruptions. Hence, despite the fact that the skill to engage in a non-verbal interaction is described as tacit knowledge, it is fundamental for both musicians and teachers (Davidson and Good 2002). Typical observed non-verbal cues are for example: physical gestures, modulations of sound, steady eye contact...

  3. Investigating a Relationship between Nonverbal Communication and Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    Clear and effective communication is essential in today's society (Smith & Cotten, 1980; Smith & Land, 1981). Nonverbal communication specifically has a vital role in communication. There is inconsistent data on the effect of nonverbal communication used by instructors and the impact on student learning within the higher education…

  4. Slap What? An Interactive Lesson in Nonverbal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haithcox-Dennis, Melissa J.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the use of nonverbal communication strategies for fostering social health in middle school students. It outlines a teaching technique designed to help students better understand nonverbal cues and their role in maintaining healthy interpersonal relationships. The technique begins with the card game "Slap What?" where the…

  5. Non-Verbal Communication in Children with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallineni, Sharmila; Nutheti, Rishita; Thangadurai, Shanimole; Thangadurai, Puspha

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine: (a) whether children with visual and additional impairments show any non-verbal behaviors, and if so what were the common behaviors; (b) whether two rehabilitation professionals interpreted the non-verbal behaviors similarly; and (c) whether a speech pathologist and a rehabilitation professional interpreted…

  6. Guidelines for Teaching Non-Verbal Communications Through Visual Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Mahima Ranjan

    1976-01-01

    There is a natural unique relationship between non-verbal communication and visual media such as television and film. Visual media will have to be used extensively--almost exclusively--in teaching non-verbal communications, as well as other methods requiring special teaching skills. (Author/ER)

  7. Dynamic Assessment, Potential Giftedness and Mathematics Achievement in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Nicoleta Laura; Pauc, Ramona Loredana

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic assessment is currently discussed in educational literature as one of the most promising practices in stimulating learning among various groups of students, including gifted and potentially gifted students. The present study investigates effects of dynamic assessment on mathematics achievement among elementary school students, with…

  8. Leaders in Interdependent Contexts Suppress Nonverbal Assertiveness: A Multilevel Analysis of Japanese University Club Leaders' and Members' Rank Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Atsuki; Gobel, Matthias S; Uchida, Yukiko

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has shown that leadership is signaled through nonverbal assertiveness. However, those studies have been mostly conducted in individualistic cultural contexts, such as in the U.S. Here, we suggest that one important strategy for goal attainment in collectivistic cultures is for leaders to self-regulate their behaviors. Thus, contrary to the previous evidence from individualistic cultural contexts, in collectivistic cultural contexts, leaders might suppress nonverbal assertiveness. To test this possibility, we assessed nonverbal behaviors (NVB) of Japanese leaders and members, and how they were evaluated by observers. We recruited Japanese leaders and members of university clubs and video-recorded them while introducing their club. Then, we coded their nonverbal rank signaling behavior. Finally, we asked a new set of naïve observers to watch these video-clips and to judge targets' suitability for being possible club leaders. Results of a multilevel analysis (level 1: individual participants, level 2: clubs) suggested that the more the club culture focused on tasks (rather than relationships), the more likely were leaders (but not members) of those clubs to suppress their nonverbal assertiveness. Naïve observers judged individuals who restrained from emitting nonverbal assertiveness as being more suitable and worthy club leaders. Thus, our findings demonstrate the cultural fit between contextual effects at the collective level (i.e., cultural orientation of a group) and the signaling and perceiving of social ranks at the individual level (i.e., suppression of nonverbal assertiveness). We discuss the importance of studying the cultural fit between the collective reality that people inhabit and people's psychology for future research in cultural psychology.

  9. Leaders in Interdependent Contexts Suppress Nonverbal Assertiveness: A Multilevel Analysis of Japanese University Club Leaders' and Members' Rank Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuki Ito

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that leadership is signaled through nonverbal assertiveness. However, those studies have been mostly conducted in individualistic cultural contexts, such as in the U.S. Here, we suggest that one important strategy for goal attainment in collectivistic cultures is for leaders to self-regulate their behaviors. Thus, contrary to the previous evidence from individualistic cultural contexts, in collectivistic cultural contexts, leaders might suppress nonverbal assertiveness. To test this possibility, we assessed nonverbal behaviors (NVB of Japanese leaders and members, and how they were evaluated by observers. We recruited Japanese leaders and members of university clubs and video-recorded them while introducing their club. Then, we coded their nonverbal rank signaling behavior. Finally, we asked a new set of naïve observers to watch these video-clips and to judge targets' suitability for being possible club leaders. Results of a multilevel analysis (level 1: individual participants, level 2: clubs suggested that the more the club culture focused on tasks (rather than relationships, the more likely were leaders (but not members of those clubs to suppress their nonverbal assertiveness. Naïve observers judged individuals who restrained from emitting nonverbal assertiveness as being more suitable and worthy club leaders. Thus, our findings demonstrate the cultural fit between contextual effects at the collective level (i.e., cultural orientation of a group and the signaling and perceiving of social ranks at the individual level (i.e., suppression of nonverbal assertiveness. We discuss the importance of studying the cultural fit between the collective reality that people inhabit and people's psychology for future research in cultural psychology.

  10. Social Dynamics Management and Functional Behavioral Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David L.

    2018-01-01

    Managing social dynamics is a critical aspect of creating a positive learning environment in classrooms. In this paper three key interrelated ideas, reinforcement, function, and motivating operations, are discussed with relation to managing social behavior.

  11. Measuring Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in Aphasia: Reliability, Validity, and Sensitivity to Change of the Scenario Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, Ineke; van de Sandt-Koenderman, W. Mieke E.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Ribbers, Gerard M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study explores the psychometric qualities of the Scenario Test, a new test to assess daily-life communication in severe aphasia. The test is innovative in that it: (1) examines the effectiveness of verbal and non-verbal communication; and (2) assesses patients' communication in an interactive setting, with a supportive…

  12. Development Of Dynamic Probabilistic Safety Assessment: The Accident Dynamic Simulator (ADS) Tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.H.; Mosleh, A.; Dang, V.N.

    2003-01-01

    The development of a dynamic methodology for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) addresses the complex interactions between the behaviour of technical systems and personnel response in the evolution of accident scenarios. This paper introduces the discrete dynamic event tree, a framework for dynamic PSA, and its implementation in the Accident Dynamic Simulator (ADS) tool. Dynamic event tree tools generate and quantify accident scenarios through coupled simulation models of the plant physical processes, its automatic systems, the equipment reliability, and the human response. The current research on the framework, the ADS tool, and on Human Reliability Analysis issues within dynamic PSA, is discussed. (author)

  13. Development Of Dynamic Probabilistic Safety Assessment: The Accident Dynamic Simulator (ADS) Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y.H.; Mosleh, A.; Dang, V.N

    2003-03-01

    The development of a dynamic methodology for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) addresses the complex interactions between the behaviour of technical systems and personnel response in the evolution of accident scenarios. This paper introduces the discrete dynamic event tree, a framework for dynamic PSA, and its implementation in the Accident Dynamic Simulator (ADS) tool. Dynamic event tree tools generate and quantify accident scenarios through coupled simulation models of the plant physical processes, its automatic systems, the equipment reliability, and the human response. The current research on the framework, the ADS tool, and on Human Reliability Analysis issues within dynamic PSA, is discussed. (author)

  14. Non-verbal communication barriers when dealing with Saudi sellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosra Missaoui

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Communication has a major impact on how customers perceive sellers and their organizations. Especially, the non-verbal communication such as body language, appearance, facial expressions, gestures, proximity, posture, eye contact that can influence positively or negatively the first impression of customers and their experiences in stores. Salespeople in many countries, especially the developing ones, are just telling about their companies’ products because they are unaware of the real role of sellers and the importance of non-verbal communication. In Saudi Arabia, the seller profession has been exclusively for foreign labor until 2006. It is very recently that Saudi workforce enters to the retailing sector as sellers. The non-verbal communication of those sellers has never been evaluated from consumer’s point of view. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to explore the non-verbal communication barriers that customers are facing when dealing with Saudi sellers. After discussing the non-verbal communication skills that sellers must have in the light of the previous academic research and the depth interviews with seven focus groups of Saudi customers, this study found that the Saudi customers were not totally satisfied with the current non-verbal communication skills of Saudi sellers. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to develop the non-verbal communication skills of Saudi sellers by intensive trainings, to distinguish more the appearance of their sellers, especially the female ones, to focus on the time of intervention as well as the proximity to customers.

  15. Assessment of Available Numerical Tools for Dynamic Mooring Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jonas Bjerg; Eskilsson, Claes; Ferri, Francesco

    This report covers a preliminary assessment of available numerical tools to be used in upcoming full dynamic analysis of the mooring systems assessed in the project _Mooring Solutions for Large Wave Energy Converters_. The assessments tends to cover potential candidate software and subsequently c...

  16. A Multi-Actor Dynamic Integrated Assessment Model (MADIAM)

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The interactions between climate and the socio-economic system are investigated with a Multi-Actor Dynamic Integrated Assessment Model (MADIAM) obtained by coupling a nonlinear impulse response model of the climate sub-system (NICCS) to a multi-actor dynamic economic model (MADEM). The main goal is to initiate a model development that is able to treat the dynamics of the coupled climate socio-economic system, including endogenous technological change, in a non-equilibrium situation, thereby o...

  17. Evaluation of Dynamic Methods for Earthwork Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlček Jozef

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of road construction imposes requests on fast and quality methods for earthwork quality evaluation. Dynamic methods are now adopted in numerous civil engineering sections. Especially evaluation of the earthwork quality can be sped up using dynamic equipment. This paper presents the results of the parallel measurements of chosen devices for determining the level of compaction of soils. Measurements were used to develop the correlations between values obtained from various apparatuses. Correlations show that examined apparatuses are suitable for examination of compaction level of fine-grained soils with consideration of boundary conditions of used equipment. Presented methods are quick and results can be obtained immediately after measurement, and they are thus suitable in cases when construction works have to be performed in a short period of time.

  18. Uncovering the Dynamic in Static Assessment Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskett, Tom; Body, Richard; Perkins, Mick

    2012-01-01

    Traditional approaches to standardized assessment are underpinned by the assumption that between-assessor variation in delivery can effectively be eliminated. However, fine-grained analyses of the administration of such assessments (e.g. Maynard and Marlaire, 1992) have established that significant subtle interactional variations occur even in…

  19. Memory Test Performance on Analogous Verbal and Nonverbal Memory Tests in Patients with Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna Baldock

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD typically have initial deficits in language or changes in personality, while the defining characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD is memory impairment. Neuropsychological findings in the two diseases tend to differ, but can be confounded by verbal impairment in FTD impacting performance on memory tests in these patients. Methods: Twenty-seven patients with FTD and 102 patients with AD underwent a neuropsychological assessment before diagnosis. By utilizing analogous versions of a verbal and nonverbal memory test, we demonstrated differences in these two modalities between AD and FTD. Discussion: Better differentiation between AD and FTD is found in a nonverbal memory test, possibly because it eliminates the confounding variable of language deficits found in patients with FTD. These results highlight the importance of nonverbal learning tests with multiple learning trials in diagnostic testing.

  20. Memory Test Performance on Analogous Verbal and Nonverbal Memory Tests in Patients with Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldock, Deanna; Miller, Justin B; Leger, Gabriel C; Banks, Sarah Jane

    2016-01-01

    Patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) typically have initial deficits in language or changes in personality, while the defining characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is memory impairment. Neuropsychological findings in the two diseases tend to differ, but can be confounded by verbal impairment in FTD impacting performance on memory tests in these patients. Twenty-seven patients with FTD and 102 patients with AD underwent a neuropsychological assessment before diagnosis. By utilizing analogous versions of a verbal and nonverbal memory test, we demonstrated differences in these two modalities between AD and FTD. Better differentiation between AD and FTD is found in a nonverbal memory test, possibly because it eliminates the confounding variable of language deficits found in patients with FTD. These results highlight the importance of nonverbal learning tests with multiple learning trials in diagnostic testing.

  1. Thevenin Equivalent Method for Dynamic Contingency Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jakob Glarbo; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Østergaard, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    A method that exploits Thevenin equivalent representation for obtaining post-contingency steady-state nodal voltages is integrated with a method of detecting post-contingency aperiodic small-signal instability. The task of integrating stability assessment with contingency assessment is challenged...... by the cases of unstable post-contingency conditions. For unstable postcontingency conditions there exists no credible steady-state which can be used for basis of a stability assessment. This paper demonstrates how Thevenin Equivalent methods can be applied in algebraic representation of such bifurcation...... points which may be used in assessment of post-contingency aperiodic small-signal stability. The assessment method is introduced with a numeric example....

  2. Nonverbal behavior during face-to-face social interaction in schizophrenia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Mary; Healey, Patrick G T; McCabe, Rosemarie

    2014-01-01

    Patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia display social cognitive deficits. However, little is known about patients' nonverbal communication during their social encounters with others. This review identified 17 studies investigating nonverbal communication in patients' unscripted face-to-face interactions, addressing a) nonverbal differences between patients and others, b) nonverbal behavior of the patients' partners, c) the association between nonverbal behavior and symptoms, and d) the association between nonverbal behavior and social outcomes. Patients displayed fewer nonverbal behaviors inviting interaction, with negative symptoms exacerbating this pattern. Positive symptoms were associated with heightened nonverbal behavior. Patients' partners changed their own nonverbal behavior in response to the patient. Reduced prosocial behaviors, inviting interaction, were associated with poorer social outcomes. The evidence suggests that patients' nonverbal behavior, during face-to-face interaction, is influenced by patients symptoms and impacts the success of their social interactions.

  3. Non-verbal communication of compassion: measuring psychophysiologic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Kathi J; Shaltout, Hossam A

    2011-12-20

    Calm, compassionate clinicians comfort others. To evaluate the direct psychophysiologic benefits of non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC), it is important to minimize the effect of subjects' expectation. This preliminary study was designed to a) test the feasibility of two strategies for maintaining subject blinding to non-verbal communication of compassion (NVCC), and b) determine whether blinded subjects would experience psychophysiologic effects from NVCC. Subjects were healthy volunteers who were told the study was evaluating the effect of time and touch on the autonomic nervous system. The practitioner had more than 10 years' experience with loving-kindness meditation (LKM), a form of NVCC. Subjects completed 10-point visual analog scales (VAS) for stress, relaxation, and peacefulness before and after LKM. To assess physiologic effects, practitioners and subjects wore cardiorespiratory monitors to assess respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) throughout the 4 10-minute study periods: Baseline (both practitioner and subjects read neutral material); non-tactile-LKM (subjects read while the practitioner practiced LKM while pretending to read); tactile-LKM (subjects rested while the practitioner practiced LKM while lightly touching the subject on arms, shoulders, hands, feet, and legs); Post-Intervention Rest (subjects rested; the practitioner read). To assess blinding, subjects were asked after the interventions what the practitioner was doing during each period (reading, touch, or something else). Subjects' mean age was 43.6 years; all were women. Blinding was maintained and the practitioner was able to maintain meditation for both tactile and non-tactile LKM interventions as reflected in significantly reduced RR. Despite blinding, subjects' VAS scores improved from baseline to post-intervention for stress (5.5 vs. 2.2), relaxation (3.8 vs. 8.8) and peacefulness (3.8 vs. 9.0, P non-tactile LKM. It is possible to test the

  4. Nonverbal Behavior of Young Abused and Neglected Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Michael; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated whether abused and neglected children differ from other children in their nonverbal attachment and communicative behavior. Found that in comparison (1) abused children avoided contact and interaction and (2) abused females exhibited more avoidance than males. (PD)

  5. From SOLER to SURETY for effective non-verbal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Theodore

    2011-11-01

    This paper critiques the model for non-verbal communication referred to as SOLER (which stands for: "Sit squarely"; "Open posture"; "Lean towards the other"; "Eye contact; "Relax"). It has been approximately thirty years since Egan (1975) introduced his acronym SOLER as an aid for teaching and learning about non-verbal communication. There is evidence that the SOLER framework has been widely used in nurse education with little published critical appraisal. A new acronym that might be appropriate for non-verbal communication skills training and education is proposed and this is SURETY (which stands for "Sit at an angle"; "Uncross legs and arms"; "Relax"; "Eye contact"; "Touch"; "Your intuition"). The proposed model advances the SOLER model by including the use of touch and the importance of individual intuition is emphasised. The model encourages student nurse educators to also think about therapeutic space when they teach skills of non-verbal communication. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Shall we use non-verbal fluency in schizophrenia? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Romina; Trappeniers, Julie; Lefebvre, Laurent

    2014-05-30

    Over the last few years, numerous studies have attempted to explain fluency impairments in people with schizophrenia, leading to heterogeneous results. This could notably be due to the fact that fluency is often used in its verbal form where semantic dimensions are implied. In order to gain an in-depth understanding of fluency deficits, a non-verbal fluency task - the Five-Point Test (5PT) - was proposed to 24 patients with schizophrenia and to 24 healthy subjects categorized in terms of age, gender and schooling. The 5PT involves producing as many abstract figures as possible within 1min by connecting points with straight lines. All subjects also completed the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) while those with schizophrenia were further assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results show that the 5PT evaluation differentiates patients from healthy subjects with regard to the number of figures produced. Patients׳ results also suggest that the number of figures produced is linked to the "overall executive functioning" and to some inhibition components. Although this study is a first step in the non-verbal efficiency research field, we believe that experimental psychopathology could benefit from the investigations on non-verbal fluency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Emotion knowledge, emotion regulation, and psychosocial adjustment in children with nonverbal learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsala, Jamie L; Galway, Tanya M; Ishaik, Galit; Barton, Veronica E

    2017-07-01

    Nonverbal learning disability is a childhood disorder with basic neuropsychological deficits in visuospatial processing and psychomotor coordination, and secondary impairments in academic and social-emotional functioning. This study examines emotion recognition, understanding, and regulation in a clinic-referred group of young children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD). These processes have been shown to be related to social competence and psychological adjustment in typically developing (TD) children. Psychosocial adjustment and social skills are also examined for this young group, and for a clinic-referred group of older children with NLD. The young children with NLD scored lower than the TD comparison group on tasks assessing recognition of happy and sad facial expressions and tasks assessing understanding of how emotions work. Children with NLD were also rated as having less adaptive regulation of their emotions. For both young and older children with NLD, internalizing and externalizing problem scales were rated higher than for the TD comparison groups, and the means of the internalizing, attention, and social problem scales were found to fall within clinically concerning ranges. Measures of attention and nonverbal intelligence did not account for the relationship between NLD and Social Problems. Social skills and NLD membership share mostly overlapping variance in accounting for internalizing problems across the sample. The results are discussed within a framework wherein social cognitive deficits, including emotion processes, have a negative impact on social competence, leading to clinically concerning levels of depression and withdrawal in this population.

  8. Interest Level in 2-Year-Olds with Autism Spectrum Disorder Predicts Rate of Verbal, Nonverbal, and Adaptive Skill Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klintwall, Lars; Macari, Suzanne; Eikeseth, Svein; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that skill acquisition rates for children with autism spectrum disorders receiving early interventions can be predicted by child motivation. We examined whether level of interest during an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule assessment at 2?years predicts subsequent rates of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill…

  9. Assessment of children for psycho dynamically oriented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore any assessment must comprehensively explore both the child's external as well as internal environment. This combined information helps to give an estimate of the strengths and vulnerabilities in both the child and his / her environment. It is on the balance of these factors that psychotherapy may or may not be ...

  10. [Nonverbal communication by the presurgical patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freixa García, J; Marcos Sáiz, M

    1999-02-01

    Throughout human history, besides oral language, man has used other forms of communication which are known as non-verbal. From the three components of the basic structure of human communication, language, paralanguage and kinesthesia, we have chosen the last one, kinesthesia, to develop our project. Kinesthesia studies the gestures, mannerisms and postures, or in other words all body movements and positions which occur as part of our speech or independent to it. This project proposes to analyze presurgical patients' kinesthetic manifestations. We have observed that some patients do not verbally express their fears, anxieties, nervousness, etc; nonetheless, bodies do respond with similar gestures and movements in persons of varying age, sex, socio-cultural level and pathology. It is difficult to be certain what another human being feels at any given moment. One may ask a person, but he/she can refuse to answer, he/she can lie or maybe he/she does not even know what his/her feeling is. In spite of the fact that the level of information a patient possesses is higher all the time, since this is one of the primary objectives all health professionals have, one doubt remains: Will a person who has all the possible information regarding his/her surgery at his/her disposition feel the same degree of anxiety as the person who does not have such complete information available to him/her?

  11. Dynamic loads during failure risk assessment of bridge crane structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorynin, A. D.; Antsev, V. Yu; Shaforost, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents the method of failure risk assessment associated with a bridge crane metal structure at the design stage. It also justifies the necessity of taking into account dynamic loads with regard to the operational cycle of a bridge crane during failure risk assessment of its metal structure.

  12. Improving L2 Reading Comprehension through Emotionalized Dynamic Assessment Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolrezapour, Parisa

    2017-06-01

    The paper reports a study on an emotionally-loaded dynamic assessment procedure used with Iranian EFL learners. It focuses on the effect of using emotional intelligence characteristics (based on Goleman's framework) as a tool for motivating learners while performing reading tasks. The study with 50 intermediate learners aged 12-15 used three modalities: a control group, which was taught under institute's normal procedures; a comparison group, which received dynamic assessment (DA); and an experimental group, which received emotionalized dynamic assessment (EDA) procedures, in the form of an intervention focusing on characteristics of Goleman's emotional intelligence framework with the express purpose of inducing them to work with their emotions. Results showed that applying EDA procedures to reading assessment tasks made a difference in learners' level of performance in comparison to those who went through pure DA procedures who in turn performed significantly better than those who did not received DA in any form.

  13. Nonverbal channel use in communication of emotion: how may depend on why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    App, Betsy; McIntosh, Daniel N; Reed, Catherine L; Hertenstein, Matthew J

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that different emotions are most effectively conveyed through specific, nonverbal channels of communication: body, face, and touch. Experiment 1 assessed the production of emotion displays. Participants generated nonverbal displays of 11 emotions, with and without channel restrictions. For both actual production and stated preferences, participants favored the body for embarrassment, guilt, pride, and shame; the face for anger, disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness; and touch for love and sympathy. When restricted to a single channel, participants were most confident about their communication when production was limited to the emotion's preferred channel. Experiment 2 examined the reception or identification of emotion displays. Participants viewed videos of emotions communicated in unrestricted and restricted conditions and identified the communicated emotions. Emotion identification in restricted conditions was most accurate when participants viewed emotions displayed via the emotion's preferred channel. This study provides converging evidence that some emotions are communicated predominantly through different nonverbal channels. Further analysis of these channel-emotion correspondences suggests that the social function of an emotion predicts its primary channel: The body channel promotes social-status emotions, the face channel supports survival emotions, and touch supports intimate emotions.

  14. Non-verbal auditory cognition in patients with temporal epilepsy before and after anterior temporal lobectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Bidet-Caulet

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For patients with pharmaco-resistant temporal epilepsy, unilateral anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL - i.e. the surgical resection of the hippocampus, the amygdala, the temporal pole and the most anterior part of the temporal gyri - is an efficient treatment. There is growing evidence that anterior regions of the temporal lobe are involved in the integration and short-term memorization of object-related sound properties. However, non-verbal auditory processing in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE has raised little attention. To assess non-verbal auditory cognition in patients with temporal epilepsy both before and after unilateral ATL, we developed a set of non-verbal auditory tests, including environmental sounds. We could evaluate auditory semantic identification, acoustic and object-related short-term memory, and sound extraction from a sound mixture. The performances of 26 TLE patients before and/or after ATL were compared to those of 18 healthy subjects. Patients before and after ATL were found to present with similar deficits in pitch retention, and in identification and short-term memorisation of environmental sounds, whereas not being impaired in basic acoustic processing compared to healthy subjects. It is most likely that the deficits observed before and after ATL are related to epileptic neuropathological processes. Therefore, in patients with drug-resistant TLE, ATL seems to significantly improve seizure control without producing additional auditory deficits.

  15. Oncologists' non-verbal behavior and analog patients' recall of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillen, Marij A; de Haes, Hanneke C J M; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; van Weert, Julia C M; Vermeulen, Daniëlle M; Smets, Ellen M A

    2016-06-01

    Background Information in oncological consultations is often excessive. Those patients who better recall information are more satisfied, less anxious and more adherent. Optimal recall may be enhanced by the oncologist's non-verbal communication. We tested the influence of three non-verbal behaviors, i.e. eye contact, body posture and smiling, on patients' recall of information and perceived friendliness of the oncologist. Moreover, the influence of patient characteristics on recall was examined, both directly or as a moderator of non-verbal communication. Material and methods Non-verbal communication of an oncologist was experimentally varied using video vignettes. In total 194 breast cancer patients/survivors and healthy women participated as 'analog patients', viewing a randomly selected video version while imagining themselves in the role of the patient. Directly after viewing, they evaluated the oncologist. From 24 to 48 hours later, participants' passive recall, i.e. recognition, and free recall of information provided by the oncologist were assessed. Results Participants' recognition was higher if the oncologist maintained more consistent eye contact (β = 0.17). More eye contact and smiling led to a perception of the oncologist as more friendly. Body posture and smiling did not significantly influence recall. Older age predicted significantly worse recognition (β = -0.28) and free recall (β = -0.34) of information. Conclusion Oncologists may be able to facilitate their patients' recall functioning through consistent eye contact. This seems particularly relevant for older patients, whose recall is significantly worse. These findings can be used in training, focused on how to maintain eye contact while managing computer tasks.

  16. Cross-Cultural Detection of Depression from Nonverbal Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghowinem, Sharifa; Goecke, Roland; Cohn, Jeffrey F; Wagner, Michael; Parker, Gordon; Breakspear, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Millions of people worldwide suffer from depression. Do commonalities exist in their nonverbal behavior that would enable cross-culturally viable screening and assessment of severity? We investigated the generalisability of an approach to detect depression severity cross-culturally using video-recorded clinical interviews from Australia, the USA and Germany. The material varied in type of interview, subtypes of depression and inclusion healthy control subjects, cultural background, and recording environment. The analysis focussed on temporal features of participants' eye gaze and head pose. Several approaches to training and testing within and between datasets were evaluated. The strongest results were found for training across all datasets and testing across datasets using leave-one-subject-out cross-validation. In contrast, generalisability was attenuated when training on only one or two of the three datasets and testing on subjects from the dataset(s) not used in training. These findings highlight the importance of using training data exhibiting the expected range of variability.

  17. Assessing Group Dynamics in a Mars Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, S. L.

    2007-10-01

    International interest in psychosocial functioning generally and issues of group and inter-group function for space crews has increased as focus has shifted towards longer duration spaceflight and, particularly, the issues involved in sending a human crew to Mars (Kanas, et al., 2001; Dawson, 2002). Planning documents for a human mission to Mars such as the NASA Design Reference Mission (DRM 1.0) emphasize the need for adaptability of crewmembers and autonomy in the crew as a whole (Hoffman and Kaplan, 1997). Similarly a major study by the International Space University (ISU, 1991) emphasized the need for autonomy and initiative for a Mars crew given that many of the scenarios that will be encountered on Mars cannot be rehearsed on earth and given the lack of any realistic possibility for rescue of the crew. This research project was only one subset of data collected during the larger AustroMars Expedition at the Mars Desert Research Facility (MDRS) in 2006. The participating crew comprises part of a multi-year investigation on teams utilizing the MDRS facility. The program of research has included numerous researchers since 2002 with a progressive evolution of key foci addressing stress, personality, coping, adaptation, cognitive functioning, and group identity assessed across the duration period of the individual missions.

  18. Videonystagmography to assess eyelid dynamic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casse, Guillaume; Adenis, Jean-Paul; Sauvage, Jean-Pierre; Robert, Pierre-Yves

    2009-01-01

    Apply a videonystagmography (VNG) device to study indirectly blinking in patients with essential blepharospasm. A VNG device was used to study the pupillary occlusion. It was recorded and analyzed as indirect parameters of blinking in 23 essential blepharospasm on day 0, month 1, and month 3 following botulinum toxin injection using VNG. Botulinum toxin significantly reduced pupillary occlusions (PO) frequency (9.6 PO/min on D0 and 4.7 PO/min on M1 (p = 0.004), and average PO time (0.95 sec on D0 and 0.58 sec on M1 (p = 0.03) for PO higher than 0.3 sec. On the other hand, it does not have any action on frequency (32.4 PO/min on D0 and 31.3 PO/min on M1 (p = 0.7) and average PO time (0.16 sec on D0 and 0.15 sec on M1 (p = 0.4) of PO lower than 0.3 sec. Video acquisition computer-assisted makes it possible to measure blinking parameters indirectly in real time and to assess essential blepharospasm objectively. The protocol analysis of PO is attractive for indirect analysis of blinking.

  19. Biomechanical assessment of dynamic balance: Specificity of different balance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringhof, Steffen; Stein, Thorsten

    2018-04-01

    Dynamic balance is vitally important for most sports and activities of daily living, so the assessment of dynamic stability has become an important issue. In consequence, a large number of balance tests have been developed. However, it is not yet known whether these tests (i) measure the same construct and (ii) can differentiate between athletes with different balance expertise. We therefore studied three common dynamic balance tests: one-leg jump landings, Posturomed perturbations and simulated forward falls. Participants were 24 healthy young females in regular training in either gymnastics (n = 12) or swimming (n = 12). In each of the tests, the participants were instructed to recover balance as quickly as possible. Dynamic stability was computed by time to stabilization and margin of stability, deduced from force plates and motion capture respectively. Pearson's correlations between the dynamic balance tests found no significant associations between the respective dynamic stability measures. Furthermore, independent t-tests indicated that only jump landings could properly distinguish between both groups of athletes. In essence, the different dynamic balance tests applied did not measure the same construct but rather task-specific skills, each of which depends on multifactorial internal and external constraints. Our study therefore contradicts the traditional view of considering balance as a general ability, and reinforces that dynamic balance measures are not interchangeable. This highlights the importance of selecting appropriate balance tests. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Preparatory power posing affects nonverbal presence and job interview performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Amy J C; Wilmuth, Caroline A; Yap, Andy J; Carney, Dana R

    2015-07-01

    The authors tested whether engaging in expansive (vs. contractive) "power poses" before a stressful job interview--preparatory power posing--would enhance performance during the interview. Participants adopted high-power (i.e., expansive, open) poses or low-power (i.e., contractive, closed) poses, and then prepared and delivered a speech to 2 evaluators as part of a mock job interview. All interview speeches were videotaped and coded for overall performance and hireability and for 2 potential mediators: verbal content (e.g., structure, content) and nonverbal presence (e.g., captivating, enthusiastic). As predicted, those who prepared for the job interview with high- (vs. low-) power poses performed better and were more likely to be chosen for hire; this relation was mediated by nonverbal presence, but not by verbal content. Although previous research has focused on how a nonverbal behavior that is enacted during interactions and observed by perceivers affects how those perceivers evaluate and respond to the actor, this experiment focused on how a nonverbal behavior that is enacted before the interaction and unobserved by perceivers affects the actor's performance, which, in turn, affects how perceivers evaluate and respond to the actor. This experiment reveals a theoretically novel and practically informative result that demonstrates the causal relation between preparatory nonverbal behavior and subsequent performance and outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Nonverbal indicants of comprehension monitoring in language-disordered children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarakis-Doyle, E; MacLellan, N; Mullin, K

    1990-08-01

    This study investigated normal and language-disordered (LD) children's patterns of nonverbal behavior in response to messages varying in degree of ambiguity. Each LD child was matched to two normally developing children: one for comprehension level (LM) and the other for chronological age (CM). All children participated in a videotaped ambiguity detection task. Nonverbal behaviors that were produced between the time the message was completed and the examiner's acknowledgment of the response were scored for type of behavior exhibited including eye contact, hand behavior, body movement, and smile. Results demonstrated that all subjects increased their nonverbal behavior (e.g. eye contact) from unambiguous to ambiguous message conditions, suggesting awareness of the differences in these message types at a rudimentary level. Most often nonverbal indication was the only signal of ambiguity detection exhibited by the LD children and their LM peers. Only the CM children concurrently indicated awareness through more direct means (i.e., verbalization and pointing to all possible referents) in a consistent and accurate manner. The finding that LD children did differentiate inadequate from adequate messages in a rudimentary manner suggests that clinicians might promote the intentionality of these preintentional nonverbal behaviors as a possible intervention strategy.

  2. Nonverbal imitation skills in children with specific language delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohmen, Andrea; Chiat, Shula; Roy, Penny

    2013-10-01

    Research in children with language problems has focussed on verbal deficits, and we have less understanding of children's deficits with nonverbal sociocognitive skills which have been proposed to be important for language acquisition. This study was designed to investigate elicited nonverbal imitation in children with specific language delay (SLD). It is argued that difficulties in nonverbal imitation, which do not involve the processing of structural aspects of language, may be indicative of sociocognitive deficits. Participants were German-speaking typically developing children (n=60) and children with SLD (n=45) aged 2-3 ½ years. A novel battery of tasks measured their ability to imitate a range of nonverbal target acts that to a greater or lesser extent involve sociocognitive skills (body movements, instrumental acts on objects, pretend acts). Significant group differences were found for all body movement and pretend act tasks, but not for the instrumental act tasks. The poorer imitative performance of the SLD sample was not explained by motor or nonverbal cognitive skills. Thus, it appeared that the nature of the task affected children's imitation performance. It is argued that the ability to establish a sense of connectedness with the demonstrator was at the core of children's imitation difficulty in the SLD sample. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing atmospheric bias correction for dynamical consistency using potential vorticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocheta, Eytan; Sharma, Ashish; Evans, Jason P

    2014-01-01

    Correcting biases in atmospheric variables prior to impact studies or dynamical downscaling can lead to new biases as dynamical consistency between the ‘corrected’ fields is not maintained. Use of these bias corrected fields for subsequent impact studies and dynamical downscaling provides input conditions that do not appropriately represent intervariable relationships in atmospheric fields. Here we investigate the consequences of the lack of dynamical consistency in bias correction using a measure of model consistency—the potential vorticity (PV). This paper presents an assessment of the biases present in PV using two alternative correction techniques—an approach where bias correction is performed individually on each atmospheric variable, thereby ignoring the physical relationships that exists between the multiple variables that are corrected, and a second approach where bias correction is performed directly on the PV field, thereby keeping the system dynamically coherent throughout the correction process. In this paper we show that bias correcting variables independently results in increased errors above the tropopause in the mean and standard deviation of the PV field, which are improved when using the alternative proposed. Furthermore, patterns of spatial variability are improved over nearly all vertical levels when applying the alternative approach. Results point to a need for a dynamically consistent atmospheric bias correction technique which results in fields that can be used as dynamically consistent lateral boundaries in follow-up downscaling applications. (letter)

  4. Dynamic model based on Bayesian method for energy security assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augutis, Juozas; Krikštolaitis, Ričardas; Pečiulytė, Sigita; Žutautaitė, Inga

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Methodology for dynamic indicator model construction and forecasting of indicators. • Application of dynamic indicator model for energy system development scenarios. • Expert judgement involvement using Bayesian method. - Abstract: The methodology for the dynamic indicator model construction and forecasting of indicators for the assessment of energy security level is presented in this article. An indicator is a special index, which provides numerical values to important factors for the investigated area. In real life, models of different processes take into account various factors that are time-dependent and dependent on each other. Thus, it is advisable to construct a dynamic model in order to describe these dependences. The energy security indicators are used as factors in the dynamic model. Usually, the values of indicators are obtained from statistical data. The developed dynamic model enables to forecast indicators’ variation taking into account changes in system configuration. The energy system development is usually based on a new object construction. Since the parameters of changes of the new system are not exactly known, information about their influences on indicators could not be involved in the model by deterministic methods. Thus, dynamic indicators’ model based on historical data is adjusted by probabilistic model with the influence of new factors on indicators using the Bayesian method

  5. Neurobiological mechanisms for nonverbal IQ tests: implications for instruction of nonverbal children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Vyshedskiy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the neurological correlates of IQ test questions are characterized qualitatively in terms of ‘control of attention’ and ‘working memory.’ In this report we attempt to characterize each IQ test question quantitatively by two factors: a the number of disparate objects that have to be imagined in concert in order to solve the problem and, b the amount of recruited posterior cortex territory. With such a classification, an IQ test can be understood on a neuronal level and a subject’s IQ score could be interpreted in terms of specific neurological mechanisms available to the subject. Here we present the results of an analysis of the three most popular nonverbal IQ tests: Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (TONI-4, Standard Raven's Progressive Matrices, and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-V. Our analysis shows that approximately half of all questions (52±0.02% are limited to mental computations involving only a single object; these easier questions are found towards the beginning of each test. More difficult questions located towards the end of each test rely on mental synthesis of several disparate objects and the number of objects involved in computations gradually increases with question difficulty. These more challenging questions require the organization of wider posterior cortex networks by the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC. This conclusion is in line with neuroimaging studies showing that activation level of the lateral PFC and the posterior cortex positively correlates with task difficulty. This analysis has direct implications for brain pathophysiology and, specifically, for therapeutic interventions for children with language impairment, most notably for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD and other developmental disorders.

  6. Dynamic Assessment or Schema Theory: The Case of Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farangi, Mohamad Reza; Kheradmand Saadi, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Not only is listening considered as an active skill nowadays, but also different approaches are suggested to incorporate it effectively into language classrooms. Our purpose, here, is to compare two approaches claiming to be effective in enhancing EFL learners' listening capabilities including schema theory and dynamic assessment. Through a…

  7. Planning Intervention Using Dynamic Assessments: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Natalie; Dodd, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic assessments (DA) of language have been shown to be a useful addition to the battery of tests used to diagnose language impairments in children, and to evaluate their skills. The current article explores the value of the information gained from a DA in planning intervention for a child with language impairment. A single case study was used…

  8. Toward Speech and Nonverbal Behaviors Integration for Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to integrate speeches and nonverbal behaviors for a humanoid robot in human-robot interaction. This paper presents an approach using multi-object genetic algorithm to match the speeches and behaviors automatically. Firstly, with humanoid robot's emotion status, we construct a hierarchical structure to link voice characteristics and nonverbal behaviors. Secondly, these behaviors corresponding to speeches are matched and integrated into an action sequence based on genetic algorithm, so the robot can consistently speak and perform emotional behaviors. Our approach takes advantage of relevant knowledge described by psychologists and nonverbal communication. And from experiment results, our ultimate goal, implementing an affective robot to act and speak with partners vividly and fluently, could be achieved.

  9. Expressive suppression and neural responsiveness to nonverbal affective cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrican, Raluca; Rosenbaum, R Shayna; Grady, Cheryl

    2015-10-01

    Optimal social functioning occasionally requires concealment of one's emotions in order to meet one's immediate goals and environmental demands. However, because emotions serve an important communicative function, their habitual suppression disrupts the flow of social exchanges and, thus, incurs significant interpersonal costs. Evidence is accruing that the disruption in social interactions, linked to habitual expressive suppression use, stems not only from intrapersonal, but also from interpersonal causes, since the suppressors' restricted affective displays reportedly inhibit their interlocutors' emotionally expressive behaviors. However, expressive suppression use is not known to lead to clinically significant social impairments. One explanation may be that over the lifespan, individuals who habitually suppress their emotions come to compensate for their interlocutors' restrained expressive behaviors by developing an increased sensitivity to nonverbal affective cues. To probe this issue, the present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to scan healthy older women while they viewed silent videos of a male social target displaying nonverbal emotional behavior, together with a brief verbal description of the accompanying context, and then judged the target's affect. As predicted, perceivers who reported greater habitual use of expressive suppression showed increased neural processing of nonverbal affective cues. This effect appeared to be coordinated in a top-down manner via cognitive control. Greater neural processing of nonverbal cues among perceivers who habitually suppress their emotions was linked to increased ventral striatum activity, suggestive of increased reward value/personal relevance ascribed to emotionally expressive nonverbal behaviors. These findings thus provide neural evidence broadly consistent with the hypothesized link between habitual use of expressive suppression and compensatory development of increased responsiveness to

  10. Nonverbal Learning Disabilities and Socioemotional Functioning: A Review of Recent Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Sara S.

    1993-01-01

    This article presents an overview of literature relating to a nonverbal learning disabilities subtype. The article addresses the relationship between nonverbal learning disabilities and socioemotional functioning, generalizability of research outcomes, individual differences, and treatment validity. (Author/JDD)

  11. The Relationships among Physician Nonverbal Immediacy and Measures of Patient Satisfaction with Physician Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlee, Connie J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examines the relationship among four dimensions of patient satisfaction with physician care and nonverbal immediacy. Finds a significant positive correlation between nonverbal immediacy and overall patient satisfaction, with the strongest correlation to the attention/respect factor. (SR)

  12. Integrating human behaviour dynamics into flood disaster risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Botzen, W. J.; Clarke, K. C.; Cutter, S. L.; Hall, J. W.; Merz, B.; Michel-Kerjan, E.; Mysiak, J.; Surminski, S.; Kunreuther, H.

    2018-03-01

    The behaviour of individuals, businesses, and government entities before, during, and immediately after a disaster can dramatically affect the impact and recovery time. However, existing risk-assessment methods rarely include this critical factor. In this Perspective, we show why this is a concern, and demonstrate that although initial efforts have inevitably represented human behaviour in limited terms, innovations in flood-risk assessment that integrate societal behaviour and behavioural adaptation dynamics into such quantifications may lead to more accurate characterization of risks and improved assessment of the effectiveness of risk-management strategies and investments. Such multidisciplinary approaches can inform flood-risk management policy development.

  13. Risk assessment by dynamic representation of vulnerability, exploitation, and impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cam, Hasan

    2015-05-01

    Assessing and quantifying cyber risk accurately in real-time is essential to providing security and mission assurance in any system and network. This paper presents a modeling and dynamic analysis approach to assessing cyber risk of a network in real-time by representing dynamically its vulnerabilities, exploitations, and impact using integrated Bayesian network and Markov models. Given the set of vulnerabilities detected by a vulnerability scanner in a network, this paper addresses how its risk can be assessed by estimating in real-time the exploit likelihood and impact of vulnerability exploitation on the network, based on real-time observations and measurements over the network. The dynamic representation of the network in terms of its vulnerabilities, sensor measurements, and observations is constructed dynamically using the integrated Bayesian network and Markov models. The transition rates of outgoing and incoming links of states in hidden Markov models are used in determining exploit likelihood and impact of attacks, whereas emission rates help quantify the attack states of vulnerabilities. Simulation results show the quantification and evolving risk scores over time for individual and aggregated vulnerabilities of a network.

  14. Nonverbal Communication in Politics: A Review of Research Developments, 2005-2015

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitrescu, Delia

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews research contributions in political science and communication to the topic of nonverbal communication and politics from 2005 to 2015. The review opens with research on the content of nonverbal communication, then considers studies examining what moderates the impact of nonverbal aspects of political messages on attitudes and behavior and the mechanisms that underpin these effects. Over the period reviewed here, research shows that the nonverbal channel is rich in politica...

  15. Experience in Developing Nonverbal Communication Training for Russian and Chinese Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Gridunova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of effectiveness of intercultural competence in nonverbal communication. The results of measuring the effectiveness of nonverbal communication training, developed on the basis of the studies of ethnic stereotypes about nonverbal communication of Russian and Chinese students are analyzed.

  16. Getting the Message Across; Non-Verbal Communication in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jack

    This handbook presents selected theories, activities, and resources which can be utilized by educators in the area of non-verbal communication. Particular attention is given to the use of non-verbal communication in a cross-cultural context. Categories of non-verbal communication such as proxemics, haptics, kinesics, smiling, sound, clothing, and…

  17. Cross-cultural Differences of Stereotypes about Non-verbal Communication of Russian and Chinese Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I A Novikova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with peculiarities of non-verbal communication as a factor of cross-cultural intercourse and adaptation of representatives of different cultures. The possibility of studying of ethnic stereotypes concerning non-verbal communication is considered. The results of empiric research of stereotypes about non-verbal communication of Russian and Chinese students are presented.

  18. A Survey of the Research on Sex Differences in Nonverbal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blahna, Loretta J.

    Although the bulk of recent research on nonverbal communication has involved studies of the functions of nonverbal behavior (emotion conveying, regulation, and adaption), a few studies have focused on the differences in nonverbal communication variables between men and women. These differences have been found in vocal patterns, intensities, length…

  19. Perception of 'Back-Channeling' Nonverbal Feedback in Musical Duo Improvisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki Moran

    Full Text Available In witnessing face-to-face conversation, observers perceive authentic communication according to the social contingency of nonverbal feedback cues ('back-channeling' by non-speaking interactors. The current study investigated the generality of this function by focusing on nonverbal communication in musical improvisation. A perceptual experiment was conducted to test whether observers can reliably identify genuine versus fake (mismatched duos from musicians' nonverbal cues, and how this judgement is affected by observers' musical background and rhythm perception skill. Twenty-four musicians were recruited to perform duo improvisations, which included solo episodes, in two styles: standard jazz (where rhythm is based on a regular pulse or free improvisation (where rhythm is non-pulsed. The improvisations were recorded using a motion capture system to generate 16 ten-second point-light displays (with audio of the soloist and the silent non-soloing musician ('back-channeler'. Sixteen further displays were created by splicing soloists with back-channelers from different duos. Participants (N = 60 with various musical backgrounds were asked to rate the point-light displays as either real or fake. Results indicated that participants were sensitive to the real/fake distinction in the free improvisation condition independently of musical experience. Individual differences in rhythm perception skill did not account for performance in the free condition, but were positively correlated with accuracy in the standard jazz condition. These findings suggest that the perception of back-channeling in free improvisation is not dependent on music-specific skills but is a general ability. The findings invite further study of the links between interpersonal dynamics in conversation and musical interaction.

