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Sample records for nonunion sites comparison

  1. Recurrent hydatosis at the site of non-union humerus fracture

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    Mohsen Nourbakhsh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is still endemic in several regions of the world and is caused by two species of tapeworms, Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus alveolaris. It primary involves liver and lung, and bone involvement is relatively rare (0.2-4%, where it is most commonly seen in the spine. The skeletal involvement is usually due to secondary extension such as hematogenous spread. The disease has usually a silent manifestation until a complication exists; so, many cases are diagnosed intraoperatively. Treatment of hydatid disease because of its bone involvement and spillage of fluid with subsequent contamination seeding is difficult, so it has a high mortality rate and many cases will recur. Therefore, we can prevent these occurrences if we treat hydatid disease completely and in the primary stage. Adjuvant medical treatment, if the diagnosis is known, prevents systemic spread and recurrence. Here, we present a primary recurrent hydatosis at the site of non-union humerus fracture. We have pointed out osseous hydatosis as one of the important differential diagnoses in destructive bone lesions and the necessity of its radical resection.

  2. The Comparison Of Results For The Bone Grafting In Treatment Of Scaphoid Nonunion With And Without Avascular Necrosis

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    Iman Qomashi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The varieties of treatment methods for the scaphoid nonunion have always been a discussable issue for orthopaedic surgeons. The current study, considered to be review for treatment results of the patients who sustained the scaphoid nonunion with or without avascular necrosis and compared these two groups clinically and radiologically. Methods: The clinical and radiologic files of the patients who sustained the scaphoid nonunion and underwent surgical treatment between 2004 and 2009 in our hospital, were collected and in the final follow-up, 37 patients and 38 nonunions underwent physical exam, grip power test, DASH questionnaire and radiography. Results: Avascular necrosis was detected in 22 cases and 16 cases had no avascular necrosis changes. Following open reduction and bone grafing, union was seen in 36 cases, and nonunion in 2 cases which one was in the avascular necrosis group and another in without avascular necrosis group. The comparison of the residual pain, range of motion, DASH score and grip power in two groups, did not show a meaningful difference (p>0.05. Conclusion: Although multiple studies indicated that in the presence of the avascular necrosis in the proximal fragment of the scaphiod, possibility of union in the conventional graft methods was lower than vascular pedicle grafts, but this study demonstrated that the conventional treatment method yet was associated with a considerable successs and a reliable treatment method.

  3. Infected nonunion of tibia

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    Milind Madhav Chaudhary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infected nonunions of tibia pose many challenges to the treating surgeon and the patient. Challenges include recalcitrant infection, complex deformities, sclerotic bone ends, large bone gaps, shortening, and joint stiffness. They are easy to diagnose and difficult to treat. The ASAMI classification helps decide treatment. The nonunion severity score proposed by Calori measures many parameters to give a prognosis. The infection severity score uses simple clinical signs to grade severity of infection. This determines number of surgeries and allows choice of hardware, either external or internal for definitive treatment. Co-morbid factors such as smoking, diabetes, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, and hypovitaminosis D influence the choice and duration of treatment. Thorough debridement is the mainstay of treatment. Removal of all necrotic bone and soft tissue is needed. Care is exercised in shaping bone ends. Internal fixation can help achieve union if infection was mild. Severe infections need external fixation use in a second stage. Compression at nonunion site achieves union. It can be combined with a corticotomy lengthening at a distant site for equalization. Soft tissue deficit has to be covered by flaps, either local or microvascular. Bone gaps are best filled with the reliable technique of bone transport. Regenerate bone may be formed proximally, distally, or at both sites. Acute compression can fill bone gaps and may need a fibular resection. Gradual reduction of bone gap happens with bone transport, without need for fibulectomy. When bone ends dock, union may be achieved by vertical or horizontal compression. Biological stimulus from iliac crest bone grafts, bone marrow aspirate injections, and platelet concentrates hasten union. Bone graft substitutes add volume to graft and help fill defects. Addition of rh-BMP-7 may help in healing albeit at a much higher cost. Regeneration may need stimulation and augmentation. Induced

  4. Non-Anatomical Surgical Solutions for Difficult Non-Unions: Case Series

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    Zaki Said, Galal; Farouk, Osama Ahmed; Galal Said, Hatem; Mohamed El-Sharkawi, Mohamed Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Non-union occurs when bone healing ceases and does not continue without some type of intervention. Classification of non-union is traditionally based on the amount of callus or bone healing at the fracture site. Successful treatment of non-union often depends on appropriate reduction and realignment of the fracture, bone grafting if necessary, and stabilization. This may not be possible in some neglected and complicated non-unions. Under these circumstances, modification of the stand...

  5. Osteosynthesis for symptomatic ulnar styloid nonunion

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    Kajiwara, Ryoji; Kimori, Kenji; Kawagoe, Hiroyuki; Tsuge, Kenya; Ikuta, Yosikazu

    2008-01-01

    We reviewed cases of osteosynthesis for symptomatic ulnar styloid nonunion. Since 1998, 13 cases of ulnar styloid nonunion have been treated by osteosynthesis. The patients were 10 men and 3 women, with a mean age of 27 years (range 11-65). The nonunion site was located in the middle in one case, in the base in 8 cases, and in the epiphyseal region in 4 cases. Osteosynthesis was performed with tension band wiring in all cases, and cancellous bone graft was performed in 12 of 13 cases. Distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability was found by radiograph or CT in four cases; in two of these, osteosynthesis alone did not improve DRUJ instability and additional DRUJ stabilization was performed. One patient whose treatment failed to correct nonunion did not seek further treatment. In another case, an additional surgery was performed 1 week after the initial surgery to correct displacement of the fragment. The mean follow-up period was 15 months (range 8-45 months). According to Hauck's criteria, final pain was evaluated as excellent in nine cases, good in three cases, including the case resulting in nonunion, and fair in one case. (author)

  6. Comparisons of Performance and Job Insecurity in Union and Nonunion Sites of a Manufacturing Company

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    Filipkowski, Monica; Johnson, C. Merle

    2008-01-01

    Layoffs and employment changes caused by current economic conditions have significant effects on employee work behavior and emotions as well as organizational outcomes. We examined the relationships between measures of job insecurity, organizational commitment, turnover, absenteeism, and worker performance within a manufacturer in Chapter 11…

  7. Sacral Fracture Nonunion Treated by Bone Grafting through a Posterior Approach

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    Sang Yang Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonunion of a sacral fracture is a rare but serious clinical condition which can cause severe chronic pain, discomfort while sitting, and significant restriction of the level of activities. Fracture nonunions reportedly occur most often after nonoperative initial treatment or inappropriate operative treatment. We report a case of fracture nonunion of the sacrum and pubic rami that resulted from non-operative initial treatment, which was treated successfully using bone grafting through a posterior approach and CT-guided percutaneous iliosacral screw fixation combined with anterior external fixation. Although autologous bone grafting has been the gold standard for the treatment of pelvic fracture nonunions, little has been written describing the approach. We utilized a posterior approach for bone grafting, which could allow direct visualization of the nonunion site and preclude nerve root injury. By this procedure, we were able to obtain the healing of fracture nonunion, leading to pain relief and functional recovery.

  8. Treatment of Atrophic Nonunion - A Report of Two Cases | Omeonu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RESULT: Long periods of limb immobilization in traditional fracture treatment often result to ... or nail do not give rigid fixation due to bone softening and often result to serial nonunion. ... a bloodless transformation of bone callus which avoids exposure of fracture site and soft tissue stripping is best suited for treating infected ...

  9. [New research progress on atrophic nonunion].

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    Wei, Jun-Qiang; Zhang, Bo-Xun; Chen, Hua; Tang, Pei-Fu; Wang, Yan

    2012-12-01

    Occurance of atrophic nonunion is a complex process. Previous studies suggested that atrophic nonunion was mainly due to lack of blood supply of fracture fragments, but recent studies found that blood supply was not deficiency in middle and late stages, indicating that decreased osteogenic factors and blood supply in early stages might play an important role in morbidity. Current effective treatment measures for atrophic nonunion mainly include bone graft and fixation,physical therapy, local injection therapy. All-round preventive could reduce incidence of atrophic nonunion. Atrophic nonunion is still a troublesome complication of fractures in orthopaedics, and more attention should be paid for its effective prevention and treatment. The paper summarized recent original articles about atrophic nonunion and reviewed the occurrence mechanisms, diagnosis, prevention and treatment measures of this disease.

  10. Hypertrophic Nonunion Humerus Mimicking an Enchondroma

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    N. K. Magu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although fractures of humeral shaft show excellent results with conservative management, nonunion does occur. Case Report. We bring forth the case of a young male with a 1.5-year-old hypertrophic nonunion of the humerus mimicking an enchondroma. The initial X-ray images of the patient appeared to be an enchondroma, which only on further evaluation and histopathological analysis was diagnosed conclusively to be a hypertrophic nonunion. Discussion. Enchondromas are often incidentally diagnosed benign tumours. It is however not common to misdiagnose a hypertrophic nonunion to be an enchondroma. We present this case to highlight the unique diagnostic dilemma the treating team had to face.

  11. Three-stage treatment protocol for recalcitrant distal femoral nonunion.

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    Ma, Ching-Hou; Chiu, Yen-Chun; Tu, Yuan-Kun; Yen, Cheng-Yo; Wu, Chin-Hsien

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we proposed a three-stage treatment protocol for recalcitrant distal femoral nonunion and aimed to analyze the clinical results. We retrospective reviewed 12 consecutive patients with recalcitrant distal femoral nonunion undergoing our three-stage treatment protocol from January 2010 to December 2014 in our institute. The three-stage treatment protocol comprised debridement of the nonunion site, lengthening to eliminate leg length discrepancy, deformity correction, stabilization with a locked plate, filling of the defect with cement spacer for inducing membrane formation, and bone reconstruction using a cancellous bone autograft (Masquelet technique) or free vascularized fibular bone graft. The bone union time, wound complication, lower limbs alignment, amount of lengthening, knee range of motion, and functional outcomes were evaluated. Osseous union with angular deformity lengthening was 5.88 cm (range 3.5-12 cm). Excellent or good outcomes were obtained in 9 patients. Although the current study involved only a small number of patients and the intervention comprised three stages, we believe that such a protocol may be a valuable alternative for the treatment of recalcitrant distal femoral nonunion.

  12. Use of bone marrow derived stem cells in a fracture non-union

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    Binod C. Raulo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an attempt of using in vitro cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from bone marrow in joining of a fracture non-union. Bone marrow cells were obtained and differentially centrifuged for MSCs that were grown in vitro in mesenchymal stem cell basal medium aseptically, for 10 d. The cell mass was injected around the fracture non-union. Healthy conditions of development of tissue regeneration at the trauma site and due bone joining were recorded. It is concluded that in vitro cultured MSCs had a blithesome effect on the fracture non-union.

  13. Management of complex long bone nonunions using limb reconstruction system

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    Hiranya Kumar Seenappa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Management of complex nonunions is difficult due to the presence of infection, deformities, shortening and multiple surgeries in the past. Complex nonunions are traditionally managed by Ilizarov fixation. The disadvantages of Ilizarov are poor patient compliance, inconvenience of the frame and difficult frame construction. We conducted a study on 30 long bone complex nonunions treated by the limb reconstruction system (LRS. Materials and Methods: Between April 2009 and September 2012, we treated 30 cases of complex nonunion of long bone with the LRS. 28 were male and 2 females. Average shortening was 5.06 cm and 14 cases presented with infected implants. Initially we managed with implant removal, radical debridement followed by fixation with the LRS. In 16 cases, corticotomy and lengthening was done. The average duration of treatment was 9.68 months. We compressed the fracture site at the rate of 0.25 mm per day for 1-2 weeks and distracted the corticotomy at the rate of 1 mm/day till lengthening was achieved. Result: The union occurred in 89.28% cases and eradication of infection in 91.66% cases. Average lengthening done was 4.57 cm. We had 79% excellent, 11% good and 10% poor bony result and fnctional result was excellent in 40% cases, good in 50% and failure in 10% cases using ASAMI scoring system. Conclusion: LRS is an alternative to the Ilizarov fixation in their management of complex nonunion of long bones. It is less cumbersome to the patient and more surgeon and patient friendly.

  14. Bone Scan in Detection of Biological Activity in Nonhypertrophic Fracture Nonunion

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    Gandhi, Sunny J.; Rabadiya, Bhavdeep

    2017-01-01

    Biological activity of the fracture site is very important factor in treatment planning of fracture nonunion. If no biological activity is detected, then an autologous bone graft can be supplemented or osteogenic supplementations, such as bone morphogenetic protein is given. If biological activity is present, then secure fixation is sufficient to achieve bony union. Biological activity of nonunions is usually assessed by conventional radiographs. The presence of callus formation is usually as...

  15. Tibia shaft fractures: costly burden of nonunions

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    Antonova Evgeniya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tibia shaft fractures (TSF are common for men and women and cause substantial morbidity, healthcare use, and costs. The impact of nonunions on healthcare use and costs is poorly described. Our goal was to investigate patient characteristics and healthcare use and costs associated with TSF in patients with and without nonunion. Methods We retrospectively analyzed medical claims in large U.S. managed care claims databases (Thomson Reuters MarketScan®, 16 million lives. We studied patients ≥ 18 years old with a TSF diagnosis (ICD-9 codes: 823.20, 823.22, 823.30, 823.32 in 2006 with continuous pharmaceutical and medical benefit enrollment 1 year prior and 2 years post-fracture. Nonunion was defined by ICD-9 code 733.82 (after the TSF date. Results Among the 853 patients with TSF, 99 (12% had nonunion. Patients with nonunion had more comorbidities (30 vs. 21, pre-fracture and were more likely to have their TSF open (87% vs. 70% than those without nonunion. Patients with nonunion were more likely to have additional fractures during the 2-year follow-up (of lower limb [88.9% vs. 69.5%, P  Conclusions Nonunions in TSF’s are associated with substantial healthcare resource use, common use of strong opioids, and high per-patient costs. Open fractures are associated with higher likelihood of nonunion than closed ones. Effective screening of nonunion risk may decrease this morbidity and subsequent healthcare resource use and costs.

  16. Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the proximal fragment in scaphoid nonunion: Is intravenous contrast agent necessary in MRI?

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    Schmitt, R., E-mail: schmitt.radiologie@herzchirurgie.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Cardiovascular Center, Bad Neustadt an der Saale (Germany); Christopoulos, G.; Wagner, M. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Cardiovascular Center, Bad Neustadt an der Saale (Germany); Krimmer, H. [Department of Hand Surgery, Cardiovascular Center, Bad Neustadt an der Saale (Germany); Fodor, S. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Cardiovascular Center, Bad Neustadt an der Saale (Germany); Schoonhoven, J. van; Prommersberger, K.J. [Department of Hand Surgery, Cardiovascular Center, Bad Neustadt an der Saale (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this prospective study is to assess the diagnostic value of intravenously applied contrast agent for diagnosing osteonecrosis of the proximal fragment in scaphoid nonunion, and to compare the imaging results with intraoperative findings. Materials and methods: In 88 patients (7 women, 81 men) suffering from symptomatic scaphoid nonunion, preoperative MRI was performed (coronal PD-w FSE fs, sagittal-oblique T1-w SE nonenhanced and T1-w SE fs contrast-enhanced, sagittal T2*-w GRE). MRI interpretation was based on the intensity of contrast enhancement: 0 = none, 1 = focal, 2 = diffuse. Intraoperatively, the osseous viability was scored by means of bleeding points on the osteotomy site of the proximal scaphoid fragment: 0 = absent, 1 = moderate, 2 = good. Results: Intraoperatively, 17 necrotic, 29 compromised, and 42 normal proximal fragments were found. In nonenhanced MRI, bone viability was judged necrotic in 1 patient, compromised in 20 patients, and unaffected in 67 patients. Contrast-enhanced MRI revealed 14 necrotic, 21 compromised, and 53 normal proximal fragments. Judging surgical findings as the standard of reference, statistical analysis for nonenhanced MRI was: sensitivity 6.3%, specificity 100%, positive PV 100%, negative PV 82.6%, and accuracy 82.9%; statistics for contrast-enhanced MRI was: sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 98.6%, positive PV 92.9%, negative PV 94.6%, and accuracy 94.3%. Sensitivity for detecting avascular proximal fragments was significantly better (p < 0.001) in contrast-enhanced MRI in comparison to nonenhanced MRI. Conclusion: Viability of the proximal fragment in scaphoid nonunion can be significantly better assessed with the use of contrast-enhanced MRI as compared to nonenhanced MRI. Bone marrow edema is an inferior indicator of osteonecrosis. Application of intravenous gadolinium is recommended for imaging scaphoid nonunion.

  17. Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the proximal fragment in scaphoid nonunion: Is intravenous contrast agent necessary in MRI?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.; Christopoulos, G.; Wagner, M.; Krimmer, H.; Fodor, S.; Schoonhoven, J. van; Prommersberger, K.J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this prospective study is to assess the diagnostic value of intravenously applied contrast agent for diagnosing osteonecrosis of the proximal fragment in scaphoid nonunion, and to compare the imaging results with intraoperative findings. Materials and methods: In 88 patients (7 women, 81 men) suffering from symptomatic scaphoid nonunion, preoperative MRI was performed (coronal PD-w FSE fs, sagittal-oblique T1-w SE nonenhanced and T1-w SE fs contrast-enhanced, sagittal T2*-w GRE). MRI interpretation was based on the intensity of contrast enhancement: 0 = none, 1 = focal, 2 = diffuse. Intraoperatively, the osseous viability was scored by means of bleeding points on the osteotomy site of the proximal scaphoid fragment: 0 = absent, 1 = moderate, 2 = good. Results: Intraoperatively, 17 necrotic, 29 compromised, and 42 normal proximal fragments were found. In nonenhanced MRI, bone viability was judged necrotic in 1 patient, compromised in 20 patients, and unaffected in 67 patients. Contrast-enhanced MRI revealed 14 necrotic, 21 compromised, and 53 normal proximal fragments. Judging surgical findings as the standard of reference, statistical analysis for nonenhanced MRI was: sensitivity 6.3%, specificity 100%, positive PV 100%, negative PV 82.6%, and accuracy 82.9%; statistics for contrast-enhanced MRI was: sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 98.6%, positive PV 92.9%, negative PV 94.6%, and accuracy 94.3%. Sensitivity for detecting avascular proximal fragments was significantly better (p < 0.001) in contrast-enhanced MRI in comparison to nonenhanced MRI. Conclusion: Viability of the proximal fragment in scaphoid nonunion can be significantly better assessed with the use of contrast-enhanced MRI as compared to nonenhanced MRI. Bone marrow edema is an inferior indicator of osteonecrosis. Application of intravenous gadolinium is recommended for imaging scaphoid nonunion.

  18. Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the proximal fragment in scaphoid nonunion: is intravenous contrast agent necessary in MRI?

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    Schmitt, R; Christopoulos, G; Wagner, M; Krimmer, H; Fodor, S; van Schoonhoven, J; Prommersberger, K J

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this prospective study is to assess the diagnostic value of intravenously applied contrast agent for diagnosing osteonecrosis of the proximal fragment in scaphoid nonunion, and to compare the imaging results with intraoperative findings. In 88 patients (7 women, 81 men) suffering from symptomatic scaphoid nonunion, preoperative MRI was performed (coronal PD-w FSE fs, sagittal-oblique T1-w SE nonenhanced and T1-w SE fs contrast-enhanced, sagittal T2*-w GRE). MRI interpretation was based on the intensity of contrast enhancement: 0 = none, 1 = focal, 2 = diffuse. Intraoperatively, the osseous viability was scored by means of bleeding points on the osteotomy site of the proximal scaphoid fragment: 0=absent, 1 = moderate, 2 = good. Intraoperatively, 17 necrotic, 29 compromised, and 42 normal proximal fragments were found. In nonenhanced MRI, bone viability was judged necrotic in 1 patient, compromised in 20 patients, and unaffected in 67 patients. Contrast-enhanced MRI revealed 14 necrotic, 21 compromised, and 53 normal proximal fragments. Judging surgical findings as the standard of reference, statistical analysis for nonenhanced MRI was: sensitivity 6.3%, specificity 100%, positive PV 100%, negative PV 82.6%, and accuracy 82.9%; statistics for contrast-enhanced MRI was: sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 98.6%, positive PV 92.9%, negative PV 94.6%, and accuracy 94.3%. Sensitivity for detecting avascular proximal fragments was significantly better (p<0.001) in contrast-enhanced MRI in comparison to nonenhanced MRI. Viability of the proximal fragment in scaphoid nonunion can be significantly better assessed with the use of contrast-enhanced MRI as compared to nonenhanced MRI. Bone marrow edema is an inferior indicator of osteonecrosis. Application of intravenous gadolinium is recommended for imaging scaphoid nonunion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound: Nonunions

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    Dijkman Bernadette

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonunions occur in 5-10% of fractures and are characterized by the failure to heal without further intervention. Low intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy has been developed as an alternative to surgery in the treatment of nonunions. We describe a systematic review on trials of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy for healing of nonunions. We searched the electronic databases Medline and the Cochrane library for articles on ultrasound and healing of nonunions published up to 2008. Trials selected for the review met the following criteria: treatment of at least one intervention group with low intensity pulsed ultrasound; inclusion of patients (humans with one or more nonunions (defined as "established" or as a failure to heal for a minimum of eight months after initial injury; and assessment of healing and time to healing, as determined radiographically. The following data were abstracted from the included studies: sample size, ultrasound treatment characteristics, nonunion location, healing rate, time to fracture healing, fracture age, and demographic information. We found 79 potentially eligible publications, of which 14 met our inclusion criteria. Of these, eight studies were used for data abstraction. Healing rates averaged 87%, (range 65.6%-100% among eight trials. Mean time to healing was 146.5 days, (range 56-219 days. There is evidence from trials that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound may be an effective treatment for healing of nonunions. More homogeneous and larger controlled series are needed to further investigate its efficacy.

  20. Application of monorail fixator for femoral gap nonunion.

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    Agrawal, Hemendra-Kumar; Jaiman, Ashish; Khatkar, Vipin; Sharma, Vinod-Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Difficult femoral nonunion takes account of infective nonunion and aseptic gap nonunion. Limb length discrepancy and nonunion need to be tackled simultaneously. Conventionally Ilizarov ring fixator is in vogue but it has some limitations. To overcome these, monorail fixator is an effective alternative. Persistent good results can be obtained if we can get a perfect anatomical alignment and good regeneration.

  1. Sandwich allografts for long-bone nonunions in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta: a retrospective study.

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    Puvanesarajah, Varun; Shapiro, Jay R; Sponseller, Paul D

    2015-02-18

    Patients with osteogenesis imperfecta often develop nonunions, as internal fixation has limited applicability in this condition. We report the outcomes of a modified "sandwich technique" in the treatment of long-bone nonunions in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta; this technique brings circumferential stabilization and normal collagen to the nonunion site. From May 2003 through February 2012, twelve patients (eight females, four males; median age, 39.0 years; range, eleven to seventy-eight years) who had osteogenesis imperfecta (Sillence type I [three], type III [eight], and type IV [one]) and a combined total of thirteen nonunions (two humeral, two radial, three femoral, four tibial, and two ulnar; median duration, 15.0 months; range, six to 204 months) were treated at our institution with compressed sandwich allograft cortical struts. The struts were fashioned to be wide enough to allow for increased osteoconductive surface area and to approximate a hemicylindrical shape. Treatment history and demographics data were acquired through retrospective chart review. Follow-up radiographs were analyzed by two attending orthopaedic surgeons to determine radiographic findings. The median follow-up time was 4.6 years (range, 2.1 to 10.3 years). All thirteen nonunions, including one requiring a second graft procedure, healed with abundant, smooth allograft incorporation, resulting in an initial healing rate of 92% because of a refracture in one patient. This patient's nonunion ultimately healed with additional allograft struts and a new intramedullary rod. One patient required removal of prominent screws. The final follow-up examinations revealed no pain or refracture at the original nonunion site. All patients regained their prefracture level of function. Sandwich allograft struts constitute a durable, safe method for the stabilization and healing of persistent long-bone nonunions in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta. All patients showed incorporation of the

  2. For early diagnosis of the fracture healing, nonunion and avascular necorsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. C.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, Y. C.; Whang, I. S.; Kim, H. S.

    1981-01-01

    Complications of non-union and avascular necrosis during fracture healing process are the most important problems. Early detection of the evidence of non-union and avascular necrosis and follow-up study of fracture healing process will reduce complications and sequellae in fracture patients. Femoral neck and tibial shaft are the most important fracture sites where non-union and/or avascular necorsis are frequently developed. Osteomedullography was performed in 30 cases of fracture, 21 femoral neck, 8 tibial shafts and 1 talar neck, in the Department of Radiology of national Medical Center during the period form August 1977 to March 1981. The following results were obtained: 1. 16 patients of femoral neck fracture were performed osteomedullography one. Non-union showing no crossing vein through the fracture site was noted in 12 cases from 16 patients. 4 cases from the 12 patients of non-union showed decreased viability but 2 case revealed good viability of the femoral head. 1 case from 4 case of good union of fracture showed no evidence of viability of the femoral head. 2. More than twice of osteomedullography were performed in 5 cases of femoral neck fracture, and crossing vein was not appeared in 4 cases at 3 weeks after fracture. 3 cases showed crossing veins at 6 weeks, and 1 case revealed evidence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head at 9 weeks. 3. In 8 cases of tibial shaft fracture, 4 cases were non-union. Another 4 cases revealed intraosseous veins crossing in fracture site or additional Kaski's osteomedullographic signs, indicating bony union. 4. One talar neck fracture showed bony union with decreased viability of the bony on 12 months after fracture. 5. Osteomedullography is considered as very important study for the early diagnosis of the fracture healing, non-union and avascular necrosis

  3. For early diagnosis of the fracture healing, nonunion and avascular necorsis

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    Kim, Y C; Lee, S H; Lee, Y C; Whang, I S; Kim, H S [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-09-15

    Complications of non-union and avascular necrosis during fracture healing process are the most important problems. Early detection of the evidence of non-union and avascular necrosis and follow-up study of fracture healing process will reduce complications and sequellae in fracture patients. Femoral neck and tibial shaft are the most important fracture sites where non-union and/or avascular necorsis are frequently developed. Osteomedullography was performed in 30 cases of fracture, 21 femoral neck, 8 tibial shafts and 1 talar neck, in the Department of Radiology of national Medical Center during the period form August 1977 to March 1981. The following results were obtained: 1. 16 patients of femoral neck fracture were performed osteomedullography one. Non-union showing no crossing vein through the fracture site was noted in 12 cases from 16 patients. 4 cases from the 12 patients of non-union showed decreased viability but 2 case revealed good viability of the femoral head. 1 case from 4 case of good union of fracture showed no evidence of viability of the femoral head. 2. More than twice of osteomedullography were performed in 5 cases of femoral neck fracture, and crossing vein was not appeared in 4 cases at 3 weeks after fracture. 3 cases showed crossing veins at 6 weeks, and 1 case revealed evidence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head at 9 weeks. 3. In 8 cases of tibial shaft fracture, 4 cases were non-union. Another 4 cases revealed intraosseous veins crossing in fracture site or additional Kaski's osteomedullographic signs, indicating bony union. 4. One talar neck fracture showed bony union with decreased viability of the bony on 12 months after fracture. 5. Osteomedullography is considered as very important study for the early diagnosis of the fracture healing, non-union and avascular necrosis.

  4. Osteomedullography: for early diagnosis of the fracture healing, nonunion and avascular necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. C.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, Y. C.; Whang, I. S.; Kim, H. S.

    1981-01-01

    Complications of non-union and avascular necrosis during fracture healing process are the most important problem. Early detection of the evidence of non-union and avascular necrosis and follow-up study of fracture healing process will reduce complications and sequellae in fracture patients. Femoral neck and tibial shaft are the most important fracture sites where non-union and/or avascular necrosis are frequently developed. Osteomedullography was performed in 30 cases of fracture, 21 femoral neck, 8 tibial shafts and 1 talar neck, in the Department of Radiology of National Medical Center during the period from August 1977 to March 1981. The following results were obtained: 1. 16 patients of femoral neck fracture were performed osteomedullography once. Non-union showing no crossing vein through the fracture site was noted in 12 cases from 16 patients. 4 cases from the 12 patients of non-union showed decreased viability but 2 case revealed good viability of the femoral head. 1 case from 4 cases of good union of fracture showed no evidence of viability of the femoral head. 2. More than twice of osteomedullography were performed in 5 cases of femoral neck fracture, and crossing vein was not appeared in 4 cases at 3 weeks after fracture. 3 cases showed crossing veins at 6 weeks, and 1 case revealed evidence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head at 9 weeks. 3. In 8 cases of tibial shaft fracture, 4 cases were non-union. Another 4 cases revealed intraosseous veins crossing in fracture site or additional Kaski's osteomedullographic signs, indicating bony union. 4. One talar neck fracture showed bony union with decreased viability of the body on 12 month after fracture. 5. Osteomedullography is considered as very important study for the early diagnosis of the fracture healing, non-union and avascular necrosis

  5. Osteomedullography: for early diagnosis of the fracture healing, nonunion and avascular necrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y C; Lee, S H; Lee, Y C; Whang, I S; Kim, H S [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-12-15

    Complications of non-union and avascular necrosis during fracture healing process are the most important problem. Early detection of the evidence of non-union and avascular necrosis and follow-up study of fracture healing process will reduce complications and sequellae in fracture patients. Femoral neck and tibial shaft are the most important fracture sites where non-union and/or avascular necrosis are frequently developed. Osteomedullography was performed in 30 cases of fracture, 21 femoral neck, 8 tibial shafts and 1 talar neck, in the Department of Radiology of National Medical Center during the period from August 1977 to March 1981. The following results were obtained: 1. 16 patients of femoral neck fracture were performed osteomedullography once. Non-union showing no crossing vein through the fracture site was noted in 12 cases from 16 patients. 4 cases from the 12 patients of non-union showed decreased viability but 2 case revealed good viability of the femoral head. 1 case from 4 cases of good union of fracture showed no evidence of viability of the femoral head. 2. More than twice of osteomedullography were performed in 5 cases of femoral neck fracture, and crossing vein was not appeared in 4 cases at 3 weeks after fracture. 3 cases showed crossing veins at 6 weeks, and 1 case revealed evidence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head at 9 weeks. 3. In 8 cases of tibial shaft fracture, 4 cases were non-union. Another 4 cases revealed intraosseous veins crossing in fracture site or additional Kaski's osteomedullographic signs, indicating bony union. 4. One talar neck fracture showed bony union with decreased viability of the body on 12 month after fracture. 5. Osteomedullography is considered as very important study for the early diagnosis of the fracture healing, non-union and avascular necrosis.

  6. Ilizarov′s method for treatment of nonunion of diaphyseal fractures of the humerus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Manish

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nonunion in diaphyseal fractures of the humerus can be treated by various modalities like plating and bone grafting, exchange nailing, fibular strut grafting and Ilizarov′s method of ring fixation. To achieve union in infected nonunion in which multiple surgeries have already been done is further challenging. We conducted a prospective study wherein the outcome of the treatment of nonunion of diaphyseal fractures of the humerus by Ilizarov′s method was analyzed. Materials and Methods: Nineteen patients with diaphyseal nonunion of the humerus were treated by Ilizarov′s external fixator. These included nonunion after plating (n=11, intramedullary nailing (n=1 or conservative methods (n=7. In post-surgical infected nonunion (n=6, the implants were removed, debridement done, bone fragments were docked followed by application of ring fixator and compression. In aseptic nonunion (n=13, distraction for three weeks followed by compression was the protocol. Early shoulder and elbow physiotherapy was instituted. The apparatus was removed after clinical and radiological union and the results were assessed for bone healing and functional status. Results: Fracture union was achieved in all the 19 cases. Pin site infection was seen in 2 cases (10.52%. The bone healing results were excellent in eighteen cases (94.73% and good in one case (5.26%.The functional results were found to be excellent in fourteen cases (73.68%, good in four (21.05% and fair in one case (5.26%. Conclusion: Ilizarov′s method is an excellent option for treatment of septic and aseptic non union of diaphyseal fractures of the humerus as it addresses all the problems associated with non union of the humerus like infection, deformity and joint stiffness.

  7. Nonunion of an isolated cuboid fracture: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Ed; Fazal, Muhammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Nonunion of an isolated undisplaced cuboid fracture is unusual. We report a case of symptomatic nonunion of an isolated cuboid fracture after nonoperative treatment. Fracture union was achieved with surgery, and the patient returned to full activities.

  8. Application of monorail fixator for femoral gap nonunion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Hemendra Kumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Difficult femoral nonunion takes account of infective nonunion and aseptic gap nonunion. Limb length discrepancy and nonunion need to be tackled simultaneously. Conventionally Ilizarov ring fixator is in vogue but it has some limitations. To overcome these, monorail fixator is an effective alternative. Persistent good results can be obtained if we can get a perfect anatomical alignment and good regeneration. Key words: Femur; Ilizarov technique; External fixators

  9. Diaphyseal long bone nonunions - types, aetiology, economics, and treatment recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Markus; Biehl, Christoph; Budak, Matthäus; Thormann, Ulrich; Heiss, Christian; Alt, Volker

    2018-02-01

    The intention of the current article is to review the epidemiology with related socioeconomic costs, pathophysiology, and treatment options for diaphyseal long bone delayed unions and nonunions. Diaphyseal nonunions in the tibia and in the femur are estimated to occur 4.6-8% after modern intramedullary nailing of closed fractures with an even much higher risk in open fractures. There is a high socioeconomic burden for long bone nonunions mainly driven by indirect costs, such as productivity losses due to long treatment duration. The classic classification of Weber and Cech of the 1970s is based on the underlying biological aspect of the nonunion differentiating between "vital" (hypertrophic) and "avital" (hypo-/atrophic) nonunions, and can still be considered to represent the basis for basic evaluation of nonunions. The "diamond concept" units biomechanical and biological aspects and provides the pre-requisites for successful bone healing in nonunions. For humeral diaphyseal shaft nonunions, excellent results for augmentation plating were reported. In atrophic humeral shaft nonunions, compression plating with stimulation of bone healing by bone grafting or BMPs seem to be the best option. For femoral and tibial diaphyseal shaft fractures, dynamization of the nail is an atraumatic, effective, and cheap surgical possibility to achieve bony consolidation, particularly in delayed nonunions before 24 weeks after initial surgery. In established hypertrophic nonunions in the tibia and femur, biomechanical stability should be addressed by augmentation plating or exchange nailing. Hypotrophic or atrophic nonunions require additional biological stimulation of bone healing for augmentation plating.

  10. Gap nonunion of tibia treated by Huntington′s procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zile S Kundu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gap nonunion that may occur following trauma or infection is a challenging problem to treat. The patients with intact or united fibula, preserved sensation in the sole, and adequate vascularity, were managed by tibialization (medialization of the fibula (Huntington′s procedure, to restore continuity of the tibia. The goal of this retrospective analysis study is to report the mid-term results following the Huntington′s procedure. Materials and Methods: 22 patients (20 males and two females age 16-34 years with segmental tibial loss more than 6 cm were operated for tibialization of fibula. The procedure was two-staged in seven and single-staged in the rest 15 patients, where the lateral aspect of the leg was relatively supple. In the two-staged procedure, the distal tibiofibular synostosis was performed six-to-eight weeks after the proximal procedure. Weightbearing (protected was started in a long leg cast after six-to-eight weeks of the second stage and continued for six-to-eight months, followed by the use of a brace. Results: The fibula started showing signs of hypertrophy within the first year after the procedure and it was more than double in breath after the four-year period. Full and unprotected weightbearing on the operated leg was achieved at an average time of 16 months. At the final followup, ten patients were very satisfied, seven satisfied, and five fairly satisfied. One patient had persistent nonunion at the proximal synostotic site even after bone grafting and secondary fixation. Conclusion: Huntington′s procedure is a safe and simple salvage procedure and remains an excellent option for treating difficult infected nonunion of the tibia in the selected indications.

  11. Angular Stable Miniplate Fixation of Chronic Unstable Scaphoid Nonunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schormans, Philip M J; Brink, Peter R G; Poeze, Martijn; Hannemann, Pascal F W

    2018-02-01

    Background  Around 5 to 15% of all scaphoid fractures result in nonunion. Treatment of long-lasting scaphoid nonunion remains a challenge for the treating surgeon. Healing of scaphoid nonunion is essential for prevention of scaphoid nonunion advanced collapse and the subsequent predictable pattern of radiocarpal osteoarthritis. Purpose  The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of fixation of the scaphoid nonunion with a volar angular stable miniplate and cancellous bone grafting. We hypothesized that this technique could be successful, even in patients with previous surgery for nonunion and in patients with a long duration of nonunion. Patients and Methods  A total of 21 patients enrolled in a single-center prospective cohort study. Healing of nonunion was assessed on multiplanar computed tomography scan of the wrist at a 3-month interval. Functional outcome was assessed by measuring grip strength, range of motion, and by means of the patient-rated wrist and hand evaluation (PRWHE) questionnaire. Results  During follow-up, 19 out of 21 patients (90%) showed radiological healing of the nonunion. The range of motion did not improve significantly. Postoperative PRWHE scores decreased by 34 points. Healing occurred regardless of the length of time of the nonunion (range: 6-183 months) and regardless of previous surgery (38% of patients). Conclusion  Volar angular stable miniplate fixation with autologous cancellous bone grafting is a successful technique for the treatment of chronic unstable scaphoid nonunion, even in patients with long-lasting nonunion and in patients who underwent previous surgery for a scaphoid fracture. Rotational interfragmentary stability might be an important determining factor for the successful treatment of unstable scaphoid nonunion. Level of Evidence  Level IV.

  12. Multiple Rib Nonunion: Open Reduction and Internal Fixation and Iliac Crest Bone Graft Aspirate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Daniel J; Begly, John; Tejwani, Nirmal

    2017-08-01

    Rib fractures are a common chest injury that can typically be treated nonoperatively. However, a percentage of these will go on to nonunion, either because of unique characteristics of the fracture itself or because of a variety of poor healing factors of the host. If a patient has continued symptomology beyond 3 months, surgeons may consider operative management. Although isolated resection of fibrous scar tissue from the nonunion site may be sufficient in some cases, it may also be necessary to provide additional structural integrity to the rib depending on the extent of the fracture pattern and resection. This goal can be achieved operatively with rib plating and bone grafting to promote healing. This video demonstrates the use of plating in the treatment of rib nonunion. It begins with relevant background information on rib fractures and nonunions, then details the approach, open reduction and internal fixation of 3 ribs using plates and bone graft aspirate. Pearls and pitfalls are included during the surgical technique aspect of the video to both help guide surgeons new to the procedure and provide potentially advantageous technical details to more experienced surgeons.

  13. Reconstruction with distraction osteogenesis for juxta-articular nonunions with bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabata, Tamon; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Sakurakichi, Keisuke; Yamashiro, Teruhisa; Watanabe, Koji; Tomita, Kasuro

    2005-06-01

    Nonunions of a juxta-articular lesion with bone loss, which represent a challenging therapeutic problem, were treated using external fixation and distraction osteogenesis. Seven juxta-articular nonunions (five septic and two aseptic) were treated. The location of the nonunion was the distal femur in four patients, the proximal tibia in one patient, and the distal tibia in two patients. All of them were located within 5 cm from the affected joints. Preoperative limb shortening was present in six cases, averaging 2.9 cm (range, 1-7 cm). The reconstructive procedure consisted of refreshment of the nonunion site, deformity correction, stabilization by external fixation, and lengthening to eliminate leg length discrepancy or to fill the defect. Shortening-distraction was applied to six patients and bone transport to one patient for reconstruction. Intramedullary nailing to reduce the duration of external fixation was simultaneously performed in two cases. All the patients had at least 1 year of follow-up evaluation. Osseous union without angular deformity or leg length discrepancy greater than 1 cm was achieved in all patients. The mean amount of lengthening was 5.8 cm (range, 2.2-10.0 cm). The mean external fixation period was 219 days (range, 98-317 days), and the mean external fixation index was 34.4 days/cm (range, 24.5-47.6 days/cm). All patients reported excellent pain reduction. There were no recurrences of infection in five patients with prior history of osteomyelitis. The functional results were categorized as excellent in two, good in three, and fair in two. Despite the length of postoperative external fixation, distraction osteogenesis can be a valuable alternative for the treatment of juxta-articular nonunions.

  14. Nonunions of the distal tibia treated by reamed intramedullary nailing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richmond, Jeffrey; Colleran, Kevin; Borens, Olivier; Kloen, Peter; Helfet, David L.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of reamed intramedullary nailing in the treatment of nonunions of the distal one-fourth of the tibia. Nonunions of the distal tibia are particularly difficult to treat given the short distal segment, the proximity to the ankle joint, and the

  15. Nonunion of the external maxillary distraction in cleft lip and palate: analysis of possible reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dongmei; Genecov, David G; Barcelo, Raul

    2010-10-01

    Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is an effective way to treat severe maxillary deficiency in patients with cleft lip and palate. It has been reported to have long-term stability and low relapse rate compared with conventional maxillary osteotomy in large maxillary movement. However, complications such as nonunion are seldom reported. While developing our external distraction techniques, we had 4 nonunion cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients. The aim of this study is to analyze the possible reasons for these conditions by comparing them to patients successfully treated at 1 craniofacial institute. Fifty-six patients with CLP deformities treated with external maxillary distraction from 2000 to 2006 in 1 craniofacial center were reviewed. Among them, 17 had full records and follow-up time of more than 1 year. They had rigid external halo distraction with dental splint after a high Le Fort I osteotomy. Distraction was started at 5 days with a rate of 1 mm per day until the maxilla acquired the planned correction. Consolidation time ranged from 4 weeks to 3 months. Patients' general information, DO protocol, and cephalometric radiograph measurements before DO, immediately after DO, and follow-ups were evaluated. Thirteen of 17 patients successfully completed DO, whereas 4 others developed dental occlusion relapse 2 to 3 months after device removal. Later jaw surgery showed nonunion at the distraction sites. These were our first patients treated with external distraction. Their consolidation time was from 4 to 6 weeks with a mean of 5.2 weeks. After increasing the consolidation time up to 12 weeks, all of the other 13 patients had successful results without nonunion. Their mean consolidation time was 9.8 weeks. The nonunion group had significantly shorter consolidation time, older age, and larger distraction osteogenesis (DO) advancement than the successful group statistically. There was also a greater percentage of bilateral CLP patients in the nonunion group than in the

  16. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Implantation in Combination with Platelet Lysate Product Is Safe for Reconstruction of Human Long Bone Nonunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labibzadeh, Narges; Emadedin, Mohsen; Fazeli, Roghayeh; Mohseni, Fatemeh; Hosseini, Seyedeh Esmat; Moghadasali, Reza; Mardpour, Soura; Azimian, Vajiheh; Ghorbani Liastani, Maede; Mirazimi Bafghi, Ali; Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza; Aghdami, Nasser

    2016-01-01

    Nonunion is defined as a minimum of 9 months since injury without any visible progressive signs of healing for 3 months. Recent literature has shown that the application of mesenchymal stromal cells is safe, in vitro and in vivo, for treating long bone nonunion. The present study was performed to investigate the safety of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) implantation in combination with platelet lysate (PL) product for treating human long bone nonunion. In this case series clinical trial, orthopedic surgeons visited eighteen patients with long bone nonunion, of whom 7 complied with the eligibility criteria. These patients received mesenchymal stromal cells (20 million cells implanted once into the nonunion site using a fluoroscopic guide) in combination with PL product. For evaluation of the effects of this intervention all the patients were followed up by taking anterior-posterior and lateral X-rays of the affected limb before and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the implantation. All side effects (local or systemic, serious or non-serious, related or unrelated) were observed during this time period. From a safety perspective the MSC implantation in combination with PL was very well tolerated during the 12 months of the trial. Four patients were healed; based on the control Xray evidence, bony union had occurred. Results from the present study suggest that the implantation of bone marrow-derived MSCs in combination with PL is safe for the treatment of nonunion. A double blind, controlled clinical trial is required to assess the efficacy of this treatment (Registration Number: NCT01206179).

  17. Nonunion of acetabular fractures: evaluation with interactive multiplanar CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlman, J.E.; Fishman, E.K.; Ney, D.R.; Brooker, A.F. Jr.; Magid, D.

    1989-01-01

    Nonunions involving fractures of the acetabulum are reportedly rare, with few citings and little discussion in the literature. It is possible that acetabular nonunions go undetected because imaging of the acetabulum is difficult by conventional radiography. We report two cases of fracture nonunion involving the weight-bearing surface of the acetabulum diagnosed with the aid of computed tomography (CT) and a newly developed interactive 2D/3D orthotool that uniquely processes and reformats routine CT data. The interactive 2D/3D orthotool is a sophisticated computer program that allows dynamic viewing of standard multiplanar reconstructions in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes as well as multiple oblique projections. The 2D/3D orthotool provides on screen correlation of two-dimensional multiplanar images with three-dimensional reconstructions of the pelvis. The authors found this capability ideally suited for studying fractures with off-axis orientation such as those through the acetabular dome, greatly facilitating the diagnosis of nonunion

  18. Effectiveness of plate augmentation for femoral shaft nonunion after nailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Jung Lin

    2012-08-01

    Conclusion: Plate augmentation with retention of the nail with autologous bone grafting may be an effective and reliable alternative in treating nonunion of the femoral shaft fracture after open reduction and internal fixation with intramedullary nail.

  19. Evaluation and comparison of high population density sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margulies, T.S.

    1979-10-01

    Consideration of the population distribution surrounding a potential nuclear site generally includes the calculation of population density over a circular area outward to a radial distance of 30 miles from the site. A recently proposed nuclear site Perryman, Maryland challenged the NRC population density guidelines and motivated this project which was performed under the Maryland Power Plant Siting Program. The report provides a comparison of several site population factor indices for comparing relative public safety aspects of alternative nuclear power plant sites. In addition, it is illustrated that use of the reactor safety study (WASH-1400) consequence model as a tool for comparing the relative safety of alternative sites has potential pitfalls

  20. Successful treatment of recalcitrant nonunions with combined magnetic field stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, J A

    1997-01-01

    Nonunions and delayed unions have been classically defined by Bassett as an arrest of the fracture healing process at an intermediary stage of repair, at which time the fracture gap is bridged by fibrocartilage. It is estimated that approximately 10-20 % of long bone fractures in the United States will result in delayed unions when compared to the average rate of healing for the location and type of fracture. Many of these will go on to a nonunion if biological or biomechanical factors are not optimized to enhance healing. Additional commorbities such as smoking, ethanol abuse, malnutrition, malabsorption and altered neurologic conditions can contribute to delayed unions or nonunions. Even despite appropriate and aggressive early management of long bone fractures, a certain percentage still lack progression of healing and go on to nonunion. Classical surgical management of nonunions includes obtaininjg fracture stabilization with ORIF techniques and bone grafting, with reported clinical successes ranging from 50-80%. Those that fail to achieve union despite classical management are indeed recalcitrant nonunions.

  1. Nonvascularized fibular grafting in nonunion of femoral neck fracture: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Kumar Tripathy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonunion of femoral neck fractures following primary fixation and neglected femoral neck fracture in young adults is a challenging task. Every effort should be directed toward hip joint salvage in these patients. Among different available options of hip salvage, nonvascularized fibular graft (NVFG osteosynthesis is simple, easy to perform, and a successful technique. In this review, the available literature on NVFG in neglected and nonunion femoral neck fractures has been analyzed. After review of 15 articles on NVFG, the average nonunion rate was estimated to be 7.86% (range 0-31%. Six articles that evaluated the preoperative and postoperative osteonecrosis reported improvement in 50% patients. The clinical and/or functional outcome was good to excellent in 56-96% patients following fibular osteosynthesis. Few complications such as coxa vara deformity, limb shortening, and intraarticular penetration of the graft or hardware have been reported. However, there are minimal donor site morbidities such as mild ankle pain, transient loss of toe flexors and extensors and transient lateral popliteal nerve palsy.

  2. Surgical treatment of rib fracture nonunion: A single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, M B; Houwert, R M; van Heerde, S; de Steenwinkel, M; Hietbrink, F; Leenen, L P H

    2018-03-01

    In contrast to the emerging evidence on the operative treatment of flail chest, there is a paucity of literature on the surgical treatment of rib fracture nonunion. The purpose of this study was to describe our standardized approach and report the outcome (e.g. patient satisfaction, pain and complications) after surgical treatment of a rib fracture nonunion. A single centre retrospective cohort study was performed at a level 1 trauma centre. Symptomatic rib nonunion was defined as a severe persistent localized pain associated with the nonunion of one or more rib fractures on a chest CT scan at least 3 months after the initial trauma. Patients after initial operative treatment of rib fractures were excluded. Nineteen patients (11 men, 8 women), with symptomatic nonunions were included. Fourteen patients were referred from other hospitals and 8 patients received treatment from a pain medicine specialist. The mean follow-up was 36 months. No in-hospital complications were observed. In 2 patients, new fractures adjacent to the implant, without new trauma were observed. Furthermore 3 patients requested implant removal with a persistent nonunion in one patient. There was a mean follow-up of 36 months, the majority of patients (n = 13) were satisfied with the results of their surgical treatment and all patients experienced a reduction in the number of complaints. Persisting pain was a common complaint. Three patients reporting severe pain used opioid analgesics on a daily or weekly basis. Only 1 patient needed ongoing treatment by a pain medicine specialist. Surgical fixation of symptomatic rib nonunion is a safe and feasible procedure, with a low perioperative complication rate, and might be beneficial in selected symptomatic patients in the future. In our study, although the majority of patients were satisfied and the pain level subjectively decreases, complaints of persistent pain were common. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Multi-Sited Comparison of "Doing Regulation"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Estrid

    2008-01-01

    tertium comparationis. Artiklen foreslåt en multi-sited sammenligning, som ikke tager udgangspunkt i tertium comparationis, men derimod identificerer dette som sit resultat. Artiklen redegør for udviklingen af denne metode gennem en undersøgelse af medieregulering med henblik på børnebeskyttelse....

  4. Risk profile of patients developing nonunion of the clavicle and outcome of treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ban, Ilija; Troelsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The most common complication following treatment of a clavicle fracture is nonunion. Most nonunions are symptomatic and treatment is mostly operative. The aim of this study was to describe risk profiles of patients developing nonunion and what outcome is observed following operative...... of functionality and patient reported satisfaction and remission of symptoms was done a minimum of six months post-operatively by mail. Response rate was 60%. RESULTS: The overall nonunion rate was 7.5%. Nine nonunions were initially treated operatively. Risk factors associated with nonunion of our series...

  5. Stress Fracture and Nonunion of Coronoid Process in a Gymnast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hetling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gymnasts have high mechanical loading forces of up to 14 times body weight. Overuse lesions are typical in wrists and stress fractures in the olecranon, while isolated fractures of the coronoid process are uncommon. We present a case of retraumatized nonunion stress fracture of the ulnar coronoid process. Case Description. A 19-year-old gymnast presented with elbow pain after training. Imaging confirmed an old fracture of the coronoid process. We describe a 6-month multiphase return to competition rehabilitation program, which allowed him to compete pain-freely. Literature Review. Acute and overuse injuries in gymnasts are known but no nonunion of the coronoid process has been described before. Only one case of stress fracture of coronoid process in a gymnast was reported. Purpose and Clinical Relevance. We could successfully and conservatively return to sport a reactivated nonunion of a stress fracture of the coronoid process.

  6. Comparison of Transcription Factor Binding Site Models

    KAUST Repository

    Bhuyan, Sharifulislam

    2012-05-01

    Modeling of transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) and TFBS prediction on genomic sequences are important steps to elucidate transcription regulatory mechanism. Dependency of transcription regulation on a great number of factors such as chemical specificity, molecular structure, genomic and epigenetic characteristics, long distance interaction, makes this a challenging problem. Different experimental procedures generate evidence that DNA-binding domains of transcription factors show considerable DNA sequence specificity. Probabilistic modeling of TFBSs has been moderately successful in identifying patterns from a family of sequences. In this study, we compare performances of different probabilistic models and try to estimate their efficacy over experimental TFBSs data. We build a pipeline to calculate sensitivity and specificity from aligned TFBS sequences for several probabilistic models, such as Markov chains, hidden Markov models, Bayesian networks. Our work, containing relevant statistics and evaluation for the models, can help researchers to choose the most appropriate model for the problem at hand.

  7. The treatment of nonisthmal femoral shaft nonunions with im nail exchange versus augmentation plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin; Kim, Sul Gee; Yoon, Han Kook; Yang, Kyu Hyun

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the results between exchange nailing (EN) and augmentation plating (AP) with a nail left in situ for nonisthmal femoral shaft nonunion after femoral nailing. : Retrospective data analysis, November 1996-March 2006. A level I trauma center. Eighteen patients with 18 nonisthmal femoral nonunions. Seven patients with 7 fractures treated for nonisthmal femoral shaft nonunions after femoral nailing with EN and 11 patients with 11 fractures treated for nonisthmal femoral shaft nonunions after nailing with AP combined with bone grafting. Union and complications. Five nonunions in the EN group failed to achieve union (72% failure rate), whereas all 11 pseudarthroses in the AP group obtained osseous union. Fisher exact test showed a higher nonunion rate of EN compared with AP for nonisthmal femoral shaft nonunion (odds ratio, 6.5; P = 0.002). AP with autogenous bone grafting may be a better option than EN for nonisthmal femoral nonunions.

  8. Management of infected non-union tibia by intercalary bone transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirwani, M.A.; Siddiqui, A.; Soomro, Y.H.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of ilizarov ring fixator in treating infected non-union tibia by intercalary bone transport. Sixteen patients, all males, aged 20-60 years (mean 32 years), with infected non-union tibia (Lax/Cierney Type IV Osteomyelitis); the commonest cause being open fracture and the commonest site being lower 1/3rd. In infected non-union of tibia with draining sinus, wound swab was sent for culture and sensitivity, and sinogram done. Debridement and sequestrectomy was done, leaving behind a gap ranging from 2-8 cms (mean 4.5 cms) and ilizarov ring fixator, a transport assembly, applied. A navigation wire was passed through medial malleolus, irrigation system set up and the wound closed in a single layer. Proximal metaphyseal corticotomy was done. Irrigation with 2-3 litres of normal saline with appropriate antibiotic was continued for five days. On the 5th day irrigation system was removed and the transport started. Patients remained on partial weight bearing till soft tissue healing occured. Transport took place over the navigation wire at the rate of 1mm/day till docking achieved. Full weight bearing was allowed after soft tissue healing; knee and ankle physiotherapy was started from day one. Navigation wire was removed after 2-3 weeks of docking. Follow up ranged from 12-27 months (mean 16 months). Union was achieved at the docking site in all the cases at the time of frame removal i.e. 8-13 months. The duration of union at docking site ranged from 3.5 months to 6 months (mean 4.5 months). Two patients needed bone graft at the docking site. The regenerate was broken in one case due to fall which was treated in cast. All the patients were satisfied except a 60 years old who had severe osteoarthritis of knee. Pin tract infection occurred on and off in all the patients; appropriate antibiotic was given. The infection subsided in all the cases except two in whom debridement was followed by application of a local flap. Intercalary bone transport by

  9. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa as a cause of persistent femoral nonunion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of postoperative infection which presented as nonunion fracture femur in a 30-year-old man due to Rhodotorula mucilaginosa . This is the first report of Rhodotorula infection in a patient with fracture nonunion. The patient underwent repeated surgical debridement and received intensive antibiotic therapy before the diagnosis was made. The diagnosis could have been made earlier if the fungal etiology had been suspected earlier. Early suspicion and diagnosis of infection with atypical yeasts could be under-reported because of difficulties in accurate diagnosis and a tendency of attributing isolates to specimen contamination.

  10. Atrophic femoral nonunion with bone loss: treatment with monorail transport: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, David M; Voss, Frank R

    2004-08-01

    Nonunions are an uncommon outcome of femoral fractures. Atrophic nonunions with a leg length discrepancy secondary to bone loss are often the most difficult to treat, and the treatment options are limited. We present a case that uses concomitant monolateral external fixation and intramedullary nailing to heal a nonunion and perform a simultaneous 7-cm lengthening procedure in a 33-year-old female.

  11. Outcome of Management of Humerus Diaphysis Non-union This ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    patients with nonunion of the humeral diaphysis were reviewed. ... 3 failures occurred of whom one was a smoker and diabetic, another had a loose ... as absence of radiographic signs of union and persistent pain on clinical ... Elbow Surgeons (ASES) Score for 13 activities of daily living 9 requiring full shoulder and elbow.

  12. Can we trust intraoperative culture results in nonunions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Michael P; Altman, Daniel T; Altman, Gregory T; Sewecke, Jeffrey J; Ehrlich, Garth D; Hu, Fen Z; Nistico, Laura; Melton-Kreft, Rachel; Gause, Trent M; Costerton, John W

    2014-07-01

    To identify the presence of bacterial biofilms in nonunions comparing molecular techniques (multiplex polymerase chain reaction and mass spectrometry, fluorescent in situ hybridization) with routine intraoperative cultures. Thirty-four patients with nonunions were scheduled for surgery and enrolled in this ongoing prospective study. Intraoperative specimens were collected from removed implants, surrounding tissue membrane, and local soft tissue followed by standard culture analysis, Ibis's second generation molecular diagnostics (Ibis Biosystems), and bacterial 16S rRNA-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Confocal microscopy was used to visualize the tissue specimens reacted with the FISH probes, which were chosen based on the Ibis analysis. Thirty-four patient encounters were analyzed. Eight were diagnosed as infected nonunions by positive intraoperative culture results. Ibis confirmed the presence of bacteria in all 8 samples. Ibis identified bacteria in a total of 30 of 34 encounters, and these data were confirmed by FISH. Twenty-two of 30 Ibis-positive samples were culture-negative. Four samples were negative by all methods of analysis. No samples were positive by culture, but negative by molecular techniques. Our preliminary data indicate that molecular diagnostics are more sensitive for identifying bacteria than cultures in cases of bony nonunion. This is likely because of the inability of cultures to detect biofilms and bacteria previously exposed to antibiotic therapy. Diagnostic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  13. The treatment of infected nonunion of the tibia following intramedullary nailing by the Ilizarov method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megas, Panagiotis; Saridis, Alkis; Kouzelis, Antonis; Kallivokas, Alkiviadis; Mylonas, Spyros; Tyllianakis, Minos

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the Ilizarov method and circular external fixator in order to eradicate the infection and restore bone union, limb anatomy and functionality in cases with infected nonunion of the tibia following intramedullary nailing. During 7 years nine patients suffering from infected nonunion of the tibia after intramedullary nailing were treated in our department. The series comprised seven men and two women with an average age of 39.7 years (range 21-75 years). The patients had previously undergone an average of 4.8 operations (range 3-6 operations). Active purulent bone infection occurred in all nine patients. Bone defect was present in all patients with a mean size of 5 cm (range 2-12 cm). In three cases with bone defect less than 2 cm, monofocal compression osteosynthesis technique was used. In the rest cases where bone defect exceeded 2 cm, bifocal consecutive distraction-compression osteosynthesis technique was applied. Three patients required a local gastrocnemius flap. The mean follow-up period was 26.6 months (range 13-42 months). Results were evaluated using Paley's functional and radiological scoring system. Bone union was achieved in all nine patients without recurrence of infection during the follow-up period. Bone results were graded as excellent in five cases and good in the rest four cases. Functional results were graded as excellent in three cases, good in four and fare in two cases. Mean external fixation time was 187.4 days (range 89-412 days) and mean lengthening index was 32 days/cm (range 27-39 days/cm). Complications observed included eight grade II pin tract infections, axial deformity at the lengthening site in two cases and at the nonunion site in another two cases. Ankle joint stiffness was detected in five cases. The Ilizarov method may be an effective method in infected nonunions of the tibia following intramedullary nailing. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Outcomes after operative management of symptomatic rib nonunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauger, Erich M; Hill, Brian W; Lafferty, Paul M; Cole, Peter A

    2015-06-01

    To report the outcomes of rib reconstruction after painful nonunion. Retrospective case series. Level I trauma center. Between November 2007 and May 2013, 10 patients who presented with 16 rib nonunions and disabling pain were treated with reconstruction of their nonunited rib fractures. Rib nonunion reconstruction predominately with iliac crest bone graft and a tension band plate with a locked precontoured plating system for ribs. Demographic data, mechanism of injury, and number of rib nonunions were recorded. Operative procedure, length of follow-up, complications, Short Form Survey 36, and a patient questionnaire were also captured and documented. Eight of the 10 patients sustained their original fractures from a fall. Outcomes were available for the 10 patients at a mean follow-up of up of 18.6 months (range, 3-46 months). All 16 ribs went on to union with a mean time from reconstruction to union of 14.7 weeks (range, 12-24 weeks). At final follow-up, the mean mental and physical component Short Form Survey 36 scores were 54.4 and 43.5, respectively. Eight of the 10 patients were able to return to work and/or previous activities without limitations. Complications included 1 wound infection that resolved after irrigation and debridement with adjunctive antibiotics. One symptomatic implant was removed. Ten patients with 16 symptomatic rib nonunions were reconstructed using autologous bone graft and implant/mesh fixation manifesting in successful union with improved patient function and a low rate of complications. Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  15. Shape change in the atlas with congenital midline non-union of its posterior arch: a morphometric geometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Luis; Palancar, Carlos; Pastor, Francisco; Llidó, Susana; Sanchís-Gimeno, Juan Alberto; Bastir, Markus

    2017-10-01

    The congenital midline non-union of the posterior arch of the atlas is a developmental variant present at a frequency ranging from 0.7% to 3.9%. Most of the reported cases correspond to incidental findings during routine medical examination. In cases of posterior non-union, hypertrophy of the anterior arch and cortical bone thickening of the posterior arches have been observed and interpreted as adaptive responses of the atlas to increased mechanical stress. We sought to determine if the congenital non-union of the posterior arch results in a change in the shape of the atlas. This study is an analysis of the first cervical vertebrae from osteological collections through morphometric geometric techniques. A total of 21 vertebrae were scanned with a high-resolution three-dimensional scanner (Artec Space Spider, Artec Group, Luxembourg). To capture vertebral shape, 19 landmarks and 100 semilandmarks were placed on the vertebrae. Procrustes superimposition was applied to obtain size and shape data (MorphoJ 1.02; Klingenberg, 2011), which were analyzed through principal component analysis (PCA) and mean shape comparisons. The PCA resulted in two components explaining 22.32% and 18.8% of the total shape variance. The graphic plotting of both components indicates a clear shape difference between the control atlas and the atlas with posterior non-union. This observation was supported by statistically significant differences in mean shape comparisons between both types of vertebra (patlas is associated with significant changes in the shape of the vertebra. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anterior versus posterior approach in reconstruction of infected nonunion of the tibia using the vascularized fibular graft: potentialities and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amr, Sherif M; El-Mofty, Aly O; Amin, Sherif N

    2002-01-01

    The potentialities, limitations, and technical pitfalls of the vascularized fibular grafting in infected nonunions of the tibia are outlined on the basis of 14 patients approached anteriorly or posteriorly. An infected nonunion of the tibia together with a large exposed area over the shin of the tibia is better approached anteriorly. The anastomosis is placed in an end-to-end or end-to-side fashion onto the anterior tibial vessels. To locate the site of the nonunion, the tibialis anterior muscle should be retracted laterally and the proximal and distal ends of the site of the nonunion debrided up to healthy bleeding bone. All the scarred skin over the anterior tibia should be excised, because it becomes devitalized as a result of the exposure. To cover the exposed area, the fibula has to be harvested with a large skin paddle, incorporating the first septocutaneous branch originating from the peroneal vessels before they gain the upper end of the flexor hallucis longus muscle. A disadvantage of harvesting the free fibula together with a skin paddle is that its pedicle is short. The skin paddle lies at the antimesenteric border of the graft, the site of incising and stripping the periosteum. In addition, it has to be sutured to the skin at the recipient site, so the soft tissues (together with the peroneal vessels), cannot be stripped off the graft to prolong its pedicle. Vein grafts should be resorted to, if the pedicle does not reach a healthy segment of the anterior tibial vessels. Defects with limited exposed areas of skin, especially in questionable patency of the vessels of the leg, require primarily a fibula with a long pedicle that could easily reach the popliteal vessels and are thus better approached posteriorly. In this approach, the site of the nonunion is exposed medial to the flexor digitorum muscle and the proximal and distal ends of the site of the nonunion debrided up to healthy bleeding bone. No attempt should be made to strip the scarred skin off

  17. Perceived safety climate, job demands, and coworker support among union and nonunion injured construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Marion; Baltz, Davis; Gassel, Margy; Kirsch, Luz; Vaccaro, Diane

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated injured construction workers' perceptions of workplace safety climate, psychological job demands, decision latitude, and coworker support, and the relationship of these variables to the injury severity sustained by the workers. Injury severity was assessed using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), which evaluates functional limitations. Worker perceptions of workplace variables were determined by two instruments: (a) the Safety Climate Measure for Construction Sites and (b) the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). The overall model explained 23% of the variance in injury severity, with unique contributions provided by union status, the Safety Climate Score, and Psychological Job Demands. A positive significant correlation was found between injury severity and the Safety Climate Scores (r = .183, P = .003), and between the Safety Climate Scores and union status (r = .225, P safety climate on 5 of the 10 safety climate items. Union workers were more likely than nonunion workers to: (a) perceive their supervisors as caring about their safety; (b) be made aware of dangerous work practices; (c) have received safety instructions when hired; (d) have regular job safety meetings; and (e) perceive that taking risks was not a part of their job. However, with regard to the 49-item JCQ, which includes Coworker Support, the responses between union and nonunion workers were very similar, indicating an overall high degree of job satisfaction. However, workers who experienced their workplace as more safe also perceived the level of management (r = -.55, P demands, need to be identified.

  18. Management of diabetic neuropathic foot and ankle malunions and nonunions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Stapleton

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The management of diabetic neuropathic foot and ankle malunions and/or nonunions is often complicated by the presence of broken or loosened hardware, Charcot joints, infection, osteomyelitis, avascular bone necrosis, unstable deformities, bone loss, disuse and pathologic osteopenia, and ulcerations. The author discusses a rational approach to functional limb salvage with various surgical techniques that are aimed at achieving anatomic alignment, long-term osseous stability, and adequate soft tissue coverage. Emphasis is placed on techniques to overcome the inherent challenges that are encountered when surgically managing a diabetic nonunion and/or malunion. Particular attention is directed to the management of deep infection and Charcot neuroarthropathy in the majority of the cases presented.

  19. Hydatid disease: A rare cause of fracture nonunion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Aggarwal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is an infrequent parasitic infestation caused by cestode, most commonly, Echinococcus granulosus. Bone involvement is distinctly uncommon. We would like to share our experience of a rare case of hydatid disease of femur in a 24-year-old male who presented with nonunion of subtrochanteric fracture. Histopathology showed typical lamellated wall and dagger-shaped hooklets. In view of its rarity, hydatid disease often remains an unsuspected infection of the bone.

  20. Comparison Analysis among Large Amount of SNS Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriumi, Fujio; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Suwa, Hirohiko; Okada, Isamu; Izumi, Kiyoshi; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro

    In recent years, application of Social Networking Services (SNS) and Blogs are growing as new communication tools on the Internet. Several large-scale SNS sites are prospering; meanwhile, many sites with relatively small scale are offering services. Such small-scale SNSs realize small-group isolated type of communication while neither mixi nor MySpace can do that. However, the studies on SNS are almost about particular large-scale SNSs and cannot analyze whether their results apply for general features or for special characteristics on the SNSs. From the point of view of comparison analysis on SNS, comparison with just several types of those cannot reach a statistically significant level. We analyze many SNS sites with the aim of classifying them by using some approaches. Our paper classifies 50,000 sites for small-scale SNSs and gives their features from the points of network structure, patterns of communication, and growth rate of SNS. The result of analysis for network structure shows that many SNS sites have small-world attribute with short path lengths and high coefficients of their cluster. Distribution of degrees of the SNS sites is close to power law. This result indicates the small-scale SNS sites raise the percentage of users with many friends than mixi. According to the analysis of their coefficients of assortativity, those SNS sites have negative values of assortativity, and that means users with high degree tend to connect users with small degree. Next, we analyze the patterns of user communication. A friend network of SNS is explicit while users' communication behaviors are defined as an implicit network. What kind of relationships do these networks have? To address this question, we obtain some characteristics of users' communication structure and activation patterns of users on the SNS sites. By using new indexes, friend aggregation rate and friend coverage rate, we show that SNS sites with high value of friend coverage rate activate diary postings

  1. Economic burden of illness among US patients experiencing fracture nonunion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu N

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ning Wu,1 Yuan-chi Lee,1 Daniel Segina,2 Hallie Murray,3 Teresa Wilcox,1 Luke Boulanger1 1United BioSource Corporation, Lexington, MA, USA; 2Department of Orthopaedics, Holmes Regional Trauma Center, Melbourne, FL, USA; 3Biomet Spine and Bone Healing Technologies, Parsippany, NJ, USA Objectives: To compare economic outcomes in a real-world study of patients with fracture nonunion receiving non-invasive electrical bone growth stimulation (EBGS, low-intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulation (LIPUS, or other non-stimulation fracture management interventions (No-stim. Methods: Medical and pharmacy claims from a US commercially-insured population were analyzed to select adult patients newly diagnosed with a fracture nonunion between July 2006 and September 2009. The date of initial nonunion diagnosis was set as the index date. Three cohorts were constructed based on the first treatment prescribed post index date: EBGS, LIPUS, or No-stim. Baseline demographics, clinical characteristics, and health care costs 9 months before and 1 year after the index date were assessed. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to compare health care costs between cohorts in the post index period. Results: 11,628 patients (mean age 45.4 years; 45.7% males with a fracture nonunion were identified within the three treatment groups (EBGS: 29.5%, LIPUS: 12.3%, and No-stim: 58.2%. In the post-index period, EBGS patients were significantly less likely to receive fracture-related treatments when compared to the LIPUS (33.6% vs 42.2%, P < 0.01 and the No-stim (33.6% vs 60.3%, P < 0.01 cohorts. Additionally, after adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics, the EBGS cohort had significantly lower predicted health care-associated costs 1 year post index date when compared to the LIPUS (mean: $21,632 vs $23,964, P < 0.01 and the No-stim (mean: $21,632 vs $23,843, P < 0.01 cohorts. Furthermore, the predicted fracture-related costs (FRC of EBGS patients were also

  2. Cloud computing for protein-ligand binding site comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Che-Lun; Hua, Guan-Jie

    2013-01-01

    The proteome-wide analysis of protein-ligand binding sites and their interactions with ligands is important in structure-based drug design and in understanding ligand cross reactivity and toxicity. The well-known and commonly used software, SMAP, has been designed for 3D ligand binding site comparison and similarity searching of a structural proteome. SMAP can also predict drug side effects and reassign existing drugs to new indications. However, the computing scale of SMAP is limited. We have developed a high availability, high performance system that expands the comparison scale of SMAP. This cloud computing service, called Cloud-PLBS, combines the SMAP and Hadoop frameworks and is deployed on a virtual cloud computing platform. To handle the vast amount of experimental data on protein-ligand binding site pairs, Cloud-PLBS exploits the MapReduce paradigm as a management and parallelizing tool. Cloud-PLBS provides a web portal and scalability through which biologists can address a wide range of computer-intensive questions in biology and drug discovery.