  20. Perception of 'Back-Channeling' Nonverbal Feedback in Musical Duo Improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Nikki; Hadley, Lauren V; Bader, Maria; Keller, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    In witnessing face-to-face conversation, observers perceive authentic communication according to the social contingency of nonverbal feedback cues ('back-channeling') by non-speaking interactors. The current study investigated the generality of this function by focusing on nonverbal communication in musical improvisation. A perceptual experiment was conducted to test whether observers can reliably identify genuine versus fake (mismatched) duos from musicians' nonverbal cues, and how this judgement is affected by observers' musical background and rhythm perception skill. Twenty-four musicians were recruited to perform duo improvisations, which included solo episodes, in two styles: standard jazz (where rhythm is based on a regular pulse) or free improvisation (where rhythm is non-pulsed). The improvisations were recorded using a motion capture system to generate 16 ten-second point-light displays (with audio) of the soloist and the silent non-soloing musician ('back-channeler'). Sixteen further displays were created by splicing soloists with back-channelers from different duos. Participants (N = 60) with various musical backgrounds were asked to rate the point-light displays as either real or fake. Results indicated that participants were sensitive to the real/fake distinction in the free improvisation condition independently of musical experience. Individual differences in rhythm perception skill did not account for performance in the free condition, but were positively correlated with accuracy in the standard jazz condition. These findings suggest that the perception of back-channeling in free improvisation is not dependent on music-specific skills but is a general ability. The findings invite further study of the links between interpersonal dynamics in conversation and musical interaction.

  1. Perception of ‘Back-Channeling’ Nonverbal Feedback in Musical Duo Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Nikki; Hadley, Lauren V.; Bader, Maria; Keller, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    In witnessing face-to-face conversation, observers perceive authentic communication according to the social contingency of nonverbal feedback cues (‘back-channeling’) by non-speaking interactors. The current study investigated the generality of this function by focusing on nonverbal communication in musical improvisation. A perceptual experiment was conducted to test whether observers can reliably identify genuine versus fake (mismatched) duos from musicians’ nonverbal cues, and how this judgement is affected by observers’ musical background and rhythm perception skill. Twenty-four musicians were recruited to perform duo improvisations, which included solo episodes, in two styles: standard jazz (where rhythm is based on a regular pulse) or free improvisation (where rhythm is non-pulsed). The improvisations were recorded using a motion capture system to generate 16 ten-second point-light displays (with audio) of the soloist and the silent non-soloing musician (‘back-channeler’). Sixteen further displays were created by splicing soloists with back-channelers from different duos. Participants (N = 60) with various musical backgrounds were asked to rate the point-light displays as either real or fake. Results indicated that participants were sensitive to the real/fake distinction in the free improvisation condition independently of musical experience. Individual differences in rhythm perception skill did not account for performance in the free condition, but were positively correlated with accuracy in the standard jazz condition. These findings suggest that the perception of back-channeling in free improvisation is not dependent on music-specific skills but is a general ability. The findings invite further study of the links between interpersonal dynamics in conversation and musical interaction. PMID:26086593

  2. Nonverbal auditory agnosia with lesion to Wernicke's area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygin, Ayse Pinar; Leech, Robert; Dick, Frederic

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of patient M, who suffered unilateral left posterior temporal and parietal damage, brain regions typically associated with language processing. Language function largely recovered since the infarct, with no measurable speech comprehension impairments. However, the patient exhibited a severe impairment in nonverbal auditory comprehension. We carried out extensive audiological and behavioral testing in order to characterize M's unusual neuropsychological profile. We also examined the patient's and controls' neural responses to verbal and nonverbal auditory stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We verified that the patient exhibited persistent and severe auditory agnosia for nonverbal sounds in the absence of verbal comprehension deficits or peripheral hearing problems. Acoustical analyses suggested that his residual processing of a minority of environmental sounds might rely on his speech processing abilities. In the patient's brain, contralateral (right) temporal cortex as well as perilesional (left) anterior temporal cortex were strongly responsive to verbal, but not to nonverbal sounds, a pattern that stands in marked contrast to the controls' data. This substantial reorganization of auditory processing likely supported the recovery of M's speech processing.

  3. Get a Little Closer: Further Examination of Nonverbal Comforting Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Connie; Horn, Charlotte

    1995-01-01

    Tests whether a set of nonverbal comforting strategies and their relationships with affective orientation and gender in previous research are generalizable to a broader sample. Concludes gender differences in affective orientation, diversity and number of strategies, and use of specific strategies were supported. Finds that females were more…

  4. Nonverbal Learning Disability Explained: The Link to Shunted Hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissman, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    A nonverbal learning disability is believed to be caused by damage, disorder or destruction of neuronal white matter in the brain's right hemisphere and may be seen in persons experiencing a wide range of neurological diseases such as hydrocephalus and other types of brain injury (Harnadek & Rourke 1994). This article probes the relationship…

  5. The relationship between nonverbal cognitive functions and hearing loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zekveld, A.A.; Deijen, J.B.; Goverts, S.T.; Kramer, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between hearing loss and memory and attention when nonverbal, visually presented cognitive tests are used. Method: Hearing loss (pure-tone audiometry) and IQ were measured in 30 participants with mild to severe hearing loss. Participants performed

  6. A Competitive Nonverbal False Belief Task for Children and Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krachun, Carla; Carpenter, Malinda; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A nonverbal false belief task was administered to children (mean age 5 years) and two great ape species: chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") and bonobos ("Pan paniscus"). Because apes typically perform poorly in cooperative contexts, our task was competitive. Two versions were run: in both, a human competitor witnessed an experimenter hide a reward in…

  7. Training Verbal and Nonverbal Communication Interview Skills to Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Abbie; Panorska, Anna; Gillam, Sandra Laing

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents' verbal and nonverbal communication skills were compared before and after training in a workforce readiness training program, Language for Scholars (LFS), and a study skills program, Ideal Student Workshop (ISW). A cross-over design was used, ensuring that 44 adolescents received both programs and acted as their own control. The LFS…

  8. Introverts' and Extraverts' Responses to Nonverbal Attending Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genthner, Robert W.; Moughan, James

    1977-01-01

    The different responses of introverts and extraverts to two types of helper nonverbal attending were examined. Subjects were 26 introverts and 26 extraverts, as defined by Eysenck and Eysenck's questionnaire. Introverts rated the listener higher than did extraverts, independent of his posture. (Author)

  9. Inappropriate Accommodation in Communication to Elders: Inferences about Nonverbal Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Ellen Bouchard; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Overaccommodation in communication with elders is frequently based on stereotyped expectations of frailty and dependence. In this study, volunteers read either a patronizing or neutral version of a conversation between a nursing home resident and a nurse. The main analyses indicated that negative nonverbal behaviors were rated more likely to occur…

  10. The Relationships between Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Therapeutic Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proefrock, David W.; Bloom, Robert

    The relationship between a therapist's verbal and nonverbal communication of therapeutic effectiveness was investigated. In a design intended to eliminate many of the methodological problems which exist in this area of research, subjects (N=102) were asked to rate videotaped segments showing combinations of three different levels of both verbal…

  11. Young Children's Understanding of Markedness in Non-Verbal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Speakers often anticipate how recipients will interpret their utterances. If they wish some other, less obvious interpretation, they may "mark" their utterance (e.g. with special intonations or facial expressions). We investigated whether two- and three-year-olds recognize when adults mark a non-verbal communicative act--in this case a pointing…

  12. Videotutoring, Non-Verbal Communication and Initial Teacher Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, Jon; Watson, Kate

    2000-01-01

    Describes the use of video tutoring for distance education within the context of a post-graduate teacher training course at the University of Exeter. Analysis of the tapes used a protocol based on non-verbal communication research, and findings suggest that the interaction of participants was significantly different from face-to-face…

  13. Language, Power, Multilingual and Non-Verbal Multicultural Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marácz, L.; Zhuravleva, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to developments in internal migration and mobility there is a proliferation of linguistic diversity, multilingual and non-verbal multicultural communication. At the same time the recognition of the use of one’s first language receives more and more support in international political, legal and

  14. Non-verbal behaviour in nurse-elderly patient communication.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caris-Verhallen, W.M.C.M.; Kerkstra, A.; Bensing, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This study explores the occurence of non-verbal communication in nurse-elderly patient interaction in two different care settings: home nursing and a home for the elderly. In a sample of 181 nursing encounters involving 47 nurses a study was made of videotaped nurse-patient communication. Six

  15. Environmental income improves household-level poverty assessments and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena; Charlery, Lindy Callen; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Household-level poverty assessments and analyses of poverty dynamics in developing countries typically do not include environmental income. Using household (n = 427 in 2006, 2009 and 2012) total income panel data sets, with and without environmental income, from Nepal, we analysed the importance...... of environmental income in household-level poverty assessments (Foster-Greer-Thorbecke indices) and dynamics (movements in the Poverty Transition Matrix). Random effects logit and ordered logit models were applied to estimate variables covarying with poverty categories and compared for annual household incomes...... with and without environmental income. Using the without environmental income data set significantly changed the number of households classified as poor, as well as rates of movements in and out of poverty. Excluding household-level environmental income also distorted estimation of covariates of poverty incidence...

  16. Assessment of brain phenylalanine dynamics in phenylketonuria patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bik-Multanowski, M.; Pietrzyk, J. J.; Pasowicz, M.; Banys, R.P.

    2006-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most common inborn error of metabolism in man. Brain phenylalanine kinetics can determine neurological treatment outcome in phenylketonuria. The aim of our study wa sto test a simplified magnetic resonance spectroscopy method for assessment of brain phenylalanine dynamics in PKU patients. Brain phenylalanine concentration (measured by means of magnetic resonance spectroscopy) and blood phenylalanine concentrations changes occurring within 24 hours after oral phenylalanine loading were analyzed in 5 PKU patients. The brain/blood phenylalanine ratio in 3 persons with normal intelligence was lower than in 2 with borderline intelligence or mild mental retardation. In our opinion the proposed method could be useful for assessment of brain phenylalanine dynamics in PKU patients. (author)

  17. Method and system for dynamic probabilistic risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Joanne Bechta (Inventor); Xu, Hong (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The DEFT methodology, system and computer readable medium extends the applicability of the PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) methodology to computer-based systems, by allowing DFT (Dynamic Fault Tree) nodes as pivot nodes in the Event Tree (ET) model. DEFT includes a mathematical model and solution algorithm, supports all common PRA analysis functions and cutsets. Additional capabilities enabled by the DFT include modularization, phased mission analysis, sequence dependencies, and imperfect coverage.

  18. Interest level in 2-year-olds with autism spectrum disorder predicts rate of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Klintwall, Lars; Macari, Suzanne; Eikeseth, Svein; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that skill acquisition rates for children with autism spectrum disorders receiving early interventions can be predicted by child motivation. We examined whether level of interest during an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule assessment at 2 years predicts subsequent rates of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill acquisition to the age of 3 years. A total of 70 toddlers with autism spectrum disorder, mean age of 21.9 months, were scored using Interest Level Sco...

  19. The role of verbal and nonverbal memory in the Family Pictures Subtest: Data from children with specific language impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Ullman, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of verbal and visual memory to performance on the Family Pictures subtest of the Children's Memory Scale. This subtest purports to assess declarative memory functioning in the visual/nonverbal domain. A total of 115 nine-year-old children participated in this study. Fifty-eight had specific language impairment (SLI), whilst the remaining 57 were typically developing (TD), with no history of language difficulties. Results showed that the children with SLI, ...

  20. Neurophysiological Modulations of Non-Verbal and Verbal Dual-Tasks Interference during Word Planning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Fargier

    Full Text Available Running a concurrent task while speaking clearly interferes with speech planning, but whether verbal vs. non-verbal tasks interfere with the same processes is virtually unknown. We investigated the neural dynamics of dual-task interference on word production using event-related potentials (ERPs with either tones or syllables as concurrent stimuli. Participants produced words from pictures in three conditions: without distractors, while passively listening to distractors and during a distractor detection task. Production latencies increased for tasks with higher attentional demand and were longer for syllables relative to tones. ERP analyses revealed common modulations by dual-task for verbal and non-verbal stimuli around 240 ms, likely corresponding to lexical selection. Modulations starting around 350 ms prior to vocal onset were only observed when verbal stimuli were involved. These later modulations, likely reflecting interference with phonological-phonetic encoding, were observed only when overlap between tasks was maximal and the same underlying neural circuits were engaged (cross-talk.

  1. Neurophysiological Modulations of Non-Verbal and Verbal Dual-Tasks Interference during Word Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargier, Raphaël; Laganaro, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Running a concurrent task while speaking clearly interferes with speech planning, but whether verbal vs. non-verbal tasks interfere with the same processes is virtually unknown. We investigated the neural dynamics of dual-task interference on word production using event-related potentials (ERPs) with either tones or syllables as concurrent stimuli. Participants produced words from pictures in three conditions: without distractors, while passively listening to distractors and during a distractor detection task. Production latencies increased for tasks with higher attentional demand and were longer for syllables relative to tones. ERP analyses revealed common modulations by dual-task for verbal and non-verbal stimuli around 240 ms, likely corresponding to lexical selection. Modulations starting around 350 ms prior to vocal onset were only observed when verbal stimuli were involved. These later modulations, likely reflecting interference with phonological-phonetic encoding, were observed only when overlap between tasks was maximal and the same underlying neural circuits were engaged (cross-talk).

  2. In the ear of the beholder: how age shapes emotion processing in nonverbal vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, César F; Alves, Tiago; Scott, Sophie K; Castro, São Luís

    2014-02-01

    It is well established that emotion recognition of facial expressions declines with age, but evidence for age-related differences in vocal emotions is more limited. This is especially true for nonverbal vocalizations such as laughter, sobs, or sighs. In this study, 43 younger adults (M = 22 years) and 43 older ones (M = 61.4 years) provided multiple emotion ratings of nonverbal emotional vocalizations. Contrasting with previous research, which often includes only one positive emotion (happiness) versus several negative ones, we examined 4 positive and 4 negative emotions: achievement/triumph, amusement, pleasure, relief, anger, disgust, fear, and sadness. We controlled for hearing loss and assessed general cognitive decline, cognitive control, verbal intelligence, working memory, current affect, emotion regulation, and personality. Older adults were less sensitive than younger ones to the intended vocal emotions, as indicated by decrements in ratings on the intended emotion scales and accuracy. These effects were similar for positive and negative emotions, and they were independent of age-related differences in cognitive, affective, and personality measures. Regression analyses revealed that younger and older participants' responses could be predicted from the acoustic properties of the temporal, intensity, fundamental frequency, and spectral profile of the vocalizations. The two groups were similarly efficient in using the acoustic cues, but there were differences in the patterns of emotion-specific predictors. This study suggests that ageing produces specific changes on the processing of nonverbal vocalizations. That decrements were not attenuated for positive emotions indicates that they cannot be explained by a positivity effect in older adults. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Dynamical resource nexus assessments: from accounting to sustainability approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmoral, Gloria; Yan, Xiaoyu

    2017-04-01

    Continued economic development and population growth result in increasing pressures on natural resources, from local to international levels, for meeting societal demands on water, energy and food. To date there are a few tools that link models to identify the relationships and to account for flows of water, energy and food. However, these tools in general can offer only a static view often at national level and with annual temporal resolution. Moreover, they can only account flows but cannot consider the required amounts and conditions of the natural capital that supplies and maintains these flows. With the emerging nexus thinking, our research is currently focused on promoting dynamical environmental analyses beyond the conventional silo mentalities. Our study aims to show new advancements in existing tools (e.g., dynamical life cycle assessment) and develop novel environmental indicators relevant for the resource nexus assessment. We aim to provide a step forward when sustainability conditions and resilience thresholds are aligned with flows under production (e.g., food, water and energy), process level under analysis (e.g., local production, transport, manufacturing, final consumption, reuse, disposal) and existing biophysical local conditions. This approach would help to embrace and better characterise the spatiotemporal dynamics, complexity and existing links between and within the natural and societal systems, which are crucial to evaluate and promote more environmentally sustainable economic activities.

  4. The role of interaction of verbal and non-verbal means of communication in different types of discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Orlova M. А.

    2010-01-01

    Communication relies on verbal and non-verbal interaction. To be most effective, group members need to improve verbal and non-verbal communication. Non-verbal communication fulfills functions within groups that are sometimes difficult to communicate verbally. But interpreting non-verbal messages requires a great deal of skill because multiple meanings abound in these messages.

  5. Dynamic vulnerability assessment and intelligent control for sustainable power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Longatt, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    Identifying, assessing, and mitigating electric power grid vulnerabilities is a growing focus in short-term operational planning of power systems. Through illustrated application, this important guide surveys state-of-the-art methodologies for the assessment and enhancement of power system security in short-term operational planning and real-time operation. The methodologies employ advanced methods from probabilistic theory, data mining, artificial intelligence, and optimization, to provide knowledge-based support for monitoring, control (preventive and corrective), and decision making tasks. Key features: Introduces behavioural recognition in wide-area monitoring and security constrained optimal power flow for intelligent control and protection and optimal grid management. Provides in-depth understanding of risk-based reliability and security assessment, dynamic vulnerability as essment methods, supported by the underpinning mathematics. Develops expertise in mitigation techniques using intelligent protect...

  6. Predictive assessment of models for dynamic functional connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Føns Vind; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2018-01-01

    represent functional brain networks as a meta-stable process with a discrete number of states; however, there is a lack of consensus on how to perform model selection and learn the number of states, as well as a lack of understanding of how different modeling assumptions influence the estimated state......In neuroimaging, it has become evident that models of dynamic functional connectivity (dFC), which characterize how intrinsic brain organization changes over time, can provide a more detailed representation of brain function than traditional static analyses. Many dFC models in the literature...... dynamics. To address these issues, we consider a predictive likelihood approach to model assessment, where models are evaluated based on their predictive performance on held-out test data. Examining several prominent models of dFC (in their probabilistic formulations) we demonstrate our framework...

  7. Housing mobility and cognitive development: Change in verbal and nonverbal abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Patrick J; McGrath, Lauren M; Henry, David B; Schoeny, Michael; Chavira, Dina; Taylor, Jeremy J; Day, Orin

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the influence of housing instability on verbal and nonverbal cognitive development among at-risk children and adolescents involved in the child welfare system. Frequent residential changes threaten child mental health, especially among low-income families. Little is known regarding disruptions to cognitive growth, specifically the impact on verbal and nonverbal abilities. The study tests whether developmental timing of housing mobility affects cognitive development beyond individual and family risks. A nationally representative study of families (n=2,442) susceptible to housing and family instability tracked children and adolescents aged 4-14 years (M=8.95 years) over 36 months following investigation by the child welfare system. Youth completed standardized cognitive assessments while caregivers reported on behavior problems and family risk at three time points. Latent growth models examined change in cognitive abilities over time. Housing mobility in the 12 months prior to baseline predicts lower verbal cognitive abilities that improve marginally. Similar effects emerge for all age groups; however, frequent moves in infancy diminish the influence of subsequent housing mobility on verbal tasks. Housing instability threatened cognitive development beyond child maltreatment, family changes, poverty, and other risks. Findings inform emerging research on environmental influences on neurocognitive development, as well as identify targets for early intervention. Systematic assessment of family housing problems, including through the child welfare system, provides opportunities for coordinated responses to prevent instability and cognitive threats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Are there Nonverbal Cues to Commitment? An Exploratory Study Using the Zero-Acquaintance Video Presentation Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Michael Brown

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Altruism is difficult to explain evolutionarily if subtle cheaters exist in a population (Trivers, 1971. A pathway to the evolutionary maintenance of cooperation is nonverbal altruist-detection. One adaptive advantage of nonverbal altruist-detection is the formation of trustworthy division of labour partnerships (Frank, 1988. Three studies were designed to test a fundamental assumption behind altruistic partner preference models. In the first experiment perceivers (blind with respect to target altruism level made assessments of video-clips depicting self-reported altruists and self-reported non-altruists. Video-clips were designed with attempts to control for attractiveness, expressiveness, role-playing ability, and verbal content. Overall perceivers rated altruists as more “helpful” than non-altruists. In a second experiment manipulating the payoffs for cooperation, perceivers (blind with respect to payoff condition and altruism level assessed altruists who were helping others as more “concerned” and “attentive” than non-altruists. However perceivers assessed the same altruists as less “concerned” and “attentive” than non-altruists when the payoffs were for self. This finding suggests that perceivers are sensitive to nonverbal indicators of selfishness. Indeed the self-reported non-altruists were more likely than self-reported altruists to retain resources for themselves in an objective measure of cooperative tendencies (i.e. a dictator game. In a third study altruists and non-altruists' facial expressions were analyzed. The smile emerged as a consistent cue to altruism. In addition, altruists exhibited more expressions that are under involuntary control (e.g., orbicularis oculi compared to non-altruists. Findings suggest that likelihood to cooperate is signaled nonverbally and the putative cues may be under involuntary control as predicted by Frank (1988.

  9. A Preliminary Investigation of Dynamic Assessment With Native American Kindergartners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukrainetz, Teresa A; Harpell, Stacey; Walsh, Chandra; Coyle, Catherine

    2000-04-01

    This study examined dynamic assessment as a lessbiased evaluation procedure for assessing the languagelearning ability of Native American children. Twenty-three Arapahoe/Shoshone kindergartners were identified as stronger (n = 15) or weaker (n = 8) language learners through teacher report and examiner classroom observation. Through a test-teach-test protocol, participants were briefly taught the principles of categorization. Participant responses to learning were measured in terms of an index of modifiability and post-test categorization scores. The modifiability index, determined during the teaching phase, was a combined score reflecting the child's learning strategies, such as ability to attend, plan, and self-regulate, and the child's responses to the learning situation. Post-test scores consisted of performance on expressive and receptive subtests from a standardized categorization test after partialling out pretest score differences. Effect sizes and confidence intervals were also determined. Group and individual results indicated that modifiability and post-test scores were significantly greater for stronger than for weaker language learners. The response to modifiability components was a better discriminator than was the learner strategies components. These results provide support for the further development of dynamic assessment as a valid measure of language learning ability in minority children.

  10. Dynamic weight-bearing assessment of pain in knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokker, Louise; Christensen, Robin; Osborne, Richard

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the reliability, agreement and smallest detectable change in a measurement instrument for pain and function in knee osteoarthritis; the Dynamic weight-bearing Assessment of Pain (DAP). METHODS: The sample size was set to 20 persons, recruited from the outpatient osteoarthritis...... for intra-rater test (1.95). The three knee bend scores all had ICC above 0.50, showing fair-to-good reliability. None of the knee bend scores showed acceptable SEM and SDC. CONCLUSIONS: The reproducibility of the DAP pain score meets the demands for use in clinical practice and research. The total knee...

  11. Maintenance of auditory-nonverbal information in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soemer, Alexander; Saito, Satoru

    2015-12-01

    According to the multicomponent view of working memory, both auditory-nonverbal information and auditory-verbal information are stored in a phonological code and are maintained by an articulation-based rehearsal mechanism (Baddeley, 2012). Two experiments have been carried out to investigate this hypothesis using sound materials that are difficult to label verbally and difficult to articulate. Participants were required to maintain 2 to 4 sounds differing in timbre over a delay of up to 12 seconds while performing different secondary tasks. While there was no convincing evidence for articulatory rehearsal as a main maintenance mechanism for auditory-nonverbal information, the results suggest that processes similar or identical to auditory imagery might contribute to maintenance. We discuss the implications of these results for multicomponent models of working memory.

  12. Non-verbal numerical cognition: from reals to integers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel; Gelman

    2000-02-01

    Data on numerical processing by verbal (human) and non-verbal (animal and human) subjects are integrated by the hypothesis that a non-verbal counting process represents discrete (countable) quantities by means of magnitudes with scalar variability. These appear to be identical to the magnitudes that represent continuous (uncountable) quantities such as duration. The magnitudes representing countable quantity are generated by a discrete incrementing process, which defines next magnitudes and yields a discrete ordering. In the case of continuous quantities, the continuous accumulation process does not define next magnitudes, so the ordering is also continuous ('dense'). The magnitudes representing both countable and uncountable quantity are arithmetically combined in, for example, the computation of the income to be expected from a foraging patch. Thus, on the hypothesis presented here, the primitive machinery for arithmetic processing works with real numbers (magnitudes).

  13. Directed forgetting of visual symbols: evidence for nonverbal selective rehearsal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourihan, Kathleen L; Ozubko, Jason D; MacLeod, Colin M

    2009-12-01

    Is selective rehearsal possible for nonverbal information? Two experiments addressed this question using the item method directed forgetting paradigm, where the advantage of remember items over forget items is ascribed to selective rehearsal favoring the remember items. In both experiments, difficult-to-name abstract symbols were presented for study, followed by a recognition test. Directed forgetting effects were evident for these symbols, regardless of whether they were or were not spontaneously named. Critically, a directed forgetting effect was observed for unnamed symbols even when the symbols were studied under verbal suppression to prevent verbal rehearsal. This pattern indicates that a form of nonverbal rehearsal can be used strategically (i.e., selectively) to enhance memory, even when verbal rehearsal is not possible.

  14. Detection of Nonverbal Synchronization through Phase Difference in Human Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jinhwan; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Ono, Eisuke; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal communication is an important factor in human communication, and body movement synchronization in particular is an important part of nonverbal communication. Some researchers have analyzed body movement synchronization by focusing on changes in the amplitude of body movements. However, the definition of "body movement synchronization" is still unclear. From a theoretical viewpoint, phase difference is the most important factor in synchronization analysis. Therefore, there is a need to measure the synchronization of body movements using phase difference. The purpose of this study was to provide a quantitative definition of the phase difference distribution for detecting body movement synchronization in human communication. The phase difference distribution was characterized using four statistical measurements: density, mean phase difference, standard deviation (SD) and kurtosis. To confirm the effectiveness of our definition, we applied it to human communication in which the roles of speaker and listener were defined. Specifically, we examined the difference in the phase difference distribution between two different communication situations: face-to-face communication with visual interaction and remote communication with unidirectional visual perception. Participant pairs performed a task supposing lecture in the face-to-face communication condition and in the remote communication condition via television. Throughout the lecture task, we extracted a set of phase differences from the time-series data of the acceleration norm of head nodding motions between two participants. Statistical analyses of the phase difference distribution revealed the characteristics of head nodding synchronization. Although the mean phase differences in synchronized head nods did not differ significantly between the conditions, there were significant differences in the densities, the SDs and the kurtoses of the phase difference distributions of synchronized head nods. These

  15. Detection of Nonverbal Synchronization through Phase Difference in Human Communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhwan Kwon

    Full Text Available Nonverbal communication is an important factor in human communication, and body movement synchronization in particular is an important part of nonverbal communication. Some researchers have analyzed body movement synchronization by focusing on changes in the amplitude of body movements. However, the definition of "body movement synchronization" is still unclear. From a theoretical viewpoint, phase difference is the most important factor in synchronization analysis. Therefore, there is a need to measure the synchronization of body movements using phase difference. The purpose of this study was to provide a quantitative definition of the phase difference distribution for detecting body movement synchronization in human communication. The phase difference distribution was characterized using four statistical measurements: density, mean phase difference, standard deviation (SD and kurtosis. To confirm the effectiveness of our definition, we applied it to human communication in which the roles of speaker and listener were defined. Specifically, we examined the difference in the phase difference distribution between two different communication situations: face-to-face communication with visual interaction and remote communication with unidirectional visual perception. Participant pairs performed a task supposing lecture in the face-to-face communication condition and in the remote communication condition via television. Throughout the lecture task, we extracted a set of phase differences from the time-series data of the acceleration norm of head nodding motions between two participants. Statistical analyses of the phase difference distribution revealed the characteristics of head nodding synchronization. Although the mean phase differences in synchronized head nods did not differ significantly between the conditions, there were significant differences in the densities, the SDs and the kurtoses of the phase difference distributions of synchronized head

  16. Context, culture and (non-verbal) communication affect handover quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Richard M; Flanagan, Mindy; Ebright, Patricia; Bergman, Alicia; O'Brien, Colleen M; Franks, Zamal; Allen, Andrew; Harris, Angela; Saleem, Jason J

    2012-12-01

    Transfers of care, also known as handovers, remain a substantial patient safety risk. Although research on handovers has been done since the 1980s, the science is incomplete. Surprisingly few interventions have been rigorously evaluated and, of those that have, few have resulted in long-term positive change. Researchers, both in medicine and other high reliability industries, agree that face-to-face handovers are the most reliable. It is not clear, however, what the term face-to-face means in actual practice. We studied the use of non-verbal behaviours, including gesture, posture, bodily orientation, facial expression, eye contact and physical distance, in the delivery of information during face-to-face handovers. To address this question and study the role of non-verbal behaviour on the quality and accuracy of handovers, we videotaped 52 nursing, medicine and surgery handovers covering 238 patients. Videotapes were analysed using immersion/crystallisation methods of qualitative data analysis. A team of six researchers met weekly for 18 months to view videos together using a consensus-building approach. Consensus was achieved on verbal, non-verbal, and physical themes and patterns observed in the data. We observed four patterns of non-verbal behaviour (NVB) during handovers: (1) joint focus of attention; (2) 'the poker hand'; (3) parallel play and (4) kerbside consultation. In terms of safety, joint focus of attention was deemed to have the best potential for high quality and reliability; however, it occurred infrequently, creating opportunities for education and improvement. Attention to patterns of NVB in face-to-face handovers coupled with education and practice can improve quality and reliability.

  17. Evidence for a Double Dissociation between Spatial-Simultaneous and Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Visuospatial (Nonverbal) Learning Disabled Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammarella, Irene C.; Cornoldi, Cesare; Pazzaglia, Francesca; Toso, Cristina; Grimoldi, Mario; Vio, Claudio

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the performance of three children with specific visuospatial working memory (VSWM) impairments (Study 1) and three children with visuospatial (nonverbal) learning disabilities (Study 2) assessed with a battery of working memory (WM) tests and with a number of school achievement tasks. Overall, performance on WM tests provides…

  18. Assessment of patellar maltracking using combined static and dynamic MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNally, E.G.; Ostlere, S.J.; Pal, C.; Phillips, A.; Reid, H.; Dodd, C.

    2000-01-01

    Between January 1995 and Jul 1997, 474 patients with anterior knee pain resistant to conservative treatment were referred for MR of the knee. The MR examination consisted of routine sequences with an additional patellofemoral dynamic examination using a technique that has been developed at this institution. The dynamic study examines both knees simultaneously, with the patient supine and the quadriceps loaded. No gating or restraint apparatus is needed. Patellar subluxation or tilt was present in 188(40%) of cases, bilateral in 104 and unilateral in 84 cases (right 39, left 45). It was classified as mild in 51%, moderate in 39% and severe in 10%. Subluxation was more prevalent in females than males (42% vs. 37%) and this was most obvious in the severe group where 68% were female. In 90 knees selected at random, four measurements of patellofemoral morphology were obtained using reconstructed images from a volume gradient echo sequence. These measurements were correlated with the degree of subluxation or tilt. A tibial tubercle distance greater than 20 mm, a femoral sulcus angle greater than 150 degrees, sulcus depth less than 4 mm were specific for subluxation but no measurement proved to be sufficiently sensitive to preclude a tracking study. MRI can be used to define more precisely the anatomy of the extensor mechanism and its relationship to the femur and tibia, in both a static and dynamic setting. In this way, patients with anterior knee pain can be classified more accurately and the outcomes of treatment more reliably assessed. (orig.)

  19. Assessment of patellar maltracking using combined static and dynamic MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNally, E.G.; Ostlere, S.J.; Pal, C.; Phillips, A.; Reid, H. [Department of Radiology, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Headington, Oxford OX3 9JW (United Kingdom); Dodd, C. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Headington, Oxford OX3 9JW (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Between January 1995 and Jul 1997, 474 patients with anterior knee pain resistant to conservative treatment were referred for MR of the knee. The MR examination consisted of routine sequences with an additional patellofemoral dynamic examination using a technique that has been developed at this institution. The dynamic study examines both knees simultaneously, with the patient supine and the quadriceps loaded. No gating or restraint apparatus is needed. Patellar subluxation or tilt was present in 188(40%) of cases, bilateral in 104 and unilateral in 84 cases (right 39, left 45). It was classified as mild in 51%, moderate in 39% and severe in 10%. Subluxation was more prevalent in females than males (42% vs. 37%) and this was most obvious in the severe group where 68% were female. In 90 knees selected at random, four measurements of patellofemoral morphology were obtained using reconstructed images from a volume gradient echo sequence. These measurements were correlated with the degree of subluxation or tilt. A tibial tubercle distance greater than 20 mm, a femoral sulcus angle greater than 150 degrees, sulcus depth less than 4 mm were specific for subluxation but no measurement proved to be sufficiently sensitive to preclude a tracking study. MRI can be used to define more precisely the anatomy of the extensor mechanism and its relationship to the femur and tibia, in both a static and dynamic setting. In this way, patients with anterior knee pain can be classified more accurately and the outcomes of treatment more reliably assessed. (orig.)

  20. Dynamic Bayesian Networks for Context-Aware Fall Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Koshmak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fall incidents among the elderly often occur in the home and can cause serious injuries affecting their independent living. This paper presents an approach where data from wearable sensors integrated in a smart home environment is combined using a dynamic Bayesian network. The smart home environment provides contextual data, obtained from environmental sensors, and contributes to assessing a fall risk probability. The evaluation of the developed system is performed through simulation. Each time step is represented by a single user activity and interacts with a fall sensors located on a mobile device. A posterior probability is calculated for each recognized activity or contextual information. The output of the system provides a total risk assessment of falling given a response from the fall sensor.

  1. Dominant, open nonverbal displays are attractive at zero-acquaintance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacharkulksemsuk, Tanya; Reit, Emily; Khambatta, Poruz; Eastwick, Paul W; Finkel, Eli J; Carney, Dana R

    2016-04-12

    Across two field studies of romantic attraction, we demonstrate that postural expansiveness makes humans more romantically appealing. In a field study (n = 144 speed-dates), we coded nonverbal behaviors associated with liking, love, and dominance. Postural expansiveness-expanding the body in physical space-was most predictive of attraction, with each one-unit increase in coded behavior from the video recordings nearly doubling a person's odds of getting a "yes" response from one's speed-dating partner. In a subsequent field experiment (n = 3,000), we tested the causality of postural expansion (vs. contraction) on attraction using a popular Global Positioning System-based online-dating application. Mate-seekers rapidly flipped through photographs of potential sexual/date partners, selecting those they desired to meet for a date. Mate-seekers were significantly more likely to select partners displaying an expansive (vs. contractive) nonverbal posture. Mediation analyses demonstrate one plausible mechanism through which expansiveness is appealing: Expansiveness makes the dating candidate appear more dominant. In a dating world in which success sometimes is determined by a split-second decision rendered after a brief interaction or exposure to a static photograph, single persons have very little time to make a good impression. Our research suggests that a nonverbal dominance display increases a person's chances of being selected as a potential mate.

  2. Social priming increases nonverbal expressive behaviors in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Del-Monte

    Full Text Available Semantic priming tasks are classically used to influence and implicitly promote target behaviors. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that prosocial semantic priming modulated feelings of social affiliation. The main aim of this study was to determine whether inducing feelings of social affiliation using priming tasks could modulate nonverbal social behaviors in schizophrenia. We used the Scrambled Sentence Task to prime schizophrenia patients according to three priming group conditions: pro-social, non-social or anti-social. Forty-five schizophrenia patients, diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR, were randomly assigned to one of the three priming groups of 15 participants. We evaluated nonverbal social behaviors using the Motor-Affective subscale of the Motor-Affective-Social-Scale. Results showed that schizophrenia patients with pro-social priming had significantly more nonverbal behaviors than schizophrenia patients with anti-social and non-social priming conditions. Schizophrenia patient behaviors are affected by social priming. Our results have several clinical implications for the rehabilitation of social skills impairments frequently encountered among individuals with schizophrenia.

  3. Prosody Predicts Contest Outcome in Non-Verbal Dialogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiss, Amélie N; Chatelain, Philippe G; Roulin, Alexandre; Richner, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Non-verbal communication has important implications for inter-individual relationships and negotiation success. However, to what extent humans can spontaneously use rhythm and prosody as a sole communication tool is largely unknown. We analysed human ability to resolve a conflict without verbal dialogs, independently of semantics. We invited pairs of subjects to communicate non-verbally using whistle sounds. Along with the production of more whistles, participants unwittingly used a subtle prosodic feature to compete over a resource (ice-cream scoops). Winners can be identified by their propensity to accentuate the first whistles blown when replying to their partner, compared to the following whistles. Naive listeners correctly identified this prosodic feature as a key determinant of which whistler won the interaction. These results suggest that in the absence of other communication channels, individuals spontaneously use a subtle variation of sound accentuation (prosody), instead of merely producing exuberant sounds, to impose themselves in a conflict of interest. We discuss the biological and cultural bases of this ability and their link with verbal communication. Our results highlight the human ability to use non-verbal communication in a negotiation process.

  4. Spontaneous Non-verbal Counting in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, Francesco; Berteletti, Ilaria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Zorzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of studies have investigated numerical abilities in infants and in children aged 3 or above, but research on pre-counting toddlers is sparse. Here we devised a novel version of an imitation task that was previously used to assess spontaneous focusing on numerosity (i.e. the predisposition to grasp numerical properties of the environment)…

  5. Distributed Energy Resources and Dynamic Microgrid: An Integrated Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Duo Rick

    The overall goal of this thesis is to improve understanding in terms of the benefit of DERs to both utility and to electricity end-users when integrated in power distribution system. To achieve this goal, a series of two studies was conducted to assess the value of DERs when integrated with new power paradigms. First, the arbitrage value of DERs was examined in markets with time-variant electricity pricing rates (e.g., time of use, real time pricing) under a smart grid distribution paradigm. This study uses a stochastic optimization model to estimate the potential profit from electricity price arbitrage over a five-year period. The optimization process involves two types of PHEVs (PHEV-10, and PHEV-40) under three scenarios with different assumptions on technology performance, electricity market and PHEV owner types. The simulation results indicate that expected arbitrage profit is not a viable option to engage PHEVs in dispatching and in providing ancillary services without more favorable policy and PHEV battery technologies. Subsidy or change in electricity tariff or both are needed. Second, it examined the concept of dynamic microgrid as a measure to improve distribution resilience, and estimates the prices of this emerging service. An economic load dispatch (ELD) model is developed to estimate the market-clearing price in a hypothetical community with single bid auction electricity market. The results show that the electricity market clearing price on the dynamic microgrid is predominantly decided by power output and cost of electricity of each type of DGs. At circumstances where CHP is the only source, the electricity market clearing price in the island is even cheaper than the on-grid electricity price at normal times. Integration of PHEVs in the dynamic microgrid will increase electricity market clearing prices. It demonstrates that dynamic microgrid is an economically viable alternative to enhance grid resilience.

  6. Long-latency auditory evoked potentials with verbal and nonverbal stimuli,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Jacques Oppitz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Long-latency auditory evoked potentials represent the cortical activity related to attention, memory, and auditory discrimination skills. Acoustic signal processing occurs differently between verbal and nonverbal stimuli, influencing the latency and amplitude patterns. OBJECTIVE: To describe the latencies of the cortical potentials P1, N1, P2, N2, and P3, as well as P3 amplitude, with different speech stimuli and tone bursts, and to classify them in the presence and absence of these data. METHODS: A total of 30 subjects with normal hearing were assessed, aged 18-32 years old, matched by gender. Nonverbal stimuli were used (tone burst; 1000 Hz - frequent and 4000 Hz - rare; and verbal (/ba/ - frequent; /ga/, /da/, and /di/ - rare. RESULTS: Considering the component N2 for tone burst, the lowest latency found was 217.45 ms for the BA/DI stimulus; the highest latency found was 256.5 ms. For the P3 component, the shortest latency with tone burst stimuli was 298.7 with BA/GA stimuli, the highest, was 340 ms. For the P3 amplitude, there was no statistically significant difference among the different stimuli. For latencies of components P1, N1, P2, N2, P3, there were no statistical differences among them, regardless of the stimuli used. CONCLUSION: There was a difference in the latency of potentials N2 and P3 among the stimuli employed but no difference was observed for the P3 amplitude.

  7. Development of radiation risk assessment simulator using system dynamics methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kyung Min; Jae, Moosung

    2008-01-01

    The potential magnitudes of radionuclide releases under severe accident loadings and offsite consequences as well as the overall risk (the product of accident frequencies and consequences) are analyzed and evaluated quantitatively in this study. The system dynamics methodology has been applied to predict the time-dependent behaviors such as feedback and dependency as well as to model uncertain behavior of complex physical system. It is used to construct the transfer mechanisms of time dependent radioactivity concentration and to evaluate them. Dynamic variations of radio activities are simulated by considering several effects such as deposition, weathering, washout, re-suspension, root uptake, translocation, leaching, senescence, intake, and excretion of soil. The time-dependent radio-ecological model applicable to Korean specific environment has been developed in order to assess the radiological consequences following the short-term deposition of radio-nuclides during severe accidents nuclear power plant. An ingestion food chain model can estimate time dependent radioactivity concentrations in foodstuffs. And it is also shown that the system dynamics approach is useful for analyzing the phenomenon of the complex system as well as the behavior of structure values with respect to time. The output of this model (Bq ingested per Bq m - 2 deposited) may be multiplied by the deposition and a dose conversion factor (Gy Bq -1 ) to yield organ-specific doses. The model may be run deterministically to yield a single estimate or stochastic distributions by 'Monte-Carlo' calculation that reflects uncertainty of parameter and model uncertainties. The results of this study may contribute to identifying the relative importance of various parameters occurred in consequence analysis, as well as to assessing risk reduction effects in accident management. (author)

  8. Dynamic safety assessment of natural gas stations using Bayesian network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarei, Esmaeil; Azadeh, Ali; Khakzad, Nima; Aliabadi, Mostafa Mirzaei; Mohammadfam, Iraj

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Dynamic cause-consequence analysis of the regulator system failure using BN. - Highlights: • A dynamic and comprehensive QRA (DCQRA) framework is proposed for safety assessment of CGSs. • Bow-tie diagram and Bayesian network are employed for accident scenario modeling. • Critical basic events and minimal cut sets are identified using probability updating. - Abstract: Pipelines are one of the most popular and effective ways of transporting hazardous materials, especially natural gas. However, the rapid development of gas pipelines and stations in urban areas has introduced a serious threat to public safety and assets. Although different methods have been developed for risk analysis of gas transportation systems, a comprehensive methodology for risk analysis is still lacking, especially in natural gas stations. The present work is aimed at developing a dynamic and comprehensive quantitative risk analysis (DCQRA) approach for accident scenario and risk modeling of natural gas stations. In this approach, a FMEA is used for hazard analysis while a Bow-tie diagram and Bayesian network are employed to model the worst-case accident scenario and to assess the risks. The results have indicated that the failure of the regulator system was the worst-case accident scenario with the human error as the most contributing factor. Thus, in risk management plan of natural gas stations, priority should be given to the most probable root events and main contribution factors, which have identified in the present study, in order to reduce the occurrence probability of the accident scenarios and thus alleviate the risks.

  9. Dynamic safety assessment of natural gas stations using Bayesian network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarei, Esmaeil, E-mail: smlzarei65@gmail.com [Center of Excellence for Occupational Health Engineering, Research Center for Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azadeh, Ali [School of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Center of Excellence for Intelligent-Based Experimental Mechanic, College of Engineering, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khakzad, Nima [Safety and Security Science Section, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Aliabadi, Mostafa Mirzaei [Center of Excellence for Occupational Health Engineering, Research Center for Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadfam, Iraj, E-mail: mohammadfam@umsha.ac.ir [Center of Excellence for Occupational Health Engineering, Research Center for Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-01-05

    Graphical abstract: Dynamic cause-consequence analysis of the regulator system failure using BN. - Highlights: • A dynamic and comprehensive QRA (DCQRA) framework is proposed for safety assessment of CGSs. • Bow-tie diagram and Bayesian network are employed for accident scenario modeling. • Critical basic events and minimal cut sets are identified using probability updating. - Abstract: Pipelines are one of the most popular and effective ways of transporting hazardous materials, especially natural gas. However, the rapid development of gas pipelines and stations in urban areas has introduced a serious threat to public safety and assets. Although different methods have been developed for risk analysis of gas transportation systems, a comprehensive methodology for risk analysis is still lacking, especially in natural gas stations. The present work is aimed at developing a dynamic and comprehensive quantitative risk analysis (DCQRA) approach for accident scenario and risk modeling of natural gas stations. In this approach, a FMEA is used for hazard analysis while a Bow-tie diagram and Bayesian network are employed to model the worst-case accident scenario and to assess the risks. The results have indicated that the failure of the regulator system was the worst-case accident scenario with the human error as the most contributing factor. Thus, in risk management plan of natural gas stations, priority should be given to the most probable root events and main contribution factors, which have identified in the present study, in order to reduce the occurrence probability of the accident scenarios and thus alleviate the risks.

  10. Assessing predictability of a hydrological stochastic-dynamical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfan, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    The water cycle includes the processes with different memory that creates potential for predictability of hydrological system based on separating its long and short memory components and conditioning long-term prediction on slower evolving components (similar to approaches in climate prediction). In the face of the Panta Rhei IAHS Decade questions, it is important to find a conceptual approach to classify hydrological system components with respect to their predictability, define predictable/unpredictable patterns, extend lead-time and improve reliability of hydrological predictions based on the predictable patterns. Representation of hydrological systems as the dynamical systems subjected to the effect of noise (stochastic-dynamical systems) provides possible tool for such conceptualization. A method has been proposed for assessing predictability of hydrological system caused by its sensitivity to both initial and boundary conditions. The predictability is defined through a procedure of convergence of pre-assigned probabilistic measure (e.g. variance) of the system state to stable value. The time interval of the convergence, that is the time interval during which the system losses memory about its initial state, defines limit of the system predictability. The proposed method was applied to assess predictability of soil moisture dynamics in the Nizhnedevitskaya experimental station (51.516N; 38.383E) located in the agricultural zone of the central European Russia. A stochastic-dynamical model combining a deterministic one-dimensional model of hydrothermal regime of soil with a stochastic model of meteorological inputs was developed. The deterministic model describes processes of coupled heat and moisture transfer through unfrozen/frozen soil and accounts for the influence of phase changes on water flow. The stochastic model produces time series of daily meteorological variables (precipitation, air temperature and humidity), whose statistical properties are similar

  11. No deficits in nonverbal memory, metamemory and internal as well as external source memory in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Steffen; Ruhe, Claudia; Jelinek, Lena; Naber, Dieter

    2009-04-01

    A large body of literature suggests that some symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) result from mnemonic dysfunctions. The present study tested various formulations of the memory deficit hypothesis considering important moderators, such as depression and response slowing. Thirty-two OCD patients and 32 healthy controls were presented verbal or nonverbal instructions for actions (e.g. simple gestures). These actions should either be performed or imagined. For recognition, previously presented as well as novel actions were displayed. Decisions had to be made whether an action was previously displayed (verbally vs. nonverbally) or not and whether an action was performed or imagined (internal source memory). Moreover, both judgments required confidence ratings. Groups did not differ in memory accuracy and metamemory for verbally presented material. Patients displayed some impairment for nonverbally presented material and imagined instructions, which, however, could be fully accounted for by response slowing and depressive symptoms. The study challenges the view that primary memory deficits underlie OCD or any of its subtypes. We claim that research should move forward from the mere study of objective impairment to the assessment of cognitive performance in conjunction with personality traits such as inflated responsibility.

  12. Maternal postpartum depressive symptoms predict delay in non-verbal communication in 14-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Emiko; Takagai, Shu; Takei, Nori; Itoh, Hiroaki; Kanayama, Naohiro; Tsuchiya, Kenji J

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the potential relationship between maternal depressive symptoms during the postpartum period and non-verbal communication skills of infants at 14 months of age in a birth cohort study of 951 infants and assessed what factors may influence this association. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and non-verbal communication skills were measured using the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories, which include Early Gestures and Later Gestures domains. Infants whose mothers had a high level of depressive symptoms (13+ points) during both the first month postpartum and at 10 weeks were approximately 0.5 standard deviations below normal in Early Gestures scores and 0.5-0.7 standard deviations below normal in Later Gestures scores. These associations were independent of potential explanations, such as maternal depression/anxiety prior to birth, breastfeeding practices, and recent depressive symptoms among mothers. These findings indicate that infants whose mothers have postpartum depressive symptoms may be at increased risk of experiencing delay in non-verbal development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Randomised controlled trial of a brief intervention targeting predominantly non-verbal communication in general practice consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Paul; White, Peter; Kelly, Joanne; Everitt, Hazel; Mercer, Stewart

    2015-06-01

    The impact of changing non-verbal consultation behaviours is unknown. To assess brief physician training on improving predominantly non-verbal communication. Cluster randomised parallel group trial among adults aged ≥16 years attending general practices close to the study coordinating centres in Southampton. Sixteen GPs were randomised to no training, or training consisting of a brief presentation of behaviours identified from a prior study (acronym KEPe Warm: demonstrating Knowledge of the patient; Encouraging [back-channelling by saying 'hmm', for example]; Physically engaging [touch, gestures, slight lean]; Warm-up: cool/professional initially, warming up, avoiding distancing or non-verbal cut-offs at the end of the consultation); and encouragement to reflect on videos of their consultation. Outcomes were the Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale (MISS) mean item score (1-7) and patients' perceptions of other domains of communication. Intervention participants scored higher MISS overall (0.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.06 to 0.41), with the largest changes in the distress-relief and perceived relationship subscales. Significant improvement occurred in perceived communication/partnership (0.29, 95% CI = 0.09 to 0.49) and health promotion (0.26, 95% CI = 0.05 to 0.46). Non-significant improvements occurred in perceptions of a personal relationship, a positive approach, and understanding the effects of the illness on life. Brief training of GPs in predominantly non-verbal communication in the consultation and reflection on consultation videotapes improves patients' perceptions of satisfaction, distress, a partnership approach, and health promotion. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  14. The impact of the teachers? non-verbal communication on success in teaching

    OpenAIRE

    BAMBAEEROO, FATEMEH; SHOKRPOUR, NASRIN

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Non-verbal communication skills, also called sign language or silent language, include all behaviors performed in the presence of others or perceived either consciously or unconsciously. The main aim of this review article was to determine the effect of the teachers’ non-verbal communication on success in teaching using the findings of the studies conducted on the relationship between quality of teaching and the teachers’ use of non-verbal communication and ...

  15. PERBANDINGAN KOMUNIKASI NONVERBAL PENUTUR ASLI DAN PENUTUR ASING BAHASA INGGRIS DALAM PUBLIC SPEAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Suta Paramarta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk membandingkan fitur-fitur nonverbal penutur asli dan penutur asing dalam public speaking. Perbedaan budaya antara kedua kelompok penutur tersebut menimbulkan perbedaan penggunaan fitur nonverbal dalam public speaking. Desain penelitian ini adalah desain deskriptif kualitatif dengan 10 subjek. 5 subjek adalah video penutur asli Bahasa Inggris dan 5 video subjek yang lain adalah video mahasiswa Jurusan D III Bahasa Inggris Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha. Penutur asli menunjukkan gerakan nonverbal yang jauh lebih variatif dari penutur asing Bahasa Inggris. Penutur asli memiliki gerakan-gerakan spesifik yang mengacu pada makna yang spesifik juga. Di lain pihak, penutur asing menunjukkan gerakan nonverbal yang bersifat umum tanpa rujukan pasti pada maksud yang spesifik. Fitur nonverbal yang dicermati dikelompokkan pada gerakan kepala, gerakan badan, dan kontak mata. Kata kunci: perbandingan, nonverbal, public speaking Abstract The purpose of this research is to compare the nonverbal features of the native speakers and the non-native speakers of English in public speaking. Cultural differences between the two groups make significant differences on using the nonverbal features in public speaking. The design of this research was a descriptive-qualitative design with 10 subjects. 5 subjects were videos of 5 English native speakers and the other 5 subjects were the videos of 5 students of Diploma III English Department Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha. The native speakers showed more variative nonverbal movements compared to the non-native speakers. The native speakers made specific gestures which refered to certain specific meanings. On the other hand, the non-native speakers applied general nonverbal movements without specific referents. The investigated nonverbal features were grouped into head movements, body movements, and eye contacts. Keywords: comparison, nonverbal, public speaking

  16. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics in Air Pollution Exposure Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Daniela; Tchepel, Oxana

    2018-01-01

    Analyzing individual exposure in urban areas offers several challenges where both the individual’s activities and air pollution levels demonstrate a large degree of spatial and temporal dynamics. This review article discusses the concepts, key elements, current developments in assessing personal exposure to urban air pollution (seventy-two studies reviewed) and respective advantages and disadvantages. A new conceptual structure to organize personal exposure assessment methods is proposed according to two classification criteria: (i) spatial-temporal variations of individuals’ activities (point-fixed or trajectory based) and (ii) characterization of air quality (variable or uniform). This review suggests that the spatial and temporal variability of urban air pollution levels in combination with indoor exposures and individual’s time-activity patterns are key elements of personal exposure assessment. In the literature review, the majority of revised studies (44 studies) indicate that the trajectory based with variable air quality approach provides a promising framework for tackling the important question of inter- and intra-variability of individual exposure. However, future quantitative comparison between the different approaches should be performed, and the selection of the most appropriate approach for exposure quantification should take into account the purpose of the health study. This review provides a structured basis for the intercomparing of different methodologies and to make their advantages and limitations more transparent in addressing specific research objectives. PMID:29558426

  17. Non-verbal Full Body Emotional and Social Interaction: A Case Study on Multimedia Systems for Active Music Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camurri, Antonio

    Research on HCI and multimedia systems for art and entertainment based on non-verbal, full-body, emotional and social interaction is the main topic of this paper. A short review of previous research projects in this area at our centre are presented, to introduce the main issues discussed in the paper. In particular, a case study based on novel paradigms of social active music listening is presented. Active music listening experience enables users to dynamically mould expressive performance of music and of audiovisual content. This research is partially supported by the 7FP EU-ICT Project SAME (Sound and Music for Everyone, Everyday, Everywhere, Every Way, www.sameproject.eu).

  18. A New Myohaptic Instrument to Assess Wrist Motion Dynamically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Manto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The pathophysiological assessment of joint properties and voluntary motion in neurological patients remains a challenge. This is typically the case in cerebellar patients, who exhibit dysmetric movements due to the dysfunction of cerebellar circuitry. Several tools have been developed, but so far most of these tools have remained confined to laboratories, with a lack of standardization. We report on a new device which combines the use of electromyographic (EMG sensors with haptic technology for the dynamic investigation of wrist properties. The instrument is composed of a drivetrain, a haptic controller and a signal acquisition unit. Angular accuracy is 0.00611 rad, nominal torque is 6 N·m, maximal rotation velocity is 34.907 rad/sec, with a range of motion of –1.0472 to +1.0472 rad. The inertia of the motor and handgrip is 0.004 kg·m². This is the first standardized myohaptic instrument allowing the dynamic characterization of wrist properties, including under the condition of artificial damping. We show that cerebellar patients are unable to adapt EMG activities when faced with an increase in damping while performing fast reversal movements. The instrument allows the extraction of an electrophysiological signature of a cerebellar deficit.

  19. A new myohaptic instrument to assess wrist motion dynamically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manto, Mario; Van Den Braber, Niels; Grimaldi, Giuliana; Lammertse, Piet

    2010-01-01

    The pathophysiological assessment of joint properties and voluntary motion in neurological patients remains a challenge. This is typically the case in cerebellar patients, who exhibit dysmetric movements due to the dysfunction of cerebellar circuitry. Several tools have been developed, but so far most of these tools have remained confined to laboratories, with a lack of standardization. We report on a new device which combines the use of electromyographic (EMG) sensors with haptic technology for the dynamic investigation of wrist properties. The instrument is composed of a drivetrain, a haptic controller and a signal acquisition unit. Angular accuracy is 0.00611 rad, nominal torque is 6 N·m, maximal rotation velocity is 34.907 rad/sec, with a range of motion of -1.0472 to +1.0472 rad. The inertia of the motor and handgrip is 0.004 kg·m2. This is the first standardized myohaptic instrument allowing the dynamic characterization of wrist properties, including under the condition of artificial damping. We show that cerebellar patients are unable to adapt EMG activities when faced with an increase in damping while performing fast reversal movements. The instrument allows the extraction of an electrophysiological signature of a cerebellar deficit.

  20. Assessment of the dynamic behaviours of the ITER Vacuum Vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blocki, J., E-mail: jacek.blocki@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Combescure, D. [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Mazzone, G. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► The cyclic symmetry structure with special boundary conditions has been analyzed. ► Results based on the FE solid model and on the FE shell model have been compared. ► The effect of the missing mass contained has been checked. -- Abstract: The dynamic behaviour of the ITER Vacuum Vessel (VV) under seismic loads will be assessed by carrying out the modal analysis and then by applying the response spectrum method which describes earthquake motions. The effect of the missing mass is included in this last analysis. Numerical results are based on two different Finite Element (FE) models and on three different methods by which natural frequencies and mode shapes are defined. It means, it is applied the cyclic symmetry method, the component mode synthesis method and the 360° FE model of the VV. Comparisons between obtained results for the different models and methods are presented.

  1. Beyond static assessment of children's receptive vocabulary: the dynamic assessment of word learning (DAWL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Bernard; Botting, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Children's low scores on vocabulary tests are often erroneously interpreted as reflecting poor cognitive and/or language skills. It may be necessary to incorporate the measurement of word-learning ability in estimating children's lexical abilities. To explore the reliability and validity of the Dynamic Assessment of Word Learning (DAWL), a new dynamic assessment of receptive vocabulary. A dynamic assessment (DA) of word learning ability was developed and adopted within a nursery school setting with 15 children aged between 3;07 and 4;03, ten of whom had been referred to speech and language therapy. A number of quantitative measures were derived from the DA procedure, including measures of children's ability to identify the targeted items and to generalize to a second exemplar, as well as measures of children's ability to retain the targeted items. Internal, inter-rater and test-retest reliability of the DAWL was established as well as correlational measures of concurrent and predictive validity. The DAWL was found to provide both quantitative and qualitative information which could be used to improve the accuracy of differential diagnosis and the understanding of processes underlying the child's performance. The latter can be used for the purpose of designing more individualized interventions. © 2013 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  2. Effects of cue modality and emotional category on recognition of nonverbal emotional signals in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Bastian D; Brück, Carolin; Jacob, Heike; Eberle, Mark; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2016-07-07

    Impaired interpretation of nonverbal emotional cues in patients with schizophrenia has been reported in several studies and a clinical relevance of these deficits for social functioning has been assumed. However, it is unclear to what extent the impairments depend on specific emotions or specific channels of nonverbal communication. Here, the effect of cue modality and emotional categories on accuracy of emotion recognition was evaluated in 21 patients with schizophrenia and compared to a healthy control group (n = 21). To this end, dynamic stimuli comprising speakers of both genders in three different sensory modalities (auditory, visual and audiovisual) and five emotional categories (happy, alluring, neutral, angry and disgusted) were used. Patients with schizophrenia were found to be impaired in emotion recognition in comparison to the control group across all stimuli. Considering specific emotions more severe deficits were revealed in the recognition of alluring stimuli and less severe deficits in the recognition of disgusted stimuli as compared to all other emotions. Regarding cue modality the extent of the impairment in emotional recognition did not significantly differ between auditory and visual cues across all emotional categories. However, patients with schizophrenia showed significantly more severe disturbances for vocal as compared to facial cues when sexual interest is expressed (alluring stimuli), whereas more severe disturbances for facial as compared to vocal cues were observed when happiness or anger is expressed. Our results confirmed that perceptual impairments can be observed for vocal as well as facial cues conveying various social and emotional connotations. The observed differences in severity of impairments with most severe deficits for alluring expressions might be related to specific difficulties in recognizing the complex social emotional information of interpersonal intentions as compared to "basic" emotional states. Therefore

  3. Anatomical Correlates of Non-Verbal Perception in Dementia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Hsuan Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Patients with dementia who have dissociations in verbal and non-verbal sound processing may offer insights into the anatomic basis for highly related auditory modes. Methods: To determine the neuronal networks on non-verbal perception, 16 patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD, 15 with behavior variant fronto-temporal dementia (bv-FTD, 14 with semantic dementia (SD were evaluated and compared with 15 age-matched controls. Neuropsychological and auditory perceptive tasks were included to test the ability to compare pitch changes, scale-violated melody and for naming and associating with environmental sound. The brain 3D T1 images were acquired and voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used to compare and correlated the volumetric measures with task scores. Results: The SD group scored the lowest among 3 groups in pitch or scale-violated melody tasks. In the environmental sound test, the SD group also showed impairment in naming and also in associating sound with pictures. The AD and bv-FTD groups, compared with the controls, showed no differences in all tests. VBM with task score correlation showed that atrophy in the right supra-marginal and superior temporal gyri was strongly related to deficits in detecting violated scales, while atrophy in the bilateral anterior temporal poles and left medial temporal structures was related to deficits in environmental sound recognition. Conclusions: Auditory perception of pitch, scale-violated melody or environmental sound reflects anatomical degeneration in dementia patients and the processing of non-verbal sounds is mediated by distinct neural circuits.

  4. Drama to promote non-verbal communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Martina; Nixon, Lara; Broadfoot, Kirsten; Hofmeister, Marianna; Dornan, Tim

    2018-05-23

    Non-verbal communication skills (NVCS) help physicians to deliver relationship-centred care, and the effective use of NVCS is associated with improved patient satisfaction, better use of health services and high-quality clinical care. In contrast to verbal communication skills, NVCS training is under developed in communication curricula for the health care professions. One of the challenges teaching NVCS is their tacit nature. In this study, we evaluated drama exercises to raise awareness of NVCS by making familiar activities 'strange'. Workshops based on drama exercises were designed to heighten an awareness of sight, hearing, touch and proxemics in non-verbal communication. These were conducted at eight medical education conferences, held between 2014 and 2016, and were open to all conference participants. Workshops were evaluated by recording narrative data generated during the workshops and an open-ended questionnaire following the workshop. Data were analysed qualitatively, using thematic analysis. Non-verbal communication skills help doctors to deliver relationship-centred care RESULTS: One hundred and twelve participants attended workshops, 73 (65%) of whom completed an evaluation form: 56 physicians, nine medical students and eight non-physician faculty staff. Two themes were described: an increased awareness of NVCS and the importance of NVCS in relationship building. Drama exercises enabled participants to experience NVCS, such as sight, sound, proxemics and touch, in novel ways. Participants reflected on how NCVS contribute to developing trust and building relationships in clinical practice. Drama-based exercises elucidate the tacit nature of NVCS and require further evaluation in formal educational settings. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  5. Architecture for Integrated Medical Model Dynamic Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, D. A.; Myers, J. G.; Goodenow, D.; Young, M.; Arellano, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is a modeling tool used to predict potential outcomes of a complex system based on a statistical understanding of many initiating events. Utilizing a Monte Carlo method, thousands of instances of the model are considered and outcomes are collected. PRA is considered static, utilizing probabilities alone to calculate outcomes. Dynamic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (dPRA) is an advanced concept where modeling predicts the outcomes of a complex system based not only on the probabilities of many initiating events, but also on a progression of dependencies brought about by progressing down a time line. Events are placed in a single time line, adding each event to a queue, as managed by a planner. Progression down the time line is guided by rules, as managed by a scheduler. The recently developed Integrated Medical Model (IMM) summarizes astronaut health as governed by the probabilities of medical events and mitigation strategies. Managing the software architecture process provides a systematic means of creating, documenting, and communicating a software design early in the development process. The software architecture process begins with establishing requirements and the design is then derived from the requirements.

  6. Nonverbal communication of intention and attention while playing a game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ditte Hvas

    This poster abstract describes first part of a series of experiments on using the individual’s gesture, grip and direction of face, to infer intentions and attention during interaction with technology. The experiment recorded here studies these patterns of nonverbal communication in order...... to explore how they can be used in an activity-aware setup that seeks adjusts to the individual’s intentions and attention. Results indicate that basic patterns of facial direction, grip and gestures are correlated with intention and/or attention....

  7. Non-verbal Persuasion and Communication in an Affective Agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    André, Elisabeth; Bevacqua, Elisabetta; Heylen, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    the critical role of non-verbal behaviour during face-to-face communication. In this chapter we restrict the discussion to body language. We also consider embodied virtual agents. As is the case with humans, there are a number of fundamental factors to be considered when constructing persuasive agents......This chapter deals with the communication of persuasion. Only a small percentage of communication involves words: as the old saying goes, “it’s not what you say, it’s how you say it”. While this likely underestimates the importance of good verbal persuasion techniques, it is accurate in underlining...

  8. The Role of Modular Robotics in Mediating Nonverbal Social Exchanges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti, P; Giusti, L; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2009-01-01

    This paper outlines the use of modular robotics to encourage and facilitate nonverbal communication during therapeutic intervention in dementia care. A set of new socially interactive modular robotic devices called rolling pins (RPs) has been designed and developed to assist the therapist...... is that they are able to communicate with each other or with other devices equipped with the same radio communication technology. The RPs are usually used in pairs, as the local feedback of an RP can be set depending not only on its own speed and orientation but also on the speed and the orientation of the peer RP...

  9. Assessment of deep dynamic mechanical sensitivity in individuals with tension-type headache: The dynamic pressure algometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Ceña, M; Wang, K; Castaldo, M; Guerrero-Peral, Á; Caminero, A B; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, C; Arendt-Nielsen, L

    2017-09-01

    To explore the validity of dynamic pressure algometry for evaluating deep dynamic mechanical sensitivity by assessing its association with headache features and widespread pressure sensitivity in tension-type headache (TTH). One hundred and eighty-eight subjects with TTH (70% women) participated. Deep dynamic sensitivity was assessed with a dynamic pressure algometry set (Aalborg University, Denmark © ) consisting of 11 different rollers including fixed levels from 500 g to 5300 g. Each roller was moved at a speed of 0.5 cm/s over a 60-mm horizontal line covering the temporalis muscle. Dynamic pain threshold (DPT-level of the first painful roller) was determined and pain intensity during DPT was rated on a numerical pain rate scale (NPRS, 0-10). Headache clinical features were collected on a headache diary. As gold standard, static pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were assessed over temporalis, C5/C6 joint, second metacarpal, and tibialis anterior muscle. Side-to-side consistency between DPT (r = 0.843, p  r > 0.656, all p headaches supporting that deep dynamic pressure sensitivity within the trigeminal area is consistent with widespread pressure sensitivity. Assessing deep static and dynamic somatic tissue pain sensitivity may provide new opportunities for differentiated diagnostics and possibly a new tool for assessing treatment effects. The current study found that dynamic pressure algometry in the temporalis muscle was associated with widespread pressure pain sensitivity in individuals with tension-type headache. The association was independent of the frequency of headaches. Assessing deep static and dynamic somatic tissue pain sensitivity may provide new opportunities for differentiated diagnostics and possibly a tool for assessing treatment effects. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  10. Dynamic Assessment in Iranian EFL Classrooms: A Post- method Enquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Es-hagi Sardrood

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Derived from the emerging paradigm shift in English language teaching and assessment, there has been a renewal of interest in dynamic assessment (DA to be used as an alternative to the traditional static testing in language classrooms. However, to date, DA practice has been mostly limited to clinical treatments of children with learning disabilities, and it has not been widely incorporated into the EFL contexts. In order to find out the reasons behind the slow trend of DA practice, this research adopted a framework, based on the post method pedagogical principles and recommendations, to delve into the prospect of methodological realization of DA approaches in Iranian EFL classrooms. To this end, two instruments, a questionnaire and an interview were developed to explore the practicality of DA through seeking 51 Iranian EFL teachers' perception of DA practice in their classrooms. The results indicated that most of the teachers were negative about the practice of DA in their classrooms and believed that a full-fledged implementation of DA in Iranian EFL classrooms is too demanding. The feasibility of DA in Iranian EFL classrooms, where teachers are deprived of DA training, guideline, and technological resources, is questioned seriously due to the factors such as time-constrained nature of DA procedures, large number of students in EFL classrooms, the common practice of static tests as the mainstream, and overreliance on the teachers' teaching and assessment abilities. The paper suggests the framework of inquiry in this study, which was derived from the post method pedagogy, to be utilized as a blueprint for a critical appraisal of any alternative method or theory which is introduced into ELT contexts.

  11. A qualitative study on non-verbal sensitivity in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2013-07-01

    To explore nursing students' perception of the meanings and roles of non-verbal communication and sensitivity. It also attempts to understand how different factors influence their non-verbal communication style. The importance of non-verbal communication in the health arena lies in the need for good communication for efficient healthcare delivery. Understanding nursing students' non-verbal communication with patients and the influential factors is essential to prepare them for field work in the future. Qualitative approach based on 16 in-depth interviews. Sixteen nursing students from the Master of Nursing and the Year 3 Bachelor of Nursing program were interviewed. Major points in the recorded interviews were marked down for content analysis. Three main themes were developed: (1) understanding students' non-verbal communication, which shows how nursing students value and experience non-verbal communication in the nursing context; (2) factors that influence the expression of non-verbal cues, which reveals the effect of patients' demographic background (gender, age, social status and educational level) and participants' characteristics (character, age, voice and appearance); and (3) metaphors of non-verbal communication, which is further divided into four subthemes: providing assistance, individualisation, dropping hints and promoting interaction. Learning about students' non-verbal communication experiences in the clinical setting allowed us to understand their use of non-verbal communication and sensitivity, as well as to understand areas that may need further improvement. The experiences and perceptions revealed by the nursing students could provoke nurses to reconsider the effects of the different factors suggested in this study. The results might also help students and nurses to learn and ponder their missing gap, leading them to rethink, train and pay more attention to their non-verbal communication style and sensitivity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The Functional Role of Neural Oscillations in Non-Verbal Emotional Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Ashley E; El-Deredy, Wael; Schwartze, Michael; Kotz, Sonja A

    2016-01-01

    Effective interpersonal communication depends on the ability to perceive and interpret nonverbal emotional expressions from multiple sensory modalities. Current theoretical models propose that visual and auditory emotion perception involves a network of brain regions including the primary sensory cortices, the superior temporal sulcus (STS), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). However, relatively little is known about how the dynamic interplay between these regions gives rise to the perception of emotions. In recent years, there has been increasing recognition of the importance of neural oscillations in mediating neural communication within and between functional neural networks. Here we review studies investigating changes in oscillatory activity during the perception of visual, auditory, and audiovisual emotional expressions, and aim to characterize the functional role of neural oscillations in nonverbal emotion perception. Findings from the reviewed literature suggest that theta band oscillations most consistently differentiate between emotional and neutral expressions. While early theta synchronization appears to reflect the initial encoding of emotionally salient sensory information, later fronto-central theta synchronization may reflect the further integration of sensory information with internal representations. Additionally, gamma synchronization reflects facilitated sensory binding of emotional expressions within regions such as the OFC, STS, and, potentially, the amygdala. However, the evidence is more ambiguous when it comes to the role of oscillations within the alpha and beta frequencies, which vary as a function of modality (or modalities), presence or absence of predictive information, and attentional or task demands. Thus, the synchronization of neural oscillations within specific frequency bands mediates the rapid detection, integration, and evaluation of emotional expressions. Moreover, the functional coupling of oscillatory activity across multiples

  13. Development and Validation of an Online Dynamic Assessment for Raising Students' Comprehension of Science Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Ru; Chen, Shin-Feng

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the development of an online dynamic approach for assessing and improving students' reading comprehension of science texts--the dynamic assessment for reading comprehension of science text (DARCST). The DARCST blended assessment and response-specific instruction into a holistic learning task for grades 5 and 6 students. The…

  14. Dynamic mechanical assessment of muscle hyperalgesia in humans: The dynamic algometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finocchietti, Sara; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal pain is often associated with a nonhomogeneous distribution of mechanical hyperalgesia. Consequently, new methods able to detect this distribution are needed. OBJECTIVE: To develop and test a new method for assessing muscle hyperalgesia with high temporal and spatial resolution that provides complementary information compared with information obtained by traditional static pressure algometry. METHODS: The dynamic pressure algometer was tested bilaterally on the tibialis anterior muscle in 15 healthy subjects and compared with static pressure algometry. The device consisted of a wheel that was rolled over the muscle tissue with a fixed velocity and different predefined forces. The pain threshold force was determined and pain intensity to a fixed-force stimulation was continuously rated on a visual analogue scale while the wheel was rolling over the muscle. The pressure pain sensitivity was evaluated before, during, and after muscle pain and hyperalgesia induced unilaterally by either injection of hypertonic saline (0.5 mL, 6%) into the tibialis anterior or eccentric exercise evoking delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). RESULTS: The intraclass correlation coefficient was >0.88 for the dynamic thresholds; thus, the method was reliable. Compared with baseline, both techniques detected hyperalgesia at the saline injection site and during DOMS (Palgometer also detected the widespread, patchy distribution of sensitive loci during DOMS, which was difficult to evaluate using static pressure algometry. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The present study showed that dynamic pressure algometry is a reliable tool for evaluating muscle hyperalgesia (threshold and pain rating) with high temporal and spatial resolution. It can be applied as a simple clinical bed-side test and as a quantitative tool in pharmacological profiling studies. PMID:25664539

  15. Forest Ecosystem Dynamics Assessment and Predictive Modelling in Eastern Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, S. P. S.; Nandy, S.; Ahmad, M.; Agarwal, R.

    2011-09-01

    This study focused on the forest ecosystem dynamics assessment and predictive modelling deforestation and forest cover prediction in a part of north-eastern India i.e. forest areas along West Bengal, Bhutan, Arunachal Pradesh and Assam border in Eastern Himalaya using temporal satellite imagery of 1975, 1990 and 2009 and predicted forest cover for the period 2028 using Cellular Automata Markov Modedel (CAMM). The exercise highlighted large-scale deforestation in the study area during 1975-1990 as well as 1990-2009 forest cover vectors. A net loss of 2,334.28 km2 forest cover was noticed between 1975 and 2009, and with current rate of deforestation, a forest area of 4,563.34 km2 will be lost by 2028. The annual rate of deforestation worked out to be 0.35 and 0.78% during 1975-1990 and 1990-2009 respectively. Bamboo forest increased by 24.98% between 1975 and 2009 due to opening up of the forests. Forests in Kokrajhar, Barpeta, Darrang, Sonitpur, and Dhemaji districts in Assam were noticed to be worst-affected while Lower Subansiri, West and East Siang, Dibang Valley, Lohit and Changlang in Arunachal Pradesh were severely affected. Among different forest types, the maximum loss was seen in case of sal forest (37.97%) between 1975 and 2009 and is expected to deplete further to 60.39% by 2028. The tropical moist deciduous forest was the next category, which decreased from 5,208.11 km2 to 3,447.28 (33.81%) during same period with further chances of depletion to 2,288.81 km2 (56.05%) by 2028. It noted progressive loss of forests in the study area between 1975 and 2009 through 1990 and predicted that, unless checked, the area is in for further depletion of the invaluable climax forests in the region, especially sal and moist deciduous forests. The exercise demonstrated high potential of remote sensing and geographic information system for forest ecosystem dynamics assessment and the efficacy of CAMM to predict the forest cover change.

  16. FOREST ECOSYSTEM DYNAMICS ASSESSMENT AND PREDICTIVE MODELLING IN EASTERN HIMALAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. S. Kushwaha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the forest ecosystem dynamics assessment and predictive modelling deforestation and forest cover prediction in a part of north-eastern India i.e. forest areas along West Bengal, Bhutan, Arunachal Pradesh and Assam border in Eastern Himalaya using temporal satellite imagery of 1975, 1990 and 2009 and predicted forest cover for the period 2028 using Cellular Automata Markov Modedel (CAMM. The exercise highlighted large-scale deforestation in the study area during 1975–1990 as well as 1990–2009 forest cover vectors. A net loss of 2,334.28 km2 forest cover was noticed between 1975 and 2009, and with current rate of deforestation, a forest area of 4,563.34 km2 will be lost by 2028. The annual rate of deforestation worked out to be 0.35 and 0.78% during 1975–1990 and 1990–2009 respectively. Bamboo forest increased by 24.98% between 1975 and 2009 due to opening up of the forests. Forests in Kokrajhar, Barpeta, Darrang, Sonitpur, and Dhemaji districts in Assam were noticed to be worst-affected while Lower Subansiri, West and East Siang, Dibang Valley, Lohit and Changlang in Arunachal Pradesh were severely affected. Among different forest types, the maximum loss was seen in case of sal forest (37.97% between 1975 and 2009 and is expected to deplete further to 60.39% by 2028. The tropical moist deciduous forest was the next category, which decreased from 5,208.11 km2 to 3,447.28 (33.81% during same period with further chances of depletion to 2,288.81 km2 (56.05% by 2028. It noted progressive loss of forests in the study area between 1975 and 2009 through 1990 and predicted that, unless checked, the area is in for further depletion of the invaluable climax forests in the region, especially sal and moist deciduous forests. The exercise demonstrated high potential of remote sensing and geographic information system for forest ecosystem dynamics assessment and the efficacy of CAMM to predict the forest cover change.

  17. Assessment of cerebral perfusion with dynamic susceptibility contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kiyohiko; Naito, Isao; Nozokido, Takeshi; Sato, Takaaki; Takatama, Shin; Kimura, Tokunori

    2004-01-01

    Accurate measurements of arterial input function (AIF) are indispensable for the quantification of perfusion parameters such as mean transit time (MTT), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and cerebral blood flow (CBF). Quantification trials of cerebral perfusion using the disconsolation method with dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI (DSC-MRI) have been reported on. Accurately measuring AIF with DSC-MRI is difficult due to non-linearity and the limited dynamic range between ΔR 2 * and the concentration of contrast media. In this study, we assessed simple methods while using various parameters calculated by the tissue time intensity curve without measuring AIF. The parameters used were appearance time of contrast media (AT), 1'st moment (MT1), the full width at half maximum (FWHM), and up slope at maximum gradient (US). Difference of the appearance time (delta AT) and the CBFratio between the regions in question and the contralateral regions obtained by MT1, FWHM and US were assessed in 38 stroke patients. The CBF calculated by the linear scaling method using the signal of the ASL (ASL, CBF) was used as the standard for a correlation study. The delta AT in patients with middle cerebral artery occlusions supplied by retrograde flow indicated a significantly greater value as compared to patients with other lesions with antegrade flow. US CBF indicated the best correlation among the three CBFs obtained by MT1, FWHM and US. Both the ASL CBFratio and the US CBFratio correlated with delta AT, with the ASL CBFratio being predominant. The CBVratio-CBFratio map showed that the CBVratio tended to decrease when the CBFratio decreased. The map is useful in clinical analysis of cerebral perfusion due to its simplicity and ability to alleviate AIF dependent errors. The validity of the proposed method still needs to be examined by comparing it to the deconvolution method with DSC-MRI, since DSC-MRI can correct the effect of AIF. It might also be compared to Xenon CT, which is less

  18. Perception of Verbal and Nonverbal Emotional Signals in Women With Borderline Personality Disorder: Evidence of a Negative Bias and an Increased Reliance on Nonverbal Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brück, Carolin; Derstroff, Stephanie; Jacob, Heike; Wolf-Arehult, Martina; Wekenmann, Stefanie; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    Studies conducted in patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have documented a variety of anomalies concerning patients' abilities to interpret emotional signals. Attempting to clarify the bases of these anomalies, the current literature draws attention to a possible role of dysfunctional expectations, such as the expectation of social rejection. Dysfunctional expectations, however, may not only bias social interpretations, but may also focus attention on social cues most important in conveying emotional messages, such as nonverbal signals. To explore these assumptions, 30 female BPD patients were tasked to judge the valence of emotional states conveyed by combinations of verbal and nonverbal emotional cues. Compared to controls, BPD patients exhibited a negative bias in their interpretations and relied more on available nonverbal cues. Shifts in the relative importance of nonverbal cues appeared to be rooted mainly in a reduced reliance on positive verbal cues presumably deemed less credible by BPD patients.

  19. Time Parameters of Nonverbal Communication and Personal Communicative Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla K. Bolotova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive behavior in interpersonal relations is always connected with time characteristicssuch as sequence, rhythm, and succession of actions. In our research weattempted to determine the role of time parameters in the development of thefollowing social communications: (a interpersonal relations, (b communicativeacts, and (c the process of structuring social behavior. We intended to show therole of time in acquiring and mastering social contacts. In our research we outlineda number of methods for developing time competence and various consciousand unconscious ways to organize time and to create an atmosphere of understanding,acceptance, and trust in interpersonal nonverbal communication. Thetime characteristics of social behavior and its nonverbal manifestation can exert apositive influence on communicative activity and can determine time competencein communication. Ignoring time parameters in the self-realization and self-actualizationof personality introduces a certain destructive element into the processof interpersonal relations; hence the necessity of teaching competence in communicationarises. Teaching is carried out in the process of training and includesseveral stages: the introductory stage and the stages of intensification, integration,avoidance, and others. Thus, time management and the process of teachingtime management allow one to discover time resources for the self-organizationof one’s personality over a lifetime.

  20. EEG correlates of verbal and nonverbal working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danker Jared

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Distinct cognitive processes support verbal and nonverbal working memory, with verbal memory depending specifically on the subvocal rehearsal of items. Methods We recorded scalp EEG while subjects performed a Sternberg task. In each trial, subjects judged whether a probe item was one of the three items in a study list. Lists were composed of stimuli from one of five pools whose items either were verbally rehearsable (letters, words, pictures of common objects or resistant to verbal rehearsal (sinusoidal grating patterns, single dot locations. Results We found oscillatory correlates unique to verbal stimuli in the θ (4–8 Hz, α (9–12 Hz, β (14–28 Hz, and γ (30–50 Hz frequency bands. Verbal stimuli generally elicited greater power than did nonverbal stimuli. Enhanced verbal power was found bilaterally in the θ band, over frontal and occipital areas in the α and β bands, and centrally in the γ band. When we looked specifically for cases where oscillatory power in the time interval between item presentations was greater than oscillatory power during item presentation, we found enhanced β activity in the frontal and occipital regions. Conclusion These results implicate stimulus-induced oscillatory activity in verbal working memory and β activity in the process of subvocal rehearsal.

  1. Language performance in siblings of nonverbal children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Yonata; Bar-Yuda, Chanit

    2011-05-01

    The study focuses on language and cognitive abilities of siblings of the linguistically most affected children with autism (i.e. siblings of nonverbal children - SIBS-ANV). Twenty-eight SIBS-ANV (17 boys), ages 4-9 years, took part in the study. All children attended regular schools, and none had received a diagnosis of autism. Controls were 27 typically developing children (SIBS-TD; 16 boys) matched to the SIBS-ANV on age, family background, socioeconomic status and type of school they attended. Significant IQ differences, as well as language differences as measured on the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF), emerged between SIBS-ANV and SIBS-TD. However, differences in the language scores mostly disappeared when PIQ and FSIQ were controlled for. Furthermore, grammatical analysis of spontaneous speech samples produced in the course of testing did not reveal any significant differences between the groups. These results add to recent work suggesting that language deficits may not be part of the Broad Autism Phenotype (BAP). It further suggests that the cognitive deficit characteristic of nonverbal people with autism may be familial.

  2. Individual differences in nonverbal number skills predict math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindskog, Marcus; Winman, Anders; Poom, Leo

    2017-02-01

    Math anxiety (MA) involves negative affect and tension when solving mathematical problems, with potentially life-long consequences. MA has been hypothesized to be a consequence of negative learning experiences and cognitive predispositions. Recent research indicates genetic and neurophysiological links, suggesting that MA stems from a basic level deficiency in symbolic numerical processing. However, the contribution of evolutionary ancient purely nonverbal processes is not fully understood. Here we show that the roots of MA may go beyond symbolic numbers. We demonstrate that MA is correlated with precision of the Approximate Number System (ANS). Individuals high in MA have poorer ANS functioning than those low in MA. This correlation remains significant when controlling for other forms of anxiety and for cognitive variables. We show that MA mediates the documented correlation between ANS precision and math performance, both with ANS and with math performance as independent variable in the mediation model. In light of our results, we discuss the possibility that MA has deep roots, stemming from a non-verbal number processing deficiency. The findings provide new evidence advancing the theoretical understanding of the developmental etiology of MA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Nonverbal auditory working memory: Can music indicate the capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eunju; Ryu, Hokyoung

    2016-06-01

    Different working memory (WM) mechanisms that underlie words, tones, and timbres have been proposed in previous studies. In this regard, the present study developed a WM test with nonverbal sounds and compared it to the conventional verbal WM test. A total of twenty-five, non-music major, right-handed college students were presented with four different types of sounds (words, syllables, pitches, timbres) that varied from two to eight digits in length. Both accuracy and oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) were measured. The results showed significant effects of number of targets on accuracy and sound type on oxyHb. A further analysis showed prefrontal asymmetry with pitch being processed by the right hemisphere (RH) and timbre by the left hemisphere (LH). These findings suggest a potential for employing musical sounds (i.e., pitch and timbre) as a complementary stimuli for conventional nonverbal WM tests, which can additionally examine its asymmetrical roles in the prefrontal regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Impact of Discrepant Verbal-Nonverbal Messages in the Teacher-Student Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    Noting that teachers' nonverbal behaviors are frequently inconsistent with their verbal messages, a situation that detracts from student learning, this paper offers an activity for focusing prospective teachers' attentions on the frequency and impact of discrepant verbal-nonverbal messages occurring in the classroom. The step-by-step process is…

  5. Emotional expression in oral history narratives: comparing results of automated verbal and nonverbal analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Lamers, S.M.A.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Sools, A.

    Audiovisual collections of narratives about war-traumas are rich in descriptions of personal and emotional experiences which can be expressed through verbal and nonverbal means. We complement a commonly used verbal analysis with a nonverbal one to study emotional developments in narratives. Using

  6. Emotional expression in oral history narratives: comparing results of automated verbal and nonverbal analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M.G. de Jong (Franciska); K.P. Truong (Khiet); G.J. Westerhof (Gerben); S.M.A. Lamers (Sanne); A. Sools (Anneke)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAudiovisual collections of narratives about war-traumas are rich in descriptions of personal and emotional experiences which can be expressed through verbal and nonverbal means. We complement a commonly used verbal analysis with a nonverbal one to study emotional developments in

  7. Nonverbal Communication, Music Therapy, and Autism: A Review of Literature and Case Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a review of nonverbal literature relating to therapy, music, autism, and music therapy. Included is a case study of a woman with autism who was nonverbal. The case highlights and analyzes behaviors contextually. Interpretations of communication through the music therapy, musical interactions, and the rapport that developed…

  8. A Study of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication in Second Life--The ARCHI21 Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigham, Ciara R.; Chanier, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional synthetic worlds introduce possibilities for nonverbal communication in computer-mediated language learning. This paper presents an original methodological framework for the study of multimodal communication in such worlds. It offers a classification of verbal and nonverbal communication acts in the synthetic world "Second…

  9. The Complementary Effects of Empathy and Nonverbal Communication Training on Persuasion Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robin T.; Leonhardt, James M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the possible complementary effects that training in empathy and nonverbal communication may have on persuasion capabilities. The narrative considers implications from the literature and describes an exploratory study in which students, in a managerial setting, were trained in empathy and nonverbal communication. Subsequent…

  10. The Five-Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire in the Czech context

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hřebíčková, Martina

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2010), s. 165-177 ISSN 0039-3320 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : Nonverbal personality measurement * five -factor model * The Five -Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire * FF-NPQ Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.254, year: 2010

  11. An MEG Investigation of Neural Biomarkers and Language in Nonverbal Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    1.Lord C, Risi S, Pickles A. Trajectory of language development in autistic spectrum disorders . In: Rice M, Warren S, eds. Developmental Language...Nonverbal Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kristina McFadden CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER An MEG Investigation of Neural Biomarkers and Language in Nonverbal Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders 5b

  12. Culture and Social Relationship as Factors of Affecting Communicative Non-Verbal Behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipi, Afia Akhter; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes...

  13. Development of the Nonverbal Communication Skills of School Administrators Scale (NCSSAS): Validity, Reliability and Implementation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Tevfik

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop a scale intended for identifying the school administrators' nonverbal communication skills, and establish the relationship between the nonverbal communication skills of school administrators and job performance of teachers. The study was conducted in three stages. The first stage involved the creation…

  14. Universals of Nonverbal Behavior: A Review of Literature and Statement of Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Patrick H.

    Universals in nonverbal behavior represent an important issue in the study of the cross-cultural communication. Perhaps the most well-known research in nonverbal universals was conducted by Paul Ekman, who examined literate and preliterate cultures from various language groups and identified six universal facial expressions: happiness, sadness,…

  15. Who Is Controlling the Interaction? The Effect of Nonverbal Mirroring on Teacher-Student Rapport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang-yuan, Zhou; Wei, Guo

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of nonverbal mirroring on teacher-student rapport in one-on-one interactions. Nonverbal mirroring refers to the unconscious mimicry of the postures, mannerisms, facial expressions, and other behaviors of one's interaction partner in social interactions. In a within-subjects paradigm, students had four…

  16. Oncologists’ non-verbal behavior and analog patients’ recall of information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillen, M.A.; de Haes, H.C.J.M.; van Tienhoven, G.; van Laarhoven, H.W.M.; van Weert, J.C.M.; Vermeulen, D.M.; Smets, E.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Information in oncological consultations is often excessive. Those patients who better recall information are more satisfied, less anxious and more adherent. Optimal recall may be enhanced by the oncologist’s non-verbal communication. We tested the influence of three non-verbal behaviors,

  17. Oncologists' non-verbal behavior and analog patients' recall of information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillen, Marij A.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W. M.; van Weert, Julia C. M.; Vermeulen, Daniëlle M.; Smets, Ellen M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Information in oncological consultations is often excessive. Those patients who better recall information are more satisfied, less anxious and more adherent. Optimal recall may be enhanced by the oncologist's non-verbal communication. We tested the influence of three non-verbal behaviors,

  18. The Effect of Nonverbal Signals on Student Role-Play Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taute, Harry A.; Heiser, Robert S.; McArthur, David N.