  3. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program, plant parameters envelopes: Comparison with ranges of values for four hypothetical sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this volume is to report the results of the comparison of the ALWR plan parameters envelope with values of site characteristics developed for our hypothetical sites that generally represent conditions encountered within the United States. This effort is not intended to identify or address the suitability of any existing site, site area, or region in the United States. Also included in this volume is Appendix F, SERCH Summaries Regarding Siting

  4. Successful reconstruction for complex malunions and nonunions of the tibia and femur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijze, Geert A.; Richardson, Shawn; Jupiter, Jesse B.

    2011-01-01

    Information regarding the long-term outcomes of the treatment of lower-extremity fracture malunion and nonunion is lacking. Twenty-nine secondarily referred patients with complex malunion or nonunion of the tibia or femur, treated by a single surgeon, were followed for a median of twenty years

  5. Osseous union in cases of nonunion in long bones treated by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the incidence of osseous union in cases of nonunion of long bones managed by open reduction and compression plating. : Between November, 2003 and June, 2005, 53 patients with nonunion of long bones were treated by open reduction and internal fixation and followed up. The follow up period for each ...

  6. Is dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI useful for assessing proximal fragment vascularity in scaphoid fracture delayed and non-union?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Alex W.H.; Griffith, James F.; Li, Alvin [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, SAR (China); Taljanovic, Mihra S. [The University of Arizona Health Network, Department of Medical Imaging, 1501 N. Campbell Ave., P.O. Box 245067, Tucson, AZ (United States); Tse, W.L.; Ho, P.C. [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-07-15

    To assess dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI) as a measure of vascularity in scaphoid delayed-union or non-union. Thirty-five patients (34 male, one female; mean age, 27.4 {+-} 9.4 years; range, 16-51 years) with scaphoid delayed-union and non-union who underwent DCE MRI of the scaphoid between September 2002 and October 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Proximal fragment vascularity was classified as good, fair, or poor on unenhanced MRI, contrast-enhanced MRI, and DCE MRI. For DCE MRI, enhancement slope, E{sub slope} comparison of proximal and distal fragments was used to classify the proximal fragment as good, fair, or poor vascularity. Proximal fragment vascularity was similarly graded at surgery in all patients. Paired t test and McNemar test were used for data comparison. Kappa value was used to assess level of agreement between MRI findings and surgical findings. Twenty-five (71 %) of 35 patients had good vascularity, four (11 %) had fair vascularity, and six (17 %) had poor vascularity of the proximal scaphoid fragment at surgery. DCE MRI parameters had the highest correlation with surgical findings (kappa = 0.57). Proximal scaphoid fragments with surgical poor vascularity had a significantly lower E{sub max} and E{sub slope} than those with good vascularity (p = 0.0043 and 0.027). The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and accuracy of DCE MRI in predicting impaired vascularity was 67, 86, 67, 86, and 80 %, respectively, which was better than that seen with unenhanced and post-contrast MRI. Flattened time intensity curves in both proximal and distal fragments were a feature of protracted non-union with a mean time interval of 101.6 {+-} 95.5 months between injury and MRI. DCE MRI has a higher diagnostic accuracy than either non-enhanced MRI or contrast enhanced MRI for assessing proximal fragment vascularity in scaphoid delayed-union and non-union. For proper interpretation of contrast

  7. Effects of third fragment size and displacement on non-union of femoral shaft fractures after locking for intramedullary nailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J R; Kim, H-J; Lee, K-B

    2016-04-01

    The femoral shaft fractures with large fragments makes anatomical reduction challenging and often results in non-union. In some studies, the degree of fragment displacement was reported to have affected non-union, but the association between the one fragment size and degree of displacement has not been fully clarified. Therefore we performed a retrospective study to assess: (1) the more influential factor of non-union: the degree of fragment displacement, or the fragment size? (2) the non-union rates according to different sizes and degrees of displacement. The degree of displacement is the more potent factor of non-union than the third fragment size in femoral shaft fractures. We assessed retrospectively 64 cases, which could be followed up for longer than one year. Fragments were divided according to the length of their long axis into three groups: group A (0-3.9cm), (n=21); group B (4-7.9cm), (n=22); group C (8cm or more), (n=21). Fragment displacement was also assessed in the proximal (P) or distal (D) end to the nearest cortex of the femoral shaft, and divided into the following groups: group P1 (n=44) or D1 (n=47), (0-9mm); group P2 (n=10) or D2 (n=11), (10-19mm); group P3 (n=7) or D3 (n=3), (20-29mm); and group P4 (n=3) or D4 (n=3), (30mm or more). The bone union rate was 86% in the small (less than 8cm) fragment groups and 71% in the large (8cm or more) fragment group (P=0.046). With respect to the degree of displacement, the union rate was lower (P=0.001) and the average union time was longer (P=0.012) in the 20mm or more group for both the proximal fragment part and the distal fragment part (P=0.002, P=0.014). A logistic regression analysis underlined the displacement in the proximal site (OR: 0.298, 95% CI: 0.118-0.750) as in the distal site (OR: 0.359, 95% CI: 0.162-0.793) as a larger effect on union rate than the fragment size that as no effect in logistic regression (OR 3.8, 95% CI: 0.669-21.6). Non-union develops significantly more frequently in

  8. [Treatment of postoperative nonunion of fracture of lower limb with bone grafting by intervertebral disc endoscope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianlin; Tan, Yu'e; Ye, Jun; Han, Fangmin

    2012-02-01

    To explore the effectiveness of bone grafting by intervertebral disc endoscope for postoperative nonunion of fracture of lower limb. Between August 2004 and August 2008, 40 patients (23 males and 17 females) with postoperative nonunion of femoral and tibial fracture, aged 20-63 years (mean, 41.5 years) were treated. Nonunion of fracture occurred at 10-16 months after internal fixation. During the first operation, the internal fixation included interlocking intramedullary nailing of femoral fracture in 12 cases and plate in 16 cases, and interlocking intramedullary nailing of tibial fractures in 9 cases and plate in 3 cases. The X-ray films showed hypertrophic nonunion in 24 cases, common nonunion in 3 cases, and atrophic nonunion in 13 cases. The average operation time was 61 minutes (range, 40-80 minutes), and the blood loss was 80-130 mL (mean, 100 mL). The hospitalization time were 6-11 days (mean, 8.1 days). Incisions healed by first intention in all patients with no complication of infection or neurovascular injury. Forty patients were followed up 10-16 months (mean, 12.3 months). The X-ray films showed that all patients achieved healing of fracture after 4-10 months (mean, 6.8 months). No pain, disfunction, or internal fixation failure occurred. Bone grafting by intervertebral disc endoscope is an effective method for treating postoperative nonunion of femoral and tibial fracture.

  9. Effect on Clinical Outcome and Growth Factor Synthesis With Adjunctive Use of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields for Fifth Metatarsal Nonunion Fracture: A Double-Blind Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Adam; Watson, B Collier; Granata, Jaymes D; Philbin, Terrence M; Lin, Hsuan-Ni; O'Connor, J Patrick; Lin, Sheldon

    2016-09-01

    Electromagnetic bone growth stimulators have been found to biologically enhance the bone healing environment, with upregulation of numerous growth factors. The purpose of the study was to quantify the effect, in vivo, of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on growth factor expression and healing time in fifth metatarsal nonunions. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial of patients, cared for by 2 fellowship-trained orthopedic foot and ankle surgeons. Inclusion criteria consisted of patients between 18 and 75 years old who had been diagnosed with a fifth metatarsal delayed or nonunion, with no progressive signs of healing for a minimum of 3 months. Eight patients met inclusion criteria and were randomized to receive either an active stimulation or placebo PEMF device. Each patient then underwent an open biopsy of the fracture site and was fitted with the appropriate PEMF device. The biopsy was analyzed for messenger-ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels using quantitative competitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (QT-RT-PCR). Three weeks later, the patient underwent repeat biopsy and open reduction and internal fixation of the nonunion site. The patients were followed at 2- to 4-week intervals with serial radiographs and were graded by the number of cortices of healing. All fractures healed, with an average time to complete radiographic union of 14.7 weeks and 8.9 weeks for the inactive and active PEMF groups, respectively. A significant increase in placental growth factor (PIGF) level was found after active PEMF treatment (P = .043). Other factors trended higher following active PEMF including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) -7, and BMP-5. The adjunctive use of PEMF for fifth metatarsal fracture nonunions produced a significant increase in local placental growth factor. PEMF also produced trends toward higher levels of multiple other factors and faster average time to radiographic union

  10. Intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors for nonunion after nonoperative treatment of midshaft clavicle fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W; Xiao, J; Ji, F; Xie, Y; Hao, Y

    2015-04-01

    The optimal treatment of midshaft clavicle fractures remains controversial. Nonunion is usually considered to be an uncommon complication following a nonoperatively treated clavicle fracture. Not every midshaft clavicular fractures shares the same risk of developing nonunion after nonoperative treatment. The present study was performed to identify the intrinsic and extrinsic independent factors that are independently predictive of nonunion in patients with midshaft clavicular fractures after nonoperative treatment. We performed a retrospective study of a series of 804 patients (391 men and 413 women with a median age of 51.3 years) with a radiographically confirmed midshaft clavicle fracture, which was treated nonoperatively. There were 96 patients who underwent nonunion. Putative intrinsic (patient-related) and extrinsic (injured-related) risk factors associated with nonunion were determined with the use of bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses. By bivariate analysis, the risk of nonunion was significantly increased by several intrinsic risk factors including age, sex, and smoking and extrinsic risk factors including displacement of the fracture and the presence of comminution (P<0.05 for all). On multivariate analysis, smoking (OR=4.16, 95% CI: 1.01-14.16), fracture displacement (OR=7.81, 95% CI: 2.27-25.38) and comminution of fracture (OR=3.86, 95% CI: 1.16-13.46) were identified as independent predictive factors. The risk factors for nonunion after nonoperative treatment of midshaft clavicle fractures are multifactorial. Smoking, fracture displacement and comminution of fracture are independent predictors for an individual likelihood of nonunion. Further studies are still required to evaluate these factors in the future. Level III, case-control study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Reactor siting risk comparisons related to recommendations of NUREG-0625

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsell, A.W.; Dombek, F.S.; Orvis, D.D.

    1980-11-01

    This document evaluates how implementing the remote siting recommendations for nuclear reactors (NUREG-0625) made by the Siting Policy Task Force of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) can reduce potential public risk. The document analyzes how population density affects site-specific risk for both light water reactors (LWRs) and high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

  12. Combined Use of Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Sheet Transplantation and Local Injection of SDF-1 for Bone Repair in a Rat Nonunion Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangnan; Fang, Tingting; Qi, Yiying; Yin, Xiaofan; Di, Tuoyu; Feng, Gang; Lei, Zhong; Zhang, Yuxiang; Huang, Zhongming

    2016-10-01

    Bone nonunion treatments pose a challenge in orthopedics. This study investigated the joint effects of using mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) sheets with local injection of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) on bone formation. In vitro, we found that migration of MSCs was mediated by SDF-1 in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, stimulation with SDF-1 had no direct effect on the proliferation or osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Furthermore, the results indicated elevated expression levels of bone morphogenetic protein 2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and vascular endothelial growth factor in MSC sheets compared with MSCs cultured in medium. New bone formation in fractures was evaluated by X-ray, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, Safranin-O staining, and immunohistochemistry in vivo. In the rat bone fracture model, the MSC sheets transplanted into the injured site along with injection of SDF-1 showed significantly more new bone formation within the gap. Moreover, at 8 weeks, complete bone union was obtained in this group. In contrast, the control group showed nonunion of the bone. Our study suggests a new strategy involving the use of MSC sheets with a local injection of SDF-1 for hard tissue reconstruction, such as the healing of nonunions and bone defects.

  13. TO EVALUATE THE SURGICAL OUTCOME OF NON-UNION CLAVICLE USING PLATE AND SLIVERS OF AUTOLOGOUS ILIAC CREST CORTICOCANCELLOUS BONE GRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Clavicle fracture is one of the most common fracture presenting to the fracture clinic, accounting for about 5-10% of all the adult trauma reported but still the controversy exists with regards to the definitive management. AIM To evaluate the surgical outcome of nonunion clavicle in patients treated previously with surgical management or conservative management, using plate and slivers of autologous iliac crest corticocancellous bone. DESIGN Retrospective analysis of patients operated between May 2005 and February 2013 for nonunion of the clavicle. METHODS AND MATERIALS Twenty patients who were operated between May 2005 and February 2013 for nonunion of the clavicle at our hospital were recruited for our study and followup data was collected from our hospital records till their last outpatient visit. Inclusion criteria included patients with no evidence of radiological union, persistence of pain, cosmetic deformity, dysfunction or gross movement at the fracture site even after 16 weeks of conservative treatment or in cases of primary fixation failure. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS All Statistical analyses were made using Statistical Package Software for Social Sciences (SPSS version 17.0 software (Chicago, IL, USA for descriptive data. Chi2 test was used to compare the categorical data. RESULTS At the end of an average followup of 19 months, the average Visual Analogue Score for pain was 1.9±2.2 (range 0-6, the mean ASES score was 81±18.5 (51-100, and the mean Constant–Murley score was 80±17 (51-100. All the patients had a stable radiological union at the end of the followup period. There were no complications pertaining to the hardware or infection. CONCLUSION Treatment of nonunion of clavicle by using corticocancellous bone is well documented; however, use of iliac corticocancellous bone graft shaped in long slivers will give mechanical stability to the plate reconstruct in addition to providing a scaffold for new bone formation than

  14. Comparison of the Radionuclides Dispersion at the UAE Barakah Site with that at the ROK Shin-Kori Site - Comparison of the radionuclides dispersion in Barakah site with that in Shin-Kori site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-yeop; Lee, Kun Jai; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Beeley, Philip A. [Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, P.O. Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2014-07-01

    In order to understand the characteristics of atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides in the desert environment of Barakah site in UAE, comparison research with the results of other environments could be an appropriate way to facilitate it. Shin-Kori site is the proper comparison target because same reactor type of APR1400 with that in Barakah site is under construction. Hypothetical accident scenario was considered and accident source term which had been developed in previous research has been applied as releasing source. After reviewing several computation codes, ADMS5 has been selected as an atmospheric dispersion modeling tool which is installing advanced Gaussian plum model and plentiful options. The climate data of both Barakah and Shin-Kori were acquired and the environments of both sites have been simulated considering wind speed, wind direction, temperature, humidity, ground surface roughness and etc. Near field final human doses on the maps have been schematised regarding statistical meteorological data of both sites and dose conversion factors from the publications of ICRP and federal guidance report of EPA. The results of this research are expected to enhance the understanding about differences between two environments which have same reactor type and to improve the comprehension of desert environment of Barakah site as well. Applying different dose conversion factors to Barakah site considering the desert biosphere could be further study to obtain more accurate results. (authors)

  15. Comparison of microbial contamination at various sites along the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at investigating and comparing the microbial contamination levels at various sites in the Plankenburg and Diep Rivers in the Western Cape, South Africa. Sampling of sites along the Plankenburg River started in June 2004 and continued for a period of 1 year until June 2005. Sampling of the Diep ...

  16. Triple management of cubitus valgus deformity complicating neglected nonunion of fractures of lateral humeral condyle in children: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, Yasser; Nour, Khaled; Kandil, Yasser Roshdy; El-Negery, Abed

    2018-02-01

    Long standing nonunion of the lateral humeral condyle (LHC) usually results in elbow pain and instability with progressive cubitus valgus and tardy ulnar neuritis. Surgical treatment of long standing nonunion is still a controversial issue due to the reported complications, such as stiffness, loss of elbow motion, and avascular necrosis of the LHC fragment. In this study, we reported the outcomes of treatment of cubitus valgus deformity in long standing nonunion of the LHC in children treated with combined triple management (fixation of the nonunion site, dome corrective osteotomy, and anterior transposition of ulnar nerve) through a modified para-triceptal approach. We evaluated ten patients with cubitus valgus deformity more than 20 degrees after neglected nonunion of the lateral humeral condyle more than 24 months. Only childern with post-operative follow up more than 24 months were included in this study. All patients were evaluated clinically, radio logically, and by pre- and post-operative functional evaluation using Mayo elbow performance score. For evaluation of ulnar nerve affection, the Akahori's system was used. There were six females and four males with the average age of 7.7 years at operation. The left elbow was affected in six patients and the right elbow was affected in four patients. The average time between fracture of the LHC and operation was 40.3 months with average post-operative follow up of 44.3 months. The average carrying angle of the healthy side was 5.5 degrees and pre-operative carrying angle of the affected side was 33.5 degrees. The average post-operative carrying angle of the affected side was 6.1 degrees. The improvement of the carrying angle at the last follow up was found statistically significant (p  0.05). The mean pre-operative Mayo elbow performance score was poor 55 ± 9.7, four patients had fair score, and six had poor score. The mean post-operative Mayo elbow performance score was excellent 92.5 ± 10, six

  17. Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound and Halo Immobilization Is an Effective Treatment for Nonunion Following Traumatic Spondylolisthesis of the Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Kohtaroh; Ohba, Tetsuro; Ebata, Shigeto; Haro, Hirotaka

    2017-10-01

    This case report describes a unique case involving traumatic spondylolisthesis of the axis that resulted in nonunion, angulation, and displacement after conservative treatment with a cervical collar, but which was successfully achieved union with halo immobilization and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS). Halo immobilization of a traumatic spondylolisthesis in a 20-year-old patient, that previously failed to improve after wearing a cervical collar for 3 months, was immediately followed by treatment with a LIPUS device (SAFHS 4000J; Teijin Pharma, Tokyo, Japan) 20 minutes once daily to the right and left fracture sites which were located using fluoroscopic guidance. Radiographs and computed tomography showed conclusive evidence of bone union after 10 weeks of treatment with halo immobilization. No adverse events were observed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing that the combination of halo immobilization and LIPUS therapy might be a safe, effective, and feasible method by which to treat cervical spine fractures.

  18. Prospective clinical trial of surgical intervention for painful rib fracture nonunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricant, Loic; Ham, Bruce; Mullins, Richard; Mayberry, John

    2014-06-01

    We performed a prospective clinical trial of resection with or without plate fixation for symptomatic rib fracture nonunion three or more months postinjury with 6-month postoperative followup. The McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and RAND 36 Health Survey were administered and activity level (sedentary, ambulatory, moderately active, vigorous), functional status (disabled, nonphysical labor, physical labor), and work status (employed, unemployed, retired, student) were queried pre- and postoperatively. Twenty-four patients 4 to 197 months (median, 16 months) postinjury underwent surgical intervention for one to four rib fracture nonunions (median, two nonunions). Evidence of intercostal nerve entrapment was present in nine patients (38%). MPQ Present Pain Intensity and Pain Rating Index and RAND 36 Physical Functioning, Role Physical, Social Functioning, Role Social, Bodily Pain, Vitality, Mental Health, and General Health were significantly improved at six months compared with study entry (P rib fracture nonunion may improve chronic pain and disability but without change in functional or work status. Resection of adjacent nonunions with significant gaps may lead to chest wall hernia.

  19. Bone grafting via reamer-irrigator-aspirator for nonunion of open Gustilo-Anderson type III tibial fractures treated with multiplanar external fixator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusnezov Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the outcomes following reamer-irrigator-aspirator (RIA autogenous bone grafting (ABG of high-grade open tibia fracture nonunions stabilized via multiplanar external fixation. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all patients with Gustilo-Anderson type III open tibia fractures treated with multiplanar external fixation and who underwent RIA ABG for nonunion at our institutional Level 1 Trauma Center between 2008 and 2015. All patients between 15 and 65 years of age with a minimum of six-month follow-up were included. The primary outcomes of interest were achievement of union, time to union, and incidence of revision surgery. Complications and all-cause reoperation were recorded as secondary endpoints. Results: Fifteen patients met the inclusion criteria with a mean age of 41.1 ± 14.0 years. RIA ABG was harvested from the femur in all cases, with a mean volume of 34 ± 15 mL. At an average follow-up of 13.3 ± 6.8 months, all patients achieved union, including two who required repeat RIA ABG. One patient experienced a femoral shaft fracture four months following RIA that required intramedullary fixation. The average time to union was 6.0 ± 6.3 months. Twelve patients (80% went on to union within six months and 13 (86.7% within one year. Five patients experienced a total of six post-operative complications including three deep infections, one refracture through the nonunion site, and one gradual varus deformity. Two patients in this series required a subsequent RIA autografting procedure secondary to persistent nonunion despite initial RIA. Conclusion: We found that RIA ABG offered a reliable solution to nonunion of Gustilo-Anderson type III open tibial fractures treated with multiplanar external fixation, circumventing the need to change the method of fixation.

  20. A comparison of dose versus risk at environmental restoration sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm-Hansen, T.; Pastor, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper compares current US Environmental Protection Agency methods for completing risk assessments at radionuclide-contaminated sites with the International Council for Radiation Protection dose-based method. The two methods produce inconsistent results that could complicate cleanup decisions. Important issues include uncertainties associated with the use of carcinogenic slope factors and methods to account for institutional controls and decay of the source term for decision-making purposes. Overall, risk management at sites contaminated with radionuclides should be driven by a dose-based approach through adoption of the proposed 15 millirem cleanup standard found in Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 191

  1. A COMPARISON OF APPROACHES TO PRIORITIZING SITES FOR RIPARIAN RESTORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compares the results of Olson and Harris (1997) and Russell et al.(1997)in their work to prioritize sites for riparian restoration in the San Luis Rey River watershed. Olson and Harris defined reaches of the mainstem and evaluated the relative potential for restoration...

  2. A novel treatment approach to infected nonunion of long bones without systemic antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masrouha, Karim Z; Raad, Michael E; Saghieh, Said S

    2018-04-01

    Infected nonunion of long bones may require intravenous antibiotics over a lengthy period which may result in a high rate of complications. This study aims to assess the efficacy of local antibiotics used as a replacement to prolonged intravenous therapy. Thirteen patients with infected nonunion of long bones who failed at least one previous surgery were included. The infection was treated through extensive debridement, application of antibiotic-impregnated calcium sulphate pellets and the bone stabilized with external fixation. These patients were monitored for union and infection by clinical signs, laboratory values, and radiographs over a period of 24 months. The results support an eradication of infection and union in all patients with no antibiotic-associated complications. Local antibiotic delivery using calcium sulphate pellets provides an effective method for treatment of nonunion in long bones and is free of the complications from the intravenous route.

  3. Comparison of approaches for assessing sustainable remediation of contaminated sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Gitte Lemming; Binning, Philip John; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2017-01-01

    It has been estimated that there are approximately 2.5 million potentially contaminated sites in Europe. Of these, approximately 340,000 sites are thought to be contaminated to a degree that may require remediation (Joint Research Center, 2014). Until recently, remediation was considered...... to be inherently green or sustainable since it removes a contaminant problem. However, it is now broadly recognized that while remediation is intended to address a local environmental threat, it may cause other local, regional and global impacts on the environment, society and economy. Over the last decade......, the broader assessment of these criteria is occurring in a movement toward ‘sustainable remediation’. This paper aims to review the available methods for assessing the sustainability of remediation alternatives. Sustainable remediation seeks to reduce direct contaminant point source impacts on the environment...

  4. Management of complex femoral nonunion with monorail external fixator: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Hemendra Kumar; Garg, Mohit; Singh, Balvinder; Jaiman, Ashish; Khatkar, Vipin; Khare, Shailender; Batra, Sumit; Sharma, Vinod Kumar

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate 30 patients who underwent distraction osteogenesis with monorail external fixator for complex femoral nonunion. Complex femoral nonunion includes infective non-union, gap nonunion, and limb-length discrepancy secondary to traumatic bone loss, which needs specialized treatment to ensure the functional integrity of femoral bone. 30 patients, including 28 male and 2 female (aged 22-62 years) patients, underwent surgical debridement followed by bone transport with monorail fixator. The lengthening index, radiographic consolidation index, functional status, bone healing, and various problems, obstacles, and complications encountered during the treatment were assessed. Patients underwent a mean of 2.2 (range 1-4) surgeries before presentation. The mean bone defect after surgical debridement was 5.83 cm (range 2-16 cm). The mean treatment duration was 204.7 days (range 113-543 days). The mean lengthening index was 13.06 days/cm with range from 12 to 16 days/cm. Mean maturation index was 23.51 days/cm with range from 17 to 45.5 days/cm. In our study, bone result was excellent in 17, good in 9, fair in 3, and poor in 1 patient. In our study functional outcome is excellent in 9 [30%], good in 14 [46.67%], fair in 5, and poor in 2 patients. In our study, we encountered 34 problems, 17 obstacles, and 8 complications. We concluded that monorail external fixator is an effective treatment option for complex nonunion femoral shaft fracture and its functional outcome is comparable with any other treatment options. Lack of complications and its effectiveness makes monorail external fixator the treatment of choice for complex nonunion femoral shaft.

  5. An alternative graft fixation technique for scaphoid nonunions treated with vascular bone grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korompilias, Anastasios V; Lykissas, Marios G; Kostas-Agnantis, Ioannis P; Gkiatas, Ioannis; Beris, Alexandros E

    2014-07-01

    To present our experience with vascularized bone grafting based on the 1,2-intercompartmental supraretinacular artery for the management of established scaphoid nonunion and to investigate the efficacy of graft immobilization with a combination of Kirschner wires and transarticular external fixation. A retrospective chart and radiographic review was conducted for patients with the diagnosis of scaphoid nonunion of the proximal pole or the waist treated with the 1,2-intercompartmental supraretinacular artery-based vascularized graft and fixed with a combination of Kirschner wires and transarticular external fixation between 2007 and 2011. We observed 23 consecutive patients for a mean of 34 ± 4 months. All patients were males with mean age of 25 ± 5 years. All patients had scaphoid nonunion and associated humpback deformity. The mean duration of nonunion was 7 ± 1 months. All scaphoid nonunions united after the index procedure at a mean of 10 ± 1 weeks. Two patients had avascular necrosis of the proximal pole based on the preoperative magnetic resonance imaging findings. After surgery, deformity correction was achieved in all patients, as recorded by the decrease in the lateral intrascaphoid angle and the increase in the dorsal scaphoid angle. At the last follow-up, no patients reported wrist pain. The mean Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score improved significantly from 32 ± 12 before the operation to 5 ± 3 at the last postoperative visit. All patients showed statistically significant improvement in the range of motion and the grip strength of the involved wrist. The results of this study support the combined use of Kirschner wires and transarticular external fixation for fixation of a 1,2-intercompartmental supraretinacular artery-based vascular bone graft in the treatment of scaphoid nonunions. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Lessons learned -- a comparison of the proposed on-site waste management facilities at the various Department of Energy sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciocco, J.; Singh, D.; Survochak, S.; Elo, M.

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy Sites (DOE) are faced with the challenge of managing several categories of waste generated from past or future cleanup activities, such as 11(e)2 byproduct material, low-level radioactive (LL), low-level radioactive mixed (LLM), transuranic (TRU), high level radioactive (HL), and hazardous waste (HW). DOE must ensure safe and efficient management of these wastes while complying with all applicable federal and state laws. Proposed waste management strategies for the EM-40 Environmental Restoration (ER) program at these sites indicate that on-site disposal is becoming a viable option. For purposes of this paper, on-site disposal cells managed by the EM-40 program at Hanford, Weldon Spring, Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) and Rocky Flats were compared. Programmatic aspects and design features were evaluated to determine what comparisons can be made, and to identify benefits lessons learned that may be applicable to other sites. Based on comparative analysis, it can be concluded that the DOE EM-40 disposal cells are very unique. Stakeholders played a major role in the decision to locate the various DOE on-site disposal facilities. The disposal cells will be used to manage 11(e)2 by-product materials, LL, LLM, and/or HLW. The analysis further suggests that the design criteria are comparable. Lessons learned relative to the public involvement activities at Weldon Spring, and the design approach at Hanford should be considered when planning future on-site disposal facilities at DOE sites. Further, a detailed analysis of progress made at Hanford should be evaluated for application at sites such as Rocky Flats that are currently planning on-site disposal facilities

  7. Tension band plating of a nonunion anterior tibial stress fracture in an athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, Jarrad A; Villacis, Diego; Kephart, Curtis J; Rick Hatch, George F

    2013-07-01

    The authors present a rare technique of tension band plating of the anterior tibia in the setting of a nonunion stress fracture. Surgical management with an intramedullary nail is a viable and proven option for treating such injuries. However, in treating elite athletes, legitimate concerns exist regarding the surgical disruption of the extensor mechanism and the risk of anterior knee pain associated with intramedullary nail use. The described surgical technique demonstrates the use of tension band plating as an effective treatment of delayed union and nonunion anterior tibial stress fractures in athletes without the potential risks of intramedullary nail insertion. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Acute peg in hole docking in the management of infected non-union of long bones

    OpenAIRE

    Dhar, Shabir Ahmed; Mir, Mohammed Ramzan; Ahmed, Molvi Sajjad; Afzal, Suhail; Butt, Mohammed Farooq; Badoo, A. R.; Dar, Irshad Tabasum; Hussain, Anwar

    2007-01-01

    The Ilizarov method has been studied extensively in the management of non-union of long bones. In most cases this involves filling of defects present primarily or after débridement by bone transport. Acute docking over gaps longer than 2 cm has not been adequately studied, however. The purpose of this paper is to report the efficacy of acute peg in hole docking as a bone graft-sparing modality in the management of infected non-union of long bones.

  9. Acute peg in hole docking in the management of infected non-union of long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Shabir Ahmed; Mir, Mohammed Ramzan; Ahmed, Molvi Sajjad; Afzal, Suhail; Butt, Mohammed Farooq; Badoo, A R; Dar, Irshad Tabasum; Hussain, Anwar

    2008-08-01

    The Ilizarov method has been studied extensively in the management of non-union of long bones. In most cases this involves filling of defects present primarily or after débridement by bone transport. Acute docking over gaps longer than 2 cm has not been adequately studied, however. The purpose of this paper is to report the efficacy of acute peg in hole docking as a bone graft-sparing modality in the management of infected non-union of long bones.

  10. Non-vascularized iliac bone grafting for scaphoid nonunion with avascular necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihyeung; Park, Jin Woo; Chung, Jeehyeok; Jeong Bae, Kee; Gong, Hyun Sik; Baek, Goo Hyun

    2018-01-01

    We present the surgical outcomes of non-vascularized bone grafting taken from the iliac crest in 24 patients with scaphoid nonunion and avascular necrosis. The Fisk-Fernandez technique was used in 11 patients, and cancellous bone grafting was used in 13 patients. Bony union was achieved in 22 of the 24 patients. Non-vascularized iliac bone grafting can be used for the surgical management of scaphoid nonunion with avascular necrosis. Although revascularization of the proximal fragment after surgery was not evaluated, bony union was confirmed in nearly all patients. IV.

  11. Omentalisation as adjunctive treatment of an infected femoral nonunion fracture: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAlinden A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A three-year-old male working border collie with an infected femoral nonunion fracture was managed in a two-stage procedure involving debridement and omentalisation, followed by stabilisation with a bone plate and an autogenous cancellous bone graft. Osseous union was documented radiographically 16 weeks after surgery. Telephone follow-up one year later revealed the dog had returned to full working function without evidence of lameness. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first clinical case described in the veterinary literature using omentalisation as an adjunct to the management of an infected, biologically inactive nonunion fracture.

  12. Stability-class determination: a comparison for one site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, B.M.; Dewart, J.M.; Chen, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    The Pasquill method of determining stability class at a site with irregular terrain with other commonly used methods: vertical temperature difference (#betta#T); Richardson number (Ri) and Bulk Richardson number (Ri/sub B/); and horizontal standard deviation of wind and vertical standard deviation of wind. Also, the indirect methods of measuring turbulence, such as the Pasquill method, are compared to direct measures of turbulence. The various methods for determining stability class are analyzed and compared with the Pasquill classification scheme at 2 sites with irregular terrain. The Pasquill categories were estimated objectively and compared with other stability indicators for 15-minute periods over a year. The results show that near-surface #betta#T distinguishes the neutral category very well. However, it does not differentiate the specific stable and unstable categories very well. Both the Ri and Ri/sub B/, indicators of both thermal and mechanical turbulence, correlate very well with and distinguish the different stability categories. Due to the irregular terrain, the various methods of determining stability may be even better indicators of turbulence and diffusion if the wind direction were taken into account. It is suggested that further study investigate the methods by wind direction

  13. Intramedullary nailing for the treatment of aseptic femoral shaft non-unions after plating failure: effectiveness and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megas, Panagiotis; Syggelos, Spyros A; Kontakis, Georgios; Giannakopoulos, Andreas; Skouteris, Georgios; Lambiris, Elias; Panagiotopoulos, Elias

    2009-07-01

    This retrospective, multicentre study aimed to evaluate reamed intramedullary nailing (IMN) for the treatment of 30 cases of aseptic femoral shaft non-union after plating failure. Following nailing, 29 non-unions had healed by a mean 7.93 months. In one case a hypertrophic non-union required renailing after 8 months, using a nail of greater diameter, and united within five further months. Healing times were not related to whether the fracture was open or closed, the type non-union or the type of fracture. The delay from the initial plating to intramedullary nailing had a statistically significant effect on healing time and final outcome. This treatment is cost effective and should be implemented as soon as the non-union is diagnosed.

  14. Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Facility Siting and Policy Considerations: International Comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jeffrey J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booth, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-21

    Carbon fiber is increasingly used in a wide variety of applications due largely to its superior material properties such as high strength-to-weight ratio. The current global carbon fiber manufacturing industry is predominately located in China, Europe, Japan, and the United States. The carbon fiber market is expected to expand significantly through 2024 and to require additional manufacturing capacity to meet demand. Carbon fiber manufacturing facilities can offer significant economic development and employment opportunities as exemplified by the $1 billion investment and 500 jobs expected at a new Toray plant in Moore, South Carolina. Though the market is expected to expand, it is unclear where new manufacturing facilities will locate to meet demand. This uncertainty stems from the lack of research evaluating how different nations with significant carbon fiber manufacturing capacity compare as it relates to certain manufacturing facility siting factors such as costs of labor and energy as well as policy directed at supporting carbon fiber development, domestic deployment, and exports. This report fills these gaps by evaluating the top carbon fiber manufacturing countries, including China, European Union countries, Japan, Mexico, South Korea, Taiwan, and the United States. The report documents how the United States compares to these countries based on a range of manufacturing siting considerations and existing policies related to carbon fiber. It concludes with a discussion of various policy options the United States could adopt to both (1) increase the competitiveness of the United States as it relates to attracting new carbon fiber manufacturing and (2) foster broader end-use markets for deployment.

  15. Towards canine rabies elimination: Economic comparisons of three project sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elser, J L; Hatch, B G; Taylor, L H; Nel, L H; Shwiff, S A

    2018-02-01

    An appreciation of the costs of implementing canine rabies control in different settings is important for those planning new or expanded interventions. Here we compare the costs of three canine rabies control projects in South Africa, the Philippines and Tanzania to identify factors that influence the overall costs of rabies control efforts. There was considerable variation in the cost of vaccinating each dog, but across the sites these were lower where population density was higher, and later in the projects when dog vaccination coverage was increased. Transportation costs comprised a much higher proportion of total costs in rural areas and where house-to-house vaccination campaigns were necessary. The association between the cost of providing PEP and human population density was less clear. The presence of a pre-existing national rabies management programme had a marked effect on keeping infrastructure and equipment costs for the project low. Finally, the proportion of the total costs of the project provided by the external donor was found to be low for the projects in the Philippines and South Africa, but likely covered close to the complete costs of the project in Tanzania. The detailed economic evaluation of three recent large-scale rabies control pilot projects provides the opportunity to examine economic costs across these different settings and to identify factors influencing rabies control costs that could be applied to future projects. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Selective Self-Presentation and Social Comparison Through Photographs on Social Networking Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jesse; Vendemia, Megan A

    2016-10-01

    Through social media and camera phones, users enact selective self-presentation as they choose, edit, and post photographs of themselves (such as selfies) to social networking sites for an imagined audience. Photos typically focus on users' physical appearance, which may compound existing sociocultural pressures about body image. We identified users of social networking sites among a nationally representative U.S. sample (N = 1,686) and examined women's and men's photo-related behavior, including posting photos, editing photos, and feelings after engaging in upward and downward social comparison with others' photos on social networking sites. We identified some sex differences: women edited photos more frequently and felt worse after upward social comparison than men. Body image and body comparison tendency mediated these effects.

  17. Non-union of the trapezium: rare consequence of a rare injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Deepak; Jones, Matthew; Mahon, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Fractures of the trapezium are rare and easily missed. As these injuries are often imperceptible on plain radiographs, diagnosis in the ED setting is challenging. We report a case of an isolated fracture of the trapezium which was picked up as a non-union 5 months after the injury following persistence of symptoms. PMID:29765589

  18. Does Computed Tomography Change our Observation and Management of Fracture Non-Unions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ydo V. Kleinlugtenbelt

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the interobserver reliability of MDCT scan is not greater than conventional radiographs for determining non-union. However, a MDCT scan did lead to a more invasive approach in equivocal cases. Therefore a MDCT is only recommended for making treatment strategies in those cases.

  19. Implant failure caused by non-union of bisphosphonate-associated subtrochanteric femur fracture.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, Barry James

    2014-04-03

    Bisphosphonate use has been identified as a contributory factor in atypical subtrochanteric fracture of the femur. These fractures are commonly treated with an intramedullary device. We present a case of implant failure of an intrameduallary device caused by non-union of an atypical subtrochanteric fracture.

  20. Nonunion of the femoral neck: possibilities and limitations of the various treatment modalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaymakers, Ernst L. F. B.; Marti, René K.

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays in cases of nonunions of the femoral neck, the surgeon is tempted to perform prosthetic replacement of the hip, more so if there is also evidence of avascular necrosis of the head of femur. This provides rapid pain relief and allows early mobilization. However, long-term results of hip

  1. Using computed tomography to assist with diagnosis of avascular necrosis complicating chronic scaphoid nonunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael L; Bain, Gregory I; Chabrel, Nick; Turner, Perry; Carter, Chris; Field, John

    2009-01-01

    The primary aim of our study was to investigate use of long axis computed tomography (CT) in predicting avascular necrosis of the proximal pole of the scaphoid and subsequent fracture nonunion after internal fixation. In addition, we describe a new technique of measuring the position of a scaphoid fracture and provide data on its reproducibility. Thirty-one patients operated on by the senior author for delayed union or nonunion of scaphoid fracture were included. Preoperative CT scans were independently assessed for increased radiodensity of the proximal pole, converging trabeculae, degree of deformity, comminution, and fracture position. Intraoperative biopsies of the proximal pole were obtained and histologically assessed for evidence of avascular necrosis. The radiologic variables were statistically compared with the histologic findings. The presence of avascular necrosis was also compared with postoperative union status, identified on longitudinal CT scans. Preoperative CT features that statistically correlated with histologic evidence of avascular necrosis were increased radiodensity of the proximal pole and the absence of any converging trabeculae between the fracture fragments. The radiologic changes of avascular necrosis and the histologic confirmation of avascular necrosis were associated with persistent nonunion. Preoperative longitudinal CT of scaphoid nonunion is of great value in identifying avascular necrosis and predicting subsequent fracture union. If avascular necrosis is suspected based on preoperative CT, management options include vascularized bone grafts and bone morphogenic protein for younger patients and limited wrist arthrodesis for older patients. Diagnostic II.

  2. Novel Treatment of a Scapholunate Ligament Injury with Proximal Pole Scaphoid Nonunion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Michael P.; Kane, Patrick M.; Jacoby, Sidney M.; Culp, Randall W.

    2016-01-01

    Background  Nonunion of scaphoid proximal pole fractures presents a challenging management dilemma to hand surgeons. This problem is further complicated in the uncommon concurrence of scapholunate (SL) ligament disruption. Case Description  A 39-year-old male patient presented with new-onset wrist pain following a remote history of a proximal pole scaphoid fracture sustained as a teenager, which was treated nonoperatively. Six months before presentation, the patient sustained a fall while snowboarding. The patient was found to have a chronic nonunion of his scaphoid proximal pole with an associated SL ligament disruption. As the proximal fragment was too small to be amenable to fixation, the patient was treated with an arthroscopic partial scaphoid excision and SL ligament reconstruction using a scapholunateintercarpal screw placed percutaneously. At 26 months, the patient exhibited no pain, near-normal strength, and wrist motion, and expressed a high-level of satisfaction from his surgery. Literature Review  Although cases of SL ligament disruption with concomitant proximal scaphoid fractures have been reported, to our knowledge, this is the first report of SL ligament rupture occurring in the setting of a preexisting proximal pole scaphoid nonunion. Clinical Relevance  We report the use of SL ligament reconstruction augmented with intercarpal screw fixation, and excision of the proximal pole scaphoid nonunion. This minimallyinvasive approach may be a particularly useful option in young, active patients such as our own, where a motion-sacrificing salvage procedure would be less than ideal. PMID:27616829

  3. Safety-related site characteristics - a relative comparison of the Forsmark reference areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winberg, Anders

    2010-12-01

    SKB has over the years from 2002 to 2008 conducted site investigations in Forsmark and Laxemar, with associated site modeling, design and safety analysis. In mid-2009 Forsmark was selected on the basis of analysis made as site for a future repository for spent nuclear fuel. Based on defined safety-related geoscientific location factors data from Forsmark are compared in relative terms with data from a number of locations in Sweden, previously studied by SKB. The factors compared include: the rock's composition and structures, future climate evolution, rock mechanical conditions, earthquakes, groundwater flow, groundwater composition, delay of solutes, and the ability to characterize and describe the location. Past comparisons of these properties for the selected sites show that none of these sites collectively show any significant benefit over Forsmark site for a repository. This does not preclude that there may be places on the basis of an overall assessment of geoscientific location factors could be equivalent to Forsmark

  4. Quantitative comparison of the nuclear power plant sites in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, J; Sina, A M [Queen Mary Coll., London (UK). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1976-01-01

    A probabilistic method is described for a comparison of nuclear power plant sites in the United Kingdom, which evaluates quantitatively the sites in terms of favourability, by taking into account the real term meteorological conditions, i.e. wind direction, wind speed, and stability distributions, and also the population distribution around the cities. A 'site safety quality factor' is obtained for each site and is used to compare the favourability of each site with respect to releases of radioactivity. The quality factor corresponds to the average number of persons that would be exposed to the specified relative concentration averaged over all weather conditions. The sites compared are Berkeley, Bradwell, Dungeness, Hartlepool, Heysham, Oldbury, Sizewell, and Wylfa.

  5. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging can assess vascularity within fracture non-unions and predicts good outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoierer, Oliver; Bender, Daniel; Schmidmaier, Gerhard [University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg Trauma Research Group, Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Heidelberg (Germany); Bloess, Konstantin; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Weber, Marc-Andre [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Burkholder, Iris [University of Applied Sciences of the Saarland, Department of Nursing and Health, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    To prospectively evaluate whether dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI can assess vascularity within non-unions and predicts clinical outcome in combination with the clinical Non-Union Scoring System (NUSS). Fifty-eight patients with non-unions of extremities on CT underwent 3-T DCE MRI. Signal intensity curves obtained from a region-of-interest analysis were subdivided into those with more intense contrast agent uptake within the non-union than in adjacent muscle (vascularised non-union) and those with similar or less contrast uptake. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the Tofts model K{sub trans}, K{sub ep}, iAUC and V{sub e} were correlated with union at CT 1 year later (n = 49). Despite inserted osteosynthetic material, DCE parameters could be evaluated in 57 fractures. The sensitivity/specificity of vascularised non-unions as an indicator of good outcome was 83.9 %/50.0 % compared to 96.8 %/33.3 % using NUSS (n = 49). Logistic regression revealed a significant impact of NUSS on outcome (P = 0.04, odds ratio = 0.93). At first examination, median iAUC (initial area under the enhancement curve) for the ratio non-union/muscle was 10.28 in patients with good outcome compared with 3.77 in non-responders (P = 0.023). K{sub trans}, K{sub ep} and V{sub e} within the non-union were not significantly different initially (n = 57) or 1 year later (n = 19). DCE MRI can assess vascularity in fracture non-unions. A vascularised non-union correlates with good outcome. (orig.)

  6. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging can assess vascularity within fracture non-unions and predicts good outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoierer, Oliver; Bender, Daniel; Schmidmaier, Gerhard; Bloess, Konstantin; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Weber, Marc-Andre; Burkholder, Iris

    2014-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate whether dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI can assess vascularity within non-unions and predicts clinical outcome in combination with the clinical Non-Union Scoring System (NUSS). Fifty-eight patients with non-unions of extremities on CT underwent 3-T DCE MRI. Signal intensity curves obtained from a region-of-interest analysis were subdivided into those with more intense contrast agent uptake within the non-union than in adjacent muscle (vascularised non-union) and those with similar or less contrast uptake. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the Tofts model K trans , K ep , iAUC and V e were correlated with union at CT 1 year later (n = 49). Despite inserted osteosynthetic material, DCE parameters could be evaluated in 57 fractures. The sensitivity/specificity of vascularised non-unions as an indicator of good outcome was 83.9 %/50.0 % compared to 96.8 %/33.3 % using NUSS (n = 49). Logistic regression revealed a significant impact of NUSS on outcome (P = 0.04, odds ratio = 0.93). At first examination, median iAUC (initial area under the enhancement curve) for the ratio non-union/muscle was 10.28 in patients with good outcome compared with 3.77 in non-responders (P = 0.023). K trans , K ep and V e within the non-union were not significantly different initially (n = 57) or 1 year later (n = 19). DCE MRI can assess vascularity in fracture non-unions. A vascularised non-union correlates with good outcome. (orig.)

  7. Glancing up or down: Mood management and selective social comparisons on social networking sites.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, B.K.; Knobloch-Westerwick, S.

    2014-01-01

    Social networking sites (SNS) provide opportunities for mood management through selective exposure. This study tested the prediction that negative mood fosters self-enhancing social comparisons to SNS profiles. Participants were induced into positive or negative moods and then browsed manipulated

  8. Risk management study for the Hanford Site facilities: Risk reduction cost comparison for the retired Hanford Site facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, G.A.; Egge, R.G.; Senger, E.; Shultz, M.W.; Taylor, W.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document provides a cost-comparison evaluation for implementing certain risk-reduction measures and their effect on the overall risk of the 100 and 200 Area retired, surplus facilities. The evaluation is based on conditions that existed at the time the risk evaluation team performed facility investigations, and does not acknowledge risk-reduction measures that occurred soon after risk identification. This evaluation is one part of an overall risk management study for these facilities. The retired facilities investigated for this evaluation are located in the 100 and 200 Areas of the 1450-km 2 Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is a semiarid tract of land in southeastern Washington State. The nearest population center is Richland, Washington, (population 32,000) 30 km southeast of the 200 Area. This cost-comparison evaluation (1) determines relative costs for reducing risk to acceptable levels; (2) compares the cost of reducing risk using different risk-reduction options; and (3) compares the cost of reducing risks at different facilities. The result is an identification of the cost effective risk-reduction measures. Supporting information required to develop costs of the various risk-reduction options also is included

  9. Risk management study for the Hanford Site facilities: Risk reduction cost comparison for the retired Hanford Site facilities. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, G.A.; Egge, R.G.; Senger, E.; Shultz, M.W.; Taylor, W.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document provides a cost-comparison evaluation for implementing certain risk-reduction measures and their effect on the overall risk of the 100 and 200 Area retired, surplus facilities. The evaluation is based on conditions that existed at the time the risk evaluation team performed facility investigations, and does not acknowledge risk-reduction measures that occurred soon after risk identification. This evaluation is one part of an overall risk management study for these facilities. The retired facilities investigated for this evaluation are located in the 100 and 200 Areas of the 1450-km{sup 2} Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is a semiarid tract of land in southeastern Washington State. The nearest population center is Richland, Washington, (population 32,000) 30 km southeast of the 200 Area. This cost-comparison evaluation (1) determines relative costs for reducing risk to acceptable levels; (2) compares the cost of reducing risk using different risk-reduction options; and (3) compares the cost of reducing risks at different facilities. The result is an identification of the cost effective risk-reduction measures. Supporting information required to develop costs of the various risk-reduction options also is included.

  10. Consumer Decision-Making Styles Extension to Trust-Based Product Comparison Site Usage Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslaw Macik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes an implementation of extended consumer decision-making styles concept in explaining consumer choices made in product comparison site environment in the context of trust-based information technology acceptance model. Previous research proved that trust-based acceptance model is useful in explaining purchase intention and anticipated satisfaction in product comparison site environment, as an example of online decision shopping aids. Trust to such aids is important in explaining their usage by consumers. The connections between consumer decision-making styles, product and sellers opinions usage, cognitive and affective trust toward online product comparison site, as well as choice outcomes (purchase intention and brand choice are explored trough structural equation models using PLS-SEM approach, using a sample of 461 young consumers. Research confirmed the validity of research model in explaining product comparison usage, and some consumer decision-making styles influenced consumers’ choices and purchase intention. Product and sellers reviews usage were partially mediating mentioned relationships.

  11. Surgical Management of Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Repetitive Stress Epiphyseal Fracture Nonunion in Elite Sport Climbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Yasser; Lutter, Chris; Schoeffl, Isabelle; Schoeffl, Volker; Flohe, Sascha

    2017-11-14

    Repetitive stress fracture of the middle phalanx epiphysis is an injury specific to elite adolescent sport climbers. As sport climbing becomes increasingly popular in younger age groups, an increased number of these injuries have been reported in recent years. To date, treatment of these fractures has been nonsurgical, with strict rest and physiotherapy prescribed until fracture union. However, when these patients present in a delayed fashion with an established nonunion, nonsurgical treatment may fail, leading to disabling chronic pain and/or digital deformity in some cases. In this article, we present 2 cases of surgical treatment for finger middle phalanx repetitive stress epiphyseal fracture nonunion, using a percutaneous spot drilling epiphysiodesis technique. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. What is the Optimal Treatment of Atrophic Scaphoid Non-Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Cirakli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of the treatment method of autogenous iliac wing or radius bone graft and fixation with screw applied to cases of scaphoid non-union. Material and Method: A retrospective evaluation was made of 89 cases between 2000 and 2014. Postoperative measurements were taken of both wrists%u2019 movement with a goniometer and muscle strength was assessed with a dynamometer. Fractures were evaluated radiologically according to the Herbert-Fisher System and the functional results according to the Herbert-Fisher Classification System and the Mayo Clinic Modified Wrist Scoring System. The data were input to the SPSS system and evaluated with the Shapiro-Wilk test. Results: Non-union were on the right side in 47 and the left side in 42 cases. The fracture was seen to be in the waist in 60 cases (67.5%, in the proximal third in 27 cases (30.3% and in the distal third in two cases (2.2%. The mean follow-up period was 16.4 months (range, 5-72 months. Definitive findings of union were observed in 71 cases. The mean time to union was 14.9 weeks (range, 8-40 weeks. Discussion: The grafting procedure applied is an invasive technique but if it is considered that there are negative effects of open surgery on the feeding of the scaphoid bone, then in the treatment of scaphoid non-union which is atrophic non-union, ultimately autogenous bone grafting and screw fixation is a safe and successful method and because of the pain created by an iliac wing graft, radius distal bone graft can be considered more appropriate.

  13. The Critical Size Defect as an Experimental Model for Craniomaxillofacial Nonunions,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    1976, p. 125. 59. Stanley, R.R. and Rice, D.H.: Osteogenesis From a Free Periosteal Graft in Mandibular Reconstruction. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg... embryologically , the calvaria develops from a 17 rane precursor and thus resembles the membranous bones of the face. .nmically, the calvaria consists of...Nonunion in Dogs. Clin. Orthop. 187:260, 1984. 24 49. Paff, G.r.: Anatamy of the Read and Neck . Philadelphia, W.R. Saunders Co., 1973, p. 77. 50

  14. Transfracture abduction osteotomy: A solution for nonunion of femoral neck fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairamchander Pingle

    2014-01-01

    femur with or without bone graft, valgus osteotomy or hip arthroplasty. We conducted a retrospective analysis of cases of nonunion of femoral neck fracture treated by transfracture abduction osteotomy (TFAO. Materials and Methods: Over a period of 35 years (1974-2008, 30 patients with nonunion of femoral neck fractures were treated with TFAO over a period of 35 years (1974-2008, All patients were less than 50 years of age. Absence of clinical and radiological signs of union after four months was considered as nonunion. Patients more than 50 years of age were excluded from the study. Union was assessed at 6 months radiologically. Limb length was measured at six months. The mean duration of femoral neck fracture was 19 months (range 4 months 10 years. Results were analyzed in terms of radiological union at six months. Average followup was five years and six months. Results: Consistent union was noted at the followup after six months in 29 cases. One case was lost to followup after five and one-half months postoperatively. However, the fracture had united in this case at the last followup. Average shortening of the limb at six months was 1.9 cm. Average neck shaft angle was 127° (range 120-145°. Five cases went into AVN but were asymptomatic. Two cases required reoperation due to back out of Moore′s pins. These were reopened and cancellous screws were inserted in the same tracks. Conclusions: Consistent union of nonunion femoral neck fracture was noted at the followup after six months in 29 cases. The major drawback of the procedure is immobilization of the patient in the hip spica for eight weeks.

  15. Contemporary Management of Mandibular Fracture Nonunion-A Retrospective Review and Treatment Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrander, Benjamin T; Wang, Howard D; Cusano, Alessandro; Manson, Paul N; Nam, Arthur J; Dorafshar, Amir H

    2018-02-06

    Nonunion is an uncommon complication after mandibular fractures. The purpose of this investigation was to compare outcomes of patients with mandibular fracture nonunion who were treated with a 1- versus 2-stage approach and propose a pragmatic treatment algorithm for surgical management based on preoperative characteristics. The authors conducted a retrospective study consisting of patients who presented to 2 level 1 trauma centers for the management of mandibular fracture nonunion over a 10-year period. The primary predictor variable was 1- versus 2-stage treatment. Outcomes were examined to propose a treatment algorithm. Eighteen patients were included in the study. The sample's mean age was 44.0 ± 19.3 years and most were men (88.9%). Mandibular angle and body accounted for 77.8% of cases. A single-stage approach was used in 13 patients (72.2%). Bone grafts or vascularized bone flaps were required in 13 patients (72.2%). Patients who required 2-stage treatments had intraoral soft tissue defects. Mean length of follow-up was 13.3 ± 20.4 months. All patients achieved bony union, with complications occurring in 5 patients (27.8%). The authors' 10-year experience was used to formulate a treatment algorithm based on bony defect size and soft tissue status, which can be used to inform optimal surgical management. Nonunion of mandibular fractures is an infrequent and complex condition requiring careful and deliberate surgical management. A single-stage approach is appropriate in most cases and does not negatively affect outcomes. Bony defect size and soft tissue status are essential parameters for determining the approach and timing of reconstruction. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Coupled external fixator and skin flap transposition for treatment of exposed and nonunion bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-gang; Ding, Jing; Wang, Neng

    2011-02-01

    To discuss the effect of coupled external fixator and skin flap transposition on exposed and nonunion bones. The data of 12 cases of infected nonunion and exposed bone following open fracture treated in our hospital during the period of March 1998 to June 2008 were analysed. There were 10 male patients, 2 female patients, whose age were between 19-52 years and averaged 28 years. There were 10 tibial fractures and 2 femoral fractures. The course of diseases lasted for 12-39 months with the mean period of 19 months. All the cases were treated by the coupled external fixator and skin flap transposition. Primary healing were achieved in 10 cases and delayed healing in 2 cases in whom the tibia was exposed due to soft tissue defect and hence local flap transposition was performed. All the 12 cases had bony union within 6-12 months after operation with the average time of 8 months. They were followed up for 1-3 years and all fractures healed up with good function and no infection recurrence. The coupled external fixator and skin flap transposition therapy have shown optimal effects on treating infected, exposed and nonunion bones.

  17. Central bone grafting for nonunion of fractures of the tibia: a retrospective series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzewicz, M; Morgan, S J; Linford, E; Thwing, J I; de Resende, G V P; Smith, W R

    2009-04-01

    Nonunion of the tibia associated with bone loss, previous infection, obliteration of the intramedullary canal or located in the distal metaphysis poses a challenge to the surgeon and significant morbidity to patients. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 24 patients who were treated by central bone grafting and compared them to those of 20 who were treated with a traditional posterolateral graft. Central bone grafting entails a lateral approach, anterior to the fibula and interosseous membrane which is used to create a central space filled with cancellous iliac crest autograft. Upon consolidation, a tibiofibular synostosis is formed that is strong enough for weight-bearing. This procedure has advantages over other methods of treatment for selected nonunions. Of the 24 patients with central bone grafting, 23 went on to radiographic and clinical union without further intervention. All healed within a mean of 20 weeks (10 to 48). No further bone grafts were required, and few complications were encountered. These results were comparable to those of the 20 patients who underwent posterolateral bone grafting who united at a mean of 31.3 weeks (16 to 60) but one of whom required below-knee amputation for intractable sepsis. Central bone grafting is a safe and effective treatment for difficult nonunions of the tibia.

  18. MR imaging of avascular scaphoid nonunion before and after vascularized bone grafting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Suzanne E.; Tschering-Vogel, Dechen; Martin, Matthias [University Hospital of Bern, Inselspital, Department of Radiology, Bern (Switzerland); Steinbach, Lynne S. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, California (United States); Nagy, Ladislav [University Hospital of Bern, Inselspital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Bern (Switzerland)

    2005-06-01

    To investigate the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearances of chronic nonunion of the scaphoid with proximal pole avascular necrosis before and after insertion of a vascularized bone graft, using computed tomography (CT) as the imaging gold standard. A retrospective study was performed involving MR imaging (n=26), CT scans (n=37) and radiographs (n=52) of 13 men (mean age 29 years, age range 20-38 years) with avascular scaphoid nonunion. Avascular necrosis of the scaphoid proximal pole was confirmed intraoperatively (n=13). MR images were acquired preoperatively and following placement of a vascularized bone graft. Scaphoid MR signal characteristics were assessed for evidence of vascular bone graft incorporation and revascularization of the bone marrow of the proximal pole of the scaphoid and compared with the gold standard of CT. Surgical and clinical notes were reviewed with a minimum 3 year imaging and clinical follow-up in all patients. Graft incorporation with revascularization of the proximal pole of the scaphoid was documented in 9 patients (69%). Graft failure with persistent pseudoarthrosis and avascular necrosis of the scaphoid was seen in 4 patients (31%). MR imaging is useful to determine whether vascularized bone graft incorporation and revascularization of the proximal pole of the scaphoid has occurred in the setting of avascular scaphoid nonunion. (orig.)

  19. Analysis of ulnar variance as a risk factor for developing scaphoid nonunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lirola-Palmero, S; Salvà-Coll, G; Terrades-Cladera, F J

    2015-01-01

    Ulnar variance may be a risk factor of developing scaphoid non-union. A review was made of the posteroanterior wrist radiographs of 95 patients who were diagnosed of scaphoid fracture. All fractures with displacement less than 1mm treated conservatively were included. The ulnar variance was measured in all patients. Ulnar variance was measured in standard posteroanterior wrist radiographs of 95 patients. Eighteen patients (19%) developed scaphoid nonunion, with a mean value of ulnar variance of -1.34 (-/+ 0.85) mm (CI -2.25 - 0.41). Seventy seven patients (81%) healed correctly, and the mean value of ulnar variance was -0.04 (-/+ 1.85) mm (CI -0.46 - 0.38). A significant difference was observed in the distribution of ulnar variance (pvariance less than -1mm, and ulnar variance greater than -1mm. It appears that patients with ulnar variance less than -1mm had an OR 4.58 (CI 1.51 to 13.89) with pvariance less than -1mm have a greater risk of developing scaphoid nonunion, OR 4.58 (CI 1.51 to 13.89) with p<.007. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Nonunion of the humerus following intramedullary nailing treated by Ilizarov hybrid fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschke, M; Khodadadyan, C; Maitino, P D; Hoffmann, R; Südkamp, N P

    1998-02-01

    A case of a posttraumatic humeral shaft nonunion, after intramedullary stabilization with a Seidel nail, is presented. Severe osteoporosis, an oligotrophic nonunion, subclinical infection, and adhesive capsulitis of the glenohumeral joint were present. Due to the subclinical infection and severe osteoporosis, other major invasive therapeutic options such as intramedullary nailing or compression plating and bone grafting were not applicable. Nonoperative treatment was also not indicated secondary to the pain and disability present. External fixation with the Ilizarov hybrid fixator seemed to offer a minimally invasive treatment modality without the need of additional bone grafting. After fourteen weeks of "callus massage," consisting of closed alternating compression and distraction with an Ilizarov hybrid fixator, osseous consolidation was achieved. Eight months after Ilizarov treatment the patient had returned to work as a mechanic. At the one-year follow-up examination, the patient presented pain free and with near normal shoulder and elbow motion, with stable osseous consolidation of the humerus. In some cases of nonunion of the humerus shaft, when standard treatment options are not recommended, external fixation with an Ilizarov hybrid fixator may offer a salvage procedure with a successful clinical outcome.

  1. MR imaging of avascular scaphoid nonunion before and after vascularized bone grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Suzanne E.; Tschering-Vogel, Dechen; Martin, Matthias; Steinbach, Lynne S.; Nagy, Ladislav

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearances of chronic nonunion of the scaphoid with proximal pole avascular necrosis before and after insertion of a vascularized bone graft, using computed tomography (CT) as the imaging gold standard. A retrospective study was performed involving MR imaging (n=26), CT scans (n=37) and radiographs (n=52) of 13 men (mean age 29 years, age range 20-38 years) with avascular scaphoid nonunion. Avascular necrosis of the scaphoid proximal pole was confirmed intraoperatively (n=13). MR images were acquired preoperatively and following placement of a vascularized bone graft. Scaphoid MR signal characteristics were assessed for evidence of vascular bone graft incorporation and revascularization of the bone marrow of the proximal pole of the scaphoid and compared with the gold standard of CT. Surgical and clinical notes were reviewed with a minimum 3 year imaging and clinical follow-up in all patients. Graft incorporation with revascularization of the proximal pole of the scaphoid was documented in 9 patients (69%). Graft failure with persistent pseudoarthrosis and avascular necrosis of the scaphoid was seen in 4 patients (31%). MR imaging is useful to determine whether vascularized bone graft incorporation and revascularization of the proximal pole of the scaphoid has occurred in the setting of avascular scaphoid nonunion. (orig.)

  2. Quality of life and complications at the different stages of bone transport for treatment infected nonunion of the tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hu; Wei, Xing; Liu, Ping; Fu, Ya-Hui; Wang, Peng-Fei; Cong, Yu-Xuan; Zhang, Bin-Fei; Li, Zhong; Lei, Jin-Lai; Zhang, Kun; Zhuang, Yan

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess Physical Component Summary (PCS), Mental Component Summary (MCS) of the Mos 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) score, and the virtual Analogue Scale (VAS) of pain during the treatment period and the complication rate associated with infected nonunion of the tibia managed surgically by bone transport.This is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data in a consecutive patient cohort. Patients suffering from infected nonunion of the tibia were treated by bone transport from 2012 to 2014. Follow-up was for at least 2 years after complete osseous consolidation. Standardized treatment included bacterial eradication by segmental resection, bone transport using Ilizarov apparatus, and docking maneuver. The main outcome measurements consisted of the quality of life (PCS and MCS scores) and the VAS of pain during the different stages of therapy. In addition, all complications were documented.Our series comprised 12 men and 3 women with an average age of 36.9 years (range: 20-55 years). All patients previously undergone an average of 2.9 operations (range: 1-6 operations). In all patients, bone defects were present with a mean size of 7.5 cm (range: 3-12 cm), and all patients were suffering from soft tissue defects (range: 5-17 cm). The mean external fixator time (EFT) was 48 weeks (range: 30-62 weeks) and the mean external fixation index was 43.1 days/cm (range: 33-62 days/cm). All patients achieved bone union, and no recurrence of infection was observed. According to the Paley classification, patients suffered 15 minor and 13 major complications. The average complication rate per patient comprised of 1.0 minor and 0.9 major complications. Bone grafting was required in 6 cases at the docking site. One patient suffered from equinus deformity, and refused any further surgical procedures. We performed 28 operations in 15 patients (average 1.9 operations per patient). After the period of bone transport, PCS and MCS

  3. Trust and Product/Sellers Reviews as Factors Influencing Online Product Comparison Sites Usage by Young Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Radoslaw Macik; Dorota Macik

    2016-01-01

    Paper describes young consumers’ behaviour connected with online product comparison sites usage as an example of online decision shopping aids. Authors’ main goal is to check whether or not such factors as: previous experience in such sites usage, personal innovativeness in domain of information technology – PIIT, and particularly cognitive trust (in several subdimensions), as well as affective trust toward online product comparison site, influence purchase intention via men...

  4. VerSi - A Methodology for a Comparison of Potential Repository Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hund, Wilhelm

    2010-09-01

    In the year 2000 the moratorium on the exploration of the Gorleben salt dome as a potential repository for all kinds of radioactive waste became effective as a result of the consensus agreement between the Federal Government and the utilities about phasing out nuclear energy in Germany. All exploration activities were interrupted for at maximum ten years to clarify conceptual and safety relevant questions. A new set of safety requirements for the final disposal of heat-generating radioactive waste in deep geological formations was established in July 2009 by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU). As the BMU intended to carry out a comparison of potential repository sites it was necessary to initiate the development of a methodology for the identification of the site with the highest level of safety. A comparison of different repository sites requires a tool ensuring most confident and objective criteria for the comparison, whereas up to present long-term safety analyses were focused on confirming the suitability of sites by meeting the protection objectives by the measures of dose and risk. Within the 2006 established project VerSi a methodology for comparing different sites in different host rocks will be developed on the basis of long-term safety analyses taking into account geoscientific databases, inventory of radioactive waste, waste containers, corresponding disposal concepts and the feasibility of appropriate backfilling and closure concepts. The development of the method is aiming at providing measures other than dose and risk for the evaluation of the level of safety. For testing the tools a HLW-repository hosted in a salt dome (Gorleben) will be compared with a generic HLW-repository in consolidated clay as a host rock. As until now in Germany no clay stone site has been investigated for hosting a HLW repository, the required data are transferred from international research projects and repository concepts

  5. Modeling Staphylococcus epidermidis-Induced Non-Unions: Subclinical and Clinical Evidence in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Barbara Lovati

    Full Text Available S. epidermidis is one of the leading causes of orthopaedic infections associated with biofilm formation on implant devices. Open fractures are at risk of S. epidermidis transcutaneous contamination leading to higher non-union development compared to closed fractures. Although the role of infection in delaying fracture healing is well recognized, no in vivo models investigated the impact of subclinical low-grade infections on bone repair and non-union. We hypothesized that the non-union rate is directly related to the load of this commonly retrieved pathogen and that a low-grade contamination delays the fracture healing without clinically detectable infection. Rat femurs were osteotomized and stabilized with plates. Fractures were infected with a characterized clinical-derived methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (10(3, 10(5, 10(8 colony forming units and compared to uninfected controls. After 56 days, bone healing and osteomyelitis were clinically assessed and further evaluated by micro-CT, microbiological and histological analyses. The biofilm formation was visualized by scanning electron microscopy. The control group showed no signs of infection and a complete bone healing. The 10(3 group displayed variable response to infection with a 67% of altered bone healing and positive bacterial cultures, despite no clinical signs of infection present. The 10(5 and 10(8 groups showed severe signs of osteomyelitis and a non-union rate of 83-100%, respectively. The cortical bone reaction related to the periosteal elevation in the control group and the metal scattering detected by micro-CT represented limitations of this study. Our model showed that an intra-operative low-grade S. epidermidis contamination might prevent the bone healing, even in the absence of infectious signs. Our findings also pointed out a dose-dependent effect between the S. epidermidis inoculum and non-union rate. This pilot study identifies a relevant preclinical model to assess the

  6. Butterfly Assemblages Associated with Invasive Tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) Sites: Comparisons with Tamarisk Control and Native Vegetation Reference Sites

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mark Nelson; Rick Wydoski

    2013-01-01

    We studied butterfly assemblages at six types of riparian landscapes in five different watersheds in the southwestern United States (n=34 sites). Sites included exotic-invasive Tamarix ramosissima (tamarisk) dominated sites; sites where tamarisk was controlled, but not actively revegetated; sites revegetated with upland plants; sites where control was followed with riparian plant revegetation; native riparian vegetation sites; and sites that were a mixture of native and tamarisk vegetations. ...

  7. Monitoring air quality with lichens: A comparison between mapping in forest sites and in open areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policnik, Helena; Simoncic, Primoz; Batic, Franc

    2008-01-01

    Four different methods of epiphytic lichen mapping were used for the assessment of air quality in the region under the influence of the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant (Salek Valley, Slovenia). Three methods were based on the presence of different lichen species (VDI, EU and ICP-Forest), the fourth on a frequency and coverage assessment of different growth forms of epiphytic lichens, e.g. crustose, foliose and fruticose (SI). A comparison of the results from the assessment of air quality between forest sites (ICP-Forest, SI) and open areas (VDI, EU and SI), obtained by the different methods of epiphytic lichen mapping, is presented in the contribution. Data showed that lichen species richness is worse in forest sites in comparison with open areas. From the data obtained it can be concluded that epiphytic lichen mapping in open areas is a better method for the assessment of air pollution in a given area than mapping in forest sites. The species-based methods in open areas are more powerful and useful for air quality assessment in polluted research areas than the SI and ICP-Forest methods. - The mapping of epiphytic lichens in open areas is more suitable for air quality assessment than mapping in forest sites in the Salek Valley, Slovenia

  8. A web server for analysis, comparison and prediction of protein ligand binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harinder; Srivastava, Hemant Kumar; Raghava, Gajendra P S

    2016-03-25

    One of the major challenges in the field of system biology is to understand the interaction between a wide range of proteins and ligands. In the past, methods have been developed for predicting binding sites in a protein for a limited number of ligands. In order to address this problem, we developed a web server named 'LPIcom' to facilitate users in understanding protein-ligand interaction. Analysis, comparison and prediction modules are available in the "LPIcom' server to predict protein-ligand interacting residues for 824 ligands. Each ligand must have at least 30 protein binding sites in PDB. Analysis module of the server can identify residues preferred in interaction and binding motif for a given ligand; for example residues glycine, lysine and arginine are preferred in ATP binding sites. Comparison module of the server allows comparing protein-binding sites of multiple ligands to understand the similarity between ligands based on their binding site. This module indicates that ATP, ADP and GTP ligands are in the same cluster and thus their binding sites or interacting residues exhibit a high level of similarity. Propensity-based prediction module has been developed for predicting ligand-interacting residues in a protein for more than 800 ligands. In addition, a number of web-based tools have been integrated to facilitate users in creating web logo and two-sample between ligand interacting and non-interacting residues. In summary, this manuscript presents a web-server for analysis of ligand interacting residue. This server is available for public use from URL http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/lpicom .

  9. [18F]FDG PET accurately differentiates infected and non-infected non-unions after fracture fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenter, Vera; Albert, Nathalie L.; Brendel, Matthias; Fendler, Wolfgang P.; Bartenstein, Peter; Cyran, Clemens C.; Friederichs, Jan; Mueller, Jan-Philipp; Militz, Matthias; Hungerer, Sven; Hacker, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    Complete fracture healing is crucial for good patient outcomes. A major complication in the treatment of fractures is non-union. The pathogenesis of non-unions is not always clear, although implant-associated infections play a significant role, especially after surgical treatment of open fractures. We aimed to evaluate the value of [ 18 F]FDG PET in suspected infections of non-union fractures. We retrospectively evaluated 35 consecutive patients seen between 2000 and 2015 with suspected infection of non-union fractures, treated at a level I trauma center. The patients underwent either [ 18 F]FDG PET/CT (N = 24), [ 18 F]FDG PET (N = 11) plus additional CT (N = 8), or conventional X-ray (N = 3). Imaging findings were correlated with final diagnosis based on intraoperative culture or follow-up. In 13 of 35 patients (37 %), infection was proven by either positive intraoperative tissue culture (N = 12) or positive follow-up (N = 1). [ 18 F]FDG PET revealed 11 true-positive, 19 true-negative, three false-positive, and two false-negative results, indicating sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of 85 %, 86 %, 79 %, 90 %, and 86 %, respectively. The SUV max was 6.4 ± 2.7 in the clinically infected group and 3.0 ± 1.7 in the clinically non-infected group (p <0.01). The SUV ratio was 5.3 ± 3.3 in the clinically infected group and 2.6 ± 1.5 in the clinically non-infected group (p <0.01). [ 18 F]FDG PET differentiates infected from non-infected non-unions with high accuracy in patients with suspected infections of non-union fractures, for whom other clinical findings were inconclusive for a local infection. [ 18 F]FDG PET should be considered for therapeutic management of non-unions. (orig.)

  10. The treatment of scaphoid nonunion using the Ilizarov fixator without bone graft, a study of 18 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bumbaširević Marko

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Evaluating the safety and efficacy of the Ilizarov fine-wire compression/distraction technique in the treatment of scaphoid nonunion (SNU, without the use of bone graft. Design A retrospective review of 18 consecutive patients in one centre. Patients and Methods 18 patients; 17 males; 1 female, with a mean SNU duration of 13.9 months. Patients with carpal instability, humpback deformity, carpal collapse, avascular necrosis or marked degenerative change, were excluded. Following frame application the treatment consisted of three stages: the frame was distracted 1 mm per day until radiographs showed a 2-3 mm opening at the SNU site (mean 10 days; the SNU site was then compressed for 5 days, at a rate of 1 mm per day, with the wrist in 15 degrees of flexion and 15 degrees of radial deviation; the third stage involved immobilization with the Ilizarov fixator for 6 weeks. The technique is detailed herein. Results Radiographic (CT and clinical bony union was achieved in all 18 patients after a mean of 89 days (70-130 days. Mean modified Mayo wrist scores improved from 21 to 86 at a mean follow-up of 37 months (24-72 months, with good/excellent results in 14 patients. All patients returned to their pre-injury occupations and levels of activity at a mean of 117 days. Three patients suffered superficial K-wire infections, which resolved with oral antibiotics. Conclusions In these selected patients this technique safely achieved bony union without the need to open the SNU site and without the use of bone graft.

  11. Successful treatment of nonunion in severe finger injury with low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber Michaela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Severe injuries of the hand or single fingers require immediate treatment but surgical fixation methods are limited depending on soft tissue damage. Thus, it is very common that severe soft tissue damage along with poor osteosynthetic bone fixation results in a delayed healing process or nonunion. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS has been proven to stimulate bone formation in in vitro studies and also to significantly accelerate nonunion healing in animal studies and clinical trials but to date there are no data with respect to nonunion in phalanx fracture. Case presentation We report a case in which we successfully used LIPUS in a 19-year-old Caucasian man with a nonunion of his ring finger after injury and first treatment with K-wire osteosynthesis. Conclusion We recommend that LIPUS be considered as an option to treat nonunions in fractures of the hand, especially because it is a soft tissue conserving method with a good functional result.

  12. Management of scaphoid nonunion with avascular necrosis using 1,2 intercompartmental supraretinacular arterial bone graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Dehghani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: 1,2 ICSRA, introduced by Aidembery et al., is a well-established technique, with up to 100% union rate among different studies . The purpose of our study was to evaluate the outcome of scaphoid nonunion undergoing 1,2 ICSRA bone graft in Iran. Materials and Methods: All participants who presented sequentially over a period of 24 months between 2010 and 2013 with nonunion scaphoid fracture with AVN in proximal pole were included in the study. Anteroposterior and lateral view plain radiographs of carpal bones were obtained for diagnosis of nonunion, and a diagnosis of avascular necrosis was made by MRI of the scaphoid. Subjects underwent 1,2 ICSRA bone graft surgery. Patients were assessed based on radiographs and the Mayo Wrist Score (MWS questionnaire on before and after surgery. Data were analyzed using SPSS ver. 18 by paired t test. Results: Overall, 16 patients (100% male were included in the study. Mean age of subjects was 27.50 ± 5.86 (18 to 38. Mean Mayo score was 36.63 ± 8.92 and 83.75 ± 9.22 before and 6 month after surgery, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001. after 8 weeks, 10 (62.5% had union, and after 12 weeks, all subjects had union. Nine (56.25% of our patients had excellent functional outcome, 5 (31.25% had good and 2 (12.5% had satisfactory functional outcome. Conclusion: 1,2 ICSRA is a proper pedicle of vascularized bone graft due to the ease of visibility and dissection. The functional results and union rates were satisfactory in our study.

  13. Sport related stress fracture of the clavicle with non-union: Case report and review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Demitri; Kastanos, Konstantinos

    2008-01-01

    Stress fractures are relatively uncommon sports injuries and when they do occur, are mostly found in the lower limb. Stress fractures of the clavicle are particularly rare, having been described in a number of non-sport related pathologies, such as nervous tics and post radical neck dissection. In sport, there have only been seven cases reported in the literature. We report on a clavicle stress fracture in a 47-year-old male, partaking in recreational weight lifting activities. This is the first reported case of a non-union stress fracture of the clavicle. The patient underwent an open reduction and internal fixation and made a full recovery. PMID:21264151

  14. Non-unions force wage cut-backs in pipeline industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bain, D

    1984-03-01

    Faced with another year of high unemployment and shrinking markets, Western Canada's unionized pipeline construction trades have taken a step toward stabilizing the industry. The unions have struck a bargain to combat an increasing number of non-union open shops. Management and labor cooperated to insure that the unions regain their share of the pipeline construction market. The pipeline construction boom has ended, with an overcapacity, a downturn in sales, and few major projects on the drawing boards. The bargains included wage reductions of 30%, daily living allowance reductions of nearly 50%, the elimination of double time, and the use of composite crews.

  15. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome in a Volleyball Player Due to Nonunion of the First Rib Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttmann, Kathleen T; Satiani, Bhagwan; Vaccaro, Patrick

    2016-11-01

    Fracture of the first rib with ensuing callus formation is a rare cause of thoracic outlet syndrome. We report a case of a 17-year-old female volleyball player who presented with months of chronic arm pain. Radiographic imaging demonstrated nonunion fracture of the first rib. Physical therapy had been unsuccessful in relieving the pain, and surgical management was performed with resection of the first rib through a transaxillary approach with complete resolution of symptoms. Inflammation surrounding such fractures may destroy tissue planes, making dissection more technically difficult.

  16. An Investigation of Referral- and Comparison-based Social Influence on Social Networking Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tussyadiah, Iis; Kausar, Devi; Soesilo, Primidya K. M.

    between SNS engagement and both referral-based and comparison-based social influence for restaurant selection. Further, it was also identified that the relationships between SNS engagement and social influence are moderated by the different dimensions of consumers’ susceptibility to global influence......This study explored social influence resulting from two distinct social reference processes on social networking sites (SNS). A web-based survey was conducted among consumers in the USA and Indonesia using restaurant consumption as a research context. The study identified the positive relationships...

  17. A comparison of epicuticular wax of Pinus sylvestris needles from three sites in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, A.; Dowding, P.

    1994-01-01

    Three forest stands of Pinus sylvestris were chosen for comparison in Ireland. Needles from three year classes were collected. Cuticular transpiration curves showed that the rate of water loss from 1-year-old needles was faster than either 2-year-old or current-year needles at all sites. The amount of epicuticular wax extracted was similar to that reported in the literature. Needle wettability increased with needle age. Amorphous wax coverage was estimated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and was found to increase with needle age. Algal cells were noted on needles of all ages at one site and appeared to affect transpiration and microroughness. The presence of fungal hyphae was also noted. (orig.)

  18. Preliminary results from comparisons of redundant tiltmeters at three sites in central california

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, C.E.; Johnston, M.J.S.

    1979-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has been operating a network of shallow-borehole tiltmeters in central California since June 1973. At six sites redundant instruments have been installed as a check on data coherency. These include the Sage Ranch, Tres Pinos, New Idria, Aromas, Bear Valley and San Juan Bautista tiltmeter sites. Preliminary results from the comparison of redundant data from the Aromas, Bear Valley and San Juan Bautista sites for periods of eight, three and seven months respectively, suggest that short period tilt signals in the range 5 min < T < 3-5 h and ranging in amplitude from 5 ?? 10-8 to 10-6 rad, but not including step offsets, show excellent agreement on closely spaced instruments. Agreement is not as good in this period range for instruments at San Juan Bautista with a separation of 200 m. Signals of interest observed in this period range include coseismic tilts, teleseisms and tilts associated with creep events. Tilt signals in the period range 3-5 h < T < 2- 5 weeks are not always coherent at all three of the redundant tilt sites studied. Tilt signals in this period range have amplitudes up to 5 ?? 10-6 rad and wavelengths down to at least the instrument separation at the closely spaced sites (~several meters). Regarding longerterm coherency, the instruments at San Juan Bautista with 200-m spacing, agree within 0.5 ??rad for the N-S component and 0.7 jurad for the E-W component for a period of two months. The closely spaced redundant instruments at Aromas agree within 2 ??rad for the N-S component and 1 ??rad for the E-W component for the eight-month period of operation. Data from the three sites have been checked for effects of temperature, atmospheric pressure and rainfall. The latter appears to be critically site dependent. The worst case tilts for 1 inch of rainfall can be more than 1 jurad with a duration of a few days to a week. Typical rain-induced tilts are less than 0.3 ??rad for 1 inch of rain. The two instruments at the Sage Ranch

  19. GPU-Based Point Cloud Superpositioning for Structural Comparisons of Protein Binding Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinweber, Matthias; Fober, Thomas; Freisleben, Bernd

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach to solve the labeled point cloud superpositioning problem for performing structural comparisons of protein binding sites. The solution is based on a parallel evolution strategy that operates on large populations and runs on GPU hardware. The proposed evolution strategy reduces the likelihood of getting stuck in a local optimum of the multimodal real-valued optimization problem represented by labeled point cloud superpositioning. The performance of the GPU-based parallel evolution strategy is compared to a previously proposed CPU-based sequential approach for labeled point cloud superpositioning, indicating that the GPU-based parallel evolution strategy leads to qualitatively better results and significantly shorter runtimes, with speed improvements of up to a factor of 1,500 for large populations. Binary classification tests based on the ATP, NADH, and FAD protein subsets of CavBase, a database containing putative binding sites, show average classification rate improvements from about 92 percent (CPU) to 96 percent (GPU). Further experiments indicate that the proposed GPU-based labeled point cloud superpositioning approach can be superior to traditional protein comparison approaches based on sequence alignments.

  20. Comparison of passive soil vapor survey techniques at a Tijeras Arroyo site, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberle, C.S.; Wade, W.M.; Tharp, T.; Brinkman, J.

    1996-01-01

    Soil vapor surveys were performed to characterize the approximate location of soil contaminants at a hazardous waste site. The samplers were from two separate companies and a comparison was made between the results of the two techniques. These results will be used to design further investigations at the site

  1. Social comparison 2.0: examining the effects of online profiles on social-networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haferkamp, Nina; Krämer, Nicole C

    2011-05-01

    Through their features--such as profile photographs or the personal vita--online profiles on social-networking sites offer a perfect basis for social comparison processes. By looking at the profile photograph, the user gains an impression of a person's physical attractiveness, and the user's vita shows which career path the person is pursuing. Against the background of Festinger's Social Comparison Theory, the focus of this research is on the effects of online profiles on their recipients. Therefore, qualitative interviews (N = 12) and two online experiments were conducted in which virtual online profiles of either physically attractive or unattractive persons (N = 93) and profiles of users with either high or low occupational attainment (N = 103) were presented to the participants. Although qualitative interviews did not initially give reason to expect online profiles to constitute a basis for comparison processes, results of the experiments proved otherwise. The first study indicates that recipients have a more negative body image after looking at beautiful users than persons who were shown the less attractive profile pictures. Male participants of the second study, who were confronted with profiles of successful males, showed a higher perceived discrepancy between their current career status and an ideal vita than male participants who looked at profiles of less successful persons.

  2. BIPM direct on-site Josephson voltage standard comparisons: 20 years of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solve, Stephane; Stock, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of the Josephson effect has for the first time given national metrology institutes (NMIs) the possibility of maintaining voltage references which are stable in time. In addition, the introduction in 1990 of a conventional value for the Josephson constant, K J-90 , has greatly improved world-wide consistency among representations of the volt. For 20 years, the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) has conducted an ongoing, direct, on-site key comparison of Josephson voltage standards among NMIs under the denominations BIPM.EM-K10.a (1 V) and BIPM.EM-K10.b (10 V) in the framework of the mutual recognition arrangement (CIPM MRA). The results of 41 comparisons illustrate the consistency among primary voltage standards and have demonstrated that a relative total uncertainty of a few parts in 10 10 is achievable if a few precautions are taken with regard to the measurement set-up. Of particular importance are the grounding, efficient filters and high insulation resistance of the measurement leads, and clean microwave distribution along the propagation line to the Josephson array. This paper reviews the comparison scheme and technical issues that need to be taken into account to achieve a relative uncertainty at the level of a few parts in 10 10 or even a few parts in 10 11 in the best cases. (paper)

  3. Comparison of NMR and crystal structures highlights conformational isomerism in protein active sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, Pedro; Pedrini, Bill; Geralt, Michael; Jaudzems, Kristaps; Mohanty, Biswaranjan; Horst, Reto; Herrmann, Torsten; Elsliger, Marc-André; Wilson, Ian A.; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    Tools for systematic comparisons of NMR and crystal structures developed by the JCSG were applied to two proteins with known functions: the T. maritima anti-σ factor antagonist TM1081 and the mouse γ-glutamylamine cyclotransferase A2LD1 (gi:13879369). In an attempt to exploit the complementarity of crystal and NMR data, the combined use of the two structure-determination techniques was explored for the initial steps in the challenge of searching proteins of unknown functions for putative active sites. The JCSG has recently developed a protocol for systematic comparisons of high-quality crystal and NMR structures of proteins. In this paper, the extent to which this approach can provide function-related information on the two functionally annotated proteins TM1081, a Thermotoga maritima anti-σ factor antagonist, and A2LD1 (gi:13879369), a mouse γ-glutamylamine cyclotransferase, is explored. The NMR structures of the two proteins have been determined in solution at 313 and 298 K, respectively, using the current JCSG protocol based on the software package UNIO for extensive automation. The corresponding crystal structures were solved by the JCSG at 100 K and 1.6 Å resolution and at 100 K and 1.9 Å resolution, respectively. The NMR and crystal structures of the two proteins share the same overall molecular architectures. However, the precision of the structure determination along the amino-acid sequence varies over a significantly wider range in the NMR structures than in the crystal structures. Thereby, in each of the two NMR structures about 65% of the residues have displacements below the average and in both proteins the less well ordered residues include large parts of the active sites, in addition to some highly solvent-exposed surface areas. Whereas the latter show increased disorder in the crystal and in solution, the active-site regions display increased displacements only in the NMR structures, where they undergo local conformational exchange on the

  4. Outcome of nonunion fractures in dogs treated with fixation, compression resistant matrix, and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, Anna M; Kapatkin, Amy S; Fuller, Mark C; Verstraete, Frank J M; Arzi, Boaz

    2017-03-20

    To report the use of compression resistant matrix (CRM) infused with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2) prospectively in the healing of nonunion long-bone fractures in dogs. A longitudinal cohort of dogs that were presented with nonunion fractures were classified and treated with CRM soaked with rhBMP-2 and fracture fixation. They were followed with serial radiographs and evaluated for healing times and complications according to the time frame and definitions previously established for orthopaedic clinical cases. Eleven nonunion fractures in nine dogs were included. Median healing time was 10 weeks (range: 7-20 weeks). Major perioperative complications due to bandage morbidity were encountered in two of 11 limbs and resolved. All other complications were minor. They occurred perioperatively in eight of 11 limbs. Minor follow-up complications included short-term in one of two limbs, mid-term in one of three, and long-term in four of five limbs. Nine limbs returned to full function and two limbs returned to acceptable function at the last follow-up. Nonunion fractures given a poor prognosis via standard-of-care treatment were successfully repaired using CRM with rhBMP-2 accompanying fixation. These dogs, previously at high risk of failure, returned to full or acceptable function.

  5. Negligence claims following non-union and malunion of long bone fractures: An analysis of 15 years of data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, C W; Harrison, W D; Nayagam, S; Narayan, B

    2016-10-01

    Non-unions and malunions are recognised to be complications of the treatment of long bone fractures. No previous work has looked at the implications of these complications from a medicolegal perspective. A complete database of litigation claims in Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery was obtained from the NHS Litigation Authority. Two separate modalities of the treatment of long bone fractures were examined i) non-union and ii) acquired deformity. The type of complaint, whether defended or not, and costs were analysed. There were claims of which 97 related to non-union and 32 related to postoperative limb deformity. The total cost was £8.2 million over a 15-year period in England and Wales. Femoral and tibial non-unions were more expensive particularly if they resulted in amputation. Rotational deformity cost nearly twice as much as angulation deformities. The cosmetic appearances of rotational malalignment and amputation results in higher compensation; this reinforces an outward perception of outcome as being more important than harmful effects. Notwithstanding the limitations of this database, there are clinical lessons to be gained from these litigation claims. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. One-stage lengthening using a locked nailing technique for distal femoral shaft nonunions associated with shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chi-Chuan; Lee, Zhon-Liau

    2004-02-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a one-stage lengthening using a locked nail technique for the treatment of distal femoral shaft nonunions associated with shortening. Retrospective. University hospital. During a 6-year period, 36 distal femoral shaft nonunions associated with shortening (>1.5 cm) were treated by the one-stage lengthening technique. Indications for this technique were distal femoral shaft aseptic or quiescent infected nonunions, 1.5-5 cm shortening, and a fracture level suitable for the insertion of two distal locked screws. The surgical technique involved skeletal traction using the femoral condyle, local débridement, lengthening by lengthening was 2.5 cm (range 1.5-3.5 cm). One-stage lengthening using the locked nailing technique to treat distal femoral shaft nonunions associated with shortening can achieve a high success rate and low complication rate. The key to successful treatment is the patient's complete cooperation with strictly protected weight bearing until the fracture has healed.

  7. Issues in clustered nuclear siting: a comparison of a hypothetical nuclear energy center in New Jersey with dispersed nuclear siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, P.M.; Morell, D.

    1976-09-01

    The report is an analysis of a hypothetical nuclear energy center (NEC) conducted in support of the recently completed study by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, mandated by the Congress in the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974. The intent of the analysis of the hypothetical, or ''surrogate'', site was to inject a local and regional perspective into the assessment of technical, environmental, institutional, and socioeconomic issues which could be adequately addressed only by reference to a specific site. The hypothetical NEC site in Ocean County, New Jersey, was chosen to illustrate the problems and impacts of potential energy centers in coastal and near-coastal sites in relatively close proximity to large metropolitan areas. Earlier studies of hypothetical energy centers on the Mississippi River at River Bend, La., and on the Columbia River near Hanford, Washington, were also re-examined for their relevance to this new study effort. Neither Ocean County, nor any of the other surrogate sites, have been considered for actual construction of an NEC, nor does their selection for study purposes imply any judgement of desirability. Indeed, the major finding of the report presented is that Ocean County is a relatively poor location for an energy center, and this may well be true of many coastal locations similar to the Jersey shore. The objective in selecting surrogate sites, then, was not to find the best locations, but to select sites that would illustrate the broadest range of potential public policy and siting issues

  8. Detecting Local Ligand-Binding Site Similarity in Non-Homologous Proteins by Surface Patch Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sael, Lee; Kihara, Daisuke

    2012-01-01

    Functional elucidation of proteins is one of the essential tasks in biology. Function of a protein, specifically, small ligand molecules that bind to a protein, can be predicted by finding similar local surface regions in binding sites of known proteins. Here, we developed an alignment free local surface comparison method for predicting a ligand molecule which binds to a query protein. The algorithm, named Patch-Surfer, represents a binding pocket as a combination of segmented surface patches, each of which is characterized by its geometrical shape, the electrostatic potential, the hydrophobicity, and the concaveness. Representing a pocket by a set of patches is effective to absorb difference of global pocket shape while capturing local similarity of pockets. The shape and the physicochemical properties of surface patches are represented using the 3D Zernike descriptor, which is a series expansion of mathematical 3D function. Two pockets are compared using a modified weighted bipartite matching algorithm, which matches similar patches from the two pockets. Patch-Surfer was benchmarked on three datasets, which consist in total of 390 proteins that bind to one of 21 ligands. Patch-Surfer showed superior performance to existing methods including a global pocket comparison method, Pocket-Surfer, which we have previously introduced. Particularly, as intended, the accuracy showed large improvement for flexible ligand molecules, which bind to pockets in different conformations. PMID:22275074

  9. Detecting local ligand-binding site similarity in nonhomologous proteins by surface patch comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sael, Lee; Kihara, Daisuke

    2012-04-01

    Functional elucidation of proteins is one of the essential tasks in biology. Function of a protein, specifically, small ligand molecules that bind to a protein, can be predicted by finding similar local surface regions in binding sites of known proteins. Here, we developed an alignment free local surface comparison method for predicting a ligand molecule which binds to a query protein. The algorithm, named Patch-Surfer, represents a binding pocket as a combination of segmented surface patches, each of which is characterized by its geometrical shape, the electrostatic potential, the hydrophobicity, and the concaveness. Representing a pocket by a set of patches is effective to absorb difference of global pocket shape while capturing local similarity of pockets. The shape and the physicochemical properties of surface patches are represented using the 3D Zernike descriptor, which is a series expansion of mathematical 3D function. Two pockets are compared using a modified weighted bipartite matching algorithm, which matches similar patches from the two pockets. Patch-Surfer was benchmarked on three datasets, which consist in total of 390 proteins that bind to one of 21 ligands. Patch-Surfer showed superior performance to existing methods including a global pocket comparison method, Pocket-Surfer, which we have previously introduced. Particularly, as intended, the accuracy showed large improvement for flexible ligand molecules, which bind to pockets in different conformations. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. [{sup 18}F]FDG PET accurately differentiates infected and non-infected non-unions after fracture fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenter, Vera; Albert, Nathalie L.; Brendel, Matthias; Fendler, Wolfgang P.; Bartenstein, Peter [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Cyran, Clemens C. [University of Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Friederichs, Jan; Mueller, Jan-Philipp; Militz, Matthias; Hungerer, Sven [BG Trauma Center Murnau, Department of Reconstructive Arthroplasty, Murnau (Germany); PMU Salzburg, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg (Austria); Hacker, Marcus [University of Vienna, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria)

    2017-03-15

    Complete fracture healing is crucial for good patient outcomes. A major complication in the treatment of fractures is non-union. The pathogenesis of non-unions is not always clear, although implant-associated infections play a significant role, especially after surgical treatment of open fractures. We aimed to evaluate the value of [{sup 18}F]FDG PET in suspected infections of non-union fractures. We retrospectively evaluated 35 consecutive patients seen between 2000 and 2015 with suspected infection of non-union fractures, treated at a level I trauma center. The patients underwent either [{sup 18}F]FDG PET/CT (N = 24), [{sup 18}F]FDG PET (N = 11) plus additional CT (N = 8), or conventional X-ray (N = 3). Imaging findings were correlated with final diagnosis based on intraoperative culture or follow-up. In 13 of 35 patients (37 %), infection was proven by either positive intraoperative tissue culture (N = 12) or positive follow-up (N = 1). [{sup 18}F]FDG PET revealed 11 true-positive, 19 true-negative, three false-positive, and two false-negative results, indicating sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of 85 %, 86 %, 79 %, 90 %, and 86 %, respectively. The SUV{sub max} was 6.4 ± 2.7 in the clinically infected group and 3.0 ± 1.7 in the clinically non-infected group (p <0.01). The SUV{sub ratio} was 5.3 ± 3.3 in the clinically infected group and 2.6 ± 1.5 in the clinically non-infected group (p <0.01). [{sup 18}F]FDG PET differentiates infected from non-infected non-unions with high accuracy in patients with suspected infections of non-union fractures, for whom other clinical findings were inconclusive for a local infection. [{sup 18}F]FDG PET should be considered for therapeutic management of non-unions. (orig.)

  11. Comparison between SAR Soil Moisture Estimates and Hydrological Model Simulations over the Scrivia Test Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pistocchi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the results of a comparison between the soil moisture content (SMC estimated from C-band SAR, the SMC simulated by a hydrological model, and the SMC measured on ground are presented. The study was carried out in an agricultural test site located in North-west Italy, in the Scrivia river basin. The hydrological model used for the simulations consists of a one-layer soil water balance model, which was found to be able to partially reproduce the soil moisture variability, retaining at the same time simplicity and effectiveness in describing the topsoil. SMC estimates were derived from the application of a retrieval algorithm, based on an Artificial Neural Network approach, to a time series of ENVISAT/ASAR images acquired over the Scrivia test site. The core of the algorithm was represented by a set of ANNs able to deal with the different SAR configurations in terms of polarizations and available ancillary data. In case of crop covered soils, the effect of vegetation was accounted for using NDVI information, or, if available, for the cross-polarized channel. The algorithm results showed some ability in retrieving SMC with RMSE generally <0.04 m3/m3 and very low bias (i.e., <0.01 m3/m3, except for the case of VV polarized SAR images: in this case, the obtained RMSE was somewhat higher than 0.04 m3/m3 (≤0.058 m3/m3. The algorithm was implemented within the framework of an ESA project concerning the development of an operative algorithm for the SMC retrieval from Sentinel-1 data. The algorithm should take into account the GMES requirements of SMC accuracy (≤5% in volume, spatial resolution (≤1 km and timeliness (3 h from observation. The SMC estimated by the SAR algorithm, the SMC estimated by the hydrological model, and the SMC measured on ground were found to be in good agreement. The hydrological model simulations were performed at two soil depths: 30 and 5 cm and showed that the 30 cm simulations indicated, as expected, SMC

  12. The serotonin transporter in rhesus monkey brain: comparison of DASB and citalopram binding sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Zhizhen [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States)]. E-mail: zhizhen_zeng@merck.com; Chen, T.-B. [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Miller, Patricia J. [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Dean, Dennis [Labeled Compound Synthesis Group, Drug Metabolism, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065-0900 (United States); Tang, Y.S. [Labeled Compound Synthesis Group, Drug Metabolism, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065-0900 (United States); Sur, Cyrille [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States); Williams, David L. [Imaging Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    We have characterized the interaction of the serotonin transporter ligand [{sup 3}H]-N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-cyanophenylthio)-benzylamine (DASB) with rhesus monkey brain in vitro using tissue homogenate binding and autoradiographic mapping. [{sup 3}H]-DASB, a tritiated version of the widely used [{sup 11}C] positron emission tomography tracer, was found to selectively bind to a single population of sites with high affinity (K {sub d}=0.20{+-}0.04 nM). The serotonin transporter density (B {sub max}) obtained for rhesus frontal cortex was found to be 66{+-}8 fmol/mg protein using [{sup 3}H]-DASB, similar to the B {sub max} value obtained using the reference radioligand [{sup 3}H]-citalopram, a well-characterized and highly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (83{+-}22 fmol/mg protein). Specific binding sites of both [{sup 3}H]-DASB and [{sup 3}H]-citalopram were similarly and nonuniformly distributed throughout the rhesus central nervous system, in a pattern consistent with serotonin transporter localization reported for human brain. Regional serotonin transporter densities, estimated from optical densities of the autoradiographic images, were well correlated between the two radioligands. Finally, DASB and fluoxetine showed dose-dependent full inhibition of [{sup 3}H]-citalopram binding in a competition autoradiographic study, with K {sub i} values in close agreement with those obtained from rhesus brain homogenates. This side-by-side comparison of [{sup 3}H]-DASB and [{sup 3}H]-citalopram binding sites in rhesus tissue homogenates and in adjacent rhesus brain slices provides additional support for the use of [{sup 11}C]-DASB to assess the availability and distribution of serotonin transporters in nonhuman primates.

  13. Non-invasive shallow seismic source comparison for hazardous waste site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, W.E.

    1994-01-01

    Many commonly used shallow seismic sources are unacceptable for hazardous waste site investigations because they risk exhumation of contaminants in the soil, they add contaminants (e.g. lead) which are not allowed by regulations, or they add new migration paths for contaminants. Furthermore, recently developed high frequency vibrators for shallow investigations could be more effective at some sites than non-invasive impulsive sources because of their ability to tailor the source spectrum and reduce interference. The authors show preliminary results of a comparison test of eight non-invasive impulsive and swept sources in preparation for seismic reflection profiling on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee. Well log data are used to determine geologic contacts and to generate synthetic seismograms for the site. Common midpoint (CMP) seismic data for each source were collected at 95 geophone groups from 125 shot points along a 400m test line. Hydrophone data were obtained at 1.5m spacing between 61m and 133m depth in a hole near the center of the CMP line. As of March, 1994, brute stacks have been completed for three of the eight sources. Depth penetration is demonstrated in brute stacks and shot gathers, which show a 200ms reflector for all of the sources tested along portions of the line. Source effectiveness will also be evaluated by comparing images of several shallower reflectors (40--150ms) which are apparent in many of the records. Imaging of these reflectors appears to depend upon the ability of the source to generate sufficient high frequency energy (>100 Hz)

  14. Stratification of surgical site infection by operative factors and comparison of infection rates after hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Margaret A; Nickel, Katelin B; Wallace, Anna E; Mines, Daniel; Fraser, Victoria J; Warren, David K

    2015-03-01

    To investigate whether operative factors are associated with risk of surgical site infection (SSI) after hernia repair. Retrospective cohort study. Patients Commercially insured enrollees aged 6 months-64 years with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification procedure or Current Procedural Terminology, fourth edition, codes for inguinal/femoral, umbilical, and incisional/ventral hernia repair procedures from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2010. SSIs within 90 days after hernia repair were identified by diagnosis codes. The χ2 and Fisher exact tests were used to compare SSI incidence by operative factors. A total of 119,973 hernia repair procedures were analyzed. The incidence of SSI differed significantly by anatomic site, with rates of 0.45% (352/77,666) for inguinal/femoral, 1.16% (288/24,917) for umbilical, and 4.11% (715/17,390) for incisional/ventral hernia repair. Within anatomic sites, the incidence of SSI was significantly higher for open versus laparoscopic inguinal/femoral (0.48% [295/61,142] vs 0.34% [57/16,524], P=.020) and incisional/ventral (4.20% [701/16,699] vs 2.03% [14/691], P=.005) hernia repairs. The rate of SSI was higher following procedures with bowel obstruction/necrosis than procedures without obstruction/necrosis for open inguinal/femoral (0.89% [48/5,422] vs 0.44% [247/55,720], Poperative factors may facilitate accurate comparison of SSI rates between facilities.

  15. The serotonin transporter in rhesus monkey brain: comparison of DASB and citalopram binding sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Zhizhen; Chen, T.-B.; Miller, Patricia J.; Dean, Dennis; Tang, Y.S.; Sur, Cyrille; Williams, David L.

    2006-01-01

    We have characterized the interaction of the serotonin transporter ligand [ 3 H]-N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-cyanophenylthio)-benzylamine (DASB) with rhesus monkey brain in vitro using tissue homogenate binding and autoradiographic mapping. [ 3 H]-DASB, a tritiated version of the widely used [ 11 C] positron emission tomography tracer, was found to selectively bind to a single population of sites with high affinity (K d =0.20±0.04 nM). The serotonin transporter density (B max ) obtained for rhesus frontal cortex was found to be 66±8 fmol/mg protein using [ 3 H]-DASB, similar to the B max value obtained using the reference radioligand [ 3 H]-citalopram, a well-characterized and highly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (83±22 fmol/mg protein). Specific binding sites of both [ 3 H]-DASB and [ 3 H]-citalopram were similarly and nonuniformly distributed throughout the rhesus central nervous system, in a pattern consistent with serotonin transporter localization reported for human brain. Regional serotonin transporter densities, estimated from optical densities of the autoradiographic images, were well correlated between the two radioligands. Finally, DASB and fluoxetine showed dose-dependent full inhibition of [ 3 H]-citalopram binding in a competition autoradiographic study, with K i values in close agreement with those obtained from rhesus brain homogenates. This side-by-side comparison of [ 3 H]-DASB and [ 3 H]-citalopram binding sites in rhesus tissue homogenates and in adjacent rhesus brain slices provides additional support for the use of [ 11 C]-DASB to assess the availability and distribution of serotonin transporters in nonhuman primates

  16. Application of Local Vibrations in Delayed and Non-Union Fractures: a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Chiara; Abundo, Paolo; Foti, Calogero; Rosato, Nicola

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of local vibration treatments (LV) in delayed-union and non-union fractures, through therapeutic exercise vibration (TEV) practice, analysing the radiological trend. The Medical Engineering Service of the Fondazione Policlinico Tor Vergata in collaboration with the Chair-Department of Rehabilitation Medicine of the University of Rome Tor Vergata and the Boscosystem company, is developing a device dedicated to LV application, to favour bone regeneration and muscle strengthening. This case report analyses the bone activity of a male patient presenting a right tibial fracture, treated with TEV. At the end of the TEV program, clinical results confirmed independent ambulation with disappearance of perimalleolar edema, while radiographic images revealed the presence of bone repair activity around the fracture line.

  17. Application of Local Vibrations in Delayed and Non-Union Fractures: a Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trombetta, Chiara; Abundo, Paolo; Foti, Calogero; Rosato, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of local vibration treatments (LV) in delayed-union and non-union fractures, through therapeutic exercise vibration (TEV) practice, analysing the radiological trend. The Medical Engineering Service of the Fondazione Policlinico Tor Vergata in collaboration with the Chair-Department of Rehabilitation Medicine of the University of Rome Tor Vergata and the Boscosystem company, is developing a device dedicated to LV application, to favour bone regeneration and muscle strengthening. This case report analyses the bone activity of a male patient presenting a right tibial fracture, treated with TEV. At the end of the TEV program, clinical results confirmed independent ambulation with disappearance of perimalleolar edema, while radiographic images revealed the presence of bone repair activity around the fracture line.

  18. Nonunion of the femoral neck: Possibilities and limitations of the various treatment modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raaymakers Ernst

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays in cases of nonunions of the femoral neck, the surgeon is tempted to perform prosthetic replacement of the hip, more so if there is also evidence of avascular necrosis of the head of femur. This provides rapid pain relief and allows early mobilization. However, long-term results of hip arthroplasties, especially in younger people and in the presence of osteopenia, are not always as expected; and a less radical approach is worth considering. The intertrochanteric valgization osteotomy, described by Pauwels, is an excellent alternative for healthy patients up to 65 years of age with a nonunion of the femoral neck. A union rate of 80-90% of the nonunion is described by most authors. Leg length inequallity, rotational and angular deformities can be corrected at the same time. During the period 1973-1995, we performed valgization osteotomy according to Pauwels in 66 patients of, 18-72 years old (mean 49.5 years. 24 (37% of our patients died 4 months to 24 years (mean: 9.5 years after the operation. Union of the femoral neck was achieved in 58 (88% of the 66 patients; union of the osteotomy in 65 patients (99%. A good or excellent result was achieved in 62% (23 uneventful and 13 with healed, necrosis/arthrosis without need for further treatment of our patients. However, the method has its limits. We feel if there is too little bone stock inside the femoral head, a valgization osteotomy does not give good result. The radiographic signs of avascular necrosis in patients over 30 years of age is considered a contraindication for an osteotomy. However our results show that it is worthwhile trying to save the joint of young patients even in case of a segmental collapse. In the race between revascularization and collapse, often revascularization is the winner. We deliberately give nature its chance and don′t rely on the result of bleeding from drill holes in the head, nuclear scans and other methods to estimate vascularity. A secondary total hip

  19. Treatment of midshaft clavicular nonunion with plate fixation and autologous bone grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Vaesel, M T; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole

    1995-01-01

    We studied the results of 16 consecutive midshaft clavicular nonunions operated on at the Shoulder and Elbow Clinic during the period from 1990 to 1993. All patients were treated with rigid 3.5 mm plate fixation and autologous cancellous bone grafting. Union of the fractures was achieved in all...... except one case, with a reconstruction ratio (restoration of bone length) of 0.96 (range 0.88 to 1.03). At follow-up 12 of 16 patients had returned to their preinjury activity level and according to the Constant score had obtained an excellent result. Two patients were graded as good, one as fair......, and one had a failure. Thirteen of 16 patients were satisfied with the cosmetic outcome, assessing their cosmetic result as either good or excellent. Rigid plate fixation and restoration of clavicular length with autologous cancellous bone graft is recommended for the treatment of symptomatic clavicular...

  20. Reamed intramedullary exchange nailing in the operative treatment of aseptic tibial shaft nonunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hierholzer, Christian; Friederichs, Jan; Glowalla, Claudio; Woltmann, Alexander; Bühren, Volker; von Rüden, Christian

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a standardized treatment protocol regarding the rate of secondary bone union, complications, and functional outcome. This study was started as a prospective study in a single Level I Trauma Centre between 2003 and 2012. The study group consisted of 188 patients with the diagnosis of an aseptic tibial shaft nonunion. Exchange nailing was performed following a standardized surgical protocol. Long-term follow-up was analyzed for rate of bone healing and functional outcome. Osseous healing was achieved in 182 out of 188 patients (97 %). In 165 out of 188 patients (88 %), bone healing was observed timely and uneventfully after a single exchange nailing procedure. An open approach was necessary in 32 patients (17 %). Twenty-three patients (12 %) required additional therapy such as extracorporeal shock wave therapy. Post-operative complications were observed in seven patients (4 %). Almost all patients demonstrated osseous healing within 12 months, with the majority of osseous healing occurring within six months. A relevant shortening of the fractured tibia was observed in 20 out of 188 patients (11 %). After a median follow-up of 23 months (range 12-45 months), outcome was evaluated using the assessment system of Friedman/Wyman. In summary, 154 out of 188 patients (82 %) had a good functional long-term result. Reamed intramedullary exchange nailing including correction of axis alignment is a safe and effective treatment of aseptic tibial shaft nonunion with a high rate of bone healing and a good radiological and functional long-term outcome.

  1. 3D RECONSTRUCTION OF AN UNDERWATER ARCHAELOGICAL SITE: COMPARISON BETWEEN LOW COST CAMERAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Capra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The 3D reconstruction with a metric content of a submerged area, where objects and structures of archaeological interest are found, could play an important role in the research and study activities and even in the digitization of the cultural heritage. The reconstruction of 3D object, of interest for archaeologists, constitutes a starting point in the classification and description of object in digital format and for successive fruition by user after delivering through several media. The starting point is a metric evaluation of the site obtained with photogrammetric surveying and appropriate 3D restitution. The authors have been applying the underwater photogrammetric technique since several years using underwater digital cameras and, in this paper, digital low cost cameras (off-the-shelf. Results of tests made on submerged objects with three cameras are presented: © Canon Power Shot G12, © Intova Sport HD e © GoPro HERO 2. The experimentation had the goal to evaluate the precision in self-calibration procedures, essential for multimedia underwater photogrammetry, and to analyze the quality of 3D restitution. Precisions obtained in the calibration and orientation procedures was assessed by using three cameras, and an homogeneous set control points. Data were processed with © Agisoft Photoscan. Successively, 3D models were created and the comparison of the models derived from the use of different cameras was performed. Different potentialities of the used cameras are reported in the discussion section. The 3D restitution of objects and structures was integrated with sea bottom floor morphology in order to achieve a comprehensive description of the site. A possible methodology of survey and representation of submerged objects is therefore illustrated, considering an automatic and a semi-automatic approach.

  2. D Reconstruction of AN Underwater Archaelogical Site: Comparison Between Low Cost Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, A.; Dubbini, M.; Bertacchini, E.; Castagnetti, C.; Mancini, F.

    2015-04-01

    The 3D reconstruction with a metric content of a submerged area, where objects and structures of archaeological interest are found, could play an important role in the research and study activities and even in the digitization of the cultural heritage. The reconstruction of 3D object, of interest for archaeologists, constitutes a starting point in the classification and description of object in digital format and for successive fruition by user after delivering through several media. The starting point is a metric evaluation of the site obtained with photogrammetric surveying and appropriate 3D restitution. The authors have been applying the underwater photogrammetric technique since several years using underwater digital cameras and, in this paper, digital low cost cameras (off-the-shelf). Results of tests made on submerged objects with three cameras are presented: Canon Power Shot G12, Intova Sport HD e GoPro HERO 2. The experimentation had the goal to evaluate the precision in self-calibration procedures, essential for multimedia underwater photogrammetry, and to analyze the quality of 3D restitution. Precisions obtained in the calibration and orientation procedures was assessed by using three cameras, and an homogeneous set control points. Data were processed with Agisoft Photoscan. Successively, 3D models were created and the comparison of the models derived from the use of different cameras was performed. Different potentialities of the used cameras are reported in the discussion section. The 3D restitution of objects and structures was integrated with sea bottom floor morphology in order to achieve a comprehensive description of the site. A possible methodology of survey and representation of submerged objects is therefore illustrated, considering an automatic and a semi-automatic approach.

  3. Comparison of template registration methods for multi-site meta-analysis of brain morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faskowitz, Joshua; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; McMahon, Katie L.; Wright, Margaret J.; Thompson, Paul M.; Jahanshad, Neda

    2016-03-01

    Neuroimaging consortia such as ENIGMA can significantly improve power to discover factors that affect the human brain by pooling statistical inferences across cohorts to draw generalized conclusions from populations around the world. Voxelwise analyses such as tensor-based morphometry also allow an unbiased search for effects throughout the brain. Even so, such consortium-based analyses are limited by a lack of high-powered methods to harmonize voxelwise information across study populations and scanners. While the simplest approach may be to map all images to a single standard space, the benefits of cohort-specific templates have long been established. Here we studied methods to pool voxel-wise data across sites using templates customized for each cohort but providing a meaningful common space across all studies for voxelwise comparisons. As non-linear 3D MRI registrations represent mappings between images at millimeter resolution, we need to consider the reliability of these mappings. To evaluate these mappings, we calculated test-retest statistics on the volumetric maps of expansion and contraction. Further, we created study-specific brain templates for ten T1-weighted MRI datasets, and a common space from four study-specific templates. We evaluated the efficacy of using a two-step registration framework versus a single standard space. We found that the two-step framework more reliably mapped subjects to a common space.

  4. Comparison of the Savannah River Site billet active well coincidence counter and two Californium Shufflers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, E.T.; Griffin, J.C.; Rinard, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    A Scrap Californium Shuffler at the Savannah River Site (SRS) was calibrated to assay the U-Al cores of billets (an intermediate step in the SRS reactor fuel fabrication cycle.) The precision of the Scrap Shuffler over several years has been approximately 0.50%. A typical total uncertainty for the assay of a core on the Scrap Shuffler is approximately 0.33% for a twelve minute assay. The precision over several months and a typical total uncertainty for the Billet Active Well (neutron) Coincidence Counter (BAWCC) are approximately 1.0% and 1.9%, respectively, for a fifteen minute assay. A new Billet Californium Shuffler specifically designed for assaying SRS billets has yielded precision (over one month) and total uncertainty results of 0.40% and 0.69%, respectively, for an eight minute assay. The introduction of a measurement point into the fuel fabrication cycle to replace estimates based upon material weight will greatly enhance material and process control in the Reactor Materials area of SRS. The use of all three instruments provides a comparison of the relative merits of Active Well (neutron) Coincidence Counters (AWCCs) and shufflers for assay of homogeneous and geometrically simple material containing 235 U. The measurement precisions, systematic and random uncertainties, as well as the procurement and operation of each instrument will be compared. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  5. Predictors associated with nonunion and symptomatic malunion following non-operative treatment of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures-a systematic review of the literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ann Louise; Troelsen, Anders; Ban, Ilija

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to survey existing literature in order to identify all reported predictors associated with nonunion or symptomatic malunion in adult patients with displaced midshaft clavicle fractures treated non-operatively. METHOD: A systematic literature search in Medline...... was carried out in order to identify publications in English, reporting on predictors for nonunion and malunion in adults with displaced midshaft clavicle fractures. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, eight publications were included in this systematic review. RESULTS: A total of 2,117 midshaft...... factors associated with nonunion were identified, six of these (displacement, comminution, shortening, age, gender and smoking) were reported as predictors for nonunion. Outcome definitions varied among the studies. CONCLUSION: The included publications varied greatly in design, sample size, and quality...

  6. Social Network Sites, Friends, and Celebrities: The Roles of Social Comparison and Celebrity Involvement in Adolescents’ Body Image Dissatisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley S. Ho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study applies the social comparison theory to examine the effects of adolescents’ engagement in comparison with friends and celebrities on social network sites (SNSs on (a their body image dissatisfaction (BID and (b their drive to be thin (DT or muscular (DM. The study also examines celebrity involvement as an antecedent of the outcome variables. Data were collected through a survey of 1,059 adolescents in Singapore. Regression analyses indicate that SNSs use was related to adolescents’ BID. Specifically, social comparison with friends on SNSs was significantly associated with adolescents’ BID, DT, and DM. Gender differences were also observed—social comparison with celebrities was significantly associated with BID and DT among female adolescents. Celebrity involvement was significantly associated with male BID. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed.

  7. Childhood leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma near large rural construction sites, with a comparison with Sellafield nuclear site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinlen, L.J.; Dickson, M.; Stiller, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    The objective was to determine whether population mixing produced by large, non-nuclear construction projects in rural areas is associated with an increase in childhood leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. A study was undertaken of the incidence of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among children living near large construction projects in Britain since 1945, situated more than 20 km from a population centre, involving a workforce of more than 1000, and built over three or more calendar years. A 37% excess of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma at 0-14 years of age was recorded during construction and the following calendar year. The excesses were greater at times when construction workers and operating staff overlapped (72%), particularly in areas of relatively high social class. For several sites the excesses were similar to or greater than that near the nuclear site of Sellafield (67%), which is distinctive in its large workforce with many construction workers. Seascale, near Sellafield, with a ninefold increase had an unusually high proportion of residents in social class I. The findings support the infection hypothesis and reinforce the view that the excess of childhood leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma near Sellafield has a similar explanation. (author)

  8. Pipeline for Efficient Mapping of Transcription Factor Binding Sites and Comparison of Their Models

    KAUST Repository

    Ba alawi, Wail

    2011-06-01

    The control of genes in every living organism is based on activities of transcription factor (TF) proteins. These TFs interact with DNA by binding to the TF binding sites (TFBSs) and in that way create conditions for the genes to activate. Of the approximately 1500 TFs in human, TFBSs are experimentally derived only for less than 300 TFs and only in generally limited portions of the genome. To be able to associate TF to genes they control we need to know if TFs will have a potential to interact with the control region of the gene. For this we need to have models of TFBS families. The existing models are not sufficiently accurate or they are too complex for use by ordinary biologists. To remove some of the deficiencies of these models, in this study we developed a pipeline through which we achieved the following: 1. Through a comparison analysis of the performance we identified the best models with optimized thresholds among the four different types of models of TFBS families. 2. Using the best models we mapped TFBSs to the human genome in an efficient way. The study shows that a new scoring function used with TFBS models based on the position weight matrix of dinucleotides with remote dependency results in better accuracy than the other three types of the TFBS models. The speed of mapping has been improved by developing a parallelized code and shows a significant speed up of 4x when going from 1 CPU to 8 CPUs. To verify if the predicted TFBSs are more accurate than what can be expected with the conventional models, we identified the most frequent pairs of TFBSs (for TFs E4F1 and ATF6) that appeared close to each other (within the distance of 200 nucleotides) over the human genome. We show unexpectedly that the genes that are most close to the multiple pairs of E4F1/ATF6 binding sites have a co-expression of over 90%. This indirectly supports our hypothesis that the TFBS models we use are more accurate and also suggests that the E4F1/ATF6 pair is exerting the

  9. Intramedullary stabilization and over-nail lengthening as two-stage treatment of femoral nonunion with shortening. Case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kącki, Wojciech; Jasiewicz, Barbara; Radło, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Nonunion is one of the most serious complications of long bone fractures. It may be accompanied by a shortening of the segment. The authors describe the case of a 21-year-old woman with a post-traumatic nonunion with shortening of the femur. Treatment was divided into two stages: first, a previously placed nail was removed and new intramedullary stabilization was carried out while bone defects were filled with a bone graft substitute and platelet rich plasma was administered. After the nonunion had healed, the femur was lengthened over an external fixator and an intramedullary nail, resulting in equality of limb length. After eight years of follow-up, the lower limbs remain equal with a properly aligned long axis of the lower limb operated on and a full range of motion in the joints. The treatment strategy described in our article may be an alternative to one-stage surgery if the patient does not consent to it or in the presence of contraindications, but it is associated with a longer treatment time and necessity of additional surgeries.

  10. Mercury transfer from soil to olive trees. A comparison of three different contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higueras, Pablo L; Amorós, José Á; Esbrí, José Maria; Pérez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad; López-Berdonces, Miguel A; García-Navarro, Francisco J

    2016-04-01

    Mercury contents in soil and olive tree leaves have been studied in 69 plots around three different source areas of this element in Spain: Almadén (Ciudad Real), Flix (Tarragona) and Jódar (Jaén). Almadén was the world's largest cinnabar (HgS) mining district and was active until 2003, Flix is the oldest Spanish chlor-alkali plant (CAP) and has been active from 1898 to the present day and Jódar is a decommissioned CAP that was active for 14 years (1977-1991). Total mercury contents have been measured by high-frequency modulation atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman effect (ZAAS-HFM) in the soils and olive tree leaves from the three studied areas. The average soil contents range from 182 μg kg(-1) in Flix to 23,488 μg kg(-1) in Almadén, while the average leaf content ranges from 161 μg kg(-1) in Jódar to 1213 μg kg(-1) in Almadén. Despite the wide range of data, a relationship between soil-leaf contents has been identified: in Almadén and Jódar, multiplicative (bilogarithmic) models show significant correlations (R = 0.769 and R = 0.484, respectively). Significant correlations were not identified between soil and leaf contents in Flix. The continuous activity of the Flix CAP, which remains open today, can explain the different uptake patterns for mercury, which is mainly atmospheric in origin, in comparison to the other two sites, where activity ceased more than 10 years ago and only soil uptake patterns based on the Michaelis-Menten enzymatic model curve are observed.

  11. Pesticides analysed in rainwater in Alsace region (Eastern France): Comparison between urban and rural sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheyer, Anne; Morville, Stéphane; Mirabel, Philippe; Millet, Maurice

    during this period. This is the case for diflufenican which was detected only during application. Two important peaks of concentrations were observed; a first one (101 ng L -1) in Erstein in November 2002 (4-11 November) and a second one (762 ng L -1) also in Erstein (28 April-15 May). The same behaviour can be seen for chlorfenvinphos and phosalone which have been detected, respectively, 2 and 4 times in Erstein and Strasbourg at high concentrations (28 April 2003-15 May 2003, 187 ng L -1 of phosalone and 157 ng L -1 of chlorfenvinphos in Erstein). MCPP, 2,4 MCPA and 2,4-D have been detected at high concentrations in rainwater but for the other pesticides very episodically and mainly during their use in agriculture. Maximal concentrations of MCPP and 2,4 MCPA have been measured in Erstein between 28 April and 15 May (904 and 746 ng L -1, respectively). Comparison between rural and urban sites showed that concentrations in rural areas are generally higher except for pesticides commonly applied in urban areas like Diuron. No seasonal phenomenon was observed for Diuron. This herbicide has been detected in practically all of the rainwater samples in Strasbourg (40/41) with a maximum of 1025 ng L -1 (16-23 September 2002) in 38 samples on 41 in Erstein with a maximum of 317 ng L -1 (15-23 October 2002). The total concentration of Diuron measured between 4 March 2002 and 20 July 2003 is of 4721 ng L -1 in Strasbourg and 5025 ng L -1 in Erstein. This result shows that wet deposition of Diuron in urban and rural sites was equivalent and can be explained by the "urban use" of this molecule together with its potential persistence.

  12. Atypical Chronic Ankle Instability in a Pediatric Population Secondary to Distal Fibula Avulsion Fracture Nonunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ashry, Saad R; El Gamal, Tarek A; Platt, Simon R

    Chronic ankle instability is a disabling condition, often occurring as a result of traumatic ankle injury. A paucity of published data is available documenting chronic ankle instability in the pediatric population. Much of the data has been confined to the adult population. We present 2 cases of chronic ankle instability, 1 in a 12-year-old and 1 in a 9-year-old patient. Unlike the typical adult etiology, the cause of instability was a dysfunctional lateral ligamentous complex as a consequence of bony avulsion of the tip of the fibula. Both patients had sustained a twisting injury to the ankle. The fractures failed to unite. The nonunion resulted in dysfunction of the anterior talofibular ligament with consequent chronic ankle instability. At the initial clinical assessment, magnetic resonance imaging was requested for both patients. In patient 1 (12 years old), the fracture was fixed with 2 headless screws and was immobilized in a plaster cast for 6 weeks. In patient 2 (9 years old), because of the small size of the avulsed fragment, fixation was not possible. A modified Gould-Broström procedure was undertaken, facilitating repair of the avulsed fragment using anchor sutures. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors associated with nonunion, delayed union, and malunion in foot and ankle surgery in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Naohiro; Humphers, Jon M; Fluhman, Benjamin L; Jupiter, Daniel C

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of bone healing complications in diabetic patients is believed to be high after foot and ankle surgery. Although the association of hyperglycemia with bone healing complications has been well documented, little clinical information is available to show which diabetes-related comorbidities directly affect bone healing. Our goal was to better understand the risk factors associated with poor bone healing in the diabetic population through an exploratory, observational, retrospective, cohort study. To this end, 165 diabetic patients who had undergone arthrodesis, osteotomy, or fracture reduction were enrolled in the study to assess the risk factors associated with nonunion, delayed union, and malunion after elective and nonelective foot and/or ankle surgery. Bivariate analyses showed that a history of foot ulcer, peripheral neuropathy, and surgery duration were statistically significantly associated with bone healing complications. After adjusting for other covariates, only peripheral neuropathy, surgery duration, and hemoglobin A1c levels >7% were significantly associated statistically with bone healing complications. Of the risk factors we considered, peripheral neuropathy had the strongest association with bone healing complications. Copyright © 2013 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Ilizarov Methods in the Treatment of Infected Nonunion of Tibia and Femur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Yin

    Full Text Available Infected nonunion of tibia and femur are common in clinical practice, however, the treatment of these diseases has still been a challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. Ilizarov methods can eradicate infection, compensate bone defects and promote the bone union through progressive bone histogenesis. The objective of this systematic review was to review current available studies reporting on Ilizarov methods in the treatment of infected nonunion of tibia and femur, and to perform meta-analysis of bone and functional results and complications to evaluate the efficacy of Ilizarov methods.A comprehensive literature search was performed from the SCI, PubMed, Cochrane Library; and Embase between January 1995 and August 2015. Some major data were statistically analyzed using weighted means based on the sample size in each study by SPSS 13.0, including number of patients, mean age, mean previous surgical procedures, mean bone defects, mean length of follow-up, bone union, complications per patient, external fixation time, and external fixation index(EFI. Bone results (excellent, good, fair and poor rate, functional results (excellent, good, fair and poor rate and complications were analyzed by Stata 9.0.A total of 590 patients from 24 studies were included in this systematic review. The average of bone union rate was 97.26% in all included studies. The poor rate in bone results and functional results was 8% (95%CI, 0.04-0.12; I2 = 44.1%, P = 0.065 and 10% (95%CI, 0.05-0.14; I2 = 34.7%, P = 0.121 in patients with infected nonunion of tibia and femur treated by Ilizarov methods. The rate of refracture, malunion, infectious recurrence, knee stiffness, amputation, limb edema and peroneal nerve palsy was respectively 4%, 7%, 5%, 12%, 4%, 13% and 13%.Our systematic review showed that the patients with infected nonunion of tibia and femur treated by Ilizarov methods had a low rate of poor bone and functional results. Therefore, Ilizarov methods may be a good choice

  15. Aerosol Light Absorption and Scattering at Four Sites in and Near Mexico City: Comparison with Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, W. P.; Miranda, G. P.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.

    2007-05-01

    Four photoacoustic spectrometers (PAS) for aerosol light scattering and absorption measurements were deployed in and near Mexico City in March 2006 as part of the Megacity Impacts on Regional and Global Environments (MIRAGE). The four sites included: an urban site at Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexican Oil Institute, denoted by IMP); a suburban site at the Technological University of Tecamac; a rural site at "La Biznaga" ranch; and a site at the Paseo de Cortes (altitude 3,810 meters ASL) in the rural area above Amecameca in the State of Mexico, on the saddle between the volcanoes Popocatepetl and Iztaccihuatl. A similar campaign was held in Las Vegas, Nevada, USA in January-February, 2003. The IMP site gave in-situ characterization of the Mexico City plume under favorable wind conditions while the other sites provided characterization of the plume, mixed in with any local sources. The second and third sites are north of Mexico City, and the fourth site is south. The PAS used at IMP operates at 532 nm, and conveniently allowed for characterization of gaseous absorption at this wavelength as well. Instruments at the second and third sites operate at 870 nm, and the one at the fourth site at 780 nm. Light scattering measurements are accomplished within the PAS by the reciprocal nephelometery method. In the urban site the aerosol absorption coefficient typically varies between 20 and 180 Mm-1 during the course of the day and significant diurnal variation of the aerosol single scattering albedo was observed probably as a consequence of secondary aerosol formation. Comparisons with TSI nephelometer scattering at the T0 site will be presented. We will present the diurnal variation of the scattering and absorption as well as the single scattering albedo and fraction of absorption due to gases at the IMP site and compare with Las Vegas diurnal variation. Mexico City 'breaths' more during the course of the day than Las Vegas, Nevada in part because the latitude of

  16. Trust and Product/Sellers Reviews as Factors Influencing Online Product Comparison Sites Usage by Young Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslaw Macik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Paper describes young consumers’ behaviour connected with online product comparison sites usage as an example of online decision shopping aids. Authors’ main goal is to check whether or not such factors as: previous experience in such sites usage, personal innovativeness in domain of information technology – PIIT, and particularly cognitive trust (in several subdimensions, as well as affective trust toward online product comparison site, influence purchase intention via mentioned sites (acting as intermediaries in online sales channel, and anticipated satisfaction from choice made by consumer. Also indirect influence of users’ opinions about product and sellers on mentioned constructs has been researched. Study on effective sample of 456 young consumers with data collected through CAWI questionnaire confirmed reliability and validity of measurement scales. Path model estimated via PLS-SEM confirmed most hypotheses settled, particularly confirming strong positive relationships between cognitive trust (mostly in competence on affective trust, and later on purchase intention and choice satisfaction. Product and sellers reviews were partially mediating some of those relationships.

  17. Comparison of mosquito control programs in seven urban sites in Africa, the Middle East, and the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impoinvil, Daniel E; Ahmad, Sajjad; Troyo, Adriana; Keating, Joseph; Githeko, Andrew K; Mbogo, Charles M; Kibe, Lydiah; Githure, John I; Gad, Adel M; Hassan, Ali N; Orshan, Laor; Warburg, Alon; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Sánchez-Loría, Victoria M; Velit-Suarez, Rosanna; Chadee, Dave D; Novak, Robert J; Beier, John C

    2007-10-01

    Mosquito control programs at seven urban sites in Kenya, Egypt, Israel, Costa Rica, and Trinidad are described and compared. Site-specific urban and disease characteristics, organizational diagrams, and strengths, weaknesses, obstacles and threats (SWOT) analysis tools are used to provide a descriptive assessment of each mosquito control program, and provide a comparison of the factors affecting mosquito abatement. The information for SWOT analysis is collected from surveys, focus-group discussions, and personal communication. SWOT analysis identified various issues affecting the efficiency and sustainability of mosquito control operations. The main outcome of our work was the description and comparison of mosquito control operations within the context of each study site's biological, social, political, management, and economic conditions. The issues identified in this study ranged from lack of inter-sector collaboration to operational issues of mosquito control efforts. A lack of sustainable funding for mosquito control was a common problem for most sites. Many unique problems were also identified, which included lack of mosquito surveillance, lack of law enforcement, and negative consequences of human behavior. Identifying common virtues and shortcomings of mosquito control operations is useful in identifying "best practices" for mosquito control operations, thus leading to better control of mosquito biting and mosquito-borne disease transmission.

  18. Electronic Cigarette Marketing Online: a Multi-Site, Multi-Product Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kar-Hai; Sidhu, Anupreet K; Valente, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    Electronic cigarette awareness and use has been increasing rapidly. E-cigarette brands have utilized social networking sites to promote their products, as the growth of the e-cigarette industry has paralleled that of Web 2.0. These online platforms are cost-effective and have unique technological features and user demographics that can be attractive for selective marketing. The popularity of multiple sites also poses a risk of exposure to social networks where e-cigarette brands might not have a presence. To examine the marketing strategies of leading e-cigarette brands on multiple social networking sites, and to identify how affordances of the digital media are used to their advantage. Secondary analyses include determining if any brands are benefitting from site demographics, and exploring cross-site diffusion of marketing content through multi-site users. We collected data from two e-cigarette brands from four social networking sites over approximately 2.5 years. Content analysis is used to search for themes, population targeting, marketing strategies, and cross-site spread of messages. Twitter appeared to be the most frequently used social networking site for interacting directly with product users. Facebook supported informational broadcasts, such as announcements regarding political legislation. E-cigarette brands also differed in their approaches to their users, from informal conversations to direct product marketing. E-cigarette makers use different strategies to market their product and engage their users. There was no evidence of direct targeting of vulnerable populations, but the affordances of the different sites are exploited to best broadcast context-specific messages. We developed a viable method to study cross-site diffusion, although additional refinement is needed to account for how different types of digital media are used.

  19. A Generational Comparison of Social Networking Site Use: The Influence of Age and Social Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    An online survey (N = 256) compared social networking site (SNS) use among younger (millennial: 18-29) and older (baby-boomer: 41-64) subscribers focusing on the influence of collective self-esteem and group identity on motives for SNS use. Younger participants reported higher positive collective self-esteem, social networking site use for peer…

  20. Growth comparison of northern white-cedar to balsam fir and red spruce by site class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip V. Hofmeyer; Laura S. Kenefic; Robert S. Seymour; John C. Brissette

    2006-01-01

    Though northern white-cedar is a common and economically important component of the Acadian Forest of Maine and adjacent Canada, there is little regional data about the growth and development of this species. Sixty sites in northern Maine were used to compare growth of cedar to that of red spruce and balsam fir along a range of site classes and light exposures. On...

  1. Comparison of tree coring and soil gas sampling for screening of contaminated sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Algreen; Stalder, Marcel; Riis, Charlotte

    and then identify high risk areas. The uptake of BTEX into trees varies to a greater extent with the tree species and the site conditions than chlorinated solvents, which lead to greater uncertainty. Both methods have their advantages and disadvantages. Hence, the methods supplement each other. Based on results......Site characterization is often time consuming and a financial burden for the site owners, which raises a demand for rapid and inexpensive (pre)screening methods. Phytoscreening by tree coring has shown to be a useful tool to detect subsurface contamination, especially of chlorinated solvents...... suitable as initial screening methods for site characterization. The aim of this study is to compare tree coring and soil gas sampling to evaluate to which extent tree coring may supplement or substitute soil gas sampling as a site contaminant screening tool. And where both methods are feasible, evaluate...

  2. Comparison of conventional vs. modular hydrogen refueling stations and on-site production vs. delivery.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, Ethan S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Pratt, Joseph William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    To meet the needs of public and private stakeholders involved in the development, construction, and operation of hydrogen fueling stations needed to support the widespread roll-out of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles, this work presents publicly available station templates and analyses. These ‘Reference Stations’ help reduce the cost and speed the deployment of hydrogen stations by providing a common baseline with which to start a design, enable quick assessment of potential sites for a hydrogen station, identify contributors to poor economics, and suggest areas of research. This work presents layouts, bills of materials, piping and instrumentation diagrams, and detailed analyses of five new station designs. In the near term, delivered hydrogen results in a lower cost of hydrogen compared to on-site production via steam methane reforming or electrolysis, although the on-site production methods have other advantages. Modular station concepts including on-site production can reduce lot sizes from conventional assemble-on-site stations.

  3. Exchange nailing for nonunion of diaphyseal fractures of the tibia: our results and an analysis of the risk factors for failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, S T J; Mills, L A; Frantzias, J; Baren, J P; Keating, J F; Simpson, A H R W

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for the failure of exchange nailing in nonunion of tibial diaphyseal fractures. A cohort of 102 tibial diaphyseal nonunions in 101 patients with a mean age of 36.9 years (15 to 74) were treated between January 1992 and December 2012 by exchange nailing. Of which 33 (32%) were initially open injuries. The median time from primary fixation to exchange nailing was 6.5 months (interquartile range (IQR) 4.3 to 9.8 months). The main outcome measures were union, number of secondary fixation procedures required to achieve union and time to union. Univariate analysis and multiple regression were used to identify risk factors for failure to achieve union. Multiple causes for the primary nonunion were found for 28 (27%) tibiae, with infection present in 32 (31%). Six patients were lost to follow-up. Further surgical procedures were required in 35 (36%) nonunions. Other fixation modalities were required in five fractures. A single nail exchange procedure achieved union in 60/96 (63%) of all nonunions. Only 11 out of 31 infected nonunions (35.4%) healed after one exchange nail procedure. Up to five repeated exchange nailings, with or without bone grafting, ultimately achieved union in 89 (93%) fractures. The median time to union after exchange nailing was 8.7 months (IQR 5.7 to 14.0 months). Univariate analysis confirmed that an oligotrophic/atrophic pattern of nonunion (p = 0.002), a bone gap of 5 mm or more (p = 0.04) and infection (p exchange nailing Multiple regression analysis found that infection was the strongest predictor of failure (p Exchange nailing is an effective treatment for aseptic tibial diaphyseal nonunion. However, in the presence of severe infection with a highly resistant organism, or extensive sclerosis of the bone, other fixation modalities, such as Ilizarov treatment, should be considered. Exchange nailing is an effective treatment for aseptic tibial diaphyseal nonunion. ©2016 The British Editorial

  4. An investigation of site diversity and comparison with ITU-R recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, S. A.; Boyes, B.; Couchman, A.; Waight, J.; Walden, C. J.; Ventouras, S.