    2011-01-01

    Although salespeople have long been urged to recognize and adapt to customer needs and wants by observing communications style and other cues or signals by the buyer, nonverbal communications by the salesperson have received much less empirical scrutiny. However, nonverbal communications may be important in this context; research in several…

  19. Nonverbal Communication and the First Amendment: The Rhetoric of the Streets Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiman, Franklyn S.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews court cases and current issues involving nonverbal communication and the First Amendment. Concludes that many modes of nonverbal expression have won a firm place under the umbrella of protection of the First Amendment but that some modes (flag and draft card burnings, economic boycotts, and coercive persuasion) still raise troublesome…

  20. Virtual Chironomia: A Multimodal Study of Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication in a Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulsdonck, Gustav

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the various aspects of multimodal use of non-verbal communication in virtual worlds during dyadic negotiations. Quantitative analysis uncovered a treatment effect whereby people with more rhetorical certainty used more neutral non-verbal communication; whereas people that were rhetorically less certain used more…

  1. Preface (to: Analysis of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication and Enactment: The Procesing Issues)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esposito, Anna; Vinciarelli, Alessandro; Vicsi, Klára; Pelachaud, Catherine; Nijholt, Antinus

    2011-01-01

    This volume brings together the advanced research results obtained by the European COST Action 2102 “Cross Modal Analysis of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication,‿ primarily discussed at the PINK SSPnet-COST 2102 International Conference on “Analysis of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication and

  2. Cross-cultural features of gestures in non-verbal communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chebotariova N. A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available this article is devoted to analysis of the concept of non-verbal communication and ways of expressing it. Gesticulation is studied in detail as it is the main element of non-verbal communication and has different characteristics in various countries of the world.

  3. Longitudinal genetic study of verbal and nonverbal IQ from early childhood to young adulthood.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.A.; Bartels, M.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2007-01-01

    In a longitudinal genetic study we explored which factors underlie stability in verbal and nonverbal abilities, and the extent to which the association between these abilities becomes stronger as children grow older. Measures of verbal and nonverbal IQ were collected in Dutch twin pairs at age 5, 7,

  4. Assessing Coupling Dynamics from an Ensemble of Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Gómez-Herrero

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Finding interdependency relations between time series provides valuable knowledge about the processes that generated the signals. Information theory sets a natural framework for important classes of statistical dependencies. However, a reliable estimation from information-theoretic functionals is hampered when the dependency to be assessed is brief or evolves in time. Here, we show that these limitations can be partly alleviated when we have access to an ensemble of independent repetitions of the time series. In particular, we gear a data-efficient estimator of probability densities to make use of the full structure of trial-based measures. By doing so, we can obtain time-resolved estimates for a family of entropy combinations (including mutual information, transfer entropy and their conditional counterparts, which are more accurate than the simple average of individual estimates over trials. We show with simulated and real data generated by coupled electronic circuits that the proposed approach allows one to recover the time-resolved dynamics of the coupling between different subsystems.

  5. Assessing digital control system dependability using the dynamic flowgraph methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, C.J.; Guarro, S.B.; Apostolakis, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM) is a methodological approach to modeling and analyzing the behavior of software-driven embedded systems for the purpose of reliability/safety assessment and verification. The methodology has two fundamental goals: (a) to identify how certain postulated events may occur in a system and (b) to identify an appropriate testing strategy based on an analysis of system functional behavior. To achieve these goals, the methodology employs a modeling framework in which system models are developed in terms of causal relationships between physical variables and temporal characteristics of the execution of software modules. These models are then analyzed to determine how a certain state (desirable or undesirable) can be reached. This is done by developing timed fault trees, which take the form of logical combinations of static trees relating system parameters at different points in time. The prime implicants (multistate analog of minimal cut sets) of the fault trees can be used to identify and eliminate system faults resulting from unanticipated combinations of software logic errors, hardware failures, and adverse environmental conditions and to direct testing activity to more efficiently eliminate implementation errors by focusing on the neighborhood of potential failure modes arising from these combinations of system conditions

  6. The telomere length dynamic and methods of its assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kah-Wai; Yan, Ju

    2005-01-01

    Human telomeres are composed of long repeating sequences of TTAGGG, associated with a variety of telomere-binding proteins. Its function as an end-protector of chromosomes prevents the chromosome from end-to-end fusion, recombination and degradation. Telomerase acts as reverse transcriptase in the elongation of telomeres, which prevent the loss of telomeres due to the end replication problems. However, telomerase activity is detected at low level in somatic cells and high level in embryonic stem cells and tumor cells. It confers immortality to embryonic stem cells and tumor cells. In most tumor cells, telomeres are extremely short and stable. Telomere length is an important indicator of the telomerase activity in tumor cells and it may be used in the prognosis of malignancy. Thus, the assessment of telomeres length is of great experimental and clinical significance. This review describes the role of telomere and telomerase in cancer pathogenesis and the dynamics of the telomeres length in different cell types. The various methods of measurement of telomeres length, i.e. southern blot, hybridization protection assay, fluorescence in situ hybridization, primed in situ, quantitative PCR and single telomere length analysis are discussed. The principle and comparative evaluation of these methods are reviewed. The detection of G-strand overhang by telomeric-oligonucleotide ligation assay, primer extension/nick translation assay and electron microscopy are briefly discussed.

  7. Assessing Political Dynamics in Contemporary Malaysia: Implications for Democratic Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surain Subramaniam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines political dynamics in Malaysia and assesses the prospects for change in the direction of greater political liberalization. It focuses on the 12th General Election of 2008 and its implications for opportunities and challenges for liberal democratic change in Malaysia. It discusses the role of the internet-based new media in shaping an emerging public sphere, and some factors affecting the changing role of non-Malay voters in the political process. This article argues that democratization in Malaysia is already occurring, albeit at a gradual pace; it is being pushed by the new political forces of civil society actors, newly empowered opposition parties, and the internet-based media. The boundaries of this emerging democratic space is simultaneously being shaped and contested by the political competition between status-quo and reformist forces in this society. Some institutional changes have expanded the parameters of democratic space, although the entrenched dominant institutions of the ruling regime continue to wield sufficient amounts of institutional capacity to subvert any consolidation of these democratic changes for now.

  8. Condom use: exploring verbal and non-verbal communication strategies among Latino and African American men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukoski, Ann P; Harvey, S Marie; Branch, Meredith

    2009-08-01

    A growing body of literature provides evidence of a link between communication with sexual partners and safer sexual practices, including condom use. More research is needed that explores the dynamics of condom communication including gender differences in initiation, and types of communication strategies. The overall objective of this study was to explore condom use and the dynamics surrounding condom communication in two distinct community-based samples of African American and Latino heterosexual couples at increased risk for HIV. Based on 122 in-depth interviews, 80% of women and 74% of men reported ever using a condom with their primary partner. Of those who reported ever using a condom with their current partner, the majority indicated that condom use was initiated jointly by men and women. In addition, about one-third of the participants reported that the female partner took the lead and let her male partner know she wanted to use a condom. A sixth of the sample reported that men initiated use. Although over half of the respondents used bilateral verbal strategies (reminding, asking and persuading) to initiate condom use, one-fourth used unilateral verbal strategies (commanding and threatening to withhold sex). A smaller number reported using non-verbal strategies involving condoms themselves (e.g. putting a condom on or getting condoms). The results suggest that interventions designed to improve condom use may need to include both members of a sexual dyad and focus on improving verbal and non-verbal communication skills of individuals and couples.

  9. Spatial short-term memory in children with nonverbal learning disabilities: impairment in encoding spatial configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narimoto, Tadamasa; Matsuura, Naomi; Takezawa, Tomohiro; Mitsuhashi, Yoshinori; Hiratani, Michio

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated whether impaired spatial short-term memory exhibited by children with nonverbal learning disabilities is due to a problem in the encoding process. Children with or without nonverbal learning disabilities performed a simple spatial test that required them to remember 3, 5, or 7 spatial items presented simultaneously in random positions (i.e., spatial configuration) and to decide if a target item was changed or all items including the target were in the same position. The results showed that, even when the spatial positions in the encoding and probe phases were similar, the mean proportion correct of children with nonverbal learning disabilities was 0.58 while that of children without nonverbal learning disabilities was 0.84. The authors argue with the results that children with nonverbal learning disabilities have difficulty encoding relational information between spatial items, and that this difficulty is responsible for their impaired spatial short-term memory.

  10. The Importance of Nonverbal Aspects of Communication in Teaching and the Pre- and Inservice Teacher Education Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinzing, Hans Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    The ability to express and decode nonverbal cues is assumed to be an essential quality in communication and teaching. To validate, generalize and expand upon earlier research on the importance of nonverbal competencies in communication and teaching, i.e., the relationship of nonverbal competencies (e.g., expressiveness/"charisma" and…

  11. Judging the urgency of non-verbal auditory alarms: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrabito, G Robert; Mondor, Todd; Kent, Kimberley

    2004-06-22

    When designed correctly, non-verbal auditory alarms can convey different levels of urgency to the aircrew, and thereby permit the operator to establish the appropriate level of priority to address the alarmed condition. The conveyed level of urgency of five non-verbal auditory alarms presently used in the Canadian Forces CH-146 Griffon helicopter was investigated. Pilots of the CH-146 Griffon helicopter and non-pilots rated the perceived urgency of the signals using a rating scale. The pilots also ranked the urgency of the alarms in a post-experiment questionnaire to reflect their assessment of the actual situation that triggers the alarms. The results of this investigation revealed that participants' ratings of perceived urgency appear to be based on the acoustic properties of the alarms which are known to affect the listener's perceived level of urgency. Although for 28% of the pilots the mapping of perceived urgency to the urgency of their perception of the triggering situation was statistically significant for three of the five alarms, the overall data suggest that the triggering situations are not adequately conveyed by the acoustic parameters inherent in the alarms. The pilots' judgement of the triggering situation was intended as a means of evaluating the reliability of the alerting system. These data will subsequently be discussed with respect to proposed enhancements in alerting systems as it relates to addressing the problem of phase of flight. These results call for more serious consideration of incorporating situational awareness in the design and assignment of auditory alarms in aircraft.

  12. Long-latency auditory evoked potentials with verbal and nonverbal stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppitz, Sheila Jacques; Didoné, Dayane Domeneghini; Silva, Débora Durigon da; Gois, Marjana; Folgearini, Jordana; Ferreira, Geise Corrêa; Garcia, Michele Vargas

    2015-01-01

    Long-latency auditory evoked potentials represent the cortical activity related to attention, memory, and auditory discrimination skills. Acoustic signal processing occurs differently between verbal and nonverbal stimuli, influencing the latency and amplitude patterns. To describe the latencies of the cortical potentials P1, N1, P2, N2, and P3, as well as P3 amplitude, with different speech stimuli and tone bursts, and to classify them in the presence and absence of these data. A total of 30 subjects with normal hearing were assessed, aged 18-32 years old, matched by gender. Nonverbal stimuli were used (tone burst; 1000Hz - frequent and 4000Hz - rare); and verbal (/ba/ - frequent; /ga/, /da/, and /di/ - rare). Considering the component N2 for tone burst, the lowest latency found was 217.45ms for the BA/DI stimulus; the highest latency found was 256.5ms. For the P3 component, the shortest latency with tone burst stimuli was 298.7 with BA/GA stimuli, the highest, was 340ms. For the P3 amplitude, there was no statistically significant difference among the different stimuli. For latencies of components P1, N1, P2, N2, P3, there were no statistical differences among them, regardless of the stimuli used. There was a difference in the latency of potentials N2 and P3 among the stimuli employed but no difference was observed for the P3 amplitude. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing the Dynamic Behavior of Online Q&A Knowledge Markets: A System Dynamics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mostafa; Hesamamiri, Roozbeh; Sadjadi, Jafar; Bourouni, Atieh

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this paper is to propose a holistic dynamic model for understanding the behavior of a complex and internet-based kind of knowledge market by considering both social and economic interactions. Design/methodology/approach: A system dynamics (SD) model is formulated in this study to investigate the dynamic characteristics of…

  14. Dynamic life cycle assessment (LCA) of renewable energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pehnt, M. [Institut for Energy and Environmental Research, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-01-01

    Before new technologies enter the market, their environmental superiority over competing options must be asserted based on a life cycle approach. However, when applying the prevailing status-quo Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach to future renewable energy systems, one does not distinguish between impacts which are 'imported' into the system due to the 'background system' (e.g. due to supply of materials or final energy for the production of the energy system), and what is the improvement potential of these technologies compared to competitors (e.g. due to process and system innovations or diffusion effects). This paper investigates a dynamic approach towards the LCA of renewable energy technologies and proves that for all renewable energy chains, the inputs of finite energy resources and emissions of greenhouse gases are extremely low compared with the conventional system. With regard to the other environmental impacts the findings do not reveal any clear verdict for or against renewable energies. Future development will enable a further reduction of environmental impacts of renewable energy systems. Different factors are responsible for this development, such as progress with respect to technical parameters of energy converters, in particular, improved efficiency; emissions characteristics; increased lifetime, etc.; advances with regard to the production process of energy converters and fuels; and advances with regard to 'external' services originating from conventional energy and transport systems, for instance, improved electricity or process heat supply for system production and ecologically optimized transport systems for fuel transportation. The application of renewable energy sources might modify not only the background system, but also further downstream aspects, such as consumer behavior. This effect is, however, strongly context and technology dependent. (author)

  15. Quantitative assessment of dynamic PET imaging data in cancer imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzi, Mark; O'Sullivan, Finbarr; Mankoff, David A; Doot, Robert K; Pierce, Larry A; Kurland, Brenda F; Linden, Hannah M; Kinahan, Paul E

    2012-11-01

    Clinical imaging in positron emission tomography (PET) is often performed using single-time-point estimates of tracer uptake or static imaging that provides a spatial map of regional tracer concentration. However, dynamic tracer imaging can provide considerably more information about in vivo biology by delineating both the temporal and spatial pattern of tracer uptake. In addition, several potential sources of error that occur in static imaging can be mitigated. This review focuses on the application of dynamic PET imaging to measuring regional cancer biologic features and especially in using dynamic PET imaging for quantitative therapeutic response monitoring for cancer clinical trials. Dynamic PET imaging output parameters, particularly transport (flow) and overall metabolic rate, have provided imaging end points for clinical trials at single-center institutions for years. However, dynamic imaging poses many challenges for multicenter clinical trial implementations from cross-center calibration to the inadequacy of a common informatics infrastructure. Underlying principles and methodology of PET dynamic imaging are first reviewed, followed by an examination of current approaches to dynamic PET image analysis with a specific case example of dynamic fluorothymidine imaging to illustrate the approach. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Uncanny Valley and Nonverbal Communication in Virtual Characters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinwell, Angela; Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Abdel Nabi, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of a current research project investigating the Uncanny Valley phenomenon in realistic, human-like virtual characters. !e research methods used in this Work include a retrospective of both empirical studies and philosophical writings on the Uncanny. No other...... research has explored the notion that realistic, human-like, virtual characters are regarded less favorably due to a perceived diminished degree of responsiveness in facial expression, specifically, nonverbal communication (NVC) in the upper face region. So far, this research project has provided the first...... empirical evidence to test the Uncanny Valley phenomenon in the domain of animated video game characters with speech, as opposed to just still, unresponsive images, as used in previous studies. Based on the results of these experiments, a conceptual framework of the Uncanny Valley in virtual characters has...

  17. Aphasic and amnesic patients' verbal vs. nonverbal retentive abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, L S; Tarlow, S

    1978-03-01

    Four different groups of patients (aphasics, alcoholic Korsakoffs, chronic alcoholics, and control patients) were asked to detect either repeated words presented orally, repeated words presented visually, repeated pictures or repeated shapes, during the presentation of a list of similarly constructed stimuli. It was discovered that on the verbal tasks, the number of words intervening between repetitions had more effect on the aphasics than on the other groups of patients. However, for the nonverbal picture repetition and shape repetition tasks, the aphasics' performance was normal, while the alcoholic Korsakoff patients were most affected by the number of intervening items. It was concluded that the aphasics' memory deficit demonstrated by the use of this paradigm was specific to the presentation of verbal material.

  18. [Snijders-Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test: useful for the elderly?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, M; Berg, I; Deelman, B

    2001-02-01

    The feasibility of the SON-R 5 1/2-17, a non-verbal intelligence test for deaf children, was investigated in a group of older adults, with a view to the future use of the test in older neurological patients. In a group of 58 healthy elderly persons intelligence was measured with the SON, the Raven Progressive Matrices and a Dutch reading test. The subjects were also asked for their subjective judgements of the tests. The SON-R 5 1/2-17 appears to be a user-friendly test. The high correlations between the subtests, and between the SON and other measures of intelligence suggest that the SON is a valid test for measuring fluid intelligence in elderly persons. The existing norms are not suitable when the SON is used in elderly people, new norms for adults should therefore be developed.

  19. The Nonverbal Communication of Positive Emotions: An Emotion Family Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Disa A

    2017-07-01

    This review provides an overview of the research on nonverbal expressions of positive emotions, organised into emotion families, that is, clusters sharing common characteristics. Epistemological positive emotions (amusement, relief, awe, and interest) are found to have distinct, recognisable displays via vocal or facial cues, while the agency-approach positive emotions (elation and pride) appear to be associated with recognisable visual, but not auditory, cues. Evidence is less strong for the prosocial emotions (love, compassion, gratitude, and admiration) in any modality other than touch, and there is little support for distinct recognisable signals of the savouring positive emotions (contentment, sensory pleasure, and desire). In closing, some limitations of extant work are noted and some proposals for future research are outlined.

  20. On the embedded cognition of non-verbal narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio; Baceviciute, Sarune

    2014-01-01

    Acknowledging that narratives are an important resource in human communication and cognition, the focus of this article is on the cognitive aspects of involvement with visual and auditory non-verbal narratives, particularly in relation to the newest immersive media and digital interactive...... representational technologies. We consider three relevant trends in narrative studies that have emerged in the 60 years of cognitive and digital revolution. The issue at hand could have implications for developmental psychology, pedagogics, cognitive science, cognitive psychology, ethology and evolutionary studies...... of language. In particular, it is of great importance for narratology in relation to interactive media and new representational technologies. Therefore we outline a research agenda for a bio-cognitive semiotic interdisciplinary investigation on how people understand, react to, and interact with narratives...

  1. MODELO DE COMUNICACIÓN NO VERBAL EN DEPORTE Y BALLET NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION MODELS IN SPORTS AND BALLET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Vallejo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio analiza el modelo de comunicación que se genera en los entrenadores de fútbol y de gimnasia artística a nivel profesional, y en los instructores de ballet en modalidad folklórica, tomando como referente el lenguaje corporal dinámico propio de la comunicación especializada de deportistas y bailarines, en la que se evidencia lenguaje no verbal. Este último se estudió tanto en prácticas psicomotrices como sociomotrices, para identificar y caracterizar relaciones entre diferentes conceptos y su correspondiente representación gestual. Los resultados indican que el lenguaje no verbal de los entrenadores e instructores toma ocasionalmente el lugar del lenguaje verbal, cuando este último resulta insuficiente o inapropiado para describir una acción motriz de gran precisión, debido a las condiciones de distancia o de interferencias acústicas. En los instructores de ballet se encontró una forma generalizada de dirigir los ensayos utilizando conteos rítmicos con las palmas o los pies. De igual forma, se destacan los componentes paralingüísticos de los diversos actos de habla, especialmente, en lo que se refiere a entonación, duración e intensidad.This study analyzes the communication model generated among professional soccer trainers, artistic gymnastics trainers, and folkloric ballet instructors, on the basis of the dynamic body language typical of specialized communication among sportspeople and dancers, which includes a high percentage of non-verbal language. Non-verbal language was observed in both psychomotor and sociomotor practices in order to identify and characterize relations between different concepts and their corresponding gestural representation. This made it possible to generate a communication model that takes into account the non-verbal aspects of specialized communicative contexts. The results indicate that the non-verbal language of trainers and instructors occasionally replaces verbal language when the

  2. The role of non-verbal behaviour in racial disparities in health care: implications and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Cynthia S; Ambady, Nalini

    2013-09-01

    People from racial minority backgrounds report less trust in their doctors and have poorer health outcomes. Although these deficiencies have multiple roots, one important set of explanations involves racial bias, which may be non-conscious, on the part of providers, and minority patients' fears that they will be treated in a biased way. Here, we focus on one mechanism by which this bias may be communicated and reinforced: namely, non-verbal behaviour in the doctor-patient interaction. We review 2 lines of research on race and non-verbal behaviour: (i) the ways in which a patient's race can influence a doctor's non-verbal behaviour toward the patient, and (ii) the relative difficulty that doctors can have in accurately understanding the nonverbal communication of non-White patients. Further, we review research on the implications that both lines of work can have for the doctor-patient relationship and the patient's health. The research we review suggests that White doctors interacting with minority group patients are likely to behave and respond in ways that are associated with worse health outcomes. As doctors' disengaged non-verbal behaviour towards minority group patients and lower ability to read minority group patients' non-verbal behaviours may contribute to racial disparities in patients' satisfaction and health outcomes, solutions that target non-verbal behaviour may be effective. A number of strategies for such targeting are discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Effects of Emotional Intelligence on the Impression of Irony Created by the Mismatch between Verbal and Nonverbal Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Heike; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Nizielski, Sophia; Schütz, Astrid; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Emotional information is conveyed through verbal and nonverbal signals, with nonverbal cues often being considered the decisive factor in the judgment of others' emotional states. The aim of the present study was to examine how verbal and nonverbal cues are integrated by perceivers. More specifically, we tested whether the mismatch between verbal and nonverbal information was perceived as an expression of irony. Moreover, we investigated the effects of emotional intelligence on the impression of irony. The findings revealed that the mismatch between verbal and nonverbal information created the impression of irony. Furthermore, participants higher in emotional intelligence were faster at rating such stimuli as ironic expressions.

  4. Effects of Emotional Intelligence on the Impression of Irony Created by the Mismatch between Verbal and Nonverbal Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Heike; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Nizielski, Sophia; Schütz, Astrid; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Emotional information is conveyed through verbal and nonverbal signals, with nonverbal cues often being considered the decisive factor in the judgment of others’ emotional states. The aim of the present study was to examine how verbal and nonverbal cues are integrated by perceivers. More specifically, we tested whether the mismatch between verbal and nonverbal information was perceived as an expression of irony. Moreover, we investigated the effects of emotional intelligence on the impression of irony. The findings revealed that the mismatch between verbal and nonverbal information created the impression of irony. Furthermore, participants higher in emotional intelligence were faster at rating such stimuli as ironic expressions. PMID:27716831

  5. Assessment of pelvic floor dysfunctions using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Salah Darwish

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Dynamic MRI is an ideal, non invasive technique which does not require patient preparation for evaluation of pelvic floor. It acts as one stop shop for diagnosing single or multiple pelvic compartment involvement in patients with pelvic floor dysfunction.

  6. The efficacy of dynamic MRI in assessing a cervical myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Tetsuya; Yamada, Tomonori; Okumura, Yoshiya; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Hiramatsu, Kenichiro; Tsunoda, Shigeru; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Iwasaki, Satoru

    1994-01-01

    There are problems that are unresolved with regard to the treatment of cases presenting a post-taumatic cervical myelopathy, such as when the surgical indications are not clearly evidence and the proper timing of this surgery. In this regard, the authors have used dynamic MRI to retrospectively analyze the cervical spine of 24 previously treated dynamic MRI cases presenting a subacute myelopathy to determine the efficacy of dynamic MRI as a method of treatment. Dynamic MRI analysis protocol was as follows. For the MR imagings, each patient was placed supine with the neck in the neutral position, after which the neck was set in the extended position. Dynamic changes between the neutral position and extended position images were analyzed by focusing on the following two point: (1) the narrowing of the subarachnoid space in the T2-weighted images and (2) evidence of cord compression in the T1-weighted images. Twelve cases out of 24 were treated conservatively because of a gradual improvement in their myelopathic symptoms. The other 12 cases were treated surgically, because of no improvement in their residual myelopathic symptoms at the time when the dynamic MRI had been performed. In the majority of cases in the surgical group, the narrowing of the subarachnoid space and spinal cord compression were hightened on neck extension, whereas in the conservative group, such findings were minimal. Dynamic MRI also more clearly visualized multiple lesions and the direction of the cord compression. These findings thus provided more detailed information to plan the surgical approach and to estimate the amount of surgical decompression needed. Based on the results of this retrospective study, we thus concluded that surgical treatment appears to benefit subacute cases who show no improvement in their residual myelopathic symptoms and whose dynamic MRI results also demonstrate an increased narrowing of subarachnoid space and a heightened spinal cord compression. (author)

  7. The assessment of structural dynamics problems in nuclear reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebe, R.

    1978-10-01

    The paper discusses important physical features of structural dynamics problems in reactor safety. First a general characterization is given of the following problems: Containment deformation due to pool-dynamics during BWR-blowdown; behavior of the core internals due to PWR-blowdown loads; dynamic response of a nuclear power plant during an earthquake; fuel element deformation due to local pressure pulses in an LMFBR core. Several criterias are formulated to classify typical problems so that a better choise can be made both of appropriate mathematical/numerical as well as experimental techniques. The degree of physical coupling between structural dynamics and fluid dynamics is discussed in more detail since it requires particular attention when selecting problem-oriented methods of solution. Some examples are given to illustrate the application and to compare advantages and disadvantages of several numerical methods. Then description is given of experimental techniques in structural dynamics and typical problem areas are identified. Finally some results are presented concerning the fuel element deformation problem in LMFBRs and from the general considerations some important conclusions are summarized. (orig.) 891 RW 892 AP [de

  8. Prevalence of inter-hemispheric asymetry in children and adolescents with interdisciplinary diagnosis of non-verbal learning disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajnsztejn, Alessandra Bernardes Caturani; Bianco, Bianca; Barbosa, Caio Parente

    2016-01-01

    To describe clinical and epidemiological features of children and adolescents with interdisciplinary diagnosis of non-verbal learning disorder and to investigate the prevalence of inter-hemispheric asymmetry in this population group. Cross-sectional study including children and adolescents referred for interdisciplinary assessment with learning difficulty complaints, who were given an interdisciplinary diagnosis of non-verbal learning disorder. The following variables were included in the analysis: sex-related prevalence, educational system, initial presumptive diagnoses and respective prevalence, overall non-verbal learning disorder prevalence, prevalence according to school year, age range at the time of assessment, major family complaints, presence of inter-hemispheric asymmetry, arithmetic deficits, visuoconstruction impairments and major signs and symptoms of non-verbal learning disorder. Out of 810 medical records analyzed, 14 were from individuals who met the diagnostic criteria for non-verbal learning disorder, including the presence of inter-hemispheric asymmetry. Of these 14 patients, 8 were male. The high prevalence of inter-hemispheric asymmetry suggests this parameter can be used to predict or support the diagnosis of non-verbal learning disorder. Descrever as características clínicas e epidemiológicas de crianças e adolescentes com transtorno de aprendizagem não verbal, e investigar a prevalência de assimetria inter-hemisférica neste grupo populacional. Estudo transversal que incluiu crianças e adolescentes encaminhados para uma avaliação interdisciplinar, com queixas de dificuldades de aprendizagem e que receberam diagnóstico interdisciplinar de transtorno de aprendizagem não verbal. As variáveis avaliadas foram prevalência por sexo, sistema de ensino, hipóteses diagnósticas iniciais e respectivas prevalências, prevalência de condições em relação à amostra total, prevalência geral do transtorno de aprendizagem não verbal

  9. A Parameter-based Model for Generating Culturally Adaptive Nonverbal Behaviors in Embodied Conversational Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipi, Afia Akhter; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to integrate culture as a computational term in embodied conversational agents by employing an empirical data-driven approach as well as a theoretical model-driven approach. We propose a parameter-based model that predicts nonverbal expressions appropriate for specific...... cultures. First, we introduce the Hofstede theory to describe socio-cultural characteristics of each country. Then, based on the previous studies in cultural differences of nonverbal behaviors, we propose expressive parameters to characterize nonverbal behaviors. Finally, by integrating socio-cultural...

  10. Probabilistic safety assessment based expert systems in support of dynamic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varde, P.V.; Sharma, U.L.; Marik, S.K.; Raina, V.K.; Tikku, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) studies are being performed, world over as part of integrated risk assessment for Nuclear Power Plants and in many cases PSA insight is utilized in support of decision making. Though the modern plants are built with inherent safety provisions, particularly to reduce the supervisory requirements during initial period into the accident, it is always desired to develop an efficient user friendly real-time operator advisory system for handling of plant transients/emergencies which would be of immense benefit for the enhancement of operational safety of the plant. This paper discusses an integrated approach for the development of operator support system. In this approach, PSA methodology and the insight obtained from PSA has been utilized for development of knowledge based or rule based experts system. While Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach has been employed for transient identification, rule-base expert system shell environment was used for the development of diagnostic module in this system. Attempt has been made to demonstrate that this approach offers an efficient framework for addressing requirements related to handling of real-time/dynamic scenario. (author)

  11. Using simulation to assess the opportunities of dynamic waste collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mes, Martijn R.K.; Bangsow, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we illustrate the use of discrete event simulation to evaluate how dynamic planning methodologies can be best applied for the collection of waste from underground containers. We present a case study that took place at the waste collection company Twente Milieu, located in The

  12. Using Simulation to Assess the Opportunities of Dynamic Waste Collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mes, Martijn R.K.

    In this paper, we illustrate the use of discrete event simulation to evaluate how dynamic planning methodologies can be best applied for the collection of waste from underground containers. We present a case study that took place at the waste collection company Twente Milieu, located in The

  13. Predicting responsiveness to intervention in dyslexia using dynamic assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aravena, S.; Tijms, J.; Snellings, P.; van der Molen, M.W.

    In the current study we examined the value of a dynamic test for predicting responsiveness to reading intervention for children diagnosedwith dyslexia. The test consisted of a 20-minute training aimed at learning eight basic letter–speech sound correspondences within an artificial orthography,

  14. The experimental assessment of dynamic tire handling performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauwelussen, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Testing of steady state tire handling performance is nowadays common practice with slip angle sweeps and breaking being simulated in the laboratory with drum or flat belt, or on the road with a test trailer. In recent years, more emphasis is put on dynamic tire models, motivated by ride comfort

  15. Phenomenology of non-verbal communication as a representation of sports activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liubov Karpets

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The priority of language professional activity in sports is such non-verbal communication as body language. Purpose: to delete the main aspects of non-verbal communication as a representation of sports activities. Material & Methods: in the study participated members of sports teams, individual athletes, in particular, for such sports: basketball, handball, volleyball, football, hockey, bodybuilding. Results: in the process of research it was revealed that in sports activities such nonverbal communication as gestures, facial expressions, physique, etc., are lapped, and, as a consequence, the position "everything is language" (Lyotard is embodied. Conclusions: non-verbal communication is one of the most significant forms of communication in sports. Additional means of communication through the "language" of the body help the athletes to realize themselves and self-determination.

  16. Audience perceptions of candidates' appropriateness as a function of nonverbal behaviors displayed during televised political debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiter, John S; Weger, Harry

    2005-04-01

    Compared to televised debates using a single-screen format, such debates using a split screen presenting both debaters simultaneously show viewers the nonverbal reactions of each debater's opponent. The authors examined how appropriate or inappropriate such nonverbal behaviors are perceived to be. Students watched one of four versions of a televised debate. One version used a single-screen format, showing only the speaker, whereas the other three versions used a split-screen format in which the speaker's oppodent displayed constant, occasional, or no nonverbal disagreement with the speaker. Students then rated the debaters' appropriateness. Analysis indicated that the opponent was perceived to be less appropriate when he displayed any background disagreement compared to when he did not. The students perceived the speaker as most appropriate when his opponent displayed constant nonverbal disagreement.

  17. [Non-verbal communication of patients submitted to heart surgery: from awaking after anesthesia to extubation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werlang, Sueli da Cruz; Azzolin, Karina; Moraes, Maria Antonieta; de Souza, Emiliane Nogueira

    2008-12-01

    Preoperative orientation is an essential tool for patient's communication after surgery. This study had the objective of evaluating non-verbal communication of patients submitted to cardiac surgery from the time of awaking from anesthesia until extubation, after having received preoperative orientation by nurses. A quantitative cross-sectional study was developed in a reference hospital of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from March to July 2006. Data were collected in the pre and post operative periods. A questionnaire to evaluate non-verbal communication on awaking from sedation was applied to a sample of 100 patients. Statistical analysis included Student, Wilcoxon, and Mann Whittney tests. Most of the patients responded satisfactorily to non-verbal communication strategies as instructed on the preoperative orientation. Thus, non-verbal communication based on preoperative orientation was helpful during the awaking period.

  18. Non-verbal mother-child communication in conditions of maternal HIV in an experimental environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Paiva, Simone; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag; de Almeida, Paulo César

    2010-01-01

    Non-verbal communication is predominant in the mother-child relation. This study aimed to analyze non-verbal mother-child communication in conditions of maternal HIV. In an experimental environment, five HIV-positive mothers were evaluated during care delivery to their babies of up to six months old. Recordings of the care were analyzed by experts, observing aspects of non-verbal communication, such as: paralanguage, kinesics, distance, visual contact, tone of voice, maternal and infant tactile behavior. In total, 344 scenes were obtained. After statistical analysis, these permitted inferring that mothers use non-verbal communication to demonstrate their close attachment to their children and to perceive possible abnormalities. It is suggested that the mothers infection can be a determining factor for the formation of mothers strong attachment to their children after birth.

  19. Culture and Social Relationship as Factors of Affecting Communicative Non-verbal Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter Lipi, Afia; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Mathias

    The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes of agent's nonverbal behaviors in HAI. As the first step, a comparative corpus analysis is done for two cultures in two specific social relationships. Next, by integrating the cultural and social parameters factors with the empirical data from corpus analysis, we establish a model that predicts posture. The predictions from our model successfully demonstrate that both cultural background and social relationship moderate communicative non-verbal behaviors.

  20. Using the Dynamic Model to Identify Stages of Teacher Skills in Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoforidou, Margarita; Xirafidou, Elisavet

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of two cross-sectional studies that investigate teachers' skills in using various techniques of assessment in mathematics by taking into account the four phases of assessment. The five dimensions of the dynamic model are also taken into account in proposing a framework for measuring teacher skills in assessment.…

  1. The Five-Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire in the Czech context

    OpenAIRE

    Hřebíčková, M. (Martina)

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on the psychometric properties of the Five-Factor Nonverbal Personality Questionnaire (FF-NPQ) in a sample of 1,113 people. The FF-NPQ is a non-verbal measure of the Big Five personality dimensions (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, Openness to Experience). The presented psychometric measures include scale internal consistencies, intercorrelations, and convergences with two verbal Big Five measures. Gender and age differences are reported. Further...

  2. All eyes on the patient: the influence of oncologists? nonverbal communication on breast cancer patients? trust

    OpenAIRE

    Hillen, Marij A.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Bijker, Nina; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W. M.; Vermeulen, Dani?lle M.; Smets, Ellen M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Trust in the oncologist is crucial for breast cancer patients. It reduces worry, enhances decision making, and stimulates adherence. Optimal nonverbal communication by the oncologist, particularly eye contact, body posture, and smiling, presumably benefits patients? trust. We were the first to experimentally examine (1) how the oncologist?s nonverbal behavior influences trust, and (2) individual differences in breast cancer patients? trust. Analogue patients (APs) viewed one out of eight vers...

  3. Training Soldiers to Decode Nonverbal Cues in Cross-Cultural Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    stylistic differences do not necessarily have a specific purpose or meaning; thus, they differ from display and decoding rules, which are conscious...rapport. They found that cognitive feedback—that is, receiving general information about the nonverbal cues that are typically diagnostic in... Cognition and Emotion, 18, 613-629. Feldman, R. S., Philippot, P., & Custrini, R. J. (1992). Social competence and nonverbal behavior. In R. S

  4. Innovation and dynamic capabilities of the firm: Defining an assessment model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Cherubini Alves

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Innovation and dynamic capabilities have gained considerable attention in both academia and practice. While one of the oldest inquiries in economic and strategy literature involves understanding the features that drive business success and a firm’s perpetuity, the literature still lacks a comprehensive model of innovation and dynamic capabilities. This study presents a model that assesses firms’ innovation and dynamic capabilities perspectives based on four essential capabilities: development, operations, management, and transaction capabilities. Data from a survey of 1,107 Brazilian manufacturing firms were used for empirical testing and discussion of the dynamic capabilities framework. Regression and factor analyses validated the model; we discuss the results, contrasting with the dynamic capabilities’ framework. Operations Capability is the least dynamic of all capabilities, with the least influence on innovation. This reinforces the notion that operations capabilities as “ordinary capabilities,” whereas management, development, and transaction capabilities better explain firms’ dynamics and innovation.

  5. New application of dynamic reliability assessment of the mid-loop operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosung, Jae; Goon Cherl Park; Chang Hyun Chung

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for assessing the dynamic reliability in a complex system such as a nuclear power plant. The method is applied to a dynamic analysis of the potential accident sequences that may occur during mid-loop operation

  6. Dynamic Security Assessment of Danish Power System Based on Decision Trees: Today and Tomorrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rather, Zakir Hussain; Liu, Leo; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    The research work presented in this paper analyzes the impact of wind energy, phasing out of central power plants and cross border power exchange on dynamic security of Danish Power System. Contingency based decision tree (DT) approach is used to assess the dynamic security of present and future...

  7. The dynamics of dissolved oxygen concentration for water quality monitoring and assessment in polder ditches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeningen, R.

    1983-01-01

    This study deals with the use of the dynamics of dissolved oxygen concentration for water quality assessment in polder ditches. The dynamics of the dissolved oxygen concentration, i.e. the temporal and spatial variations in a few polder ditches under a range of natural, pollution and management

  8. On Manipulating Nonverbal Interaction Style to Increase Anthropomorphic Computer Character Credibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowell, Andrew J.; Stanney, Kay M.

    2003-09-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of enhancing humanagentinteraction through the use of nonverbal behaviors. Ataxonomy is described, which organizes nonverbal behaviorsinto functional categories and the manner in which they can beembodied (i.e. through gesture, posture, paralanguage, eyecontact and facial expression). Prototype computer characterswere created according to guidelines extracted from thetaxonomy and their efficacy was empirical evaluated. Theresults indicate that by including trusting nonverbal behaviors,the perceived credibility of a computer character was enhanced,although addition of trusting bodily nonverbal behaviorprovided little in addition to trusting facial nonverbal behavior.Perhaps more importantly, a character expressing non-trustingnonverbal behaviors was perceived to be the least credible of allcharacters examined (including a character that expressed nononverbal behavior). Participants that interacted with thispersona perceived the task to be more demanding, madesignificantly more errors, and rated their interaction lesspositively and more monotonous than those using trustingpersonas. They also rated this character to be less likable,accurate, and intelligent. Taken together, the results from thisstudy suggest that there may indeed be benefit to endowingcomputer characters with nonverbal trusting behaviors, as longas those behaviors are accurately and appropriately portrayed.Such behaviors may lead to a more trusting environment andpositive experience for users. Negative character behavior,however, such as non-trusting behavior, may squander theadvantages that embodiment brings.

  9. Patients' perceptions of GP non-verbal communication: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinowicz, Ludmila; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Godlewski, Cezary

    2010-02-01

    During doctor-patient interactions, many messages are transmitted without words, through non-verbal communication. To elucidate the types of non-verbal behaviours perceived by patients interacting with family GPs and to determine which cues are perceived most frequently. In-depth interviews with patients of family GPs. Nine family practices in different regions of Poland. At each practice site, interviews were performed with four patients who were scheduled consecutively to see their family doctor. Twenty-four of 36 studied patients spontaneously perceived non-verbal behaviours of the family GP during patient-doctor encounters. They reported a total of 48 non-verbal cues. The most frequent features were tone of voice, eye contact, and facial expressions. Less frequent were examination room characteristics, touch, interpersonal distance, GP clothing, gestures, and posture. Non-verbal communication is an important factor by which patients spontaneously describe and evaluate their interactions with a GP. Family GPs should be trained to better understand and monitor their own non-verbal behaviours towards patients.

  10. Parts of Speech in Non-typical Function: (Asymmetrical Encoding of Non-verbal Predicates in Erzya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigina Turunen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Erzya non-verbal conjugation refers to symmetric paradigms in which non-verbal predicates behave morphosyntactically in a similar way to verbal predicates. Notably, though, non-verbal conjugational paradigms are asymmetric, which is seen as an outcome of paradigmatic neutralisation in less frequent/less typical contexts. For non-verbal predicates it is not obligatory to display the same amount of behavioural potential as it is for verbal predicates, and the lexical class of non-verbal predicate operates in such a way that adjectival predicates are more likely to be conjugated than nominals. Further, besides symmetric paradigms and constructions, in Erzya there are non-verbal predicate constructions which display a more overt structural encoding than do verbal ones, namely, copula constructions. Complexity in the domain of non-verbal predication in Erzya decreases the symmetry of the paradigms. Complexity increases in asymmetric constructions, as well as in paradigmatic neutralisation when non-verbal predicates cannot be inflected in all the tenses and moods occurring in verbal predication. The results would be the reverse if we were to measure complexity in terms of the morphological structure. The asymmetric features in non-verbal predication are motivated language-externally, because non-verbal predicates refer to states and occur less frequently as predicates than verbal categories. The symmetry of the paradigms and constructions is motivated language-internally: a grammatical system with fewer rules is economical.

  11. Rapid Assessment of Small Changes to Major Gun and Projectile Dynamic Parameters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erline, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Navy's 5-in 54-cal. (5"/54) gun system Mark (Mk) 45 was subjected to first-order dynamic analysis tools that allowed rapid assessment of ballistic dispersion of a typical naval high explosive projectile...

  12. Dynamic assessment of bridge deck performance considering realistic bridge-traffic interaction : research brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This study is to develop simulation methodology to conduct the dynamic assessment of bridge deck performance subjected to traffic. Concrete bridge decks are exposed to daily traffic loads and may experience some surface cracking caused by excessive s...

  13. Dynamics of hemispheric dominance for language assessed by magnetoencephalographic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Anne M; Ambrose, Josiah B; Cahn-Weiner, Deborah A; Houde, John F; Honma, Susanne; Hinkley, Leighton B N; Berger, Mitchel S; Nagarajan, Srikantan S; Kirsch, Heidi E

    2012-05-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine the dynamics of language lateralization using magnetoencephalographic (MEG) imaging, to determine the sensitivity and specificity of MEG imaging, and to determine whether MEG imaging can become a viable alternative to the intracarotid amobarbital procedure (IAP), the current gold standard for preoperative language lateralization in neurosurgical candidates. MEG was recorded during an auditory verb generation task and imaging analysis of oscillatory activity was initially performed in 21 subjects with epilepsy, brain tumor, or arteriovenous malformation who had undergone IAP and MEG. Time windows and brain regions of interest that best discriminated between IAP-determined left or right dominance for language were identified. Parameters derived in the retrospective analysis were applied to a prospective cohort of 14 patients and healthy controls. Power decreases in the beta frequency band were consistently observed following auditory stimulation in inferior frontal, superior temporal, and parietal cortices; similar power decreases were also seen in inferior frontal cortex prior to and during overt verb generation. Language lateralization was clearly observed to be a dynamic process that is bilateral for several hundred milliseconds during periods of auditory perception and overt speech production. Correlation with the IAP was seen in 13 of 14 (93%) prospective patients, with the test demonstrating a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 92%. Our results demonstrate excellent correlation between MEG imaging findings and the IAP for language lateralization, and provide new insights into the spatiotemporal dynamics of cortical speech processing. Copyright © 2012 American Neurological Association.

  14. Decay uncovered in nonverbal short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Tom; McKeown, Denis

    2014-02-01

    Decay theory posits that memory traces gradually fade away over the passage of time unless they are actively rehearsed. Much recent work exploring verbal short-term memory has challenged this theory, but there does appear to be evidence for trace decay in nonverbal auditory short-term memory. Numerous discrimination studies have reported a performance decline as the interval separating two tones is increased, consistent with a decay process. However, most of this tone comparison research can be explained in other ways, without reference to decay, and these alternative accounts were tested in the present study. In Experiment 1, signals were employed toward the end of extended retention intervals to ensure that listeners were alert to the presence and frequency content of the memoranda. In Experiment 2, a mask stimulus was employed in an attempt to distinguish between a highly detailed sensory trace and a longer-lasting short-term memory, and the distinctiveness of the stimuli was varied. Despite these precautions, slow-acting trace decay was observed. It therefore appears that the mere passage of time can lead to forgetting in some forms of short-term memory.

  15. NONVERBAL TREATMENT OF NEUROSIS—Techniques for General Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, Charles T.