    2008-08-01

    Earth-space radio systems operating at frequencies of 10 GHz and above are badly attenuated by rain, cloud, and atmospheric gases. As the frequencies of operational systems increase, it becomes increasingly uneconomic to compensate for the effects of fading through the use of a fixed fade margin, hence the implementation of fade mitigation techniques (FMT). The spatial and temporal variation of rain provides the justification for the use of site diversity as an FMT. Site diversity employs two or more ground stations receiving the same satellite signal with a separation distance such that the sites encounter intense rainfall at different times, and switching to the site experiencing the least fading improves system performance considerably. Measurements of the 20.7 GHz beacon carried as part of the Global Broadcast Service (GBS) payload on the U.S. Department of Defense satellite UFO-9 have been made at three sites: two are located in the South of England (˜8 km apart), and the third receiver was located in Scotland. These beacon measurements have produced long term attenuation exceedance and site diversity gain and improvement statistics. This attenuation time series data can simulate the performance of an Earth-space system using site diversity, indicating the optimum method of implementing this FMT. In this paper, unbalanced site diversity is investigated, as this is a more likely scenario than the balanced site diversity modeled by the ITU-R recommendations. This paper also investigates the implementation of site diversity from a commercial context, including cost-benefit analysis and technical feasibility.

  5. A comparison of bioaugmentation and intrinsic in situ bioremediation of a PAH contaminated site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geddes, T.; Mortier, N.; Chaparian, M.

    1995-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most common environmental hazards, naturally occurring in petroleum and its by-products. They are encountered at nearly all UST sites, and present an impediment to the use of cost effective intrinsic in situ bioremediation due to their recalcitrant nature. Even bacteria isolated specifically for their ability to degrade PAHs in the laboratory have shown no significant degradative capabilities in the field. This is due to the unique balance that exists at every contaminated site between the microbial ecology, chemical, physical, and environmental factors. Therefore, bacteria indigenous to the site and acclimated to these environmental parameters should be well suited for use in bioaugmentation. Based on this assumption, a new and innovative approach to bioaugmentation has been developed which consists of a series of scientifically-sound, rational steps in the use of this technology. Initially, careful chemical and biological analyses of site samples are conducted using conventional analytical instrumentation and state-of-the-art microbiological, biochemical, and molecular biological techniques. Bacteria from site samples that demonstrate potential PAH degradative capability are isolated. The bacteria are then enriched in culture and re-introduced to the site with appropriate nutrients. Further, this approach encompasses the proposed guidelines for proving the efficacy of in situ bioremediation as set forth by the National Science Foundation. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach, data are presented here of a laboratory-scale trial of a PAH contaminated site

  6. Comparison of the physical and chemical characteristics of fine road dust at different urban sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Yul; Batmunkh, Tsatsral; Joo, Hung Soo; Park, Kihong

    2018-04-18

    The size distribution and chemical components of a fine fraction (road dust collected at urban sites in Korea (Gwangju) and Mongolia (Ulaanbaatar) where distinct urban characteristics exist were measured. A clear bimodal size distribution was observed for the resuspended fine road dust at the urban sites in Korea. The first mode peaked at 100-110 nm, and the second peak was observed at 435-570 nm. Ultrafine mode (~30 nm) was found for the fine road dust at the Mongolia site, which was significantly affected by residential coal/biomass burning. The contribution of the water-soluble ions to the fine road dust was higher at the sites in Mongolia (15.8-16.8%) than at those in Korea (1.2-4.8%). Sulfate and chloride were the most dominant ionic species for the fine road dust in Mongolia. As (arsenic) was also much higher for the Mongolian road dust than the others. The sulfate, chloride, and As mainly come from coal burning activity, suggesting that coal and biomass combustion in Mongolia during the heating season should affect the size and chemical components of the fine road dust. Cu (copper) and Zn (zinc), carbonaceous particles (organic carbon [OC] and elemental carbon [EC]) increased at sites in Korea, suggesting that the fine road dust at these sites was significantly affected by the high volume of traffic (engine emission and brake/tire wear). Our results suggest that chemical profiles for road dust specific to certain sites should be applied to more accurately apportion road dust source contributing to the ambient particulate matter. Size and chemical characteristics of fine road dust at sites having distinct urban characteristics were examined. Residential coal and biomass burning and traffic affected physiochemical properties of the fine road dust. Different road dust profiles at different sites should be needed to determine the ambient PM2.5 sources more accurately.

  7. Pairwise comparisons of ten porcine tissues identify differential transcriptional regulation at the gene, isoform, promoter and transcription start site level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farajzadeh, Leila; Hornshøj, Henrik; Momeni, Jamal; Thomsen, Bo; Larsen, Knud; Hedegaard, Jakob; Bendixen, Christian; Madsen, Lone Bruhn

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Transcriptome sequencing yielded 223 mill porcine RNA-seq reads, and 59,000 transcribed locations. •Establishment of unique transcription profiles for ten porcine tissues including four brain tissues. •Comparison of transcription profiles at gene, isoform, promoter and transcription start site level. •Highlights a high level of regulation of neuro-related genes at both gene, isoform, and TSS level. •Our results emphasize the pig as a valuable animal model with respect to human biological issues. -- Abstract: The transcriptome is the absolute set of transcripts in a tissue or cell at the time of sampling. In this study RNA-Seq is employed to enable the differential analysis of the transcriptome profile for ten porcine tissues in order to evaluate differences between the tissues at the gene and isoform expression level, together with an analysis of variation in transcription start sites, promoter usage, and splicing. Totally, 223 million RNA fragments were sequenced leading to the identification of 59,930 transcribed gene locations and 290,936 transcript variants using Cufflinks with similarity to approximately 13,899 annotated human genes. Pairwise analysis of tissues for differential expression at the gene level showed that the smallest differences were between tissues originating from the porcine brain. Interestingly, the relative level of differential expression at the isoform level did generally not vary between tissue contrasts. Furthermore, analysis of differential promoter usage between tissues, revealed a proportionally higher variation between cerebellum (CBE) versus frontal cortex and cerebellum versus hypothalamus (HYP) than in the remaining comparisons. In addition, the comparison of differential transcription start sites showed that the number of these sites is generally increased in comparisons including hypothalamus in contrast to other pairwise assessments. A comprehensive analysis of one of the tissue contrasts, i

  8. Screening and comparison of remedial alternatives for the South Field and flyash piles at the Fernald site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumb, A.C.; Jones, G.N.

    1996-05-01

    The South Field, the Inactive Flyash Pile, and the Active Flyash Pile are in close proximity to each other and are part of Operable Unit 2 (OU2) at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). The baseline risk assessment indicated that the exposure pathways which pose the most significant risk are external radiation from radionuclides in surface soils and use of uranium contaminated groundwater. This paper presents screening and comparison of various remedial alternatives considered to mitigate risks from the groundwater pathway. Eight remedial alternatives were developed which consisted of consolidation and capping, excavation and off-site disposal with or without treatment, excavation and on-site disposal with or without treatment and combinations of these. Risk-based source (soil) preliminary remediation levels (PRLs) and waste acceptance criteria (WACs) were developed for consolidation and capping, excavation, and on-site disposal cell. The PRLs and WACs were developed using an integrated modeling tool consisting of an infiltration model, a surface water model, a vadose zone model, and a three-dimensional contaminant migration model in saturated media. The PRLs and WACs were then used to determine need for soil treatment, determine excavation volumes, and screen remedial alternatives. The selected remedial alternative consisted of excavation and on-site disposal with off-site disposal of the fraction exceeding the WAC

  9. Wilderness Recreation Demand: A Comparison of Travel Cost and On-Site Cost Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Bowker; A. Askew; L. Seymour; J.P. Zhu; D. English; C.M. Starbuck

    2009-01-01

    This study used travel cost and on-site day cost models, coupled with the Forest Service’s National Visitor Use Monitoring data, to examine the demand for and value of recreation access to designated Wilderness.

  10. Airway injury during emergency transcutaneous airway access: a comparison at cricothyroid and tracheal sites.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Salah, Nazar

    2009-12-01

    Oxygenation via the cricothyroid membrane (CTM) may be required in emergencies, but inadvertent tracheal cannulation may occur. In this study, we compared airway injury between the tracheal and CTM sites using different techniques for airway access.

  11. A generational comparison of social networking site use: the influence of age and social identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    An online survey (N=256) compared social networking site (SNS) use among younger (millennial: 18-29) and older (baby-boomer: 41-64) subscribers focusing on the influence of collective self-esteem and group identity on motives for SNS use. Younger participants reported higher positive collective self-esteem, social networking site use for peer communication, and social compensation. Regardless of age, participants reporting high collective self-esteem and group identity were more likely to use social networking sites for peer communication and social identity gratifications, while those reporting negative collective self-esteem were more likely to use social networking sites for social compensation. The theoretical implications of the strong relationship between social identity gratifications and social compensation are discussed.

  12. Comparison of mosquito control programs in seven urban sites in Africa, the Middle East, and the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impoinvil, Daniel E.; Ahmad, Sajjad; Troyo, Adriana; Keating, Joseph; Githeko, Andrew K.; Mbogo, Charles M; Kibe, Lydiah; Githure, John I.; Gad, Adel M.; Hassan, Ali N.; Orshan, Laor; Warburg, Alon; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Sánchez-Loría, Victoria M.; Velit-Suarez, Rosanna; Chadee, Dave D.; Novak, Robert J.; Beier, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Mosquito control programs at seven urban sites in Kenya, Egypt, Israel, Costa Rica, and Trinidad are described and compared. Site-specific urban and disease characteristics, organizational diagrams, and strengths, weaknesses, obstacles and threats (SWOT) analysis tools are used to provide a descriptive assessment of each mosquito control program, and provide a comparison of the factors affecting mosquito abatement. The information for SWOT analysis is collected from surveys, focus group discussions, and personal communication. SWOT analysis identified various issues affecting the efficiency and sustainability of mosquito control operations. The main outcome of our work was the description and comparison of mosquito control operations within the context of each study site’s biological, social, political, management, and economic conditions. The issues identified in this study ranged from lack of inter-sector collaboration to operational issues of mosquito control efforts. A lack of sustainable funding for mosquito control was a common problem for most sites. Many unique problems were also identified, which included lack of mosquito surveillance, lack of law enforcement, and negative consequences of human behavior. Identifying common virtues and shortcomings of mosquito control operations is useful in identifying “best practices” for mosquito control operations, thus leading to better control of mosquito biting and mosquito-borne disease transmission. PMID:17316882

  13. An inter-comparison of PM2.5 at urban and urban background sites: Chemical characterization and source apportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, D.; Donateo, A.; Conte, M.; Merico, E.; Giangreco, A.; Giangreco, F.; Contini, D.

    2016-06-01

    A measurement campaign was performed between 04/03/2013 and 17/07/2013 for simultaneous collection of PM2.5 samples in two nearby sites in southeastern Italy: an urban site and an urban background site. PM2.5 at the two sites were similar; however, the chemical composition and the contributions of the main sources were significantly different. The coefficients of divergence (CODs) showed spatial heterogeneity of EC (higher at the urban site because of traffic emissions) and of all metals. Major ions (NH4+, Na+, and SO42 -) and OC had low CODs, suggesting a homogeneous distribution of sea spray, secondary sulfate, and secondary organic matter (SOM = 1.6*OCsec, where OCsec is the secondary OC). The strong correlations between Na+ and Cl-, and the low Cl-/Na+ ratios, suggested the presence of aged sea spray with chloride depletion (about 79% of Cl-) and formation of sodium nitrate at both sites. In both sites, the non-sea-salt sulfate was about 97% of sulfate, and the strong correlation between SO42 - and NH4+ indicated that ammonium was present as ammonium sulfate. However, during advection of Saharan Dust, calcium sulfate was present rather than ammonium sulfate. The source apportionment was performed using the Positive Matrix Factorization comparing outputs of model EPA PMF 3.0 and 5.0 version. Six aerosol sources were identified at both sites: traffic, biomass burning, crustal-resuspended dust, secondary nitrate, marine aerosol, and secondary sulfate. The PMF3.0 model was not completely able, in these sites, to separate marine contribution from secondary nitrate and secondary sulfate from OC, underestimating the marine contribution and overestimating the secondary sulfate with respect to stoichiometric calculations. The application of specific constraints on PMF5.0 provided cleaner profiles, improving the comparison with stoichiometric calculations. The seasonal trends revealed larger biomass burning contributions during the cold period at both sites due to

  14. Microbial profile comparisons of saliva, pooled and site-specific subgingival samples in periodontitis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Belstrøm

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare microbial profiles of saliva, pooled and site-specific subgingival samples in patients with periodontitis. We tested the hypotheses that saliva can be an alternative to pooled subgingival samples, when screening for presence of periopathogens.Site specific subgingival plaque samples (n = 54, pooled subgingival plaque samples (n = 18 and stimulated saliva samples (n = 18 were collected from 18 patients with generalized chronic periodontitis. Subgingival and salivary microbiotas were characterized by means of HOMINGS (Human Oral Microbe Identification using Next Generation Sequencing and microbial community profiles were compared using Spearman rank correlation coefficient.Pronounced intraindividual differences were recorded in site-specific microbial profiles, and site-specific information was in general not reflected by pooled subgingival samples. Presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Prevotella intermedia, Filifactor alocis, Tannerella forsythia and Parvimona micra in site-specific subgingival samples were detected in saliva with an AUC of 0.79 (sensitivity: 0.61, specificity: 0.94, compared to an AUC of 0.76 (sensitivity: 0.56, specificity: 0.94 in pooled subgingival samples.Site-specific presence of periodontal pathogens was detected with comparable accuracy in stimulated saliva samples and pooled subgingival plaque samples. Consequently, saliva may be a reasonable surrogate for pooled subgingival samples when screening for presence of periopathogens. Future large-scale studies are needed to confirm findings from this study.

  15. Comparison of biomedical evaluation for white-fronted brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus albifrons) from four sites in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Randall E; Dutton, Christopher J; Knightly, Felicia; Williams, Cathy V; Rasambainarivo, Fidisoa T; Louis, Edward E

    2008-12-01

    Health and nutritional assessments of wildlife are important management tools and can provide a means to evaluate ecosystem health. Such examinations were performed on 37 white-fronted brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus albifrons) from four sites in Madagascar. Comparison of health parameters between sites revealed statistically significant differences in body weight, body temperature, respiratory rate, hematology parameters (white cell count, hematocrit, segmented neutrophil count, and lymphocyte count), serum chemistry parameters (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, serum alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin, phosphorus, calcium, sodium, chloride, and creatinine phosphokinase), and nutrition parameters (copper, zinc, ferritin, retinol, tocopherol, and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol). Two of 10 lemurs tested were positive for toxoplasmosis; none of 10 were positive for Cryptosporidium or Giardia. Enteric bacteria and endo- and ectoparasites were typical. Statistically different values in hematology and chemistry values probably do not reflect clinically significant differences, whereas nutrition parameter differences are likely related to season, soil, and forage availability.

  16. On splice site prediction using weight array models: a comparison of smoothing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taher, Leila; Meinicke, Peter; Morgenstern, Burkhard

    2007-01-01

    In most eukaryotic genes, protein-coding exons are separated by non-coding introns which are removed from the primary transcript by a process called 'splicing'. The positions where introns are cut and exons are spliced together are called 'splice sites'. Thus, computational prediction of splice sites is crucial for gene finding in eukaryotes. Weight array models are a powerful probabilistic approach to splice site detection. Parameters for these models are usually derived from m-tuple frequencies in trusted training data and subsequently smoothed to avoid zero probabilities. In this study we compare three different ways of parameter estimation for m-tuple frequencies, namely (a) non-smoothed probability estimation, (b) standard pseudo counts and (c) a Gaussian smoothing procedure that we recently developed

  17. Comparison of the environmental impacts of two remediation technologies used at hydrocarbon contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viikala, R.; Kuusola, J.

    2000-01-01

    Investigation and remediation of contaminated sites has rapidly increased in Finland during the last decade. Public organisations as well as private companies are investigating and remediating their properties, e.g. redevelopment or business transactions. Also numerous active and closed gasoline stations have been investigated and remediated during the last few years. Usually the contaminated sites are remediated to limit values regardless of the risk caused by contamination. The limit values currently used in Finland for hydrocarbon remediation at residential or ground water areas are 300 mg/kg of total hydrocarbons and 100 mg/kg of volatile hydrocarbons (boiling point < appr. 200 deg C). Additionally, compounds such as aromatic hydrocarbons have specific limit values. Remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites is most often carried out by excavating the contaminated soil and taking it to a landfill by lorries. As distances from the sites to landfills are generally rather long, from tens of kilometres to few hundred kilometres, it is evident that this type of remediation has environmental impacts. Another popular technology used at sites contaminated by volatile hydrocarbons is soil vapour extraction (SVE). SVE is a technique of inducing air flow through unsaturated soils by vapour extraction wells or pipes to remove organic contaminants with an off-gas treatment system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate some of the environmental impacts caused by remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Energy consumption and air emissions related remedial activities of the two methods were examined in this study. Remediation of the sites used in this study were carried out by Golder Associates Oy in different parts of Finland in different seasons. Evaluation was made by using life cycle assessment based approach

  18. Comparison of the incidence of Listeria on equipment versus environmental sites within dairy processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, T J; Flanders, K J; Donnelly, C W

    1995-08-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the incidence of Listeria contamination of processing equipment with that of the general dairy processing environment. A total of 378 sponge samples obtained from 21 dairy plants were analyzed for Listeria using three different enrichment media. Use of extended microbiological analysis allowed us to identify 26 Listeria positive sites which would have not been identified had a single test format been employed. Eighty (80) of 378 sites (21.2%) were identified as Listeria positive. Listeria innocua was isolated from 59 of the 80 (73.8%) positive samples, L. monocytogenes was identified in 35 (43.8%) of the positive samples, and L. seeligeri was isolated from 5 (6.3%) of the Listeria positive samples. Positive equipment samples were obtained from 6 of the 21 (28.6%) plants and 19 of the 21 (90.5%) plants had positive environmental sites. Seventeen of the 215 (7.9%) samples from equipment were positive for Listeria species. Eleven of these sites, including 3 holding tanks, 2 table tops, 3 conveyor/chain systems, a pasta filata wheel, a pint milk filler and a brine pre-filter machine, were positive for L. monocytogenes. Nineteen of the 21 (90.5%) plants had positive environmental sites. Sixty-three of the 163 (41.1%) samples from environmental sites were Listeria positive and 24 were positive for L. monocytogenes. Two-tailed student t-test analysis of the mean frequencies indicated that the level of contamination was significantly higher (p plant, and that greater emphasis needs to be placed on the cleaning and sanitizing of the plant environment.

  19. Web Page Layout: A Comparison Between Left- and Right-justified Site Navigation Menus

    OpenAIRE

    Kalbach, James; Bosenick, Tim

    2006-01-01

    The usability of two Web page layouts was directly compared: one with the main site navigation menu on the left of the page, and one with the main site navigation menu on the right. Sixty-four participants were divided equally into two groups and assigned to either the left- or the right-hand navigation test condition. Using a stopwatch, the time to complete each of five tasks was measured. The hypothesis that the left-hand navigation would perform significantly faster than the right-hand nav...

  20. Post-traumatic nonunion of the clavicle in a 4-year-old boy and the importance of vitamin D level testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplantier, Neil L; Waldron, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Clavicle fractures in children are common and usually go on to achieve solid union with closed treatment. A limited number of pediatric clavicle fracture nonunion cases have been reported in the literature, none of which were directly associated with hypovitaminosis D. We report the youngest case to our knowledge in a 4-year-old vitamin D-deficient male with a 6-month-old right midshaft clavicle fracture nonunion that was treated successfully with vitamin D supplementation, followed by open reduction and internal fixation with autologus iliac crest bone grafting.

  1. Comparisons of CAP88PC version 2.0 default parameters to site specific inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehto, M. A.; Courtney, J. C.; Charter, N.; Egan, T.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of varying the input for the CAP88PC Version 2.0 program on the total effective dose equivalents (TEDEs) were determined for hypothetical releases from the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) located at the Argonne National Laboratory site on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Values for site specific meteorological conditions and agricultural production parameters were determined for the 80 km radius surrounding the HFEF. Four nuclides, 3 H, 85 Kr, 129 I, and 137 Cs (with its short lived progeny, 137m Ba) were selected for this study; these are the radioactive materials most likely to be released from HFEF under normal or abnormal operating conditions. Use of site specific meteorological parameters of annual precipitation, average temperature, and the height of the inversion layer decreased the TEDE from 137 Cs- 137m Ba up to 36%; reductions for other nuclides were less than 3%. Use of the site specific agricultural parameters reduced TEDE values between 7% and 49%, depending on the nuclide. Reductions are associated with decreased committed effective dose equivalents (CEDEs) from the ingestion pathway. This is not surprising since the HFEF is located well within the INEEL exclusion area, and the surrounding area closest to the release point is a high desert with limited agricultural diversity. Livestock and milk production are important in some counties at distances greater than 30 km from the HFEF

  2. Microbial profile comparisons of saliva, pooled and site-specific subgingival samples in periodontitis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Sembler-Møller, Maria Lynn; Grande, Maria Anastasia

    2017-01-01

    by pooled subgingival samples. Presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Prevotella intermedia, Filifactor alocis, Tannerella forsythia and Parvimona micra in site-specific subgingival samples were detected in saliva with an AUC of 0.79 (sensitivity: 0.61, specificity: 0.94), compared...

  3. Perceptions of Web Site Design Characteristics: A Malaysian/Australian Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Dieter; Laupase, Ricky

    2000-01-01

    Compares the perceptions of Malaysians and Australians for four Web site design characteristics--atmospherics, news stories, signs, and products and services--as part of the integrated Internet marketing model. Hypothesizes that the predominant culture is not generalized to another culture, discusses validity and reliability, and suggest further…

  4. Spiral ganglion cell site of excitation I: comparison of scala tympani and intrameatal electrode responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartee, Lianne A; Miller, Charles A; van den Honert, Chris

    2006-05-01

    To determine the site of excitation on the spiral ganglion cell in response to electrical stimulation similar to that from a cochlear implant, single-fiber responses to electrical stimuli delivered by an electrode positioned in the scala tympani were compared to responses from stimuli delivered by an electrode placed in the internal auditory meatus. The response to intrameatal stimulation provided a control set of data with a known excitation site, the central axon of the spiral ganglion cell. For both intrameatal and scala tympani stimuli, the responses to single-pulse, summation, and refractory stimulus protocols were recorded. The data demonstrated that summation pulses, as opposed to single pulses, are likely to give the most insightful measures for determination of the site of excitation. Single-fiber summation data for both scala tympani and intrameatally stimulated fibers were analyzed with a clustering algorithm. Combining cluster analysis and additional numerical modeling data, it was hypothesized that the scala tympani responses corresponded to central excitation, peripheral excitation adjacent to the cell body, and peripheral excitation at a site distant from the cell body. Fibers stimulated by an intrameatal electrode demonstrated the greatest range of jitter measurements indicating that greater fiber independence may be achieved with intrameatal stimulation.

  5. A Comparison of Regional and SiteSpecific Volume Estimation Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe P. McClure; Jana Anderson; Hans T. Schreuder

    1987-01-01

    Regression equations for volume by region and site class were examined for lobiolly pine. The regressions for the Coastal Plain and Piedmont regions had significantly different slopes. The results shared important practical differences in percentage of confidence intervals containing the true total volume and in percentage of estimates within a specific proportion of...

  6. Neglected nonunion of phalangeal neck fractures of the thumb in children: the outcome of delayed bone grafting in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qattan, Mohammad M

    2012-03-01

    Over a 12-year period, the author treated a total of 5 adults (mean age, 23 years) with neglected nonunion of phalangeal neck fractures of the thumb that were sustained in early childhood. Cosmetically, the affected thumb was shorter and smaller than the contralateral thumb. The thumb tip was flail and thumb pinch was weak. X-rays showed a nonunited phalangeal neck fracture with no radiologic evidence of avascular necrosis of the phalangeal head. All patients underwent iliac crest bone grafting. Bone union was obtained in all patients. At final follow-up (mean, 9 months), all patients were satisfied with the cosmetic appearance of the thumb. The thumb length increased by an average of 6 mm (range, 5-8 mm). Pinch improved in the range of 69% to 87% of the power of the contralateral thumb. However, there was restricted range of motion of the interphalangeal joint (mean range of motion of 10 degree only). It was concluded that delayed bone grafting of neglected nonunions of pediatric phalangeal neck fractures of the thumb is a worthwhile procedure and has a high satisfaction rate.

  7. Reduced rates of non-union with modified periacetabular osteotomy using peracetic-acid sterilized cancellous allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassilew, Georgi I; Janz, Viktor; Renner, Lisa; Perka, Carsten; Pruss, Axel

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the clinical and radiological results of periacetabular osteotomies (PAO) using Kirschner wire fixation and an allogeneic cancellous bone graft. This retrospective cohort study included 73 patients (85 PAOs). The allografts were processed from distal femur of cadaveric donors, defatted, sterilized with a peracetic-acid ethanol solution and freeze-dried. The clinical outcome, as measured by the Harris Hip Scores (HHS), the complication rate and the acetabular correction, as measured by radiological parameters, were compared. The postoperative femoral head coverage and HSS were significantly improved. Major complications occurred in five cases (6 %), but in no case did we observe a non-union or a graft-associated adverse effect. Fixation of the acetabular fragment with Kirschner wires in combination with an allogeneic cancellous bone graft is a safe method, with a low complication rate, no loss of correction and can prevent the occurrence of non-union with a high degree of probability.

  8. Comparison of site descriptive models for Olkiluoto, Finland and Forsmark, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, J.; Bath, A.; Stephansson, O.; Luukkonen, A.

    2012-08-15

    The proposed high-level radioactive waste repository sites at Olkiluoto and Forsmark share broadly similar geologic histories and regional settings. Despite differences in lithology, rock strength and patterns of brittle deformation, the sites show similarities in terms of hydrogeochemistry and hydrogeology. These similarities reflect a dominating influence of saline and brackish water intrusion during inundation by the postglacial Littorina Sea and Baltic Sea, followed by exposure to meteoric waters following postglacial uplift and transition to a Baltic coastal setting. Both sites also contain deep bedrock saline groundwater, though this is more evident at Olkiluoto than at Forsmark. A comparative study of site descriptive models for the two sites identifies the following key differences that could potentially impact safety of a repository: (1) Redox controls, buffering and biogeochemistry at proposed repository depths; (2) Salinity gradients at and below proposed repository depths; (3) Methane concentrations at and below proposed repository depths; (4) Depths to which glacial water and Littorina water penetrated; (5) Cation hydrogeochemistry and water-rock reaction; (6) Pore water compositions in rock matrix; (7) Rock fabric, secondary minerals and alteration with respect to radionuclide retention; (8) Brittle deformation fabric differences on multiple scales that affect vertical hydraulic conductivity; (9) Differences in apparent frequency of encountering water-conducting networks at proposed repository depths; (10) Shallow bedrock hydraulic properties; (11) Unique intrusive or dissolution features; (12) Connectivity of site-scale models to regional-scale features; (13) Mesoproterozoic rocks in vicinity and possibilities for human-intrusion scenarios; (14) Rock stresses and bedrock strength and deformability at proposed repository depths; (15) Thermal anisotropy. These differences are all potentially significant to safety functions, but none are so severe that

  9. A Comparison of Online versus On-site Training in Health Research Methodology: A Randomized Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchanaraksa Sukon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Distance learning may be useful for building health research capacity. However, evidence that it can improve knowledge and skills in health research, particularly in resource-poor settings, is limited. We compared the impact and acceptability of teaching two distinct content areas, Biostatistics and Research Ethics, through either on-line distance learning format or traditional on-site training, in a randomized study in India. Our objective was to determine whether on-line courses in Biostatistics and Research Ethics could achieve similar improvements in knowledge, as traditional on-site, classroom-based courses. Methods Subjects: Volunteer Indian scientists were randomly assigned to one of two arms. Intervention: Students in Arm 1 attended a 3.5-day on-site course in Biostatistics and completed a 3.5-week on-line course in Research Ethics. Students in Arm 2 attended a 3.5-week on-line course in Biostatistics and 3.5-day on-site course in Research Ethics. For the two course formats, learning objectives, course contents and knowledge tests were identical. Main Outcome Measures: Improvement in knowledge immediately and 3-months after course completion, compared to baseline. Results Baseline characteristics were similar in both arms (n = 29 each. Median knowledge score for Biostatistics increased from a baseline of 49% to 64% (p Conclusion On-line and on-site training formats led to marked and similar improvements of knowledge in Biostatistics and Research Ethics. This, combined with logistical and cost advantages of on-line training, may make on-line courses particularly useful for expanding health research capacity in resource-limited settings.

  10. Comparison of canine parvovirus with mink enteritis virus by restriction site mapping.

    OpenAIRE

    McMaster, G K; Tratschin, J D; Siegl, G

    1981-01-01

    The genomes of canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus were compared by restriction enzyme analysis of their replicative-form DNAs. Of 79 mapped sites, 68, or 86%, were found to be common for both types of DNA, indicating that canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus are closely related viruses. Whether they evolved from a common precursor or whether canine parvovirus is derived from mink enteritis virus, however, cannot be deduced from our present data.

  11. Comparison of Site-Specific Bone Mineral Densities between Endurance Runners and Sprinters in Adolescent Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoi Ikedo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to compare site-specific bone mineral densities (BMDs between adolescent endurance runners and sprinters and examine the relationship of fat-free mass (FFM and nutrient intake on BMD. In this cross-sectional study, 37 adolescent female endurance runners and sprinters (16.1 ± 0.8 years were recruited. BMD and FFM were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Nutrient intake and menstrual state were evaluated by questionnaires. After adjusting for covariates, spine and total bone less head (TBLH BMDs were significantly higher in sprinters than endurance runners (TBLH, 1.02 ± 0.05 vs. 0.98 ± 0.06 g/cm2; spine, 0.99 ± 0.06 vs. 0.94 ± 0.06 g/cm2; p < 0.05. There was no significant difference between groups in other sites. The rate of menstrual abnormality was higher in endurance runners compared with sprinters (56.3% vs. 23.8%; p < 0.05. FFM was a significant covariate for BMD on all sites except the spine (p < 0.05. Dietary intake of vitamin D was identified as a significant covariate only for pelvic BMD (p < 0.05. The BMDs of different sites among endurance runners and sprinters were strongly related to FFM. However, the association of FFM with spine BMD cannot be explained by FFM alone. Other factors, including nutrition and/or mechanical loading, may affect the spine BMD.

  12. Comparison of total mercury and methylmercury cycling at five sites using the small watershed approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, J.B.; Alisa, Mast M.; Campbell, D.H.; Aiken, G.R.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Hunt, R.J.; Walker, J.F.; Schuster, P.F.; Chalmers, A.; Aulenbach, Brent T.; Peters, N.E.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M.; Clow, D.W.; Shafer, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    The small watershed approach is well-suited but underutilized in mercury research. We applied the small watershed approach to investigate total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) dynamics in streamwater at the five diverse forested headwater catchments of the US Geological Survey Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program. At all sites, baseflow THg was generally less than 1 ng L-1 and MeHg was less than 0.2 ng L-1. THg and MeHg concentrations increased with streamflow, so export was primarily episodic. At three sites, THg and MeHg concentration and export were dominated by the particulate fraction in association with POC at high flows, with maximum THg (MeHg) concentrations of 94 (2.56) ng L-1 at Sleepers River, Vermont; 112 (0.75) ng L-1 at Rio Icacos, Puerto Rico; and 55 (0.80) ng L-1 at Panola Mt., Georgia. Filtered (Colorado, THg export was also episodic but was dominated by filtered THg, as POC concentrations were low. MeHg typically tracked THg so that each site had a fairly constant MeHg/THg ratio, which ranged from near zero at Andrews to 15% at the low-relief, groundwater-dominated Allequash Creek, Wisconsin. Allequash was the only site with filtered MeHg consistently above detection, and the filtered fraction dominated both THg and MeHg. Relative to inputs in wet deposition, watershed retention of THg (minus any subsequent volatilization) was 96.6% at Allequash, 60% at Sleepers, and 83% at Andrews. Icacos had a net export of THg, possibly due to historic gold mining or frequent disturbance from landslides. Quantification and interpretation of Hg dynamics was facilitated by the small watershed approach with emphasis on event sampling. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of sources of submicron particle number concentrations measured at two sites in Rochester, NY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumba, John; Hopke, Philip K; Chalupa, David C; Utell, Mark J

    2009-09-01

    Sources contributing to the submicron particles (100-470 nm) measured between January 2002 and December 2007 at two different New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYS DEC) sites in Rochester, NY were identified and apportioned using a bilinear receptor model, positive matrix factorization (PMF). Measurements of aerosol size distributions and number concentrations for particles in the size range of 10-500 nm have been made since December 2001 to date in Rochester. The measurements are being made using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) consisting of a DMA and a CPC (TSI models 3071 and 3010, respectively). From December 2001 to March 2004, particle measurements were made at the NYS DEC site in downtown Rochester, but it was moved to the eastside of Rochester in May 2004. Each measurement period was divided into three seasons i.e., winter (December, January, and February), summer (June, July, and August), and the transitional periods (March, April, May, September, October, and November) so as to avoid experimental uncertainty resulting from too large season-to-season variability in ambient temperature and solar photon intensity that would lead to unstable/non-stationary size distributions. Therefore, the seasons were analyzed independently for possible sources. Ten sources were identified at both sites and these include traffic, nucleation, residential/commercial heating, industrial emissions, secondary nitrate, ozone- rich secondary aerosol, secondary sulfate, regionally transported aerosol, and a mixed source of nucleation and traffic. These results show that the measured total outdoor particle number concentrations in Rochester generally vary with similar temporal patterns, suggesting that the central monitoring site data can be used to estimate outdoor exposure in other parts of the city.

  14. Donor site complications in bone grafting: comparison of iliac crest, calvarial, and mandibular ramus bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheerlinck, Laura M E; Muradin, Marvick S M; van der Bilt, Andries; Meijer, Gert J; Koole, Ronald; Van Cann, Ellen M

    2013-01-01

    To compare the donor site complication rate and length of hospital stay following the harvest of bone from the iliac crest, calvarium, or mandibular ramus. Ninety-nine consecutively treated patients were included in this retrospective observational single-center study. Iliac crest bone was harvested in 55 patients, calvarial bone in 26 patients, and mandibular ramus bone in 18 patients. Harvesting of mandibular ramus bone was associated with the lowest percentages of major complications (5.6%), minor complications (22.2%), and total complications (27.8%). Harvesting of iliac crest bone was related to the highest percentages of minor complications (56.4%) and total complications (63.6%), whereas harvesting of calvarial bone induced the highest percentage of major complications (19.2%). The length of the hospital stay was significantly influenced by the choice of donor site (P = .003) and age (P = .009); young patients with the mandibular ramus as the donor site had the shortest hospital stay. Harvesting of mandibular ramus bone was associated with the lowest percentage of complications and the shortest hospital stay. When the amount of bone to be obtained is deemed sufficient, mandibular ramus bone should be the first choice for the reconstruction of maxillofacial defects.

  15. Comparison of Statistically Modeled Contaminated Soil Volume Estimates and Actual Excavation Volumes at the Maywood FUSRAP Site - 13555

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, James [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - New York District 26 Federal Plaza, New York, New York 10278 (United States); Hays, David [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - Kansas City District 601 E. 12th Street, Kansas City, Missouri 64106 (United States); Quinn, John; Johnson, Robert; Durham, Lisa [Argonne National Laboratory, Environmental Science Division 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    As part of the ongoing remediation process at the Maywood Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) properties, Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) assisted the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) New York District by providing contaminated soil volume estimates for the main site area, much of which is fully or partially remediated. As part of the volume estimation process, an initial conceptual site model (ICSM) was prepared for the entire site that captured existing information (with the exception of soil sampling results) pertinent to the possible location of surface and subsurface contamination above cleanup requirements. This ICSM was based on historical anecdotal information, aerial photographs, and the logs from several hundred soil cores that identified the depth of fill material and the depth to bedrock under the site. Specialized geostatistical software developed by Argonne was used to update the ICSM with historical sampling results and down-hole gamma survey information for hundreds of soil core locations. The updating process yielded both a best guess estimate of contamination volumes and a conservative upper bound on the volume estimate that reflected the estimate's uncertainty. Comparison of model results to actual removed soil volumes was conducted on a parcel-by-parcel basis. Where sampling data density was adequate, the actual volume matched the model's average or best guess results. Where contamination was un-characterized and unknown to the model, the actual volume exceeded the model's conservative estimate. Factors affecting volume estimation were identified to assist in planning further excavations. (authors)

  16. Carbon, Water and Heat Fluxes Comparison between Two Subtropical Mangroves Sites, Southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F.; Lin, G., Sr.; Lu, W.; Chen, H.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the numerous ecological services provided by mangroves and its vital ecological role, the monitor of mangrove ecosystem in China receives a growing concern. We deployed eddy covariance system and meteorological instrument to continuously monitor the exchange of CO2 flux, water vapor, heat flux and meteorological factors of mangrove ecosystem on Guangdong and Fujian province in 2012, namely GDGQ and FJYX. The major species of two sites were similar, and by 2012 were on average 2.8~3.3 m in height. Climatically, temperature, net radiation and rainfall have significant seasonal difference, all reaching peak values during the summer wet season. Based on the results available, two sites were strong carbon sink in annual scale. The cumulative NEP in GDGQ (667.92 g C m-2 year-1) was lower than that in FJYX (848.31 g C m-2 year-1), but respiration (Rd) was opposite, 1433.80 g C m-2 year-1 for GDGQ and 1345.13 g C m-2 year-1 for FJYX. Tidal inundation decreased nighttime Rd by ~0.82 μ mol m-2 s-1 in GDGQ and ~0.99 μ mol m-2 s-1 in FJYX. The diurnal patterns of sensible (Hs) and latent heat fluxes (LE) of two sites were both single peak, and peak values both occurred at 12:00~14:00. Hs of GDGQ was higher than FJYX during nighttime and lower in daytime, but LE of GDGQ was lower than FJYX during nighttime. Evapotranspiration (ET) of two sites presented similar seasonal pattern, reaching highest value in July and lowest value in January. ET of whole year were 892.66 mm and 1051.76mm for GDGQ and FJYX. Daily WUE was strong negatively correlated to salinity in in FJYX, but the pattern of GDGQ was less distinct. Due to its high salinity stress and long-time inundation, water use efficiency (WUE) of GDGQ was higher than FJYX in all months. Soil heat flux (G) was quite small when compared to other heat flux, but both had obvious diurnal pattern in two sites. G was positively correlated to air temperature and G variation range of GDGQ (-8.68 ~5.51 w m-2) was greater than

  17. Delineation of contaminant plume for an inorganic contaminated site using electrical resistivity tomography: comparison with direct-push technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Qing; Deng, Yaping; Shi, Xiaoqing; Sun, Yuanyuan; Duan, Weidong; Wu, Jichun

    2018-03-03

    Precise delineation of contaminant plume distribution is essential for effective remediation of contaminated sites. Traditional in situ investigation methods like direct-push (DP) sampling are accurate, but are usually intrusive and costly. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method, as a non-invasive geophysical technique to map spatiotemporal changes in resistivity of the subsurface, is becoming increasingly popular in environmental science. However, the resolution of ERT for delineation of contaminant plumes still remains controversial. In this study, ERT and DP technique were both conducted at a real inorganic contaminated site. The reliability of the ERT method was validated by the direct comparisons of their investigation results that the resistivity acquired by ERT method is in accordance with the total dissolved solid concentration in groundwater and the overall variation of the total iron content in soil obtained by DP technique. After testifying the applicability of ERT method for contaminant identification, the extension of contaminant plume at the study site was revealed by supplementary ERT surveys conducted subsequently in the surrounding area of the contaminant source zone.

  18. Comparison of the Ovary and Kidney as Sites for Islet Transplantation in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakose, M; Pinarli, F A; Arslan, M S; Boyuk, G; Boztok, B; Albayrak, A; Ulus, A T; Cakal, E; Delibasi, T

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the most commonly used site for clinical islet transplantation is the liver although it is far from being an ideal site. Low oxygen tension and the induction of an inflammatory response impair islet implantation and lead to significant early loss of islet. The present study aimed to investigate and compare the efficacy of islet transplantation to the ovary and kidney subcapsule in diabetic rats. The study was performed with 3 groups of rats (control, ovary, and kidney subcapsule) including 6 Sprague female rats each. Diabetes model was created with the use of streptozotocin, and blood glucose levels of the rats were measured after 72 hours. Thirty days after the transplantation, blood samples were obtained from the rats, and then pancreas, kidney, and ovary specimens were fixed in 10% formaldehyde and the experiment completed. After staining with hematoxylin and eosin, the tissue samples were morphologically evaluated by a specialist histopathologist. Changes in mean blood glucose and C-peptide levels were statistically significant in the ovary and kidney subcapsule groups. Histologic examination revealed that granulosus insulin-bearing cells were detected in the islet grafts of both ovary and kidney subcapsule groups. The renal subcapsule group had inflammation signs on histologic examination. The islet cells of both ovary and renal subcapsule groups had no vacuolization. We showed that the ovary might be a new site for islet transplantation. Further research should be done on whether the initial results of this study can be reproduced in larger numbers of animal models and eventually in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Landfill: Comparison of pedogenesis between sites of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh plantation and naturalized herbaceus vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Lanfranco, J. W.; Marlats, R. M.; Baridon, E.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work was compared different levels of pedogenetics process between sites with Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantation and naturalized grass. The trial was installed on landfill soil cover in Villa Domínico, Buenos Aires Province, Argentine, CEAMSE, 34°40’S,50’’; 58°18’45’’W; 4m osl. At five age of trees and forteen of the Landfill was realized the following determination: 1- Physical and Chemicals caracterization of own microsite tree and analogical microsite without trees inf...

  20. Comparison of total mercury and methylmercury cycling at five sites using the small watershed approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanley, James B. [US Geological Survey, PO Box 628, Montpelier, VT 05601 (United States)], E-mail: jshanley@usgs.gov; Alisa Mast, M. [US Geological Survey, MS 415 Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225 (United States)], E-mail: mamast@usgs.gov; Campbell, Donald H. [US Geological Survey, MS 415 Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225 (United States)], E-mail: dhcampbe@usgs.gov; Aiken, George R. [US Geological Survey, 3215 Marine Street, Suite E-127, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)], E-mail: graiken@usgs.gov; Krabbenhoft, David P. [US Geological Survey, 8505 Research Way, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States)], E-mail: dpkrabbe@usgs.gov; Hunt, Randall J. [US Geological Survey, 8505 Research Way, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States)], E-mail: rjhunt@usgs.gov; Walker, John F. [US Geological Survey, 8505 Research Way, Middleton, WI 53562 (United States)], E-mail: jfwalker@usgs.gov; Schuster, Paul F. [US Geological Survey, 3215 Marine Street, Suite E-127, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)], E-mail: pschuste@usgs.gov; Chalmers, Ann [US Geological Survey, PO Box 628, Montpelier, VT 05601 (United States)], E-mail: chalmers@usgs.gov; Aulenbach, Brent T. [US Geological Survey, 3039 Amwiler Road, Suite 130, Atlanta, GA 30360 (United States)], E-mail: btaulenb@usgs.gov; Peters, Norman E. [US Geological Survey, 3039 Amwiler Road, Suite 130, Atlanta, GA 30360 (United States)], E-mail: nepeters@usgs.gov; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark [US Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Rd., MS 480, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)], E-mail: mmarvin@usgs.gov; Clow, David W. [US Geological Survey, MS 415 Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225 (United States)], E-mail: dwclow@usgs.gov; Shafer, Martin M. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology and Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)], E-mail: mmshafer@wisc.edu

    2008-07-15

    The small watershed approach is well-suited but underutilized in mercury research. We applied the small watershed approach to investigate total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) dynamics in streamwater at the five diverse forested headwater catchments of the US Geological Survey Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program. At all sites, baseflow THg was generally less than 1 ng L{sup -1} and MeHg was less than 0.2 ng L{sup -1}. THg and MeHg concentrations increased with streamflow, so export was primarily episodic. At three sites, THg and MeHg concentration and export were dominated by the particulate fraction in association with POC at high flows, with maximum THg (MeHg) concentrations of 94 (2.56) ng L{sup -1} at Sleepers River, Vermont; 112 (0.75) ng L{sup -1} at Rio Icacos, Puerto Rico; and 55 (0.80) ng L{sup -1} at Panola Mt., Georgia. Filtered (<0.7 {mu}m) THg increased more modestly with flow in association with the hydrophobic acid fraction (HPOA) of DOC, with maximum filtered THg concentrations near 5 ng L{sup -1} at both Sleepers and Icacos. At Andrews Creek, Colorado, THg export was also episodic but was dominated by filtered THg, as POC concentrations were low. MeHg typically tracked THg so that each site had a fairly constant MeHg/THg ratio, which ranged from near zero at Andrews to 15% at the low-relief, groundwater-dominated Allequash Creek, Wisconsin. Allequash was the only site with filtered MeHg consistently above detection, and the filtered fraction dominated both THg and MeHg. Relative to inputs in wet deposition, watershed retention of THg (minus any subsequent volatilization) was 96.6% at Allequash, 60% at Sleepers, and 83% at Andrews. Icacos had a net export of THg, possibly due to historic gold mining or frequent disturbance from landslides. Quantification and interpretation of Hg dynamics was facilitated by the small watershed approach with emphasis on event sampling. - High-flow sampling reveals strong contrasts in total

  1. Comparison of Bupivacaine Moistened Dressing and Conventional Dressing for Pain Relief on Skin Graft Donor Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, M. S.; Nazim, T.; Khan, F. A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of bupivacaine moistened dressing and conventional dressing in patients requiring split thickness skin graft for reconstruction of various defects. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Plastic Surgery and Burns Unit, Mayo Hospital, King Edward Medical University, Lahore, from January 2011 to January 2013. Methodology: One hundred and fifty patients requiring split thickness skin grafting for various soft tissue defects were divided into two groups A and B, with 75 patients in each group. In Group A, skin graft donor site dressing was kept moist with 12 mL/100 cm/sub 2/ of 0.25% bupivacaine solution and in Group B, dressing was moistened with same amount of normal saline. Outcome was measured by calculating rescue analgesia requirements in the two groups after 24 hours. Significance was determined by comparing analgesia sparing effect of each dressing using chi-square test. Results: In Group A, 5 out of 75 (6.7%) patients required rescue analgesia. In Group B, 72 out of 75 (96%) patients required rescue analgesia (p < 0.0001). There was 93.3% effectiveness of bupivacaine soaked dressing while only 4% effectiveness of conventional dressing. Conclusion: Bupivacaine soaked dressing is much more effective in pain relief and in reducing the requirement of rescue analgesia, in early postoperative period, at split thickness skin graft donor site compared to the conventional dressing. (author)

  2. Cross-site comparisons of concentration-discharge relationships reveal climate-driven chemostatic set points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsey, S.; Kirchner, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Streamflow solute concentrations often vary predictably with flows, providing insight into processes controlling solute generation and export. Previous work by the authors showed that log-transformed concentration-discharge relationships of weathering-derived solutes in 59 headwater catchments had relatively low slopes, implying that these watersheds behaved almost like chemostats. That is, their rates of solute production and/or mobilization were nearly proportional to water fluxes, on both event and inter-annual time scales. Here we re-examine these findings using data from roughly 1000 catchments, ranging from ˜10 to >1,000,000 sq. km in drainage area, and spanning a wide range of lithologic and climatic settings.Concentration-discharge relationships among this much larger set of much larger catchments are broadly consistent with the chemostatic behavior described above. However, site-to-site variations in mean concentrations among these catchments are negatively correlated with long-term average precipitation and discharge, suggesting dilution of stream concentrations under long-term leaching of the critical zone. Thus, on event and inter-annual time scales, stream solute concentrations are chemostatically buffered by groundwater storage and fast chemical reactions (such as ion exchange), but on much longer time scales, the catchment's chemostatic "set point" is determined by climatically driven critical zone evolution. We present examples illustrating short-term and long-term controls on water quality consistent with variations in weather and climate, and discuss their implications.

  3. Foliage litter quality and annual net N mineralization: comparison across North American forest sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Neal A; Binkley, Dan

    1997-07-01

    The feedback between plant litterfall and nutrient cycling processes plays a major role in the regulation of nutrient availability and net primary production in terrestrial ecosystems. While several studies have examined site-specific feedbacks between litter chemistry and nitrogen (N) availability, little is known about the interaction between climate, litter chemistry, and N availability across different ecosystems. We assembled data from several studies spanning a wide range of vegetation, soils, and climatic regimes to examine the relationship between aboveground litter chemistry and annual net N mineralization. Net N mineralization declined strongly and non-linearly as the litter lignin:N ratio increased in forest ecosystems (r 2  = 0.74, P mineralization decreased linearly as litter lignin concentration increased, but the relationship was significant (r 2  = 0.63, P mineralization across this range of sites (r 2  litter lignin:N ratio and net N mineralization from forest floor and mineral soil was similar. The litter lignin:N ratio explained more of the variation in net N mineralization than climatic factors over a wide range of forest age classes, suggesting that litter quality (lignin:N ratio) may exert more than a proximal control over net N mineralization by influencing soil organic matter quality throughout the soil profile independent of climate.

  4. Predicting ecological flow regime at ungaged sites: A comparison of methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jennifer C.; Knight, Rodney R.; Wolfe, William J.; Gain, W. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Nineteen ecologically relevant streamflow characteristics were estimated using published rainfall–runoff and regional regression models for six sites with observed daily streamflow records in Kentucky. The regional regression model produced median estimates closer to the observed median for all but two characteristics. The variability of predictions from both models was generally less than the observed variability. The variability of the predictions from the rainfall–runoff model was greater than that from the regional regression model for all but three characteristics. Eight characteristics predicted by the rainfall–runoff model display positive or negative bias across all six sites; biases are not as pronounced for the regional regression model. Results suggest that a rainfall–runoff model calibrated on a single characteristic is less likely to perform well as a predictor of a range of other characteristics (flow regime) when compared with a regional regression model calibrated individually on multiple characteristics used to represent the flow regime. Poor model performance may misrepresent hydrologic conditions, potentially distorting the perceived risk of ecological degradation. Without prior selection of streamflow characteristics, targeted calibration, and error quantification, the widespread application of general hydrologic models to ecological flow studies is problematic. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Comparison of catchment grouping methods for flow duration curve estimation at ungauged sites in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sauquet

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at estimating flow duration curves (FDC at ungauged sites in France and quantifying the associated uncertainties using a large dataset of 1080 FDCs. The interpolation procedure focuses here on 15 percentiles standardised by the mean annual flow, which is assumed to be known at each site. In particular, this paper discusses the impact of different catchment grouping procedures on the estimation of percentiles by regional regression models.

    In a first step, five parsimonious FDC parametric models are tested to approximate FDCs at gauged sites. The results show that the model based on the expansion of Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF outperforms the other tested models. In the EOF model, each FDC is interpreted as a linear combination of regional amplitude functions with spatially variable weighting factors corresponding to the parameters of the model. In this approach, only one amplitude function is required to obtain a satisfactory fit with most of the observed curves. Thus, the considered model requires only two parameters to be applicable at ungauged locations.

    Secondly, homogeneous regions are derived according to hydrological response, on the one hand, and geological, climatic and topographic characteristics on the other hand. Hydrological similarity is assessed through two simple indicators: the concavity index (IC representing the shape of the dimensionless FDC and the seasonality ratio (SR, which is the ratio of summer and winter median flows. These variables are used as homogeneity criteria in three different methods for grouping catchments: (i according to an a priori classification of French Hydro-EcoRegions (HERs, (ii by applying regression tree clustering and (iii by using neighbourhoods obtained by canonical correlation analysis.

    Finally, considering all the data, and subsequently for each group obtained through the tested grouping techniques, we derive regression models between

  6. Genetic predisposition to fracture non-union: a case control study of a preliminary single nucleotide polymorphisms analysis of the BMP pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannoudis Peter V

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the known multi-factorial nature of atrophic fracture non-unions, a possible genetic predisposition for the development of this complication after long bone fractures remains unknown. This pilot study aimed to address this issue by performing a preliminary SNP analysis of specific genes known to regulate fracture healing. Methods A total of fifteen SNPs within four genes of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP pathway (BMP-2, BMP-7, NOGGIN and SMAD6 were examined, in 109 randomly selected patients with long bone fractures as a result of motor vehicle accident, fall or direct blow. There were sixty-two patients with atrophic non-union and forty-seven patients (54 fractures with uneventful fracture union. Overall SNPs frequencies were computed with respect to patient's age, gender, smoking habits, fracture-associated parameters and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, and tested for their association to the impaired bone healing process, using binary logistic regression (STATA 11.1; StataCorp, Texas USA. Results Statistical analysis revealed age to be an important covariate in the development of atrophic non-union (p = 0.01, OR 1.05 [per year], and two specific genotypes (G/G genotype of the rs1372857 SNP, located on NOGGIN and T/T genotype of the rs2053423 SNP, located on SMAD6 to be associated with a greater risk of fracture non-union (p = 0.02, OR 4.56 and p = 0.04, OR 10.27, respectively, after adjustment for age. Conclusions This is the first clinical study to investigate the potential existence of genetic susceptibility to fracture non-union. Even though no concrete conclusions can be obtained from this pilot study, our results indicate the existence of a potential genetically predetermined impairment within the BMP signalling cascade, initiated after a fracture and when combined with other risk factors could synergistically increase the susceptibility of a patient to develop non-union. Further

  7. Comparison of POLDER Cloud Phase Retrievals to Active Remote Sensors Measurements at the ARM SGP Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedi, J.; Goloub, P.; Marchand, Roger T.

    2001-01-01

    In our present study, cloud boundaries derived from a combination of active remote sensors at the ARM SGP site are compared to POLDER cloud top phase index which is derived from polarimetric measurements using an innovative method. This approach shows the viability of the POLDER phase retrieval algorithm, and also leads to interesting results. In particular, the analysis demonstrates the sensitivity of polarization measurements to ice crystal shape and indicates that occurrence of polycrystalline ice clouds has to be taken into account in order to improve the POLDER phase retrieval algorithm accuracy. Secondly, the results show that a temperature threshold of 240 K could serve for cloud top particle phase classification. Considering the limitations of the analysis, the temperature threshold could be biased high, but not by more than about 5 degrees

  8. A Comparison of Rheology Data for Radioactive and Stimulant Savannah River Site Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KOOPMAN, DAVIDC.

    2004-01-01

    This document reviews radioactive and simulant rheology data on SRS waste slurries. Simulant sludge slurries have been prepared at Optima: Tank 51 for Sludge Batch 1A (SB1A) and trimmed for Sludge Batch 1B (SB1B), at USC-Columbia: Tank 8 and Tank 40 for Sludge Batch 2 (SB2), and at Clemson Environmental Technology Laboratory (CETL): SB2, Sludge Batch 3 (SB3), and several generic simulants. Various radioactive waste tank slurry samples have been analyzed for rheology in the SRTC Shielded Cells during the past 25 years. More recently, some rheological measurements have been made on the DWPF qualification samples for new sludge batches or on special samples pulled to help with resolution of processing issues. This document attempts to make comparisons of rheological data for systems where there were both some radioactive slurry data and some potentially similar simulant slurry data. The Approach section describes the basic data types encountered, e.g. sludges, Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) products, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) products. The last are equivalent to melter feeds. This is followed by a discussion of rheometry and the Bingham Plastic fluid model. This model has been used to reduce rheological data on SRS waste slurries over the past twenty years

  9. Comparison of Uas-Based Photogrammetry Software for 3d Point Cloud Generation: a Survey Over a Historical Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidoost, F.; Arefi, H.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays, Unmanned Aerial System (UAS)-based photogrammetry offers an affordable, fast and effective approach to real-time acquisition of high resolution geospatial information and automatic 3D modelling of objects for numerous applications such as topography mapping, 3D city modelling, orthophoto generation, and cultural heritages preservation. In this paper, the capability of four different state-of-the-art software packages as 3DSurvey, Agisoft Photoscan, Pix4Dmapper Pro and SURE is examined to generate high density point cloud as well as a Digital Surface Model (DSM) over a historical site. The main steps of this study are including: image acquisition, point cloud generation, and accuracy assessment. The overlapping images are first captured using a quadcopter and next are processed by different software to generate point clouds and DSMs. In order to evaluate the accuracy and quality of point clouds and DSMs, both visual and geometric assessments are carry out and the comparison results are reported.

  10. COMPARISON OF UAS-BASED PHOTOGRAMMETRY SOFTWARE FOR 3D POINT CLOUD GENERATION: A SURVEY OVER A HISTORICAL SITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Alidoost

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Unmanned Aerial System (UAS-based photogrammetry offers an affordable, fast and effective approach to real-time acquisition of high resolution geospatial information and automatic 3D modelling of objects for numerous applications such as topography mapping, 3D city modelling, orthophoto generation, and cultural heritages preservation. In this paper, the capability of four different state-of-the-art software packages as 3DSurvey, Agisoft Photoscan, Pix4Dmapper Pro and SURE is examined to generate high density point cloud as well as a Digital Surface Model (DSM over a historical site. The main steps of this study are including: image acquisition, point cloud generation, and accuracy assessment. The overlapping images are first captured using a quadcopter and next are processed by different software to generate point clouds and DSMs. In order to evaluate the accuracy and quality of point clouds and DSMs, both visual and geometric assessments are carry out and the comparison results are reported.

  11. What is the Effect of 90-Degree Double-Plate Fixation with Grafting on Healing of Humeral Shaft Non-unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutlu Çobanoğlu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our aim was to investigate the clinical and radiological outcomes of double-plate fixation with grafting in the treatment of non-union of humeral shaft fractures. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of patients operated between 2006 and 2012 due to humeral shaft non-union. Patients undergoing surgery with double-plate fixation were included and those treated with external fixator, single plate, intramedullary nails and patients with pathological fractures and infected non-unions were excluded. Surgical intervention via anterolateral or posterior approach included radial nerve identification, decortication and reestablishment of medullary canal followed by compression plating with double-plate fixation and frequent application of autogenous grafts or allografts. Main outcome measures were success rate of non-union repair, rate of re-intervention and complications, range of motion, assessment of pain Visual analogue scale (VAS and function Disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH and overall outcome Stewart-Hundley classification. Results: Ten patients were treated with double-plate fixation. The study group included six females and four males aged 36 to 70 years. Union was achieved within 4.5 and 8 months in all cases. The mean preoperative VAS score of 6.1 decreased to 2, postoperatively, with an associated decrease in the mean DASH score from 74.1 to 23.4. Excellent or good results were obtained in nine cases. There was no incidence of radial nerve palsy or infection. Conclusion: Our study provides level 4 evidence of the effectiveness of treating non-union fractures of the humeral shaft with double-plate fixation and grafting in providing good-to-excellent functional results and high union rate without any significant complication.

  12. Site specific comparison of H2, CH4 and compressed air energy storage in porous formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmann Pfeiffer, Wolf; Wang, Bo; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    The supply of energy from renewable sources like wind or solar power is subject to fluctuations determined by the climatic and weather conditions, and shortage periods can be expected on the order of days to weeks. Energy storage is thus required if renewable energy dominates the total energy production and has to compensate the shortages. Porous formations in the subsurface could provide large storage capacities for various energy carriers, such as hydrogen (H2), synthetic methane (CH4) or compressed air (CAES). All three energy storage options have similar requirements regarding the storage site characteristics and consequently compete for suitable subsurface structures. The aim of this work is to compare the individual storage methods for an individual storage site regarding the storage capacity as well as the achievable delivery rates. This objective is pursued using numerical simulation of the individual storage operations. In a first step, a synthetic anticline with a radius of 4 km, a drop of 900 m and a formation thickness of 20 m is used to compare the individual storage methods. The storage operations are carried out using -depending on the energy carrier- 5 to 13 wells placed in the top of the structure. A homogeneous parameter distribution is assumed with permeability, porosity and residual water saturation being 500 mD, 0.35 and 0.2, respectively. N2 is used as a cushion gas in the H2 storage simulations. In case of compressed air energy storage, a high discharge rate of 400 kg/s equating to 28.8 mio. m³/d at surface conditions is required to produce 320 MW of power. Using 13 wells the storage is capable of supplying the specified gas flow rate for a period of 31 hours. Two cases using 5 and 9 wells were simulated for both the H2 and the CH4 storage operation. The target withdrawal rates of 1 mio. sm³/d are maintained for the whole extraction period of one week in all simulations. However, the power output differs with the 5 well scenario producing

  13. Defect nonunion of a metatarsal bone fracture in a cow: successful management with bone plating and autogenous cancellous bone graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, M; Singh, N; Singh, T; Gopinathan, A; Mohindroo, J; Atri, K

    2013-01-01

    A two-and-half-year-old cow was presented with a defect nonunion of the right metatarsal III/IV bone following a severely comminuted open fracture two months previously. The animal underwent open fixation using a 4.5 mm, broad, 10-hole, dynamic compression plate and autogenous cancellous bone graft collected from the contralateral iliac shaft. The animal started partial weight bearing after the third postoperative day and resumed complete weight bearing after the 10th day. Fracture healing was complete and the implants were removed after the 120th postoperative day. Stable fixation by means of a bone plate in conjunction with a cancellous bone graft facilitated complete healing and restoration of the bone column of the defect and the metatarsal fracture. The animal made a complete recovery.

  14. Fracture of Fully-coated Femoral Stem after Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty for Nonunion of Intertrochanteric Fracture: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Young Soo; Juh, Hyung Suk; Cho, Yoon Je; Rhyu, Kee Hyung

    2015-09-01

    Femoral stem fracture is an uncommon reason for the failure of total hip arthroplasty, with only 16 cases of fully coated stem fractures reported to date. Here we report a case in which a fully coated primary femoral stem fracture occurred after conversion to total hip arthroplasty for the non-union of an intertrochanteric fracture of the femur. Metallurgic evaluation of the etiology and mechanism revealed that the fracture was initiated by fatigue-related failure and completed by ductile failure on the posterior side of the fracture. Considering the recent trend of treating an intertrochanteric fracture with hip arthroplasty, possible stem failure should be considered, since most patients will have at least one of the known risk factors for stem fracture.

  15. Bone graft in the treatment of nonunion of the scaphoid with necrosis of the proximal pole: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severo, Antônio Lourenço; Lemos, Marcelo Barreto; Lech, Osvandré Luiz Canfield; Barreto Filho, Danilo; Strack, Daniel Paulo; Candido, Larissa Knapp

    2017-01-01

    Scaphoid fractures are the most common fractures of the carpal bones, corresponding to 60%. Of these, 10% progress to nonunion; moreover, 3% can present necrosis of the proximal pole. There are various methods of treatment using vascularized and non-vascularized bone grafts. To evaluate and compare the rate of scaphoid consolidation with necrosis of the proximal pole using different surgical techniques. The authors conducted a review of the literature using the following databases: PubMed and BIREME/LILACS, where 13 case series were selected (ten with use of vascularized bone grafts and three of non-vascularized bone grafts), according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. In most cases VBGs were used, especially those based on the 1,2 intercompartmental supraretinacular artery, due to greater reproducibility in performing the surgical technique.

  16. A comparison of four aerial radiological surveys of Par Pond and the surrounding area, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feimster, E.L.

    1993-09-01

    A series of gamma radiation surveys was conducted over Par Pond at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in August 1993, October 1991, and August 1992 as part of an effort to monitor the radiological changes around Par Pond as its water level was lowered. The results of an April 1989 survey, which was about one-half the area of those surveys listed above, were used as baseline data for the comparison. Gamma energy spectrum analysis revealed that the only man-made gamma ray emitter detected during the four surveys in the Par Pond area was cesium-137. The comparisons revealed that: (1) significant change in the radiological environment occurred along the Par Pond shoreline as the water levels were lowered, (2) the activity in Lower Three Runs Creek varied slightly as the level/flow rate changed during the pumping process, (3) minor changes occurred in areas adjacent to the Par Pond, and (4) little or no change occurred between surveys in the spatial distribution or kind of sources detected. All changes were directly related to the moisture variations (Par Pond water lowering, rainfall, waterway flow rates) between the survey periods. The distribution, kind, and activity of sources detected beyond the pond bed were consistent between surveys. 60 figs., 14 tabs

  17. Simple Ligand–Receptor Interaction Descriptor (SILIRID for alignment-free binding site comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Chupakhin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe SILIRID (Simple Ligand–Receptor Interaction Descriptor, a novel fixed size descriptor characterizing protein–ligand interactions. SILIRID can be obtained from the binary interaction fingerprints (IFPs by summing up the bits corresponding to identical amino acids. This results in a vector of 168 integer numbers corresponding to the product of the number of entries (20 amino acids and one cofactor and 8 interaction types per amino acid (hydrophobic, aromatic face to face, aromatic edge to face, H-bond donated by the protein, H-bond donated by the ligand, ionic bond with protein cation and protein anion, and interaction with metal ion. Efficiency of SILIRID to distinguish different protein binding sites has been examined in similarity search in sc-PDB database, a druggable portion of the Protein Data Bank, using various protein–ligand complexes as queries. The performance of retrieval of structurally and evolutionary related classes of proteins was comparable to that of state-of-the-art approaches (ROC AUC ≈ 0.91. SILIRID can efficiently be used to visualize chemogenomic space covered by sc-PDB using Generative Topographic Mapping (GTM: sc-PDB SILIRID data form clusters corresponding to different protein types.

  18. Simple Ligand-Receptor Interaction Descriptor (SILIRID) for alignment-free binding site comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupakhin, Vladimir; Marcou, Gilles; Gaspar, Helena; Varnek, Alexandre

    2014-06-01

    We describe SILIRID (Simple Ligand-Receptor Interaction Descriptor), a novel fixed size descriptor characterizing protein-ligand interactions. SILIRID can be obtained from the binary interaction fingerprints (IFPs) by summing up the bits corresponding to identical amino acids. This results in a vector of 168 integer numbers corresponding to the product of the number of entries (20 amino acids and one cofactor) and 8 interaction types per amino acid (hydrophobic, aromatic face to face, aromatic edge to face, H-bond donated by the protein, H-bond donated by the ligand, ionic bond with protein cation and protein anion, and interaction with metal ion). Efficiency of SILIRID to distinguish different protein binding sites has been examined in similarity search in sc-PDB database, a druggable portion of the Protein Data Bank, using various protein-ligand complexes as queries. The performance of retrieval of structurally and evolutionary related classes of proteins was comparable to that of state-of-the-art approaches (ROC AUC ≈ 0.91). SILIRID can efficiently be used to visualize chemogenomic space covered by sc-PDB using Generative Topographic Mapping (GTM): sc-PDB SILIRID data form clusters corresponding to different protein types.

  19. Comparison of S. cerevisiae F-BAR domain structures reveals a conserved inositol phosphate binding site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravcevic, Katarina; Alvarado, Diego; Schmitz, Karl R.; Kenniston, Jon A.; Mendrola, Jeannine M.; Ferguson, Kathryn M.; Lemmon, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY F-BAR domains control membrane interactions in endocytosis, cytokinesis, and cell signaling. Although generally thought to bind curved membranes containing negatively charged phospholipids, numerous functional studies argue that differences in lipid-binding selectivities of F-BAR domains are functionally important. Here, we compare membrane-binding properties of the S. cerevisiae F-BAR domains in vitro and in vivo. Whereas some F-BAR domains (such as Bzz1p and Hof1p F-BARs) bind equally well to all phospholipids, the F-BAR domain from the RhoGAP Rgd1p preferentially binds phosphoinositides. We determined X-ray crystal structures of F-BAR domains from Hof1p and Rgd1p, the latter bound to an inositol phosphate. The structures explain phospholipid-binding selectivity differences, and reveal an F-BAR phosphoinositide binding site that is fully conserved in a mammalian RhoGAP called Gmip, and is partly retained in certain other F-BAR domains. Our findings reveal previously unappreciated determinants of F-BAR domain lipid-binding specificity, and provide a basis for its prediction from sequence. PMID:25620000

  20. Cross-site comparison of ribosomal depletion kits for Illumina RNAseq library construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Zachary T; Kershner, Jamie P; Butty, Vincent L; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Choudhari, Sulbha; Alekseyev, Yuriy O; Fan, Jun; Podnar, Jessica W; Wilcox, Edward; Gipson, Jenny; Gillaspy, Allison; Jepsen, Kristen; BonDurant, Sandra Splinter; Morris, Krystalynne; Berkeley, Maura; LeClerc, Ashley; Simpson, Stephen D; Sommerville, Gary; Grimmett, Leslie; Adams, Marie; Levine, Stuart S

    2018-03-15

    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) comprises at least 90% of total RNA extracted from mammalian tissue or cell line samples. Informative transcriptional profiling using massively parallel sequencing technologies requires either enrichment of mature poly-adenylated transcripts or targeted depletion of the rRNA fraction. The latter method is of particular interest because it is compatible with degraded samples such as those extracted from FFPE and also captures transcripts that are not poly-adenylated such as some non-coding RNAs. Here we provide a cross-site study that evaluates the performance of ribosomal RNA removal kits from Illumina, Takara/Clontech, Kapa Biosystems, Lexogen, New England Biolabs and Qiagen on intact and degraded RNA samples. We find that all of the kits are capable of performing significant ribosomal depletion, though there are differences in their ease of use. All kits were able to remove ribosomal RNA to below 20% with intact RNA and identify ~ 14,000 protein coding genes from the Universal Human Reference RNA sample at >1FPKM. Analysis of differentially detected genes between kits suggests that transcript length may be a key factor in library production efficiency. These results provide a roadmap for labs on the strengths of each of these methods and how best to utilize them.

  1. Comparison of diffusion from a small island and an undisturbed ocean site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynor, G.S.; Brown, R.M.; SethuRaman, S.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the differences in diffusion from an obstacle to free air flow in the ocean and from an undisturbed ocean site. A small island was used as the obstacle and simultaneous releases of oil-fog smoke were made from the island and from a nearby boat. The widths of the plumes and their concentrations distributions were measured quantitatively during traverses across the plumes by a second boat. Extensive series of photographs were taken of the plumes from the surface and from the air. Meteorological measurements were made at two locations on the island, from the boats and from an aircraft. One test series was conducted during unstable conditions and a second series with neutral and stable conditions.Width of the island plume over short periods was from 1.5 to 4 times that of the boat plume with the greatest difference during stable periods. Over longer periods, the differences were somewhat greater and much of the dispersion was caused by plume meander. Height of the island plume averaged about twice that of the boat plume. Normalized maximum centerline concentrations from the boat plume were 1.4 times those of the island plume during unstable periods but about twice during stable and neutral conditions. Averaged over all tests, dispersion from the island was about twice as great as from the boat

  2. Statistical inference and comparison of stochastic models for the hydraulic conductivity at the Finnsjoen-site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, S.

    1992-04-01

    The origin of this study was to find a good, or even the best, stochastic model for the hydraulic conductivity field at the Finnsjoe site. The conductivity field in question are regularized, that is upscaled. The reason for performing regularization of measurement data is primarily the need for long correlation scales. This is needed in order to model reasonably large domains that can be used when describing regional groundwater flow accurately. A theory of regularization is discussed in this report. In order to find the best model, jacknifing is employed to compare different stochastic models. The theory for this method is described. In the act of doing so we also take a look at linear predictor theory, so called kriging, and include a general discussion of stochastic functions and intrinsic random functions. The statistical inference methods for finding the models are also described, in particular regression, iterative generalized regression (IGLSE) and non-parametric variogram estimators. A large amount of results is presented for a regularization scale of 36 metre. (30 refs.) (au)

  3. COMPARISON OF CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS RESULTS FROM TWO METHODS OF PROCESSING SITE METEOROLOGICAL DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , D

    2007-01-01

    Consequence analysis to support documented safety analysis requires the use of one or more years of representative meteorological data for atmospheric transport and dispersion calculations. At minimum, the needed meteorological data for most atmospheric transport and dispersion models consist of hourly samples of wind speed and atmospheric stability class. Atmospheric stability is inferred from measured and/or observed meteorological data. Several methods exist to convert measured and observed meteorological data into atmospheric stability class data. In this paper, one year of meteorological data from a western Department of Energy (DOE) site is processed to determine atmospheric stability class using two methods. The method that is prescribed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for supporting licensing of nuclear power plants makes use of measurements of vertical temperature difference to determine atmospheric stability. Another method that is preferred by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) relies upon measurements of incoming solar radiation, vertical temperature gradient, and wind speed. Consequences are calculated and compared using the two sets of processed meteorological data from these two methods as input data into the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System 2 (MACCS2) code

  4. The Kelp Gull as bioindicator of environmental chemicals in the Magellan region. A comparison with other coastal sites in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Muñoz

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available During the breeding seasons 1994/5 and 1995/6 we collected Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus eggs from five locations in central to south Chile to study the contamination with mercury and organochlorine compounds. The sites were Algarrobo, Concepción, Maiquillahue Bay, Doña Sebastiana Island (Chalcao channel at Chiloé and Magdalena Island (Straits of Magellan. We found differences among the sites: Kelp Gull eggs from Chiloé and Algarrobo had the greatest concentrations of mercury (about 170 ng g-1 fresh weight. Residues of DDT were greatest in eggs from Algarrobo and Maiquillahue Bay, those of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls greatest at Algarrobo and Concepción. HCB had highest levels at Concepción. Considering all organochlorines, samples from Algarrobo had the highest concentrations, those from Chiloé the lowest. In consequence we found a geographical pattern from north to south, i.e., from areas with greater to lesser human impact. In comparison with other studies, the levels of environmental chemicals found in Kelp Gulls from Chile are much lower than those known to cause adverse effects on reproductive success.

  5. The Use of Social Networking Sites in Job Related Activities: A Cross-cultural Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Bartosik-Purgat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of the paper is to identify the use of Social Networking Sites (SNSs in job related activities and indicate the interdependencies between these activities and age, gender, as well as education in culturally diversified markets (China, Poland, Turkey, the United States. Research Design & Methods: In the exploratory empirical study the authors used two research methods: PAPI (Paper and Pen Personal Interview and CAWI (Computer Assisted Web Interview. The empirical data were collected in 2016 and the total number of respondents from four culturally diversified countries was 1246. Findings: The analysis with the use of Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn post-hoc tests showed that the Turkish respondents most often use SNSs for job related activities, while it is the least often done by the studied Americans. Moreover, from among the studied factors (gender, age and education level that differentiate the SNSs usage for job related activities in a statistically significant way age is of greatest importance. Implications & Recommendations: The results of the research provide implications for the recruitment policy of multinational enterprises (MNEs. Since more and more enterprises use SNSs in order to look for new employees and advertise themselves as employers (employer branding, the identified interdependencies between the SNSs activities and the analysed factors can support firm attempts to develop the proper recruitment policy taking into account the cultural diversity of potential workers. Contribution & Value Added: There are not many studies in the literature which present the usage of SNSs for job related activities from the perspective of individual users in the cross-cultural approach. The majority of studies are related to the usage of SNSs by enterprises in the recruitment process.

  6. COMPARISON OF THREE TRACER TESTS AT THE RAFT RIVER GEOTHERMAL SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earl D Mattson; Mitchell Plummer; Carl Palmer; Larry Hull; Samantha Miller; Randy Nye

    2011-02-01

    Three conservative tracer tests have been conducted through the Bridge Fault fracture zone at the Raft River Geothermal (RRG) site. All three tests were conducted between injection well RRG-5 and production wells RRG-1 (790 m distance) and RRG-4 (740 m distance). The injection well is used during the summer months to provide pressure support to the production wells. The first test was conducted in 2008 using 136 kg of fluorescein tracer. Two additional tracers were injected in 2010. The first 2010 tracer injected was 100 kg fluorescein disodium hydrate salt on June, 21. The second tracer (100 kg 2,6-naphthalene disulfonic acid sodium salt) was injected one month later on July 21. Sampling of the two productions wells is still being performed to obtain the tail end of the second 2010 tracer test. Tracer concentrations were measured using HPLC with a fluorescence detector. Results for the 2008 test, suggest 80% tracer recover at the two production wells. Of the tracer recovered, 85% of tracer mass was recovered in well RRG-4 indicating a greater flow pathway connection between injection well and RRG-4 than RRG-1. Fluorescein tracer results appear to be similar between the 2008 and 2010 tests for well RRG-4 with peak concentrations arriving approximately 20 days after injection despite the differences between the injection rates for the two tests (~950 gpm to 475 gpm) between the 2008 and 2010. The two 2010 tracer tests will be compared to determine if the results support the hypothesis that rock contraction along the flow pathway due to the 55 oC cooler water injection alters the flow through the ~140 oC reservoir.

  7. TH-A-19A-06: Site-Specific Comparison of Analytical and Monte Carlo Based Dose Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuemann, J; Grassberger, C; Paganetti, H; Dowdell, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of complex patient geometries on the capability of analytical dose calculation algorithms to accurately predict dose distributions and to verify currently used uncertainty margins in proton therapy. Methods: Dose distributions predicted by an analytical pencilbeam algorithm were compared with Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) using TOPAS. 79 complete patient treatment plans were investigated for 7 disease sites (liver, prostate, breast, medulloblastoma spine and whole brain, lung and head and neck). A total of 508 individual passively scattered treatment fields were analyzed for field specific properties. Comparisons based on target coverage indices (EUD, D95, D90 and D50) were performed. Range differences were estimated for the distal position of the 90% dose level (R90) and the 50% dose level (R50). Two-dimensional distal dose surfaces were calculated and the root mean square differences (RMSD), average range difference (ARD) and average distal dose degradation (ADD), the distance between the distal position of the 80% and 20% dose levels (R80- R20), were analyzed. Results: We found target coverage indices calculated by TOPAS to generally be around 1–2% lower than predicted by the analytical algorithm. Differences in R90 predicted by TOPAS and the planning system can be larger than currently applied range margins in proton therapy for small regions distal to the target volume. We estimate new site-specific range margins (R90) for analytical dose calculations considering total range uncertainties and uncertainties from dose calculation alone based on the RMSD. Our results demonstrate that a reduction of currently used uncertainty margins is feasible for liver, prostate and whole brain fields even without introducing MC dose calculations. Conclusion: Analytical dose calculation algorithms predict dose distributions within clinical limits for more homogeneous patients sites (liver, prostate, whole brain). However, we recommend

  8. TH-A-19A-06: Site-Specific Comparison of Analytical and Monte Carlo Based Dose Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuemann, J; Grassberger, C; Paganetti, H [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Dowdell, S [Illawarra Shoalhaven Local Health District, Wollongong (Australia)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of complex patient geometries on the capability of analytical dose calculation algorithms to accurately predict dose distributions and to verify currently used uncertainty margins in proton therapy. Methods: Dose distributions predicted by an analytical pencilbeam algorithm were compared with Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) using TOPAS. 79 complete patient treatment plans were investigated for 7 disease sites (liver, prostate, breast, medulloblastoma spine and whole brain, lung and head and neck). A total of 508 individual passively scattered treatment fields were analyzed for field specific properties. Comparisons based on target coverage indices (EUD, D95, D90 and D50) were performed. Range differences were estimated for the distal position of the 90% dose level (R90) and the 50% dose level (R50). Two-dimensional distal dose surfaces were calculated and the root mean square differences (RMSD), average range difference (ARD) and average distal dose degradation (ADD), the distance between the distal position of the 80% and 20% dose levels (R80- R20), were analyzed. Results: We found target coverage indices calculated by TOPAS to generally be around 1–2% lower than predicted by the analytical algorithm. Differences in R90 predicted by TOPAS and the planning system can be larger than currently applied range margins in proton therapy for small regions distal to the target volume. We estimate new site-specific range margins (R90) for analytical dose calculations considering total range uncertainties and uncertainties from dose calculation alone based on the RMSD. Our results demonstrate that a reduction of currently used uncertainty margins is feasible for liver, prostate and whole brain fields even without introducing MC dose calculations. Conclusion: Analytical dose calculation algorithms predict dose distributions within clinical limits for more homogeneous patients sites (liver, prostate, whole brain). However, we recommend

  9. Comparison of BTX Profiles and Their Mutagenicity Assessment at Two Sites of Agra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyoma Singla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the concentrations of three volatile organic compounds (VOCs, namely, acronym for benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX were assessed because of their role in the tropospheric chemistry. Two representative sites, a roadside and a petrol pump, were chosen for sample collection. VOCs were collected using SKC-activated charcoal tubes and SKC personal sampler and characterized by gas chromatograph using flame ionization detector. Among BTX, benzene had the highest concentration. At the roadside, mean concentration of benzene, toluene, o-,m-xylene, and p-xylene were 14.7 ± 2.4 μgm−3, 8.1 ± 1.2 μgm−3, 2.1 ± 0.8 μgm−3, and 5.1 ± 1.2 μgm−3, respectively. At the petrol pump, the mean concentrations of benzene, toluene, o-,m-xylene and p-xylene were 19.5 ± 3.7 μgm−3, 12.9 ± 1.1 μgm−3, 3.6 ± 0.5 μgm−3 and 11.1 ± 1.5 μgm−3, respectively, and were numerically higher by a fraction of 2. Monthly variation of BTX showed maximum concentration in winter. Inter-species ratios and inter-species correlation indicated traffic as the major source of BTX. Extracts of samples were positive in both Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 without metabolic activation suggesting the presence of direct mutagens in ambient air that can cause both frame-shift and base-pair mutation. The mutagenic response was greater for TA100 than TA98 suggesting greater activity for base-pair mutagenicity than frame-shift mutagenicity and was found to be statistically significant.

  10. Safety-related site characteristics - a relative comparison of the Forsmark reference areas; Saekerhetsrelaterade platsegenskaper - en relativ jaemfoerelse av Forsmark med referensomraaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winberg, Anders (Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    SKB has over the years from 2002 to 2008 conducted site investigations in Forsmark and Laxemar, with associated site modeling, design and safety analysis. In mid-2009 Forsmark was selected on the basis of analysis made as site for a future repository for spent nuclear fuel. Based on defined safety-related geoscientific location factors data from Forsmark are compared in relative terms with data from a number of locations in Sweden, previously studied by SKB. The factors compared include: the rock's composition and structures, future climate evolution, rock mechanical conditions, earthquakes, groundwater flow, groundwater composition, delay of solutes, and the ability to characterize and describe the location. Past comparisons of these properties for the selected sites show that none of these sites collectively show any significant benefit over Forsmark site for a repository. This does not preclude that there may be places on the basis of an overall assessment of geoscientific location factors could be equivalent to Forsmark

  11. RADIOLYTIC HYDROGEN GENERATION INSAVANNAH RIVER SITE (SRS) HIGH LEVEL WASTETANKS COMPARISON OF SRS AND HANFORDMODELING PREDICTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C; Ned Bibler, N

    2009-04-15

    In the high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS), hydrogen is produced continuously by interaction of the radiation in the tank with water in the waste. Consequently, the vapor spaces of the tanks are purged to prevent the accumulation of H{sub 2} and possible formation of a flammable mixture in a tank. Personnel at SRS have developed an empirical model to predict the rate of H{sub 2} formation in a tank. The basis of this model is the prediction of the G value for H{sub 2} production. This G value is the number of H{sub 2} molecules produced per 100 eV of radiolytic energy absorbed by the waste. Based on experimental studies it was found that the G value for H{sub 2} production from beta radiation and from gamma radiation were essentially equal. The G value for H{sub 2} production from alpha radiation was somewhat higher. Thus, the model has two equations, one for beta/gamma radiation and one for alpha radiation. Experimental studies have also indicated that both G values are decreased by the presence of nitrate and nitrite ions in the waste. These are the main scavengers for the precursors of H{sub 2} in the waste; thus the equations that were developed predict G values for hydrogen production as a function of the concentrations of these two ions in waste. Knowing the beta/gamma and alpha heat loads in the waste allows one to predict the total generation rate for hydrogen in a tank. With this prediction a ventilation rate can be established for each tank to ensure that a flammable mixture is not formed in the vapor space in a tank. Recently personnel at Hanford have developed a slightly different model for predicting hydrogen G values. Their model includes the same precursor for H{sub 2} as the SRS model but also includes an additional precursor not in the SRS model. Including the second precursor for H{sub 2} leads to different empirical equations for predicting the G values for H{sub 2} as a function of the nitrate and nitrite concentrations in

  12. Radionuclide migration in ground water at a low-level waste disposal site: a comparison of predicted radionuclide transport modeling versus field observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, M.P.; Robertson, D.E.; Champ, D.R.; Killey, R.W.D.; Moltyaner, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    At the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL), in Ontario, Canada, a number of LLW shallow-land burial facilities have existed for 25-30 years. These facilities are useful for testing the concept of site modelability. In 1984, CRNL and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) established a cooperative research program to examine two disposal sites having plumes of slightly contaminated ground water for study. This report addresses the LLW Nitrate Disposal Pit site, which received liquid wastes containing approximately 1000-1500 curies of mixed fission products during 1953-54. The objective of this study is to test the regulatory requirement that a site be modeled and to use the Nitrate Disposal Pit site as a field site for testing the reliability of models in predicting radionuclide movement in ground water. The study plan was to approach this site as though it were to be licensed under the requirements of 10 CFR 61. Under the assumption that little was known about this site, a characterization plan was prepared describing the geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical information needed to assess site performance. After completion of the plan, site data generated by CRNL were selected to fill the plan data requirements. This paper describes the site hydrogeology, modeling of ground water flow, the comparison of observed and predicted radionuclide movement, and summarizes the conclusions and recommendations. 3 references, 10 figures

  13. Reconstructing palaeo-environmental conditions in the Baltic: A multi-proxy comparison from IODP Site M0059 (Little Belt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotthoff, Ulrich; Andrén, Thomas; Bauersachs, Thorsten; Fanget, Anne-Sophie; Granoszewski, Wojciech; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Krupinski, Nadine; Peyron, Odile; Stepanova, Anna; Cotterill, Carol

    2015-04-01

    Some of the largest marine environmental impacts from ongoing global climate change are occurring in continental shelf seas and enclosed basins, including severe oxygen depletion, intensifying stratification, and increasing temperatures. In order to predict future changes in water mass conditions, it is essential to reconstruct how these conditions have changed in the past. The brackish Baltic Sea is one of the largest semi-enclosed basins worldwide, and hence provides a unique opportunity to analyse past changes. IODP Expedition 347 recovered a unique set of long sediment cores from the Baltic Sea Basin which allow new high-resolution reconstructions. The application of existing and development of new proxies in such a setting is complicated, as environmental changes often occur on much faster time scales with much larger variations. Therefore, we present a comparison of commonly used proxies to reconstruct palaeoecosystems, -temperatures, and -salinity from IODP Site M0059 in the Little Belt. The age model for Site M0059 is based on 14C dating and biostratigraphic correlation with neighbouring terrestrial pollen records. The aim of our study is to reconstruct the development of the terrestrial and marine ecosystems in the research area and the related environmental conditions, and to identify potential limitations for specific proxies. Pollen is used as proxy for vegetation development in the hinterland of the southern Baltic Sea and as land/air-temperature proxies. By comparison with dinoflagellate cysts and green algae remains from the same samples, a direct land-sea comparison is provided. The application of the modern analogues technique to pollen assemblages has previously yielded precise results for late Pleistocene and Holocene datasets including specific information on seasonality, but pollen-based reconstructions for Northern Europe may be hampered by plant migration effects. Chironomid remains are used where possible as indicators for surface water

  14. Systematic Analysis and Comparison of Nucleotide-Binding Site Disease Resistance Genes in a Diploid Cotton Gossypium raimondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hengling; Li, Wei; Sun, Xiwei; Zhu, Shuijin; Zhu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Plant disease resistance genes are a key component of defending plants from a range of pathogens. The majority of these resistance genes belong to the super-family that harbors a Nucleotide-binding site (NBS). A number of studies have focused on NBS-encoding genes in disease resistant breeding programs for diverse plants. However, little information has been reported with an emphasis on systematic analysis and comparison of NBS-encoding genes in cotton. To fill this gap of knowledge, in this study, we identified and investigated the NBS-encoding resistance genes in cotton using the whole genome sequence information of Gossypium raimondii. Totally, 355 NBS-encoding resistance genes were identified. Analyses of the conserved motifs and structural diversity showed that the most two distinct features for these genes are the high proportion of non-regular NBS genes and the high diversity of N-termini domains. Analyses of the physical locations and duplications of NBS-encoding genes showed that gene duplication of disease resistance genes could play an important role in cotton by leading to an increase in the functional diversity of the cotton NBS-encoding genes. Analyses of phylogenetic comparisons indicated that, in cotton, the NBS-encoding genes with TIR domain not only have their own evolution pattern different from those of genes without TIR domain, but also have their own species-specific pattern that differs from those of TIR genes in other plants. Analyses of the correlation between disease resistance QTL and NBS-encoding resistance genes showed that there could be more than half of the disease resistance QTL associated to the NBS-encoding genes in cotton, which agrees with previous studies establishing that more than half of plant resistance genes are NBS-encoding genes. PMID:23936305

  15. Two-year concurrent observation of isoprene at 20 sites over China: comparison with MEGAN-REAM model simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Yang, W.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, Z.; Lyu, S.; Yu, J.; Wang, Y.; Wang, G.; Wang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Isoprene, the most abundant non-methane hydrocarbon emitted from plants, directly and indirectly affects atmospheric photochemistry and radiative forcing, yet narrowing its emission uncertainties is a continuous challenge. Comparison of observed and modelled isoprene on large spatiotemporal scales would help recognize factors that control isoprene variability, systematic field observation data are however quite lacking. Here we collected ambient air samples with 1 L silonite-treated stainless steel canisters simultaneously at 20 sites over China on every Wednesday at approximately 14:00 pm Beijing time from 2012 to 2014, and analyzed isoprene mixing ratios by preconcentrator-GC-MSD/FID. Observed isoprene mixing ratios were also compared with that simulated by coupling MEGAN 2.0 (Guenther et al., 2006) with a 3-D Regional chEmical trAnsport Model (REAM) (Zhang et al., 2017). Similar seasonal variations between observation and model simulation were obtained for most of sampling sites, but overall the average isoprene mixing ratios during growing months (May to October) was 0.37 ± 0.08 ppbv from model simulation, about 32% lower than that of 0.54 ± 0.20 ppbv based on ground-based observation, and this discrepancy was particularly significant in north China during wintertime. Further investigation demonstrated that emission of biogenic isoprene in northwest China might be underestimated and non-biogenic emission, such burning biomass/biofuel, might contribute to the elevated levels of isoprene during winter time. The observation-based empirical formulas for changing isoprene emission with solar radiation and temperature were also derived for different regions of China.

  16. Risk Factors for Non-:union: Fractures of the Clavicle Mid-shift Following the Use of Non-surgical Treatment on Patients Admitted to Poursina Hospital, 2010 - 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kamran Asadi

    2015-02-01

    Conclusions: Recognition and predicting the risk factors of non-:::union::: in patients with fractures of the middle third of the clavicle could be a clinical guideline for the selection of surgical or non-surgical treatment.

  17. Case studies, cross-site comparisons, and the challenge of generalization: comparing agent-based models of land-use change in frontier regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Dawn C; Entwisle, Barbara; Rindfuss, Ronald R; Vanwey, Leah K; Manson, Steven M; Moran, Emilio; An, Li; Deadman, Peter; Evans, Tom P; Linderman, Marc; Rizi, S Mohammad Mussavi; Malanson, George

    2008-01-01

    Cross-site comparisons of case studies have been identified as an important priority by the land-use science community. From an empirical perspective, such comparisons potentially allow generalizations that may contribute to production of global-scale land-use and land-cover change projections. From a theoretical perspective, such comparisons can inform development of a theory of land-use science by identifying potential hypotheses and supporting or refuting evidence. This paper undertakes a structured comparison of four case studies of land-use change in frontier regions that follow an agent-based modeling approach. Our hypothesis is that each case study represents a particular manifestation of a common process. Given differences in initial conditions among sites and the time at which the process is observed, actual mechanisms and outcomes are anticipated to differ substantially between sites. Our goal is to reveal both commonalities and differences among research sites, model implementations, and ultimately, conclusions derived from the modeling process.

  18. A comparison of two independent interpretations of lineaments from geophysical and topographic data at the Forsmark site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Rune

    2005-03-01

    In the development of site descriptions, uncertainties in the modelling work are given much attention. One aspect of this is the development of alternative models. Given the importance of the lineaments for the continued deformation zone modelling, it has been regarded important to carry out an alternative, independent lineament interpretation at the Forsmark site. The objective of the work presented in this report was to compare the primary and alternative interpretations, which have been provided by two independent groups of geoscientists. A primary interpretation has been carried out by GeoVista AB and an alternative interpretation (within the central part of the site investigation area) by the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK). Based on the results of this comparative study, further evaluation of the inferred lineaments and the need for supplementary information are discussed. When the two sets of inferred lineaments are compared, it must be remembered that the two groups have performed the interpretation work under different conditions. GeoVista AB has a profound knowledge of the geological setting, as opposed to GTK which has been provided only with some basic geological information. The different conditions might very well have affected some of the expert judgements involved in the interpretation process. However, the comparison of the two independent lineament interpretations has revealed that the results are, in principle, reproducible. Nevertheless, there are discrepancies that are judged to be significant and have to be considered during the further assessment of lineaments. The attributes assigned to the inferred lineaments provide an excellent tool for displaying the characteristics of an individual lineament. However, the use of a single attribute or a combination of attributes as a stand-alone criterion for the assessment can be seriously misleading. Whether a lineament represents a deformation zone or not must instead be concluded on the basis of

  19. Assessing doses to terrestrial wildlife at a radioactive waste disposal site: inter-comparison of modelling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, M P; Barnett, C L; Beresford, N A; Brown, J E; Černe, M; Howard, B J; Kamboj, S; Keum, D-K; Smodiš, B; Twining, J R; Vandenhove, H; Vives i Batlle, J; Wood, M D; Yu, C

    2012-06-15

    Radiological doses to terrestrial wildlife were examined in this model inter-comparison study that emphasised factors causing variability in dose estimation. The study participants used varying modelling approaches and information sources to estimate dose rates and tissue concentrations for a range of biota types exposed to soil contamination at a shallow radionuclide waste burial site in Australia. Results indicated that the dominant factor causing variation in dose rate estimates (up to three orders of magnitude on mean total dose rates) was the soil-to-organism transfer of radionuclides that included variation in transfer parameter values as well as transfer calculation methods. Additional variation was associated with other modelling factors including: how participants conceptualised and modelled the exposure configurations (two orders of magnitude); which progeny to include with the parent radionuclide (typically less than one order of magnitude); and dose calculation parameters, including radiation weighting factors and dose conversion coefficients (typically less than one order of magnitude). Probabilistic approaches to model parameterisation were used to encompass and describe variable model parameters and outcomes. The study confirms the need for continued evaluation of the underlying mechanisms governing soil-to-organism transfer of radionuclides to improve estimation of dose rates to terrestrial wildlife. The exposure pathways and configurations available in most current codes are limited when considering instances where organisms access subsurface contamination through rooting, burrowing, or using different localised waste areas as part of their habitual routines. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Morphological description and comparison of the dental remains from Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos site (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinón-Torres, María; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Gómez-Robles, Aida; Prado-Simón, Leyre; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2012-01-01

    The systematic excavation of the Sima de los Huesos (SH) site in Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain) has yielded the largest hominin collection worldwide for the Middle Pleistocene. The dental sample now consists of more than 500 teeth that provide exceptional opportunities to define the dental morphological pattern of a Middle Pleistocene population as well as develop hypotheses about the origins of the Neanderthals. The dental collection has now increased to over 533 specimens (525 permanent and 8 deciduous teeth), necessitating new morphological assessments. Thus, we present a detailed morphological description of the SH permanent dentition recovered up to 2007, accomplishing comparisons with European Middle Pleistocene hominins, Neanderthals, and early and contemporary Homo sapiens. We find that SH dentitions present all the morphological traits that, either in their degree of expression, frequency, or particular combination, are usually considered as typical of Homo neanderthalensis. This study ratifies the deep roots of the Neanderthal lineage in the Middle Pleistocene of Europe. In addition, SH teeth are morphologically "more Neanderthal" than other penecontemporaneous Middle Pleistocene samples such as Mauer or Arago, and even more derived than some classic Neanderthal samples. Thus, our study would not sustain the linearity of the accretion process hypothesized for the origins of the Neanderthals, and we suggest that other evolutionary models and scenarios should be explored for the Middle and Upper Pleistocene of Europe. We propose that more than one hominin lineage may have coexisted during the Middle Pleistocene in Europe. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of shallow continuous electromagnetic measurements on archaeological sites in southern Austria and comparison with other geophysical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesner, Erich

    2010-05-01

    Aim of this investigation was outlining the potential of continuous electromagnetic measurements by the comparison of the electromagnetic results with other different geophysical methods at known archaeological sites in Carinthia (Southern Austria). In general a very high resolution is necessary to outline the foundations of roman buildings covered by a sedimentary layer of at least half a meter thickness. The electromagnetic prospecting method had been applied within an archaeologically important region, the archaeological remnants of the first roman provincial capital at the Magdalensberg and at the site of the later location of the capital, at Virunum. With the establishment and consolidation of the Roman Empire the Romans needed more settlement space for the fast growing town and also the demands for defence were less - therefore the Romans transferred the provincial capital down to the "Zollfeld" valley northeast of Klagenfurt. Additional to the electromagnetic investigations, geoelectric, magnetic and susceptibility mapping, spontaneous potential surveys, multielectrode tomography (Niesner, Scholger, Leonhardt 2009) and ground penetrating radar (Morawetz 2006) have been employed jointly during the last years. Also visual and infrared aerial pictures had been available from those areas. The work had been done within a collaborative project between the Geophysical Institute of the University of Leoben and the Landesmuseum Kärnten. The fieldwork and part of the interpretation had been done by students of the University of Leoben within summer field camps. Within these surveys various portions of the archaeological sites had been mapped, providing valuable information of this ancient settlement. One of the most important achievements of the past years of close integration work by the archaeological and the geophysical team was the detailed outlining of an early Christian church, dated by the archaeologists to the early time of the Christians (Dolenz, Niesner

  2. Management of knee rheumatoid arthritis and tibia nonunion with one-stage total knee arthroplasty and intramedullary nailing: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahri Erdogan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Total knee arthroplasty (TKA is a surgical procedure which is widely used in the treatment of gonarthrosis secondary to rheumatoid arthritis (RA. The incidence of stress fractures in tibia in the patients with RA is higher compared to normal patients. In this study, we report two cases of TKA and intramedullary nailing in RA patients with severe knee arthritis and tibial nonunion. Both patients had a satisfactory clinical outcome with radiological healing of the tibial fracture.

  3. A Scapholunate Ligament-Sparing Technique Utilizing the Medial Femoral Condyle Corticocancellous Free Flap to Reconstruct Scaphoid Nonunions With Proximal Pole Avascular Necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmers, Nikolas H; Thibaudeau, Stephanie; Levin, L Scott

    2016-09-01

    This article demonstrates a technique for the treatment of scaphoid fracture waist and proximal pole nonunions with avascular necrosis using a free vascularized medial femoral condyle flap. We present our surgical technique and representative case examples in which the scapholunate ligament, a key structure required to preserve carpal kinematics, is spared. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of long-term stability of containment systems for residues and wastes contaminated with naturally occurring radionuclides at an arid site and two humid sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, M.; Merry-Libby, P.; Hinchman, R.

    1985-01-01

    The long-term stability of near-surface containment systems designed for the management of radioactive wastes and residues contaminated with naturally occurring radionuclides are compared at the three different sites. The containment designs are: (1) a diked 8.9-m high mound, including a 3.2-m layered cap at a site (humid) near Lewiston, New York, (2) a 6.8-m-high mound, including a similar 3.2-m cap at a site (humid) near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and (3) 4.8-m deep trenches with 3.0-m backfilled caps at a site (arid) near Hanford, Washington. Geological, hydrological, and biological factors affecting the long-term (1000-year) integrity of the containment systems at each site are examined, including: erosion, flooding, drought, wildfire, slope and cover failure, plant root penetration, burrowing animals, other soil-forming processes, and land-use changes. For the containment designs evaluated, releases of radon-222 at the arid site are predicted to be several orders of magnitude higher than at the two humid sites - upon initial burial and at 1000 years (after severe erosion). Transfer of wastes containing naturally occurring radionuclides from a humid to an arid environment offers little or no advantage relative to long-term stability of the containment system and has a definite disadvantage in terms of gaseous radioactive releases. 26 references, 3 figures, 4 tables

  5. Ipsilateral Femoral Fracture Non-Union and Delayed Union Treated By Hybrid Plate Nail Fixation and Vascularized Fibula Bone Grafting: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CK Chan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-union is a well recognized complication of femoral neck fractures. The decision whether to attempt fracture fixation or to resort to hip replacement is particularly difficult in patients in the borderline age group in whom complex attempts at gaining union may fail and later present a difficult revision. On the other hand the patient may be young enough that arthroplasty best be avoided . Besides, presence of ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture with delayed union in addition to the femoral neck non-union will pose major problems at operation. We share our experience in treating a femoral neck fracture non-union with ipsilateral femoral shaft delayed union in the shaft and in the distal femur in a fifty years old patient. The fracture was treated with an angle blade plate and supracondylar nail supplemented with a free vascularised fibular bone grafting and autologous cancellous graft. There was radiological union at fourth month. At sixth months, the patient was free of pain and able to walk without support. Thus, we would like to suggest that vascularised fibula bone grafting with supracondylar nailing is a viable option for this pattern of fracture.

  6. The use of bone morphogenic protein-7 (OP-1) in the management of resistant non-unions in the upper and lower limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanna, M C; Al-Hadithy, N; Somanchi, B V; Sewell, M D; Robinson, P M; Khan, S A; Wilkes, R A

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of local implantation of BMP-7 for the treatment of resistant non-unions in the upper and lower limb. Fifty-two patients (30 males, mean age 52.8 years; range 20-81) were treated with local BMP-7 implantation in a bovine bone-derived collagen paste with or without revision of fixation. Thirty-six patients had closed injuries, ten had open injuries and six had infected non-unions. Patients had undergone a mean of 2 (1-5) operations prior to implantation of BMP-7. Clinical and radiological union was achieved in 94% at a mean time of 5.6 months (3-19). Two patients with subtrochanteric femoral fractures failed to achieve union secondary to inadequate fracture stabilisation, persistent unfavourable biological environment and systemic co-morbidities. One patient developed synostosis attributed to the BMP-7 application. This study demonstrates BMP-7 implanted in a bovine-derived collagen paste is an effective adjunctive treatment for resistant non-unions in the upper and lower limb. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Mediating Roles of Upward Social Comparison and Self-esteem and the Moderating Role of Social Comparison Orientation in the Association between Social Networking Site Usage and Subjective Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Liang; Wang, Hai-Zhen; Gaskin, James; Hawk, Skyler

    2017-01-01

    The increased pervasiveness of social media use has raised questions about potential effects on users' subjective well-being, with studies reaching contrasting conclusions. To reconcile these discrepancies and shed new light on this phenomenon, the current study examined: (1) whether upward social comparison and self-esteem mediate the association between social networking site (SNS) usage and users' subjective well-being, and (2) whether the association between SNS usage and upward social comparison is moderated by users' social comparison orientation. Data from 696 participants were collected. Structural equation modeling revealed that upward social comparison and self-esteem mediated the relationship between SNS usage and users' subjective well-being. We found that social comparison orientation moderated the association between passive SNS usage and users' upward social comparison. Specifically, social comparison orientation strengthened the association between passive SNS usage and upward social comparison. The results might suggest a process through which passive SNS usage is related to subjective well-being, and identify a context under which these associations may differ.

  8. The Mediating Roles of Upward Social Comparison and Self-esteem and the Moderating Role of Social Comparison Orientation in the Association between Social Networking Site Usage and Subjective Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Liang Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The increased pervasiveness of social media use has raised questions about potential effects on users’ subjective well-being, with studies reaching contrasting conclusions. To reconcile these discrepancies and shed new light on this phenomenon, the current study examined: (1 whether upward social comparison and self-esteem mediate the association between social networking site (SNS usage and users’ subjective well-being, and (2 whether the association between SNS usage and upward social comparison is moderated by users’ social comparison orientation. Data from 696 participants were collected. Structural equation modeling revealed that upward social comparison and self-esteem mediated the relationship between SNS usage and users’ subjective well-being. We found that social comparison orientation moderated the association between passive SNS usage and users’ upward social comparison. Specifically, social comparison orientation strengthened the association between passive SNS usage and upward social comparison. The results might suggest a process through which passive SNS usage is related to subjective well-being, and identify a context under which these associations may differ.

  9. The Mediating Roles of Upward Social Comparison and Self-esteem and the Moderating Role of Social Comparison Orientation in the Association between Social Networking Site Usage and Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Liang; Wang, Hai-Zhen; Gaskin, James; Hawk, Skyler

    2017-01-01

    The increased pervasiveness of social media use has raised questions about potential effects on users’ subjective well-being, with studies reaching contrasting conclusions. To reconcile these discrepancies and shed new light on this phenomenon, the current study examined: (1) whether upward social comparison and self-esteem mediate the association between social networking site (SNS) usage and users’ subjective well-being, and (2) whether the association between SNS usage and upward social comparison is moderated by users’ social comparison orientation. Data from 696 participants were collected. Structural equation modeling revealed that upward social comparison and self-esteem mediated the relationship between SNS usage and users’ subjective well-being. We found that social comparison orientation moderated the association between passive SNS usage and users’ upward social comparison. Specifically, social comparison orientation strengthened the association between passive SNS usage and upward social comparison. The results might suggest a process through which passive SNS usage is related to subjective well-being, and identify a context under which these associations may differ. PMID:28553256

  10. Radionuclide migration in groundwater at a low-level waste disposal site: a comparison of predictive performance modeling versus field observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.E.; Myers, D.A.; Bergeron, M.P.; Champ, D.R.; Killey, R.W.D.; Moltyaner, G.L.; Young, J.L.

    1985-08-01

    This paper describes a project which is structured to test the concept of modeling a shallow land low-level waste burial site. The project involves a comparison of the actual observed radionuclide migration in groundwaters at a 30-year-old well-monitored field site with the results of predictive transport modeling. The comparison is being conducted as a cooperative program with the Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) at the low-level waste management area at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, Ontario, Canada. A joint PNL-AECL field inviestigation was conducted in 1983 and 1984 to complement the existing extensive data base on actual radionuclide migration. Predictive transport modeling is currently being conducted for this site; first, as if it were a new location being considered for a low-level waste shallow-land burial site and only minimal information about the site were available, and second, utilizing the extensive data base available for the site. The modeling results will then be compared with the empirical observations to provide insight into the level of effort needed to reasonably predict the spacial and temporal movement of radionuclides in the groundwater enviroment. 8 refs., 5 figs.,

  11. Radionuclide migration in groundwater at a low-level waste disposal site: a comparison of predictive performance modeling versus field observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.E.; Myers, D.A.; Abel, K.H.; Bergeron, M.P.; Champ, D.R.; Killey, R.W.D.; Moltyaner, G.L.; Young, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a project which is structured to test the concept of modeling a shallow land low-level waste burial site. The project involves a comparison of the actual observed radionuclide migration in groundwaters at a 30-year old well-monitored field site with the results of predictive transport modeling. The comparison is being conducted as a cooperative program with the Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) at the low-level waste management area at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, Ontario, Canada. A joint PNL-AECL field investigation was conducted in 1983 and 1984 to compliment the existing extensive data base on actual radionuclide migration. Predictive transport modeling is currently being conducted for this site; first, as if it were a new location being considered for a low-level waste shallow-land burial site and only minimal information about the site were available, and second, utilizing the extensive data base available for the site. The modeling results will then be compared with the level of effort needed to reasonably predict the spacial and temporal movement of radionuclides in the groundwater environment

  12. Proximal Pole Scaphoid Nonunion Reconstruction With 1,2 Intercompartmental Supraretinacular Artery Vascularized Graft and Compression Screw Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Mark S; Zhu, Andy F; Ozer, Kagan; Lawton, Jeffrey N

    2018-02-06

    To review the incidence of union of patients with proximal pole scaphoid fracture nonunions treated using a 1,2 intercompartmental supraretinacular artery (1,2 ICSRA) vascularized graft and a small compression screw. This is a retrospective case series of 12 patients. Calculations of the size of the proximal pole fragment relative to the total scaphoid were performed using posteroanterior view scaphoid radiographs with the wrist in ulnar deviation and flat on the cassette. Analyses were repeated 3 times per subject, and the average ratio of proximal pole fragment relative to the entire scaphoid was calculated. We reviewed medical records, radiographs, and computed tomography (CT) scans of these 12 patients. The CT scans that were performed after an average of 12 weeks were ultimately used to confirm union of the scaphoid fractures. One patient was unable to have a CT so was excluded from the final calculation. All 11 (100%) scaphoid fractures that were assessed by CT were found to be healed at the 12-week assessment point. The mean proximal pole fragment size was 18% (range, 7%-27%) of the entire scaphoid. The 1,2 ICSRA vascularized graft and compression screw was an effective treatment for patients with proximal pole scaphoid fractures. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing doses to terrestrial wildlife at a radioactive waste disposal site: Inter-comparison of modelling approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, M.P., E-mail: mathew.johansen@ansto.gov.au [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW, 2232 (Australia); Barnett, C.L., E-mail: clb@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Beresford, N.A., E-mail: nab@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Brown, J.E., E-mail: justin.brown@nrpa.no [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraas (Norway); Cerne, M., E-mail: marko.cerne@ijs.si [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Howard, B.J., E-mail: bjho@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Kamboj, S., E-mail: skamboj@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Keum, D.-K., E-mail: dkkeum@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Smodis, B. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Twining, J.R., E-mail: jrt@ansto.gov.au [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW, 2232 (Australia); Vandenhove, H., E-mail: hvandenh@sckcen.be [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Mol (Belgium); Vives i Batlle, J., E-mail: jvbatll@sckcen.be [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Mol (Belgium); Wood, M.D., E-mail: m.d.wood@salford.ac.uk [University of Salford, Manchester (United Kingdom); Yu, C., E-mail: cyu@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Radiological doses to terrestrial wildlife were examined in this model inter-comparison study that emphasised factors causing variability in dose estimation. The study participants used varying modelling approaches and information sources to estimate dose rates and tissue concentrations for a range of biota types exposed to soil contamination at a shallow radionuclide waste burial site in Australia. Results indicated that the dominant factor causing variation in dose rate estimates (up to three orders of magnitude on mean total dose rates) was the soil-to-organism transfer of radionuclides that included variation in transfer parameter values as well as transfer calculation methods. Additional variation was associated with other modelling factors including: how participants conceptualised and modelled the exposure configurations (two orders of magnitude); which progeny to include with the parent radionuclide (typically less than one order of magnitude); and dose calculation parameters, including radiation weighting factors and dose conversion coefficients (typically less than one order of magnitude). Probabilistic approaches to model parameterisation were used to encompass and describe variable model parameters and outcomes. The study confirms the need for continued evaluation of the underlying mechanisms governing soil-to-organism transfer of radionuclides to improve estimation of dose rates to terrestrial wildlife. The exposure pathways and configurations available in most current codes are limited when considering instances where organisms access subsurface contamination through rooting, burrowing, or using different localised waste areas as part of their habitual routines. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Assessment of modelled dose rates to terrestrial biota from radionuclides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The substantial variation among current approaches is quantifiable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dominant variable was soil

  14. A Comparison of the SNICAR Radiative Transfer Model to In Situ Snow Characterization Measurements at Sites in New England, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, A. C.; Albert, M. R.; Dibb, J. E.; Lazarcik, J.; Amante, J.

    2016-12-01

    As a highly reflective material, snow serves as an important control on surface energy balance. Given the current changes in climate and the sensitivity of snow cover to rising temperatures, it is critical that we understand the role of snow and its associated feedbacks in the climate system. Much of snow albedo research has focused on polar or high altitude snow packs, but rapid changes are also occurring in temperate regions; in the northeastern United States of America, changing climate has resulted in shallower snow packs and fewer days of snow cover. As these changes occur and we seek to understand the associated implications for snow albedo within climate dynamics, it is imperative that we are able to accurately represent snow in models. The SNow, ICe, and Aerosol Radiation model (SNICAR), developed by Flanner and Zender (2005) and used in the IPCC assessments, provides upward and downward radiative fluxes of one or many snow layers based on the following inputs: snow depth, density, grain size, and impurity content; solar zenith angle; lighting conditions; and albedo of the surface beneath the snowpack. To our knowledge, the SNICAR model has not been validated with data from a mid-latitude temperate region. Through a measurement campaign that occurred from winter 2013-2016, we have collected over 400 independent observations of a suite of snow characterization measurements and spectral snow albedo from three different sites in New Hampshire, USA. Comparison of our spectral albedo measurements to the SNICAR albedo derived from measured snow properties and illumination conditions will allow for validation of the model or recommendations for improvement based on the sensitivities found in the data.

  15. Superficial basal cell carcinoma: A comparison of superficial only subtype with superficial combined with other subtypes by age, sex and anatomic site in 3150 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, John H; Myint, Esther; Barr, Elizabeth M; Clark, Simon P; David, Michael; Na, Renua; Hou, Ruihang

    2017-08-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) may present as superficial subtype alone (sBCC) or superficial combined with other subtypes. The objective of this study was to compare sBCC without or with other BCC subtypes by age, sex and anatomic site. We retrospectively collected superficial BCC with the above characteristics from an Australian center during 2009 to 2014. We recorded 1528 sBCC and 1622 superficial BCC combined with other BCC subtype cases. Males numbered 2007 and females 1140. On males, head sites (forehead, cheek, nose and ear combined) compared to limb plus trunk sites displayed a higher incidence of superficial BCC combined with either nodular and or aggressive BCC subtypes (OR 13.15 CI 95% 8.9-19.5 P < .0001). On females a similar comparison also found a higher incidence of superficial BCC combined with solid subtype BCC on head sites compared to trunk and limb sites (OR 9.66 CI 95% 5.8-16.1 P < .0001). Superficial BCC alone is more likely on younger females on trunk and limb sites. Small partial biopsies reported as sBCC may miss other BCC subtypes present with higher risk on facial sites for males and females. Males had smaller proportions of superficial only subtype BCC on facial and ear sites compared to females. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Development of a method for the comparison of final repository sites in different host rock formations; Weiterentwicklung einer Methode zum Vergleich von Endlagerstandorten in unterschiedlichen Wirtsgesteinsformationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer-Appelt, Klaus; Frieling, Gerd; Kock, Ingo; and others

    2017-10-15

    The report on the development of a method for the comparison of final repository sites in different host rock formations covers the following issues: influence of the requirement of retrievability on the methodology, study on the possible extension of the methodology for repository sites with crystalline host rocks: boundary conditions in Germany, final disposal concept for crystalline host rocks, generic extension of the VerSi method, identification, classification and relevance weighting of safety functions, relevance of the safety functions for the crystalline host rock formation, review of the methodological need for changes for crystalline rock sites under low-permeability covering; study on the applicability of the methodology for the determination of site regions for surface exploitation (phase 1).

  17. Comparison between dispersed nuclear power plants and a nuclear energy center at a hypothetical site on Kentucky Lake, Tennessee. Vol. IV. A site selection methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosemarin, C.S.; Yaffee, S.L.

    1976-09-01

    A methodology has been developed for selecting suitable sites for development as nuclear energy centers. First, the forty-eight contiguous states were screened on the basis of four variables: (1) seismic stability; (2) distance from projected population centers; (3) adequate water supply; and (4) noninterference with scenic and reserved lands. After location of a surrogate area in north central Tennessee, further screening was performed using 22 variables to find a suitable 75-sq-mile surrogate site within this 1500-sq-mile area. A computer method for screening the surrogate area is presented, and the use of the data for the 22 variables is illustrated

  18. Health science students and their learning environment: a comparison of perceptions of on-site, remote-site, and traditional classroom students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elison-Bowers, P; Snelson, Chareen; Casa de Calvo, Mario; Thompson, Heather

    2008-02-05

    This study compared the responses of on-site, remote-site, and traditional classroom students on measures of student/teacher interaction, course structure, physical learning environment, and overall course enjoyment/satisfaction. The sample population consisted of students taking undergraduate courses in medical terminology at two western colleges. The survey instrument was derived from Thomerson's questionnaire, which included closed- and open-ended questions assessing perceptions of students toward their courses. Controlling for grade expectations, results revealed no significant differences among the on-site, remote-site, and traditional classroom students in any of the four cluster domains. However, a nonsignificant (and continuing) trend suggested that students preferred the traditional classroom environment. When results were controlled for age, significant differences emerged between traditional and nontraditional students on measures of student/teacher interaction, physical learning environment, and overall enjoyment/satisfaction, as nontraditional students exhibited higher scores. Students' responses to open-ended questions indicated they enjoyed the convenience of online instruction, but reported finding frustration with technology itself.

  19. Physical stability comparisons of IgG1-Fc variants: effects of N-glycosylation site occupancy and Asp/Gln residues at site Asn 297.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsenaidy, Mohammad A; Okbazghi, Solomon Z; Kim, Jae Hyun; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Middaugh, C Russell; Tolbert, Thomas J; Volkin, David B

    2014-06-01

    The structural integrity and conformational stability of various IgG1-Fc proteins produced from the yeast Pichia pastoris with different glycosylation site occupancy (di-, mono-, and nonglycosylated) were determined. In addition, the physical stability profiles of three different forms of nonglycosylated Fc molecules (varying amino-acid residues at site 297 in the CH 2 domain due to the point mutations and enzymatic digestion of the Fc glycoforms) were also examined. The physical stability of these IgG1-Fc glycoproteins was examined as a function of pH and temperature by high-throughput biophysical analysis using multiple techniques combined with data visualization tools (three index empirical phase diagrams and radar charts). Across the pH range of 4.0-6.0, the di- and monoglycosylated forms of the IgG1-Fc showed the highest and lowest levels of physical stability, respectively, with the nonglycosylated forms showing intermediate stability depending on solution pH. In the aglycosylated Fc proteins, the introduction of Asp (D) residues at site 297 (QQ vs. DN vs. DD forms) resulted in more subtle changes in structural integrity and physical stability depending on solution pH. The utility of evaluating the conformational stability profile differences between the various IgG1-Fc glycoproteins is discussed in the context of analytical comparability studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  20. Comparison Of Vented And Absolute Pressure Transducers For Water-Level Monitoring In Hanford Site Central Plateau Wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcdonald, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Automated water-level data collected using vented pressure transducers deployed in Hanford Site Central Plateau wells commonly display more variability than manual tape measurements in response to barometric pressure fluctuations. To explain this difference, it was hypothesized that vented pressure transducers installed in some wells are subject to barometric pressure effects that reduce water-level measurement accuracy. Vented pressure transducers use a vent tube, which is open to the atmosphere at land surface, to supply air pressure to the transducer housing for barometric compensation so the transducer measurements will represent only the water pressure. When using vented transducers, the assumption is made that the air pressure between land surface and the well bore is in equilibrium. By comparison, absolute pressure transducers directly measure the air pressure within the wellbore. Barometric compensation is achieved by subtracting the well bore air pressure measurement from the total pressure measured by a second transducer submerged in the water. Thus, no assumption of air pressure equilibrium is needed. In this study, water-level measurements were collected from the same Central Plateau wells using both vented and absolute pressure transducers to evaluate the different methods of barometric compensation. Manual tape measurements were also collected to evaluate the transducers. Measurements collected during this study demonstrated that the vented pressure transducers over-responded to barometric pressure fluctuations due to a pressure disequilibrium between the air within the wellbores and the atmosphere at land surface. The disequilibrium is thought to be caused by the relatively long time required for barometric pressure changes to equilibrate between land surface and the deep vadose zone and may be exacerbated by the restriction of air flow between the well bore and the atmosphere due to the presence of sample pump landing plates and well caps. The

  1. A comparison between standard well test evaluation methods used in SKB's site investigations and the generalised radial flow concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follin, Sven; Ludvigson, Jan-Erik; Leven, Jakob

    2011-09-01

    According to the strategy for hydrogeological characterisation within the SKB's site investigation programme, two single-hole test methods are available for testing and parameterisation of groundwater flow models - constant-head injection testing with the Pipe String System (PSS method) and difference flow logging with the Posiva Flow Log (PFL method). This report presents the results of an investigation to assess discrepancies in the results of single-hole transmissivity measurements using these methods in the Forsmark site characterisation. The investigation explores the possibility that the source of the discrepancy observed lies in the assumptions of the flow geometry that are inherent to the methods used for standard constant-head injection well test analysis and difference flow logging analysis, respectively. In particular, the report looks at the generalised radial flow (GRF) concept by Barker (1988) as a means that might explain some of the differences. A confirmation of the actual flow geometries (dimensions) observed during hydraulic injection tests could help to identify admissible conceptual models for the tested system, and place the hydraulic testing with the PSS and PFL test methods in its full hydrogeological context. The investigation analyses 151 constant-head injection tests in three cored boreholes at Forsmark. The results suggest that the transmissivities derived with standard constant-head injection well test analysis methods and with the GRF concept, respectively, are similar provided that the dominating flow geometry during the testing is radial (cylindrical). Thus, having flow geometries with dimensions other than 2 affects the value of the interpreted transmissivity. For example, a flow system with a dimension of 1 may require an order of magnitude or more, higher transmissivity to produce the same flow rates. The median of the GRF flow dimensions of all 151 constant-head injection tests is 2.06 with 33% of the tests in the range 1

  2. Longitudinal analysis of osteogenic and angiogenic signaling factors in healing models mimicking atrophic and hypertrophic non-unions in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susann Minkwitz

    Full Text Available Impaired bone healing can have devastating consequences for the patient. Clinically relevant animal models are necessary to understand the pathology of impaired bone healing. In this study, two impaired healing models, a hypertrophic and an atrophic non-union, were compared to physiological bone healing in rats. The aim was to provide detailed information about differences in gene expression, vascularization and histology during the healing process. The change from a closed fracture (healing control group to an open osteotomy (hypertrophy group led to prolonged healing with reduced mineralized bridging after 42 days. RT-PCR data revealed higher gene expression of most tested osteogenic and angiogenic factors in the hypertrophy group at day 14. After 42 days a significant reduction of gene expression was seen for Bmp4 and Bambi in this group. The inhibition of angiogenesis by Fumagillin (atrophy group decreased the formation of new blood vessels and led to a non-healing situation with diminished chondrogenesis. RT-PCR results showed an attempt towards overcoming the early perturbance by significant up regulation of the angiogenic regulators Vegfa, Angiopoietin 2 and Fgf1 at day 7 and a further continuous increase of Fgf1, -2 and Angiopoietin 2 over time. However µCT angiograms showed incomplete recovery after 42 days. Furthermore, lower expression values were detected for the Bmps at day 14 and 21. The Bmp antagonists Dan and Twsg1 tended to be higher expressed in the atrophy group at day 42. In conclusion, the investigated animal models are suitable models to mimic human fracture healing complications and can be used for longitudinal studies. Analyzing osteogenic and angiogenic signaling patterns, clear changes in expression were identified between these three healing models, revealing the importance of a coordinated interplay of different factors to allow successful bone healing.

  3. Overburden characterization and post-burn study of the Hanna IV, underground coal gasification site, Wyoming, and comparison to other Wyoming UCG sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcouiller, B.A.; Burns, L.K.; Ethridge, F.G.

    1984-11-01

    Analysis of 21 post-burn cores taken from the Hanna IV UCG site allows 96 m (315 ft) of overburden to be subdivided into four local stratigraphic units. The 7.6 m (25 ft) thick Hanna No. 1 coal seam is overlain by a laterally discontinuous, 3.3 m (11 ft) thick shaley mudstone (Unit A') in part of the Hanna IV site. A more widespread, 30 m (90 ft) thick well-indurated sandstone (Unit A) overlies the A' unit. Unit A is the roof rock for both of the Hanna IV cavities. Overlying Unit A is a 33 m (108 ft) thick sequence of mudstone and claystone (Unit B), and the uppermost unit at the Hanna IV site (Unit C) is a coarse-grained sandstone that ranges in thickness from 40 to 67 m (131 to 220 ft). Two elliptical cavities were formed during the two phases of the Hanna IV experiment. The larger cavity, Hanna IVa, is 45 x 15 m in plan and has a maximum height of 18 m (59 ft) from the base of the coal seam to the top of the cavity; the Hanna IVb cavity is 40 x 15 m in plan and has a maximum height of 11 m (36 ft) from the base of the coal seam to the top of the cavity. Geotechnical tests indicated that the Hanna IV overburden rocks were moderately strong to strong, based on the empirical classification of Broch and Franklin (1972), and a positive, linear correlation exists between rock strength and volume percent calcite cement. There is an inverse linear correlation between rock strength and porosity for the Hanna IV overburden rocks. 28 refs., 34 figs., 13 tabs..

  4. A comparison between dispersed nuclear power plants and a nuclear energy center at a hypothetical site on Kentucky Lake, Tennessee. Vol. III. Environmental considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, F.C.; Gray, D.D.; Hyndman, J.R.; Sisman, O.; Suffern, J.S.; Tyrrell, P.A.; West, D.C.

    1976-02-01

    The thermal, ecological, and social impacts of a 40-reactor NEC are compared to impacts from four 10-reactor NECs and ten 4-reactor power plants. The comparison was made for surrogate sites in western Tennessee. The surrogate site for the 40-reactor NEC is located on Kentucky Lake. A layout is postulated for ten clusters of four reactors each with 2.5-mile spacing between clusters. The plants use natural-draft cooling towers. A transmission system is proposed for delivering the power (48,000 MW) to five load centers. Comparable transmission systems are proposed for the 10-reactor NECs and the 4-reactor dispersed sites delivering power to the same load centers.

  5. Safety study: is there a pathologic IGF-1, PDGF and TGF-ß cytokine expression caused by adjunct BMP-7 in tibial and femoral non-union therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer C

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Christian Fischer,1 Christian Reiner,2 Gerhard Schmidmaier,1 Julian Doll,1 Christopher Child,3 Paul Alfred Grützner,4 Bahram Biglari,4 Sonja Boxriker,5 Arash Moghaddam5 1Center for Orthopedics, Trauma Surgery and Spinal Cord Injury, HTRG – Heidelberg Trauma Research Group, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany; 2Department of Trauma and Orthopedic Surgery, Paracelsus Medical University, Nuremberg Hospital South, Nuremberg, Germany; 3Department of Trauma Surgery, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 4Trauma and Orthopedics, BG Trauma Center Ludwigshafen, Ludwigshafen, Germany; 5Center of Orthopedics, Trauma Surgery and Sport Medicine, ATORG Aschaffenburg-Alzenau, Aschaffenburg, Germany Background: In this prospective safety study, we investigated if the characteristic cytokine expression during bone regeneration is manipulated by the local application of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7 in non-union surgery. Therefore, the levels of insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, platelet-derived growth factor AB (PDGF-AB and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β were compared between patients with the gold standard use of autologous bone graft (ABG and those with additional application of BMP-7 as part of the diamond concept.Patients and methods: Between 2009 and 2014, of the 153 patients with tibial and femoral non-unions, a matched pair analysis was performed to compare the serological cytokine expressions. Blood samples were collected preoperatively, 1, 2 and 6 weeks as well as 3 and 6 months after non-union surgery. Matching criteria were smoking status, fracture location, gender, age and body mass index (BMI. Patients in G1 (n=10 were treated with ABG and local BMP-7 while their matching partners in G2 (n=10 received ABG only. The routine clinical and radiologic follow-up was 1 year.Results: Although the IGF-1 quantification in G2 showed higher pre- and postoperative values compared to G1 (p<0.05, the courses of both

  6. Cell-based Assay System for Predicting Bone Regeneration in Patient Affected by Aseptic Nonunion and Treated with Platelet Rich Fibrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perut, Francesca; Dallari, Dante; Rani, Nicola; Baldini, Nicola; Granchi, Donatella

    Regenerative strategies based on the use of platelet concentrates as an autologous source of growth factors (GF) has been proposed to promote the healing of long bone nonunions. However, the relatively high failure rate stimulates interest in growing knowledge and developing solutions to obtain the best results from the regenerative approach. In this study we evaluated whether a cell-based assay system could be able to recognize patients who will benefit or not from the use of autologous platelet preparations. The autologous serum was used in culture medium to promote the osteogenic differentiation of normal bone-marrow stromal cells (BMSC). Blood samples were collected from 16 patients affected by aseptic long bone nonunion who were candidates to the treatment with autologous platelet-rich fibrin. The osteoinductive effect was detected by measuring the BMSC proliferation, the mineralization activity, and the expression of bone-related genes. Serum level of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was considered as a representative marker of the delivery of osteogenic GFs from platelets. Laboratory results were related to the characteristics of the disease before the treatment and to the outcome at 12 months. Serum samples from "good responders" showed significantly higher levels of bFGF and were able to induce a significantly higher proliferation of BMSC, while no significant differences were observed in terms of osteoblast differentiation. BMSC-based assay could be a useful tool to recognize patients who have a low probability to benefit from the use of autologous platelet concentrate to promote the healing of long bone nonunion.

  7. Comparison of blood volume pulse and skin conductance responses to mental and affective stimuli at different anatomical sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushki, Azadeh; Fairley, Jillian; Merja, Satyam; King, Gillian; Chau, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of blood volume pulse (BVP) and skin conductance are commonly used as indications of psychological arousal in affective computing and human–machine interfaces. To date, palmar surfaces remain the primary site for these measurements. Placement of sensors on palmar surfaces, however, is undesirable when recordings are fraught with motion and pressure artifacts. These artifacts are frequent when the human participant has involuntary movements as in hyperkinetic cerebral palsy. This motivates the use of alternative measurement sites. The present study examined the correlation between measurements of blood volume pulse and skin conductance obtained from three different sites on the body (fingers, toes and ear for BVP; fingers, toes and arch of the foot for skin conductance) in response to cognitive and affective stimuli. The results of this pilot study indicated significant inter-site correlation among signal features derived from different sites, with the exception of BVP amplitude, the number of electrodermal reactions and the slope of the electrodermal activity response. We attribute these differences in part to inter-site discrepancies in local skin conditions, such as skin temperature. Despite these differences, significant changes from baseline were present in the responses to the cognitive and affective stimuli at non-palmar sites, suggesting that these sites may provide viable signal measurements for use in affective computing and human–machine interface applications

  8. Reexamining age, race, site, and thermometer type as variables affecting temperature measurement in adults – A comparison study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Linda S

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a result of the recent international vigilance regarding disease assessment, accurate measurement of body temperature has become increasingly important. Yet, trusted low-tech, portable mercury glass thermometers are no longer available. Thus, comparing accuracy of mercury-free thermometers with mercury devices is essential. Study purposes were 1 to examine age, race, site as variables affecting temperature measurement in adults, and 2 to compare clinical accuracy of low-tech Galinstan-in-glass device to mercury-in-glass at oral, axillary, groin, and rectal sites in adults. Methods Setting 176 bed accredited healthcare facility, rural northwest US Participants Convenience sample (N = 120 of hospitalized persons ≥ 18 years old. Instruments Temperatures (°F measured at oral, skin (simultaneous, immediately followed by rectal sites with four each mercury-glass (BD and Galinstan-glass (Geratherm thermometers; 10 minute dwell times. Results Participants averaged 61.6 years (SD 17.9, 188 pounds (SD 55.3; 61% female; race: 85% White, 8.3% Native Am., 4.2% Hispanic, 1.7 % Asian, 0.8% Black. For both mercury and Galinstan-glass thermometers, within-subject temperature readings were highest rectally; followed by oral, then skin sites. Galinstan assessments demonstrated rectal sites 0.91°F > oral and ≅ 1.3°F > skin sites. Devices strongly correlated between and across sites. Site difference scores between devices showed greatest variability at skin sites; least at rectal site. 95% confidence intervals of difference scores by site (°F: oral (0.142 – 0.265, axilla (0.167 – 0.339, groin (0.037 – 0.321, and rectal (-0.111 – 0.111. Race correlated with age, temperature readings each site and device. Conclusion Temperature readings varied by age, race. Mercury readings correlated with Galinstan thermometer readings at all sites. Site mean differences between devices were considered clinically insignificant. Still considered

  9. A new variant of scaphoid reconstruction: Treatment of scaphoid non-union with avascular bone interponate and high compression screw (Synthes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Scaphoid fractures as frequently overseen injuries often result in scaphoid non-unions, that need to be treated to prevent carpal collapse and secondary cartilage damage. Vital bone tissue and compression of fracture and bone graft ends seem to be crucial in for ossification and final bone healing. In the present study we compare our results using a high compression screw (HCS Synthes to results in the literature using different kinds of internal fixation including compression screws of various types. We present 22 patients with scaphoid non-unions treated with a bone graft and a HCS Synthes. We evaluated our post-operative results. The Manchester-Modified Disability of the Shoulder, Arm and Hand–Score (M-Dash imposed with an average of 29.8 points (MD=29 / SD=9.46 / MIN=18 / MAX=48. None of the re-evaluated patients sorrowed for pain in rest. Five patients stated pain (ranging from 4 to 8 on numeric analogue scale after heavy burden (e.g. boxing, weight lifting.In exploring the range of motion of the operated hand we deliver the following results: dorsal extension: average 72.73° (MD=80° / SD=17.23° / MIN=30° / MAX=85°, flexion: average 73.64° (MD=80° / SD=8.97° / MIN=60° / MAX=80°, ulnar deviation: average 39.09°, (MD=40° / SD=2.02° / MIN=35° / MAX=40°, radial deviation: average 29.09°, (MD=30° / SD=3.01° / MIN=20° / MAX=30°. Additionally a performance testing was conducted: fist clenching sign: complete without pain in 100%, pinch grip: complete in 100%, moderate pain in n=1 (8.33%, opposition digitus manus I–V complete in 100%, moderate pain n=2 (16.67%. Three patients with persisting fracture gap had a scaphoid bone fractured in the proximal third; one patient even with a very small proximal fragment. One persisting non-union was localized in the middle third (period between injury and operation = . In conclusion, our patients showed better healing rates compared to results presented in the literature. Non-unions

  10. Comparison of Different Height–Diameter Modelling Techniques for Prediction of Site Productivity in Natural Uneven-Aged Pure Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangshuang Duan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable estimates of forest site productivity are a central element of forest management. The model of height-diameter relationship of dominant trees using algebraic difference approach (ADA is a commonly used method to measure site productivity of natural uneven-aged stands. However, the existing models of this method do not recognize site type or sample plot specific variability in height curves; thus, it cannot be effectively used to estimate site type or sample plot-related site productivity for natural uneven-aged stands. Two primary subject-specific approaches, ADA with dummy variable (DV (ADA + DV and ADA with combination of dummy variable and nonlinear mixed-effects modelling (CM (ADA + CM, were proposed for height–diameter modelling. Height–diameter models developed with ADA, ADA + DV and ADA + CM were compared using data from 4161 observations on 349 permanent sample plots of four major natural uneven-aged pure stands (Spruce, Korean Larch, Mongolian Oak, and White Birch in northeastern China. It was found that models developed with ADA + CM provided the best performance, followed by the models with ADA + DV, and the models developed with ADA performed the worst. Random effects at the plot level were substantial, and their inclusion greatly improved the model’s accuracy. More importantly, the models developed with ADA + CM provide an effective method for quantifying site type- and sample plot-specific forest site productivity for uneven-aged pure stands.

  11. Comparison of the sensitivity of surface downward longwave radiation to changes in water vapor at two high elevation sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yonghua; Naud, Catherine M; Rangwala, Imtiaz; Landry, Christopher C; Miller, James R

    2014-01-01

    Among the potential reasons for enhanced warming rates in many high elevation regions is the nonlinear relationship between surface downward longwave radiation (DLR) and specific humidity (q). In this study we use ground-based observations at two neighboring high elevation sites in Southwestern Colorado that have different local topography and are 1.3 km apart horizontally and 348 m vertically. We examine the spatial consistency of the sensitivities (partial derivatives) of DLR with respect to changes in q, and the sensitivities are obtained from the Jacobian matrix of a neural network analysis. Although the relationship between DLR and q is the same at both sites, the sensitivities are higher when q is smaller, which occurs more frequently at the higher elevation site. There is a distinct hourly distribution in the sensitivities at both sites especially for high sensitivity cases, although the range is greater at the lower elevation site. The hourly distribution of the sensitivities relates to that of q. Under clear skies during daytime, q is similar between the two sites, however under cloudy skies or at night, it is not. This means that the DLR–q sensitivities are similar at the two sites during daytime but not at night, and care must be exercised when using data from one site to infer the impact of water vapor feedbacks at another site, particularly at night. Our analysis suggests that care should be exercised when using the lapse rate adjustment to infill high frequency data in a complex topographical region, particularly when one of the stations is subject to cold air pooling as found here. (letter)

  12. Comparison of the Sensitivity of Surface Downward Longwave Radiation to Changes in Water Vapor at Two High Elevation Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yonghua; Naud, Catherine M.; Rangwala, Imtiaz; Landry, Christopher C.; Miller, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Among the potential reasons for enhanced warming rates in many high elevation regions is the nonlinear relationship between surface downward longwave radiation (DLR) and specific humidity (q). In this study we use ground-based observations at two neighboring high elevation sites in Southwestern Colorado that have different local topography and are 1.3 kilometers apart horizontally and 348 meters vertically. We examine the spatial consistency of the sensitivities (partial derivatives) of DLR with respect to changes in q, and the sensitivities are obtained from the Jacobian matrix of a neural network analysis. Although the relationship between DLR and q is the same at both sites, the sensitivities are higher when q is smaller, which occurs more frequently at the higher elevation site. There is a distinct hourly distribution in the sensitivities at both sites especially for high sensitivity cases, although the range is greater at the lower elevation site. The hourly distribution of the sensitivities relates to that of q. Under clear skies during daytime, q is similar between the two sites, however under cloudy skies or at night, it is not. This means that the DLR-q sensitivities are similar at the two sites during daytime but not at night, and care must be exercised when using data from one site to infer the impact of water vapor feedbacks at another site, particularly at night. Our analysis suggests that care should be exercised when using the lapse rate adjustment to infill high frequency data in a complex topographical region, particularly when one of the stations is subject to cold air pooling as found here.