    1959-01-01

    “Psychosomatic medicine” does not demand that the general practitioner function as a psychiatrist; rather, it is a psychiatric orientation that can increase the effectiveness of purely medical treatment for such conditions as neuroses. The general practitioner to whom the patient turns may achieve permanent results with nonverbal techniques where formal psychotherapy would be impracticable or unacceptable. The first aim is to relieve pressure so that the patient can regain his mental balance and thereby his self-confidence. Arts, hobbies, sports, and the like can be prescribed rather specifically according to the patient's personality and needs. Nutrition can be improved simply at first by prescribing needed additions to diet rather than imposing restrictions. Vitamin deficiency may by itself be the cause of neurosis or more serious mental disease, whereas psychic stress by itself may create a need for additional vitamin intake. Hormone therapy may be extremely helpful but must be based on clear indication and limited to specific purposes. Since lack of sleep and rest quickly impairs mental function, it is important for neurotic persons to learn relaxation as a necessity for sleep. Sedatives may be used in a crisis but should be abandoned as soon as possible. With all drugs there are problems of excess and habituation. The least, the mildest, the shortest dosage is the ideal. The initial steps of psychotherapy are available to any physician: Establishing rapport, noting how complaints are stated, encouraging ventilation, winning confidence rather than immediate results. PMID:13638823

  16. Effects of proactive interference on non-verbal working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Marilyn; Nee, Derek E; Nelson, Eric; Senger, Thea; Jonides, John; Malapani, Chara

    2017-02-01

    Working memory (WM) is a cognitive system responsible for actively maintaining and processing relevant information and is central to successful cognition. A process critical to WM is the resolution of proactive interference (PI), which involves suppressing memory intrusions from prior memories that are no longer relevant. Most studies that have examined resistance to PI in a process-pure fashion used verbal material. By contrast, studies using non-verbal material are scarce, and it remains unclear whether the effect of PI is domain-general or whether it applies solely to the verbal domain. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of PI in visual WM using both objects with high and low nameability. Using a Directed-Forgetting paradigm, we varied discriminability between WM items on two dimensions, one verbal (high-nameability vs. low-nameability objects) and one perceptual (colored vs. gray objects). As in previous studies using verbal material, effects of PI were found with object stimuli, even after controlling for verbal labels being used (i.e., low-nameability condition). We also found that the addition of distinctive features (color, verbal label) increased performance in rejecting intrusion probes, most likely through an increase in discriminability between content-context bindings in WM.

  17. Verbal and nonverbal behavior of ability-grouped dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. Gail; Carter, Glenda

    In this study we describe the social interactions of ability-grouped dyads as they constructed knowledge of balance concepts to elucidate the relationship between interactions and conceptual growth. The verbal and nonverbal behaviors of 30 fifth-grade students were recorded as they completed three activities related to balance. These student interactions were examined within a framework of social cognition. For each dyad, characteristics of ability-grouped dyads were identified. Results revealed that high-achieving students effectively used prior experiences, maintained focus on the learning task, and were able to manipulate the equipment effectively to construct knowledge. Low-achieving students exhibited off-task behavior, lacked a metacognitive framework for organizing the learning tasks, centered on irrelevant features of the equipment, and were unable to use language effectively to mediate learning. Within low-high student dyads, high-achieving students typically modeled thinking processes and strategies for manipulating equipment. In addition, they focused the low-achieving students on the components of the tasks while verbally monitoring their progress, thus enabling low students to identify the critical features necessary for concept construction. These results highlighted the differences that students have in the use of language and tools. Low students' inefficient use of tools has implications for the ways science teachers structure lessons and group students for laboratory work.Received: 8 March 1993; Revised: 6 January 1994;

  18. Making instruction and assessment responsive to diverse students' progress: group-administered dynamic assessment in teaching mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeltova, Ida; Birney, Damian; Fredine, Nancy; Jarvin, Linda; Sternberg, Robert J; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2011-01-01

    This study entailed a 3 (instructional intervention) × 2 (assessment-type) between-subjects experimental design employing a pretest-intervention-posttest methodology. The instructional interventions were administered between subjects in three conditions: (a) dynamic instruction, (b) triarchic or theory of successful intelligence-control instruction, and (c) standard-control instruction. The assessment-type consisted between subjects of either (a) a group-administered dynamic posttest or (b) the same group-administered posttest interspersed with a control filler activity. Performance in different mathematics content areas taught in fourth grade was investigated. In total, 1,332 students and 63 classroom teachers in 24 schools across six school districts participated in the study. The results indicate the advantages of using dynamic instruction and assessment in regular classrooms while teaching mathematics, especially when the student body is highly ethnically diverse.

  19. Test Anxiety Among College Students With Specific Reading Disability (Dyslexia): Nonverbal Ability and Working Memory as Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety and its correlates were examined with college students with and without specific reading disability (RD; n = 50 in each group). Results indicated that college students with RD reported higher test anxiety than did those without RD, and the magnitude of these differences was in the medium range on two test anxiety scales. Relative to college students without RD, up to 5 times as many college students with RD reported clinically significant test anxiety. College students with RD reported significantly higher cognitively based test anxiety than physically based test anxiety. Reading skills, verbal ability, and processing speed were not correlated with test anxiety. General intelligence, nonverbal ability, and working memory were negatively correlated with test anxiety, and the magnitude of these correlations was medium to large. When these three cognitive constructs were considered together in multiple regression analyses, only working memory and nonverbal ability emerged as significant predictors and varied based on the test anxiety measure. Implications for assessment and intervention are discussed. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.

  20. Competitive assessment of aerospace systems using system dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaender, Jens Holger

    Aircraft design has recently experienced a trend away from performance centric design towards a more balanced approach with increased emphasis on engineering an economically successful system. This approach focuses on bringing forward a comprehensive economic and life-cycle cost analysis. Since the success of any system also depends on many external factors outside of the control of the designer, this traditionally has been modeled as noise affecting the uncertainty of the design. However, this approach is currently lacking a strategic treatment of necessary early decisions affecting the probability of success of a given concept in a dynamic environment. This suggests that the introduction of a dynamic method into a life-cycle cost analysis should allow the analysis of the future attractiveness of such a concept in the presence of uncertainty. One way of addressing this is through the use of a competitive market model. However, existing market models do not focus on the dynamics of the market. Instead, they focus on modeling and predicting market share through logit regression models. The resulting models exhibit relatively poor predictive capabilities. The method proposed here focuses on a top-down approach that integrates a competitive model based on work in the field of system dynamics into the aircraft design process. Demonstrating such integration is one of the primary contributions of this work, which previously has not been demonstrated. This integration is achieved through the use of surrogate models, in this case neural networks. This enabled not only the practical integration of analysis techniques, but also reduced the computational requirements so that interactive exploration as envisioned was actually possible. The example demonstration of this integration is built on the competition in the 250 seat large commercial aircraft market exemplified by the Boeing 767-400ER and the Airbus A330-200. Both aircraft models were calibrated to existing performance

  1. An application of the ESD framework to the probabilistic risk assessment of dynamic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaminathan, S.; Smidts, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Dynamic reliability is the probabilistic study of man-machine-software systems affected by an underlying physical process. The theory of probabilistic dynamics established that dynamic reliability methodologies are essentially semi-Markovian frameworks and can be expressed by an extension of the Chapman-Kolmogorov equation. The mathematical complexity associated with the assessment of dynamic systems' behaviour can be rather overwhelming for real life size systems. This is due to the fact that dynamic methodologies emphasize a component based representation rather than the sequence based representation used in the traditional Event Tree/Fault Tree framework or in the original Event Sequence Diagram (ESD) Framework. An extension of the ESD framework was proposed that facilitates capture of dynamic situations. The modeling framework is composed of events, gates, conditions, competitions and constraints which express many of the dynamic situations encountered in the evolution of accidents. The following paper illustrates an application of this extended ESD framework on a complex dynamic application. The problem at hand is an extension of a problem extensively studied in the validation of dynamic reliability algorithms, a simplified model of the fast reactor Europa. A discussion on how ESDs can help in guiding dynamic reliability simulations as well as aggregating and binning the numerous scenarios generated by dynamic reliability algorithms is provided.(author)

  2. Assessing the Nano-Dynamics of the Cell Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Chil Man [Dept. of Physiology and Biophysics, State University of New York, Buffalo (United States); Park, Ik Keun [Mechanical Engineering, Seoul National University of Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bulter, Peter J. [Dept. of Bioengineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park (United States)

    2012-06-15

    It is important to know the mechanism of cell membrane fluctuation because it can be readout for the nanomechanical interaction between cytoskeleton and plasma membrane. Traditional techniques, however, have drawbacks such as probe contact with the cell surface, complicate analysis, and limit spatial and temporal resolution. In this study, we developed a new system for non-contact measurement of nano-scale localized-cell surface dynamics using modified-scanning ion-conductance microscopy. With 2 nm resolution, we determined that endothelial cells have local membrane fluctuations of -20 nm, actin depolymerization causes increase in fluctuation amplitude, and ATP depletion abolishes all membrane fluctuations.

  3. Nonverbal Learning Disabilities : What kind of communication challenges do parents face when communicating with their children with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities, and what kind of strategies the parents use to overcome the challenges?

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Alexandra Jacinta

    2011-01-01

    This is a qualitative study that explores and tries to understand what kind of communicational challenges do parents face when communicating with their children with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities, and to comprehend what kind of strategies these parents use to overcome these challenges. The designation of the Nonverbal Learning Disabilities (NLD) was formerly proposed by Johnson and Myklebust. NLD were firstly described by Myklebust as an inability to read and understand nonverbal aspect...

  4. A study on an assessment method for improving technical specifications using system dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Min; Jae, Moo Sung

    2005-01-01

    Limiting Conditions for Operations (LCOs) are evaluated dynamically using the tool of system dynamics. The LCOs define the Allowed Outage Times (AOTs) and the actions to be taken if the repair cannot be completed within the AOT. System dynamics has been developed to analyze the dynamic reliability of a complicated system. System dynamics using Vensim software have been applied to LCOs assessment for an example system, the auxiliary feed water system of a reference nuclear power plant. Analysis results of both full power operation and shutdown operation have been compared for a measure of core damage frequency. The framework developed in this study has been shown to be very flexible in that it can be applied to assess LCOs quantitatively under any operational context of the TS in FSAR

  5. Thiol-linked alkylation of RNA to assess expression dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Veronika A; Reichholf, Brian; Neumann, Tobias; Rescheneder, Philipp; Bhat, Pooja; Burkard, Thomas R; Wlotzka, Wiebke; von Haeseler, Arndt; Zuber, Johannes; Ameres, Stefan L

    2017-12-01

    Gene expression profiling by high-throughput sequencing reveals qualitative and quantitative changes in RNA species at steady state but obscures the intracellular dynamics of RNA transcription, processing and decay. We developed thiol(SH)-linked alkylation for the metabolic sequencing of RNA (SLAM seq), an orthogonal-chemistry-based RNA sequencing technology that detects 4-thiouridine (s 4 U) incorporation in RNA species at single-nucleotide resolution. In combination with well-established metabolic RNA labeling protocols and coupled to standard, low-input, high-throughput RNA sequencing methods, SLAM seq enabled rapid access to RNA-polymerase-II-dependent gene expression dynamics in the context of total RNA. We validated the method in mouse embryonic stem cells by showing that the RNA-polymerase-II-dependent transcriptional output scaled with Oct4/Sox2/Nanog-defined enhancer activity, and we provide quantitative and mechanistic evidence for transcript-specific RNA turnover mediated by post-transcriptional gene regulatory pathways initiated by microRNAs and N 6 -methyladenosine. SLAM seq facilitates the dissection of fundamental mechanisms that control gene expression in an accessible, cost-effective and scalable manner.

  6. Using system dynamics simulation for assessment of hydropower system safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L. M.; Simonovic, S. P.; Hartford, D. N. D.

    2017-08-01

    Hydropower infrastructure systems are complex, high consequence structures which must be operated safely to avoid catastrophic impacts to human life, the environment, and the economy. Dam safety practitioners must have an in-depth understanding of how these systems function under various operating conditions in order to ensure the appropriate measures are taken to reduce system vulnerability. Simulation of system operating conditions allows modelers to investigate system performance from the beginning of an undesirable event to full system recovery. System dynamics simulation facilitates the modeling of dynamic interactions among complex arrangements of system components, providing outputs of system performance that can be used to quantify safety. This paper presents the framework for a modeling approach that can be used to simulate a range of potential operating conditions for a hydropower infrastructure system. Details of the generic hydropower infrastructure system simulation model are provided. A case study is used to evaluate system outcomes in response to a particular earthquake scenario, with two system safety performance measures shown. Results indicate that the simulation model is able to estimate potential measures of system safety which relate to flow conveyance and flow retention. A comparison of operational and upgrade strategies is shown to demonstrate the utility of the model for comparing various operational response strategies, capital upgrade alternatives, and maintenance regimes. Results show that seismic upgrades to the spillway gates provide the largest improvement in system performance for the system and scenario of interest.

  7. Unconstrained parameter estimation for assessment of dynamic cerebral autoregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacón, M; Nuñez, N; Henríquez, C; Panerai, R B

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA), the transient response of cerebral blood flow (CBF) to changes in arterial blood pressure (ABP), has been performed with an index of autoregulation (ARI), related to the parameters of a second-order differential equation model, namely gain (K), damping factor (D) and time constant (T). Limitations of the ARI were addressed by increasing its numerical resolution and generalizing the parameter space. In 16 healthy subjects, recordings of ABP (Finapres) and CBF velocity (ultrasound Doppler) were performed at rest, before, during and after 5% CO 2 breathing, and for six repeated thigh cuff maneuvers. The unconstrained model produced lower predictive error (p < 0.001) than the original model. Unconstrained parameters (K'–D'–T') were significantly different from K–D–T but were still sensitive to different measurement conditions, such as the under-regulation induced by hypercapnia. The intra-subject variability of K' was significantly lower than that of the ARI and this parameter did not show the unexpected occurrences of zero values as observed with the ARI and the classical value of K. These results suggest that K' could be considered as a more stable and reliable index of dynamic autoregulation than ARI. Further studies are needed to validate this new index under different clinical conditions

  8. Dynamic Security Assessment Of Computer Networks In Siem-Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vladimirovna Doynikova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper suggests an approach to the security assessment of computer networks. The approach is based on attack graphs and intended for Security Information and Events Management systems (SIEM-systems. Key feature of the approach consists in the application of the multilevel security metrics taxonomy. The taxonomy allows definition of the system profile according to the input data used for the metrics calculation and techniques of security metrics calculation. This allows specification of the security assessment in near real time, identification of previous and future attacker steps, identification of attackers goals and characteristics. A security assessment system prototype is implemented for the suggested approach. Analysis of its operation is conducted for several attack scenarios.

  9. The impact of the teachers’ non-verbal communication on success in teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATEMEH BAMBAEEROO

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Non-verbal communication skills, also called sign language or silent language, include all behaviors performed in the presence of others or perceived either consciously or unconsciously. The main aim of this review article was to determine the effect of the teachers’ non-verbal communication on success in teaching using the findings of the studies conducted on the relationship between quality of teaching and the teachers’ use of non-verbal communication and also its impact on success in teaching. Methods: Considering the research method, i.e. a review article, we searched for all articles in this field using key words such as success in teaching, verbal communication and non-verbal communication. In this study, we did not encode the articles. Results: The results of this revealed that there was a strong relationship among the quality, amount and the method of using non-verbal communication by teachers while teaching. Based on the findings of the studies reviewed, it was found that the more the teachers used verbal and non-verbal communication, the more efficacious their education and the students’ academic progress were. Under non-verbal communication, some other patterns were used. For example, emotive, team work, supportive, imaginative, purposive, and balanced communication using speech, body, and pictures all have been effective in students’ learning and academic success. The teachers’ attention to the students’ non-verbal reactions and arranging the syllabus considering the students’ mood and readiness have been emphasized in the studies reviewed. Conclusion: It was concluded that if this skill is practiced by teachers, it will have a positive and profound effect on the students’ mood. Non-verbal communication is highly reliable in the communication process, so if the recipient of a message is between two contradictory verbal and nonverbal messages, logic dictates that we push him toward the non-verbal message

  10. The impact of the teachers' non-verbal communication on success in teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambaeeroo, Fatemeh; Shokrpour, Nasrin

    2017-04-01

    Non-verbal communication skills, also called sign language or silent language, include all behaviors performed in the presence of others or perceived either consciously or unconsciously. The main aim of this review article was to determine the effect of the teachers' non-verbal communication on success in teaching using the findings of the studies conducted on the relationship between quality of teaching and the teachers' use of non-verbal communication and also its impact on success in teaching. Considering the research method, i.e. a review article, we searched for all articles in this field using key words such as success in teaching, verbal communication and non-verbal communication. In this study, we did not encode the articles. The results of this revealed that there was a strong relationship among the quality, amount and the method of using non-verbal communication by teachers while teaching. Based on the findings of the studies reviewed, it was found that the more the teachers used verbal and non-verbal communication, the more efficacious their education and the students' academic progress were. Under non-verbal communication, some other patterns were used. For example, emotive, team work, supportive, imaginative, purposive, and balanced communication using speech, body, and pictures all have been effective in students' learning and academic success. The teachers' attention to the students' non-verbal reactions and arranging the syllabus considering the students' mood and readiness have been emphasized in the studies reviewed. It was concluded that if this skill is practiced by teachers, it will have a positive and profound effect on the students' mood. Non-verbal communication is highly reliable in the communication process, so if the recipient of a message is between two contradictory verbal and nonverbal messages, logic dictates that we push him toward the non-verbal message and ask him to pay more attention to non-verbal than verbal messages because non-verbal

  11. The impact of the teachers’ non-verbal communication on success in teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    BAMBAEEROO, FATEMEH; SHOKRPOUR, NASRIN

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Non-verbal communication skills, also called sign language or silent language, include all behaviors performed in the presence of others or perceived either consciously or unconsciously. The main aim of this review article was to determine the effect of the teachers’ non-verbal communication on success in teaching using the findings of the studies conducted on the relationship between quality of teaching and the teachers’ use of non-verbal communication and also its impact on success in teaching. Methods: Considering the research method, i.e. a review article, we searched for all articles in this field using key words such as success in teaching, verbal communication and non-verbal communication. In this study, we did not encode the articles. Results: The results of this revealed that there was a strong relationship among the quality, amount and the method of using non-verbal communication by teachers while teaching. Based on the findings of the studies reviewed, it was found that the more the teachers used verbal and non-verbal communication, the more efficacious their education and the students’ academic progress were. Under non-verbal communication, some other patterns were used. For example, emotive, team work, supportive, imaginative, purposive, and balanced communication using speech, body, and pictures all have been effective in students’ learning and academic success. The teachers’ attention to the students’ non-verbal reactions and arranging the syllabus considering the students’ mood and readiness have been emphasized in the studies reviewed. Conclusion: It was concluded that if this skill is practiced by teachers, it will have a positive and profound effect on the students’ mood. Non-verbal communication is highly reliable in the communication process, so if the recipient of a message is between two contradictory verbal and nonverbal messages, logic dictates that we push him toward the non-verbal message and ask him to pay

  12. Validating emotional attention regulation as a component of emotional intelligence: A Stroop approach to individual differences in tuning in to and out of nonverbal cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfenbein, Hillary Anger; Jang, Daisung; Sharma, Sudeep; Sanchez-Burks, Jeffrey

    2017-03-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) has captivated researchers and the public alike, but it has been challenging to establish its components as objective abilities. Self-report scales lack divergent validity from personality traits, and few ability tests have objectively correct answers. We adapt the Stroop task to introduce a new facet of EI called emotional attention regulation (EAR), which involves focusing emotion-related attention for the sake of information processing rather than for the sake of regulating one's own internal state. EAR includes 2 distinct components. First, tuning in to nonverbal cues involves identifying nonverbal cues while ignoring alternate content, that is, emotion recognition under conditions of distraction by competing stimuli. Second, tuning out of nonverbal cues involves ignoring nonverbal cues while identifying alternate content, that is, the ability to interrupt emotion recognition when needed to focus attention elsewhere. An auditory test of valence included positive and negative words spoken in positive and negative vocal tones. A visual test of approach-avoidance included green- and red-colored facial expressions depicting happiness and anger. The error rates for incongruent trials met the key criteria for establishing the validity of an EI test, in that the measure demonstrated test-retest reliability, convergent validity with other EI measures, divergent validity from factors such as general processing speed and mostly personality, and predictive validity in this case for well-being. By demonstrating that facets of EI can be validly theorized and empirically assessed, results also speak to the validity of EI more generally. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Assessment of the dynamics of urbanized areas by remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeprintsev, S. A.; Klevtsova, M. A.; Lepeshkina, L. A.; Shekoyan, S. V.; Voronin, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    This research looks at the results of a study of spatial ecological zoning of urban territories using the NDVI-analysis of actual multi-channel satellite images from Landsat-7 and Landsat-8 in the Voronezh region for the period 2001 to 2016. The results obtained in the course of interpretation of space images and processing of statistical information compiled in the GIS environment “Ecology of cities Voronezh region” on the basis of which carried out a comprehensive ecological zoning of the studied urbanized areas. The obtained data on the spatial classification of urban and suburban areas, the peculiarities of the dynamics of weakly and strongly anthropogenically territories, hydrological features and vegetation.

  14. An integrated dynamic model for probabilistic risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsueh, K.-S.; Wang Kong

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to develop a simulation based accident sequence analysis program (ADS) for large scale dynamic accident sequence simulation. Human operators, front-line and support systems as well as plant thermal-hydraulic behavior are explicitly modeled as integrated active parts in the development of accident scenarios. To overcome the model size, the proposed methodology employs several techniques including use of 'initial state vector' which decouples time-dependent and time-independent factors, and a depth first integration method in which the computation memory demand increases in a linear order. The computer implementation of the method is capable of simulating up to 500 branch points in sequence development, models system failure during operation, allows for recovery from operator errors and hardware failures, and implements a simple model for operator system interactions. (author)

  15. Assessment of femoral head perfusion by dynamic MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochi, Ryuya; Nakano, Tetsuo; Miyazono, Kazuki; Tsurugami, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Tomohiro; Inaba, Daisuke; Takada, Koji

    2004-01-01

    We studied femoral head perfusion in 21 femoral neck fractures using dynamic MR imaging (MRI) between November 2001 and July 2002. MRI patterns divided into four groups when the results between the fractured side and unaffected side were compared. Femoral head perfusion at the fractured side was normal in Type A, about half in Type B, and absent in Type C. When perfusion at both the fractured side and unaffected side was absent, Exceptional Type was suspected. The Garden I group consisted of one Type B. The Garden II group consisted of one Type A, six Type B, one Type C, and two Exceptional Type. The Garden III group consisted of two Type B and one Type C, and the Garden IV group consisted of six Type C and one Exceptional Type. Post operations of by internal fixation confirmed the incidence of aseptic necrosis using MRI. (author)

  16. Analysis of dynamic autoregulation assessed by the cuff deflation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlatky, Roman; Valadka, Alex B; Robertson, Claudia S

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic testing of cerebral pressure autoregulation is more practical than static testing for critically ill patients. The process of cuff deflation is innocuous in the normal subject, but the systemic and cerebral effects of cuff deflation in severely head-injured patients have not been studied. The purposes of this study were to examine the physiological effects of cuff deflation and to study their impact on the calculation of autoregulatory index (ARI). In 24 severely head-injured patients, 388 thigh cuff deflations were analyzed. The physiological parameters were recorded before, during, and after a transient decrease in blood pressure. Autoregulation was graded by generating an ARI value from 0 to 9. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) dropped rapidly during the first 2-3 seconds, but the nadir MAP was not reached until 8 +/- 7 seconds after the cuff deflation. MAP decreased by an average value of 19 +/- 5 mmHg. Initially the tracings for MAP and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) were nearly identical, but after 30 seconds, variable increases in intracranial pressure caused some differences between the MAP and CPP curves. The difference between the ARI values calculated twice using MAP as well as CPP was zero for 70% of left-sided studies and 73% for right-sided studies and less than or equal to 1 for 93% of left- and 95% of right-sided cuff deflations. Transient and relatively minor perturbations were detected in systemic physiology induced by dynamic testing of cerebral pressure autoregulation. Furthermore, this study confirms that the early changes in MAP and CPP after cuff deflation are nearly identical. MAP can substitute for CPP in the calculation of ARI even in the severely brain-injured patient.

  17. Assessment of Algal Farm Designs Using a Dynamic Modular Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abodeely, Jared [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Biofuels and Renewable Energy Technology; Coleman, Andre M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Hydrology Technical Group; Stevens, Daniel M. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Biofuels and Renewable Energy Technology; Ray, Allison E. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Biofuels and Renewable Energy Technology; Cafferty, Kara G. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Biofuels and Renewable Energy Technology; Newby, Deborah T. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Biofuels and Renewable Energy Technology

    2014-07-01

    The notion of renewable energy provides an important mechanism for diversifying an energy portfolio, which ultimately would have numerous benefits including increased energy resilience, reduction of foreign energy supplies, reduced GHG emissions, development of a green energy sector that contributes to economic growth, and providing a sustainable energy supply. The conversion of autotrophic algae to liquid transportation fuels is the basis of several decades of research to competitively bring energy-scale production into reality; however, many challenges still remain for making algal biofuels economically viable. Addressing current challenges associated with algal production systems, in part, requires the ability to assess spatial and temporal variability, rapidly evaluate alternative algal production system designs, and perform large-scale assessments considering multiple scenarios for thousands of potential sites. We introduce the Algae Logistics Model (ALM) which helps to address these challenges. The flexible nature of the ALM architecture allows the model to: 1) interface with external biomass production and resource assessment models, as well as other relevant datasets including those with spatiotemporal granularity; 2) interchange design processes to enable operational and economic assessments of multiple design configurations, including the integration of current and new innovative technologies; and 3) conduct trade-off analysis to help understand the site-specific techno-economic trade-offs and inform technology decisions. This study uses the ALM to investigate a baseline open-pond production system determined by model harmonization efforts conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy. Six sites in the U.S. southern-tier were sub-selected and assessed using daily site-specific algae biomass productivity data to determine the economic viability of large-scale open-pond systems. Results show that costs can vary significantly depending on location and biomass

  18. Dissociation of neural correlates of verbal and non-verbal visual working memory with different delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endestad Tor

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, posterior parietal cortex, and regions in the occipital cortex have been identified as neural sites for visual working memory (WM. The exact involvement of the DLPFC in verbal and non-verbal working memory processes, and how these processes depend on the time-span for retention, remains disputed. Methods We used functional MRI to explore the neural correlates of the delayed discrimination of Gabor stimuli differing in orientation. Twelve subjects were instructed to code the relative orientation either verbally or non-verbally with memory delays of short (2 s or long (8 s duration. Results Blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD 3-Tesla fMRI revealed significantly more activity for the short verbal condition compared to the short non-verbal condition in bilateral superior temporal gyrus, insula and supramarginal gyrus. Activity in the long verbal condition was greater than in the long non-verbal condition in left language-associated areas (STG and bilateral posterior parietal areas, including precuneus. Interestingly, right DLPFC and bilateral superior frontal gyrus was more active in the non-verbal long delay condition than in the long verbal condition. Conclusion The results point to a dissociation between the cortical sites involved in verbal and non-verbal WM for long and short delays. Right DLPFC seems to be engaged in non-verbal WM tasks especially for long delays. Furthermore, the results indicate that even slightly different memory maintenance intervals engage largely differing networks and that this novel finding may explain differing results in previous verbal/non-verbal WM studies.

  19. Non-verbal communication in severe aphasia: influence of aphasia, apraxia, or semantic processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogrefe, Katharina; Ziegler, Wolfram; Weidinger, Nicole; Goldenberg, Georg

    2012-09-01

    Patients suffering from severe aphasia have to rely on non-verbal means of communication to convey a message. However, to date it is not clear which patients are able to do so. Clinical experience indicates that some patients use non-verbal communication strategies like gesturing very efficiently whereas others fail to transmit semantic content by non-verbal means. Concerns have been expressed that limb apraxia would affect the production of communicative gestures. Research investigating if and how apraxia influences the production of communicative gestures, led to contradictory outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of limb apraxia on spontaneous gesturing. Further, linguistic and non-verbal semantic processing abilities were explored as potential factors that might influence non-verbal expression in aphasic patients. Twenty-four aphasic patients with highly limited verbal output were asked to retell short video-clips. The narrations were videotaped. Gestural communication was analyzed in two ways. In the first part of the study, we used a form-based approach. Physiological and kinetic aspects of hand movements were transcribed with a notation system for sign languages. We determined the formal diversity of the hand gestures as an indicator of potential richness of the transmitted information. In the second part of the study, comprehensibility of the patients' gestural communication was evaluated by naive raters. The raters were familiarized with the model video-clips and shown the recordings of the patients' retelling without sound. They were asked to indicate, for each narration, which story was being told and which aspects of the stories they recognized. The results indicate that non-verbal faculties are the most important prerequisites for the production of hand gestures. Whereas results on standardized aphasia testing did not correlate with any gestural indices, non-verbal semantic processing abilities predicted the formal diversity

  20. Dynamic assessment for life extension of nuclear power plants (NPPs) using system dynamics (SD) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Tae Ho

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed to extend the life of nuclear power plants (NPPs) for the economic purpose. Especially, the primary systems in reactor are considered in the thermohydraulic and neutronic aspect, which is related to the safety system. The electric power and the lifespan of components are expressed as economic situation. In addition, political considerations are given by the presidential change and the nuclear non-proliferation characteristics. The dynamical investigation using system dynamics (SD) shows the effective time for the life extension of the NPPs by Monte-Carlo simulations. This non-linear algorithm is incorporated with the feedback loop of the event sequences. The expected event is related to the past event, which affects to the dynamical simulations of lifetime in the NPPs. In the conclusions, the safety guarantee as well as the economic profit in the re-use of long term operated power plants is presented, which is mentioned as the transient time between 2019 and 2021 in this paper. (orig.)

  1. Dynamic assessment for life extension of nuclear power plants (NPPs) using system dynamics (SD) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2012-12-15

    It has been proposed to extend the life of nuclear power plants (NPPs) for the economic purpose. Especially, the primary systems in reactor are considered in the thermohydraulic and neutronic aspect, which is related to the safety system. The electric power and the lifespan of components are expressed as economic situation. In addition, political considerations are given by the presidential change and the nuclear non-proliferation characteristics. The dynamical investigation using system dynamics (SD) shows the effective time for the life extension of the NPPs by Monte-Carlo simulations. This non-linear algorithm is incorporated with the feedback loop of the event sequences. The expected event is related to the past event, which affects to the dynamical simulations of lifetime in the NPPs. In the conclusions, the safety guarantee as well as the economic profit in the re-use of long term operated power plants is presented, which is mentioned as the transient time between 2019 and 2021 in this paper. (orig.)

  2. Synchronous Computer-Mediated Dynamic Assessment: A Case Study of L2 Spanish Past Narration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darhower, Mark Anthony

    2014-01-01

    In this study, dynamic assessment is employed to help understand the developmental processes of two university Spanish learners as they produce a series of past narrations in a synchronous computer mediated environment. The assessments were conducted in six weekly one-hour chat sessions about various scenes of a Spanish language film. The analysis…

  3. Scientific reasoning abilities in kindergarten: dynamic assessment of the control of variables strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, J. van der; Segers, P.C.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2015-01-01

    A dynamic assessment tool was developed and validated using Mokken scale analysis to assess the extent to which kindergartners are able to construct unconfounded experiments, an essential part of scientific reasoning. Scientific reasoning is one of the learning processes happening within science

  4. Dynamic Analytics-Driven Assessment of Vulnerabilities and Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-15

    scans and other observations such as network traffic capture, to assess the severity of a vulnerability in terms of its specific impact to a 3...straightforward proposition. There are literally hundreds, if not thousands, of security tools and information technology systems that generate data useful for...during the data modeling process, a common taxonomy or data dictionary for the data elements of interest should be established. The data

  5. An assessment of the temporal dynamics of moral decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. Koop

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the domain of moral decision making, models in which emotion and deliberation constitute competing dual-systems have become increasingly popular. Currently, the favored explanation of this interaction is what Evans (2008 termed a ``default-interventionist'' (DI process where moral decisions are the result of a prepotent emotional response, which can be overridden with substantial deliberative effort. Although this ``emotion-then-deliberation'' sequence is often assumed, existing methods have lacked the requisite process resolution to clearly depict the nature of this interaction. The present work utilized continuous mouse tracking, or response dynamics, to develop and test predictions of these DI models of moral decision making. Study 1 utilized previously published moral dilemmas to validate the method for use with such complex stimuli. Although the data replicated typical choice and RT patterns, the process metrics provided by the response trajectories did not demonstrate the online preference reversals predicted by DI models. Study 2 utilized more rigorously constructed stimuli and an alternative presentation format to provide the strongest possible test of DI predictions, but again failed to show the predicted reversals. In summary, neither experiment provided data in accordance with the predictions of popular DI dual-systems models, which suggests that researchers should consider models allowing for concurrent activation of deliberative and emotional systems, or reconceptualize moral decisions within the typical multiattribute decision framework.

  6. Dynamics of device innovation: implications for assessing value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelijns, Annetine C; Russo, Mark J; Hong, Kimberly N; Brown, Lawrence D; Ascheim, Deborah D; Moskowitz, Alan J

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in evaluating the health and economic impact of medical devices. Payers increasingly rely on cost-effectiveness analyses in making their coverage decisions, and are adopting value-based purchasing initiatives. These analytic approaches, however, have been shaped heavily by their use in the pharmaceutical realm, and are ill-adapted to the medical device context. This study focuses on the development and evaluation of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) to highlight the unique challenges involved in the design and conduct of device trials compared with pharmaceuticals. Devices are moving targets characterized by a much higher degree of post-introduction innovation and "learning by using" than pharmaceuticals. The cost effectiveness ratio of left ventricular assist devices for destination therapy, for example, decreased from around $600,000 per life year saved based on results from the pivotal trial to around $100,000 within a relatively short time period. These dynamics pose fundamental challenges to the evaluation enterprise as well as the policy-making world, which this paper addresses.

  7. Assessment of dynamic energy conversion systems for radioisotope heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, G.R.; Mangeng, C.A.

    1985-06-01

    The use of dynamic conversion systems to convert the heat generated in a 7500 W(t) 90 Sr radioisotopic heat source to electricity is examined. The systems studies were Stirling; Brayton Cycle; three organic Rankines (ORCs) (Barber-Nichols/ORMAT, Sundstrand, and TRW); and an organic Rankine plus thermoelectrics. The systems were ranked for a North Warning System mission using a Los Alamos Multiattribute Decision Theory code. Three different heat source designs were used: case I with a beginning of life (BOL) source temperature of 640 C, case II with a BOL source temperature of 745 0 C, and case III with a BOL source temperature of 945 0 C. The Stirling engine system was the top-ranked system of cases I and II, closely followed by the ORC systems in case I and ORC plus thermoelectrics in case II. The Brayton cycle system was top-ranked for case III, with the Stirling engine system a close second. The use of 238 Pu in heat source sizes of 7500 W(t) was examined and found to be questionable because of cost and material availability and because of additional requirements for analysis of safeguards and critical mass

  8. On-line Dynamic Security Assessment in Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel

    and solar radiation. Moreover, ongoing research suggests that demand response will be introduced to maintain power balance between generation and consumption at all times. Due to these changes the operating point of the power system will be less predictable and today’s stability and security assessment...... for early prediction of critical voltage sags is described. The method’s performance is compared to other prediction approaches. The results show that the proposed method succeeds in early, accurately and consistently predicting critically low voltage sags. An efficient on-line DSA not only identifies...

  9. Safety assessment document for the dynamic test complex (Building 836)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, B.N.; Pfeifer, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    A safety assessment was performed to determine if potential accidents at the 836 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including missiles), lightning, flood, criticality, high explosive (H) detonation that disperses uranium and beryllium, spontaneous oxidation of plutonium, explosions due to finely divided particles, and a fire

  10. Human-robot interaction assessment using dynamic engagement profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Poltorak, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    -1] interval, where 0 represents disengaged and 1 fully engaged. The network shows a good accuracy at recognizing the engagement state of humans given positive emotions. A time based analysis of interaction experiments between small humanoid robots and humans provides time series of engagement estimates, which...... and is applicable to humanoid robotics as well as other related contexts.......This paper addresses the use of convolutional neural networks for image analysis resulting in an engagement metric that can be used to assess the quality of human robot interactions. We propose a method based on a pretrained convolutional network able to map emotions onto a continuous [0...

  11. Safety assessment document for the dynamic test complex (Building 836)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odell, B.N.; Pfeifer, H.E.

    1981-11-24

    A safety assessment was performed to determine if potential accidents at the 836 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including missiles), lightning, flood, criticality, high explosive (H) detonation that disperses uranium and beryllium, spontaneous oxidation of plutonium, explosions due to finely divided particles, and a fire.

  12. Model analysis: Representing and assessing the dynamics of student learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Bao

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Decades of education research have shown that students can simultaneously possess alternate knowledge frameworks and that the development and use of such knowledge are context dependent. As a result of extensive qualitative research, standardized multiple-choice tests such as Force Concept Inventory and Force-Motion Concept Evaluation tests provide instructors tools to probe their students’ conceptual knowledge of physics. However, many existing quantitative analysis methods often focus on a binary question of whether a student answers a question correctly or not. This greatly limits the capacity of using the standardized multiple-choice tests in assessing students’ alternative knowledge. In addition, the context dependence issue, which suggests that a student may apply the correct knowledge in some situations and revert to use alternative types of knowledge in others, is often treated as random noise in current analyses. In this paper, we present a model analysis, which applies qualitative research to establish a quantitative representation framework. With this method, students’ alternative knowledge and the probabilities for students to use such knowledge in a range of equivalent contexts can be quantitatively assessed. This provides a way to analyze research-based multiple choice questions, which can generate much richer information than what is available from score-based analysis.

  13. Quality of a fished resource: Assessing spatial and temporal dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Teck

    Full Text Available Understanding spatio-temporal variability in the demography of harvested species is essential to improve sustainability, especially if there is large geographic variation in demography. Reproductive patterns commonly vary spatially, which is particularly important for management of "roe"-based fisheries, since profits depend on both the number and reproductive condition of individuals. The red sea urchin, Mesocentrotus franciscanus, is harvested in California for its roe (gonad, which is sold to domestic and international sushi markets. The primary driver of price within this multi-million-dollar industry is gonad quality. A relatively simple measure of the fraction of the body mass that is gonad, the gonadosomatic index (GSI, provides important insight into the ecological and environmental factors associated with variability in reproductive quality, and hence value within the industry. We identified the seasonality of the reproductive cycle and determined whether it varied within a heavily fished region. We found that fishermen were predictable both temporally and spatially in collecting urchins according to the reproductive dynamics of urchins. We demonstrated the use of red sea urchin GSI as a simple, quantitative tool to predict quality, effort, landings, price, and value of the fishery. We found that current management is not effectively realizing some objectives for the southern California fishery, since the reproductive cycle does not match the cycle in northern California, where these management guidelines were originally shaped. Although regulations may not be meeting initial management goals, the scheme may in fact provide conservation benefits by curtailing effort during part of the high-quality fishing season right before spawning.

  14. DYNAMICS OF THE COMPELEX FORMS OF VISUAL PERCEPTION IN CHILDREN OF PRE-SCHOOL AGE (A NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neli VASILEVA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Experimental data in preschool aged children proves the determining role of the auditory and visual processes for future reading skills, therefore the investigation of complex forms of visual perception in this age period is diagnostically important. Objectives: Basic aim of the research is assessment of the sensitive period for the non-verbal perceptive operations in pre-school aged children, and determination of subgroup with low results for non-verbal perception. Methods: The dynamics of the visual per-ception (visual gnosis in typically develop¬ing children were tested with an adapted version of the Poppelreuter-Ghent Test for figure-ground segregation. The total number of overlapping objects is 33, grouped accor¬ding to the level of difficulty. The children are given a group of objects separately in a following sequence and they should segregate and name the objects. Results: A number of 365 typically developing children without diagnosis of visual disorders and without corrected visus took part in the research. All children, aged 4, 5, and 6 from three different settlements attend state nursery schools and have Bulgarian as a mother tongue. A three-factor dispersion analysis was held to define the statistical significance of the independent factors age, gender and settlement. The research’s data define the 5 year olds as sensitive about the dynamics of the complex forms of visual perception, compared to the four year old children (pnon-verbal perceptive operations in the females (F = 1,346, p

  15. Assessment of the causes of failures of roto-dynamic equipment in Cirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K.N.; Singh, S.; Ganeshan, P.

    1994-01-01

    As a part of Cirus reactor life extension program study, a service life evaluation of critical roto-dynamic equipment in Cirus such as primary coolant pumps, and their concrete foundation structures, pressurised water loop pumps, main air compressors and supply and exhaust fans, was performed. An assessment of the causes of failures of roto-dynamic equipment in Cirus was done. Based on assessment of the degradation mitigating features and comparison to similar roto-dynamic equipment and their concrete foundation structures, it was concluded that life extension of these roto-dynamic equipment and their structures is feasible. To support this conclusion a program involving: a) non-destructive testing, b) surveillance and monitoring and, c) preventive maintenance is recommended. (author). 4 refs

  16. A parsimonious dynamic model for river water quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare

    2010-01-01

    Water quality modelling is of crucial importance for the assessment of physical, chemical, and biological changes in water bodies. Mathematical approaches to water modelling have become more prevalent over recent years. Different model types ranging from detailed physical models to simplified conceptual models are available. Actually, a possible middle ground between detailed and simplified models may be parsimonious models that represent the simplest approach that fits the application. The appropriate modelling approach depends on the research goal as well as on data available for correct model application. When there is inadequate data, it is mandatory to focus on a simple river water quality model rather than detailed ones. The study presents a parsimonious river water quality model to evaluate the propagation of pollutants in natural rivers. The model is made up of two sub-models: a quantity one and a quality one. The model employs a river schematisation that considers different stretches according to the geometric characteristics and to the gradient of the river bed. Each stretch is represented with a conceptual model of a series of linear channels and reservoirs. The channels determine the delay in the pollution wave and the reservoirs cause its dispersion. To assess the river water quality, the model employs four state variables: DO, BOD, NH(4), and NO. The model was applied to the Savena River (Italy), which is the focus of a European-financed project in which quantity and quality data were gathered. A sensitivity analysis of the model output to the model input or parameters was done based on the Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation methodology. The results demonstrate the suitability of such a model as a tool for river water quality management.

  17. Assessing the Utility of Temporally Dynamic Terrain Indices in Alaskan Moose Resource Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennewein, J. S.; Hebblewhite, M.; Meddens, A. J.; Gilbert, S.; Vierling, L. A.; Boelman, N.; Eitel, J.

    2017-12-01

    The accelerated warming in arctic and boreal regions impacts ecosystem structure and plant species distribution, which have secondary effects on wildlife. In summer months, moose (Alces alces) are especially vulnerable to changes in the availability and quality of forage and foliage cover due to their thermoregulatory needs and high energetic demands post calving. Resource selection functions (RSFs) have been used with great success to model such tradeoffs in habitat selection. Recently, RSFs have expanded to include more dynamic representations of habitat selection through the use of time-varying covariates such as dynamic habitat indices. However, to date few studies have investigated dynamic terrain indices, which incorporate long-term, highly-dynamic meteorological data (e.g., albedo, air temperature) and their utility in modeling habitat selection. The purpose of this study is to compare two dynamic terrain indices (i.e., solar insolation and topographic wetness) to their static counterparts in Alaskan moose resource selection over a ten-year period (2008-2017). Additionally, the utility of a dynamic wind-shelter index is assessed. Three moose datasets (n=130 total), spanning a north-to-south gradient in Alaska, are analyzed independently to assess location-specific resource selection. The newly-released, high-resolution Arctic Digital Elevation Model (5m2) is used as the terrain input into both dynamic and static indices. Dynamic indices are programmed with meteorological data from the North American Regional Analysis (NARR) and NASA's Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES-DISC) databases. Static wetness and solar insolation indices are estimated using only topographic parameters (e.g., slope, aspect). Preliminary results from pilot analyses suggest that dynamic terrain indices may provide novel insights into resource selection of moose that could not be gained when using static counterparts. Future applications of such dynamic

  18. A Method for Dynamic Risk Assessment and Management of Rockbursts in Drill and Blast Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Feng; Feng, Xia-Ting; Feng, Guang-Liang; Chen, Bing-Rui; Chen, Dong-Fang; Duan, Shu-Qian

    2016-08-01

    Focusing on the problems caused by rockburst hazards in deep tunnels, such as casualties, damage to construction equipment and facilities, construction schedule delays, and project cost increase, this research attempts to present a methodology for dynamic risk assessment and management of rockbursts in D&B tunnels. The basic idea of dynamic risk assessment and management of rockbursts is determined, and methods associated with each step in the rockburst risk assessment and management process are given, respectively. Among them, the main parts include a microseismic method for early warning the occurrence probability of rockburst risk, an estimation method that aims to assess potential consequences of rockburst risk, an evaluation method that utilizes a new quantitative index considering both occurrence probability and consequences for determining the level of rockburst risk, and the dynamic updating. Specifically, this research briefly describes the referenced microseismic method of warning rockburst, but focuses on the analysis of consequences and associated risk assessment and management of rockburst. Using the proposed method of risk assessment and management of rockburst, the occurrence probability, potential consequences, and the level of rockburst risk can be obtained in real-time during tunnel excavation, which contributes to the dynamic optimisation of risk mitigation measures and their application. The applicability of the proposed method has been verified by those cases from the Jinping II deep headrace and water drainage tunnels at depths of 1900-2525 m (with a length of 11.6 km in total for D&B tunnels).

  19. ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY SAVING IN WASTE RECYCLING USING SYSTEM DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio de Oliveira Simonetto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recycling is a topic of great importance in integrated waste management, evidence of this is verified in the National Policy of Solid Waste, decreed in 2010, where it is considered one of the priorities. In this article is presented a computer simulation model, since their development until its validation, which aims to support environmental managers in their decisions regarding the definition and / or maintenance of solid waste policies recycling, as well as evaluating the benefits of process in the environment (in this article we evaluated the energy savings. For the model development was considered: the rate of natural population growth (births and deaths, percentage of solid waste recycled (for each type of material, gravimetric composition of the material in the total waste generated, the amount of waste generated per inhabitant and energy savings caused by each distinct type of material. Through the model results generated, end users (environmental managers thereof may, for example, set incentives to reduce the total generation of solid waste, produce campaigns enhancing reuse and recycling and to assess the relative benefits of energy savings caused by recycling. Model validation was through analysis of future scenarios for a given municipality in southern Brazil. For modeling and system validation was used Vensim from Ventana Systems.

  20. Nonverbal communication and conversational contribution in breast cancer genetic counseling: are counselors' nonverbal communication and conversational contribution associated with counselees' satisfaction, needs fulfillment and state anxiety in breast cancer genetic counseling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.; Albada, A.; Klöckner Cronauer, C.; Ausems, M.G.E.M.; Dulmen, S. van

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The current study aimed to examine how counselors’ nonverbal communication (i.e. nonverbal encouragements and counselee-directed eye gaze) and conversational contribution (i.e. verbal dominance and interactivity) during the final visit within breast cancer genetic counseling relate to

  1. The Effects of Verbal and Non-Verbal Features on the Reception of DRTV Commercials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiljana Komar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of consumer response are important for successful advertising as they help advertisers to find new, original and successful ways of persuasion. Successful advertisements have to boost the product’s benefits but they also have to appeal to consumers’ emotions. In TV advertisements, this is done by means of verbal and non-verbal strategies. The paper presents the results of an empirical investigation whose purpose was to examine the viewers’ emotional responses to a DRTV commercial induced by different verbal and non-verbal features, the amount of credibility and persuasiveness of the commercial and its general acceptability. Our findings indicate that (1 an overload of the same verbal and non-verbal information decreases persuasion; and (2 highly marked prosodic delivery is either exaggerated or funny, while the speaker is perceived as annoying.

  2. Deficits in visual short-term memory binding in children at risk of non-verbal learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ricardo Basso; Mammarella, Irene C; Pancera, Arianna; Galera, Cesar; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that learning disabled children meet short-term memory (STM) problems especially when they must bind different types of information, however the hypothesis has not been systematically tested. This study assessed visual STM for shapes and colors and the binding of shapes and colors, comparing a group of children (aged between 8 and 10 years) at risk of non-verbal learning disabilities (NLD) with a control group of children matched for general verbal abilities, age, gender, and socioeconomic level. Results revealed that groups did not differ in retention of either shapes or colors, but children at risk of NLD were poorer than controls in memory for shape-color bindings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigating the Dynamics of Formative Assessment: Relationships between Teacher Knowledge, Assessment Practice and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Joan; Osmundson, Ellen; Dai, Yunyun; Ringstaff, Cathy; Timms, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study of elementary school science examines questions central to policy, practice and research on formative assessment: What is the quality of teachers' content-pedagogical and assessment knowledge? What is the relationship between teacher knowledge and assessment practice? What is the relationship between teacher knowledge,…

  4. Safety assessment document for the Dynamic Test Complex B854

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, B.N.; Pfeifer, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    A safety assessment was performed to determine if potential accidents at the 854 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including missiles), lightning, flood, criticality, high explosive (HE) detonation that disperses uranium and beryllium, spontaneous oxidation of plutonium, explosions due to finely divided particles, and a fire. Seismic and extreme wind (including missiles) analyses indicate that the buildings are basically sound. The lightning protection system is in the process of being upgraded to meet AMCR 385-100. These buildings are located high above the dry creek bed so that a flood is improbable. The probability of high explosive detonation involving plutonium is very remote since the radioactive materials are encased and plutonium and HE are not permitted concurrently in the same area at Site 300. (The exception to this policy is that explosive actuating devices are sometimes located in assemblies containing fissile materials. However, an accidental actuation will not affect the safe containment of the plutonium within the assembly.) There is a remote possibility of an HE explosion involving uranium and beryllium since these are permitted in the same area.The possibility of a criticality accident is very remote since the fissile materials are doubly encased in stout metal containers. All operations involving these materials are independently reviewed and inspected by the Criticality Safety Office. It was determined that a fire was unlikely due to the low fire loading and the absence of ignition sources. It was also determined that the consequences of any accidents were reduced by the remote location of these facilities, their design, and by administrative controls

  5. Tools for assessing mitochondrial dynamics in mouse tissues and neurodegenerative models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Anh H.

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo membrane fusion and fission and transport. The dynamic properties of mitochondria are important for regulating mitochondrial function. Defects in mitochondrial dynamics are linked neurodegenerative diseases and affect the development of many tissues. To investigate the role of mitochondrial dynamics in diseases, versatile tools are needed to explore the physiology of these dynamic organelles in multiple tissues. Current tools for monitoring mitochondrial dynamics have been limited to studies in cell culture, which may be inadequate model systems for exploring the network of tissues. Here, we have generated mouse models for monitoring mitochondrial dynamics in a broad spectrum of tissues and cell types. The Photo-Activatable Mitochondrial (PhAM floxed) line enables Cre-inducible expression of a mitochondrial targeted photoconvertible protein, Dendra2 (mito-Dendra2). In the PhAMexcised line, mito-Dendra2 is ubiquitously expressed to facilitate broad analysis of mitochondria at various developmental processes. We have utilized these models to study mitochondrial dynamics in the nigrostriatal circuit of Parkinson's disease (PD) and in the development of skeletal muscles. Increasing evidences implicate aberrant regulation of mitochondrial fusion and fission in models of PD. To assess the function of mitochondrial dynamics in the nigrostriatal circuit, we utilized transgenic techniques to abrogate mitochondrial fusion. We show that deletion of the Mfn2 leads to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and Parkinson's-like features in mice. To elucidate the dynamic properties of mitochondria during muscle development, we established a platform for examining mitochondrial compartmentalization in skeletal muscles. This model system may yield clues to the role of mitochondrial dynamics in mitochondrial myopathies.

  6. Application of eco-exergy for assessment of ecosystem health and development of structurally dynamic models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, J.; Gürkan, Zeren; Jørgensen, S.E.

    2010-01-01

    are developed using eco-exergy as the goal function, have been applied in explaining and exploring ecosystem properties and changes in community structure driven by biotic and abiotic factors. In this paper, we review the application of eco-exergy for the assessment of ecosystem health and development......Eco-exergy has been widely used in the assessment of ecosystem health, parameter estimations, calibrations, validations and prognoses. It offers insights into the understanding of ecosystem dynamics and disturbance-cl riven changes. Particularly, structurally dynamic models (SDMs), which...

  7. "Preparatory power posing affects nonverbal presence and job interview performance": Correction to Cuddy et al. (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    Reports an error in "Preparatory power posing affects nonverbal presence and job interview performance" by Amy J. C. Cuddy, Caroline A. Wilmuth, Andy J. Yap and Dana R. Carney ( Journal of Applied Psychology , 2015[Jul], Vol 100[4], 1286-1295). In the article, the degrees of freedom associated with the three F-tests noted on pages 1289 and 1290 should be 1 and 59 (and not 1 and 60, as previously reported). Also, on p. 1290, in the first sentence under the "Mediation" heading, it should be noted that the dependent variables were regressed onto the mediators, and not the other way around. Finally, in Figures 2 and 3 (on p.interview-preparatory power posing-would enhance performance during the interview. Participants adopted high-power (i.e., expansive, open) poses or low-power (i.e., contractive, closed) poses, and then prepared and delivered a speech to 2 evaluators as part of a mock job interview. All interview speeches were videotaped and coded for overall performance and hireability and for 2 potential mediators: verbal content (e.g., structure, content) and nonverbal presence (e.g., captivating, enthusiastic). As predicted, those who prepared for the job interview with high- (vs. low-) power poses performed better and were more likely to be chosen for hire; this relation was mediated by nonverbal presence, but not by verbal content. Although previous research has focused on how a nonverbal behavior that is enacted during interactions and observed by perceivers affects how those perceivers evaluate and respond to the actor, this experiment focused on how a nonverbal behavior that is enacted before the interaction and unobserved by perceivers affects the actor's performance, which, in turn, affects how perceivers evaluate and respond to the actor. This experiment reveals a theoretically novel and practically informative result that demonstrates the causal relation between preparatory nonverbal behavior and subsequent performance and outcomes. (PsycINFO Database

  8. Mood As Cumulative Expectation Mismatch: A Test of Theory Based on Data from Non-verbal Cognitive Bias Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille M. C. Raoult

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Affective states are known to influence behavior and cognitive processes. To assess mood (moderately long-term affective states, the cognitive judgment bias test was developed and has been widely used in various animal species. However, little is known about how mood changes, how mood can be experimentally manipulated, and how mood then feeds back into cognitive judgment. A recent theory argues that mood reflects the cumulative impact of differences between obtained outcomes and expectations. Here expectations refer to an established context. Situations in which an established context fails to match an outcome are then perceived as mismatches of expectation and outcome. We take advantage of the large number of studies published on non-verbal cognitive bias tests in recent years (95 studies with a total of 162 independent tests to test whether cumulative mismatch could indeed have led to the observed mood changes. Based on a criteria list, we assessed whether mismatch had occurred with the experimental procedure used to induce mood (mood induction mismatch, or in the context of the non-verbal cognitive bias procedure (testing mismatch. For the mood induction mismatch, we scored the mismatch between the subjects’ potential expectations and the manipulations conducted for inducing mood whereas, for the testing mismatch, we scored mismatches that may have occurred during the actual testing. We then investigated whether these two types of mismatch can predict the actual outcome of the cognitive bias study. The present evaluation shows that mood induction mismatch cannot well predict the success of a cognitive bias test. On the other hand, testing mismatch can modulate or even inverse the expected outcome. We think, cognitive bias studies should more specifically aim at creating expectation mismatch while inducing mood states to test the cumulative mismatch theory more properly. Furthermore, testing mismatch should be avoided as much as possible

  9. Dynamic building risk assessment theoretic model for rainstorm-flood utilization ABM and ABS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wenze; Li, Wenbo; Wang, Hailei; Huang, Yingliang; Wu, Xuelian; Sun, Bingyun

    2015-12-01

    Flood is one of natural disasters with the worst loss in the world. It needs to assess flood disaster risk so that we can reduce the loss of flood disaster. Disaster management practical work needs the dynamic risk results of building. Rainstorm flood disaster system is a typical complex system. From the view of complex system theory, flood disaster risk is the interaction result of hazard effect objects, rainstorm flood hazard factors, and hazard environments. Agent-based modeling (ABM) is an important tool for complex system modeling. Rainstorm-flood building risk dynamic assessment method (RFBRDAM) was proposed using ABM in this paper. The interior structures and procedures of different agents in proposed meth had been designed. On the Netlogo platform, the proposed method was implemented to assess the building risk changes of the rainstorm flood disaster in the Huaihe River Basin using Agent-based simulation (ABS). The results indicated that the proposed method can dynamically assess building risk of the whole process for the rainstorm flood disaster. The results of this paper can provide one new approach for flood disaster building risk dynamic assessment and flood disaster management.

  10. Relationships of Big Five personality traits and nonverbal intelligence at high school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronina Irina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of study on the relationship of personality traits and intelligence in Russian high school students. The study focused on Big Five personality traits - Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness - and the structure of their relationships with nonverbal intelligence, as measured by the test “Standard Progressive Matrices”. Significant correlations were only found between nonverbal intelligence and Openness (r = 0.26, p < 0.05. The results are interpreted in the context of investment theory, which assumes that personality traits can promote the formation of individual differences in intelligence.

  11. Short-Term Memory Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment: The Effect of Verbal and Nonverbal Task Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botting, Nicola; Psarou, Popi; Caplin, Tamara; Nevin, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Background and Design: In recent years, evidence has emerged that suggests specific language impairment (SLI) does not exclusively affect linguistic skill. Studies have revealed memory difficulties, including those measured using nonverbal tasks. However, there has been relatively little research into the nature of the verbal/nonverbal boundaries…

  12. Empirical Implications of Matching Children with Specific Language Impairment to Children with Typical Development on Nonverbal IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, F. Sayako; Gallinat, Erica L.; Grela, Bernard G.; Lehto, Alexa; Spaulding, Tammie J.

    2017-01-01

    This study determined the effect of matching children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their peers with typical development (TD) for nonverbal IQ on the IQ test scores of the resultant groups. Studies published between January 2000 and May 2012 reporting standard nonverbal IQ scores for SLI and age-matched TD controls were categorized…

  13. The Relationship Between Attitudes Toward the Handicapped and Nonverbal Behavior with Educators of Special Needs Students: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, Robert A.; And Others

    Examined were the relationships between attitudes toward the handicapped and nonverbal behavior of 60 special education teachers involved in inservice or preservice coursework. Ss were administered the Attitudes Toward Handicapped Individuals (ATHI) Scale and the Nonverbal Behavior Characteristics Scale (NBCS). Analysis of the data indicated a…

  14. Multi-level prediction of short-term outcome of depression : non-verbal interpersonal processes, cognitions and personality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, E; Bouhuys, N

    1998-01-01

    It was hypothesized that personality factors determine the short-term outcome of depression, and that they may do this via non-verbal interpersonal interactions and via cognitive interpretations of non-verbal behaviour. Twenty-six hospitalized depressed patients entered the study. Personality

  15. Non-verbal Communication in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Video Audit Using Non-verbal Immediacy Scale (NIS-O).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimbalkar, Somashekhar Marutirao; Raval, Himalaya; Bansal, Satvik Chaitanya; Pandya, Utkarsh; Pathak, Ajay

    2018-05-03

    Effective communication with parents is a very important skill for pediatricians especially in a neonatal setup. The authors analyzed non-verbal communication of medical caregivers during counseling sessions. Recorded videos of counseling sessions from the months of March-April 2016 were audited. Counseling episodes were scored using Non-verbal Immediacy Scale Observer Report (NIS-O). A total of 150 videos of counseling sessions were audited. The mean (SD) total score on (NIS-O) was 78.96(7.07). Female counseled sessions had significantly higher proportion of low scores (p communication skills in a neonatal unit. This study lays down a template on which other Neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) can carry out gap defining audits.

  16. Assessment of swallowing and its disorders—A dynamic MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijay Kumar, K.V., E-mail: vijaykumarkv@yahoo.in [Department of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences, SRU (India); Shankar, V., E-mail: drshankarv@yahoo.co.in [Department of Neurology, SRU (India); Santosham, Roy, E-mail: santoshamroy@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, SRU (India)

    2013-02-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging overcomes the limitations of videofluoroscopy in assessing without radiation exposure. The clinical utility of dynamic MRI for swallowing disorders is not well documented. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using dynamic MRI in assessment of swallowing disorders. Ten normal and three brainstem lesion patients participated in this study. GE Signa HDxt 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner with head-and-neck coil as a receiver and fast imaging employing steady state acquisition sequence was used. The swallow was analyzed in terms of symmetry and amplitude of movements of velum, faucial pillars, tongue, epiglottis and cricopharyngeous and images from the sagittal, coronal and axial planes. In sagittal plane posterior movement of tongue and its compression on velum, elevation of hyoid bone, elevation of larynx and lid action of epiglottis, in the coronal view the symmetrical movements of the faucial pillars and pharyngeal constrictor muscles and in axial plane three anatomical landmarks were targeted based on their role in swallowing, viz. velum, epiglottis and cricopharyngeous were studied. In brainstem lesion individuals, posterior movement of tongue, and elevation of larynx were not seen. Asymmetrical movements of faucial pillars and cricopharyngeous muscle were appreciated in the dynamic MRI. This demonstrates that, dynamic MRI is an efficient tool to understand the swallowing physiology and helps the speech language pathologist in modifying the swallowing maneuvers. Dynamic MRI is an effective tool in assessing swallowing and its disorders. This muscle specific information is not appreciated in videofluoroscopy and this information is necessary to modify the therapy maneuvers.

  17. Assessment of swallowing and its disorders—A dynamic MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijay Kumar, K.V.; Shankar, V.; Santosham, Roy

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging overcomes the limitations of videofluoroscopy in assessing without radiation exposure. The clinical utility of dynamic MRI for swallowing disorders is not well documented. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using dynamic MRI in assessment of swallowing disorders. Ten normal and three brainstem lesion patients participated in this study. GE Signa HDxt 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner with head-and-neck coil as a receiver and fast imaging employing steady state acquisition sequence was used. The swallow was analyzed in terms of symmetry and amplitude of movements of velum, faucial pillars, tongue, epiglottis and cricopharyngeous and images from the sagittal, coronal and axial planes. In sagittal plane posterior movement of tongue and its compression on velum, elevation of hyoid bone, elevation of larynx and lid action of epiglottis, in the coronal view the symmetrical movements of the faucial pillars and pharyngeal constrictor muscles and in axial plane three anatomical landmarks were targeted based on their role in swallowing, viz. velum, epiglottis and cricopharyngeous were studied. In brainstem lesion individuals, posterior movement of tongue, and elevation of larynx were not seen. Asymmetrical movements of faucial pillars and cricopharyngeous muscle were appreciated in the dynamic MRI. This demonstrates that, dynamic MRI is an efficient tool to understand the swallowing physiology and helps the speech language pathologist in modifying the swallowing maneuvers. Dynamic MRI is an effective tool in assessing swallowing and its disorders. This muscle specific information is not appreciated in videofluoroscopy and this information is necessary to modify the therapy maneuvers

  18. Potential for Assessing Dynamic Problem-Solving at the Beginning of Higher Education Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Benő Csapó; Gyöngyvér Molnár

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing demand for assessment instruments which can be used in higher education, which cover a broader area of competencies than the traditional tests for disciplinary knowledge and domain-specific skills, and which measure students' most important general cognitive capabilities. Around the age of the transition from secondary to tertiary education, such assessments may serve several functions, including selecting the best-prepared candidates for certain fields of study. Dynamic pr...

  19. Carcinoma of the cervix. Value of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging in assessing early stromal invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Yumi; Aoki, Yoichi; Kase, Hiroaki; Kodama, Shoji; Tanaka, Kenichi

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (dynamic MR imaging) in the evaluation of preinvasive and early invasive cancer of the cervix. Twenty-nine women with untreated squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix with either no stromal invasion or early stromal invasion underwent pretreatment MR imaging and dynamic MR imaging within 4 weeks of surgical evaluation. The images were evaluated for tumor detection and compared with results of histologic examination of the surgical specimens. The lesions in 17 cases with histologically proven stromal invasion of 4 mm or greater were detected with dynamic MR imaging, whereas lesions in only 8 of these cases were detected with T2 imaging. In 9 cases with stromal invasion between 4.0 mm and 5.0 mm, lesions were represented as early phase focal enhancement on dynamic MR images, but not detected on T2-weighted images. In the 12 cases with less than 4 mm stromal invasion, no lesions were visualized on either T2-weighted images or dynamic MR images, except in 1 case of glandular involvement without stromal invasion that appeared as enhancement on early-phase dynamic MR imaging. Dynamic MR imaging detected more lesions of early stromal invasion in pretreatment imaging for cervical cancer than nonenhanced MR imaging. (author)

  20. Dynamic model for the assessment of radiological exposure to marine biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives i Batlle, J. [Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd, The Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3LN (United Kingdom)], E-mail: jordi.vives@westlakes.ac.uk; Wilson, R.C.; Watts, S.J.; Jones, S.R.; McDonald, P.; Vives-Lynch, S. [Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd, The Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3LN (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-15

    A generic approach has been developed to simulate dynamically the uptake and turnover of radionuclides by marine biota. The approach incorporates a three-compartment biokinetic model based on first order linear kinetics, with interchange rates between the organism and its surrounding environment. Model rate constants are deduced as a function of known parameters: biological half-lives of elimination, concentration factors and a sample point of the retention curve, allowing for the representation of multi-component release. The new methodology has been tested and validated in respect of non-dynamic assessment models developed for regulatory purposes. The approach has also been successfully tested against research dynamic models developed to represent the uptake of technetium and radioiodine by lobsters and winkles. Assessments conducted on two realistic test scenarios demonstrated the importance of simulating time-dependency for ecosystems in which environmental levels of radionuclides are not in equilibrium.

  1. The Effect of Dynamic Assessment on Iranian EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Amirian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic Assessment (DA, is grounded in Vygotsky's idea on Sociocultural Theory (SCT of mind, his concept of Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD and its related metaphor; scaffolding. This study examined the effects of dynamic assessment on improving reading comprehension of Iranian intermediate students who were learning English as a foreign language. The participants, a group of Iranian male intermediate EFL learners ranging in age from 17 to 20, were randomly assigned to two groups of 14. In this study, the experimental and control groups’ performances on pre-tests and post-tests were compared through paired-samples and independent-samples t-tests. The treatment period lasted for 2 months (16 sessions. The results showed that the experimental group, which was instructed through DA, outperformed the control group which was instructed in a non-dynamic way.

  2. Comparison of dynamic ultrasound and stress radiology for assessment of inferior glenohumeral laxity in asymptomatic shoulders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, S.C.; Wallace, W.A.; Hulse, D.; Fairbairn, K.J.; Clarke, M.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the level of agreement between dynamic ultrasound imaging and stress radiography used for the measurement of inferior glenohumeral laxity in asymptomatic shoulders, and to determine the repeatability of the dynamic ultrasound technique. Using a custom-made stress device to apply an inferior displacement force of 90 N, we assessed 20 asymptomatic male subjects for inferior glenohumeral laxity, using stress radiography and dynamic ultrasound. Paired differences between the two methods were evaluated by the 95% limits of agreement method. At a separate session, 19 subjects had inferior glenohumeral laxity assessed by two observers, using dynamic ultrasound. Inter- and intra-observer repeatability was determined for the ultrasound technique. The mean [± standard deviation (SD)] inferior translation was 4.7 ± 4.1 mm by stress radiography and 4.4 ± 2.3 mm by dynamic ultrasound. The 95% limits of agreement showed good agreement between the two methods. The paired difference between the two measurement methods varied with the magnitude of the measurement (P < 0.001). Intra-observer repeatability of dynamic ultrasound was determined by the use of intra-class correlation coefficients and was 0.94 and 0.89 for the two investigators. Inter-observer repeatability was 0.85. The standard error of the measurement was 0.60 mm and 0.66 mm, for repeated measurements by the two investigators, and 0.85 mm between investigators. Repeatability coefficients demonstrated excellent consistency of measurement between sessions and good consistency between observers. Dynamic ultrasound is a valid and reproducible method for the assessment and quantification of inferior glenohumeral laxity. (orig.)

  3. Infusion dynamic ureteroscintigraphy in assessment of ureteral and pelvic contractivity in renal tuberculosis and chronic pyelonephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savin, I.B.; Tovstykh, A.M.; Morozov, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    A novel radionuclide method: infusion dynamic ureterscintigraphy was used in examinations of 42 patients with the initial forms of nephrotuberculosis, 18 patients with chronic nonspecific pyelonephritis, and 51 healthy controls. The new method was shown to be highly sensitive in assessment of ureteral and pelvic contractility in specific and nonspecific involvement of the kidneys. 16 refs.; 3 figs

  4. A Dynamic Health Assessment Approach for Shearer Based on Artificial Immune Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongbin Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to accurately identify the dynamic health of shearer, reducing operating trouble and production accident of shearer and improving coal production efficiency further, a dynamic health assessment approach for shearer based on artificial immune algorithm was proposed. The key technologies such as system framework, selecting the indicators for shearer dynamic health assessment, and health assessment model were provided, and the flowchart of the proposed approach was designed. A simulation example, with an accuracy of 96%, based on the collected data from industrial production scene was provided. Furthermore, the comparison demonstrated that the proposed method exhibited higher classification accuracy than the classifiers based on back propagation-neural network (BP-NN and support vector machine (SVM methods. Finally, the proposed approach was applied in an engineering problem of shearer dynamic health assessment. The industrial application results showed that the paper research achievements could be used combining with shearer automation control system in fully mechanized coal face. The simulation and the application results indicated that the proposed method was feasible and outperforming others.

  5. Dynamic life-time assessing method for the N1C700 turbine's rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu-Vifor, B.

    1993-01-01

    The N1C700 turbine's rotor subject to different sorts of stress variations was investigated through dynamic life-time assessing method. To obtain the temperature fields at different steam parameters inside the turbine components, a computer code named DENOPAR was developed

  6. Dynamic Assessment and Response to Intervention: Two Sides of One Coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2009-01-01

    This article compares and contrasts the main features of dynamic testing and assessment (DT/A) and response to intervention (RTI). The comparison is carried out along the following lines: (a) historical and empirical roots of both concepts, (b) premises underlying DT/A and RTI, (c) terms used in these concepts, (d) use of these concepts, (e)…

  7. Computerized Dynamic Assessment (C-DA): Diagnosing L2 Development According to Learner Responsiveness to Mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehner, Matthew E.; Zhang, Jie; Lu, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic assessment (DA) derives from the sociocultural theory of mind as elaborated by Russian psychologist L. S. Vygotsky. By offering mediation when individuals experience difficulties and carefully tracing their responsiveness, Vygotsky (1998) proposed that diagnoses may uncover abilities that have fully formed as well as those still in the…

  8. Survey Tools for Faculty to Quickly Assess Multidisciplinary Team Dynamics in Capstone Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solnosky, Ryan; Fairchild, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Many engineering faculty have limited skills and/or assessment tools to evaluate team dynamics in multidisciplinary team-based capstone courses. Rapidly deployable tools are needed here to provide proactive feedback to teams to facilitate deeper learning. Two surveys were developed based on industrial and organizational psychology theories around…

  9. Dynamic Bayesian Network Modeling of Game Based Diagnostic Assessments. CRESST Report 837

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Digital games offer an appealing environment for assessing student proficiencies, including skills and misconceptions in a diagnostic setting. This paper proposes a dynamic Bayesian network modeling approach for observations of student performance from an educational video game. A Bayesian approach to model construction, calibration, and use in…

  10. The Unfairness of Equal Treatment: Objectivity in L2 Testing and Dynamic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantolf, James P.; Poehner, Matthew E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers dynamic assessment (DA) as it relates to second language (L2) development. DA is grounded in Vygotsky's (1987) sociocultural theory of mind, which holds that human consciousness emerges as a result of participation in culturally organized social activities where mediation plays a key role in guiding development. In DA, the…

  11. Systems dynamics modelling to assess the sustainability of renewable energy technologies in developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brent, AC

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available review of methods and tools applied in technology assessment. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 75, pp. 1396-1405, 2008. [13] Sterman, J.D., Business dynamics: systems thinking and modelling for a complex world. McGraw-Hill/Irwin, New York...

  12. Dynamic models for health economic assessments of pertussis vaccines : what goes around comes around ...

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozenbaum, M.H.; De Cao, E.; Westra, T.A.; Postma, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite childhood vaccination programs, pertussis remains endemic. To reduce the burden of pertussis, various extended pertussis vaccination strategies have been suggested. The aim of this article is to evaluate dynamic models used to assess the cost-effectiveness of vaccination. In total, 16

  13. Using the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) 7 Nonverbal Battery to Identify the Gifted/Talented: An Investigation of Demographic Effects and Norming Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Carol A.; Walther, Christine A. P.; Bartsch, Robert A.

    2018-01-01

    The nonverbal battery of the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) is one of the two most common nonverbal measures used in gifted identification, yet the relationships between demographic variables and CogAT7 performance has not yet been fully examined. Additionally, the effect of using the CogAT7 nonverbal battery on the identification of diverse…

  14. The association between visual, nonverbal cognitive abilities and speech, phonological processing, vocabulary and reading outcomes in children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lindsey; Anderson, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the possibility that specific nonverbal, visual cognitive abilities may be associated with outcomes after pediatric cochlear implantation. The study therefore examined the relationship between visual sequential memory span and visual sequential reasoning ability, and a range of speech, phonological processing, vocabulary knowledge, and reading outcomes in children with cochlear implants. A cross-sectional, correlational design was used. Sixty-six children aged 5 to 12 years completed tests of visual memory span and visual sequential reasoning, along with tests of speech intelligibility, phonological processing, vocabulary knowledge, and word reading ability (the outcome variables). Auditory memory span was also assessed, and its relationship with the other variables examined. Significant, positive correlations were found between the visual memory and reasoning tests, and each of the outcome variables. A series of regression analyses then revealed that for all the outcome variables, after variance attributable to the age at implantation was accounted for, visual memory span and visual sequential reasoning ability together accounted for significantly more variance (up to 25%) in each outcome measure. These findings have both clinical and theoretical implications. Clinically, the findings may help improve the identification of children at risk of poor progress after implantation earlier than has been possible to date as the nonverbal tests can be administered to children as young as 2 years of age. The results may also contribute to the identification of children with specific learning or language difficulties as well as improve our ability to develop intervention strategies for individual children based on their specific cognitive processing strengths or difficulties. Theoretically, these results contribute to the growing body of knowledge about learning and development in deaf children with cochlear implants.

  15. Dynamic assessments of population exposure to urban greenspace using multi-source big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yimeng; Huang, Bo; Cai, Jixuan; Chen, Bin

    2018-09-01

    A growing body of evidence has proven that urban greenspace is beneficial to improve people's physical and mental health. However, knowledge of population exposure to urban greenspace across different spatiotemporal scales remains unclear. Moreover, the majority of existing environmental assessments are unable to quantify how residents enjoy their ambient greenspace during their daily life. To deal with this challenge, we proposed a dynamic method to assess urban greenspace exposure with the integration of mobile-phone locating-request (MPL) data and high-spatial-resolution remote sensing images. This method was further applied to 30 major cities in China by assessing cities' dynamic greenspace exposure levels based on residents' surrounding areas with different buffer scales (0.5km, 1km, and 1.5km). Results showed that regarding residents' 0.5-km surrounding environment, Wenzhou and Hangzhou were found to be with the greenest exposure experience, whereas Zhengzhou and Tangshan were the least ones. The obvious diurnal and daily variations of population exposure to their surrounding greenspace were also identified to be highly correlated with the distribution pattern of urban greenspace and the dynamics of human mobility. Compared with two common measurements of urban greenspace (green coverage rate and green area per capita), the developed method integrated the dynamics of population distribution and geographic locations of urban greenspace into the exposure assessment, thereby presenting a more reasonable way to assess population exposure to urban greenspace. Additionally, this dynamic framework could hold potential utilities in supporting urban planning studies and environmental health studies and advancing our understanding of the magnitude of population exposure to greenspace at different spatiotemporal scales. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. More than a face: A unified theoretical perspective on nonverbal social cue processing in social anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eGilboa-Schechtman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Processing of nonverbal social cues (NVSCs is essential to interpersonal functioning and is particularly relevant to models of social anxiety. This article provides a review of the literature on NVSC processing from the perspective of social rank and affiliation biobehavioral systems, based on functional analysis of human sociality. We examine the potential of this framework for integrating cognitive, interpersonal, and evolutionary accounts of social anxiety. We argue that NVSCs are uniquely suited to rapid and effective conveyance of emotional, motivational, and trait information and that various channels are differentially effective in transmitting such information. First, we review studies on perception of NVSCs through face, voice, and body. We begin with studies that utilized information processing or imaging paradigms to assess NVSC perception. This research demonstrated that social anxiety is associated with biased attention to, and interpretation of, emotional facial expressions and emotional prosody. Findings regarding body and posture remain scarce. Next, we review studies on NVSC expression, which pinpointed links between social anxiety and disturbances in eye gaze, facial expressivity, and vocal properties of spontaneous and planned speech. Again, links between social anxiety and posture were understudied. Although cognitive, interpersonal, and evolutionary theories have described different pathways to social anxiety, all three models focus on interrelations among cognition, subjective experience, and social behavior. NVSC processing and production comprise the juncture where these theories intersect. In light of the conceptualizations emerging from the review, we highlight several directions for future research including focus on NVSCs as indexing reactions to changes in belongingness and social rank, the moderating role of gender, and the therapeutic opportunities offered by embodied cognition to treat social anxiety.

  17. More than a face: a unified theoretical perspective on nonverbal social cue processing in social anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Shachar-Lavie, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Processing of nonverbal social cues (NVSCs) is essential to interpersonal functioning and is particularly relevant to models of social anxiety. This article provides a review of the literature on NVSC processing from the perspective of social rank and affiliation biobehavioral systems (ABSs), based on functional analysis of human sociality. We examine the potential of this framework for integrating cognitive, interpersonal, and evolutionary accounts of social anxiety. We argue that NVSCs are uniquely suited to rapid and effective conveyance of emotional, motivational, and trait information and that various channels are differentially effective in transmitting such information. First, we review studies on perception of NVSCs through face, voice, and body. We begin with studies that utilized information processing or imaging paradigms to assess NVSC perception. This research demonstrated that social anxiety is associated with biased attention to, and interpretation of, emotional facial expressions (EFEs) and emotional prosody. Findings regarding body and posture remain scarce. Next, we review studies on NVSC expression, which pinpointed links between social anxiety and disturbances in eye gaze, facial expressivity, and vocal properties of spontaneous and planned speech. Again, links between social anxiety and posture were understudied. Although cognitive, interpersonal, and evolutionary theories have described different pathways to social anxiety, all three models focus on interrelations among cognition, subjective experience, and social behavior. NVSC processing and production comprise the juncture where these theories intersect. In light of the conceptualizations emerging from the review, we highlight several directions for future research including focus on NVSCs as indexing reactions to changes in belongingness and social rank, the moderating role of gender, and the therapeutic opportunities offered by embodied cognition to treat social anxiety. PMID:24427129

  18. Computerized training of non-verbal reasoning and working memory in children with intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stina eSöderqvist

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Children with intellectual disabilities show deficits in both reasoning ability and working memory (WM that impact everyday functioning and academic achievement. In this study we investigated the feasibility of cognitive training for improving WM and non-verbal reasoning (NVR ability in children with intellectual disability. Participants were randomized to a 5-week adaptive training program (intervention group or non-adaptive version of the program (active control group. Cognitive assessments were conducted prior to and directly after training, and one year later to examine effects of the training. Improvements during training varied largely and amount of progress during training predicted transfer to WM and comprehension of instructions, with higher training progress being associated with greater transfer effects. The strongest predictors for training progress were found to be gender, co-morbidity and baseline capacity on verbal WM. In particular, females without an additional diagnosis and with higher baseline performance showed greater progress. No significant effects of training were observed at the one-year follow-up, suggesting that training should be more intense or repeated in order for effects to persist in children with intellectual disabilities. A major finding of this study is that cognitive training is feasible in children with intellectual disabilities and can help improve their cognitive capacities. However, a minimum cognitive capacity or training ability seems necessary for the training to be beneficial, with some individuals showing little improvement in performance. Future studies of cognitive training should take into consideration how inter-individual differences in training progress influence transfer effects and further investigate how baseline capacities predict training outcome.

  19. project SENSE : multimodal simulation with full-body real-time verbal and nonverbal interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miri, Hossein; Kolkmeier, Jan; Taylor, Paul Jonathon; Poppe, Ronald; Heylen, Dirk; Poppe, Ronald; Meyer, John-Jules; Veltkamp, Remco; Dastani, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a multimodal simulation system, project-SENSE, that combines virtual reality and full-body motion capture technologies with real-time verbal and nonverbal communication. We introduce the technical setup and employed hardware and software of a first prototype. We discuss the

  20. Description of Communication Breakdown Repair Strategies Produced by Nonverbal Students with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincer, Baris; Erbas, Dilek

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the communication repair behaviors used by nonverbal students with developmental disabilities in the interactions they were involved in with their teachers during free play activities. All children were students at centers serving student with developmental disabilities at Anadolu University in Turkey. Data were collected by…

  1. Non-Verbal Psychotherapy of Deaf Children with Disorders in Personality Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska, Marina

    1989-01-01

    Discussed are principles of nonverbal therapy for deaf children with disorders in the development of self, and the possible existence of a relationship between lack of auditory experiences in deaf children and disorders in mother-child bonding. A case study presents a three-year-old deaf boy successfully treated through a nonverbal…

  2. Executive functioning and non-verbal intelligence as predictors of bullying in early elementary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinden, Marina; Veenstra, René; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Jansen, P.W.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, F.C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    Executive function and intelligence are negatively associated with aggression, yet the role of executive function has rarely been examined in the context of school bullying. We studied whether different domains of executive function and non-verbal intelligence are associated with bullying

  3. The Effect of Nonverbal Cues on the Interpretation of Utterances by People with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak-Wernicka, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this article is to explore the effect of nonverbal information (gestures and facial expressions) provided in real time on the interpretation of utterances by people with total blindness. Methods: The article reports on an exploratory study performed on two groups of participants with visual impairments who were tested…

  4. Do Nonverbal Emotional Cues Matter? Effects of Video Casting in Synchronous Virtual Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Heeyoung

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an instructor's use of video casting as a nonverbal emotional cue in synchronous discussion sessions on students' social presence, satisfaction, and learning achievement. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the effect of video casting in a synchronous virtual classroom. The research setting was a…

  5. Sensory Symptoms and Processing of Nonverbal Auditory and Visual Stimuli in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Claire R.; Sanchez, Sandra S.; Grenesko, Emily L.; Brown, Christine M.; Chen, Colleen P.; Keehn, Brandon; Velasquez, Francisco; Lincoln, Alan J.; Müller, Ralph-Axel

    2016-01-01

    Atypical sensory responses are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While evidence suggests impaired auditory-visual integration for verbal information, findings for nonverbal stimuli are inconsistent. We tested for sensory symptoms in children with ASD (using the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile) and examined unisensory and bisensory…

  6. Visual Processing of Verbal and Nonverbal Stimuli in Adolescents with Reading Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Catherine; Brodeur, Darlene A.

    1999-01-01

    A study investigated whether 32 adolescents with reading disabilities (RD) were slower at processing visual information compared to children of comparable age and reading level, or whether their deficit was specific to the written word. Adolescents with RD demonstrated difficulties in processing rapidly presented verbal and nonverbal visual…

  7. The Influence of Nonverbal Behavior on Person Perception in Television Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepplinger, Hans Mathias; And Others

    A controlled experiment was conducted to test the extent to which nonverbal behavior between a journalist and a politician in a televised interview influences the way in which they are perceived by a television audience. Nine test films were produced that showed different versions of an interview in which the participants exhibited aggressive or…

  8. Early lexical development and risk of verbal and nonverbal cognitive delay at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghassabian, A.; Rescorla, L.; Henrichs, J.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Verhulst, F.C.; Tiemeier, H.W.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To characterise the relationship between preschool lexical delay and language comprehension and nonverbal intelligence at school age. Methods The mothers of 2724 children completed the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory when their child reached 1.5 years and the Language Development

  9. The Use of Non-Verbal and Body Movement Techniques in Working with Families with Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James M.

    1979-01-01

    Presents an experiential-educational approach to families with infants integrating dance and movement therapy with family therapy theories and techniques. Nonverbal techniques are the only possible methods of working directly with infants present with their parents in these workshops. The focus is on negotiations and exchanges of feelings in…

  10. Toward a digitally mediated, transgenerational negotiation of verbal and non-verbal concepts in daycare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    an adult researcher’s research problem and her/his conceptual knowledge of the child-adult-digital media interaction are able to do justice to what the children actually intend to communicate about their experiences and actions, both verbally and non-verbally, by and large remains little explored...

  11. Increasing Social Interaction Using Prelinguistic Milieu Teaching with Nonverbal School-Age Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Jessica H.; Davis, Barbara L.; Davis, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Children with autism display marked deficits in initiating and maintaining social interaction. Intervention using play routines can create a framework for developing and maintaining social interaction between these children and their communication partners. Method: Six nonverbal 5- to 8-year-olds with autism were taught to engage in…

  12. Students' Perceived Understanding Mediates the Effects of Teacher Clarity and Nonverbal Immediacy on Learner Empowerment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Amber N.; Schrodt, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study examined students' perceived understanding as a mediator of the relationship between student perceptions of teacher clarity, nonverbal immediacy cues, and learner empowerment (i.e., meaningfulness, competence, and impact). Participants included 261 undergraduate students who completed survey instruments. Results of structural equation…

  13. Male/Female Differential Encoding and Intercultural Differential Decoding of Nonverbal Affective Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Martin, Gail McAllister

    In order to investigate the process of nonverbal communication of emotions in a simulated intercultural context, videotapes were made in which two white Americans (one male and one female) responded to paragraphs which evoked the following emotions: sadness, disgust, anger, surprise, happiness, and fear. These portrayals were then viewed by male…

  14. “Communication by impact” and other forms of non-verbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article aims to review the importance, place and especially the emotional impact of non-verbal communication in psychiatry. The paper argues that while biological psychiatry is in the ascendency with increasing discoveries being made about the functioning of the brain and psycho-pharmacology, it is important to try ...

  15. Communicating in a Multicultural Classroom: A Study of Students' Nonverbal Behavior and Attitudes toward Faculty Attire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, Ephraim; Washington, Melvin

    2011-01-01

    Economic and market globalization in the United States has engendered a multicultural learning environment that challenges both faculty and students. Diversity in the classroom is further complicated by nonverbal communication, which impacts on students' attitudes toward faculty members. Because today's classrooms are changing and undergoing rapid…

  16. Development of non-verbal intellectual capacity in school-age children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, D. W.; Ketelaar, M.; Gorter, J. W.; van Schie, P. E.; Becher, J. G.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M. J.

    Background Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are at greater risk for a limited intellectual development than typically developing children. Little information is available which children with CP are most at risk. This study aimed to describe the development of non-verbal intellectual capacity of

  17. Presentation Trainer: a toolkit for learning non-verbal public speaking skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Jan; Börner, Dirk; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents and outlines the demonstration of Presentation Trainer, a prototype that works as a public speaking instructor. It tracks and analyses the body posture, movements and voice of the user in order to give in- structional feedback on non-verbal communication skills. Besides exploring

  18. She Wore a Flower in Her Hair: The Effect of Ornamentation on Nonverbal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, JeriJayne W.; Hensley, Wayne E.

    Six waitresses in a restaurant of a large midwestern city agreed to participate in a study of the nonverbal effects of ornamentation. The hypothesis was that diners would leave larger tips for a waitress who wore a flower in her hair than for the same waitress without a flower. During the four nights that data were collected, the waitresses…

  19. A Communication-Based Intervention for Nonverbal Children with Autism: What Changes? Who Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Kate; Pasco, Greg; McElduff, Fiona; Wade, Angie; Howlin, Pat; Charman, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the form and function of spontaneous communication and outcome predictors in nonverbal children with autism following classroom-based intervention (Picture Exchange Communication System [PECS] training). Method: 84 children from 15 schools participated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of PECS (P. Howlin, R.…

  20. Social attraction in video-mediated communication : The role of nonverbal affiliative behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croes, Emmelyn; Antheunis, Marjolijn; Schouten, Alexander; Krahmer, Emiel

    2018-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to analyze video-mediated communication (VMC), in comparison to face-to-face (FTF) communication, and the effect it has on how communicators express nonverbal affiliative behaviors relevant for social attraction. Second, this study aimed to discover whether these

  1. Encoding Specificity and Nonverbal Cue Context: An Expansion of Episodic Memory Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, W. Gill; Folger, Joseph P.