  13. A simplified 4-site economical intradermal post-exposure rabies vaccine regimen: a randomised controlled comparison with standard methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary J Warrell

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The need for economical rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP is increasing in developing countries. Implementation of the two currently approved economical intradermal (ID vaccine regimens is restricted due to confusion over different vaccines, regimens and dosages, lack of confidence in intradermal technique, and pharmaceutical regulations. We therefore compared a simplified 4-site economical PEP regimen with standard methods.Two hundred and fifty-four volunteers were randomly allocated to a single blind controlled trial. Each received purified vero cell rabies vaccine by one of four PEP regimens: the currently accepted 2-site ID; the 8-site regimen using 0.05 ml per ID site; a new 4-site ID regimen (on day 0, approximately 0.1 ml at 4 ID sites, using the whole 0.5 ml ampoule of vaccine; on day 7, 0.1 ml ID at 2 sites and at one site on days 28 and 90; or the standard 5-dose intramuscular regimen. All ID regimens required the same total amount of vaccine, 60% less than the intramuscular method. Neutralising antibody responses were measured five times over a year in 229 people, for whom complete data were available.All ID regimens showed similar immunogenicity. The intramuscular regimen gave the lowest geometric mean antibody titres. Using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test, some sera had unexpectedly high antibody levels that were not attributable to previous vaccination. The results were confirmed using the fluorescent antibody virus neutralisation method.This 4-site PEP regimen proved as immunogenic as current regimens, and has the advantages of requiring fewer clinic visits, being more practicable, and having a wider margin of safety, especially in inexperienced hands, than the 2-site regimen. It is more convenient than the 8-site method, and can be used economically with vaccines formulated in 1.0 or 0.5 ml ampoules. The 4-site regimen now meets all requirements of immunogenicity for PEP and can be introduced without further

  14. A simplified 4-site economical intradermal post-exposure rabies vaccine regimen: a randomised controlled comparison with standard methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrell, Mary J; Riddell, Anna; Yu, Ly-Mee; Phipps, Judith; Diggle, Linda; Bourhy, Hervé; Deeks, Jonathan J; Fooks, Anthony R; Audry, Laurent; Brookes, Sharon M; Meslin, François-Xavier; Moxon, Richard; Pollard, Andrew J; Warrell, David A

    2008-04-23

    The need for economical rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is increasing in developing countries. Implementation of the two currently approved economical intradermal (ID) vaccine regimens is restricted due to confusion over different vaccines, regimens and dosages, lack of confidence in intradermal technique, and pharmaceutical regulations. We therefore compared a simplified 4-site economical PEP regimen with standard methods. Two hundred and fifty-four volunteers were randomly allocated to a single blind controlled trial. Each received purified vero cell rabies vaccine by one of four PEP regimens: the currently accepted 2-site ID; the 8-site regimen using 0.05 ml per ID site; a new 4-site ID regimen (on day 0, approximately 0.1 ml at 4 ID sites, using the whole 0.5 ml ampoule of vaccine; on day 7, 0.1 ml ID at 2 sites and at one site on days 28 and 90); or the standard 5-dose intramuscular regimen. All ID regimens required the same total amount of vaccine, 60% less than the intramuscular method. Neutralising antibody responses were measured five times over a year in 229 people, for whom complete data were available. All ID regimens showed similar immunogenicity. The intramuscular regimen gave the lowest geometric mean antibody titres. Using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test, some sera had unexpectedly high antibody levels that were not attributable to previous vaccination. The results were confirmed using the fluorescent antibody virus neutralisation method. This 4-site PEP regimen proved as immunogenic as current regimens, and has the advantages of requiring fewer clinic visits, being more practicable, and having a wider margin of safety, especially in inexperienced hands, than the 2-site regimen. It is more convenient than the 8-site method, and can be used economically with vaccines formulated in 1.0 or 0.5 ml ampoules. The 4-site regimen now meets all requirements of immunogenicity for PEP and can be introduced without further studies. Controlled

  15. Comparison between dispersed nuclear power plants and a nuclear energy center at a hypothetical site on Kentucky Lake, Tennessee. Volume II. Transmission of power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reister, D.B.; Zelby, L.W.

    1976-05-01

    A comparison is made among power transmission systems required to serve a single set of load center demands from four modes of siting the generating facilities: a single generation site with an ultimate generation capacity of 48,000 MW; four generation sites each with a generation capacity of 12,000 MW; 10 generation sites each with a generation capacity of 4,800 MW; and a system that resulted when the existing utility plan for future generation was logically expanded. The time period for the study is from the year 1985 to the year 2020, when the full 48,000 MW of new capacity from the single large nuclear energy center is on-line. The load centers served are Huntsville, Alabama; Evansville, Indiana; Paducah, Kentucky; and Chattanooga, Nashville, and Memphis, Tennessee. Generation sites are real locations but are hypothetical in terms of miles of transmission lines, the product of the amount of power transmitted and the distance transmitted (GW-miles), and cost

  16. Comparison of APR1400 safety between brake site and shin-Kori site Due to the difference in the climate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ho Joon; Lee, Jeong Ik; Lee, Jeong Ik

    2012-01-01

    Brake Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) is now under the construction based on APR1400 designed by Korean Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO). APR1400 is a two loop pressurized water reactor, the nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) US designed for about put of 4,000 MWt, with a corresponding electrical output of approximately 1,390 MWe. The first APR1400 (SKN 3 and 4) constructed in Shin-Kori, Korea has been modified according to the surrounding environment of the United Arab Emirates. In this paper, authors would like to compare safety issues between B NPP and Skin due to the changes of surroundings, since the site characteristics are very different. For instance, the mean annual air temperature in the UAE is 28 .deg. C and the peak air temperature was recorded as 48.8 .deg. C. Sea temperatures are varying from 17. deg. C in January to 35. deg. C in August, while that of Korea is in 9-16. deg. C range. Hot climate of UAE and the malfunction of HVAC system can lead the increasing of the water temperature in safety injection system (SIS). The heated water in SIS may affect the safety margin of the peak cladding temperature (PCT). The change of PCT and response time according to design basis accident scenarios such as large break LOCA are analyzed in detail. To evaluate such effect, Mars code was utilized to evaluate assumed condition by KAIST and the analyses of the results were carried out by Khalifa Univ.

  17. Comparison of equivalent linear and non linear methods on ground response analysis: case study at West Bangka site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eko Rudi Iswanto; Eric Yee

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of identifying NPP sites, site surveys are performed in West Bangka (WB), Bangka-Belitung Island Province. Ground response analysis of a potential site has been carried out using peak strain profiles and peak ground acceleration. The objective of this research is to compare Equivalent Linear (EQL) and Non Linear (NL) methods of ground response analysis on the selected NPP site (West Bangka) using Deep Soil software. Equivalent linear method is widely used because requires soil data in simple way and short time of computational process. On the other hand, non linear method is capable of representing the actual soil behaviour by considering non linear soil parameter. The results showed that EQL method has similar trends to NL method. At surface layer, the acceleration values for EQL and NL methods are resulted as 0.425 g and 0.375 g respectively. NL method is more reliable in capturing higher frequencies of spectral acceleration compared to EQL method. (author)

  18. Comparison of primary and delayed primary closure in dirty abdominal wounds in terms of frequency of surgical site infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, O.B.A.; Ahmed, N.; Butt, M.W.U.D.; Saleem, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Objective of this study was to compare primary and delayed primary wound closure for dirty abdominal wounds in terms of frequency of surgical site infection. Study Design: Randomized Controlled Trial. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital, Multan. From 16 Sep 2010 to 15 Mar 2011. Patients and Methods: A total of 110 patients were randomly divided into two groups of 55 patients each using random numbers table. Abdominal wounds of one group were closed primarily and of other group were subjected to delayed primary wound closure. The wounds were then checked for surgical site infection for seven post operative days. Results: A higher frequency of surgical site infection was observed in primary closure group (27.3%) as compared to delayed primary closure group (9.1%) which was statistically significant (p=0.013). Conclusion: Delayed primary closure is superior to primary closure in dirty abdominal wounds in terms of frequency of surgical site infection. (author)

  19. Peat humification and climate change: a multi-site comparison from mires in south-east Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Payne

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Peatland records of Holocene palaeoclimate have been widely used in Europe. Their potential in western North America remains largely unexploited despite an abundance of candidate sites. Peat humification analysis is a widely used technique for palaeoclimatic inference from peatlands. This study attempts to demonstrate a climatic role in determining peat humification by comparing low-resolution peat humification records from five mires in south-east Alaska. Humification was determined by alkali extraction and colorimetry and records dated by radiocarbon and tephrochronology. Testate amoebae analysis was carried out across a major humification-inferred wet shift in three of the sites. The humification results show variability down the length of the cores but there is only limited agreement between records from different sites. Many general trends in the data appear to be out of phase and periods of proxy 'complacency' are shown. This study does not provide strong evidence for climatic forcing of humification in these sites. Methodological issues including possible problems with the age-depth models and the role of a peat-forming plant species signal in the humification data are discussed. The results support previous studies in suggesting the value of employing a multi-proxy, multi-site, and possibly multi-core approach in peat-based palaeoclimatology.

  20. Western lowland gorilla diet and resource availability: new evidence, cross-site comparisons, and reflections on indirect sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Diane M; McNeilage, Alastair; Greer, David; Bocian, Carolyn; Mehlman, Patrick; Shah, Natasha

    2002-11-01

    We describe the resource availability and diet of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) from a new study site in the Central African Republic and Republic of Congo based on 3 years of study. The results, based on 715 fecal samples and 617 days of feeding trails, were similar to those reported from three other sites, in spite of differences in herb and fruit availability. Staple foods (consumed year-round) included high-quality herbs (Haumania), swamp herbs (when present), and a minimal diversity of fruit. A variety of fruits (average of 3.5 species per day and 10 per month) were selectively consumed; gorillas ignored some common fruits and incorporated rare fruits to a degree higher than predicted based on availability. During periods of fruit abundance, fruit constituted most of the diet. When succulent fruits were unavailable, gorillas used low-quality herbs (i.e., low-protein), bark, and more fibrous fruits as fallback foods. Fibrous fruit species, such as Duboscia macrocarpa and Klainedoxa gabonensis, were particularly important to gorillas at Mondika and other sites as fallbacks. The densities of these two species are similar across sites for which data are available, in spite of major differences in forest structure, suggesting they may be key species in determining gorilla density. No sex difference in diet was detected. Such little variation in western lowland gorilla diet across sites and between sexes was unexpected and may partly reflect limitations of indirect sampling. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Alignment-independent comparison of binding sites based on DrugScore potential fields encoded by 3D Zernike descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisius, Britta; Gohlke, Holger

    2012-09-24

    Analyzing protein binding sites provides detailed insights into the biological processes proteins are involved in, e.g., into drug-target interactions, and so is of crucial importance in drug discovery. Herein, we present novel alignment-independent binding site descriptors based on DrugScore potential fields. The potential fields are transformed to a set of information-rich descriptors using a series expansion in 3D Zernike polynomials. The resulting Zernike descriptors show a promising performance in detecting similarities among proteins with low pairwise sequence identities that bind identical ligands, as well as within subfamilies of one target class. Furthermore, the Zernike descriptors are robust against structural variations among protein binding sites. Finally, the Zernike descriptors show a high data compression power, and computing similarities between binding sites based on these descriptors is highly efficient. Consequently, the Zernike descriptors are a useful tool for computational binding site analysis, e.g., to predict the function of novel proteins, off-targets for drug candidates, or novel targets for known drugs.

  2. Energy Price Comparisons. Study on the quality of comparison sites for electricity and natural gas on the Internet; Energieprijsvergelijkers. Onderzoek naar de kwaliteit van vergelijkingssites voor elektriciteit en gas op het internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boezaard, P.M.; Van Liere, M.M.; Van Steenpaal, D.F.J.M.

    2007-06-15

    Internet sites with comparisons of prices for electricity and natural gas appear to be important tools for consumers. On a regular basis the Dutch Office of Energy Regulation (DTe) carries out a study on the quality of such price comparison sites. In this report the results of the June 2007 study are summarized. [Dutch] Voor een goedwerkende markt is een goed geinformeerde consument van belang. Uit de Consumentenmonitor, kwalitatief onderzoek dat de NMa in 2006 heeft laten uitvoeren, is gebleken dat de consument bij een overstap vaak gebruik maakt van prijsvergelijkingssites. Het belang van dergelijke sites neemt alleen maar toe. Door een grotere differentiatie aan producten en meer variatie in prijsstelling wordt een goede vergelijking van energieleveranciers voor de gemiddelde consument steeds lastiger. Ook voor de prijsvergelijkingssites neemt de complexiteit toe. De Directie Toezicht Energie (DTe) van de Nederlandse Mededingingsautoriteit (NMa) onderzoekt sinds 2004 jaarlijks de kwaliteit van (prijs)vergelijkingssites voor elektriciteit en gas. Gezien de groeiende complexiteit van de prijsvergelijkingen is het van belang dat de NMa dit onderzoek ook in 2007 uitvoert. In dit rapport worden de resultaten van dit jaar gepresenteerd. Daarnaast heeft de NMa voor het eerst een handleiding met tips voor de consument als bijlage bij dit rapport opgenomen.

  3. A first comparison of Cosmo-Skymed and TerraSAR-X data over Chamonix Mont-Blanc test-site

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas , Jean-Marie; Trouvé , Emmanuel; Fallourd , Renaud; Vernier , Flavien; Tupin , Florence; Harant , Olivier; Gay , Michel; Moreau , Luc

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents the first results obtained with satellite im- age time series (SITS) acquired by Cosmo-SkyMed (CSK) over the Chamonix Mont-Blanc test-site. A CSK SITS made of 39 images is merged with a TerraSAR-X SITS made of 26 images by using the orbital information and co-registration tools developed in the EFIDIR project. The results are illus- trated by the computation of speckle-free images by temporal averaging, by the generation and comparison of topographi...

  4. How risky are social networking sites? A comparison of places online where youth sexual solicitation and harassment occurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J

    2008-02-01

    Recently, public attention has focused on the possibility that social networking sites such as MySpace and Facebook are being widely used to sexually solicit underage youth, consequently increasing their vulnerability to sexual victimization. Beyond anecdotal accounts, however, whether victimization is more commonly reported in social networking sites is unknown. The Growing up With Media Survey is a national cross-sectional online survey of 1588 youth. Participants were 10- to 15-year-old youth who have used the Internet at least once in the last 6 months. The main outcome measures were unwanted sexual solicitation on the Internet, defined as unwanted requests to talk about sex, provide personal sexual information, and do something sexual, and Internet harassment, defined as rude or mean comments, or spreading of rumors. Fifteen percent of all of the youth reported an unwanted sexual solicitation online in the last year; 4% reported an incident on a social networking site specifically. Thirty-three percent reported an online harassment in the last year; 9% reported an incident on a social networking site specifically. Among targeted youth, solicitations were more commonly reported via instant messaging (43%) and in chat rooms (32%), and harassment was more commonly reported in instant messaging (55%) than through social networking sites (27% and 28%, respectively). Broad claims of victimization risk, at least defined as unwanted sexual solicitation or harassment, associated with social networking sites do not seem justified. Prevention efforts may have a greater impact if they focus on the psychosocial problems of youth instead of a specific Internet application, including funding for online youth outreach programs, school antibullying programs, and online mental health services.

  5. Comparison of constant-rate pumping test and slug interference test results at the Hanford Site B pond multilevel test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spane, F.A. Jr.; Thorne, P.D.

    1995-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), as part of the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance Project, is responsible for monitoring the movement and fate of contamination within the unconfined aquifer to ensure that public health and the environment are protected. To support the monitoring and assessment of contamination migration on the Hanford Site, a sitewide 3-dimensional groundwater flow model is being developed. Providing quantitative hydrologic property data is instrumental in development of the 3-dimensional model. Multilevel monitoring facilities have been installed to provide detailed, vertically distributed hydrologic characterization information for the Hanford Site unconfined aquifer. In previous reports, vertically distributed water-level and hydrochemical data obtained over time from these multi-level monitoring facilities have been evaluated and reported. This report describes the B pond facility in Section 2.0. It also provides analysis results for a constant-rate pumping test (Section 3.0) and slug interference test (Section 4.0) that were conducted at a multilevel test facility located near B Pond (see Figure 1. 1) in the central part of the Hanford Site. A hydraulic test summary (Section 5.0) that focuses on the comparison of hydraulic property estimates obtained using the two test methods is also presented. Reference materials are listed in Section 6.0

  6. Nuclear Energy Center: upper St. Lawrence region. Part I. Siting. Part II. Fort Drum surrogate site, description and impact assessment. Part III. Dispersed sites impact assessment and comparison with the NEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merry, P.A.; Luner, C.; Hong, S.W.; Canham, H.O.; Boggs, J.F.; McCool, T.P.

    1976-12-01

    This report is one of many supporting documents used by the Nuclear Regulatory commission in the preparation of the Nuclear Energy Center Site Survey (NECSS) mandated by Congress. While the overall study focuses on the feasibility and practicability of nuclear energy centers (NECs), this report is directed towards choosing a suitable surrogate site in the upper St. Lawrence region of New York State, assessing the probable impacts associated with construction and operation of the NEC, and comparing these impacts with those associated with small dispersed nuclear power stations. The upper St. Lawrence region is surveyed to identify a specific site that might be suitable for a surrogate NEC. Several assumptions about the basic design of an NEC are delineated, and a general overview of the characteristics of the region is given. The Fort Drum Military Reservation is chosen as a suitable surrogate site. Fort Drum and the surrounding area are described in terms of land use and population patterns, terrestrial and aquatic ecology, water use and quality, meteorology, institutional framework, and socioeconomic structure. The impacts associated with NEC development are assessed. Then the impacts associated with smaller dispersed nuclear power stations located throughout New York State are assessed and compared with the impacts associated with the NEC. Finally, the impacts due to development of the transmission line networks associated with the NEC and with the dispersed power stations are assessed and compared.

  7. Evolution of the Italian regulations and comparison with the other European regulations on the siting of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nocera, F.; De Lise, P.

    1983-01-01

    The technical and legal criteria as well as procedures relating to the siting of nuclear power plants are given careful attention in most countries due to safety problems and increasing public interest. This paper presents a short survey of the relevant situation in some European countries and describes the developments affecting the legal regime in Italy in recent years. (NEA) [fr

  8. A model-data comparison of gross primary productivity: Results from the North American Carbon Program site synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Schaefer; Christopher R. Schwalm; Chris Williams; M. Altaf Arain; Alan Barr; Jing M. Chen; Kenneth J. Davis; Dimitre Dimitrov; Timothy W. Hilton; David Y. Hollinger; Elyn Humphreys; Benjamin Poulter; Brett M. Raczka; Andrew D. Richardson; Alok Sahoo; Peter Thornton; Rodrigo Vargas; Hans Verbeeck; Ryan Anderson; Ian Baker; T. Andrew Black; Paul Bolstad; Jiquan Chen; Peter S. Curtis; Ankur R. Desai; Michael Dietze; Danilo Dragoni; Christopher Gough; Robert F. Grant; Lianhong Gu; Atul Jain; Chris Kucharik; Beverly Law; Shuguang Liu; Erandathie Lokipitiya; Hank A. Margolis; Roser Matamala; J. Harry McCaughey; Russ Monson; J. William Munger; Walter Oechel; Changhui Peng; David T. Price; Dan Ricciuto; William J. Riley; Nigel Roulet; Hanqin Tian; Christina Tonitto; Margaret Torn; Ensheng Weng; Xiaolu Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Accurately simulating gross primary productivity (GPP) in terrestrial ecosystem models is critical because errors in simulated GPP propagate through the model to introduce additional errors in simulated biomass and other fluxes. We evaluated simulated, daily average GPP from 26 models against estimated GPP at 39 eddy covariance flux tower sites across the United States...

  9. Pairwise comparisons of ten porcine tissues identify differential transcriptional regulation at the gene, isoform, promoter and transcription start site level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farajzadeh, Leila; Hornshøj, Henrik; Momeni, Jamal

    2013-01-01

    , isoform, and transcription start site (TSS), and promoter level showed that several of the genes differed at all four levels. Interestingly, these genes were mainly annotated to the "electron transport chain" and neuronal differentiation, emphasizing that "tissue important" genes are regulated at several...

  10. Comparison of nest-site selection patterns of different sympatric raptor species as a tool for their conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poirazidis, K.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the nest-site selection patterns of four tree-nesting sympatric raptor species in Dadia National Park (Greece were compared in order to provide a sound conservation tool for their long-term management in the area. The species studied were the Black vulture (Aegypius monachus, the Lesser-spotted eagle (Aquila pomarina, the Booted eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus and the Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis. Twenty-six variables illustrating the landscape context and vegetation structure of nesting sites were analysed. Multivariate-ANOVA and Discriminant Function Analysis were used to test for significant differentiations in nest-site characteristics among the species. The species studied were initially differentiated by geomorphology and distance to foraging areas. Once these were determined their nesting areas were established according to forest structure. Our results indicate that forest management should integrate the preservation of mature forest stands with sparse canopy and forest heterogeneity in order to conserve suitable nesting habitats for the raptors. Specific conservation measures such as restriction of road construction should be implemented in order to protect the active nests and provisions should be made for adequate nesting sites for the Black vulture, which is sensitive to human disturbance.

  11. Comparison of static and high strain dynamic tests on driven steel piles at several industrial sites in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tweedie, R.; Clementino, R.; Law, D. [Thurber Engineering Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Many of the foundations at industrial plants in northern Alberta are supported by driven steel piles that are often installed through thick glacial clay and sand deposits. This paper presented 3 case histories where static load tests (SLT) and high strain dynamic tests (HSDT) were conducted on the driven steel piles. The soil conditions and typical pile sizes used at the 3 sites were described. The first site was an oilsand processing facility where steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) was used for bitumen production from oilsand. The second site was a petrochemical plant and the third site was a power plant. The case histories revealed the importance of combining SLT and HSDT to optimize pile designs. The paper emphasized the benefits of undertaking the pile load tests during the design phase, when the potential benefits of obtaining higher capacities can be effectively applied to the pile designs. It was concluded that pile design based on Limit States Design (LSD) in accordance with NBC 2005 must satisfy the Ultimate Limit States (ULS) to prevent plunging failure and also Serviceability Limit States (SLS) to maintain tolerable settlement. 10 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs.

  12. Comparison of Phytoscreening and Direct-Push- Based Site Investigation at a Rural Megasite Contaminated with Chlorinated Ethenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rein, Arno; Holm, Olaf; Trapp, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    areas in particular. Here we compare two site screening techniques that can be applied quickly at relatively low cost, namely Direct Push (DP)-based groundwater sampling and tree core sampling. The effectiveness of both methods is compared for a rural megasite contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons...

  13. Comparison of fracture site callus with iliac crest bone marrow as the source of plastic-adherent cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Zaki

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Red marrow has been described as the main source of mesenchymal stem cells although its aspiration and isolation from bone marrow was reported to have significant donor site morbidity. Since secondary bone healing occurs through formation of callus as the result of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, callus may become alternative source for mesenchymal stem cells. In this study, we compared the number of plastic-adherent cells from fracture site callus and bone marrow of iliac crest after two and four weeks of culture.Methods: Sixteen New Zealand rabbits were fracturized at the femoral shaft. Then, these rabbits were taken care. After two weeks of fracturization, 3 mL iliac crest bone marrow aspiration and callus extraction of eight rabbits were cultured (group I. The other eight rabbits were treated equally after four weeks of fracturization (group II. Simultaneously, the cultures were observed after one and two weeks. Four weeks later, they were harvested. Cells were counted using Neubauer hemocytometer. The average number of cells between the sources and groups were statistically analyzed using the unpaired t-test. Results: In group I, there were 2.6 ± 0.1 x 104 cells in the culture of iliac crest bone marrow aspirate and 2.5 ± 0.1 x 104 cells in culture of callus extract from fracture site (p = 0.34. In group II, there were 2.7 ± 0.1 x 104 cells and 2.1 ± 0.1 x 104 cells, respectively (p < 0.001.Conclusion: Fracture site callus at the second week post-fracturization may be potential as source of plastic-adherent cells compared with iliac crest bone marrow. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:70-5Keywords: Bone marrow, fracture site callus, iliac crest, long bone, mesenchymal stem cell, plastic-adherent cells

  14. Comparison of Chlorpyrifos-Oxon and Paraoxon Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Dynamics: Potential role of a peripheral binding site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kousba, Ahmed A.; Sultatos, L G.; Poet, Torka S.; Timchalk, Chuck

    2004-08-02

    The primary mechanism of action for organophosphorus (OP) insecticides involves the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by oxygenated metabolites (oxons). This inhibition has been attributed to the phosphorylation of the serine hydroxyl group located in the active site of the AChE molecule. The rate of phosphorylation is described by the bimolecular inhibitory rate constant (ki), which has been utilized for quantification of OP inhibitory capacity. It has been previously proposed that a peripheral binding site exists on the AChE molecule, which when occupied, reduces the capacity of additional oxon molecules to phosphorylate the active site. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the interaction of chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) and paraoxon (PO) with rat brain AChE using a modified Ellman assay in conjunction with a pharmacodynamic model to further assess the dynamics of AChE inhibition and the potential role of a peripheral binding site. The ki for AChE inhibition determined at oxon concentrations of 5 x 10{sup -4} 100 nM were 0.212 and 0.0216 nM-1h-1 for CPO and PO, respectively. The spontaneous reactivation rates of the inhibited AChE for CPO and PO were 0.087 and 0.078 h-1, respectively. In contrast, the ki estimated at a low oxon concentration (1 pM) were {approx} 1,000 and 10,000 -fold higher than those determined at high CPO and PO concentrations, respectively. At these low concentrations, the ki estimates were approximately similar for both CPO and PO (180 and 250 nM-1h-1, respectively). This implies that at low exposure concentrations, both oxons exhibited similar inhibitory potency in contrast to the marked difference exhibited at higher concentrations, which is consistent with the presence of a peripheral binding site on the AChE enzyme. These results support the potential importance of a secondary binding site associated with AChE kinetics, particularly at low environmentally relevant concentrations.

  15. Effects of bioaugmentation on enhanced reductive dechlorination of 1,1,1-trichloroethane in groundwater - a comparison of three sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Durant, Neal D.; Broholm, Mette Martina

    2014-01-01

    , microcosms were amended with various concentrations of chloroethanes (TCA or monochloroethane [CA]) and/or chloroethenes (tetrachloroethene [PCE], trichloroethene [TCE], or 1,1-dichloroethene [1,1-DCE]). Results showed that combined electron donor addition and bioaugmentation stimulated dechlorination of TCA...... and 1,1-dichloroethane (1,1-DCA) to CA, and dechlorination of PCE, TCE, 1,1-DCE and cDCE to ethane. Dechlorination of CA was not observed. Bioaugmentation improved the rate and extent of TCA and 1,1-DCA dechlorination at two sites, but did not accelerate dechlorination at a third site where geochemical...... conditions were reducing and Dhc and Dhb were indigenous. TCA at initial concentrations of 5 mg/L inhibited (i.e., slowed the rate of) TCA dechlorination, TCE dechlorination, donor fermentation, and methanogenesis. 1 mg/L TCA did not inhibit dechlorination of TCA, TCE or cDCE. Moreover, complete...

  16. A comparison of the bacterial microflora between coastal sites in Qingdao, P. R. China and Loch Fyne, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macinnes, J.; Robertson, P. A. W.; Austin, B.

    2002-10-01

    Aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria, recovered from two sites located on the west coast of Scotland, were compared to cultures obtained in a similar way from industrial, aquacultural and clean sites in the vicinity of Qingdao, Shandong, P. R. China. Gram-negative bacterial cultures were examined by BIOLOG-GN, and the data analysed by the simple matching (SSM) and Jaccard coefficients (SJ) and unweighted average linkage clustering using NTSys. The output revealed that 20% of the bacteria, namely, Acinetobacter johnsonii, Aquaspirillum dispar, Pseudomonas spp. (two groups), Sphingobacterium sp., Vibrio, sp., V. campbellii, V. mimicus and V. hollisae, were common between the two geographical locations. However, the study revealed shortcomings with the BIOLOG-GN system for the study of coastal Gram-negative bacteria.

  17. A comparison of the suitability of different willow varieties to treat on-site wastewater effluent in an Irish climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curneen, S J; Gill, L W

    2014-01-15

    Short rotation coppiced willow trees can be used to treat on-site wastewater effluent with the advantage that, if planted in a sealed basin and sized correctly, they produce no effluent discharge. This paper has investigated the evapotranspiration rate of four different willow varieties while also monitoring the effects of three different effluent types on each variety. The willow varieties used are all cultivars of Salix viminalis. The effluents applied were primary (septic tank) effluent, secondary treated effluent and rain water (control). The results obtained showed that the addition of effluent had a positive effect on the evapotranspiration. The willows were also found to uptake a high proportion of the nitrogen and phosphorus from the primary and secondary treated effluents added during the first year. The effect of the different effluents on the evapotranspiration rate has been used to design ten full scale on-site treatment systems which are now being monitored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A comparison of models to assess the atmospheric dispersion of resuspended radionuclides on the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.R.; Eckart, R.E.

    1994-11-01

    A study of computer codes was made to determine the suitability of their use for modeling radionuclide dispersion from attachment to fugitive dust at the GMX safety shot area of the Nevada Test site. Two codes, the Industrial Source Complex 2 Long Term Model (ISCLT2) and the Fugitive Dust Model (FDM), were subsequently chosen to model the GMX site. Dose calculations were performed using the output values generated by the computer codes. The concentration values produced by the two codes were within a factor of two of each other and were not significantly different. The FDM, however, was felt to be a more useful code for use in calculating doses caused by attachment to fugitive dust

  19. Data requirement comparison between the fixed site upgrade rule guidance compendium and the Structured Assessment Approach Licensee Submittal Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parziale, A.A.; Sacks, I.J.

    1980-12-01

    We compared the Structured Assessment Approach's (SAA) Licensee Submittal Document (LSD) with the Fixed Site Physical Protection Upgrade Rule Guidance Compendium Standard Format and Content (SFC) Guide using correlation matrices to see how well the data requirements of the SFC Guide coincided with those of a specific automated vulnerability assessment technique for fixed-site nuclear fuel cycle facilities, namely, SAA. We found that a limited SAA assessment is possible using the SFC Guide, but significant and critical safeguards vulnerabilities might be missed. Also, it was found that in some cases the organization and format of the SFC Guide input data and information made the preparation of data for the SAA somewhat awkward. 2 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Competitive Advantage or Market Saturation: An In-Depth Comparison of Flash-Sale Sites Through Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Aday, J. B.; Phelan, K. V.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify the representativeness of hospitality and service industry firms on flash-sale sites such as Groupon and LivingSocial. Currently, academic findings related to the frequency of offerings from these firms are nonexistent. This research relied upon a content analysis rubric and daily measurement of offerings from randomly selected cities represented by Groupon and LivingSocial for a period of 6 weeks. The daily offerings for specific cities on the Groupon and LivingSo...

  1. Evaluation of a novel trocar-site closure and comparison with a standard Carter-Thomason closure device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Junco, Michael; Okhunov, Zhamshid; Juncal, Samuel; Yoon, Renai; Landman, Jaime

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare a novel trocars-site closure device, the WECK EFx™ Endo Fascial Closure System (EFx) with the Carter-Thomason CloseSure System® (CT) for the closure of laparoscopic trocar site defects created by a 12-mm dilating trocar. We created standardized laparoscopic trocars-site abdominal wall defects in cadaver models using a standard 12-mm laparoscopic dilating trocar. Trocar defects were closed in a randomized fashion using one of the two closure systems. We recorded time and number of attempts needed for complete defect closure. In addition, we recorded the ability to maintain pneumoperitoneum, endoscopic visualization, safety, security, and facility based on the surgeon's subjective evaluations. We compared outcomes for the EFx and CT closure systems. We created 72 standardized laparoscopic trocars-site abdominal wall defects. The mean time needed for complete defect closure was 98.53 seconds (±28.9) for the EFx compared with 133.61 seconds (±54.61) for the CT (Psafety were 2.92 for EFx vs 2.19 for CT (Pvs 1.83 for EFx and CT, respectively (Pvs 2.33 for CT (P=0.022). No significant difference was observed between the EFx and the CT systems for endoscopic visualization (2.28 vs 2.50, P=0.080). In this in vitro cadaver trial, the EFx was superior in terms of time needed to complete defect closure, safety, and facility. CT was superior in terms of maintenance of pneumoperitoneum. Both systems were equal in the number of attempts needed to complete the defect closure and endoscopic visualization.

  2. 111Cd TDPAC investigation of metal sites in superoxide dismutase: A comparison with X-ray diffraction data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, R.; Bjerrum, M.J.; Danielsen, E.

    1990-01-01

    111Cd Time Differential Ferturbed γ-γ Angular Correlation (TDPAC) has been used to investigate the Zn-site in Cu2, Zn2-superoxide dismutase. These experiments show a clear difference between Cu(II)2 Cd2 SOD and Cu(I)2Cd2SOD. The result of Cu(II)2, Cd2-SOD agrees with the Angular Overlap Model (AO...

  3. Efficacy of the subcostal transversus abdominis plane block in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Comparison with conventional port-site infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Tolchard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pain experienced following laparoscopic cholecystectomy is largely contributed by the anterior abdominal wall incisions. This study investigated whether subcostal transversus abdominis (STA block was superior to traditional port-site infiltration of local anesthetic in reducing postoperative pain, opioid consumption, and time for recovery. Materials and Methods: Forty-three patients presenting for day case laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly allocated to receive either an ultrasound-guided STA block (n = 21 or port-site infiltration of local anesthetic (n = 22. Visual analog pain scores were measured at 1 and 4 h postoperatively to assess pain severity, and opioid requirement was measured in recovery and up to 8 h postoperatively. The time to discharge from recovery was recorded. Results: STA block resulted in a significant reduction in serial visual pain analog score values and significantly reduced the fentanyl requirement in recovery by >35% compared to the group that received local port-site infiltration (median 0.9 vs. 1.5 ΅cg/kg. Furthermore, STA block was associated with nearly a 50% reduction in overall 8-h equivalent morphine consumption (median 10 mg vs. 19 mg. In addition, STA block significantly reduced median time to discharge from recovery from 110 to 65 min. Conclusion: The results suggest that STA block provides superior postoperative analgesia and reduces opioid requirement following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. It may also improve theater efficiency by reducing time to discharge from the recovery unit.

  4. Field study of the composition of greywater and comparison of microbiological indicators of water quality in on-site systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Margaret; Gilpin, Brent; Robson, Beth; Wall, Katrina

    2016-08-01

    Thirty on-site greywater systems were sampled to determine greywater characteristics and practices in the field. Kitchen greywater was present at eight sites and urine was included at seven sites. These non-traditional sources resulted in significantly higher concentrations of enterococci and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) in greywater. Even with the removal of these sources, the concentrations of microbial indicators indicated high levels of contamination could occur across all greywater sources, including "light" greywater. Using multiple microbial indicators showed that all samples had the potential for faecal contamination. Bacteroidales markers were confirmed in treated greywater and in each greywater source, highlighting the potential for human faecal contamination. Although Escherichia coli was absent in treated greywater recycled to the house, other microbial indicators were present; hence, caution is required in using E. coli concentrations as the sole indicator of microbiological water quality. High BOD5 or total suspended solid concentrations exceeded the levels recommended for effective disinfection. Subsurface irrigation, which is assumed to provide a five-log reduction in exposure, is a suitable reuse option for non-disinfected greywater. Only half the occupants had a good understanding of their greywater systems and 25 % of systems were poorly maintained. Elevated microbial indicator contamination of greywater sludge is a potential hazard during maintenance.

  5. MODIS snow cover mapping accuracy in a small mountain catchment – comparison between open and forest sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Blöschl

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous global and regional validation studies have examined MODIS snow mapping accuracy by using measurements at climate stations, which are mainly at open sites. MODIS accuracy in alpine and forested regions is, however, still not well understood. The main objective of this study is to evaluate MODIS (MOD10A1 and MYD10A1 snow cover products in a small experimental catchment by using extensive snow course measurements at open and forest sites. The MODIS accuracy is tested in the Jalovecky creek catchment (northern Slovakia in the period 2000–2011. The results show that the combined Terra and Aqua images enable snow mapping at an overall accuracy of 91.5%. The accuracies at forested, open and mixed land uses at the Červenec sites are 92.7%, 98.3% and 81.8%, respectively. The use of a 2-day temporal filter enables a significant reduction in the number of days with cloud coverage and an increase in overall snow mapping accuracy. In total, the 2-day temporal filter decreases the number of cloudy days from 61% to 26% and increases the snow mapping accuracy to 94%. The results indicate three possible factors leading to misclassification of snow as land: patchy snow cover, limited MODIS geolocation accuracy and mapping algorithm errors. Out of a total of 27 misclassification cases, patchy snow cover, geolocation issues and mapping errors occur in 12, 12 and 3 cases, respectively.

  6. Compilation and comparison of test-hole location surveys in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, M.M.

    1989-02-01

    Between 1976 and 1988, many surveys were performed related to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and its geologic and hydrologic test holes, which are part of the hydrogeologic-characterization program. Among these surveys were two First-Order, Class I vertical surveys, a satellite survey, and a number of township-range surveys. An overview of the basic function, history, and methodology of each survey type is provided in this report along with a review and comparison of the two major test-hole surveys. Elevation and location data for 96 test holes and 4 shafts are also included. The comparison of the satellite survey to the township-range surveys showed that the latter have the following advantages: their data are more complete; their elevation data are more accurate; and their techniques can be used for surveying new wells, keeping the data set consistent. Therefore, the final township-range surveys were selected as the best source of elevation and location data to use in the WIPP hydrology program. 17 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs

  7. Comparison of PM10 concentrations and metal content in three different sites of the Venice Lagoon: an analysis of possible aerosol sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contini, Daniele; Belosi, Franco; Gambaro, Andrea; Cesari, Daniela; Stortini, Angela Maria; Bove, Maria Chiara

    2012-01-01

    The Venice Lagoon is exposed to atmospheric pollutants from industrial activities, thermoelectric power plants, petrochemical plants, incinerator, domestic heating, ship traffic, glass factories and vehicular emissions on the mainland. In 2005, construction began on the mobile dams (MOSE), one dam for each channel connecting the lagoon to the Adriatic Sea as a barrier against high tide. These construction works could represent an additional source of pollutants. PM10 samples were taken on random days between 2007 and 2010 at three different sites: Punta Sabbioni, Chioggia and Malamocco, located near the respective dam construction worksites. Chemical analyses of V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Cd, Sb, Tl and Pb in PM10 samples were performed by Inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) and results were used to identify the main aerosol sources. The correlation of measured data with meteorology, and source apportionment, failed to highlight a contribution specifically associated to the emissions of the MOSE construction works. The comparison of the measurements at the three sites showed a substantial homogeneity of metal concentrations in the area. Source apportionment with principal component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) showed that a four principal factors model could describe the sources of metals in PM10. Three of them were assigned to specific sources in the area and one was characterised as a source of mixed origin (anthropogenic and crustal). A specific anthropogenic source of PM10 rich in Ni and Cr, active at the Chioggia site, was also identified.

  8. Stability of detectability over 17 years at a single site and other lizard detection comparisons from Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, Gordon H.; Dean-Bradley, Kathryn; Campbell, Earl W.; Fritts, Thomas H.; Lardner, Bjorn; Yackel Adams, Amy A.; Reed, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    To obtain quantitative information about population dynamics from counts of animals, the per capita detectabilities of each species must remain constant over the course of monitoring. We characterized lizard detection constancy for four species over 17 yr from a single site in northern Guam, a relatively benign situation because detection was relatively easy and we were able to hold constant the site, habitat type, species, season, and sampling method. We monitored two species of diurnal terrestrial skinks (Carlia ailanpalai [Curious Skink], Emoia caeruleocauda [Pacific Bluetailed Skink]) using glueboards placed on the ground in the shade for 3 h on rainless mornings, yielding 10,286 skink captures. We additionally monitored two species of nocturnal arboreal geckos (Hemidactylus frenatus [Common House Gecko]; Lepidodactylus lugubris [Mourning Gecko]) on the basis of 15,212 sightings. We compared these count samples to a series of complete censuses we conducted from four or more total removal plots (everything removed to mineral soil) totaling 400 m2(about 1% of study site) in each of the years 1995, 1999, and 2012, providing time-stamped quantification of detectability for each species. Unfortunately, the actual population trajectories taken by the four species were masked by unexplained variation in detectability. This observation of debilitating latent variability in lizard detectability under nearly ideal conditions undercuts our trust in population estimation techniques that fail to quantify venue-specific detectability, rely on pooled detection probability estimates, or assume that modulation in predefined environmental covariates suffices for estimating detectability.

  9. A comparison of geospatially modeled fire behavior and potential application to fire and fuels management for the Savannah River Site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurth, Laurie; Hollingsworth, LaWen; Shea, Dan

    2011-12-20

    This study evaluates modeled fire behavior for the Savannah River Site in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the southeastern U.S. using three data sources: FCCS, LANDFIRE, and SWRA. The Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS) was used to build fuelbeds from intensive field sampling of 629 plots. Custom fire behavior fuel models were derived from these fuelbeds. LANDFIRE developed surface fire behavior fuel models and canopy attributes for the U.S. using satellite imagery informed by field data. The Southern Wildfire Risk Assessment (SWRA) developed surface fire behavior fuel models and canopy cover for the southeastern U.S. using satellite imagery.

  10. Growth of blue mussels in a Norwegian and French culture site: comparison of food proxies with Dynamic Energy Budgets (DEB)

    OpenAIRE

    Alunno-bruscia, Marianne; Rosland, Rune; Strand, Øivind; Naustvoll, Lars; Robert, Stephane; Bacher, Cedric

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) culture occurs in temperate waters around the world under a wide range of environmental conditions, e.g. at phytoplankton concentrations below as 1-2 µg L-1 (in Norwegian fjords) up to 9-10 µg L-1 (in French Atlantic coastal sites). Under such contrasted food resources, the aim of our study is to develop a generic bio-energetic model for M. edulis, i.e. that can be applied in various contrasted environments with a constant set of parameters, to...

  11. Geosphere migration studies as support for the comparison of candidate sites for disposal of radioactive waste in rock-salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasbergen, P.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.; Noordijk, H.; Sauter, F.

    1988-01-01

    The Dutch research program on the geological disposal of radioactive waste was designed to supply a basis for the selection of combinations of three factors, i.e., type of rock-salt formation, site, and disposal technique, satisfying radiological standards and other criteria for final disposal. The potential sites have been grouped according to the type of rock-salt formation (e.g. bedded salt and salt domes) and two classes of depth below the surface of the ground. Values for geohydrological parameters were obtained by extrapolation of data from existing boreholes and analysis of the sedimentary environment. A three-dimensional model of groundwater flow and contaminant transport, called METROPOL, has been developed. To investigate the effect of high salinity on nuclide transport properly, a theoretical experimental study was carried out. Use of a thermodynamic approach showed that terms related to salt mass fraction have to be added to Darcy's and Fick's laws. An experimental study to investigate effects of these modifications is in progress. 8 refs.; 8 figs.; 1 table

  12. Comparison of laparoscopic and open appendectomy in terms of operative time, hospital stay and frequency of surgical site infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, T.; Saleem, M.R.; Aziz, O.B.; Arshad, A.

    2014-01-01

    To compare laparoscopic and conventional open appendectomy in terms of operative time, hospital stay and frequency of surgical site infection (SSI). Patient and Methods: A total of 417 patients underwent appendectomy during this period. 137 patients underwent laparoscopic appendectomy (group A) while 280 patient had open appendectomy (group B). The samples include all patients who were operated open between the time span of june 2010 to september 2011. A chi square-test was performed to compare the data for statistical significance. Result: Mean operative time for group A was 79.21+-23.42 minitues where as in group B, the mean operative time was 41.49+-20.86 minitues. Group A patients had a shorter hospital 1 stay (3.6+-1 day) but in group B it was (5.2+-3 days). Seven patients (5.1 %) developed surgical site infection (SSI) in group A and 34 patients (12.14 %)developed postoperative SSI in group B. Conclusion: Laparoscopic appendectomy is superior to open appendectomy because of shorter hospital stay and laser-operative SSI, but requires longer operative time. (author)

  13. Trophic significance of the kelp Laminaria digitata (Lamour.) for the associated food web: a between-sites comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Gauthier; Riera, Pascal; Leroux, Cédric

    2009-12-01

    This study aimed at establishing the trophic significance of the kelp Laminaria digitata for consumers inhabiting two rocky shores of Northern Brittany (France), displaying contrasted ecological conditions. The general trophic structure did not vary between these two sites, with a wide diversity of filter-feeders and predators, and only 14% of the species sampled belonging to the grazers' trophic group. The diversity of food sources fueling the food web appeared also similar. The food webs comprised four trophic levels and the prevalence of omnivory appeared relatively low compared to previous studies in the same area. Conversely, to the food web structure, which did not differ, the biochemical composition of L. digitata differed between the two sites, and was correlated to a larger diversity of grazers feeding on this kelp in sheltered conditions. This indicated that the spatial variability occurring in the nutritive value of L. digitata is likely to deeply affect the functioning of kelp-associated food webs. The contribution of L. digitata-derived organic matter to the diet of filter-feeders inhabiting these two environments was assessed using the mixing model Isosource, which showed the higher contribution of kelp matter in sheltered conditions. These results highlight the spatial variability that may occur in the functioning of kelp-associated food webs. Moreover, this suggests that hydrodynamics is likely to control the availability of kelp-derived organic matter to local filter-feeders, probably through an increase of detritus export in exposed areas.

  14. Transoral vertebral augmentation with polymethylmethacrylate in the treatment of a patient with a dens fracture nonunion and subarticular vertebral body fracture of C2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beall, Douglas P.; Martin, Hal D.; Stapp, Annette M.; Stanfield, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    The injection of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is a minimally invasive, image-guided procedure used to treat vertebral fractures due to osteoporosis, metastatic lesions, multiple myeloma, and benign but destabilizing bone tumors. The injection of PMMA into the C2 vertebral body using the transoral technique has been reported in three separate patients for treatment of benign tumors (a vertebral hemangioma and an aneurysmal bone cyst) and for multiple myeloma in the third patient. Although the injection of PMMA into the vertebral body is most commonly performed to treat benign vertebral compression fractures, a transoral C2 approach has not been reported in the English literature as a treatment for a benign fracture of C2. We report the treatment of a fracture and nonunion of the base of the dens and a subarticular fracture of the vertebral body of C2 using a bilateral transoral approach. (orig.)

  15. Augmentation of the hard palate thin masticatory mucosa in the potential connective tissue donor sites using two collagen materials-Clinical and histological comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Wojciech; Kobierzycki, Christopher; Dzięgiel, Piotr; Botzenhart, Ute; Gedrange, Tomasz; Ziętek, Marek

    2016-11-01

    Due to the similarity of keratinized gingival and palatal mucosa the latter can pose as a potential donor site for gingival recession coverage. However, its availability is restricted and a thin transplant bears the risk of being rejected. The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical and histological results of thin palatal mucosa augmentation, using lyophilized Biokol ® xenogenous collagen sponge and a suspension of xenogenous Gel 0 ® pure collagen with non-augmented tissue from the same patients. Ten patients simultaneously underwent bilateral augmentation procedures using Biokol ® and Gel 0 ® collagen material. The donor sites were augmented 8 weeks prior to the harvesting of the connective tissue graft (CTG) for the gingival recession coverage procedures. Prior to the implantation of the collagen material and during the course of harvesting the augmented CTG, tissue specimens were taken for histological examination. Prior to the commencement of the study and after it, the parameters of palatal gingival thickness at 4mm (PGT1), and at 8mm apical to the gingival margin (PGT2) around the teeth neighboring the operating fields were determined. In both groups the palatal mucosa had thickened significantly in both measuring sites. An intergroup comparison revealed greater thickening of the masticatory mucosa in the Biokol ® group at both measuring points. The histological image of the grafts, obtained from sites augmented using both test methods, revealed a typical pattern of mature fibrous connective tissue. No epithelial cells were found. Augmentation of thin masticatory mucosa using Biokol ® or Gel 0 ® collagen materials resulted in a significant thickening of the mucosa, which could be demonstrated to be greater in the first group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of the microstructure and composition of aboriginal ceramics, from indigenous site Caninhas, with the obtained ones in the region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, C.C.; Nakano, F.P.; Taguchi, S.P.; Camargo-Vernilli, D.; Ribeiro, R.B.; Rosa, S.J. L.

    2009-01-01

    The archaeological site of Caninhas is made of funeral and combustion structures and various objects of aboriginal daily use. These parts and fragments were safe and inventoried, constituting approximately 4000 units. The objective of this project was to analyze the microstructure and composition of archaeological ceramics, and ceramics made of argil current of the zone. The crystalline phases were identified by X-Rays Diffraction (XRD), elementary composition was obtained by X-Rays Fluorescence (XRF) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS), and the microstructure was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Composition and microstructure of archaeological ceramics are different of current ceramics, indicating the effect of lixiviation in function of the time and the microstructural evolution due different ceramic processing. These results are valuable for the archaeological area studies, mainly for the cultural denoting which represents. The relation between some studies is basic to add knowledge: use of the ceramic materials engineering for archaeology application. (author)

  17. A cross-site comparison of factors controlling streamwater carbon flux in western North American catchments (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, P. D.; Biederman, J. A.; Condon, K.; Chorover, J.; McIntosh, J. C.; Meixner, T.; Perdrial, J. N.

    2013-12-01

    Increasing variability in climate is expected to alter the amount and form of terrestrial carbon in stream water both directly, through changes in the magnitude and timing of discharge, and indirectly through changes in land cover following disturbance (e.g. drought, fire, or insect driven mortality). Predicting how these changes will impact individual stream-catchment ecosystems however, is hampered by a lack of concurrent observations on both dissolved and particulate carbon flux across a range of spatial, temporal, and discharge scales. Because carbon is strongly coupled to most biogeochemical reactions within both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, this represents a critical unknown in predicting the response of catchment-ecosystems to concurrent changes in climate and land cover. This presentation will address this issue using a meta-analysis of dissolved organic, dissolved inorganic, and particulate organic carbon fluxes from multiple locations, including undisturbed sites along a climate gradient from desert rivers to seasonally snow-covered, forested mountain catchments, and sites disturbed by both fire and extensive, insect driven mortality. Initial analyses suggest that dissolved (organic and inorganic) and particulate fluxes respond differently to various types of disturbance and depend on interactions between changes in size of mobile carbon pools and changes in hydrologic routing of carbon to streamwater. Anomalously large fluxes of both dissolved and particulate organic matter are associated with episodic changes in hydrologic routing (e.g. storm floods; snowmelt) that connect normally hydrologically isolated carbon pools (e.g. surficial hillslope soils) with surface water. These events are often of short duration as the supply of mobile carbon is exhausted in short term flushing response. In contrast, disturbances that increase the size of the mobile carbon pool (e.g. widespread vegetation mortality) result smaller proportional increases in

  18. Comparison of different sets of instruments for laparoendoscopic single-site surgery in a surgical simulator with novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Shi, Long-Qing; Wang, Jing-Min; Jiang, Xiao-Hua; Ji, Zhen-Ling

    2016-04-01

    Given the parallel entry of working instruments through a single incision in laparoendoscopic single-site surgery, loss of triangulation in the abdominal cavity and counteracting movements of the instruments are inevitable obstacles. Some specially designed devices have emerged to ameliorate these challenges. Twenty-four novice participants were randomized into four groups using assigned instruments, conventional straight instruments, single-curved instruments, double-curved instruments and articulating instruments, respectively, to perform two basic tasks (peg transferring and pattern cutting) 14 times in a modified simulator. A test of the tasks and a resection of the intestine segment of a rat were performed. The task scores and evaluation of intraoperative skills during the resection of the intestine segment were recorded. The instrument of modified National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) was completed. The task scores of the groups using single-curved instruments and articulating instruments were better than the other two groups on the simulator tasks, consistent with the evaluation of intraoperative skills during the resection of intestine segment. As the proficiency with the instruments increased, the task scores improved, as demonstrated by the learning curve. The workload measured by the modified NASA-TLX tool demonstrated that the groups using articulating instruments and double-curved instruments had a heavier workload in most of the categories compared with the other two groups. Single-curved and articulating instruments are more effective than conventional straight and double-curved devices, and are favourable in laparoendoscopic single-site surgery for novice learners. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  19. Comparison of infrared-excited up-converting phosphors and europium nanoparticles as labels in a two-site immunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukonaho, Telle; Rantanen, Terhi; Jaemsen, Laura; Kuningas, Katri; Paekkilae, Henna; Loevgren, Timo; Soukka, Tero

    2007-01-01

    Research in the field of immunoassays and labels used in the detection has been recently focused on particulate reporters, which possess very high specific activity that excludes the label as a sensitivity limiting factor. However, the large size and shape of the particulate labels may produce additional problems to immunoassay performance. The aim of this work was to study with two identical non-competitive two-site immunoassays whether up-converting phosphor (UCP) particles are comparable in performance with europium(III) chelate-dyed nanoparticles as particulate labels. In addition we strived to verify the common assumption of the photostability of up-converting phosphor particles supporting their potential applicability in imaging. Detection limits in two-site immunoassay for free prostate-specific antigen (free-PSA) were 0.53 ng L -1 and 1.3 ng L -1 using two different up-converting phosphors and 0.16 ng L -1 using europium(III) nanoparticle. Large size distribution and non-specific binding of up-converting phosphor particles caused assay variation in low analyte concentrations and limited the analytical detection limit. The non-specific binding was the major factor limiting the analytical sensitivity of the immunoassay. The results suggests the need for nanoscaled and uniformely sized UCP-particles to increace the sensitivity and applicability of up-converting phosphor particles. Anti-Stokes photoluminescence of up-converting phosphor particles did not photobleach when measured repeatedly, on the contrary, the time-resolved fluorescence of europium nanoparticles photobleached relatively rapidly

  20. Gas hydrates distribution in the Shenhu area, northern South China Sea: comparisons between the eight drilling sites with gashydrate petroleum system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, M.; Yang, R.; Wang, H.; Sha, Z.; Liang, J.; Wu, N.; Qiao, S.; Cong, X.

    2016-07-01

    The results of the first marine gas hydrate drilling expedition of Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey (GMGS-1) in northern continental slope of the South China Sea revealed a variable distribution of gas hydrates in the Shenhu area. In this study, comparisons between the eight sites with gas-hydrate petroleum system were used to analyze and re-examine hydrate potential. In the Shenhu gas hydrate drilling area, all the sites were located in a suitable low-temperature, high-pressure environment. Biogenic and thermogenic gases contributed to the formation of hydrates. Gas chimneys and some small-scale faults (or micro-scale fractures) compose the migration pathways for gas-bearing fluids. Between these sites, there are three key differences: the seafloor temperatures and pressures; geothermal gradient and sedimentary conditions. Variations of seafloor temperatures and pressures related to water depths and geothermal gradient would lead to changes in the thickness of gas hydrate stability zones. Although the lithology and grain size of the sediments were similar, two distinct sedimentary units were identified for the first time through seismic interpretation, analysis of deep-water sedimentary processes, and the Cm pattern (plotted one-percentile and median values from grain-size analyses), implying the heterogeneous sedimentary conditions above Bottom Simulating Reflectors (BSRs). Based on the analyses of forming mechanisms and sedimentary processes, these two fine-grained sedimentary units have different physical properties. Fine-grained turbidites (Unit I) with thin-bedded chaotic reflectors at the bottom acted as the host rocks for hydrates; whereas, finegrained sediments related to soft-sediment deformation (Unit II) characterized by thick continuous reflectors at the top would serve as regional homogeneous caprocks. Low-flux methane that migrated upwards along chimneys could be enriched preferentially in fine-grained turbidites, resulting in the formation of

  1. Statistical comparison of models for estimating the monthly average daily diffuse radiation at a subtropical African site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashahu, M.

    2003-01-01

    Nine correlations have been developed in this paper to estimate the monthly average diffuse radiation for Dakar, Senegal. A 16-year period data on the global (H) and diffuse (H d ) radiation, together with data on the bright sunshine hours (N), the fraction of the sky's (Ne/8), the water vapour pressure in the air (e) and the ambient temperature (T) have been used for that purpose. A model inter-comparison based on the MBE, RMSE and t statistical tests has shown that estimates in any of the obtained correlations are not significantly different from their measured counterparts, thus all the nine models are recommended for the aforesaid location. Three of them should be particularly selected for their simplicity, universal applicability and high accuracy. Those are simple linear correlations between K d and N/N d , Ne/8 or K t . Even presenting adequate performance, the remaining correlations are either simple but less accurate, or multiple or nonlinear regressions needing one or two input variables. (author)

  2. Statistical comparison of models for estimating the monthly average daily diffuse radiation at a subtropical African site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashahu, M. [University of Burundi, Bujumbura (Burundi). Institute of Applied Pedagogy, Department of Physics and Technology

    2003-07-01

    Nine correlations have been developed in this paper to estimate the monthly average diffuse radiation for Dakar, Senegal. A 16-year period data on the global (H) and diffuse (H{sub d}) radiation, together with data on the bright sunshine hours (N), the fraction of the sky's (Ne/8), the water vapour pressure in the air (e) and the ambient temperature (T) have been used for that purpose. A model inter-comparison based on the MBE, RMSE and t statistical tests has shown that estimates in any of the obtained correlations are not significantly different from their measured counterparts, thus all the nine models are recommended for the aforesaid location. Three of them should be particularly selected for their simplicity, universal applicability and high accuracy. Those are simple linear correlations between K{sub d} and N/N{sub d}, Ne/8 or K{sub t}. Even presenting adequate performance, the remaining correlations are either simple but less accurate, or multiple or nonlinear regressions needing one or two input variables. (author)

  3. Comparison of CO2 Detection Methods Tested in Shallow Groundwater Monitoring Wells at a Geological Sequestration Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edenborn, Harry M.; Jain, Jinesh N.

    2016-05-17

    The geological storage of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) is one method of reducing the amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere. Monitoring programs typically determine baseline conditions in surface and near-surface environments before, during, and after CO2 injection to evaluate if impacts related to injection have occurred. Because CO2 concentrations in groundwater fluctuate naturally due to complex geochemical and geomicrobiologicalinteractions, a clear understanding of the baseline behavior of CO2 in groundwater near injection sites is important. Numerous ways of measuring aqueous CO2 in the field and lab are currently used, but most methods have significant shortcomings (e.g., are tedious, lengthy, have interferences, or have significant lag time before a result is determined). In this study, we examined the effectiveness of two novel CO2 detection methods and their ability to rapidly detect CO2in shallow groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Illinois Basin –Decatur Project geological sequestration site. The CarboQC beverage carbonation meter was used to measure the concentration of CO2 in water by monitoring temperature and pressure changes and calculating the PCO2 from the ideal gas law. Additionally, a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) CO< sub>2sensor enclosed in a gas-permeable, water-impermeable membrane measured CO2by determining an equilibrium concentration. Results showed that the CarboQC method provided rapid (< 3 min) and repeatable results under field conditions within a measured concentration range of 15 –125 mg/L CO2. The NDIR sensor results correlated well (r2= 0.93) with the CarboQC data, but CO2 equilibration required at least 15 minutes, making the method somewhat less desirable under field conditions. In contrast, NDIR-based sensors have a greater potential for long-term deployment. Both

  4. DSMS GENERATION FROM COSMO-SKYMED, RADARSAT-2 AND TERRASAR-X IMAGERY ON BEAUPORT (CANADA TEST SITE: EVALUATION AND COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT RADARGRAMMETRIC APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Capaldo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on the analysis of potentialities of the radargrammetric DSMs generation using high resolution SAR imagery acquired by three different platforms (COSMO-SkyMed, TerraSAR-X and Radarsat-2 with particular attention to geometric orientation models. Two orientation models have been tested in this work: the rigorous Toutin’s model, developed at the Canada Center for Remote Sensing (CCRS and implemented in the commercial software package PCI Geomatica, and the radargrammetric model developed at University of Rome La Sapienza and implemented in the scientific software SISAR. A full comparison and analysis has been carried out over Beauport test site (Quebec, Canada, where a LIDAR ground truth and a dense set of GNSS CPs (Check points are available. Moreover, a preliminary comparison between the DSMs extracted, respectively with SISAR and PCI-Geomatica has been performed. The accuracy of the generated DSMs has been evaluated through the scientific software DEMANAL developed by Prof. K. Jacobsen of University of Hannover. As regards orientation models, the results shown that the Toutin’s model accuracy is slightly better than the SISAR one, even if it is important to underline that the SISAR model is computed without using a priori ground truth information. As concern DSMs assessment, the global DSMs accuracy in term of RMSE is around 4 meter and the two radargrammetric approaches show similar performances.

  5. Comparison of NDA and DA measurement techniques for excess plutonium powders at the Hanford Site: Statistical design and heterogeneity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, T.L.; McRae, L.P.; Delegard, C.H.; Liebetrau, A.M.; Johnson, W.C.; Theis, W.; Lemaire, R.J.; Xiao, J.

    1995-06-01

    Quantitative physical measurements are a n component of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) nuclear material m ampersand guards verification regime. In December 1994, LA.FA safeguards were initiated on an inventory of excess plutonium powder items at the Plutonium Finishing Plant, Vault 3, on the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The material originl from the US nuclear weapons complex. The diversity of the chemical form and the heterogenous physical form of this inventory were anticipated to challenge the precision and accuracy of quantitative destructive analytical techniques. A sampling design was used to estimate the degree of heterogeneity of the plutonium content of a variety of inventory items. Plutonium concentration, the item net weight, and the 240 Pu content were among the variables considered in the design. Samples were obtained from randomly selected location within each item. Each sample was divided into aliquots and analyzed chemically. Operator measurements by calorimetry and IAEA measurements by coincident neutron nondestructive analysis also were performed for the initial physical inventory verification materials and similar items not yet under IAEA safeguards. The heterogeneity testing has confirmed that part of the material is indeed significantly heterogeneous; this means that precautionary measures must be taken to obtain representative samples for destructive analysis. In addition, the sampling variability due to material heterogeneity was found to be comparable with, or greater than, the variability of the operator's calorimetric measurements

  6. Distribution of meiobenthos at bathyal depths in the Mediterranean Sea. A comparison between sites of contrasting productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Tselepides

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the distribution of meiobenthos (Metazoa and Foraminifera at bathyal depths along a west-east productivity gradient in the Mediterranean Sea, stations along the continental slopes of the Balearic Sea, west Ionian and east Ionian Seas were sampled during the DESEAS Trans-Mediterranean Cruise in June-July 2001. Standing stock of total meiobenthos differed considerably among the sampling stations, with marked differences occurring between sampling depths and sites. At 600 m depth, meiobenthic abundances were slightly higher over the Balearic continental slope, whereas at the deeper stations (800 m and 1500-1700 m, abundances were significantly higher in the west Ionian Sea. Significant relationships were found between the abundances of major groups and the chloroplastic pigments, indicating that food availability is a major factor controlling the distribution of meiobenthos. Apart from the overall differences in productivity between the western and eastern Mediterranean Sea, local hydrographic features and topographic differences greatly influence the spatial variability of the environmental parameters within each sub-basin and thus the distribution of meiobenthos in the bathyal zone.

  7. Spatial distribution of heavy metals in the surface soil of source-control stormwater infiltration devices - Inter-site comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedoldi, Damien; Chebbo, Ghassan; Pierlot, Daniel; Branchu, Philippe; Kovacs, Yves; Gromaire, Marie-Christine

    2017-02-01

    Stormwater runoff infiltration brings about some concerns regarding its potential impact on both soil and groundwater quality; besides, the fate of contaminants in source-control devices somewhat suffers from a lack of documentation. The present study was dedicated to assessing the spatial distribution of three heavy metals (copper, lead, zinc) in the surface soil of ten small-scale infiltration facilities, along with several physical parameters (soil moisture, volatile matter, variable thickness of the upper horizon). High-resolution samplings and in-situ measurements were undertaken, followed by X-ray fluorescence analyses and spatial interpolation. Highest metal accumulation was found in a relatively narrow area near the water inflow zone, from which concentrations markedly decreased with increasing distance. Maximum enrichment ratios amounted to >20 in the most contaminated sites. Heavy metal patterns give a time-integrated vision of the non-uniform infiltration fluxes, sedimentation processes and surface flow pathways within the devices. This element indicates that the lateral extent of contamination is mainly controlled by hydraulics. The evidenced spatial structure of soil concentrations restricts the area where remediation measures would be necessary in these systems, and suggests possible optimization of their hydraulic functioning towards an easier maintenance. Heterogeneous upper boundary conditions should be taken into account when studying the fate of micropollutants in infiltration facilities with either mathematical modeling or soil coring field surveys. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Exposure of commuters to carbon monoxide in Mexico City II. Comparison of in-vehicle and fixed-site concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Bremauntz, A A; Ashmore, M R

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare measurements of carbon monoxide taken concurrently inside vehicles and at fixed-site monitoring stations (FSMs), in order to assess if the FSM stations can be used to estimate commuters' exposure to this pollutant. During the study period ambient CO concentrations were very high. Five selected stations reported concentrations in excess of the Mexican (13 ppm) and United States (9 ppm) 8-hour standards for CO. Since, for all modes of transportation, the in-vehicle concentrations were always larger than the concurrent ambient concentrations, the differences between them were always positive and the ratios were always greater than one. Average, in-vehicle/ambient ratios for each mode of transportation were: automobile, 5.2; minivan, 5.2; minibus, 4.3; bus, 3.1; trolleybus 3.0; and metro, 2.2. A series of simple regression models with a moderate predictive power (R2 = 0.47 to 0.71) were developed for metro, bus, minibus, and automobile commuters. The models include the FSM measurements and also, depending on the mode of transportation, other variables, such as vehicular speed, the route of travel, and the wind speed. In the future, the models should be validated in two ways to determine their predictive power. First, they should be verified against additional samples taken under similar conditions; and second, their applications under different conditions should be explored through sampling during a different season of the year or on other commuting routes.

  9. An analysis of inhabitants opinion on energy issues. Comparison between localities of nuclear installation sites and of urban communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Reiko; Nakagome, Yoshihiro

    2004-01-01

    For the purpose of comparing the mental attitudes toward nuclear power generation held by the public between localities containing nuclear installation sites and those of urban communities, a survey has been conducted by mail and by direct interviews. The survey conversed Fukushima, Niigata and Fukui Prefectures, representing the former group of localities, whereas Tokyo and Osaka, representing the latter. The mail survey revealed differences between the two groups of localities in their image of power and in their perception of its present status, as well as in their sense of values in daily life. The interview survey indicated that the factors behind the differences included regional characteristics such as temperaments of resident population, and effects on the private life style brought by nuclear installation. Narrowing down this gap of mental attitude between the two groups of localities should call indispensably for better mutual understanding. In bringing this about, consideration should be given to particular local characteristics, including popular mentality and personal view of life, as well as image and knowledge of energy sources held by the individuals. (author)

  10. Comparison of the regulatory models assessing off-site radiological dose due to the routine releases of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, W. T.; Kim, E. H.; Han, M. H.; Choi, Y. H.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, C. W.

    2005-01-01

    Methodologies of NEWTRIT model, NRC model and AIRDOS-EPA model, which are off-site dose assessment models for regulatory compliance from routine releases of tritium into the environment, were investigated. Using the domestic data, if available, the predictive results of the models were compared. Among them, recently developed NEWTRIT model considers only doses from organically bounded tritium (OBT) due to environmental releases of tritiated water (HTO). A total dose from all exposure pathways predicted from AIRDOS-EPA model was 1.03 and 2.46 times higher than that from NEWTRIT model and NRC model, respectively. From above result, readers should not have an understanding that a predictive dose from NRC model may be underestimated compared with a realistic dose. It is because of that both mathematical models and corresponding parameter values for regulatory compliance are based on the conservative assumptions. For a dose by food consumption predicted from NEWTRIT model, the contribution of OBT was nearly equivalent to that of HTO due to relatively high consumption of grains in Korean. Although a total dose predicted from NEWTRIT model is similar to that from AIRDOS-EPA model, NEWTRIT model may be have a meaning in the understanding of phenomena for the behavior of HTO released into the environment

  11. Comparison of NDA and DA measurement techniques for excess Pu powders at the Hanford Site: Operator and IAEA experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, T.L.; McRae, L.P.; Delegard, C.H.

    1995-06-01

    Quantitative physical measurements are necessary components of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) nuclear material safeguards verification regime. In December 1994, IAEA safeguards were initiated on an inventory of plutonium-bearing oxide and scrap items in Vault 3 of the 2736-Z Building of the Plutonium Finishing Plant on the United States Department of Energy's (USDOE) Hanford Site. The material originated in the United States nuclear weapons complex. The diversity of the chemical form and the heterogenous physical form of the plutonium in this inventory were expected to challenge the target precision and accuracy of methods employed by IAEA: quantitative destructive analytical techniques (which are susceptible to sampling error) and quantitative coincident neutron measurements (which rely on knowledge of the material's chemical form and purity). Because of the diverse and heterogenous nature of plutonium-bearing scrap, plant operations increasingly have adopted calorimetric techniques both for item inventory measurements and for verification purposes. During the recent advent of IAEA safeguards at Vault 3, a set of destructive and nondestructive methods were applied to a number of inventory items (cans of plutonium-bearing powders) with widely ranging chemical purities. Results of these measurements, gathered by the operator's and IAEA's laboratories and instruments as well as by instruments from Pacific Northwest Laboratory and USDOE's Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), are presented and statistically compared

  12. A comparison of results from groundwater flow modelling for two conceptual hydrogeological models for the Konrad site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arens, G.; Fein, E.; Storck, R.

    1991-01-01

    Radioactive wastes with negligible heat production are planned to be disposed of into a deep iron ore formation at the Konrad site. This repository will be bedded in a low permeable formation called Oxfordian in a depth of 800 - 1300 m below the surface. The host formation is largely covered with clay of a few hundred meters thickness. The hydrogeological model area has an extension of 14 km in the west-east and 47 km in the north-south direction. The geological formations within the model area are disturbed by several fractured zones with a vertical extension of several hundred meters intersecting different horizontal layers. Due to this fact two hydrogeological models have been developed: The first one handles the fractured zones by globally increased permeabilities of the geological formations. The second handles the fractured zones by locally increased permeabilities, leaving the permeabilities of undisturbed areas unchanged. For both models, groundwater flow calculations have been carried out including parameter variations of permeability values. The results of the calculations are presented as flow paths which are compared for both models. Computer code used: SWIFT. 1 fig., 3 tabs., 3 refs

  13. Comparison of Coincident Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aerosol Optical Depths over Land and Ocean Scenes Containing Aerosol Robotic Network Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Wedad A.; Diner, David J.; Martonchik, John V.; Bruegge, Carol J.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Gaitley, Barbara J.; Crean, Kathleen A.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Holben, Brent

    2005-01-01

    The Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), launched on 18 December 1999 aboard the Terra spacecraft, are making global observations of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances. Aerosol optical depths and particle properties are independently retrieved from these radiances using methodologies and algorithms that make use of the instruments corresponding designs. This paper compares instantaneous optical depths retrieved from simultaneous and collocated radiances measured by the two instruments at locations containing sites within the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). A set of 318 MISR and MODIS images, obtained during the months of March, June, and September 2002 at 62 AERONET sites, were used in this study. The results show that over land, MODIS aerosol optical depths at 470 and 660 nm are larger than those retrieved from MISR by about 35% and 10% on average, respectively, when all land surface types are included in the regression. The differences decrease when coastal and desert areas are excluded. For optical depths retrieved over ocean, MISR is on average about 0.1 and 0.05 higher than MODIS in the 470 and 660 nm bands, respectively. Part of this difference is due to radiometric calibration and is reduced to about 0.01 and 0.03 when recently derived band-to-band adjustments in the MISR radiometry are incorporated. Comparisons with AERONET data show similar patterns.

  14. Comparison of soil sampling and analytical methods for asbestos at the Sumas Mountain Asbestos Site-Working towards a toolbox for better assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroble, Julie; Frederick, Timothy; Frame, Alicia; Vallero, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Established soil sampling methods for asbestos are inadequate to support risk assessment and risk-based decision making at Superfund sites due to difficulties in detecting asbestos at low concentrations and difficulty in extrapolating soil concentrations to air concentrations. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) currently recommends the rigorous process of Activity Based Sampling (ABS) to characterize site exposures. The purpose of this study was to compare three soil analytical methods and two soil sampling methods to determine whether one method, or combination of methods, would yield more reliable soil asbestos data than other methods. Samples were collected using both traditional discrete ("grab") samples and incremental sampling methodology (ISM). Analyses were conducted using polarized light microscopy (PLM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods or a combination of these two methods. Data show that the fluidized bed asbestos segregator (FBAS) followed by TEM analysis could detect asbestos at locations that were not detected using other analytical methods; however, this method exhibited high relative standard deviations, indicating the results may be more variable than other soil asbestos methods. The comparison of samples collected using ISM versus discrete techniques for asbestos resulted in no clear conclusions regarding preferred sampling method. However, analytical results for metals clearly showed that measured concentrations in ISM samples were less variable than discrete samples.

  15. Comparison between seismic and domestic risk in moderate seismic hazard prone region: the Grenoble City (France test site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dunand

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available France has a moderate level of seismic activity, characterized by diffuse seismicity, sometimes experiencing earthquakes of a magnitude of more than 5 in the most active zones. In this seismicity context, Grenoble is a city of major economic and social importance. However, earthquakes being rare, public authorities and the decision makers are only vaguely committed to reducing seismic risk: return periods are long and local policy makers do not have much information available. Over the past 25 yr, a large number of studies have been conducted to improve our knowledge of seismic hazard in this region. One of the decision-making concerns of Grenoble's public authorities, as managers of a large number of public buildings, is to know not only the seismic-prone regions, the variability of seismic hazard due to site effects and the city's overall vulnerability, but also the level of seismic risk and exposure for the entire city, also compared to other natural or/and domestic hazards. Our seismic risk analysis uses a probabilistic approach for regional and local hazards and the vulnerability assessment of buildings. Its applicability to Grenoble offers the advantage of being based on knowledge acquired by previous projects conducted over the years. This paper aims to compare the level of seismic risk with that of other risks and to introduce the notion of risk acceptability in order to offer guidance in the management of seismic risk. This notion of acceptability, which is now part of seismic risk consideration for existing buildings in Switzerland, is relevant in moderately seismic-prone countries like France.

  16. A comparison between DACC with chlorhexidine acetate-soaked paraffin gauze and foam dressing for skin graft donor sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Won; Park, Seong Hoon; Suh, In Suck; Jeong, Hii Sun

    2018-01-02

    Retrograde infections often occur with excessive or incomplete drainage of exudate, or as a result of adherence of dressings to wounds. Dialkylcarbamoyl chloride (DACC) irreversibly binds to bacterial surfaces and physically removes bacteria when dressings are changed. Chlorhexidine acetate-soaked paraffin gauze provides a moist wound-healing environment. We hypothesise that when DACC is combined with chlorhexidine acetate-soaked paraffin gauze, wound healing times decrease. From January 2013 to June 2015, medical records were retrospectively evaluated in 60 patients who underwent split-thickness skin grafts (STSG). Patients were divided into two groups: a 'thick skin group' and a 'thin skin group'. These two groups were further subdivided into a control group, where conventional foam dressings were applied to wounds, and an experimental group, where chlorhexidine acetate-soaked paraffin gauze with DACC was applied (DACC group). We compared the wound healing time between these subgroups. Differences in infected wound healing times were also compared. The Mann-Whitney test was applied to compare wound healing times between groups. Epithelialisation duration was significantly shorter in the DACC group. The control group had longer wound healing times, regardless of wound size. In the thick skin group, the median healing duration was 12 days in the control subgroup, compared with 9.5 days in the DACC subgroup (p=0.049). In the thin skin subgroup, the median healing duration in the control group was 18 days, compared with 10 days in the DACC subgroup (p=0.013). Application of DACC and chlorhexidine acetate-soaked paraffin gauze to skin graft donor sites can shorten healing times and is effective in treating infected wounds.

  17. Comparison between AOT40 and ozone uptake in forest trees of different species, age and site conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyssek, R.; Wieser, G.; Nunn, A. J.; Kozovits, A. R.; Reiter, I. M.; Heerdt, C.; Winkler, J. B.; Baumgarten, M.; Häberle, K.-H.; Grams, T. E. E.; Werner, H.; Fabian, P.; Havranek, W. M.

    The current AOT40 concept for inferring risks in forest trees by ozone (O 3) injury is based on an accumulated external O 3 exposure rather than an internal O 3 dose or uptake rate. AOT40 assumes O 3 concentrations below 40 nl l -1 and night-time exposure to be negligible. Hence, this concept is rather inconsistent with observed forest conditions. In contrast, the flux concept of cumulative O 3 uptake (CU) into the leaves has the potential of reflecting a physiologically meaningful internal O 3 dose experienced by trees. In this paper, we relate AOT40 to cumulative O 3 uptake into European beech ( Fagus sylvatica), Norway spruce ( Picea abies), European larch ( Larix decidua) and cembran pine ( Pinus cembra) trees differing in size, age and site conditions. We demonstrate that the flux concept can be extended to the tree and the stand level, making use of sap flow measurements through tree trunks. Although in both seedlings and adult trees AOT40 may show some linearity in correlations with average CU, the latter varies, at given AOT40, by 25±11% within and between species. This is because O 3 flux is primarily influenced by stomatal aperture, the latter being affected by climate, canopy position, leaf and tree age while varying between species. In particular, if weighed by detoxification capacity, we suggest, therefore, O 3 uptake related air quality indices to be promoted towards ecologically meaningful standards in forest protection, overcoming the shortcomings of exposure concepts. As O 3 injury results from the balance between O 3 uptake and detoxification in the leaf mesophyll, we conclude the flux concept in combination with measures of biochemical defence to have the capacity for predicting tree response to O 3 stress.

  18. A comparison of skin and chest wall dose delivered with multicatheter, Contura multilumen balloon, and MammoSite breast brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttino, Laurie W; Todor, Dorin; Rosu, Mihaela; Arthur, Douglas W

    2011-01-01

    Skin and chest wall doses have been correlated with toxicity in patients treated with breast brachytherapy . This investigation compared the ability to control skin and chest wall doses between patients treated with multicatheter (MC), Contura multilumen balloon (CMLB), and MammoSite (MS) brachytherapy. 43 patients treated with the MC technique, 45 patients treated with the CMLB, and 83 patients treated with the MS were reviewed. The maximum doses delivered to the skin and chest wall were calculated for all patients. The mean maximum skin doses for the MC, CMLB, and MS were 2.3 Gy (67% of prescription dose), 2.8 Gy (82% of prescription dose), and 3.2 Gy per fraction (94% of prescription dose), respectively. Although the skin distances were similar (p = 0.23) for the two balloon techniques, the mean skin dose with the CMLB was significantly lower than with the MS (p = 0.05). The mean maximum rib doses for the MC, CMLB, and MS were 2.3 Gy (67% of prescription dose), 2.8 Gy (82% of prescription dose), and 3.6 Gy per fraction (105% of prescription dose), respectively. Again, the mean rib dose with the CMLB was significantly lower than with the MS (p = 0.002). The MC and CMLB techniques are associated with significantly lower mean skin and rib doses than is the MS. Treatment with the MS was associated with significantly more patients receiving doses to the skin or rib in excess of 125% of the prescription. Treatment with the CMLB may prove to yield less normal tissue toxicity than treatment with the MS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of the composition of forest soil litter derived from three different sites at various decompositional stages using FTIR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberhauer, G.; Rafferty, B.; Strebl, F.; Gerzabek, M. H.

    1998-06-01

    Transmission Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy was used to compare organic soil layers originating from three different sites in two climatic regions. A variety of bands characteristic of molecular structures and functional groups have been identified for these samples from a humic podsol, a dystric cambisol and a spodo dystric cambisol. Similar results were obtained for all three soils. From L to H soil horizons, an increase of the band at 1630 cm -1 and decrease of bands in the region from 1510 cm -1 to 1230 cm -1 were observed. The band at 1630 cm -1 can be assigned to carboxylic and aromatic groups. The decline of the peak intensity at 1510 cm -1 is significantly correlated to the total carbon content and C/N ratio. The mineral material of the Ah horizons leads to an increase of the band at 1050 cm -1 due to IR-absorbance of the Si-O bond and to an appearance of bands in the region from 900 to 400 cm -1 , which are characteristic for clay and quartz minerals. Analysis of the FTIR absorbance showed that intensities of distinct peaks (e.g., at 1510 cm -1 ) can be a measure of decomposition of forest litter. Therefore, the proposed simple FTIR method has potential for identification and differentiation of organic soil horizons originating from known tree litter. The similarity of the characteristics of the spectra of the three soil profiles investigated suggests a broad applicability of this method to distinguish organic forest soil horizons. On the basis of the data presented in this study, it may be concluded that FTIR spectroscopy offers a simple, powerful, non-destructive tool for the investigation of decomposition of L to H horizons in forest soils. (author)

  20. A Comparison of Skin and Chest Wall Dose Delivered With Multicatheter, Contura Multilumen Balloon, and MammoSite Breast Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuttino, Laurie W.; Todor, Dorin; Rosu, Mihaela; Arthur, Douglas W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Skin and chest wall doses have been correlated with toxicity in patients treated with breast brachytherapy . This investigation compared the ability to control skin and chest wall doses between patients treated with multicatheter (MC), Contura multilumen balloon (CMLB), and MammoSite (MS) brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: 43 patients treated with the MC technique, 45 patients treated with the CMLB, and 83 patients treated with the MS were reviewed. The maximum doses delivered to the skin and chest wall were calculated for all patients. Results: The mean maximum skin doses for the MC, CMLB, and MS were 2.3 Gy (67% of prescription dose), 2.8 Gy (82% of prescription dose), and 3.2 Gy per fraction (94% of prescription dose), respectively. Although the skin distances were similar (p = 0.23) for the two balloon techniques, the mean skin dose with the CMLB was significantly lower than with the MS (p = 0.05). The mean maximum rib doses for the MC, CMLB, and MS were 2.3 Gy (67% of prescription dose), 2.8 Gy (82% of prescription dose), and 3.6 Gy per fraction (105% of prescription dose), respectively. Again, the mean rib dose with the CMLB was significantly lower than with the MS (p = 0.002). Conclusion: The MC and CMLB techniques are associated with significantly lower mean skin and rib doses than is the MS. Treatment with the MS was associated with significantly more patients receiving doses to the skin or rib in excess of 125% of the prescription. Treatment with the CMLB may prove to yield less normal tissue toxicity than treatment with the MS.

  1. Go Where the Students Are: A Comparison of the Use of Social Networking Sites Between Medical Students and Medical Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bialy, Safaa; Jalali, Alireza

    2015-09-08

    Medical education has grown beyond the boundaries of the classroom, and social media is seen as the bridge between informal and formal learning as it keeps students highly engaged with educational content outside the classroom. The purpose of this study is to explore the perceptions of medical educators and medical students regarding the use of social media for educational purposes. Both groups (medical educators and students) were invited to take a survey. The surveys consisted of 29 questions, including Likert-style, multiple choice, yes/no, ranking, and short answer questions. The survey forms and statistics were built using Google Drive analytics with the free Spanning Stats module. To compare between professors and students, results were exported to a Microsoft Office Excel spreadsheet (Microsoft Corp, Redmond, WA). The study protocol was approved by The Ottawa Health Science Network Research Ethics Board (OHSN-REB:20140680-01H). The overall response rate to the survey was 40.9% (63/154) for students, and 36% (72/200) for medical educators. The majority of educators (79%, 57/72) and students (100.0%, 63/63) had presence on social networking sites (SNSs). Only (33% 19/57) of educators used SNSs with their students, the most used sites were Facebook (52%, 10/19) and Twitter (47%, 9/19), followed by LinkedIn (21%, 4/19), Google+ (16%, 3/19),YouTube (11%, 2/19), and blogs (11%, 2/19). Facebook (100%, 63/63), YouTube (43%, 27/63), Twitter (31%, 20/63), and Instagram (30%, 19/63) were the sites most commonly used by students. The educators used SNSs mainly to post opinions (86%, 49/57), share videos (81%, 46/57), chat (71%, 41/57), engage in medical education (68%, 40/57), take surveys (24%, 14/57), and play games (5%, 3/57). On the other hand, students used SNSs mainly to chat with friends (94%, 59/63), for medical education purposes (67%, 42/63), to share videos (62%, 39/63), to post opinions (49%, 31/63), to take surveys (11%, 7/63), and to play games (6%, 4

  2. Reconstructing Holocene palaeo-environmental conditions in the Baltic: A multi-proxy comparison from the Little Belt (IODP Expedition 347, Site M0059)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotthoff, Ulrich; Andrén, Elinor; Andrén, Thomas; Ash, Jeanine; Bauersachs, Thorsten; Fanget, Anne-Sophie; Granoszewski, Wojciech; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Krupinski, Nadine; Peyron, Odile; Slomp, Caroline; Stepanova, Anna; Warnock, Jonathan; van Helmond, Niels; Expedition 347 Science Party

    2016-04-01

    Some of the largest marine environmental impacts from ongoing global climate change are occurring in continental shelf seas and enclosed basins, including severe oxygen depletion, intensifying stratification, and increasing temperatures. In order to predict future changes in water mass conditions, it is essential to reconstruct how these conditions have changed in the past against the background of climate changes. The brackish Baltic Sea is one of the largest semi-enclosed basins worldwide, and its sediment records provide a unique opportunity to analyse palaeo-environmental and climate change in central and northern Europe. IODP Expedition 347 recovered an exceptional set of sediment cores from the Baltic Sea which allow high-resolution reconstructions in unprecedented quality. We present a comparison of commonly-used proxies to reconstruct palaeoecosystems, -temperatures, and -salinity from IODP Site M0059 in the Little Belt over the past ˜8000 years. Our aim is to reconstruct the development of the terrestrial and marine ecosystems in the research area and the related environmental conditions, and to identify potential limitations of individual proxies. The age model for Site M0059 is based on 14Cdating, biostratigraphic correlation with neighbouring terrestrial pollen records, and sediment stratigraphy. Sedimentary organic carbon content and the bulk elemental composition have been measured, and can be used to determine the depositional environment and degree of oxygen depletion (e.g., Mo, Corg/Ptot). Pollen is used as proxy for vegetation development in the hinterland of the southern Baltic Sea and as a land/air-temperature proxy. Comparison with dinoflagellate cysts, insect remains, and green algae remains from the same samples provides a direct land-sea comparison. The application of the modern analogues technique to pollen assemblages has previously yielded precise results for late Pleistocene and Holocene datasets, including specific information on

  3. Fabrication of efficient TiO2-RGO heterojunction composites for hydrogen generation via water-splitting: Comparison between RGO, Au and Pt reduction sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bery, Haitham M.; Matsushita, Yoshihisa; Abdel-moneim, Ahmed

    2017-11-01

    A facile one-step synthesis approach of M/TiO2/RGO (M = Au or Pt) ternary composite by hydrothermal treatment for hydrogen generation via water-splitting was investigated. Photocurrent response measurements revealed that TiO2 (P25) nanoparticles anchored on the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) surface exhibited a p-n heterojunction interface by changing the photocurrent direction with the applied bias from reverse to forward potential. H2 evolution rate of TiO2/RGO (5 wt.%) composite was substantially enhanced by 12-fold in comparison to bare TiO2 under simulated solar light irradiation. Cyclic volatmmetry measurements manifested, that the optimized 0.3 wt.% of platinum metal loaded on TiO2/RGO composite was the most active catalytic reduction sites for hydrogen generation reaction with an initial hydrogen rate of 670 μmol h-1. This study sheds the light on the tunable semiconductor type of TiO2/RGO composite fabricated by solution mixing pathway and its merits to improve the photocatalytic activity.

  4. Direct comparison of {sup 210}Po, {sup 234}Th and POC particle-size distributions and export fluxes at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Gillian, E-mail: gstewart@qc.cuny.ed [Queens College, CUNY Flushing, NY 11367 (United States); Moran, S. Bradley, E-mail: moran@gso.uri.ed [Graduate School of Oceanography, URI Narragansett, RI 02882 (United States); Lomas, Michael W., E-mail: Michael.Lomas@bios.ed [Bermuda Institute for Ocean Sciences, St. George' s, GE01 (Bermuda); Kelly, Roger P., E-mail: rokelly@gso.uri.ed [Graduate School of Oceanography, URI Narragansett, RI 02882 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Particle-reactive, naturally occurring radionuclides are useful tracers of the sinking flux of organic matter from the surface to the deep ocean. Since the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) began in 1987, the disequilibrium between {sup 234}Th and its parent {sup 238}U has become widely used as a technique to measure particle export fluxes from surface ocean waters. Another radionuclide pair, {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb, can be used for the same purpose but has not been as widely adopted due to difficulty with accurately constraining the {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb radiochemical balance in the ocean and because of the more time-consuming radiochemical procedures. Direct comparison of particle flux estimated in different ocean regions using these short-lived radionuclides is important in evaluating their utility and accuracy as tracers of particle flux. In this paper, we present paired {sup 234}Th/{sup 238}U and {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb data from oligotrophic surface waters of the subtropical Northwest Atlantic and discuss their advantages and limitations. Vertical profiles of total and particle size-fractionated {sup 210}Po and {sup 234}Th activities, together with particulate organic carbon (POC) concentrations, were measured during three seasons at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site. Both {sup 210}Po and {sup 234}Th reasonably predict sinking POC flux caught in sediment traps, and each tracer provides unique information about the magnitude and efficiency of the ocean's biological pump.

  5. A comparison of geostatistically based inverse techniques for use in performance assessment analysis at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site: Results from Test Case No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, D.A.; Gallegos, D.P.

    1993-10-01

    The groundwater flow pathway in the Culebra Dolomite aquifer at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been identified as a potentially important pathway for radionuclide migration to the accessible environment. Consequently, uncertainties in the models used to describe flow and transport in the Culebra need to be addressed. A ''Geostatistics Test Problem'' is being developed to evaluate a number of inverse techniques that may be used for flow calculations in the WIPP performance assessment (PA). The Test Problem is actually a series of test cases, each being developed as a highly complex synthetic data set; the intent is for the ensemble of these data sets to span the range of possible conceptual models of groundwater flow at the WIPP site. The Test Problem analysis approach is to use a comparison of the probabilistic groundwater travel time (GWTT) estimates produced by each technique as the basis for the evaluation. Participants are given observations of head and transmissivity (possibly including measurement error) or other information such as drawdowns from pumping wells, and are asked to develop stochastic models of groundwater flow for the synthetic system. Cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) of groundwater flow (computed via particle tracking) are constructed using the head and transmissivity data generated through the application of each technique; one semi-analytical method generates the CDFs of groundwater flow directly. This paper describes the results from Test Case No. 1

  6. A Prospective Comparison of 18F-FDG PET/CT and CT as Diagnostic Tools to Identify the Primary Tumor Site in Patients with Extracervical Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, Anne Kirstine H; Loft, Annika; Berthelsen, Anne K

    2012-01-01

    that the same set of criteria were used for classification of patients, that is, either as CUP patients or patients with a suggested primary tumor site. The independently obtained suggestions of primary tumor sites using PET/CT and CT were correlated with the SR to reach a consensus regarding true-positive (TP......), true-negative, false-negative, and false-positive results.Results. SR identified a primary tumor site in 66 CUP patients (48.9%). PET/CT identified 38 TP primary tumor sites and CT identified 43 TP primary tumor sites. No statistically significant differences were observed between (18)F-FDG PET...

  7. In situ analysis of Mars soil sample with the sam gcms instrumentation onboard Curiosity : interpretation and comparison of measurements done at Rocknest and Yelloknife bay sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopa, Cyril; Coll, Patrice; Cabane, Michel; Coscia, David; Buch, Arnaud; Francois, Pascaline; Millan, Maeva; Teinturier, Sammy; Navarro-Gonzales, Rafael; Glavin, Daniel; Freissinet, Caro; Steele, Andrew; Eigenbrode, Jen; Mahaffy, Paul

    2014-05-01

    The characterisation of the chemical and mineralogical composition of regolith samples collected with the Curiosity rover is a primary objective of the SAM experiment. These data should provide essential clues on the past habitability of Gale crater. Amongst the SAM suite of instruments [1], SAM-GC (Gas Chromatograph) is devoted to identify and quantify volatiles evolved from the thermal (heating up to about 900°C)/chemical (derivatization procedure) treatment of any soil sample collected by the Curiosity rover. With the aim to search for potential organic molecules outgassed from the samples, a SAM-GC analytical channel composed of thermal-desorption injector and a MXT-CLP chromatographic column was chosen to achieve all the measurements done up today, as it was designed for the separation of a wide range of volatile organic molecules. Three solid samples have been analyzed with GCMS, one sand sample collected at the Rocknest site, and two rock samples (John Klein and Cumberland respectively) collected at the Yellowknife Bay site using the Curiosity driller. All the measurements were successful and they produced complex chromatograms with both detectors used for SAM GC, i.e. a thermal conductivity detector and the SAM quandrupole mass spectrometer. Their interpretation already revealed the presence of an oxychlorine phase present in the sample which is at the origin of chlorohydrocarbons clearly identified [2] but this represents only a fraction of the GCMS signal recorded [3,4]. This work presents a systematic comparison of the GCMS measurements done for the different samples collected, supported by reference data obtained in laboratory with different spare models of the gas chromatograph, with the aim to bring new elements of interpretation of the SAM measurements. References: [1] Mahaffy, P. et al. (2012) Space Sci Rev, 170, 401-478. [2] Glavin, D. et al. (2013), JGR. [3] Leshin L. et al. (2013), Science, [4] Ming D. et al. (2013), Science, 32, 64

  8. First characterization and comparison of TEB model simulations with in situ measurements regarding radiation balance in a single urban canyon at the BOKU site (Vienna)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Sandro; Trimmel, Heidelinde; Revesz, Michael; Nadeem, Imran; Masson, Valéry; Weihs, Philipp

    2017-04-01

    According to the World Health Organization more than half of the world population lives in a city since 2010. Predictions foresee that by 2030 six out of ten people will live in an urban area. As a result, many cities are expanding in size. Almost 10% of all urban dwellers live in megacities (defined according to UN HABITAT as a city with a population of more than 10 million). There are several effects in cities which strongly influence human health. Visible influences like the severe emissions of air pollutants by industry and traffic (e.g. Mayer H., 1999, Grimmond et al., 2010) are obvious to people but thermal stress in urban areas is only recently recognized for its strong devastating effect on human health. As a consequence, the urban environment virtually influences all weather parameters that have an impact on human comfort and thermal stress. Within this study, we investigate effects of city growth and the development of outlying districts on the local climate of Vienna. We focus particularly on the influence of urban heat island and consequent the risk for heat related illnesses or thermal stress for people. To quantify radiation balance and other important meteorological factors, we performed an extensive field campaign with three types of net radiometer in three different heights at BOKU site in August 2016. The first results indicated a strong correlation (ρ=0.96) between the Town Energy Balance (TEB) model and the measurements of the top net radiometer regarding radiation balance at roof level, meanwhile the TEB results are slightly underestimated. Further check if the measurements are reasonable, a comparison of the input values (global and direct solar radiation) for the TEB simulation with Secondary Standard measurements of ARAD site Wien Hohe Warte shows a deviation under 2% concerning interquartile range on clear sky days. The next steps will enclose TEB simulations, coupled with the mesoscale Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, for

  9. A comparison of Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn: Examining motivations and network externalities for the use of social networking sites

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Mijung; Cha, Jiyoung

    2017-01-01

    Although the winner-takes-all approach is often theorized in the use of an information communication technology, more than one popular social networking site exists in the market. Integrating uses and gratification (U&G) theory with network externalities, this study examines why social networking sites can coexist in the market and whether predictors of using social networking sites differ across popular social networking sites. Three separate surveys were conducted for Facebook, Twitter, and...

  10. Comparison between dispersed nuclear power plants and a nuclear energy center at a hypothetical site on Kentucky Lake, Tennessee. Volume I. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burwell, C.C.; Reister, D.B.; Rosemarin, C.S.; Sisman, O.; Suffern, J.S.

    1976-05-01

    A brief summary is presented of the surrogate site concept used to compare the Nuclear Energy Center (NEC) concept with the present method of dispersed siting of nuclear power plants. Included are data on power transmission, environmental considerations, and a discussion of a site selection methodology

  11. TWO-STAGE REOSTEOSYNTHESIS OF TIBIA IN THE PATIENT WITH FRACTURE NON-UNION COMPLICATED BY POSTOPERATIVE OSTEOMYELITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Efremov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a case report of a patient with pseudarthrosis of the right tibia complicated by chronic postoperative osteomyelitis. The development of the osteomyelitis process is caused by locked intramedullary fixation of the right tibia by a retrograde nail. Unstable fixation led to the development of acute periimplant infection and osteomyelitis.A radical surgical debridement of the focus site of chronic infection was performed by removing locking screws and nail, removal of necrotic bone tissues by handling the tibial medullary cavity by special reamers. The authors used the pulse lavage with active removal of the solution for an additional sterilization of the surgical wound and medullary cavity. A reinforced spacer impregnated with vancomycin and polyvalent bacteriophage was placed in the medullary cavity to ensure local prolonged antimicrobial therapy. Instead of the removed monomer the polyvalent bacteriophage was introduced into the polymer composition including phages against the main infectious agents in patients of traumatology and orthopedics clinic.Three months after the first stage of treatment and stabilization of laboratory parameters the patient was readmitted to the clinic. The second stage of procedure included removal of spacer, closed antegrade locked internal fixation of the right tibia and talus by a nail with an antimicrobial coating of bone cement impregnated with vancomycin and a polyvalent bacteriophage. Antimicrobial coating of the nail was made intraoperatively using an original mold.Two stage procedure allowed to achieve a stable remission of chronic osteomyelitis and stable internal fixation of tibia pseudarthrosis with preservation of the supporting function of the lower limb.

  12. Genomic and microarray analysis of aromatics degradation in Geobacter metallireducens and comparison to a Geobacter isolate from a contaminated field site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jizhong

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Groundwater and subsurface environments contaminated with aromatic compounds can be remediated in situ by Geobacter species that couple oxidation of these compounds to reduction of Fe(III-oxides. Geobacter metallireducens metabolizes many aromatic compounds, but the enzymes involved are not well known. Results The complete G. metallireducens genome contained a 300 kb island predicted to encode enzymes for the degradation of phenol, p-cresol, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzoate, benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, and benzoate. Toluene degradation genes were encoded in a separate region. None of these genes was found in closely related species that cannot degrade aromatic compounds. Abundant transposons and phage-like genes in the island suggest mobility, but nucleotide composition and lack of synteny with other species do not suggest a recent transfer. The inferred degradation pathways are similar to those in species that anaerobically oxidize aromatic compounds with nitrate as an electron acceptor. In these pathways the aromatic compounds are converted to benzoyl-CoA and then to 3-hydroxypimelyl-CoA. However, in G. metallireducens there were no genes for the energetically-expensive dearomatizing enzyme. Whole-genome changes in transcript levels were identified in cells oxidizing benzoate. These supported the predicted pathway, identified induced fatty-acid oxidation genes, and identified an apparent shift in the TCA cycle to a putative ATP-yielding succinyl-CoA synthase. Paralogs to several genes in the pathway were also induced, as were several putative molybdo-proteins. Comparison of the aromatics degradation pathway genes to the genome of an isolate from a contaminated field site showed very similar content, and suggested this strain degrades many of the same compounds. This strain also lacked a classical dearomatizing enzyme, but contained two copies of an eight-gene cluster encoding redox proteins that was 30-fold

  13. A comparison between standard well test evaluation methods used in SKB's site investigations and the generalised radial flow concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB (Sweden)); Ludvigson, Jan-Erik; Leven, Jakob (Geosigma AB (Sweden))

    2011-09-15

    According to the strategy for hydrogeological characterisation within the SKB's site investigation programme, two single-hole test methods are available for testing and parameterisation of groundwater flow models - constant-head injection testing with the Pipe String System (PSS method) and difference flow logging with the Posiva Flow Log (PFL method). This report presents the results of an investigation to assess discrepancies in the results of single-hole transmissivity measurements using these methods in the Forsmark site characterisation. The investigation explores the possibility that the source of the discrepancy observed lies in the assumptions of the flow geometry that are inherent to the methods used for standard constant-head injection well test analysis and difference flow logging analysis, respectively. In particular, the report looks at the generalised radial flow (GRF) concept by Barker (1988) as a means that might explain some of the differences. A confirmation of the actual flow geometries (dimensions) observed during hydraulic injection tests could help to identify admissible conceptual models for the tested system, and place the hydraulic testing with the PSS and PFL test methods in its full hydrogeological context. The investigation analyses 151 constant-head injection tests in three cored boreholes at Forsmark. The results suggest that the transmissivities derived with standard constant-head injection well test analysis methods and with the GRF concept, respectively, are similar provided that the dominating flow geometry during the testing is radial (cylindrical). Thus, having flow geometries with dimensions other than 2 affects the value of the interpreted transmissivity. For example, a flow system with a dimension of 1 may require an order of magnitude or more, higher transmissivity to produce the same flow rates. The median of the GRF flow dimensions of all 151 constant-head injection tests is 2.06 with 33% of the tests in the range 1

  14. Investigation of reactivity changes due to flooding the irradiation sites of the MNSR reactor using the MCNP code and comparison with experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Shirani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the Isfahan Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR has been simulated using the MCNP code, and reactivity worth of flooding the inner irradiation sites of this reactor in an accident has been calculated. Also, by inserting polyethylene capsules containing water inside the inner irradiation sites, reactivity changes of this reactor in same such accident have been measured, the results of which are in good agreements with the calculated results. In this work, the reactivity worth due to flooding one inner irradiation site is 0.53mk , and reactivity worth due to flooding of the whole 5 inner irradiation sites is 2.61 mk.

  15. Transepidermal water loss in cats: comparison of three differently clipped sites to assess the influence of hair coat on transepidermal water loss values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momota, Yutaka; Shimada, Kenichiroh; Takami, Akina; Akaogi, Harumi; Takasaki, Mariko; Mimura, Kana; Azakami, Daigo; Ishioka, Katsumi; Nakamura, Yuka; Sako, Toshinori

    2013-08-01

    The measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is one of the parameters that can be used to assess skin barrier function. The variability and reliability of TEWL measurements in dogs have been controversial, and the hair coat has been considered as one of the factors that may cause variation of TEWL values. The aims of the study were to establish a suitable procedure for measuring feline TEWL, to evaluate the influence of hair coat on TEWL measurements and to assess variations of TEWL at different anatomical sites. Transepidermal water loss was measured using a closed-chamber evaporimeter, the VapoMeter(®). We compared three adjacent sites in the groin area of 10 clinically normal, domestic short hair cats. One site was unclipped, the second was trimmed with scissors and the third was shaved using electric clippers. Values of TEWL were obtained for 48 h after trimming with scissors and clippers. Five sites were clipped (upper back, lumbar back, lateral thigh, axillae and groin), and the TEWL was measured. The mean and SD of TEWL values of the clipper-trimmed site were the smallest, followed in order by the site trimmed with scissors and the unclipped site. The TEWL values were statistically constant in the clipper-trimmed site, while the values in the unclipped sites were not. There was no statistically significant difference in TEWL values between all of the anatomical sites except for the axillae. Hair clipping of sites with electric clippers is recommended for TEWL measurement in cats. © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.

  16. A comparison of single- and multi-site calibration and validation: a case study of SWAT in the Miyun Reservoir watershed, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jianwen; Shen, Zhenyao; Yan, Tiezhu

    2017-09-01

    An essential task in evaluating global water resource and pollution problems is to obtain the optimum set of parameters in hydrological models through calibration and validation. For a large-scale watershed, single-site calibration and validation may ignore spatial heterogeneity and may not meet the needs of the entire watershed. The goal of this study is to apply a multi-site calibration and validation of the Soil andWater Assessment Tool (SWAT), using the observed flow data at three monitoring sites within the Baihe watershed of the Miyun Reservoir watershed, China. Our results indicate that the multi-site calibration parameter values are more reasonable than those obtained from single-site calibrations. These results are mainly due to significant differences in the topographic factors over the large-scale area, human activities and climate variability. The multi-site method involves the division of the large watershed into smaller watersheds, and applying the calibrated parameters of the multi-site calibration to the entire watershed. It was anticipated that this case study could provide experience of multi-site calibration in a large-scale basin, and provide a good foundation for the simulation of other pollutants in followup work in the Miyun Reservoir watershed and other similar large areas.

  17. (125I)LSD labels 5-TCsub(IC) recognition sites in pig choriod plexus membranes. Comparison with (3H)mesulergine and (3H)5-HT binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyer, D.; Srivatsa, S.; Pazos, A.; Engel, G.; Palacios, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The mammalian choroid plexus is enriched in a newly described serotonin recognition site, the binding characteristics of ( 125 I)LSD, ( 3 H)mesulergine and ( 3 H)serotonin to pig choroid plexus membranes were compared. These ligands labelled with high affinity a similar number of sites. The binding profiles of the sites labelled with these radioligands are indistinguishable as illustrated by highly significant correlation parameters. These sites are very similar to those labelled by Nsub(I)-methyl-2-( 125 I)LSD in pig and rat choroid plexus membranes. The data demonstrate that these ligands label 5-HTsub(IC) recognition sites in the pig and rat choroid plexus membranes. (author)

  18. The comparison of exit-site care with normal saline and povidone-iodine in preventing exit-site infection and peritonitis in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onder Yavascan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Peritonitis and catheter exit- site infections (ESI are important causes of hospitalization and catheter loss in patients undergoing chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD. The frequency of infection can be reduced by scrupulous exit- site care with or without topical antiseptics. There are no studies showing any benefit in the use of povidone-iodine or normal saline for care of exit- sites in long- term CPD patients. In this study, we aimed to determine the potential effectiveness of the application of povidone-iodine or normal saline at the catheter exit- site in preventing ESI and peritonitis in children on CPD. A total of 98 patients treated with either povidone-iodine or normal saline were included in this study. Group I (34 patients used povidone-iodine and group II (64 patients simply cleansed the exit- site with normal saline (0.9% NaCl. Dressings were changed 2 to 3 times in a week. The total cumulative follow- up time was 3233 patient- months. ESIs occurred in 10 (29.4% of 34 patients using povidone-iodine and in 10 (15.6% of 64 patients using normal saline. The frequency of ESI was significantly high in group I (povidone-iodine patients. The mean rate of ESI was 1 episode/60.8 patient- months for group I versus 1 episode/144 patient- months for group II (P 0.05. In conclusion, exit- site care with normal saline is an effective strategy in reducing the incidence of ESI in children on CPD. It can thus significantly reduce morbidity, catheter loss, and the need to transfer patients on peritoneal dialysis to hemodialysis.

  19. Comparison of postoperative surgical site infection after preoperative marking done with non-sterile stationary grade markers versus sterile surgical markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, Z.A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the frequencies of post- operative surgical site infection after preoperative marking done with non-sterile stationary. grade markers versus sterile surgical markers in the same patient. Design: Randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: The department of Plastic surgery, Mayo hospital, Lahore from August 2013 to August 2014. Methods: This study was conducted after taking approval from the departmental ethical committee. Forty consecutive patients were included. A sterile surgical marker was used to mark one incision site while an alcohol based stationary grade marker was used to mark another incision site on the same patient. A standard preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative protocol was followed. Cultures were performed on swabs taken from the incision sites and surgical site infection was assessed for 30 days. Results: The study included 40 patients; 17 males and 23 females. The mean age of subjects was 25.32 ± 19.69 years with the minimum age being 2 years and the maximum being 63 years. No growth was seen in cultures taken from all the incision sites after skin preparation in the non sterile stationary grade marker group as well as the sterile surgical grade marker group. Also no surgical site infection appeared during the 30 day postoperative observation period in the non sterile stationary grade marker group as well as the sterile surgical grade marker group. (author)

  20. A Multicentric, Open-Label, Randomized, Comparative Clinical Trial of Two Different Doses of Expanded hBM-MSCs Plus Biomaterial versus Iliac Crest Autograft, for Bone Healing in Nonunions after Long Bone Fractures: Study Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gómez-Barrena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ORTHOUNION is a multicentre, open, comparative, three-arm, randomized clinical trial (EudraCT number 2015-000431-32 to compare the efficacy, at one and two years, of autologous human bone marrow-derived expanded mesenchymal stromal cell (hBM-MSC treatments versus iliac crest autograft (ICA to enhance bone healing in patients with diaphyseal and/or metaphysodiaphyseal fracture (femur, tibia, and humerus status of atrophic or oligotrophic nonunion (more than 9 months after the acute fracture, including recalcitrant cases after failed treatments. The primary objective is to determine if the treatment with hBM-MSCs combined with biomaterial is superior to ICA in obtaining bone healing. If confirmed, a secondary objective is set to determine if the dose of 100 × 106 hBM-MSCs is noninferior to that of 200 × 106 hBM-MSCs. The participants (n=108 will be randomly assigned to either the experimental low dose (n=36, the experimental high dose (n=36, or the comparator arm (n=36 using a central randomization service. The trial will be conducted in 20 clinical centres in Spain, France, Germany, and Italy under the same clinical protocol. The confirmation of superiority for the proposed ATMP in nonunions may foster the future of bone regenerative medicine in this indication. On the contrary, absence of superiority may underline its limitations in clinical use.

  1. A Multicentric, Open-Label, Randomized, Comparative Clinical Trial of Two Different Doses of Expanded hBM-MSCs Plus Biomaterial versus Iliac Crest Autograft, for Bone Healing in Nonunions after Long Bone Fractures: Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Barrena, Enrique; Padilla-Eguiluz, Norma G; Avendaño-Solá, Cristina; Payares-Herrera, Concepción; Velasco-Iglesias, Ana; Torres, Ferran; Rosset, Philippe; Gebhard, Florian; Baldini, Nicola; Rubio-Suarez, Juan C; García-Rey, Eduardo; Cordero-Ampuero, José; Vaquero-Martin, Javier; Chana, Francisco; Marco, Fernando; García-Coiradas, Javier; Caba-Dessoux, Pedro; de la Cuadra, Pablo; Hernigou, Philippe; Flouzat-Lachaniette, Charles-Henri; Gouin, François; Mainard, Didier; Laffosse, Jean Michel; Kalbitz, Miriam; Marzi, Ingo; Südkamp, Norbert; Stöckle, Ulrich; Ciapetti, Gabriela; Donati, Davide Maria; Zagra, Luigi; Pazzaglia, Ugo; Zarattini, Guido; Capanna, Rodolfo; Catani, Fabio

    2018-01-01

    ORTHOUNION is a multicentre, open, comparative, three-arm, randomized clinical trial (EudraCT number 2015-000431-32) to compare the efficacy, at one and two years, of autologous human bone marrow-derived expanded mesenchymal stromal cell (hBM-MSC) treatments versus iliac crest autograft (ICA) to enhance bone healing in patients with diaphyseal and/or metaphysodiaphyseal fracture (femur, tibia, and humerus) status of atrophic or oligotrophic nonunion (more than 9 months after the acute fracture, including recalcitrant cases after failed treatments). The primary objective is to determine if the treatment with hBM-MSCs combined with biomaterial is superior to ICA in obtaining bone healing. If confirmed, a secondary objective is set to determine if the dose of 100 × 10 6 hBM-MSCs is noninferior to that of 200 × 10 6 hBM-MSCs. The participants ( n = 108) will be randomly assigned to either the experimental low dose ( n = 36), the experimental high dose ( n = 36), or the comparator arm ( n = 36) using a central randomization service. The trial will be conducted in 20 clinical centres in Spain, France, Germany, and Italy under the same clinical protocol. The confirmation of superiority for the proposed ATMP in nonunions may foster the future of bone regenerative medicine in this indication. On the contrary, absence of superiority may underline its limitations in clinical use.

  2. Feasibility and safety of treating non-unions in tibia, femur and humerus with autologous, expanded, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells associated with biphasic calcium phosphate biomaterials in a multicentric, non-comparative trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Barrena, Enrique; Rosset, Philippe; Gebhard, Florian; Hernigou, Philippe; Baldini, Nicola; Rouard, Helène; Sensebé, Luc; Gonzalo-Daganzo, Rosa M; Giordano, Rosaria; Padilla-Eguiluz, Norma; García-Rey, Eduardo; Cordero-Ampuero, José; Rubio-Suárez, Juan Carlos; Stanovici, Julien; Ehrnthaller, Christian; Huber-Lang, Markus; Flouzat-Lachaniette, Charles Henri; Chevallier, Nathalie; Donati, Davide Maria; Ciapetti, Gabriela; Fleury, Sandrine; Fernandez, Manuel-Nicolás; Cabrera, José-Rafael; Avendaño-Solá, Cristina; Montemurro, Tiziana; Panaitescu, Carmen; Veronesi, Elena; Rojewski, Markus Thomas; Lotfi, Ramin; Dominici, Massimo; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Layrolle, Pierre

    2018-03-19

    ORTHO-1 is a European, multicentric, first in human clinical trial to prove safety and feasibility after surgical implantation of commercially available biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramic granules associated during surgery with autologous mesenchymal stromal cells expanded from bone marrow (BM-hMSC) under good manufacturing practices, in patients with long bone pseudarthrosis. Twenty-eight patients with femur, tibia or humerus diaphyseal or metaphyso-diaphyseal non-unions were recruited and surgically treated in France, Germany, Italy and Spain with 100 or 200 million BM-hMSC/mL associated with 5-10 cc of bioceramic granules. Patients were followed up during one year. The investigational advanced therapy medicinal product (ATMP) was expanded under the same protocol in all four countries, and approved by each National Competent Authority. With safety as primary end-point, no severe adverse event was reported as related to the BM-hMSC. With feasibility as secondary end-point, the participating production centres manufactured the BM-hMSC as planned. The ATMP combined to the bioceramic was surgically delivered to the non-unions, and 26/28 treated patients were found radiologically healed at one year (3 out of 4 cortices with bone bridging). Safety and feasibility were clinically proven for surgical implantation of expanded autologous BM-hMSC with bioceramic. EU-FP7-HEALTH-2009, REBORNE Project (GA: 241876). Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison and Evaluation of Large-Scale and On-Site Recycling Systems for Food Waste via Life Cycle Cost Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Hee Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost-benefit of on-site food waste recycling system using Life-Cycle Cost analysis, and to compare with large-scale treatment system. For accurate evaluation, the cost-benefit analysis was conducted with respect to local governments and residents, and qualitative environmental improvement effects were quantified. As for the local governments, analysis results showed that, when large-scale treatment system was replaced with on-site recycling system, there was significant cost reduction from the initial stage depending on reduction of investment, maintenance, and food wastewater treatment costs. As for the residents, it was found that the cost incurred from using the on-site recycling system was larger than the cost of using large-scale treatment system due to the cost of producing and installing the on-site treatment facilities at the initial stage. However, analysis showed that with continuous benefits such as greenhouse gas emission reduction, compost utilization, and food wastewater reduction, cost reduction would be obtained after 6 years of operating the on-site recycling system. Therefore, it was recommended for local governments and residents to consider introducing an on-site food waste recycling system if they are to replace an old treatment system or need to establish a new one.

  4. Comparison of reactivity on step and terrace sites of Pd (3 3 2) surface for the dissociative adsorption of hydrogen: A quantum chemical molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Farouq; Nagumo, Ryo; Miura, Ryuji; Ai, Suzuki; Tsuboi, Hideyuki; Hatakeyama, Nozomu; Endou, Akira; Takaba, Hiromitsu; Kubo, Momoji; Miyamoto, Akira

    2011-01-01

    The notion of 'active sites' is fundamental to heterogeneous catalysis. However, the exact nature of the active sites, and hence the mechanism by which they act, are still largely a matter of speculation. In this study, we have presented a systematic quantum chemical molecular dynamics (QCMD) calculations for the interaction of hydrogen on different step and terrace sites of the Pd (3 3 2) surface. Finally the dissociative adsorption of hydrogen on step and terrace as well as the influence of surface hydrogen vacancy for the dissociative adsorption of hydrogen has been investigated through QCMD. This is a state-of-the-art method for calculating the interaction of atoms and molecules with metal surfaces. It is found that fully hydrogen covered (saturated) step sites can dissociate hydrogen moderately and that a monovacancy surface is suitable for significant dissociative adsorption of hydrogen. However in terrace site of the surface we have found that dissociation of hydrogen takes place only on Pd sites where the metal atom is not bound to any pre-adsorbed hydrogen atoms. Furthermore, from the molecular dynamics and electronic structure calculations, we identify a number of consequences for the interpretation and modeling of diffusion experiments demonstrating the coverage and directional dependence of atomic hydrogen diffusion on stepped palladium surface.

  5. Comparison of Hourly Solar Radiation from a Ground–Based Station, Remote Sensing and Weather Forecast Models at a Coastal Site of South Italy (Lamezia Terme)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feudo, Teresa Lo; Avolio, Elenio; Gullì, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The solar radiation is a critical input parameter when working with solar energy and radiation dependent surface processes. In this study, we present preliminary results from an inter-comparison between hourly values from a pyranometer, MSG-SEVIRI sensor and two meso-scale models, WRF and RAMS, i...

  6. Interaction of Zn(II)bleomycin-A2 and Zn(II)peplomycin with a DNA hairpin containing the 5'-GT-3' binding site in comparison with the 5'-GC-3' binding site studied by NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Shelby E; Ingersoll, Azure D; Murray, Sally A; Reilly, Teresa M; Lehmann, Teresa E

    2017-10-01

    Bleomycins are a group of glycopeptide antibiotics synthesized by Streptomyces verticillus that are widely used for the treatment of various neoplastic diseases. These antibiotics have the ability to chelate a metal center, mainly Fe(II), and cause site-specific DNA cleavage. Bleomycins are differentiated by their C-terminal regions. Although this antibiotic family is a successful course of treatment for some types of cancers, it is known to cause pulmonary fibrosis. Previous studies have identified that bleomycin-related pulmonary toxicity is linked to the C-terminal region of these drugs. This region has been shown to closely interact with DNA. We examined the binding of Zn(II)peplomycin and Zn(II)bleomycin-A 2 to a DNA hairpin of sequence 5'-CCAGTATTTTTACTGG-3', containing the binding site 5'-GT-3', and compared the results with those obtained from our studies of the same MBLMs bound to a DNA hairpin containing the binding site 5'-GC-3'. We provide evidence that the DNA base sequence has a strong impact in the final structure of the drug-target complex.

  7. Comparison of three field screening techniques for delineating petroleum hydrocarbon plumes in groundwater at a site in the southern Carson Desert, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smuin, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    Three types of field screening techniques used in the characterization of potentially contaminated sites at Naval Air Station Fallon, Nevada, are compared. The methods and results for each technique are presented. The three techniques include soil-gas surveys, electromagnetic geophysical surveys, and groundwater test hole screening. Initial screening at the first study site included two soil-gas surveys and electromagnetic geophysical studies. These screening methods identified I areas of contamination; however, results were inconclusive. Therefore groundwater test hole screening was performed. Groundwater screening consisted of auger drilling down to the shallow alluvial aquifer. Groundwater samples were collected from the open drill hole with a bailer. On-site head-space analyses for volatile organic compounds (VOCS) were performed using a portable gas chromatograph (GC). Five areas of floating petroleum hydrocarbon product were identified along with the overall dissolved contaminant plume boundaries. Well placement was re-evaluated, and well sites were relocated based on the screening information. The most effective technique for identification of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminant plumes was groundwater test hole screening. Groundwater screening was subsequently performed at 19 other sites. A total of 450 test holes were analyzed resulting in the delineation of six plumes

  8. Immunoassay of blood spot TSH; development of a rapid two-site immunoradiometric assay and comparison with radioimmunoassay as a screening method for neonatal hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, R.M.; Ratcliffe, J.G.; Chapman, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a two-site immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for thyrotropin (TSH) eluted from dried blood filter paper discs is described and compared with a conventional TSH radioimmunoassay (RIA) as a screening procedure for neonatal hypothyroidism. The two-site IRMA involves a primary incubation of excess labelled TSH antibody and the blood disc for 16-18 h at pH 8 and a secondary 3 h incubation under agitation, with solid phase TSH antibody. Bound and free fractions are separated by a semi-automated washing procedure. It is concluded that the two-site TSH IRMA has advantages over conventional RIA in speed, sensitivity, precision and ruggedness and can be recommended as an efficient screening procedure for neonatal hypothyroidism. (Auth.)

  9. Comparison of Cenozoic Faulting at the Savannah River Site to Fault Characteristics of the Atlantic Coast Fault Province: Implications for Fault Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumbest, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study compares the faulting observed on the Savannah River Site and vicinity with the faults of the Atlantic Coastal Fault Province and concludes that both sets of faults exhibit the same general characteristics and are closely associated. Based on the strength of this association it is concluded that the faults observed on the Savannah River Site and vicinity are in fact part of the Atlantic Coastal Fault Province. Inclusion in this group means that the historical precedent established by decades of previous studies on the seismic hazard potential for the Atlantic Coastal Fault Province is relevant to faulting at the Savannah River Site. That is, since these faults are genetically related the conclusion of ''not capable'' reached in past evaluations applies.In addition, this study establishes a set of criteria by which individual faults may be evaluated in order to assess their inclusion in the Atlantic Coast Fault Province and the related association of the ''not capable'' conclusion

  10. Comparison of PM2.5 carbonaceous pollutants between an urban site in Shanghai and a background site in a coastal East China Sea island in summer: concentration, composition and sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengwen; Lin, Tian; Li, Yuanyuan; Guo, Zhigang; Rose, Neil L

    2017-06-21

    Nine paired samples of atmospheric particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ) were collected concurrently from an urban site in Shanghai, China and a background site in Huaniao Island (HNI) in the coastal East China Sea (ECS) between July 21 and 29, 2011. The samples were analyzed for 16 United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), n-alkanes (20 species, C 14 -C 33 ), hopanes (10 species, C 29 -C 32 ), and steranes (12 species, C 27 -C 29 ). These two sites, approximately 66 km apart, are both on the pathway of land-based pollutants as they are transported to the ECS by seasonal winds. As expected, concentrations in Shanghai were higher (average: 8.4 and 67.8 ng m -3 for the 16 PAHs and n-alkanes, respectively) than those in HNI (average: 1.8 and 8.5 ng m -3 , respectively). The dominant contributor to the 16 PAHs in Shanghai was 5-6-ring PAHs (60.0%), whereas 2-3-ring PAHs contributed the most (72.5%) in HNI. Plant waxes contributed 45.7% and 25.9% of the n-alkanes in Shanghai and HNI, respectively, implying a relatively greater contribution from petroleum residues to the n-alkanes in HNI. Principal component analysis (PCA) and the compositions of hopanes and steranes highlighted a prominent contribution from traffic emissions to carbonaceous PM 2.5 aerosols. This study provides comprehensive details about the sources, formation, and transport of pollutants from eastern China to the coastal ECS.

  11. Replication and Comparison of the Newly Proposed ADOS-2, Module 4 Algorithm in ASD without ID: A Multi-Site Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Cara E.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Bal, Vanessa Hus; Wallace, Gregory L.; Yerys, Benjamin E.; Maddox, Brenna B.; White, Susan W.; Popal, Haroon; Armour, Anna Chelsea; Miller, Judith; Herrington, John D.; Schultz, Robert T.; Martin, Alex; Anthony, Laura Gutermuth

    2015-01-01

    Recent updates have been proposed to the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-2 Module 4 diagnostic algorithm. This new algorithm, however, has not yet been validated in an independent sample without intellectual disability (ID). This multi-site study compared the original and revised algorithms in individuals with ASD without ID. The revised…

  12. A comparison of radiometric fluxes influenced by parameterization cirrus clouds with observed fluxes at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) cloud and radiation testbed (CART) site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, G.G.; Ackerman, T.P.; George, A.T. [Penn State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program`s Southern Great plains Site (SCP) is a valuable resource. We have developed an operational data processing and analysis methodology that allows us to examine continuously the influence of clouds on the radiation field and to test new and existing cloud and radiation parameterizations.

  13. Reliability of a CAD/CAM Surgical Guide for Implant Placement: An In Vitro Comparison of Surgeons' Experience Levels and Implant Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su-Jung; Leesungbok, Richard; Cui, Taixing; Lee, Suk Won; Ahn, Su-Jin

    This in vitro study evaluated the reliability of a surgical guide with regard to different levels of operator surgical experience and implant site. A stereolithographic surgical guide for epoxy resin mandibles with three edentulous molar sites was produced using a computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) system. Two surgeons with and two surgeons without implant surgery experience placed implants in a model either using or not using the CAD/CAM surgical guide. Four groups were created: inexperienced surgeon without the guide (group 1); experienced surgeon without the guide (group 2); inexperienced surgeon with the guide (group 3); and experienced surgeon with the guide (group 4). Planned implants and placed implants were superimposed using digital software, and deviation parameters were calculated. There were no significant differences in any of the deviation parameters between the groups when using the surgical guide. With respect to the implant sites, there were no significant differences among the groups in any parameter. Use of the CAD/CAM surgical guide reduced discrepancies among operators performing implant surgery regardless of their level of experience. Whether or not the guide was used, differences in the anterior-posterior implant site in the molar area did not affect the accuracy of implant placement.

  14. Technical and Economic Comparison MOB location versus Bergermeer Drilling Site. Justification of the Financial section in the Environmental Impact Report (MER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekker, W.; Azeem Khan, F.

    2009-09-01

    The Environmental Impact Report for the gas storage location Bergermeer has selected the MOB area (mobilization complex or storage site of the Dutch Ministry of Defense) in Bergen as the most environment-friendly alternative (MMA) for the well area. TAQA asked SGS to elaborate the technical and financial aspects of the MMA alternative and to compare them to the preferred alternative. [nl

  15. Effects of organic matter removal, soil compaction, and vegetation control on 5-year seedling performance: a regional comparison of long-term soil productivity sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Fleming; Robert F. Powers; Neil W. Foster; J. Marty Kranabetter; D. Andrew Scott; Felix Jr. Ponder; Shannon Berch; William K. Chapman; Richard D. Kabzems; Kim H. Ludovici; David M. Morris; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Paul T. Sanborn; Felipe G. Sanchez; Douglas M. Stone; Allan E. Tiarks

    2006-01-01

    We examined fifth-year seedling response to soil disturbance and vegetation control at 42 experimental locations representing 25 replicated studies within the North American Long-Term Soil Productivity (LTSP) program. These studies share a common experimental design while encompassing a wide range of climate, site conditions, and forest types. Whole-tree harvest had...

  16. Comparison of the Content of Web Sites of Higher Education Institutions Providing for Sports Management Education: The Case of Turkish and English Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katirci, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Considering various themes, this study aims to examine the content of web sites of universities that provide sports management education in higher education level in Turkey and in England. Within this framework, the websites of the higher education institutions that provide sports management education are analyzed by using the content analysis…

  17. Site and extent of starch degradation in the dairy cow - a comparison between in vivo, in situ and in vitro measurements.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindle, V.A.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Klop, A.; Mathijssen-Kamman, A.A.; Gelder, van A.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Prediction of the supply of glycogenic precursors to dairy cows and the site of degradation of wheat, maize and potato starch (PS) were determined in an in vivo experiment and the results were compared with data obtained from experiments involving in situ nylon bag and in vitro gas production

  18. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Korean and American Social Network Sites: Exploring Cultural Differences in Social Relationships and Self-Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seong Eun

    2010-01-01

    National culture is being challenged as societies evolve from their homogeneous origins. The theoretical base of this study uses two cultural dimensions, individualism-collectivism (Hofstede, 2001) and high-and low-context cultures (Hall, 1976), to unpack the effects of national culture on social network sites (SNSs). This study explores cultural…

  19. Sexy online self-presentation on social network sites and the willingness to engage in sexting: A comparison of gender and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosten, J.M.F; Vandenbosch, L.

    The present study investigated whether engaging in sexy self-presentations on social network sites (SNSs) or exposure to sexy self-presentations on SNSs predicts the willingness to engage in sexting. A second aim of the present study was to investigate whether adolescent girls demonstrate stronger

  20. Water-rock interactions in volcaniclastic sediments across the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc: comparison of sites U1438, U1201, 792 and 793.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Land, C.; Sena, C.; Loudin, L. C.; Zhang, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The rapid deposition of volcanogenic sediments, highly susceptible to alteration by seawater has led to distinct pore water geochemical profiles throughout the sedimentary basins of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc. Drilling at Site U1438, in the Amami-Sankaku Basin, recovered a 1300 m thick volcaniclastic section overlain by a 160 m thick section of sediments largely devoid of volcanic input. At Site U1438, 67 porewater samples were analyzed onboard for salinity, pH, oxidation-reduction potential and major and trace element concentrations. Here we focus on the depth profiles of elements which were also analyzed at Sites U1201, 792 and 793. Chloride and Bromide concentrations display similar trends; near constant in the upper 160 m and a linear downward increase to maximum concentrations from 600 mbsf onwards. This increase is likely caused by uptake of water by secondary minerals, resulting in chloride and bromide enrichment in the porewater. Calcium and magnesium porewater concentrations display opposite trends in the upper 440 m; the first increases from 11.5 to 140 mM, and the latter decreases from 53 mM until its depletion in the porewater. Leaching of Ca from the glass-rich sediments and underlying igneous basement are potential sources for Ca in the porewater, while Mg, Na and K presumably replace Ca through cation-exchange. Compared to Site U1438, similar trends of major elements concentration in the pore water were observed at the nearby Sites U1201 (serpentine mud volcano in the forearc of the Mariana subduction system), 792 and 793 (both in the Izu-Bonin forearc sedimentary basin). However, differences in depositional rates, thickness and age of the sedimentary basins, geothermal gradients and the influence of serpentine mud flows, have led to distinct pore water geochemical profiles.

  1. Cross-site comparison of land-use decision-making and its consequences across land systems with a generalized agent-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliocca, Nicholas R; Brown, Daniel G; Ellis, Erle C

    2014-01-01

    Local changes in land use result from the decisions and actions of land-users within land systems, which are structured by local and global environmental, economic, political, and cultural contexts. Such cross-scale causation presents a major challenge for developing a general understanding of how local decision-making shapes land-use changes at the global scale. This paper implements a generalized agent-based model (ABM) as a virtual laboratory to explore how global and local processes influence the land-use and livelihood decisions of local land-users, operationalized as settlement-level agents, across the landscapes of six real-world test sites. Test sites were chosen in USA, Laos, and China to capture globally-significant variation in population density, market influence, and environmental conditions, with land systems ranging from swidden to commercial agriculture. Publicly available global data were integrated into the ABM to model cross-scale effects of economic globalization on local land-use decisions. A suite of statistics was developed to assess the accuracy of model-predicted land-use outcomes relative to observed and random (i.e. null model) landscapes. At four of six sites, where environmental and demographic forces were important constraints on land-use choices, modeled land-use outcomes were more similar to those observed across sites than the null model. At the two sites in which market forces significantly influenced land-use and livelihood decisions, the model was a poorer predictor of land-use outcomes than the null model. Model successes and failures in simulating real-world land-use patterns enabled the testing of hypotheses on land-use decision-making and yielded insights on the importance of missing mechanisms. The virtual laboratory approach provides a practical framework for systematic improvement of both theory and predictive skill in land change science based on a continual process of experimentation and model enhancement.

  2. Cross-site comparison of land-use decision-making and its consequences across land systems with a generalized agent-based model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R Magliocca

    Full Text Available Local changes in land use result from the decisions and actions of land-users within land systems, which are structured by local and global environmental, economic, political, and cultural contexts. Such cross-scale causation presents a major challenge for developing a general understanding of how local decision-making shapes land-use changes at the global scale. This paper implements a generalized agent-based model (ABM as a virtual laboratory to explore how global and local processes influence the land-use and livelihood decisions of local land-users, operationalized as settlement-level agents, across the landscapes of six real-world test sites. Test sites were chosen in USA, Laos, and China to capture globally-significant variation in population density, market influence, and environmental conditions, with land systems ranging from swidden to commercial agriculture. Publicly available global data were integrated into the ABM to model cross-scale effects of economic globalization on local land-use decisions. A suite of statistics was developed to assess the accuracy of model-predicted land-use outcomes relative to observed and random (i.e. null model landscapes. At four of six sites, where environmental and demographic forces were important constraints on land-use choices, modeled land-use outcomes were more similar to those observed across sites than the null model. At the two sites in which market forces significantly influenced land-use and livelihood decisions, the model was a poorer predictor of land-use outcomes than the null model. Model successes and failures in simulating real-world land-use patterns enabled the testing of hypotheses on land-use decision-making and yielded insights on the importance of missing mechanisms. The virtual laboratory approach provides a practical framework for systematic improvement of both theory and predictive skill in land change science based on a continual process of experimentation and model

  3. SWEIS Yearbook-2012 Comparison of 2012 Data to Projections of the 2008 Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operation of Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahowald, Hallie B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wright, Marjorie Alys [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-16

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) operations data for Calendar Year (CY) 2012 mostly fell within the 2008 Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement (SWEIS) projections. Operation levels for one LANL facility exceeded the 2008 SWEIS capability projections—Radiochemistry Facility; however, none of the capability increases caused exceedances in radioactive air emissions, waste generation, or National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) discharge. Several facilities exceeded the2008 SWEIS levels for waste generation quantities; however, all were one-time, non-routine events that do not reflect the day-to-day operations of the Laboratory. In addition, total site-wide waste generation quantities were below SWEIS projections for all waste types, reflecting the overall levels of operations at both the Key and Non-Key Facilities. Although gas and electricity consumption have remained within the 2008 SWEIS limits for utilities, water consumption exceeded the 2008 SWEIS projections by 27 million gallons in CY 2012.

  4. A comparison between PIXE and ICP-AES measurements of metals in aerosol particulate collected in urban and marine sites in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traversi, R.; Becagli, S. [Department of Chemistry “Ugo Schiff”, University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 3, I-50019 Sesto F.no, Florence (Italy); Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.; Giannoni, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence and I.N.F.N., Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto F.no, Florence (Italy); Lucarelli, F., E-mail: lucarelli@fi.infn.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence and I.N.F.N., Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto F.no, Florence (Italy); Nava, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence and I.N.F.N., Florence, Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto F.no, Florence (Italy); Rugi, F.; Severi, M.; Udisti, R. [Department of Chemistry “Ugo Schiff”, University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 3, I-50019 Sesto F.no, Florence (Italy)

    2014-01-01

    PIXE and ICP-AES techniques are largely used in atmospheric aerosol studies. Since PIXE is able to provide the total elemental concentrations, while ICP-AES results depend on the extraction conditions, parallel PIXE and ICP-AES measurements of Fe, Al, Cu, Pb, Mn, Cr, Ni, V, As on PM10 and PM2.5 samples were compared. Two extraction procedures were applied to samples from 5 sites at different anthropization level in Italy: a “weak” extraction (HNO{sub 3} at pH = 1.5) and a “strong” extraction (micro-wave oven in HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} – following EU rules). The amount of the metal extracted in the different conditions resulted to be strongly dependent on the sampling site, on the main sources of the particle (crustal or anthropic) containing the metal and on the sampled size class.

  5. Replication and Comparison of the Newly Proposed ADOS-2, Module 4 Algorithm in ASD without ID: A Multi-site Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pugliese, Cara E.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Bal, Vanessa Hus; Wallace, Gregory L; Yerys, Benjamin E; Maddox, Brenna B.; White, Susan W.; Popal, Haroon; Armour, Anna Chelsea; Miller, Judith; Herrington, John D.; Schultz, Robert T.; Martin, Alex; Anthony, Laura Gutermuth

    2015-01-01

    Recent updates have been proposed to the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-2 Module 4 diagnostic algorithm. This new algorithm, however, has not yet been validated in an independent sample without intellectual disability (ID). This multi-site study compared the original and revised algorithms in individuals with ASD without ID. The revised algorithm demonstrated increased sensitivity, but lower specificity in the overall sample. Estimates were highest for females, individuals with a verb...

  6. REVIEW ARTICLE: A comparison of site response techniques using earthquake data and ambient seismic noise analysis in the large urban areas of Santiago de Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Marco; Parolai, Stefano; Leyton, Felipe; Campos, Jaime; Zschau, Jochen

    2009-08-01

    Situated in an active tectonic region, Santiago de Chile, the country's capital with more than six million inhabitants, faces tremendous earthquake risk. Macroseismic data for the 1985 Valparaiso event show large variations in the distribution of damage to buildings within short distances, indicating strong effects of local sediments on ground motion. Therefore, a temporary seismic network was installed in the urban area for recording earthquake activity and a study was carried out aiming to estimate site amplification derived from horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) spectral ratios from earthquake data (EHV) and ambient noise (NHV), as well as using the standard spectral ratio (SSR) technique with a nearby reference station located on igneous rock. The results lead to the following conclusions: (1) The analysis of earthquake data shows significant dependence on the local geological structure with respect to amplitude and duration. (2) An amplification of ground motion at frequencies higher than the fundamental one can be found. This amplification would not be found when looking at NHV ratios alone. (3) The analysis of NHV spectral ratios shows that they can only provide a lower bound in amplitude for site amplification. (4) P-wave site responses always show lower amplitudes than those derived by S waves, and sometimes even fail to provide some frequencies of amplification. (5) No variability in terms of time and amplitude is observed in the analysis of the H/V ratio of noise. (6) Due to the geological conditions in some parts of the investigated area, the fundamental resonance frequency of a site is difficult to estimate following standard criteria proposed by the SESAME consortium, suggesting that these are too restrictive under certain circumstances.

  7. Initial direct comparison of 99mTc-TOC and 99mTc-TATE in identifying sites of disease in patients with proven GEP NETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwikla, Jaroslaw B; Mikolajczak, Renata; Pawlak, Dariusz; Buscombe, John R; Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Anna; Bator, Andrzej; Maecke, Helmut R; Walecki, Jerzy

    2008-07-01

    The imaging of neuroendocrine tumors has become one of the most significant areas in nuclear oncology. In an attempt to provide high-quality imaging and possible sensitivity at a reduced cost, time, and radiation dose, several (99m)Tc agents have been proposed. The aim of this initial study was to compare the tumor uptake and biodistribution of 2 new 6-hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid (HYNIC)-derivatized Tyr(3)-octreotide analogs, (99m)Tc-[HYNIC,Tyr(3)]octreotide ((99m)Tc-TOC) and (99m)Tc-[HYNIC,Tyr(3),Thr(8)]octreotide ((99m)Tc-TATE), in patients with somatostatin receptor-expressing tumors. Each of 12 patients with proven gastrointestinal pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors received a mean activity of 520 MBq of (99m)Tc-TOC and (99m)Tc-TATE. Scintigraphy with both tracers was performed 3-4 h after their injection using standard whole-body and SPECT imaging. The images were reviewed subjectively by 2 readers, who reported tumor uptake lesion by lesion. Both radiotracers demonstrated concordance between the results in 7 patients (58%). In total, 110 sites of disease were identified with (99m)Tc-TOC, compared with 115 with (99m)Tc-TATE. There was 1 case in which (99m)Tc-TOC identified sites of disease not seen on (99m)Tc-TATE imaging but 4 cases in which some sites of disease were seen with (99m)Tc-TATE and not (99m)Tc-TOC. In this initial study, both tracers seem to show similar sites of tumor, with (99m)Tc-TATE having a slight edge in the total number of lesions seen, especially in lymph node metastases.

  8. Electric field gradient at nuclei on orthorhombic sites in CaF2 and SrCl2 : comparison with electronic zero-field splitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormondt, van D.; Andriessen, J.; Dam, J.A.M.; Ast, van M.A.; Hartog, den H.W.; Bijvank, E.J.