    1981-01-01

    Reports two studies demonstrating the ability of nonverbal contextual cues to act as retrieval mechanisms for co-occurring language. Suggests that visual contextual cues, such as speech primacy and motor primacy gestures, can access linguistic target information. Motor primacy cues are shown to act as stronger retrieval cues. (JMF)

  2. Understanding Instructor Nonverbal Immediacy, Verbal Immediacy, and Student Motivation at a Small Liberal Arts University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlich, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Instructor communication behaviors and student motivation to learn relationships were studied at a small liberal arts university. Specifically, relationships between instructor nonverbal immediacy, verbal immediacy behaviors and student motivation to learn were measured. Only instructor verbal immediacy behaviors had a significant linear…

  3. Effects of Training on Accuracy of Decoding Complex Nonverbal Behavior. Working Paper No. 267.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Michael L.; And Others

    Two studies investigated the effects of training on how accurately observers (college students) decoded a complex nonverbal stimulus. In the first experiment, observers viewed silent videotapes of 16 third and fourth-grade school children who were listening to an easy or a difficult lesson. Half of the children were responding spontaneously, while…

  4. Power in the Classroom VI: Verbal Control Strategies, Nonverbal Immediacy and Affective Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plax, Timothy G.; And Others

    Recognizing that nonverbal behaviors typically provide the framework for interpreting verbal messages, this project (the sixth in a series of projects designed to examine teacher power in the classroom) proposed and sequentially tested a heuristic model of student affective learning as a function of behavior alteration techniques and teacher…

  5. Nonverbal behavior observation : collaborative gaming method for prediction of conflicts during long-term missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voynarovskaya, N.; Gorbunov, R.D.; Barakova, E.I.; Ahn, R.M.C.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Yang, H.S.; et al., xx

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method for monitoring mental state of small isolated crews during long-term missions (such as space mission, polar expeditions, submarine crews, meteorological stations, and etc). It combines the records of negotiation game with monitoring of the nonverbal behavior of the

  6. All eyes on the patient: the influence of oncologists' nonverbal communication on breast cancer patients' trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillen, Marij A.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Bijker, Nina; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W. M.; Vermeulen, Daniëlle M.; Smets, Ellen M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Trust in the oncologist is crucial for breast cancer patients. It reduces worry, enhances decision making, and stimulates adherence. Optimal nonverbal communication by the oncologist, particularly eye contact, body posture, and smiling, presumably benefits patients' trust. We were the first to

  7. Cultural Difference in Stereotype Perceptions and Performances in Nonverbal Deductive Reasoning and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Regine; Niu, Weihua

    2013-01-01

    A total of 182 undergraduate students from China and the United States participated in a study examining the presence of stereotypical perceptions regarding creativity and deductive reasoning abilities, as well as the influence of stereotype on participants' performance on deductive reasoning and creativity in nonverbal form. The results showed…

  8. Anxiety and Depression in Children with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities, Reading Disabilities, or Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammarella, Irene C.; Ghisi, Marta; Bomba, Monica; Bottesi, Gioia; Caviola, Sara; Broggi, Fiorenza; Nacinovich, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of the present study was to shed further light on the psychological characteristics of children with different learning disability profiles aged between 8 and 11 years, attending from third to sixth grade. Specifically, children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD), reading disabilities (RD), or a typical development (TD) were…

  9. Measurement of Nonverbal IQ in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Scores in Young Adulthood Compared to Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Somer L.; Farmer, Cristan; Thurm, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) was examined in 84 individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) followed from age 2 to 19. Most adults who scored in the range of intellectual disability also received scores below 70 as children, and the majority of adults with scores in the average range had scored in this range by age 3. However, within the lower ranges…

  10. Non-verbal communication between primary care physicians and older patients: how does race matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanikova, Irena; Zhang, Qian; Wieland, Darryl; Eleazer, G Paul; Stewart, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Non-verbal communication is an important aspect of the diagnostic and therapeutic process, especially with older patients. It is unknown how non-verbal communication varies with physician and patient race. To examine the joint influence of physician race and patient race on non-verbal communication displayed by primary care physicians during medical interviews with patients 65 years or older. Video-recordings of visits of 209 patients 65 years old or older to 30 primary care physicians at three clinics located in the Midwest and Southwest. Duration of physicians' open body position, eye contact, smile, and non-task touch, coded using an adaption of the Nonverbal Communication in Doctor-Elderly Patient Transactions form. African American physicians with African American patients used more open body position, smile, and touch, compared to the average across other dyads (adjusted mean difference for open body position = 16.55, p non-verbal communication with older patients. Its influence is best understood when physician race and patient race are considered jointly.

  11. An executable model of the interaction between verbal and non-verbal communication.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, W.C.A.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an executable generic process model is proposed for combined verbal and non-verbal communication processes and their interaction. The model has been formalised by three-levelled partial temporal models, covering both the material and mental processes and their relations. The generic

  12. Consonant Differentiation Mediates the Discrepancy between Non-verbal and Verbal Abilities in Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, A. P.; Yoder, P. J.; Stone, W. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate verbal communication disorders reflected in lower verbal than non-verbal abilities. The present study examined the extent to which this discrepancy is associated with atypical speech sound differentiation. Methods: Differences in the amplitude of auditory event-related…

  13. Non-Verbal Communication Training: An Avenue for University Professionalizing Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazaille, Mariane

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with today's workplace expectations, many university programs identify the ability to communicate as a crucial asset for future professionals. Yet, if the teaching of verbal communication is clearly identifiable in most university programs, the same cannot be said of non-verbal communication (NVC). Knowing the importance of the…

  14. An Executable Model of the Interaction between Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, W.C.A.; Dignum, F.; Greaves, M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an executable generic process model is proposed for combined verbal and non-verbal communication processes and their interaction. The model has been formalised by three-levelled partial temporal models, covering both the material and mental processes and their relations. The generic

  15. Automated Video Analysis of Non-verbal Communication in a Medical Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Yuval; Czerniak, Efrat; Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Mayo, Avraham E; Ziv, Amitai; Biegon, Anat; Citron, Atay; Alon, Uri

    2016-01-01

    Non-verbal communication plays a significant role in establishing good rapport between physicians and patients and may influence aspects of patient health outcomes. It is therefore important to analyze non-verbal communication in medical settings. Current approaches to measure non-verbal interactions in medicine employ coding by human raters. Such tools are labor intensive and hence limit the scale of possible studies. Here, we present an automated video analysis tool for non-verbal interactions in a medical setting. We test the tool using videos of subjects that interact with an actor portraying a doctor. The actor interviews the subjects performing one of two scripted scenarios of interviewing the subjects: in one scenario the actor showed minimal engagement with the subject. The second scenario included active listening by the doctor and attentiveness to the subject. We analyze the cross correlation in total kinetic energy of the two people in the dyad, and also characterize the frequency spectrum of their motion. We find large differences in interpersonal motion synchrony and entrainment between the two performance scenarios. The active listening scenario shows more synchrony and more symmetric followership than the other scenario. Moreover, the active listening scenario shows more high-frequency motion termed jitter that has been recently suggested to be a marker of followership. The present approach may be useful for analyzing physician-patient interactions in terms of synchrony and dominance in a range of medical settings.

  16. Quality Matters! Differences between Expressive and Receptive Non-Verbal Communication Skills in Adolescents with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Ruth B.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed several studies of non-verbal communication (prosody and facial expressions) completed in our lab and conducted a secondary analysis to compare performance on receptive vs. expressive tasks by adolescents with ASD and their typically developing peers. Results show a significant between-group difference for the aggregate score of…

  17. Interpersonal Interactions in Instrumental Lessons: Teacher/Student Verbal and Non-Verbal Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Katie

    2013-01-01

    This study examined verbal and non-verbal teacher/student interpersonal interactions in higher education instrumental music lessons. Twenty-four lessons were videotaped and teacher/student behaviours were analysed using a researcher-designed instrument. The findings indicate predominance of student and teacher joke among the verbal behaviours with…

  18. The Introduction of Non-Verbal Communication in Greek Education: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatis, Panagiotis J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The introductory part of this paper underlines the research interest of the educational community in the issue of non-verbal communication in education. The question for the introduction of this scientific field in Greek education enter within the context of this research which include many aspects. Method: The paper essentially…

  19. Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication and Coordination in Mission Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkhuyzen, Erik; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    In this talk I will present some video-materials gathered in Mission Control during simulations. The focus of the presentation will be on verbal and non-verbal communication between the officers in the front and backroom, especially the practices that have evolved around a peculiar communications technology called voice loops.

  20. Recognition, Expression, and Understanding Facial Expressions of Emotion in Adolescents with Nonverbal and General Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Elana; Heath, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD) have been found to be worse at recognizing facial expressions than children with verbal learning disabilities (LD) and without LD. However, little research has been done with adolescents. In addition, expressing and understanding facial expressions is yet to be studied among adolescents with LD…

  1. Dynamic assessment and instructional strategies for learners who struggle to learn a foreign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, E; Ganschow, L

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the authors discuss how the concept of dynamic (cognitive) assessment and instruction might relate to the assessment and instruction of at-risk foreign/second language learners. They describe its relevance to a diagnostic/prescriptive approach to instruction for teaching a foreign language to students with identified dyslexia and other at-risk students. They explain how to assess learners' knowledge of the native/foreign/second language through questions and guided discovery. Examples in German and English illustrate its application to foreign/second language instruction.

  2. Enhancing learners’ emotions in an L2 context through emotionalized dynamic assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Abdolrezapour

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to gain more in-depth understanding of students’ emotions in an EFL context by applying dynamic assessment (DA procedures to the development of learners’ emotional intelligence. The study with 50 intermediate learners aged 12-15 used three modalities: a control group, which was taught under institute’s normal procedures; a comparison group, which received DA; and an experimental group, which received emotionalized dynamic assessment (EDA procedures, in the form of an intervention focusing on emotional characteristics of Goleman's emotional intelligence framework with the express purpose of inducing them to work with their emotions. The study shows the potential of EDA for increasing one’s emotional intelligence and affords practical guidelines to language teachers as to how to incorporate behaviors relating to emotional intelligence into assessment procedures

  3. The usefulness of dynamic MRI for diagnosing and assessing sleep breathing disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriwaki, Hiroto; Uchida, Akira; Chiba, Sachiko; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Tokunaga, Masakazu

    2003-01-01

    Polysomnography is useful for assessing the severity of sleep breathing disorder, including obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome. The clinical condition is difficult to understand completely, however, based on the apnea hypopnea index (AHI) alone, however, and longitudinal change of shape in the upper airway must be clarified. Most diagnoses of obstructive sites in the upper airway were diagnosed statically, so we attempted to assess changes in upper airway shape using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), emphasizing the movement of tongue and lower chin, to analyze the relationship between AHI. Subjects were 62 patients with sleep breathing disorder examined by nocturnal polysomnography and dynamic MRI, assessing the change of shape in the upper airway. We concluded that: the group whose rotation angle of the tongue exceeded 6 deg and that the group whose distance of lower chin movement was longer during sleep than while awake were severe cases. (author)

  4. The usefulness of dynamic MRI for diagnosing and assessing sleep breathing disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriwaki, Hiroto; Uchida, Akira; Chiba, Sachiko; Moriyama, Hiroshi [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Chiba, Shintarou; Yagi, Asako; Ohta, Masaji [Ohta General Hospital, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Tokunaga, Masakazu [Kanagawa Prefecture Midwives and Nurses Training School (Japan). Hospital

    2003-04-01

    Polysomnography is useful for assessing the severity of sleep breathing disorder, including obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome. The clinical condition is difficult to understand completely, however, based on the apnea hypopnea index (AHI) alone, however, and longitudinal change of shape in the upper airway must be clarified. Most diagnoses of obstructive sites in the upper airway were diagnosed statically, so we attempted to assess changes in upper airway shape using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), emphasizing the movement of tongue and lower chin, to analyze the relationship between AHI. Subjects were 62 patients with sleep breathing disorder examined by nocturnal polysomnography and dynamic MRI, assessing the change of shape in the upper airway. We concluded that: the group whose rotation angle of the tongue exceeded 6 deg and that the group whose distance of lower chin movement was longer during sleep than while awake were severe cases. (author)

  5. Trauma team leaders' non-verbal communication: video registration during trauma team training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härgestam, Maria; Hultin, Magnus; Brulin, Christine; Jacobsson, Maritha

    2016-03-25

    There is widespread consensus on the importance of safe and secure communication in healthcare, especially in trauma care where time is a limiting factor. Although non-verbal communication has an impact on communication between individuals, there is only limited knowledge of how trauma team leaders communicate. The purpose of this study was to investigate how trauma team members are positioned in the emergency room, and how leaders communicate in terms of gaze direction, vocal nuances, and gestures during trauma team training. Eighteen trauma teams were audio and video recorded during trauma team training in the emergency department of a hospital in northern Sweden. Quantitative content analysis was used to categorize the team members' positions and the leaders' non-verbal communication: gaze direction, vocal nuances, and gestures. The quantitative data were interpreted in relation to the specific context. Time sequences of the leaders' gaze direction, speech time, and gestures were identified separately and registered as time (seconds) and proportions (%) of the total training time. The team leaders who gained control over the most important area in the emergency room, the "inner circle", positioned themselves as heads over the team, using gaze direction, gestures, vocal nuances, and verbal commands that solidified their verbal message. Changes in position required both attention and collaboration. Leaders who spoke in a hesitant voice, or were silent, expressed ambiguity in their non-verbal communication: and other team members took over the leader's tasks. In teams where the leader had control over the inner circle, the members seemed to have an awareness of each other's roles and tasks, knowing when in time and where in space these tasks needed to be executed. Deviations in the leaders' communication increased the ambiguity in the communication, which had consequences for the teamwork. Communication cannot be taken for granted; it needs to be practiced

  6. Who Are the Children Most Vulnerable to Social Exclusion? The Moderating Role of Self-Esteem, Popularity, and Nonverbal Intelligence on Cognitive Performance Following Social Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobia, Valentina; Riva, Paolo; Caprin, Claudia

    2017-05-01

    Social exclusion has a profound emotional impact on children. However, there is still limited and partly conflicting experimental evidence for the possible effect of social exclusion on children's cognitive performance. In the present study, we tested the possibility that some children are more vulnerable than others to the negative effects of social exclusion on cognitive performance. We selected 4 potential candidates that could moderate the effects of social exclusion: relational self-esteem, peer ratings of popularity, rejection sensitivity and nonverbal intelligence. Individual differences in these 4 potential moderating factors were first assessed in a sample of 318 children (45.6 % females; mean age = 9.92 years). Then, in a subsequent experimental session, the participants were either socially included or excluded using a typical manipulation (i.e., the Cyberball paradigm). Following the manipulation, the children's cognitive performance was assessed using a logical reasoning test. The results showed that the children with lower scores for relational self-esteem (the bottom 37.46 % of the sample), lower popularity (43.49 %) or weaker nonverbal intelligence (37.80 %) performed worse on the logical reasoning test following social exclusion. Moreover, children with combined low self-esteem, popularity and nonverbal intelligence were the most affected by social exclusion. This study identified factors that make some children more vulnerable to the negative effects of social exclusion. Overall, the present work underscores the value of considering basic cognitive and relational individual differences when developing interventions aimed at preventing the negative effects of social exclusion among children.

  7. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging for assessment of minimally invasive pelvic floor reconstruction with polypropylene implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegmann, Katja C.; Reisenauer, Christl; Speck, Sina; Barth, Sonja; Kraemer, Bernhard; Claussen, Claus D.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of the study was to assess the usefulness of dynamic MRI in patients with pelvic organ prolapse after pelvic floor repair with polypropylene mesh. Materials and methods: Fifteen consecutive patients (mean age 66.5 years) who were scheduled for either anterior (n = 9) or posterior (n = 6) pelvic floor repair were prospectively evaluated by clinical assessment and dynamic MRI 1 day before and 3 months after surgery. MRI diagnoses and MRI measurements of relevant anatomical points at rest and on straining were analysed before and after surgery. Results: At follow-up assessment 93.3% of all patients were clinically cured. Dynamic MRI showed newly developed (n = 6) or increased (n = 6) pelvic organ prolapse in 80% (n = 12) of all patients 3 months after pelvic floor repair. Most of them (n = 11; 91.7%) affected the untreated pelvic floor compartment. On straining anatomical points of reference in the anterior pelvic floor compartment were significantly (p < 0.05) elevated after anterior repair and rectal bulging was significantly (p = 0.036) reduced after posterior pelvic floor repair. Conclusions: In this study dynamic MRI could verify the effective support of anterior and posterior pelvic floor structures by anterior and posterior polypropylene implant respectively. But dynamic MRI demonstrates if one compartment of the pelvic floor is repaired another compartment frequently (73.3%) develops dysfunction. These results did not correspond to clinical symptoms on short-term follow-up (3 months). Studies with long-term follow-up are necessary to prove if dynamic MRI can reliably identify clinically significant pelvic organ prolapse after pelvic floor repair before the onset of symptoms.

  8. A Simplified Approach to Risk Assessment Based on System Dynamics: An Industrial Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbolino, Emmanuel; Chery, Jean-Pierre; Guarnieri, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Seveso plants are complex sociotechnical systems, which makes it appropriate to support any risk assessment with a model of the system. However, more often than not, this step is only partially addressed, simplified, or avoided in safety reports. At the same time, investigations have shown that the complexity of industrial systems is frequently a factor in accidents, due to interactions between their technical, human, and organizational dimensions. In order to handle both this complexity and changes in the system over time, this article proposes an original and simplified qualitative risk evaluation method based on the system dynamics theory developed by Forrester in the early 1960s. The methodology supports the development of a dynamic risk assessment framework dedicated to industrial activities. It consists of 10 complementary steps grouped into two main activities: system dynamics modeling of the sociotechnical system and risk analysis. This system dynamics risk analysis is applied to a case study of a chemical plant and provides a way to assess the technological and organizational components of safety. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Assessing the origins, evolution and prospects of the literature on dynamic capabilities: A bibliometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Albort-Morant

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to serve as orientation and guidance to academics that are starting or currently developing their research within the field of dynamic capabilities, in order to enhance their knowledge about which are the key scientific journals, authors and articles shaping this topic. This paper presents a bibliometric analysis on dynamic capabilities, making use of the Web of Science database to perform it. This analysis comprises fundamental issues such as (i the number of studies published per year, (ii the countries with the highest rate of productivity, (iii the most prolific and influential authors, (iv assessment of studies citing dynamic capabilities, and (v the most productive journals on dynamic capabilities and recent studies on this topic. Results reveal an exponential growth in the number of publications on dynamic capabilities for the 2000–2012 period. Although, since 2012 this growth has decelerated, the number of publications on this topic remains noteworthy. This study brings useful information for those academics and practitioners attempting to analyze and deepen within this particular field of research, at the same time that provides some insights concerning the future development and progress of the dynamic capabilities topic in the management, business and economics academic literature.

  10. A Web-Based Telehealth Training Platform Incorporating Automated Nonverbal Behavior Feedback for Teaching Communication Skills to Medical Students: A Randomized Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunfeng; Lim, Renee L; McCabe, Kathryn L; Taylor, Silas; Calvo, Rafael A

    2016-09-12

    In the interests of patient health outcomes, it is important for medical students to develop clinical communication skills. We previously proposed a telehealth communication skills training platform (EQClinic) with automated nonverbal behavior feedback for medical students, and it was able to improve medical students' awareness of their nonverbal communication. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of EQClinic to improve clinical communication skills of medical students. We conducted a 2-group randomized crossover trial between February and June 2016. Participants were second-year medical students enrolled in a clinical communication skills course at an Australian university. Students were randomly allocated to complete online EQClinic training during weeks 1-5 (group A) or to complete EQClinic training during weeks 8-11 (group B). EQClinic delivered an automated visual presentation of students' nonverbal behavior coupled with human feedback from a standardized patient (SP). All students were offered two opportunities to complete face-to-face consultations with SPs. The two face-to-face consultations were conducted in weeks 6-7 and 12-13 for both groups, and were rated by tutors who were blinded to group allocation. Student-Patient Observed Communication Assessment (SOCA) was collected by blinded assessors (n=28) at 2 time points and also by an SP (n=83). Tutor-rated clinical communications skill in face-to-face consultations was the primary outcome and was assessed with the SOCA. We used t tests to examine the students' performance during face-to-face consultations pre- and postexposure to EQClinic. We randomly allocated 268 medical students to the 2 groups (group A: n=133; group B: n=135). SOCA communication skills measures (score range 4-16) from the first face-to-face consultation were significantly higher for students in group A who had completed EQClinic training and reviewed the nonverbal behavior feedback, compared with group B, who had completed

  11. A Web-Based Telehealth Training Platform Incorporating Automated Nonverbal Behavior Feedback for Teaching Communication Skills to Medical Students: A Randomized Crossover Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background In the interests of patient health outcomes, it is important for medical students to develop clinical communication skills. We previously proposed a telehealth communication skills training platform (EQClinic) with automated nonverbal behavior feedback for medical students, and it was able to improve medical students’ awareness of their nonverbal communication. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of EQClinic to improve clinical communication skills of medical students. Methods We conducted a 2-group randomized crossover trial between February and June 2016. Participants were second-year medical students enrolled in a clinical communication skills course at an Australian university. Students were randomly allocated to complete online EQClinic training during weeks 1–5 (group A) or to complete EQClinic training during weeks 8–11 (group B). EQClinic delivered an automated visual presentation of students’ nonverbal behavior coupled with human feedback from a standardized patient (SP). All students were offered two opportunities to complete face-to-face consultations with SPs. The two face-to-face consultations were conducted in weeks 6–7 and 12–13 for both groups, and were rated by tutors who were blinded to group allocation. Student-Patient Observed Communication Assessment (SOCA) was collected by blinded assessors (n=28) at 2 time points and also by an SP (n=83). Tutor-rated clinical communications skill in face-to-face consultations was the primary outcome and was assessed with the SOCA. We used t tests to examine the students’ performance during face-to-face consultations pre- and postexposure to EQClinic. Results We randomly allocated 268 medical students to the 2 groups (group A: n=133; group B: n=135). SOCA communication skills measures (score range 4–16) from the first face-to-face consultation were significantly higher for students in group A who had completed EQClinic training and reviewed the nonverbal behavior

  12. Frontal brain deactivation during a non-verbal cognitive judgement bias test in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldimann, Kathrin; Vögeli, Sabine; Wolf, Martin; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2015-02-01

    Animal welfare concerns have raised an interest in animal affective states. These states also play an important role in the proximate control of behaviour. Due to their potential to modulate short-term emotional reactions, one specific focus is on long-term affective states, that is, mood. These states can be assessed by using non-verbal cognitive judgement bias paradigms. Here, we conducted a spatial variant of such a test on 24 focal animals that were kept under either unpredictable, stimulus-poor or predictable, stimulus-rich housing conditions to induce differential mood states. Based on functional near-infrared spectroscopy, we measured haemodynamic frontal brain reactions during 10 s in which the sheep could observe the configuration of the cognitive judgement bias trial before indicating their assessment based on the go/no-go reaction. We used (generalised) mixed-effects models to evaluate the data. Sheep from the unpredictable, stimulus-poor housing conditions took longer and were less likely to reach the learning criterion and reacted slightly more optimistically in the cognitive judgement bias test than sheep from the predictable, stimulus-rich housing conditions. A frontal cortical increase in deoxy-haemoglobin [HHb] and a decrease in oxy-haemoglobin [O2Hb] were observed during the visual assessment of the test situation by the sheep, indicating a frontal cortical brain deactivation. This deactivation was more pronounced with the negativity of the test situation, which was reflected by the provenance of the sheep from the unpredictable, stimulus-poor housing conditions, the proximity of the cue to the negatively reinforced cue location, or the absence of a go reaction in the trial. It seems that (1) sheep from the unpredictable, stimulus-poor in comparison to sheep from the predictable, stimulus-rich housing conditions dealt less easily with the test conditions rich in stimuli, that (2) long-term housing conditions seemingly did not influence mood

  13. Do organizational strategies mediate nonverbal memory impairment in drug-naïve patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Na Young; Kang, Do-Hyung; Choi, Jung-Seok; Jung, Myung Hun; Jang, Joon Hwan; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2010-07-01

    The present study aimed to examine nonverbal memory and organizational skill functions in psychotropic-naïve patients with OCD. Forty-one drug-naïve, 41 medicated OCD patients and 41 healthy controls, all of whom were matched for gender, age, education and intelligence, were included in the study. The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (RCFT) was administered to evaluate nonverbal memory ability and organizational skill. OCD patients demonstrated impaired nonverbal memory irrespective of medication status (F = 6.54, p organizational strategies (eta(2)p = .079), which mediated nonverbal memory impairment (Z = -2.20, p = .027). The difference of organizational skill between drug-naïve and control groups did not reach statistical significance (eta(2)p = .054) and the association between organization and nonverbal memory was weak in the drug-naïve sample (Z = -1.74, = .081). There was no significant difference between the patient groups in RCFT indices. Our findings suggest that the organizational strategies may not be an effective mediator of nonverbal memory impairment in OCD and indicate that the clinical characteristics may be important to be considered in future research. Further studies are needed to improve understanding of the nature of nonverbal memory dysfunction in OCD.

  14. The Use of Dynamic Assessment to Evaluate Narrative Language Learning in Children with Hearing Loss: Three Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Areej Nimer; Hand, Linda; Fairgray, Liz; Purdy, Suzanne Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    The primary objectives of this research were to establish whether dynamic assessment could be implemented in children with hearing loss with a range of language abilities and to obtain pilot data to support the use of dynamic assessment for determining narrative language learning difficulties in children with hearing loss. Participants were three…

  15. A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach for contaminated sites management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yan; Wen, Jing-ya; Li, Xiao-li; Wang, Da-zhou; Li, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Using interval mathematics to describe spatial and temporal variability and parameter uncertainty. • Using fuzzy theory to quantify variability of environmental guideline values. • Using probabilistic approach to integrate interval concentrations and fuzzy environmental guideline. • Establishment of dynamic multimedia environmental integrated risk assessment framework. -- Abstract: A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach was developed for contaminated sites management. The contaminant concentrations were simulated by a validated interval dynamic multimedia fugacity model, and different guideline values for the same contaminant were represented as a fuzzy environmental guideline. Then, the probability of violating environmental guideline (Pv) can be determined by comparison between the modeled concentrations and the fuzzy environmental guideline, and the constructed relationship between the Pvs and environmental risk levels was used to assess the environmental risk level. The developed approach was applied to assess the integrated environmental risk at a case study site in China, simulated from 1985 to 2020. Four scenarios were analyzed, including “residential land” and “industrial land” environmental guidelines under “strict” and “loose” strictness. It was found that PAH concentrations will increase steadily over time, with soil found to be the dominant sink. Source emission in soil was the leading input and atmospheric sedimentation was the dominant transfer process. The integrated environmental risks primarily resulted from petroleum spills and coke ovens, while the soil environmental risks came from coal combustion. The developed approach offers an effective tool for quantifying variability and uncertainty in the dynamic multimedia integrated environmental risk assessment and the contaminated site management

  16. Assessing the Expected Value of Research Studies in Reducing Uncertainty and Improving Implementation Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Sabine E; Dixon, Simon; Stevens, John W

    2017-07-01

    With low implementation of cost-effective health technologies being a problem in many health systems, it is worth considering the potential effects of research on implementation at the time of health technology assessment. Meaningful and realistic implementation estimates must be of dynamic nature. To extend existing methods for assessing the value of research studies in terms of both reduction of uncertainty and improvement in implementation by considering diffusion based on expert beliefs with and without further research conditional on the strength of evidence. We use expected value of sample information and expected value of specific implementation measure concepts accounting for the effects of specific research studies on implementation and the reduction of uncertainty. Diffusion theory and elicitation of expert beliefs about the shape of diffusion curves inform implementation dynamics. We illustrate use of the resulting dynamic expected value of research in a preterm birth screening technology and results are compared with those from a static analysis. Allowing for diffusion based on expert beliefs had a significant impact on the expected value of research in the case study, suggesting that mistakes are made where static implementation levels are assumed. Incorporating the effects of research on implementation resulted in an increase in the expected value of research compared to the expected value of sample information alone. Assessing the expected value of research in reducing uncertainty and improving implementation dynamics has the potential to complement currently used analyses in health technology assessments, especially in recommendations for further research. The combination of expected value of research, diffusion theory, and elicitation described in this article is an important addition to the existing methods of health technology assessment.

  17. A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach for contaminated sites management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yan; Wen, Jing-ya; Li, Xiao-li; Wang, Da-zhou; Li, Yu, E-mail: liyuxx8@hotmail.com

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Using interval mathematics to describe spatial and temporal variability and parameter uncertainty. • Using fuzzy theory to quantify variability of environmental guideline values. • Using probabilistic approach to integrate interval concentrations and fuzzy environmental guideline. • Establishment of dynamic multimedia environmental integrated risk assessment framework. -- Abstract: A dynamic multimedia fuzzy-stochastic integrated environmental risk assessment approach was developed for contaminated sites management. The contaminant concentrations were simulated by a validated interval dynamic multimedia fugacity model, and different guideline values for the same contaminant were represented as a fuzzy environmental guideline. Then, the probability of violating environmental guideline (Pv) can be determined by comparison between the modeled concentrations and the fuzzy environmental guideline, and the constructed relationship between the Pvs and environmental risk levels was used to assess the environmental risk level. The developed approach was applied to assess the integrated environmental risk at a case study site in China, simulated from 1985 to 2020. Four scenarios were analyzed, including “residential land” and “industrial land” environmental guidelines under “strict” and “loose” strictness. It was found that PAH concentrations will increase steadily over time, with soil found to be the dominant sink. Source emission in soil was the leading input and atmospheric sedimentation was the dominant transfer process. The integrated environmental risks primarily resulted from petroleum spills and coke ovens, while the soil environmental risks came from coal combustion. The developed approach offers an effective tool for quantifying variability and uncertainty in the dynamic multimedia integrated environmental risk assessment and the contaminated site management.

  18. Real-time feedback on nonverbal clinical communication. Theoretical framework and clinician acceptance of ambient visual design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzler, A L; Patel, R A; Czerwinski, M; Pratt, W; Roseway, A; Chandrasekaran, N; Back, A

    2014-01-01

    This article is part of the focus theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Pervasive Intelligent Technologies for Health". Effective nonverbal communication between patients and clinicians fosters both the delivery of empathic patient-centered care and positive patient outcomes. Although nonverbal skill training is a recognized need, few efforts to enhance patient-clinician communication provide visual feedback on nonverbal aspects of the clinical encounter. We describe a novel approach that uses social signal processing technology (SSP) to capture nonverbal cues in real time and to display ambient visual feedback on control and affiliation--two primary, yet distinct dimensions of interpersonal nonverbal communication. To examine the design and clinician acceptance of ambient visual feedback on nonverbal communication, we 1) formulated a model of relational communication to ground SSP and 2) conducted a formative user study using mixed methods to explore the design of visual feedback. Based on a model of relational communication, we reviewed interpersonal communication research to map nonverbal cues to signals of affiliation and control evidenced in patient-clinician interaction. Corresponding with our formulation of this theoretical framework, we designed ambient real-time visualizations that reflect variations of affiliation and control. To explore clinicians' acceptance of this visual feedback, we conducted a lab study using the Wizard-of-Oz technique to simulate system use with 16 healthcare professionals. We followed up with seven of those participants through interviews to iterate on the design with a revised visualization that addressed emergent design considerations. Ambient visual feedback on non- verbal communication provides a theoretically grounded and acceptable way to provide clinicians with awareness of their nonverbal communication style. We provide implications for the design of such visual feedback that encourages empathic patient

  19. Application of the Integrated Safety Assessment methodology to safety margins. Dynamic Event Trees, Damage Domains and Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibánez, L.; Hortal, J.; Queral, C.; Gómez-Magán, J.; Sánchez-Perea, M.; Fernández, I.; Meléndez, E.; Expósito, A.; Izquierdo, J.M.; Gil, J.; Marrao, H.; Villalba-Jabonero, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Safety Assessment (ISA) methodology, developed by the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, has been applied to an analysis of Zion NPP for sequences with Loss of the Component Cooling Water System (CCWS). The ISA methodology proposal starts from the unfolding of the Dynamic Event Tree (DET). Results from this first step allow assessing the sequence delineation of standard Probabilistic Safety Analysis results. For some sequences of interest of the outlined DET, ISA then identifies the Damage Domain (DD). This is the region of uncertain times and/or parameters where a safety limit is exceeded, which indicates the occurrence of certain damage situation. This paper illustrates application of this concept obtained simulating sequences with MAAP and with TRACE. From information of simulation results of sequence transients belonging to the DD and the time-density probability distributions of the manual actions and of occurrence of stochastic phenomena, ISA integrates the dynamic reliability equations proposed to obtain the sequence contribution to the global Damage Exceedance Frequency (DEF). Reported results show a slight increase in the DEF for sequences investigated following a power uprate from 100% to 110%. This demonstrates the potential use of the method to help in the assessment of design modifications. - Highlights: • This paper illustrates an application of the ISA methodology to safety margins. • Dynamic Event Trees are useful tool for verifying the standard PSA Event Trees. • The ISA methodology takes into account the uncertainties in human action times. • The ISA methodology shows the Damage Exceedance Frequency increase in power uprates.

  20. Understanding the assistance dynamic of the psychiatric emergency service using the fourth generation assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Aparecida Buriola

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A study to comprehend the requests, concerns, and questions of professionals about the assistance dynamic of a psychiatric emergency service. We conducted a case study, using the Fourth Generation assessment method, with 15 participants. We collected data using documental analysis, semi-structured interview and observation and, we used the constant comparative method for analysis. Therefore, two thematic axes arose: a Comprehending the assistance dynamic of the Psychiatric emergency service and, b The disarticulation of the psychosocial attention network as a barrier to satisfaction with the assistance in the psychiatric emergency. We considered that the assistance dynamic in the Psychiatric Emergency extrapolated the simple, unique character of stabilizing patients with acute mental disorders, once it directs the user’s flow to the adequate treatment in the psychosocial attention network.

  1. Dynamic Model of a Structure Carrying Stationary Humans and Assessment of its Response to Walking Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    A flooring-system, e.g. a floor in a building, is excited dynamically when a person walks across the floor, and resonant excitation might bring structural vibrations to unacceptable levels. Stationary (non-moving) crowds of people might be present on the same floor and they will sense the floor...... vibrations, but they will also interact dynamically with the floor in a passive sense, thus altering the dynamic system excited to vibration by the walking person. Consequently, the vibration level of the floor is likely to depend on the presence and size of the stationary crowd. It is also known...... that different techniques (different parameters calculated from structural response time series) are proposed for assessing floor serviceability. The paper looks into the influence of the stationary crowd of people on the floor response to walking excitation and into the influence of the crowd on different...

  2. Roller pressure algometry as a new tool for assessing dynamic pressure sensitivity in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero-Peral, Ángel L.; Ruíz, Marina; Barón, Johanna

    2018-01-01

    from 500 to 5300 g. Each roller was moved at a speed of 0.5 cm/sec over a 60 mm horizontal line covering the temporalis muscle. The dynamic pain threshold (the pressure level of the first painful roller) and pain elicited during the pain threshold (roller evoked pain) were determined. Static pressure...... pain thresholds were assessed over the temporalis muscle, C5/C6 joint, second metacarpal, and tibialis anterior. Results Side-to-side consistency between dynamic pain threshold (rs = 0.769, p ... was slightly stronger in chronic migraine. Pain during dynamic pain threshold was negatively associated with widespread pressure pain thresholds (-0.336 

  3. Information sensitivity functions to assess parameter information gain and identifiability of dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Sanjay

    2018-05-01

    A new class of functions, called the 'information sensitivity functions' (ISFs), which quantify the information gain about the parameters through the measurements/observables of a dynamical system are presented. These functions can be easily computed through classical sensitivity functions alone and are based on Bayesian and information-theoretic approaches. While marginal information gain is quantified by decrease in differential entropy, correlations between arbitrary sets of parameters are assessed through mutual information. For individual parameters, these information gains are also presented as marginal posterior variances, and, to assess the effect of correlations, as conditional variances when other parameters are given. The easy to interpret ISFs can be used to (a) identify time intervals or regions in dynamical system behaviour where information about the parameters is concentrated; (b) assess the effect of measurement noise on the information gain for the parameters; (c) assess whether sufficient information in an experimental protocol (input, measurements and their frequency) is available to identify the parameters; (d) assess correlation in the posterior distribution of the parameters to identify the sets of parameters that are likely to be indistinguishable; and (e) assess identifiability problems for particular sets of parameters. © 2018 The Authors.

  4. Achieving visibility? Use of non-verbal communication in interactions between patients and pharmacists who do not share a common language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Fiona

    2014-06-01

    Despite the seemingly insatiable interest in healthcare professional-patient communication, less attention has been paid to the use of non-verbal communication in medical consultations. This article considers pharmacists' and patients' use of non-verbal communication to interact directly in consultations in which they do not share a common language. In total, 12 video-recorded, interpreted pharmacy consultations concerned with a newly prescribed medication or a change in medication were analysed in detail. The analysis focused on instances of direct communication initiated by either the patient or the pharmacist, despite the presence of a multilingual pharmacy assistant acting as an interpreter. Direct communication was shown to occur through (i) the demonstration of a medical device, (ii) the indication of relevant body parts and (iii) the use of limited English. These connections worked to make patients and pharmacists visible to each other and thus to maintain a sense of mutual involvement in consultations within which patients and pharmacists could enact professionally and socially appropriate roles. In a multicultural society this work is important in understanding the dynamics involved in consultations in situations in which language is not shared and thus in considering the development of future research and policy. © 2014 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL (SHIL).

  5. A survey of dynamic methodologies for probabilistic safety assessment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldemir, Tunc

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Dynamic methodologies for probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) are surveyed. ► These methodologies overcome the limitations of the traditional approach to PSA. ► They are suitable for PSA using a best estimate plus uncertainty approach. ► They are highly computation intensive and produce very large number of scenarios. ► Use of scenario clustering can assist the analysis of the results. -- Abstract: Dynamic methodologies for probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) are defined as those which use a time-dependent phenomenological model of system evolution along with its stochastic behavior to account for possible dependencies between failure events. Over the past 30 years, numerous concerns have been raised in the literature regarding the capability of the traditional static modeling approaches such as the event-tree/fault-tree methodology to adequately account for the impact of process/hardware/software/firmware/human interactions on the stochastic system behavior. A survey of the types of dynamic PSA methodologies proposed to date is presented, as well as a brief summary of an example application for the PSA modeling of a digital feedwater control system of an operating pressurized water reactor. The use of dynamic methodologies for PSA modeling of passive components and phenomenological uncertainties are also discussed.

  6. Dynamic value assessments in oncology supported by the PACE Continuous Innovation Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Silvia; Goodman, Clifford; Shortenhaus, Scott; Grainger, David; Zummo, Jacqueline; Thomas, Samuel

    2017-10-01

    Several recently developed frameworks aim to assess the value of cancer treatments, but the most appropriate metrics remain uncertain. We use data from the Patient Access to Cancer care Excellence Continuous Innovation Indicators to examine the relationship between hazard ratios (HRs) from clinical trials and dynamic therapeutic value accumulating over time. Our analysis shows that HRs from initial clinical trials poorly predict the eventual therapeutic value of cancer treatments. Relying strongly on HRs from registration trials to predict the long-term success of treatments leaves a lot of the variance unexplained. The Continuous Innovation Indicators offer a complementing, dynamic method to track the therapeutic value of cancer treatments and continuously update value assessments as additional evidence accumulates.

  7. A generalised Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA) for Real Time Control of urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Grum, Morten

    2014-01-01

    An innovative and generalised approach to the integrated Real Time Control of urban drainage systems is presented. The Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA) strategy aims to minimise the expected Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) risk by considering (i) the water volume presently stored in the drai......An innovative and generalised approach to the integrated Real Time Control of urban drainage systems is presented. The Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA) strategy aims to minimise the expected Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) risk by considering (i) the water volume presently stored...... and their uncertainty contributed to further improving the performance of drainage systems. The results of this paper will contribute to the wider usage of global RTC methods in the management of urban drainage networks....

  8. A generalized Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA) for urban drainage RTC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Grum, Morten

    2012-01-01

    An innovative generalized approach for integrated real time control of urban drainage systems is presented. The Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA) strategy tries to minimize the expected overflow risk by considering (i) the water volume presently stored in the drainage network, (ii) the expe......An innovative generalized approach for integrated real time control of urban drainage systems is presented. The Dynamic Overflow Risk Assessment (DORA) strategy tries to minimize the expected overflow risk by considering (i) the water volume presently stored in the drainage network, (ii...... to reduce Combined Sewer Overflow loads and to optimize the flow discharged to the wastewater treatment plant. Also, the inclusion of forecasts and their uncertainty contributed to further improve the performance of drainage systems. The results of this paper will contribute to a wider usage of global RTC...

  9. Climate impacts of bioenergy: Inclusion of carbon cycle and albedo dynamics in life cycle impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, Ryan M.; Cherubini, Francesco; Strømman, Anders H.

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) can be an invaluable tool for the structured environmental impact assessment of bioenergy product systems. However, the methodology's static temporal and spatial scope combined with its restriction to emission-based metrics in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) inhibits its effectiveness at assessing climate change impacts that stem from dynamic land surface–atmosphere interactions inherent to all biomass-based product systems. In this paper, we focus on two dynamic issues related to anthropogenic land use that can significantly influence the climate impacts of bioenergy systems: i) temporary changes to the terrestrial carbon cycle; and ii) temporary changes in land surface albedo—and illustrate how they can be integrated within the LCA framework. In the context of active land use management for bioenergy, we discuss these dynamics and their relevancy and outline the methodological steps that would be required to derive case-specific biogenic CO 2 and albedo change characterization factors for inclusion in LCIA. We demonstrate our concepts and metrics with application to a case study of transportation biofuel sourced from managed boreal forest biomass in northern Europe. We derive GWP indices for three land management cases of varying site productivities to illustrate the importance and need to consider case- or region-specific characterization factors for bioenergy product systems. Uncertainties and limitations of the proposed metrics are discussed. - Highlights: ► A method for including temporary surface albedo and carbon cycle changes in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) is elaborated. ► Concepts are applied to a single bioenergy case whereby a range of feedstock productivities are shown to influence results. ► Results imply that case- and site-specific characterization factors can be essential for a more informed impact assessment. ► Uncertainties and limitations of the proposed methodologies are elaborated.

  10. The physical and mathematical model of dynamic economic analysis and assessment for NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jiming

    1992-01-01

    A set physical and mathematical model of dynamic economic analysis referring to international general sub-item and account of investment and constant money levelized model and combining current economic analysis method in China for nuclear power plant was established. The model can be used in economic analysis not only for nuclear power plant but also for coal-fired power plant and can satisfy demand of doing economic analysis and assessment for nuclear power plant and conventional power plant

  11. Local Dynamic Stability Assessment of Motion Impaired Elderly Using Electronic Textile Pants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Lockhart, Thurmon E; Jones, Mark; Martin, Tom

    2008-10-01

    A clear association has been demonstrated between gait stability and falls in the elderly. Integration of wearable computing and human dynamic stability measures into home automation systems may help differentiate fall-prone individuals in a residential environment. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the capability of a pair of electronic textile (e-textile) pants system to assess local dynamic stability and to differentiate motion-impaired elderly from their healthy counterparts. A pair of e-textile pants comprised of numerous e-TAGs at locations corresponding to lower extremity joints was developed to collect acceleration, angular velocity and piezoelectric data. Four motion-impaired elderly together with nine healthy individuals (both young and old) participated in treadmill walking with a motion capture system simultaneously collecting kinematic data. Local dynamic stability, characterized by maximum Lyapunov exponent, was computed based on vertical acceleration and angular velocity at lower extremity joints for the measurements from both e-textile and motion capture systems. Results indicated that the motion-impaired elderly had significantly higher maximum Lyapunov exponents (computed from vertical acceleration data) than healthy individuals at the right ankle and hip joints. In addition, maximum Lyapunov exponents assessed by the motion capture system were found to be significantly higher than those assessed by the e-textile system. Despite the difference between these measurement techniques, attaching accelerometers at the ankle and hip joints was shown to be an effective sensor configuration. It was concluded that the e-textile pants system, via dynamic stability assessment, has the potential to identify motion-impaired elderly.

  12. Dynamic Assessment of COTS Converters-based DC Integrated Power Systems in Electric Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francés, Airán; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Diaz, Enrique Rodriguez

    2018-01-01

    , power electronics play a key role in linking the different elements of the power architecture. Moreover, the transition towards a dc distribution, which has already been established in other applications, is being regarded as a promising alternative to ease the integration of renewable sources......-level controllers, design protections or assess the compliance of the system dynamics with the standards. Experimental results are included in order to validate the proposed method....

  13. Technical Note: Description and assessment of a nudged version of the new dynamics Unified Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Morgenstern

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a "nudged" version of the Met Office general circulation model, the Unified Model. We constrain this global climate model using ERA-40 re-analysis data with the aim of reproducing the observed "weather" over a year from September 1999. Quantitative assessments are made of its performance, focusing on dynamical aspects of nudging and demonstrating that the "weather" is well simulated.

  14. INTERACTIONIST DYNAMIC ASSESSMENT IN ACADEMIC PERSUASIVE WRITING: A CASE OF TWO EFL LEARNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra kheradmand Saadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of interactionist dynamic assessment on improving academic persuasive writing of two Iranian EFL learners majoring in English Language and Literature. Qualitative analysis of the interactions between the mediator and learners and the drafts written by the learners indicated that using different types of mediation were effective in developing learners’ persuasive writing. In addition to the factors such as individual, time, and language feature which were shown to be integral in determining mediation, assessment of the two cases showed that factors such as mediator’s role, learners’ responsiveness to mediation, and agency were important in specifying mediation.

  15. System dynamic simulation: A new method in social impact assessment (SIA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karami, Shobeir, E-mail: shobeirkarami@gmail.com [Agricultural Extension and Education, Shiraz University (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karami, Ezatollah, E-mail: ekarami@shirazu.ac.ir [Agricultural Extension and Education, Shiraz University (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Buys, Laurie, E-mail: l.buys@qut.edu.au [Creative Industries Faculty, School of Design, Queensland University of Technology (Australia); Drogemuller, Robin, E-mail: robin.drogemuller@qut.edu.au [Creative Industries Faculty, School of Design, Queensland University of Technology (Australia)

    2017-01-15

    Many complex social questions are difficult to address adequately with conventional methods and techniques, due to the complicated dynamics, and hard to quantify social processes. Despite these difficulties researchers and practitioners have attempted to use conventional methods not only in evaluative modes but also in predictive modes to inform decision making. The effectiveness of SIAs would be increased if they were used to support the project design processes. This requires deliberate use of lessons from retrospective assessments to inform predictive assessments. Social simulations may be a useful tool for developing a predictive SIA method. There have been limited attempts to develop computer simulations that allow social impacts to be explored and understood before implementing development projects. In light of this argument, this paper aims to introduce system dynamic (SD) simulation as a new predictive SIA method in large development projects. We propose the potential value of the SD approach to simulate social impacts of development projects. We use data from the SIA of Gareh-Bygone floodwater spreading project to illustrate the potential of SD simulation in SIA. It was concluded that in comparison to traditional SIA methods SD simulation can integrate quantitative and qualitative inputs from different sources and methods and provides a more effective and dynamic assessment of social impacts for development projects. We recommend future research to investigate the full potential of SD in SIA in comparing different situations and scenarios.

  16. Exploring transcendence in EFL learners’ reading comprehension through computerized dynamic assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Ebadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Derived from Vygotsky’s works, dynamic assessment (DA enables learners to move beyond their current level of functioning through offering needs-sensitized mediation. This study aimed at exploring the learners’ development in novel and increasingly more challenging situations called transcendence (TR in an L2 context focusing on reading comprehension through computerized dynamic assessment (CDA. An overall number of 32 BA TEFL advanced students were selected from among undergraduates of a university in Iran to participate in this study. To fulfil the purpose of the study, the researchers developed Computerized Dynamic Reading Assessment to examine Transcendence (CDRAT software which included reading comprehension CDA tests. To monitor the maintenance of learning in different time intervals, two software programs named CDRAT1 and CDRAT2 were utilized in specific time intervals after the posttest. The results indicated that not only did increased task complexity not lead to regression of students’ development, but also it had an effect on enhancing their development. Thus, transcendence had an effect on the generalizability of the contentions to a great extent. In conclusion, it was disclosed that there is no endpoint to progress and merely gaining a low or high score should not be interpreted as the inability of a special learner to surpass. This would more reinforce the need for applying TR in other future DA studies.

  17. System dynamic simulation: A new method in social impact assessment (SIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karami, Shobeir; Karami, Ezatollah; Buys, Laurie; Drogemuller, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Many complex social questions are difficult to address adequately with conventional methods and techniques, due to the complicated dynamics, and hard to quantify social processes. Despite these difficulties researchers and practitioners have attempted to use conventional methods not only in evaluative modes but also in predictive modes to inform decision making. The effectiveness of SIAs would be increased if they were used to support the project design processes. This requires deliberate use of lessons from retrospective assessments to inform predictive assessments. Social simulations may be a useful tool for developing a predictive SIA method. There have been limited attempts to develop computer simulations that allow social impacts to be explored and understood before implementing development projects. In light of this argument, this paper aims to introduce system dynamic (SD) simulation as a new predictive SIA method in large development projects. We propose the potential value of the SD approach to simulate social impacts of development projects. We use data from the SIA of Gareh-Bygone floodwater spreading project to illustrate the potential of SD simulation in SIA. It was concluded that in comparison to traditional SIA methods SD simulation can integrate quantitative and qualitative inputs from different sources and methods and provides a more effective and dynamic assessment of social impacts for development projects. We recommend future research to investigate the full potential of SD in SIA in comparing different situations and scenarios.

  18. Integrated earth system dynamic modeling for life cycle impact assessment of ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbault, Damien; Rivière, Mylène; Rugani, Benedetto; Benetto, Enrico; Tiruta-Barna, Ligia

    2014-02-15

    Despite the increasing awareness of our dependence on Ecosystem Services (ES), Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) does not explicitly and fully assess the damages caused by human activities on ES generation. Recent improvements in LCIA focus on specific cause-effect chains, mainly related to land use changes, leading to Characterization Factors (CFs) at the midpoint assessment level. However, despite the complexity and temporal dynamics of ES, current LCIA approaches consider the environmental mechanisms underneath ES to be independent from each other and devoid of dynamic character, leading to constant CFs whose representativeness is debatable. This paper takes a step forward and is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of using an integrated earth system dynamic modeling perspective to retrieve time- and scenario-dependent CFs that consider the complex interlinkages between natural processes delivering ES. The GUMBO (Global Unified Metamodel of the Biosphere) model is used to quantify changes in ES production in physical terms - leading to midpoint CFs - and changes in human welfare indicators, which are considered here as endpoint CFs. The interpretation of the obtained results highlights the key methodological challenges to be solved to consider this approach as a robust alternative to the mainstream rationale currently adopted in LCIA. Further research should focus on increasing the granularity of environmental interventions in the modeling tools to match current standards in LCA and on adapting the conceptual approach to a spatially-explicit integrated model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. SITUATION ASSESSMENT THROUGH MULTI-MODAL SENSING OF DYNAMIC ENVIRONMENTS TO SUPPORT COGNITIVE ROBOT CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atta Badii

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Awareness of emerging situations in a dynamic operational environment of a robotic assistive device is an essential capability of such a cognitive system, based on its effective and efficient assessment of the prevailing situation. This allows the system to interact with the environment in a sensible (semiautonomous / pro-active manner without the need for frequent interventions from a supervisor.  In this paper, we report a novel generic Situation Assessment Architecture for robotic systems directly assisting humans as developed in the CORBYS project. This paper presents the overall architecture for situation assessment and its application in proof-of-concept Demonstrators as developed and validated within the CORBYS project. These include a robotic human follower and a mobile gait rehabilitation robotic system. We present an overview of the structure and functionality of the Situation Assessment Architecture for robotic systems with results and observations as collected from initial validation on the two CORBYS Demonstrators.

  20. Life cycle based dynamic assessment coupled with multiple criteria decision analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohn, Joshua; Kalbar, Pradip; Birkved, Morten

    2017-01-01

    the service life of the building. This case study uses both the established and the coupled MCDA assessment methods to quantify and assess the balance of impacts between the production of mineral wool insulation versus the production of space heat. The use of TOPSIS method for calculating single scores......This work looks at coupling Life cycle assessment (LCA) with a dynamic inventory and multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to improve the validity and reliability of single score results for complex systems. This is done using the case study of a representative Danish single family home over...... not matter which impact assessment is applied. However, for the scenarios where other impact categories vary inversely or independently from the climate change impact indicator, such as with renewable energy production, there is need for a more unconventional method, such as the TOPSIS method...

  1. Global warming impact assessment of a crop residue gasification project—A dynamic LCA perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin; Chen, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A dynamic LCA is proposed considering time-varying factors. • Dynamic LCA is used to highlight GHG emission hotspots of gasification projects. • Indicators are proposed to reflect GHG emission performance. • Dynamic LCA alters the static LCA results. • Crop residue gasification project has high GHG abatement potential. - Abstract: Bioenergy from crop residues is one of the prevailing sustainable energy sources owing to the abundant reserves worldwide. Amongst a wide variety of energy conversion technologies, crop residue gasification has been regarded as promising owing to its higher energy efficiency than that of direct combustion. However, prior to large-scale application of crop residue gasification, the lifetime environmental performance should be investigated to shed light on sustainable strategies. As traditional static life cycle assessment (LCA) does not include temporal information for dynamic processes, we proposed a dynamic life cycle assessment approach, which improves the static LCA approach by considering time-varying factors, e.g., greenhouse gas characterization factors and energy intensity. As the gasification project can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) discharge compared with traditional direct fuel combustion, trade-offs between the benefits of global warming mitigation and the impact on global warming of crop residue gasification should be considered. Therefore, indicators of net global warming mitigation benefit and global warming impact mitigation period are put forward to justify the feasibility of the crop residue gasification project. The proposed dynamic LCA and indicators were then applied to estimate the life cycle global warming impact of a crop residue gasification system in China. Results show that the crop residue gasification project has high net global warming mitigation benefit and a short global warming impact mitigation period, indicating its prominent potential in alleviating global warming impact. During

  2. An information-theoretic approach to assess practical identifiability of parametric dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Sanjay; Lombardi, Damiano

    2015-10-01

    A new approach for assessing parameter identifiability of dynamical systems in a Bayesian setting is presented. The concept of Shannon entropy is employed to measure the inherent uncertainty in the parameters. The expected reduction in this uncertainty is seen as the amount of information one expects to gain about the parameters due to the availability of noisy measurements of the dynamical system. Such expected information gain is interpreted in terms of the variance of a hypothetical measurement device that can measure the parameters directly, and is related to practical identifiability of the parameters. If the individual parameters are unidentifiable, correlation between parameter combinations is assessed through conditional mutual information to determine which sets of parameters can be identified together. The information theoretic quantities of entropy and information are evaluated numerically through a combination of Monte Carlo and k-nearest neighbour methods in a non-parametric fashion. Unlike many methods to evaluate identifiability proposed in the literature, the proposed approach takes the measurement-noise into account and is not restricted to any particular noise-structure. Whilst computationally intensive for large dynamical systems, it is easily parallelisable and is non-intrusive as it does not necessitate re-writing of the numerical solvers of the dynamical system. The application of such an approach is presented for a variety of dynamical systems--ranging from systems governed by ordinary differential equations to partial differential equations--and, where possible, validated against results previously published in the literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nonverbal behavioral similarity between patients with depression in remission and interviewers in relation to satisfaction and recurrence of depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Erwin; van Os, Titus; Ormel, Johan; Bouhuys, Netty

    2006-01-01

    Unsatisfying interpersonal relationships are involved in the onset and course of depression. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. In this study we investigated the nonverbal communication between 101 patients with remitted depression and interviewers. We related the interaction

  4. Combining operational models and data into a dynamic vessel risk assessment tool for coastal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, R.; Braunschweig, F.; Lourenço, F.; Neves, R.

    2016-02-01

    The technological evolution in terms of computational capacity, data acquisition systems, numerical modelling and operational oceanography is supplying opportunities for designing and building holistic approaches and complex tools for newer and more efficient management (planning, prevention and response) of coastal water pollution risk events. A combined methodology to dynamically estimate time and space variable individual vessel accident risk levels and shoreline contamination risk from ships has been developed, integrating numerical metocean forecasts and oil spill simulations with vessel tracking automatic identification systems (AIS). The risk rating combines the likelihood of an oil spill occurring from a vessel navigating in a study area - the Portuguese continental shelf - with the assessed consequences to the shoreline. The spill likelihood is based on dynamic marine weather conditions and statistical information from previous accidents. The shoreline consequences reflect the virtual spilled oil amount reaching shoreline and its environmental and socio-economic vulnerabilities. The oil reaching shoreline is quantified with an oil spill fate and behaviour model running multiple virtual spills from vessels along time, or as an alternative, a correction factor based on vessel distance from coast. Shoreline risks can be computed in real time or from previously obtained data. Results show the ability of the proposed methodology to estimate the risk properly sensitive to dynamic metocean conditions and to oil transport behaviour. The integration of meteo-oceanic + oil spill models with coastal vulnerability and AIS data in the quantification of risk enhances the maritime situational awareness and the decision support model, providing a more realistic approach in the assessment of shoreline impacts. The risk assessment from historical data can help finding typical risk patterns ("hot spots") or developing sensitivity analysis to specific conditions, whereas real

  5. How physician electronic health record screen sharing affects patient and doctor non-verbal communication in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asan, Onur; Young, Henry N; Chewning, Betty; Montague, Enid

    2015-03-01

    Use of electronic health records (EHRs) in primary-care exam rooms changes the dynamics of patient-physician interaction. This study examines and compares doctor-patient non-verbal communication (eye-gaze patterns) during primary care encounters for three different screen/information sharing groups: (1) active information sharing, (2) passive information sharing, and (3) technology withdrawal. Researchers video recorded 100 primary-care visits and coded the direction and duration of doctor and patient gaze. Descriptive statistics compared the length of gaze patterns as a percentage of visit length. Lag sequential analysis determined whether physician eye-gaze influenced patient eye gaze, and vice versa, and examined variations across groups. Significant differences were found in duration of gaze across groups. Lag sequential analysis found significant associations between several gaze patterns. Some, such as DGP-PGD ("doctor gaze patient" followed by "patient gaze doctor") were significant for all groups. Others, such DGT-PGU ("doctor gaze technology" followed by "patient gaze unknown") were unique to one group. Some technology use styles (active information sharing) seem to create more patient engagement, while others (passive information sharing) lead to patient disengagement. Doctors can engage patients in communication by using EHRs in the visits. EHR training and design should facilitate this. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Mediate evaluation of replicating a Training Program in Nonverbal Communication in Gerontology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimidt, Teresa Cristina Gioia; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Silva, Maria Julia Paes da

    2015-04-01

    Replicating the training program in non-verbal communication based on the theoretical framework of interpersonal communication; non-verbal coding, valuing the aging aspects in the perspective of active aging, checking its current relevance through the content assimilation index after 90 days (mediate) of its application. A descriptive and exploratory field study was conducted in three hospitals under direct administration of the state of São Paulo that caters exclusively to Unified Health System (SUS) patients. The training lasted 12 hours divided in three meetings, applied to 102 health professionals. Revealed very satisfactory and satisfactory mediate content assimilation index in 82.9%. The program replication proved to be relevant and updated the setting of hospital services, while remaining efficient for healthcare professionals.

  7. Mediate evaluation of replicating a Training Program in Nonverbal Communication in Gerontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Gioia Schimidt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Replicating the training program in non-verbal communication based on the theoretical framework of interpersonal communication; non-verbal coding, valuing the aging aspects in the perspective of active aging, checking its current relevance through the content assimilation index after 90 days (mediate of its application. METHOD A descriptive and exploratory field study was conducted in three hospitals under direct administration of the state of São Paulo that caters exclusively to Unified Health System (SUS patients. The training lasted 12 hours divided in three meetings, applied to 102 health professionals. RESULTS Revealed very satisfactory and satisfactory mediate content assimilation index in 82.9%. CONCLUSION The program replication proved to be relevant and updated the setting of hospital services, while remaining efficient for healthcare professionals.

  8. Nonverbal Communication of Confidence in Soccer Referees: An Experimental Test of Darwin's Leakage Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furley, Philip; Schweizer, Geoffrey

    2016-12-01

    The goal of the present paper was to investigate whether soccer referees' nonverbal behavior (NVB) differed based on the difficulty of their decisions and whether perceivers could detect these systematic variations. On the one hand, communicating confidence via NVB is emphasized in referee training. On the other hand, it seems feasible from a theoretical point of view that particularly following relatively difficult decisions referees have problems controlling their NVB. We conducted three experiments to investigate this question. Experiment 1 (N = 40) and Experiment 2 (N = 60) provided evidence that perceivers regard referees' NVB as less confident following ambiguous decisions as compared with following unambiguous decisions. Experiment 3 (N = 58) suggested that perceivers were more likely to debate with the referee when referees nonverbally communicated less confidence. We discuss consequences for referee training.

  9. Learning social attitudes: children's sensitivity to the nonverbal behaviors of adult models during interracial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Luigi; De Dea, Cristina; Nesdale, Drew

    2008-11-01

    White children show marked ingroup race preferences and a relative devaluation of Black people. The origin of these early interracial attitudes is to a large extent still unclear. The studies here test the possibility that preschool-aged children are particularly sensitive to the nonverbal behaviors performed by White adults during interracial interactions. In Study 1, children were shown a video displaying an interaction between a White and a Black adult. Across conditions, the White adult's verbal behaviors were either friendly or neutral, whereas his nonverbal behaviors showed either easiness (e.g., closeness, high eye contact) or uneasiness (e.g., distance, avoidance of eye contact). Results revealed that participants shaped their attitudes toward the Black target accordingly, independently from the White adults' verbal behaviors. Study 2 replicated the basic findings and demonstrated that the observed effects generalized to other Black targets. Results are discussed in relation to current approaches to understanding the formation of racial attitudes among children.

  10. Practicing a musical instrument in childhood is associated with enhanced verbal ability and nonverbal reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgeard, Marie; Winner, Ellen; Norton, Andrea; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2008-01-01

    In this study we investigated the association between instrumental music training in childhood and outcomes closely related to music training as well as those more distantly related. Children who received at least three years (M = 4.6 years) of instrumental music training outperformed their control counterparts on two outcomes closely related to music (auditory discrimination abilities and fine motor skills) and on two outcomes distantly related to music (vocabulary and nonverbal reasoning skills). Duration of training also predicted these outcomes. Contrary to previous research, instrumental music training was not associated with heightened spatial skills, phonemic awareness, or mathematical abilities. While these results are correlational only, the strong predictive effect of training duration suggests that instrumental music training may enhance auditory discrimination, fine motor skills, vocabulary, and nonverbal reasoning. Alternative explanations for these results are discussed.

  11. THE BARRIERS IN THE NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION BETWEEN TEACHER - STUDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norka Arellano

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available From the research “Communication in the Conflict Prevention in High Schools and Professional Educational Institutions”; the objective worked in this article was: To identify the existing barriers in the nonverbal communication between teachers and students of the educative institutions which are the object of study. Research of descriptive type, based on the theories of: Bounds and Woods, Ghio and Hechim, Gordon and Garagorri, Gibson among others. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics, emphasizing the existence of nonverbal communicational barriers, which interfere with an effective communication between teachers and students, becoming necessary the development of a training program for high school headmasters and teachers, in communication and to impel educative projects that form for the coexistence, the assertive communication, the participation, solidarity and the commitment, creating bases for a culture of pace.

  12. Proton magnetic resonance imaging for assessment of lung function and respiratory dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichinger, Monika; Tetzlaff, Ralf; Puderbach, Michael; Woodhouse, Neil; Kauczor, H.-U.

    2007-01-01

    Since many pulmonary diseases present with a variable regional involvement, modalities for assessment of regional lung function gained increasing attention over the last years. Together with lung perfusion and gas exchange, ventilation, as a result of the interaction of the respiratory pump and the lungs, is an indispensable component of lung function. So far, this complex mechanism is still mainly assessed indirectly and globally. A differentiation between the individual determining factors of ventilation would be crucial for precise diagnostics and adequate treatment. By dynamic imaging of the respiratory pump, the mechanical components of ventilation can be assessed regionally. Amongst imaging modalities applicable to this topic, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as a tool not relying on ionising radiation, is the most attractive. Recent advances in MRI technology have made it possible to assess diaphragmatic and chest wall motion, static and dynamic lung volumes, as well as regional lung function. Even though existing studies show large heterogeneity in design and applied methods, it becomes evident that MRI is capable to visualise pulmonary function as well as diaphragmatic and thoracic wall movement, providing new insights into lung physiology. Partly contradictory results and conclusions are most likely caused by technical limitations, limited number of studies and small sample size. Existing studies mainly evaluate possible imaging techniques and concentrate on normal physiology. The few studies in patients with lung cancer and emphysema already give a promising outlook for these techniques from which an increasing impact on improved and quantitative disease characterization as well as better patient management can be expected

  13. Analysis of José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero’s nonverbal communication

    OpenAIRE

    Imelda Rodríguez-Escanciano, Ph.D.; María Hernández-Herrarte, Ph.D

    2010-01-01

    Aware of television’s high level of persuasion and impact, politicians have progressively adapted their messages to the guidelines of the audiovisual media in order to strongly persuade TV viewers, which are seen as potential voters. Currently, the communication, marketing and telegenicity teams of most political parties do not only train their politicians to effectively use verbal communication, but they also try to reinforce their non-verbal communications skills, because they understand th...

  14. A Review of Verbal and Non-Verbal Human-Robot Interactive Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Mavridis, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an overview of human-robot interactive communication is presented, covering verbal as well as non-verbal aspects of human-robot interaction. Following a historical introduction, and motivation towards fluid human-robot communication, ten desiderata are proposed, which provide an organizational axis both of recent as well as of future research on human-robot communication. Then, the ten desiderata are examined in detail, culminating to a unifying discussion, and a forward-lookin...

  15. Have We Forgotten Auditory Sensory Memory? Retention Intervals in Studies of Nonverbal Auditory Working Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Nees, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have shown increased interest in mechanisms of working memory for nonverbal sounds such as music and environmental sounds. These studies often have used two-stimulus comparison tasks: two sounds separated by a brief retention interval (often 3 to 5 s) are compared, and a same or different judgment is recorded. Researchers seem to have assumed that sensory memory has a negligible impact on performance in auditory two-stimulus comparison tasks. This assumption is examined in detai...

  16. More than a face: a unified theoretical perspective on nonverbal social cue processing in social anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Shachar-Lavie, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Processing of nonverbal social cues (NVSCs) is essential to interpersonal functioning and is particularly relevant to models of social anxiety. This article provides a review of the literature on NVSC processing from the perspective of social rank and affiliation biobehavioral systems (ABSs), based on functional analysis of human sociality. We examine the potential of this framework for integrating cognitive, interpersonal, and evolutionary accounts of social anxiety. We argue that NVSCs are ...

  17. Prognostic value of dynamic MRI in assessing post-traumatic femoral head vascularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushik, Abhishek; Varghese, Mathew [St Stephen' s Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Delhi, New Delhi (India); Sankaran, Balu [St Stephen' s Hospital, Delhi, New Delhi (India)

    2009-06-15

    The vascular status of femoral heads in the post-traumatic period of intracapsular femoral neck fracture (ICFNF) remains uncertain until the patient actually develops avascular necrosis (AVN). Several methods for predicting the viability of femoral head have been reported, that are not effective or widely used because of unreliability, potential complications, and technical difficulties. The present study involved the use of Dynamic MRI (DMRI) in assessing femoral head vascularity to predict AVN. The role of DMRI was studied prospectively in 30 patients with 31 ICFNF. Fractures were divided in to three types (Type A, B, or C) based on the femoral head vascularity shown by dynamic curve patterns on MRI evaluation. Type A was preserved vascularity, Type B was some decrease in vascularity but still viable while Type C was significantly reduced vascularity. These were followed-up for 6 months to 2 years to observe the final outcome in terms of union, non-union, or AVN. We found that Type A curves correlate well with vascular status and Type C curves correlate well with poor vascularity of the femoral heads. No AVN was seen in any of Type A (13/31) or Type B (eight out of 31). Five cases showed AVN and all of them were of Type C dynamic curves. Dynamic MRI is a reliable tool to evaluate vascularity of femoral heads and thus reduces the uncertainty of outcome of treatment of ICFNFs. DMRI can be a useful tool to formulate a treatment algorithm in management of ICFNF. (orig.)

  18. Prognostic value of dynamic MRI in assessing post-traumatic femoral head vascularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, Abhishek; Varghese, Mathew; Sankaran, Balu

    2009-01-01

    The vascular status of femoral heads in the post-traumatic period of intracapsular femoral neck fracture (ICFNF) remains uncertain until the patient actually develops avascular necrosis (AVN). Several methods for predicting the viability of femoral head have been reported, that are not effective or widely used because of unreliability, potential complications, and technical difficulties. The present study involved the use of Dynamic MRI (DMRI) in assessing femoral head vascularity to predict AVN. The role of DMRI was studied prospectively in 30 patients with 31 ICFNF. Fractures were divided in to three types (Type A, B, or C) based on the femoral head vascularity shown by dynamic curve patterns on MRI evaluation. Type A was preserved vascularity, Type B was some decrease in vascularity but still viable while Type C was significantly reduced vascularity. These were followed-up for 6 months to 2 years to observe the final outcome in terms of union, non-union, or AVN. We found that Type A curves correlate well with vascular status and Type C curves correlate well with poor vascularity of the femoral heads. No AVN was seen in any of Type A (13/31) or Type B (eight out of 31). Five cases showed AVN and all of them were of Type C dynamic curves. Dynamic MRI is a reliable tool to evaluate vascularity of femoral heads and thus reduces the uncertainty of outcome of treatment of ICFNFs. DMRI can be a useful tool to formulate a treatment algorithm in management of ICFNF. (orig.)

  19. Gait dynamics to optimize fall risk assessment in geriatric patients admitted to an outpatient diagnostic clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkert, Lisette H J; de Groot, Maartje H; van Campen, Jos P; Beijnen, Jos H; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Lamoth, Claudine C J

    2017-01-01

    Fall prediction in geriatric patients remains challenging because the increased fall risk involves multiple, interrelated factors caused by natural aging and/or pathology. Therefore, we used a multi-factorial statistical approach to model categories of modifiable fall risk factors among geriatric patients to identify fallers with highest sensitivity and specificity with a focus on gait performance. Patients (n = 61, age = 79; 41% fallers) underwent extensive screening in three categories: (1) patient characteristics (e.g., handgrip strength, medication use, osteoporosis-related factors) (2) cognitive function (global cognition, memory, executive function), and (3) gait performance (speed-related and dynamic outcomes assessed by tri-axial trunk accelerometry). Falls were registered prospectively (mean follow-up 8.6 months) and one year retrospectively. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on 11 gait variables was performed to determine underlying gait properties. Three fall-classification models were then built using Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), with separate and combined analyses of the fall risk factors. PCA identified 'pace', 'variability', and 'coordination' as key properties of gait. The best PLS-DA model produced a fall classification accuracy of AUC = 0.93. The specificity of the model using patient characteristics was 60% but reached 80% when cognitive and gait outcomes were added. The inclusion of cognition and gait dynamics in fall classification models reduced misclassification. We therefore recommend assessing geriatric patients' fall risk using a multi-factorial approach that incorporates patient characteristics, cognition, and gait dynamics.

  20. Gait dynamics to optimize fall risk assessment in geriatric patients admitted to an outpatient diagnostic clinic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette H J Kikkert

    Full Text Available Fall prediction in geriatric patients remains challenging because the increased fall risk involves multiple, interrelated factors caused by natural aging and/or pathology. Therefore, we used a multi-factorial statistical approach to model categories of modifiable fall risk factors among geriatric patients to identify fallers with highest sensitivity and specificity with a focus on gait performance. Patients (n = 61, age = 79; 41% fallers underwent extensive screening in three categories: (1 patient characteristics (e.g., handgrip strength, medication use, osteoporosis-related factors (2 cognitive function (global cognition, memory, executive function, and (3 gait performance (speed-related and dynamic outcomes assessed by tri-axial trunk accelerometry. Falls were registered prospectively (mean follow-up 8.6 months and one year retrospectively. Principal Component Analysis (PCA on 11 gait variables was performed to determine underlying gait properties. Three fall-classification models were then built using Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA, with separate and combined analyses of the fall risk factors. PCA identified 'pace', 'variability', and 'coordination' as key properties of gait. The best PLS-DA model produced a fall classification accuracy of AUC = 0.93. The specificity of the model using patient characteristics was 60% but reached 80% when cognitive and gait outcomes were added. The inclusion of cognition and gait dynamics in fall classification models reduced misclassification. We therefore recommend assessing geriatric patients' fall risk using a multi-factorial approach that incorporates patient characteristics, cognition, and gait dynamics.

  1. Assessing Tumor Response to Treatment in Patients with Lung Cancer Using Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strauch, Louise S; Eriksen, Rie Ø; Sandgaard, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Only original research articles concerning treatment response in patients with lung cancer assessed with DCE-CT were included. To assess the validity of each study we implemented Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2). The initial search......The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the literature available on dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) as a tool to evaluate treatment response in patients with lung cancer. This systematic review was compiled according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic...... yielded 651 publications, and 16 articles were included in this study. The articles were divided into groups of treatment. In studies where patients were treated with systemic chemotherapy with or without anti-angiogenic drugs, four out of the seven studies found a significant decrease in permeability...

  2. Linking social cognition with social interaction: Non-verbal expressivity, social competence and "mentalising" in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehmkämper Caroline

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown that patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD can be distinguished from controls on the basis of their non-verbal expression. For example, patients with SSD use facial expressions less than normals to invite and sustain social interaction. Here, we sought to examine whether non-verbal expressivity in patients corresponds with their impoverished social competence and neurocognition. Method Fifty patients with SSD were videotaped during interviews. Non-verbal expressivity was evaluated using the Ethological Coding System for Interviews (ECSI. Social competence was measured using the Social Behaviour Scale and psychopathology was rated using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. Neurocognitive variables included measures of IQ, executive functioning, and two mentalising tasks, which tapped into the ability to appreciate mental states of story characters. Results Non-verbal expressivity was reduced in patients relative to controls. Lack of "prosocial" nonverbal signals was associated with poor social competence and, partially, with impaired understanding of others' minds, but not with non-social cognition or medication. Conclusion This is the first study to link deficits in non-verbal expressivity to levels of social skills and awareness of others' thoughts and intentions in patients with SSD.

  3. Have We Forgotten Auditory Sensory Memory? Retention Intervals in Studies of Nonverbal Auditory Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nees, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have shown increased interest in mechanisms of working memory for nonverbal sounds such as music and environmental sounds. These studies often have used two-stimulus comparison tasks: two sounds separated by a brief retention interval (often 3-5 s) are compared, and a "same" or "different" judgment is recorded. Researchers seem to have assumed that sensory memory has a negligible impact on performance in auditory two-stimulus comparison tasks. This assumption is examined in detail in this comment. According to seminal texts and recent research reports, sensory memory persists in parallel with working memory for a period of time following hearing a stimulus and can influence behavioral responses on memory tasks. Unlike verbal working memory studies that use serial recall tasks, research paradigms for exploring nonverbal working memory-especially two-stimulus comparison tasks-may not be differentiating working memory from sensory memory processes in analyses of behavioral responses, because retention interval durations have not excluded the possibility that the sensory memory trace drives task performance. This conflation of different constructs may be one contributor to discrepant research findings and the resulting proliferation of theoretical conjectures regarding mechanisms of working memory for nonverbal sounds.

  4. Have We Forgotten Auditory Sensory Memory? Retention Intervals in Studies of Nonverbal Auditory Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Nees

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have shown increased interest in mechanisms of working memory for nonverbal sounds such as music and environmental sounds. These studies often have used two-stimulus comparison tasks: two sounds separated by a brief retention interval (often 3 to 5 s are compared, and a same or different judgment is recorded. Researchers seem to have assumed that sensory memory has a negligible impact on performance in auditory two-stimulus comparison tasks. This assumption is examined in detail in this comment. According to seminal texts and recent research reports, sensory memory persists in parallel with working memory for a period of time following hearing a stimulus and can influence behavioral responses on memory tasks. Unlike verbal working memory studies that use serial recall tasks, research paradigms for exploring nonverbal working memory—especially two-stimulus comparison tasks—may not be differentiating working memory from sensory memory processes in analyses of behavioral responses, because retention interval durations have not excluded the possibility that the sensory memory trace drives task performance. This conflation of different constructs may be one contributor to discrepant research findings and the resulting proliferation of theoretical conjectures regarding mechanisms of working memory for nonverbal sounds.

  5. The Impact of Robot Tutor Nonverbal Social Behavior on Child Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kennedy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have indicated that interacting with social robots in educational contexts may lead to a greater learning than interactions with computers or virtual agents. As such, an increasing amount of social human–robot interaction research is being conducted in the learning domain, particularly with children. However, it is unclear precisely what social behavior a robot should employ in such interactions. Inspiration can be taken from human–human studies; this often leads to an assumption that the more social behavior an agent utilizes, the better the learning outcome will be. We apply a nonverbal behavior metric to a series of studies in which children are taught how to identify prime numbers by a robot with various behavioral manipulations. We find a trend, which generally agrees with the pedagogy literature, but also that overt nonverbal behavior does not account for all learning differences. We discuss the impact of novelty, child expectations, and responses to social cues to further the understanding of the relationship between robot social behavior and learning. We suggest that the combination of nonverbal behavior and social cue congruency is necessary to facilitate learning.

  6. The Relationship between Robot's Nonverbal Behaviour and Human's Likability Based on Human's Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepsoonthorn, Chidchanok; Ogawa, Ken-Ichiro; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2018-05-30

    At current state, although robotics technology has been immensely developed, the uncertainty to completely engage in human-robot interaction is still growing among people. Many current studies then started to concern about human factors that might influence human's likability like human's personality, and found that compatibility between human's and robot's personality (expressions of personality characteristics) can enhance human's likability. However, it is still unclear whether specific means and strategy of robot's nonverbal behaviours enhances likability from human with different personality traits and whether there is a relationship between robot's nonverbal behaviours and human's likability based on human's personality. In this study, we investigated and focused on the interaction via gaze and head nodding behaviours (mutual gaze convergence and head nodding synchrony) between introvert/extravert participants and robot in two communication strategies (Backchanneling and Turn-taking). Our findings reveal that the introvert participants are positively affected by backchanneling in robot's head nodding behaviour, which results in substantial head nodding synchrony whereas the extravert participants are positively influenced by turn-taking in gaze behaviour, which leads to significant mutual gaze convergence. This study demonstrates that there is a relationship between robot's nonverbal behaviour and human's likability based on human's personality.

  7. Cognitive Biases and Nonverbal Cue Availability in Detecting Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoon, Judee K.; Blair, J. Pete; Strom, Renee E.

    2008-01-01

    In potentially deceptive situations, people rely on mental shortcuts to help process information. These heuristic judgments are often biased and result in inaccurate assessments of sender veracity. Four such biases--truth bias, visual bias, demeanor bias, and expectancy violation bias--were examined in a judgment experiment that varied nonverbal…

  8. Prevalence of physical, verbal and nonverbal sexual harassments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A number of studies conducted on sexual harassment focused on general magnitude rather than specific details of the various forms of sexual harassment and their effect on psychological health. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the prevalence rates of the various forms of sexual harassments and ...

  9. Assessing dynamic postural control during exergaming in older adults: A probabilistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soancatl Aguilar, V; Lamoth, C J C; Maurits, N M; Roerdink, J B T M

    2018-02-01

    Digital games controlled by body movements (exergames) have been proposed as a way to improve postural control among older adults. Exergames are meant to be played at home in an unsupervised way. However, only few studies have investigated the effect of unsupervised home-exergaming on postural control. Moreover, suitable methods to dynamically assess postural control during exergaming are still scarce. Dynamic postural control (DPC) assessment could be used to provide both meaningful feedback and automatic adjustment of exergame difficulty. These features could potentially foster unsupervised exergaming at home and improve the effectiveness of exergames as tools to improve balance control. The main aim of this study is to investigate the effect of six weeks of unsupervised home-exergaming on DPC as assessed by a recently developed probabilistic model. High probability values suggest 'deteriorated' postural control, whereas low probability values suggest 'good' postural control. In a pilot study, ten healthy older adults (average 77.9, SD 7.2 years) played an ice-skating exergame at home half an hour per day, three times a week during six weeks. The intervention effect on DPC was assessed using exergaming trials recorded by Kinect at baseline and every other week. Visualization of the results suggests that the probabilistic model is suitable for real-time DPC assessment. Moreover, linear mixed model analysis and parametric bootstrapping suggest a significant intervention effect on DPC. In conclusion, these results suggest that unsupervised exergaming for improving DPC among older adults is indeed feasible and that probabilistic models could be a new approach to assess DPC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Instantaneous nonlinear assessment of complex cardiovascular dynamics by Laguerre-Volterra point process models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Gaetano; Citi, Luca; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    We report an exemplary study of instantaneous assessment of cardiovascular dynamics performed using point-process nonlinear models based on Laguerre expansion of the linear and nonlinear Wiener-Volterra kernels. As quantifiers, instantaneous measures such as high order spectral features and Lyapunov exponents can be estimated from a quadratic and cubic autoregressive formulation of the model first order moment, respectively. Here, these measures are evaluated on heartbeat series coming from 16 healthy subjects and 14 patients with Congestive Hearth Failure (CHF). Data were gathered from the on-line repository PhysioBank, which has been taken as landmark for testing nonlinear indices. Results show that the proposed nonlinear Laguerre-Volterra point-process methods are able to track the nonlinear and complex cardiovascular dynamics, distinguishing significantly between CHF and healthy heartbeat series.

  11. Handwritten dynamics assessment through convolutional neural networks: An application to Parkinson's disease identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Clayton R; Pereira, Danilo R; Rosa, Gustavo H; Albuquerque, Victor H C; Weber, Silke A T; Hook, Christian; Papa, João P

    2018-04-16

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is considered a degenerative disorder that affects the motor system, which may cause tremors, micrography, and the freezing of gait. Although PD is related to the lack of dopamine, the triggering process of its development is not fully understood yet. In this work, we introduce convolutional neural networks to learn features from images produced by handwritten dynamics, which capture different information during the individual's assessment. Additionally, we make available a dataset composed of images and signal-based data to foster the research related to computer-aided PD diagnosis. The proposed approach was compared against raw data and texture-based descriptors, showing suitable results, mainly in the context of early stage detection, with results nearly to 95%. The analysis of handwritten dynamics using deep learning techniques showed to be useful for automatic Parkinson's disease identification, as well as it can outperform handcrafted features. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Static and Dynamic Behaviour Assessment of the Trajan Arch by Means of New Monitoring Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, L.; Barone, F.; Mammone, A.; Giordano, G.

    2017-08-01

    An effective assessment of the static and dynamic structural behavior of historical monuments requires the development and validation of suitable adaptive structural models using high-quality experimental data acquired with an effectively continuous and distributed monitoring. Furthermore, the adaptive strategy allows an efficient evaluation of the health status and of the evolution along the time of a historical monument, providing relevant information to plan appropriate actions for its long-term preservation. The Trajan Arch in Benevento chosen as a case of study to develop and apply this new adaptive strategy in cultural heritage conservation. The paper, after a description of the innovative monitoring system, based on state-of-the-art mechanical sensors, presents and discusses the results of two tests, comparing the measurements with the predictions of an adaptive structural FEM model developed for the dynamical simulation of the Trajan Arch.

  13. Auditory-motor mapping training as an intervention to facilitate speech output in non-verbal children with autism: a proof of concept study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Y Wan

    Full Text Available Although up to 25% of children with autism are non-verbal, there are very few interventions that can reliably produce significant improvements in speech output. Recently, a novel intervention called Auditory-Motor Mapping Training (AMMT has been developed, which aims to promote speech production directly by training the association between sounds and articulatory actions using intonation and bimanual motor activities. AMMT capitalizes on the inherent musical strengths of children with autism, and offers activities that they intrinsically enjoy. It also engages and potentially stimulates a network of brain regions that may be dysfunctional in autism. Here, we report an initial efficacy study to provide 'proof of concept' for AMMT. Six non-verbal children with autism participated. Prior to treatment, the children had no intelligible words. They each received 40 individual sessions of AMMT 5 times per week, over an 8-week period. Probe assessments were conducted periodically during baseline, therapy, and follow-up sessions. After therapy, all children showed significant improvements in their ability to articulate words and phrases, with generalization to items that were not practiced during therapy sessions. Because these children had no or minimal vocal output prior to treatment, the acquisition of speech sounds and word approximations through AMMT represents a critical step in expressive language development in children with autism.

  14. Predicting first-grade mathematics achievement: The contributions of domain-general cognitive abilities, nonverbal number sense, and early number competence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eHornung

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Early number competence, grounded in number-specific and domain-general cognitive abilities, is theorized to lay the foundation for later math achievement. Few longitudinal studies have tested a comprehensive model for early math development. Using structural equation modeling and mediation analyses, the present work examined the influence of kindergarteners’ nonverbal number sense and domain-general abilities i.e., working memory, fluid intelligence, and receptive vocabulary and their early number competence (i.e., symbolic number skills on first grade math achievement (arithmetic, shape and space skills, and number line estimation assessed one year later. Latent regression models revealed that nonverbal number sense and working memory are central building blocks for developing early number competence in kindergarten and that early number competence is key for first grade math achievement. After controlling for early number competence, fluid intelligence significantly predicted arithmetic and number line estimation while receptive vocabulary significantly predicted shape and space skills. In sum we suggest that early math achievement draws on different constellations of number-specific and domain-general mechanisms.

  15. Challenging the planetary boundaries II: Assessing the sustainable global population and phosphate supply, using a systems dynamics assessment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sverdrup, Harald U.; Ragnarsdottir, Kristin Vala

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Peak phosphorus supply behaviour. → Recycling essential for phosphorus supply. → Phosphorus supply is connected to food security. - Abstract: A systems dynamics model was developed to assess the planetary boundary for P supply in relation to use by human society. It is concluded that present day use rates and poor recycling rates of P are unsustainable at timescales beyond 100+ a. The predictions made suggest that P will become a scarce and expensive material in the future. The study shows clearly that market mechanisms alone will not be able to secure an efficient use before a large part of the resource will have been allowed to dissipate into the natural environment. It is suggested that population size management and effective recycling measures must be planned long term to avoid unpleasant consequences of hunger and necessary corrections imposed on society by mass balance and thermodynamics.

  16. A Hybrid Dynamic System Assessment Methodology for Multi-Modal Transportation-Electrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.T. van der Wardt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, electrified transportation, be it in the form of buses, trains, or cars have become an emerging form of mobility. Electric vehicles (EVs, especially, are set to expand the amount of electric miles driven and energy consumed. Nevertheless, the question remains as to whether EVs will be technically feasible within infrastructure systems. Fundamentally, EVs interact with three interconnected systems: the (physical transportation system, the electric power grid, and their supporting information systems. Coupling of the two physical systems essentially forms a nexus, the transportation-electricity nexus (TEN. This paper presents a hybrid dynamic system assessment methodology for multi-modal transportation-electrification. At its core, it utilizes a mathematical model which consists of a marked Petri-net model superimposed on the continuous time microscopic traffic dynamics and the electrical state evolution. The methodology consists of four steps: (1 establish the TEN structure; (2 establish the TEN behavior; (3 establish the TEN Intelligent Transportation-Energy System (ITES decision-making; and (4 assess the TEN performance. In the presentation of the methodology, the Symmetrica test case is used throughout as an illustrative example. Consequently, values for several measures of performance are provided. This methodology is presented generically and may be used to assess the effects of transportation-electrification in any city or area; opening up possibilities for many future studies.

  17. A Unified Point Process Probabilistic Framework to Assess Heartbeat Dynamics and Autonomic Cardiovascular Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe eChen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, time-varying inhomogeneous point process models have been introduced for assessment of instantaneous heartbeat dynamics as well as specific cardiovascular control mechanisms and hemodynamics. Assessment of the model's statistics is established through the Wiener-Volterra theory and a multivariate autoregressive (AR structure. A variety of instantaneous cardiovascular metrics, such as heart rate (HR, heart rate variability (HRV, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA, and baroreceptor-cardiac reflex (baroreflex sensitivity (BRS, are derived within a parametric framework and instantaneously updated with adaptive and local maximum likelihood estimation algorithms. Inclusion of second order nonlinearities, with subsequent bispectral quantification in the frequency domain, further allows for definition of instantaneous metrics of nonlinearity. We here organize a comprehensive review of the devised methods as applied to experimental recordings from healthy subjects during propofol anesthesia. Collective results reveal interesting dynamic trends across the different pharmacological interventions operated within each anesthesia session, confirming the ability of the algorithm to track important changes in cardiorespiratory elicited interactions, and pointing at our mathematical approach as a promising monitoring tool for an accurate, noninvasive assessment in clinical practice.

  18. EU “Mobility” Partnerships: An Initial Assessment of Implementation Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasja Reslow

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation with non-EU countries is a central migration policy priority for the EU, and since 2008 eight Mobility Partnerships have been signed. Given the importance attached to this policy area, it is essential that policy-makers understand how EU external migration policy works in practice. However, the literature on the implementation of EU external migration policy is very limited. This article addresses this deficit, by conducting a conceptual assessment of implementation dynamics in the Mobility Partnerships. At this stage in the implementation process, it is not yet possible to assess whether the Mobility Partnerships have contributed to mobility, which is their stated aim. Instead, the literature on implementation is applied in a “backward” fashion, starting with the implementation dynamics at play. The article concludes that standard analytical frameworks for assessing implementation processes will need to be adapted for “new” policy tools featuring elements of flexibility or voluntary participation, in order to accurately capture implementation processes. Future research should adopt a critical, human rights-centred approach to the issue of implementation of EU external migration policy.

  19. Application of Multiscale Entropy in Assessing Plantar Skin Blood Flow Dynamics in Diabetics with Peripheral Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyuan Liao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU is a common complication of diabetes mellitus, while tissue ischemia caused by impaired vasodilatory response to plantar pressure is thought to be a major factor of the development of DFUs, which has been assessed using various measures of skin blood flow (SBF in the time or frequency domain. These measures, however, are incapable of characterizing nonlinear dynamics of SBF, which is an indicator of pathologic alterations of microcirculation in the diabetic foot. This study recruited 18 type 2 diabetics with peripheral neuropathy and eight healthy controls. SBF at the first metatarsal head in response to locally applied pressure and heating was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry. A multiscale entropy algorithm was utilized to quantify the regularity degree of the SBF responses. The results showed that during reactive hyperemia and thermally induced biphasic response, the regularity degree of SBF in diabetics underwent only small changes compared to baseline and significantly differed from that in controls at multiple scales (p < 0.05. On the other hand, the transition of regularity degree of SBF in diabetics distinctively differed from that in controls (p < 0.05. These findings indicated that multiscale entropy could provide a more comprehensive assessment of impaired microvascular reactivity in the diabetic foot compared to other entropy measures based on only a single scale, which strengthens the use of plantar SBF dynamics to assess the risk for DFU.

  20. ANALYZING TEACHER’S INSTRUCTIONAL AND NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION IN EFL CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to find out the teacher’s instructional language, kinds of nonverbal communication and effects in EFL Classroom. The objects of the research were the teacher and students of one primary school in Merauke. The approach employed was qualitative approach. The type of this research applied discourse analysis (DA. Data collection was conducted through observation by recording and interview. Data from observa tion was used to know the teacher’s instructional Language and kinds of nonverbal communication. Interview was used to know the effects of using the teacher’s instructional Language and nonverbal communication to the students. The research findings showed that (1 the teacher’s instructional language in the classroom activities covered explanations, asking questions, giving feedback, and giving corrections. In term of explanation, the teacher used English, switched and mixed the Indonesian language. The teacher used display question to know the students understanding related to the material. She used referential question to start the classroom and when she checked the progress of the students’ activity. In giving feedback, mostly same with explanation, the teacher also used English even she switched and mixed her language with Indonesian. The teacher used direct correction and indirect correction in giving correction. Repetition was also found in explanation, asking question, giving feedback and giving correction. (2 that the kind The findings revealed s of nonverbal communication used by the teacher in the classroom included gesture, body movement and posture, eye contact and facial expression. These nonverbal were applied to explain some unclear verbal communication. (3 The last, the findings showed that there were positive and negative effects of the teacher’s instructional language The positive effects included motivating the students in studying, increasing the students’ vocabulary mastery