    1979-01-01

    The electric field gradients (EFG) Vzz and Vxx-Vyy at the nucleus of 157Gd3+ have been determined, using ENDOR, for CaF2:Gd3+M+(M+=Li,K+) and SrCl2:Gd3+Na+. The results are compared with the electronic zero-field splitting parameters of Gd3+, B20 and B22 for the same sites. A simple relation between

  9. Comparison of calculated and experimental isotope edited FTIR difference spectra for purple bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers with different quinones incorporated into the QA binding site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan eZhao

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Previously we have shown that ONIOM type (QM/MM calculations can be used to simulate isotope edited FTIR difference spectra for neutral ubiquinone in the QA binding site in Rhodobacter sphaeroides photosynthetic reaction centers. Here we considerably extend upon this previous work by calculating isotope edited FTIR difference spectra for reaction centers with a variety of unlabeled and 18O labeled foreign quinones incorporated into the QA binding site. Isotope edited spectra were calculated for reaction centers with 2,3-dimethoxy-5,6-dimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone (MQ0, 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-1,4-benzoquinone (duroquinone, DQ, and 2,3-dimethyl-l,4-naphthoquinone (DMNQ incorporated, and compared to corresponding experimental spectra. The calculated and experimental spectra agree well, further demonstrating the utility and applicability of our ONIOM approach for calculating the vibrational properties of pigments in protein binding sites.The normal modes that contribute to the bands in the calculated spectra, their composition, frequency and intensity, and how these quantities are modified upon 18O labeling, are presented. This computed information leads to a new and more detailed understanding/interpretation of the experimental FTIR difference spectra. Hydrogen bonding to the carbonyl groups of the incorporated quinones is shown to be relatively weak. It is also shown that there is some asymmetry in hydrogen bonding, accounting for 10-13 cm-1 separation in the frequencies of the carbonyl vibrational modes of the incorporated quinones. The extent of asymmetry H-bonding could only be established by considering the spectra for various types of quinones incorporated into the QA binding site. The quinones listed above are tail-less. Spectra were also calculated for reaction centers with corresponding tail containing quinones incorporated, and it is found that replacement of the quinone methyl group by a phytyl or prenyl chain does not alter ONIOM calculated s

  10. Comparison of measured and modeled surface ozone concentrations at two different sites in Europe during the solar eclipse on August 11, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanis, P.; Zerefos, C.S.; Melas, D.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of the solar eclipse on 11 August 1999 on surface ozone at two sites, Thessaloniki, Greece (urban site) and Hohenpeissenberg, Germany (elevated rural site) are investigated in this study and compared with model results. The eclipse offered a unique opportunity to test our understanding of tropospheric ozone chemistry and to investigate with a simple photochemical box model the response of surface ozone to changes of solar radiation during a photolytical perturbation such as the solar eclipse. The surface ozone measurements following the eclipse display a decrease of around 10-15 ppbv at the urban station of Eptapyrgio at Thessaloniki while at Hoheneissenberg, the actual ozone data do not show any clear effect of eclipse on surface ozone. For Thessaloniki, the model results suggest that solely photochemistry can account for a significant amount of the observed surface ozone decrease during the eclipse but transport effects mask part of the photochemical effect of eclipse on surface ozone. For Hohenpeissenberg, the box model predicted an ozone decrease, but to the eclipse, of about 2ppbv in relative agreement with the magnitude of the observed ozone decrease from the 2h moving average while at the same time it inhibits the foreseen diurnal ozone increase. However, this modeled ozone decrease during the eclipse is small compared to the diurnal ozone variability due to transport effects, and hence, transport really masks such relative small changes. The different magnitude of the surface ozone decrease between the two sites indicates mainly the role of the NO x levels. Measured and modeled NO and NO 2 concentrations at Hohenpeissenbergy during the eclipse are also compared and indicate that the partitioning of NO and NO 2 in NO x is influenced clearly from the eclipse. This is not observed at Thessaloniki due to local NO x sources. (Author)

  11. Comparison of Submicron Particles at a Rural and an Urban Site in the North China Plain during the December 2016 Heavy Pollution Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaojing; Sun, Junying; Zhang, Xiaoye; Zhang, Yangmei; Wang, Yaqiang; Tan, Kaiyan; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Lu; Qi, Xuefei; Che, Haochi; Zhang, Zhouxiang; Zhong, Junting; Zhao, Huarong; Ren, Sanxue

    2018-02-01

    An extensive field experiment for measurement of physical and chemical properties of aerosols was conducted at an urban site in the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences (CAMS) in Beijing and at a rural site in Gucheng (GC), Hebei Province in December 2016. This paper compares the number size distribution of submicron particle matter (PM1, diameter PM1 number concentration at GC was twice that at CAMS, and the mass concentration was three times the amount at CAMS. It is found that the accumulation mode (100-850 nm) particles constituted the largest fraction of PM1 at GC, which was significantly correlated with the local coal combustion, as confirmed by a significant relationship between the accumulation mode and the absorption coefficient of soot particles. The high PM1 concentration at GC prevented the occurrence of new particle formation (NPF) events, while eight such events were observed at CAMS. During the NPF events, the mass fraction of sulfate increased significantly, indicating that sulfate played an important role in NPF. The contribution of regional transport to PM1 mass concentration was approximately 50% at both sites, same as that of the local emission. However, during the red-alert period when emission control took place, the contribution of regional transport was notably higher.

  12. Off-site transport of fungicides with runoff: A comparison of flutolanil and pentachloronitrobeneze applied to creeping bentgrass managed as a golf course fairway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Pamela J; Horgan, Brian P; Hamlin, Jennifer L

    2018-08-15

    Flutolanil and pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) are fungicides used to control or suppress foliar and soil borne diseases in turf and ornamental crops. On golf courses, sports fields, sod farms and commercial lawns these fungicides are used as preventive treatments to combat snow mold, brown patch and fairy ring. Depending on the aquatic organism, flultolanil and PCNB are considered to be moderately to highly toxic. Therefore runoff or drift from treated areas may be hazardous to organisms in adjacent aquatic sites. This research compared the transport of flutolanil and PCNB with runoff from turfgrass managed as a golf course fairway. The quantity of fungicide transported with runoff and observations reported with the chemographs followed trends in agreement with the chemical properties of the compounds. Overall, we observed the rate of transport for flutolanil was greater than PCNB, which contributed to the more than 12 times larger load (µg/m 2 ) of flutolanil transported off-site at the conclusion of the simulated storm runoff. A better understanding of the off-site transport of pesticides with runoff is needed to make informed decisions on management practices to reduce potential adverse effects on non-target organisms, as well as maintain control of targeted pests in the area of application. In addition, data obtained with this research can be used in model simulations to predict nonpoint source pollution potentials beyond experimental conditions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Does Categorization Method Matter in Exploring Volume-Outcome Relation? A Multiple Categorization Methods Comparison in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Surgical Site Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tsung-Hsien; Tung, Yu-Chi; Chung, Kuo-Piao

    2015-08-01

    Volume-infection relation studies have been published for high-risk surgical procedures, although the conclusions remain controversial. Inconsistent results may be caused by inconsistent categorization methods, the definitions of service volume, and different statistical approaches. The purpose of this study was to examine whether a relation exists between provider volume and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgical site infection (SSI) using different categorization methods. A population-based cross-sectional multi-level study was conducted. A total of 10,405 patients who received CABG surgery between 2006 and 2008 in Taiwan were recruited. The outcome of interest was surgical site infection for CABG surgery. The associations among several patient, surgeon, and hospital characteristics was examined. The definition of surgeons' and hospitals' service volume was the cumulative CABG service volumes in the previous year for each CABG operation and categorized by three types of approaches: Continuous, quartile, and k-means clustering. The results of multi-level mixed effects modeling showed that hospital volume had no association with SSI. Although the relation between surgeon volume and surgical site infection was negative, it was inconsistent among the different categorization methods. Categorization of service volume is an important issue in volume-infection study. The findings of the current study suggest that different categorization methods might influence the relation between volume and SSI. The selection of an optimal cutoff point should be taken into account for future research.

  14. Aespoe HRL - Geoscientific evaluation 1997/4. Results from pre-investigation and detailed site characterization. Comparison of predictions and observations. Hydrogeology, groundwater chemistry and transport of solutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhen, I; Gustafson, Gunnar [VBB Viak AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Wikberg, P [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-06-01

    The pre-investigations for the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory were started in 1986 and involved extensive field measurements, aimed at characterizing the rock formations with regard to geology, hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and rock mechanics. Prior to the excavation in 1990 predictions were made for the excavation phase concerning: geology, ground water flow and chemistry, transport of solutes and mechanical stability. This report presents a comparison between these predictions and the observations made during the excavation. Also, investigation methods for the 700-2874 m sections of the tunnel are evaluated. 157 refs, 190 figs, 37 tabs.

  15. Aespoe HRL - Geoscientific evaluation 1997/4. Results from pre-investigation and detailed site characterization. Comparison of predictions and observations. Hydrogeology, groundwater chemistry and transport of solutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhen, I.; Gustafson, Gunnar; Wikberg, P.

    1997-06-01

    The pre-investigations for the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory were started in 1986 and involved extensive field measurements, aimed at characterizing the rock formations with regard to geology, hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and rock mechanics. Prior to the excavation in 1990 predictions were made for the excavation phase concerning: geology, ground water flow and chemistry, transport of solutes and mechanical stability. This report presents a comparison between these predictions and the observations made during the excavation. Also, investigation methods for the 700-2874 m sections of the tunnel are evaluated

  16. Assessing hospital disaster preparedness: a comparison of an on-site survey, directly observed drill performance, and video analysis of teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, Amy H; Langford, Vinette; Lewis, Roger J

    2008-09-01

    There is currently no validated method for assessing hospital disaster preparedness. We determine the degree of correlation between the results of 3 methods for assessing hospital disaster preparedness: administration of an on-site survey, drill observation using a structured evaluation tool, and video analysis of team performance in the hospital incident command center. This was a prospective, observational study conducted during a regional disaster drill, comparing the results from an on-site survey, a structured disaster drill evaluation tool, and a video analysis of teamwork, performed at 6 911-receiving hospitals in Los Angeles County, CA. The on-site survey was conducted separately from the drill and assessed hospital disaster plan structure, vendor agreements, modes of communication, medical and surgical supplies, involvement of law enforcement, mutual aid agreements with other facilities, drills and training, surge capacity, decontamination capability, and pharmaceutical stockpiles. The drill evaluation tool, developed by Johns Hopkins University under contract from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, was used to assess various aspects of drill performance, such as the availability of the hospital disaster plan, the geographic configuration of the incident command center, whether drill participants were identifiable, whether the noise level interfered with effective communication, and how often key information (eg, number of available staffed floor, intensive care, and isolation beds; number of arriving victims; expected triage level of victims; number of potential discharges) was received by the incident command center. Teamwork behaviors in the incident command center were quantitatively assessed, using the MedTeams analysis of the video recordings obtained during the disaster drill. Spearman rank correlations of the results between pair-wise groupings of the 3 assessment methods were calculated. The 3 evaluation methods demonstrated

  17. Progression of a fracture site impaction as a prognostic indicator of impacted femoral neck fracture treated with multiple pinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Pil Whan; Shin, Young Ho; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Yoon, Kang Sup; Kim, Hee Joong

    2012-03-01

    We evaluated the clinical and radiologic results of impacted femoral neck fractures treated with multiple pinning and determined the influence of the progression of impaction at the fracture site on clinical outcome. There were 34 patients with a mean age of 65.5 years. The mean follow-up period was 3.4 years. Progression of fracture site impaction was measured using an articulo-trochanteric distance index and the percentage decrease in the articulo-trochanteric distance index between follow-up intervals. The failure of treatment was clarified as non-union and avascular necrosis. Other characteristics of the patients, including mean waiting time for surgery, preoperative Singh index score, and body mass index, were also measured to evaluate the influence on the clinical outcome of surgery. There were 6 fractures which were not treated successfully (3 non-union, 8.8% and 3 avascular necrosis, 8.8%). The mean percentage decrease of the articulo-trochanteric distance index within the first 6 weeks after surgery was 4.5% in the successful group and 25.1% in the failure group (p articulo-trochanteric distance index between 6 weeks and 3 months (p articulo-trochanteric distance index between the successful group and the failure group, we could not verify it as a risk factor for failure of treatment because the odds ratio was not statistically significant.

  18. Aespoe HRL - Geoscientific evaluation 1997/3. Results from pre-investigation and detailed site characterization. Comparison of predictions and observations. Geology and mechanical stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanfors, R.; Olsson, Paer; Stille, H.

    1997-05-01

    Prior to excavation of the laboratory in 1990 predictions were made for the excavation phase. The predictions concern five key issues: Geology, groundwater flow, groundwater chemistry, transport of solutes, and mechanical stability. Comparisons between predictions and observations were made during excavation in order to verify the reliability of the pre-investigations. This report presents a comparison between the geological and mechanical stability predictions and observations and an evaluation of data and investigation methods used for the 700-2874 m section of the tunnel. The report is specially highlighting the following conclusions: It is possible to localize major fracture zones during the pre-investigation at shallow (<200 m) depths; A number of minor fracture zones striking NNW-NNE were predicted to be hydraulically important and penetrate the southern area. A number of narrow fracture zone indications - 0.1-1 m wide - striking WNW-NE were mapped in the tunnel and pre-grouted sections confirm hydraulic conductors; It has not been possible to confirm the gently dipping zone EW-5, which was predicted as 'possible', with data from the tunnel; Predictions of the amount of different rock types were generally reliable as regards the major rocks, but the prediction of the distribution in space were poor as regards the minor rock types; The prediction of rock stress orientation corresponds well to the outcome; The prediction of rock quality for the tunnel, while applying the RMR-system, shows good correspondence to the observations made in the tunnel

  19. Comparison between magnetic anchoring and guidance system camera-assisted laparoendoscopic single-site surgery nephrectomy and conventional laparoendoscopic single-site surgery nephrectomy in a porcine model: focus on ergonomics and workload profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Woong Kyu; Tan, Yung K; Olweny, Ephrem O; Yin, Gang; Liu, Zhuo-Wei; Faddegon, Stephen; Scott, Daniel J; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A

    2013-04-01

    To compare surgeon-assessed ergonomic and workload demands of magnetic anchoring and guidance system (MAGS) laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) nephrectomy with conventional LESS nephrectomy in a porcine model. Participants included two expert and five novice surgeons who each performed bilateral LESS nephrectomy in two nonsurvival animals using either the MAGS camera or conventional laparoscope. Task difficulty and workload demands of the surgeon and camera driver were assessed using the validated National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) questionnaire. Surgeons were also asked to score 6 parameters on a Likert scale (range 1=low/easy to 5=high/hard): procedure-associated workload, ergonomics, technical challenge, visualization, accidental events, and instrument handling. Each step of the nephrectomy was also timed and instrument clashing was quantified. Scores for each parameter on the Likert scale were significantly lower for MAGS-LESS nephrectomy. Mean number of internal and external clashes were significantly lower for the MAGS camera (pNASA-TLX workload ratings by the surgeon and camera driver showed that MAGS resulted in a significantly lower workload than the conventional laparoscope during LESS nephrectomy (p<0.05). The use of the MAGS camera during LESS nephrectomy lowers the task workload for both the surgeon and camera driver when compared to conventional laparoscope use. Subjectively, it appears to also improve surgeons' impressions of ergonomics and technical challenge. Pending approval for clinical use, further evaluation in the clinical setting is warranted.

  20. Comparison Study to the Use of Geophysical Methods at Archaeological Sites Observed by Various Remote Sensing Techniques in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Křivánek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A combination of geophysical methods could be very a useful and a practical way of verifying the origin and precise localisation of archaeological situations identified by different remote sensing techniques. The results of different methods (and scales of monitoring these fully non-destructive methods provide distinct data and often complement each other. The presented examples of combinations of these methods/techniques in this study (aerial survey, LIDAR-ALS and surface magnetometer or resistivity survey could provide information on some specifics and may also be limitations in surveying different archaeological terrains, types of archaeological situations and activities. The archaeological site in this contribution is considered to be a material of this study. In case of Neolithic ditch enclosure near Kolín were compared aerial prospection data, magnetometer survey and aerial photo-documentation of excavated site. In the case of hillforts near Levousy we compared LIDAR data with aerial photography and large-scale magnetometer survey. In the case of the medieval castle Liběhrad we compared LIDAR data with geoelectric resistivity measurement. In case of a burial mound cemetery we combined LIDAR data with magnetometer survey. In the case of the production area near Rynartice we combined LIDAR data with magnetometer and resistivity measurements and result of archaeological excavation. Fortunately for successful combination of geophysical and remote sensing results, their conditions and factors for efficient use in archaeology are not the same. On the other hand, the quality and state of many prehistoric, early medieval, medieval and also modern archaeological sites is rapidly changing over time and both groups of techniques represent important support for their comprehensive and precise documentation and protection.

  1. Impact of non-target-site-resistance on herbicidal activity of imazamox on blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. in comparison to other ALS-graminicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sievernich, Bernd

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. resistance-monitoring conducted by BASF in 2010 - 2012 revealed a high number of accessions with resistance against imazamox. However, application of imazamoxbased products in a winter crop was limited to winter beans in France and United Kingdom only until the introduction of the Clearfield®-production system in autumn 2012 in winter oilseed rape. It is therefore assumed that the resistance mechanisms were probably selected by the frequent use of ACCase- and ALSinhibitors in winter crop rotations during the last 2 decades. Resistance level for each product-biotype combination was calculated according the “R”-classification system (S, R?, RR, RRR by directly comparing the product performance on a biotype versus untreated control. Majority of resistant biotypes did not show a target-site mutation at the known codon Pro197 or Trp574. In order to better evaluate the impact of Non-Target-Site-Resistance (NTSR on the activity of BEYOND (imazamox, ATLANTIS WG (mesosulfuron+iodosulfuron and ABAK (pyroxsulam, biotypes who have shown an ALS-target-site mutation were removed from further analysis. At the dose rate of 35 g ai/ha BEYOND provided good activity on susceptible biotypes of black-grass almost matching up with ATLANTIS WG and ABAK. However, activity of BEYOND declined stronger on biotypes classified as R? or RR for that product, while ATLANTIS WG and ABAK hardly showed any decline in control on this group of biotypes when applied at the recommended dose rate. It is assumed that the underlying NTSR-mechanism is not effective enough yet to confer resistance to ATLANTIS WG and ABAK, but on BEYOND. In contrast, biotypes classified as R? for ATLANTIS WG did show a stronger impact on the activity of BEYOND and ABAK then of ATLANTIS WG. These differences in control level probably do translate into differences in selection pressure as well.

  2. A comparison of food habits and prey preference of Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) at three sites in the Russian Far East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerley, Linda L; Mukhacheva, Anna S; Matyukhina, Dina S; Salmanova, Elena; Salkina, Galina P; Miquelle, Dale G

    2015-07-01

    Prey availability is one of the principal drivers of tiger distribution and abundance. Therefore, formulating effective conservation strategies requires a clear understanding of tiger diet. We used scat analysis in combination with data on the abundance of several prey species to estimate Amur tiger diet and preference at 3 sites in the Russian Far East. We also examined the effect of pseudoreplication on estimates of tiger diet. We collected 770 scats across the 3 sites. Similar to previous studies, we found that tigers primarily preyed on medium to large ungulates, with wild boar, roe, sika and red deer collectively comprising 86.7% of total biomass consumed on average. According to Jacobs' index, tigers preferred wild boar, and avoided sika deer. Variation in preference indices derived from these scat analyses compared to indices derived from kill data appear to be due to adjustments in biomass intake when sex-age of a killed individual is known: a component missing from scat data. Pseudoreplication (multiple samples collected from a single kill site) also skewed results derived from scat analyses. Scat analysis still appears useful in providing insight into the diets of carnivores when the full spectrum of prey species needs to be identified, or when sample sizes from kill data are not sufficient. When sample sizes of kill data are large (as is now possible with GPS-collared animals), kill data adjusted by sex-age categories probably provides the most accurate estimates of prey biomass composition. Our results provide further confirmation of the centrality of medium ungulates, in particular wild boar, to Amur tiger diet, and suggest that the protection of this group of species is critical to Amur tiger conservation. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Comparison of the distributions of bromine, lead, and zinc in tooth and bone for an ancient Peruvian burial site by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.R.; Naftel, S.J.; Nelson, A.J.; Sapp, W.D.

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron micro X-ray fluorescence was used to study the distribution of selected trace elements (Zn, Pb, and Br) in tooth and bone samples obtained from an individual from a pre-Columbian archaeological site (Caber) located on the north coast of Peru. The results show that Zn, Pb, and Br are present in both the teeth and bone samples and that the Zn and Pb seem to be confined to similar regions (cementum and periostium), while Br shows a novel distribution with enrichment close to the Haversian canals and (or) in regions that appear to be Ca deficient. (author)

  4. Assessment of subsidence in karst terranes at selected areas in East Tennessee and comparison with a candidate site at Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, J.G.; Tanner, J.M.

    1987-09-01

    Work in the respective areas included assessment of conditions related to sinkhole development. Information collected and assessed involved geology, hydrogeology, land use, lineaments and linear trends, identification of karst features and zones, and inventory of historical sinkhole development and type. Karstification of the candidate, Rhea County, and Morristown study areas, in comparison to other karst areas in Tennessee, can be classified informally as youthful, submature, and mature, respectively. Historical sinkhole development in the more karstified areas is attributed to the greater degree of structural deformation by faulting and fracturing, subsequent solutioning of bedrock, thinness of residuum, and degree of development by man. Sinkhole triggering mechanisms identified are progressive solution of bedrock, water-level fluctuations, piping, and loading. 68 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs

  5. Aespoe HRL - Geoscientific evaluation 1997/3. Results from pre-investigation and detailed site characterization. Comparison of predictions and observations. Geology and mechanical stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanfors, R. [RS Consulting, Lund (Sweden); Olsson, Paer [Skanska AB Stockholm (Sweden); Stille, H. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-05-01

    Prior to excavation of the laboratory in 1990 predictions were made for the excavation phase. The predictions concern five key issues: Geology, groundwater flow, groundwater chemistry, transport of solutes, and mechanical stability. Comparisons between predictions and observations were made during excavation in order to verify the reliability of the pre-investigations. This report presents a comparison between the geological and mechanical stability predictions and observations and an evaluation of data and investigation methods used for the 700-2874 m section of the tunnel. The report is specially highlighting the following conclusions: It is possible to localize major fracture zones during the pre-investigation at shallow (<200 m) depths; A number of minor fracture zones striking NNW-NNE were predicted to be hydraulically important and penetrate the southern area. A number of narrow fracture zone indications - 0.1-1 m wide - striking WNW-NE were mapped in the tunnel and pre-grouted sections confirm hydraulic conductors; It has not been possible to confirm the gently dipping zone EW-5, which was predicted as `possible`, with data from the tunnel; Predictions of the amount of different rock types were generally reliable as regards the major rocks, but the prediction of the distribution in space were poor as regards the minor rock types; The prediction of rock stress orientation corresponds well to the outcome; The prediction of rock quality for the tunnel, while applying the RMR-system, shows good correspondence to the observations made in the tunnel. 59 refs, 51 figs, 21 tabs.

  6. Image analysis for facility siting: a comparison of low- and high-altitude image interpretability for land use/land cover mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borella, H.M.; Estes, J.E.; Ezra, C.E.; Scepan, J.; Tinney, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    For two test sites in Pennsylvania the interpretability of commercially acquired low-altitude and existing high-altitude aerial photography are documented in terms of time, costs, and accuracy for Anderson Level II land use/land cover mapping. Information extracted from the imagery is to be used in the evaluation process for siting energy facilities. Land use/land cover maps were drawn at 1:24,000 scale using commercially flown color infrared photography obtained from the United States Geological Surveys' EROS Data Center. Detailed accuracy assessment of the maps generated by manual image analysis was accomplished employing a stratified unaligned adequate class representation. Both are-weighted and by-class accuracies were documented and field-verified. A discrepancy map was also drawn to illustrate differences in classifications between the two map scales. Results show that the 1:24,000 scale map set was accurate (99% to 94% area-weighted) than the 1:62,500 scale set, especially when sampled by class (96% to 66%). The 1:24,000 scale maps were also more time-consuming and costly to produce, due mainly to higher image acquisition costs

  7. Application of portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry in environmental investigation of heavy metal-contaminated sites and comparison with laboratory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Liang; Wang, Shui; Cai, Bingjie; Zhang, Mancheng; Qu, Changsheng

    2018-02-01

    In this study, portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (pXRF) was used to measure the heavy metal contents of As, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn in the soils of heavy metal-contaminated sites. The precision, accuracy and system errors of pXRF were evaluated and compared with traditional laboratory methods to examine the suitability of in situ pXRF. The results show that the pXRF analysis achieved satisfactory accuracy and precision in measuring As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in soils, and meets the requirements of the relevant detection technology specifications. For the certified reference soil samples, the pXRF results of As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn show good linear relationships and coefficients of determination with the values measured using the reference analysis methods; with the exception of Ni, all the measured values were within the 95% confidence level. In the soil samples, the coefficients of determination between Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni concentrations measured laboratory pXRF and the values measured with laboratory analysis all reach 0.9, showing a good linear relationship; however, there were large deviations between methods for Cr and As. This study provides reference data and scientific support for rapid detection of heavy metals in soils using pXRF in site investigation, which can better guide the practical application of pXRF.

  8. Comparison of risk-based decision-support systems for brownfield site rehabilitation: DESYRE and SADA applied to a Romanian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stezar, I C; Pizzol, L; Critto, A; Ozunu, A; Marcomini, A

    2013-12-15

    Brownfield rehabilitation is an essential step for sustainable land-use planning and management in the European Union. In brownfield regeneration processes, the legacy contamination plays a significant role, firstly because of the persistent contaminants in soil or groundwater which extends the existing hazards and risks well into the future; and secondly, problems from historical contamination are often more difficult to manage than contamination caused by new activities. Due to the complexity associated with the management of brownfield site rehabilitation, Decision Support Systems (DSSs) have been developed to support problem holders and stakeholders in the decision-making process encompassing all phases of the rehabilitation. This paper presents a comparative study between two DSSs, namely SADA (Spatial Analysis and Decision Assistance) and DESYRE (Decision Support System for the Requalification of Contaminated Sites), with the main objective of showing the benefits of using DSSs to introduce and process data and then to disseminate results to different stakeholders involved in the decision-making process. For this purpose, a former car manufacturing plant located in the Brasov area, Central Romania, contaminated chiefly by heavy metals and total petroleum hydrocarbons, has been selected as a case study to apply the two examined DSSs. Major results presented here concern the analysis of the functionalities of the two DSSs in order to identify similarities, differences and complementarities and, thus, to provide an indication of the most suitable integration options. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of under-pressure and over-pressure pulse tests conducted in low-permeability basalt horizons at the Hanford Site, Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, P.D.; Spane, F.A. Jr.

    1984-10-01

    Over-pressure pulse tests (pressurized slug tests have been widely used by others for hydraulic characterization of low-permeability ( -8 m/sec) rock formations. Recent field studies of low-permeability basalt horizons at the Hanford Site, Washington, indicate that the under-pressure pulse technique is also a viable test method for hydraulic characterization studies. For over-pressure pulse tests, fluid within the test system is rapidly pressurized and the associated pressure decay is monitored as compressed fluid within the test system expands and flows into the test formation. Under-pressure pulse tests are conducted in a similar manner by abruptly decreasing the pressure of fluid within the test system, and monitoring the associated increase in pressure as fluid flows from the formation into the test system. Both pulse test methods have been used in conjunction with other types of tests to determine the hydraulic properties of selected low-permeability basalt horizons at Hanford test sites. Results from both pulse test methods generally provide comparable estimates of hydraulic properties and are in good agreement with those from other tests

  10. Image Analysis for Facility Siting: a Comparison of Lowand High-altitude Image Interpretability for Land Use/land Cover Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borella, H. M.; Estes, J. E.; Ezra, C. E.; Scepan, J.; Tinney, L. R.

    1982-01-01

    For two test sites in Pennsylvania the interpretability of commercially acquired low-altitude and existing high-altitude aerial photography are documented in terms of time, costs, and accuracy for Anderson Level II land use/land cover mapping. Information extracted from the imagery is to be used in the evaluation process for siting energy facilities. Land use/land cover maps were drawn at 1:24,000 scale using commercially flown color infrared photography obtained from the United States Geological Surveys' EROS Data Center. Detailed accuracy assessment of the maps generated by manual image analysis was accomplished employing a stratified unaligned adequate class representation. Both 'area-weighted' and 'by-class' accuracies were documented and field-verified. A discrepancy map was also drawn to illustrate differences in classifications between the two map scales. Results show that the 1:24,000 scale map set was more accurate (99% to 94% area-weighted) than the 1:62,500 scale set, especially when sampled by class (96% to 66%). The 1:24,000 scale maps were also more time-consuming and costly to produce, due mainly to higher image acquisition costs.

  11. A Tracer Experiment to Understand Dispersion Characteristics at a Nuclear Power Plant Site-Focusing on the Comparison with Predictive Results using Reg. Guide 1.145 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hyojoon; Kim, Eunhan; Jeong, Haesun; Hwang, Wontae; Han, Moonhee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    There remains disagreement regarding the application of a Gaussian plume model in PAVAN, as it relates to the complicated geographical features of a coastal area. Therefore, this study was performed in order to figure out the characteristics of the PAVAN program that was developed based on the equations of Gaussian Plume Model, which reflected the actual measured concentration of radioactive materials released to the air. It also evaluated the appropriateness of using a Gaussian plume model for assessing the environmental impact of radiation from a nuclear power plant. In order to analyze the dispersion characteristics of radioactive materials released into the air from the Wolsong nuclear power plant, SF{sub 6} gas was released from the site at night for one hour under stable atmospheric conditions disadvantageous to dilute a tracer gas in this study. The measured concentrations were compared with theoretical estimates derived from meteorological data observed during the experiment period to evaluate the prediction capabilities of the Gaussian plume model. This study conducted a tracer dispersion experiment at the site of Wolsong Nuclear Power Plant site in Korea to analyze the atmospheric dispersion characteristics of radioactive materials. It compared the experimental value with the calculated value using the Gaussian Plume Model as suggested in Reg. 1.145, based on the meteorological data observed in the experiment time period, and evaluated the conservative estimate of the calculated value. In the area where the calculated value is relatively high, the calculated value tends to show higher than the experimental value, which confirmed the conservative manner of the estimating of the calculated value using the Gaussian Plume Model. The short-term exposure of radiation to a human body caused by a nuclear accident would be higher in the area where the atmospheric concentration of radiation is high. Therefore, it is a sufficiently conservative manner to use the

  12. A Tracer Experiment to Understand Dispersion Characteristics at a Nuclear Power Plant Site-Focusing on the Comparison with Predictive Results using Reg. Guide 1.145 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyojoon; Kim, Eunhan; Jeong, Haesun; Hwang, Wontae; Han, Moonhee

    2014-01-01

    There remains disagreement regarding the application of a Gaussian plume model in PAVAN, as it relates to the complicated geographical features of a coastal area. Therefore, this study was performed in order to figure out the characteristics of the PAVAN program that was developed based on the equations of Gaussian Plume Model, which reflected the actual measured concentration of radioactive materials released to the air. It also evaluated the appropriateness of using a Gaussian plume model for assessing the environmental impact of radiation from a nuclear power plant. In order to analyze the dispersion characteristics of radioactive materials released into the air from the Wolsong nuclear power plant, SF 6 gas was released from the site at night for one hour under stable atmospheric conditions disadvantageous to dilute a tracer gas in this study. The measured concentrations were compared with theoretical estimates derived from meteorological data observed during the experiment period to evaluate the prediction capabilities of the Gaussian plume model. This study conducted a tracer dispersion experiment at the site of Wolsong Nuclear Power Plant site in Korea to analyze the atmospheric dispersion characteristics of radioactive materials. It compared the experimental value with the calculated value using the Gaussian Plume Model as suggested in Reg. 1.145, based on the meteorological data observed in the experiment time period, and evaluated the conservative estimate of the calculated value. In the area where the calculated value is relatively high, the calculated value tends to show higher than the experimental value, which confirmed the conservative manner of the estimating of the calculated value using the Gaussian Plume Model. The short-term exposure of radiation to a human body caused by a nuclear accident would be higher in the area where the atmospheric concentration of radiation is high. Therefore, it is a sufficiently conservative manner to use the Gaussian

  13. Diurnal, seasonal, and annual trends in tropospheric CO in Southwest London during 2000-2015: Wind sector analysis and comparisons with urban and remote sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Paniagua, Iván Y.; Lowry, David; Clemitshaw, Kevin C.; Palmer, Paul I.; Fisher, Rebecca E.; France, James L.; Mendoza, Alberto; O'Doherty, Simon; Forster, Grant; Lanoisellé, M.; Nisbet, Euan G.

    2018-03-01

    Ambient carbon monoxide (CO) and meteorological parameters measured at the Egham (EGH) semi-rural site in SW London during 2000-2015 have permitted wind sector analysis of diurnal and seasonal cycles, and interpretation of long-term trends. CO daily amplitudes are used as a proxy for anthropogenic emissions. At EGH, morning and evening peaks in CO arise from the dominant contribution of road transport sources. Smaller amplitudes are observed during weekends than weekdays due to lower combustion emissions, and for mornings compared to evenings due to the timing of the development and break-up of the nocturnal inversion layer or planetary boundary layer (PBL). A wavelet transform revealed that the dominant mode of CO variability is the annual cycle, with apparent winter maxima likely due to increased CO emissions from domestic heating with summer minima ascribed to enhanced dispersion and dilution during the annual maximum of PBL mixing heights. Over the last two decades, both mitigation measures to reduce CO emissions and also a major switch to diesel cars, have accompanied a change at EGH from the dominance of local diurnal sources to a site measuring close to Atlantic background levels in summer months. CO observed in the S and SW wind sectors has declined by 4.7 and 5.9 ppb yr-1 respectively. The EGH CO record shows the highest levels in the early 2000s, with levels in E and calm winds comparable to those recorded at background stations in Greater London. However, since 2012, levels in S-SW sector have become more comparable with Mace Head background except during rush-hour periods. Marked declines in CO are observed during 2000-2008 for the NE, E, SE (London) and calm wind sectors, with the smallest declines observed for the S, SW and W (background) sectors. For the majority of wind sectors, the decline in CO is less noticeable since 2008, with an apparent stabilisation for NE, E and SE after 2009. The EGH CO data record exhibits a similar but slower exponential

  14. Site Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of various site features from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times...

  15. Continuous Analytical Performances Monitoring at the On-Site Laboratory through Proficiency, Inter-Laboratory Testing and Inter-Comparison Analytical Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhamel, G.; Decaillon, J.-G.; Dashdondog, S.; Kim, C.-K.; Toervenyi, A.; Hara, S.; Kato, S.; Kawaguchi, T.; Matsuzawa, K.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2008, as one measure to strengthen its quality management system, the On-Site Laboratory for nuclear safeguards at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant, has increased its participation in domestic and international proficiency and inter-laboratory testing for the purpose of determining analytical method accuracy, precision and robustness but also to support method development and improvement. This paper provides a description of the testing and its scheduling. It presents the way the testing was optimized to cover most of the analytical methods at the OSL. The paper presents the methodology used for the evaluation of the obtained results based on Analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results are discussed with respect to random, systematic and long term systematic error. (author)

  16. Comparison of measured and calculated radiation doses in granite around emplacement holes in the spent-fuel test: Climax, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Konynenburg, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has emplaced eleven spent nuclear-reactor fuel assemblies in the Climax granite at the Nevada Test Site as part of the DOE Nevada Nuclear-Waste Storage Investigations. One of our objectives is to study radiation effects on the rock. The neutron and gamma-ray doses to the rock have been determined by MORSE-L Monte Carlo calculations and measurements using optical absorption and thermoluminescence dosimeters and metal foils. We compare the results to date. Generally, good agreement is found in the spatial and time dependence of the doses, but some of the absolute dose results appear to differ by more than the expected uncertainties. Although the agreement is judged to be adequate for radiation effects studies, suggestions for improving the precision of the calculations and measurements are made

  17. Ultrasonic and hydrothermal mediated synthesis routes for functionalized Mg-Al LDH: Comparison study on surface morphology, basic site strength, cyclic sorption efficiency and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeh, Collins I; Tomatis, Marco; Yang, Xiaogang; He, Jun; Sun, Chenggong

    2018-01-01

    Amine functionalized layered double hydroxide (LDHs) adsorbents prepared using three different routes: co-precipitation, sono-chemical and ultrasonic-assisted high pressure hydrothermal. The prepared adsorbent samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning electron microscope-Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The performance of the prepared adsorbents was tested in a controlled thermal-swing adsorption process to measure its adsorption capacity, regeneration and cyclic efficiencies subsequently. The characterisation results were compared with those obtained using the conventional preparation routes but taking into account of the impact of sonochemical and hydrothermal pre-treatment on textural properties, adsorption capacity, regeneration and cyclic efficiencies. Textural results depicts a surge in surface area of the adsorbent synthesised by hydrothermal route (311m 2 /g) from 25 to 171m 2 /g for conventional and ultrasonic routes respectively. Additionally, it has been revealed from the present study that adsorbents prepared using ultrasonic-assisted hydrothermal route exhibit a better CO 2 uptake capacity than that prepared using sonochemical and conventional routes. Thus, the ultrasonic-assisted hydrothermal treatment can effectively promote the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent. This is probably due to the decrease of moderate (M-O) and weak (OH - groups) basic sites with subsequent surge in the number of strong basic sites (O 2- ) resulting from the hydrothermal process. Moreover, the cyclic adsorption efficiency of the ultrasonic mediated process was found to be 76% compared with 60% for conventional and 53% for hydrothermal routes, respectively. According to the kinetic model analysis, adsorption mechanism is mostly dominated by physisorption before amine

  18. Identification and determination of trapping parameters as key site parameters for CO2 storage for the active CO2 storage site in Ketzin (Germany) - Comparison of different experimental approaches and analysis of field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemke, Kornelia; Liebscher, Axel

    2015-04-01

    Petrophysical properties like porosity and permeability are key parameters for a safe long-term storage of CO2 but also for the injection operation itself. The accurate quantification of residual trapping is difficult, but very important for both storage containment security and storage capacity; it is also an important parameter for dynamic simulation. The German CO2 pilot storage in Ketzin is a Triassic saline aquifer with initial conditions of the target sandstone horizon of 33.5 ° C/6.1 MPa at 630 m. One injection and two observation wells were drilled in 2007 and nearly 200 m of core material was recovered for site characterization. From June 2008 to September 2013, slightly more than 67 kt food-grade CO2 has been injected and continuously monitored. A fourth observation well has been drilled after 61 kt injected CO2 in summer 2012 at only 25 m distance to the injection well and new core material was recovered that allow study CO2 induced changes in petrophysical properties. The observed only minor differences between pre-injection and post-injection petrophysical parameters of the heterogeneous formation have no severe consequences on reservoir and cap rock integrity or on the injection behavior. Residual brine saturation for the Ketzin reservoir core material was estimated by different methods. Brine-CO2 flooding experiments for two reservoir samples resulted in 36% and 55% residual brine saturation (Kiessling, 2011). Centrifuge capillary pressure measurements (pc = 0.22 MPa) yielded the smallest residual brine saturation values with ~20% for the lower part of the reservoir sandstone and ~28% for the upper part (Fleury, 2010). The method by Cerepi (2002), which calculates the residual mercury saturation after pressure release on the imbibition path as trapped porosity and the retracted mercury volume as free porosity, yielded unrealistic low free porosity values of only a few percent, because over 80% of the penetrated mercury remained in the samples after

  19. Comparison of geochemical data obtained using four brine sampling methods at the SECARB Phase III Anthropogenic Test CO2 injection site, Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, Christopher; Thordsen, James J.; Manning, Michael A.; Cook, Paul J.; Trautz, Robert C.; Thomas, Burt; Kharaka, Yousif K.

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of formation water and associated gases from the lower Cretaceous Paluxy Formation was determined using four different sampling methods at a characterization well in the Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama, as part of the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) Phase III Anthropogenic Test, which is an integrated carbon capture and storage project. In this study, formation water and gas samples were obtained from well D-9-8 #2 at Citronelle using gas lift, electric submersible pump, U-tube, and a downhole vacuum sampler (VS) and subjected to both field and laboratory analyses. Field chemical analyses included electrical conductivity, dissolved sulfide concentration, alkalinity, and pH; laboratory analyses included major, minor and trace elements, dissolved carbon, volatile fatty acids, free and dissolved gas species. The formation water obtained from this well is a Na–Ca–Cl-type brine with a salinity of about 200,000 mg/L total dissolved solids. Differences were evident between sampling methodologies, particularly in pH, Fe and alkalinity. There was little gas in samples, and gas composition results were strongly influenced by sampling methods. The results of the comparison demonstrate the difficulty and importance of preserving volatile analytes in samples, with the VS and U-tube system performing most favorably in this aspect.

  20. Randomized, Paired-Site Comparison of Autologous Engineered Skin Substitutes and Split-Thickness Skin Graft for Closure of Extensive, Full-Thickness Burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Steven T; Simpson, Peggy S; Rieman, Mary T; Warner, Petra M; Yakuboff, Kevin P; Bailey, J Kevin; Nelson, Judith K; Fowler, Laura A; Kagan, Richard J

    Stable closure of full-thickness burn wounds remains a limitation to recovery from burns of greater than 50% of the total body surface area (TBSA). Hypothetically, engineered skin substitutes (ESS) consisting of autologous keratinocytes and fibroblasts attached to collagen-based scaffolds may reduce requirements for donor skin, and decrease mortality. ESS were prepared from split-thickness skin biopsies collected after enrollment of 16 pediatric burn patients into an approved study protocol. ESS and split-thickness autograft (AG) were applied to 15 subjects with full-thickness burns involving a mean of 76.9% TBSA. Data consisted of photographs, tracings of donor skin and healed wounds, comparison of mortality with the National Burn Repository, correlation of TBSA closed wounds with TBSA full-thickness burn, frequencies of regrafting, and immunoreactivity to the biopolymer scaffold. One subject expired before ESS application, and 15 subjects received 2056 ESS grafts. The ratio of closed wound to donor areas was 108.7 ± 9.7 for ESS compared with a maximum of 4.0 ± 0.0 for AG. Mortality for enrolled subjects was 6.25%, and 30.3% for a comparable population from the National Burn Repository (P burn generated an R value of 0.65 (P burns of greater than 50% TBSA.

  1. Simulation of aerosol optical properties over a tropical urban site in India using a global model and its comparison with ground measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Goto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols have great impacts on atmospheric environment, human health, and earth's climate. Therefore, information on their spatial and temporal distribution is of paramount importance. Despite numerous studies have examined the variation and trends of BC and AOD over India, only very few have focused on their spatial distribution or even correlating the observations with model simulations. In the present study, a three-dimensional aerosol transport-radiation model coupled with a general circulation model. SPRINTARS, simulated atmospheric aerosol distributions including BC and aerosol optical properties, i.e., aerosol optical thickness (AOT, Ångström Exponent (AE, and single scattering albedo (SSA. The simulated results are compared with both BC measurements by aethalometer and aerosol optical properties measured by ground-based skyradiometer and by satellite sensor, MODIS/Terra over Hyderabad, which is a tropical urban area of India, for the year 2008. The simulated AOT and AE in Hyderabad are found to be comparable to ground-based measured ones. The simulated SSA tends to be higher than the ground-based measurements. Both these comparisons of aerosol optical properties between the simulations with different emission inventories and the measurements indicate that, firstly the model uncertainties derived from aerosol emission inventory cannot explain the gaps between the simulations and the measurements and secondly the vertical transport of BC and the treatment of BC-containing particles can be the main issue in the global model to solve the gap.

  2. Site decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicker, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    Among the several DOE sites that have been radiologically decontaminated under the auspices of the Nevada Operations Office are three whose physical characteristics are unique. These are the Tatum Dome Test Site (TDTS) near Hattiesburg, Mississippi; a location of mountainous terrain (Pahute Mesa) on the Nevada Test Site; and the GNOME site near Carlsbad, New Mexico. In each case the contamination, the terrain, and the climate conditions were different. This presentation includes a brief description of each site, the methods used to perform radiological surveys, the logistics required to support the decontamination (including health physics and sample analysis), and the specific techniques used to reduce or remove the contamination

  3. Comparison of long-term numerical simulations at the Ketzin pilot site using the Schlumberger ECLIPSE and LBNL TOUGH2 simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempka, T.; Norden, B.; Tillner, E.; Nakaten, B.; Kühn, M.

    2012-04-01

    Geological modelling and dynamic flow simulations were conducted at the Ketzin pilot site showing a good agreement of history matched geological models with CO2 arrival times in both observation wells and timely development of reservoir pressure determined in the injection well. Recently, a re-evaluation of the seismic 3D data enabled a refinement of the structural site model and the implementation of the fault system present at the top of the Ketzin anticline. The updated geological model (model size: 5 km x 5 km) shows a horizontal discretization of 5 x 5 m and consists of three vertical zones, with the finest discretization at the top (0.5 m). According to the revised seismic analysis, the facies modelling to simulate the channel and floodplain facies distribution at Ketzin was updated. Using a sequential Gaussian simulator for the distribution of total and effective porosities and an empiric porosity-permeability relationship based on site and literature data available, the structural model was parameterized. Based on this revised reservoir model of the Stuttgart formation, numerical simulations using the TOUGH2-MP/ECO2N and Schlumberger Information Services (SIS) ECLIPSE 100 black-oil simulators were undertaken in order to evaluate the long-term (up to 10,000 years) migration of the injected CO2 (about 57,000 t at the end of 2011) and the development of reservoir pressure over time. The simulation results enabled us to quantitatively compare both reservoir simulators based on current operational data considering the long-term effects of CO2 storage including CO2 dissolution in the formation fluid. While the integration of the static geological model developed in the SIS Petrel modelling package into the ECLIPSE simulator is relatively flawless, a work-flow allowing for the export of Petrel models into the TOUGH2-MP input file format had to be implemented within the scope of this study. The challenge in this task was mainly determined by the presence of a

  4. Effect-site concentration of remifentanil for preventing cough during emergence in elderly patients undergoing nasal surgery: a comparison with adult patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo JY

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ji Young Yoo,1 Jong Yeop Kim,1 Hyun Jeong Kwak,2 Dong Chul Lee,2 Go Wun Kim,1 Sook Young Lee,1 Yun Jeong Chae1 1Department of Anaesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, 2Department of Anaesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Gachon University, Gil Medical Center, Incheon, Korea Purpose: Prevention of cough during emergence after nasal surgery is important for avoiding surgical site bleeding. We investigated the remifentanil effect-site concentration in 50% (EC50 of the elderly patients undergoing nasal surgery for smooth emergence without cough and compared it with that of adult patients.Methods: Twenty-two elderly (aged 65–80 years and 25 adult patients (aged 20–60 years with an American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I/II undergoing nasal surgery were enrolled. Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane and remifentanil. Remifentanil EC50 and EC95 for preventing cough were determined using the modified Dixon’s up-and-down method and isotonic regression with bootstrapping approach. Recovery profiles were also recorded.Results: With Dixon’s up-and-down method, the EC50 of remifentanil in elderly patients (2.40±0.25 ng/mL was not significantly different from that of adults (2.33±0.30 ng/mL (P=0.687. With isotonic regression, the EC95 of remifentanil in elderly patients (3.32 [95% confidence interval: 3.06–3.38] ng/mL was not significantly different from that of adults (3.30 [95% confidence interval: 2.96–3.37] ng/mL. However, eye opening time (14.1±3.8 vs 12.0±2.9 seconds, extubation time (17.2±4.1 vs 14.0±3.0 seconds, and postanesthesia care unit duration (44.5±7.6 vs 38.7±3.4 minutes in elderly patients were significantly longer than those in adults (P<0.05.Conclusion: Remifentanil EC50 for preventing cough after nasal surgery with sevoflurane anesthesia did not differ between elderly and adult patients. However, delayed awakening and respiratory adverse events may warrant attention

  5. Comparison of water absorption methods: testing the water absorption of recently quarried and weathered porous limestone on site and under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozgonyi-Boissinot, Nikoletta; Agárdi, Tamás; Karolina Cebula, Ágnes; Török, Ákos

    2017-04-01

    The water absorption of weathering sensitive stones is a critical parameter that influences durability. The current paper compares different methods of water absorption tests by using on site and laboratory tests. The aims of the tests were to assess the water absorption of un-weathered quarry stones and various weathering forms occurring on porous limestone monuments. For the tests a Miocene porous limestone was used that occurs in Central and Western Hungary and especially near and in Budapest. Besides the Hungarian occurrences the same or very similar porous limestones are found in Austria, Slovakia and in the Czech Republic. Several quarries were operating in these countries. Due to the high workability the stone have been intensively used as construction material from the Roman period onward. The most prominent monuments made of this stone were built in Vienna and in Budapest during the 18th -19th century and in the early 20th century. The high porosity and the micro-fabric of the stone make it prone to frost- and salt weathering. Three different limestone types were tested representing coarse-, medium- and fine grained lithologies. The test methods included Rilem tube (Karsten tube) tests and capillary water absorption tests. The latter methodology has been described in detail in EN 1925:2000. The test results of on-site tests of weathered porous limestone clearly show that the water absorption of dissolved limestone surfaces and crumbling or micro-cracked limestone is similar. The water absorption curves have similar inclinations marking high amount of absorbed water. To the contrary, the white weathering crusts covered stone blocks and black crusts have significantly lower water absorptions and many of these crusts are considered as very tight almost impermeable surfaces. Capillary water absorption tests in the laboratory allowed the determination of maximum water absorption of quarried porous limestone. Specimens were placed in 3 mm of water column and the

  6. The Hanford Site's Gable Mountain structure: A comparison of the recurrence of design earthquakes based on fault slip rates and a probabilistic exposure model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohay, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    Gable Mountain is a segment of the Umtanum Ridge-Gable Mountain structural trend, an east-west trending series of anticlines, one of the major geologic structures on the Hanford Site. A probabilistic seismic exposure model indicates that Gable Mountain and two adjacent segments contribute significantly to the seismic hazard at the Hanford Site. Geologic measurements of the uplift of initially horizontal (11-12 Ma) basalt flows indicate that a broad, continuous, primary anticline grew at an average rate of 0.009-0.011 mm/a, and narrow, segmented, secondary anticlines grew at rates of 0.009 mm/a at Gable Butte and 0.018 mm/a at Gable Mountain. The buried Southeast Anticline appears to have a different geometry, consisting of a single, intermediate-width anticline with an estimated growth rate of 0.007 mm/a. The recurrence rate and maximum magnitude of earthquakes for the fault models were used to estimate the fault slip rate for each of the fault models and to determine the implied structural growth rate of the segments. The current model for Gable Mountain-Gable Butte predicts 0.004 mm/a of vertical uplift due to primary faulting and 0.008 mm/a due to secondary faulting. These rates are roughly half the structurally estimated rates for Gable Mountain, but the model does not account for the smaller secondary fold at Gable Butte. The model predicted an uplift rate for the Southeast Anticline of 0.006 mm/a, caused by the low open-quotes fault capabilityclose quotes weighting rather than a different fault geometry. The effects of previous modifications to the fault models are examined and potential future modifications are suggested. For example, the earthquake recurrence relationship used in the current exposure model has a b-value of 1.15, compared to a previous value of 0.85. This increases the implied deformation rates due to secondary fault models, and therefore supports the use of this regionally determined b-value to this fault/fold system

  7. 13C discriminations of Pinus sylvestris vs. Pinus ponderosa at a dry site in Brandenburg (eastern Germany): 100-year growth comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ralf; Insinna, Patrick A; Götz, Bernhard; Junge, Sebastian; Boettger, Tatjana

    2007-06-01

    The carbon isotope composition (delta(13)C, per thousand) and discrimination (Delta, per thousand) of old grown North American Pinus ponderosa Dougl. Ex P. et C. Laws. and European Pinus sylvestris L. were determined using trees grown under almost identical growing conditions in a mixed stand in Bralitz, Northeast Germany. Single-tree delta(13)C analyses of tree-ring cellulose of both species were carried out at a yearly resolution for the period 1901-2001 and the results compared with growth (basal area increment). Annual mean delta(13)C values for P. ponderosa ranged from-21.6 per thousand to-25.2 per thousand and for P. sylvestris from-21.4 per thousand to-24.4 per thousand. Accordingly, (13)C discrimination (Delta) showed higher values for P. ponderosa throughout the investigation period. Five characteristic periods of Delta were identified for both the tree species, reflecting positive and negative influences of environmental factors. Good growing conditions such as after-thinning events had a positive effect on Delta, reflecting higher values, while poor conditions like aridity and air pollution had a negative influence, reflecting lower values. The dynamics of Delta were likewise reflected in the growth (basal area increment, BAI). Higher (13)C discrimination values of P. ponderosa led to higher BAIs of P. ponderosa in comparison with P. sylvestris. Correlation function analyses confirmed that P. sylvestris was more dependent on precipitation than P. ponderosa, which showed a closer relationship with temperature. The results confirm that under predominantly dry growing conditions, P. ponderosa showed better growth performance than P. sylvestris, indicating better common intrinsic water-use efficiency and, therefore, higher rates of net photosynthesis at a given transpiration. In view of the prospect of climate change, the results are very significant for assessing both trees' physiological properties and, hence, their potential for coping with future growing

  8. Comparison of thermal analysis, micro structural and compositional of archaeological indigenous ceramic (Caninhas site of Canas - SP) with actual clay/ceramic of region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, F.P.; Taguchi, S.P.; Matos, C.C.; Ribeiro, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    The ceramic material found at the archaeological site in Caninhas, shows funerary structures of combustion and various objects of Tupi-Guarani indigenous use. These pieces and fragments were saved and cataloged, in approximately 4000 units. The ceramics present a gradient of color, from ochre to dark gray, when from the surface to the center of the piece, indicating compositional variation caused by inefficient sintering carried out by indigenous people. The goal of this study was to observe the phase transition temperature, decomposition, mass variation and reactions that occur in the archaeological and nowadays ceramics (by DSC/TG), together with micro structural analysis (by SEM), phase analysis (by XRD) and chemical composition (by EDS). Ceramics nowadays are sintered with air, in a temperature ranging between 400-800 °C for one hour, and presents heterogeneous microstructure. The archaeological ceramics were identified by the illite, hydrated alumina, lutecite and quartz phase, and the caulinite, lutecite and quartz phase in clay produced today from that region differs in all characteristics and aspects according to time. The interaction between different areas of expertise is fundamental to aggregate knowledge: the use of ceramic material engineering to archaeological application. (author)

  9. The effect of load on heat production, thermal effects and expenditure of time during implant site preparation - an experimental ex vivo comparison between piezosurgery and conventional drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzle, Florian; Frenkel, Carsten; Riemann, Max; Knipfer, Christian; Stockmann, Philipp; Nkenke, Emeka

    2014-02-01

    Piezoelectric surgery (PS) is meant to be a gentle osteotomy method. The aim of this study was to compare piezosurgical vs. conventional drilling methods for implant site preparation (ISP) - focusing on load-dependent thermal effect on hard tissue and the expenditure of ISP time. Three hundred and sixty ISP were performed on ex vivo pig heads using piezosurgery, spiral burs (SB) and trephine burs (TB). The load applied was increased from 0 to 1000 g in 100-g intervals. Temperature within the bone was measured with a thermocouple, and duration was recorded with a stop watch. Thermal effects were histomorphometrically analysed. Twelve ISPs per technique were performed at the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus. PS yields the highest mean temperatures (48.6 ± 3.4°C) and thermal effects (200.7 ± 44.4 μm), both at 900-1000 g. Duration is reduced with a plus of load and significantly longer in either case for PS (P < 0.05). There is a correlation of the applied load with all other examined factors for PS and TB. Temperature and histological effects decrease for SB beyond 500 g. PS yields significantly higher temperatures and thermal tissue alterations on load levels higher than 500 g and is significantly slower for ISP compared to SB and TB. For ISP with PS, a maximum load of 400 g should be maintained. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Comparison between Winkler's extractor and pitfall traps to estimate leaf litter ants richness (Formicidae at a rainforest site in southest Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Orsolon-Souza

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare in the same site the efficiency of the two most used techniques for sampling ant diversity, Winkler's extractors and pitfalls. We studied communities of leaf litter ants from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, compared richness estimates for genera and species, and built species accumulation curves. These two methods resulted in a satisfactory sampling of richness; 21.3% of the genera and 47.6% of the species were collected exclusively with Winkler's extractors, whereas 6.4% of the genera and 9.5% of the species were collected exclusively with pitfalls. Winkler's extractor had proven to be the most efficient single sampling technique to estimate richness. However, pitfalls also recorded a significant portion of the total richness. Despite differences in efficiency, species accumulation curves for both techniques were similar, as well as the curve obtained with both methods combined. We noticed that Winkler's extractors were c. 74.0% more efficient than pitfalls in the Atlantic Forest. Therefore, sampling techniques must be used with a well-structured sampling design in order to advance knowledge on the ant fauna of Brazilian biomes, especially in the leaf litter, allowing more complete environmental analyses.

  11. Transfer of heavy metals in the food chain earthworm Black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa): Comparison of a polluted and a reference site in The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roodbergen, Maja [Department of Ecology and Environment, ALTERRA, PO Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Animal Ecology Group, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies, University of Groningen, Haren (Netherlands)], E-mail: maja.roodbergen@sovon.nl; Klok, Chris; Hout, Annemariet van der [Department of Ecology and Environment, ALTERRA, PO Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2008-12-01

    The Black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa) is a migratory wader that favours wet meadows for breeding. The species has a Red List status in The Netherlands, as it strongly declined in numbers since the 1960s. Intensification of agriculture and land use change resulting in habitat loss are considered major causes of this decline. In some areas the breeding habitat is contaminated with heavy metals. Adult godwits mainly feed on earthworms in the breeding season, which are known to accumulate heavy metals from the soil. In this paper we investigate the transfer of heavy metals from the soil to the Black-tailed godwit, which may have an additive negative effect on the viability of local populations. We measured heavy metal concentrations in soil, earthworms, and godwit eggs and feathers at a polluted and a reference site. The results suggest that Lead, Mercury and Cadmium are transferred from the soil to godwits even though the species spends only a few months in the breeding area during the year.

  12. Method for stress determination in N, E, and T tunnels, Nevada Test Site, by hydraulic fracturing, with a comparison of overcoring methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.H.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-nine intervals in 10 core holes were hydraulically fractured in N, E, and T tunnels, Nevada Test Site, during 1974. Certain pressures were determined and related to the ambient stress field, but the orientation of the hydraulic fractures was not measured. These data and data from previous investigations in G tunnel indicated that both the magnitude of the hydraulic pressures and the direction of fracturing are independent of the orientation of the core holes. The maximum and minimum principal compressive stresses determined by the hydraulic fracturing methods are good approximations of those determined by nearby overcore methods. The data show that a good approximation of the magnitudes of the maximum and minimum principal stress axes can be obtained from several hydrofractured intervals in one core hole. Furthermore, if fracture orientation can be measured, then the direction of minimum principal compressive stress can be determined and the orientation of the plane of the maximum and intermediate principal compressive stresses can also be determined

  13. Comparison of C-arm computed tomography and on-site quick cortisol assay for adrenal venous sampling: A retrospective study of 178 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chin-Chen; Lee, Bo-Ching; Chang, Yeun-Chung; Liu, Kao-Lang [National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei (China); Wu, Vin-Cent [National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Taipei (China); Huang, Kuo-How [National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Department of Urology, Taipei (China); Collaboration: on behalf of the TAIPAI Study Group

    2017-12-15

    To compare the performance of on-site quick cortisol assay (QCA) and C-arm computed tomography (CT) assistance on adrenal venous sampling (AVS) without adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation. The institutional review board at our hospital approved this retrospective study, which included 178 consecutive patients with primary aldosteronism. During AVS, we used C-arm CT to confirm right adrenal cannulation between May 2012 and June 2015 (n = 100) and QCA for bilateral adrenal cannulation between July 2015 and September 2016 (n = 78). Successful AVS required a selectivity index (cortisol{sub adrenal} {sub vein}/cortisol{sub peripheral}) of ≥ 2.0 bilaterally. The overall success rate of C-arm CT-assisted AVS was 87%, which increased to 97.4% under QCA (P =.013). The procedure time (C-arm CT, 49.5 ± 21.3 min; QCA, 37.5 ± 15.6 min; P <.001) and radiation dose (C-arm CT, 673.9 ± 613.8 mGy; QCA, 346.4 ± 387.8 mGy; P <.001) were also improved. The resampling rate was 16% and 21.8% for C-arm CT and QCA, respectively. The initial success rate of the performing radiologist remained stable during the study period (C-arm CT 75%; QCA, 82.1%, P =.259). QCA might be superior to C-arm CT for improving the performance of AVS. (orig.)

  14. Comparison of C-arm computed tomography and on-site quick cortisol assay for adrenal venous sampling: A retrospective study of 178 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Chen; Lee, Bo-Ching; Chang, Yeun-Chung; Wu, Vin-Cent; Huang, Kuo-How; Liu, Kao-Lang

    2017-12-01

    To compare the performance of on-site quick cortisol assay (QCA) and C-arm computed tomography (CT) assistance on adrenal venous sampling (AVS) without adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation. The institutional review board at our hospital approved this retrospective study, which included 178 consecutive patients with primary aldosteronism. During AVS, we used C-arm CT to confirm right adrenal cannulation between May 2012 and June 2015 (n = 100) and QCA for bilateral adrenal cannulation between July 2015 and September 2016 (n = 78). Successful AVS required a selectivity index (cortisol adrenal vein /cortisol peripheral ) of ≥ 2.0 bilaterally. The overall success rate of C-arm CT-assisted AVS was 87%, which increased to 97.4% under QCA (P = .013). The procedure time (C-arm CT, 49.5 ± 21.3 min; QCA, 37.5 ± 15.6 min; P AVS. • Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is a technically challenging procedure. • C-arm CT and quick cortisol assay (QCA) are efficient for assisting AVS. • QCA might outperform C-arm CT in enhancing AVS performance.

  15. Sexy online self-presentation on social network sites and the willingness to engage in sexting: A comparison of gender and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oosten, Johanna M F; Vandenbosch, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated whether engaging in sexy self-presentations on social network sites (SNSs) or exposure to sexy self-presentations on SNSs predicts the willingness to engage in sexting. A second aim of the present study was to investigate whether adolescent girls demonstrate stronger relationships between (exposure to) sexy online self-presentations on SNSs and willingness to sext than adolescent boys and young adult men and women. A two-wave panel survey among 953 Dutch adolescents (13-17 years old, 50.7% male) and 899 Dutch young adults (18-25 years old, 43.9% male) showed that engaging in sexy self-presentations on SNSs increased the willingness to engage in sexting, but only among adolescent girls. Exposure to sexy self-presentations of others did not predict the willingness to engage in sexting. The findings call for more research on the role of gender and age in the link between sexy self-presentation and sexting. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Transfer of heavy metals in the food chain earthworm Black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa): Comparison of a polluted and a reference site in The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roodbergen, Maja; Klok, Chris; Hout, Annemariet van der

    2008-01-01

    The Black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa) is a migratory wader that favours wet meadows for breeding. The species has a Red List status in The Netherlands, as it strongly declined in numbers since the 1960s. Intensification of agriculture and land use change resulting in habitat loss are considered major causes of this decline. In some areas the breeding habitat is contaminated with heavy metals. Adult godwits mainly feed on earthworms in the breeding season, which are known to accumulate heavy metals from the soil. In this paper we investigate the transfer of heavy metals from the soil to the Black-tailed godwit, which may have an additive negative effect on the viability of local populations. We measured heavy metal concentrations in soil, earthworms, and godwit eggs and feathers at a polluted and a reference site. The results suggest that Lead, Mercury and Cadmium are transferred from the soil to godwits even though the species spends only a few months in the breeding area during the year

  17. Site organization and site arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boissonnet, B.; Macqueron, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    The present paper deals with criteria for the choice of a production unit or power plant site, the organization and development of a site in terms of its particular characteristics and takes into account personnel considerations in site organizations as well as the problem of integrating the architecture into the environment. (RW) [de

  18. An evaluation of the zooplankton community at the Sheboygan River Area of Concern and non-Area of Concern comparison sites in western Lake Michigan rivers and harbors in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, Hayley T.; Scudder Eikenberry, Barbara C.; Burns, Daniel J.; Bell, Amanda H.

    2017-12-22

    The Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) are considered to be the most severely degraded areas within the Great Lakes basin, as defined in the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement and amendments. Among the 43 designated AOCs are four Lake Michigan AOCs in the State of Wisconsin. The smallest of these AOCs is the Sheboygan River AOC, which was designated as an AOC because of sediment contamination from polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and heavy metals. The Sheboygan River AOC has 9 of 14 possible Beneficial Use Impairments (BUIs), which must be addressed to improve overall water-quality, and to ultimately delist the AOC. One of the BUIs associated with this AOC is the “degradation of phytoplankton and zooplankton populations,” which can be removed from the list of impairments when it has been determined that zooplankton community composition and structure at the AOC do not differ significantly from communities at non-AOC comparison sites. In 2012 and 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey collected plankton (phytoplankton and zooplankton) community samples at the Sheboygan River AOC and selected non-AOC sites as part of a larger Great Lakes Restoration Initiative study evaluating both the benthos and plankton communities in all four of Wisconsin’s Lake Michigan AOCs. Although neither richness nor diversity of phytoplankton or zooplankton in the Sheboygan River AOC were found to differ significantly from the non-AOC sites in 2012, results from the 2014 data indicated that zooplankton diversity was significantly lower, and so rated as degraded, when compared to the Manitowoc and Kewaunee Rivers, two non-AOC sites of similar size, land use, and close geographic proximity.As a follow-up to the 2014 results, zooplankton samples were collected at the same locations in the AOC and non-AOC sites during three sampling trips in spring, summer, and fall 2016. An analysis of similarity indicated

  19. Comparison of CERES-MODIS stratus cloud properties with ground-based measurements at the DOE ARM Southern Great Plains site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiquan; Minnis, Patrick; Xi, Baike; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Chen, Yan

    2008-02-01

    Overcast stratus cloud properties derived for the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project using Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data are compared with observations taken at the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains site from March 2000 through December 2004. Retrievals from ARM surface-based data were averaged over a 1-h interval centered at the time of each satellite overpass, and the CERES-MODIS cloud properties were averaged within a 30 km × 30 km box centered on the ARM SGP site. Two data sets were analyzed: all of the data (ALL), which include multilayered, single-layered, and slightly broken stratus decks and a subset, single-layered unbroken decks (SL). The CERES-MODIS effective cloud heights were determined from effective cloud temperature using a lapse rate method with the surface temperature specified as the 24-h mean surface air temperature. For SL stratus, they are, on average, within the ARM radar-lidar estimated cloud boundaries and are 0.534 ± 0.542 km and 0.108 ± 0.480 km lower than the cloud physical tops and centers, respectively, and are comparable for day and night observations. The mean differences and standard deviations are slightly larger for ALL data, but not statistically different to those of SL data. The MODIS-derived effective cloud temperatures are 2.7 ± 2.4 K less than the surface-observed SL cloud center temperatures with very high correlations (0.86-0.97). Variations in the height differences are mainly caused by uncertainties in the surface air temperatures, lapse rates, and cloud top height variability. The biases are mainly the result of the differences between effective and physical cloud top, which are governed by cloud liquid water content and viewing zenith angle, and the selected lapse rate, -7.1 K km-1. On the basis of a total of 43 samples, the means and standard deviations of the differences between the daytime

  20. Measurements of volatile organic compounds at a suburban ground site (T1 in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign: measurement comparison, emission ratios, and source attribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Bon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compound (VOC mixing ratios were measured with two different instruments at the T1 ground site in Mexico City during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO campaign in March of 2006. A gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (GC-FID quantified 18 light alkanes, alkenes and acetylene while a proton-transfer-reaction ion-trap mass spectrometer (PIT-MS quantified 12 VOC species including oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs and aromatics. A GC separation system was used in conjunction with the PIT-MS (GC-PIT-MS to evaluate PIT-MS measurements and to aid in the identification of unknown VOCs. The VOC measurements are also compared to simultaneous canister samples and to two independent proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometers (PTR-MS deployed on a mobile and an airborne platform during MILAGRO. VOC diurnal cycles demonstrate the large influence of vehicle traffic and liquid propane gas (LPG emissions during the night and photochemical processing during the afternoon. Emission ratios for VOCs and OVOCs relative to CO are derived from early-morning measurements. Average emission ratios for non-oxygenated species relative to CO are on average a factor of ~2 higher than measured for US cities. Emission ratios for OVOCs are estimated and compared to literature values the northeastern US and to tunnel studies in California. Positive matrix factorization analysis (PMF is used to provide insight into VOC sources and processing. Three PMF factors were distinguished by the analysis including the emissions from vehicles, the use of liquid propane gas and the production of secondary VOCs + long-lived species. Emission ratios to CO calculated from the results of PMF analysis are compared to emission ratios calculated directly from measurements. The total PIT-MS signal is summed to estimate the fraction of identified versus unidentified VOC species.

  1. Comparison of Remote Sensing and Fixed-Site Monitoring Approaches for Examining Air Pollution and Health in a National Study Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme, Genevieve; Dobbin, Nina A.; Sun, Liu; Burnet, Richard T.; Martin, Randall V.; Davidson, Andrew; Cakmak, Sabit; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Lamsal, Lok N.; vanDonkelaar, Aaron; hide

    2013-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing (RS) has emerged as a cutting edge approach for estimating ground level ambient air pollution. Previous studies have reported a high correlation between ground level PM2.5 and NO2 estimated by RS and measurements collected at regulatory monitoring sites. The current study examined associations between air pollution and adverse respiratory and allergic health outcomes using multi-year averages of NO2 and PM2.5 from RS and from regulatory monitoring. RS estimates were derived using satellite measurements from OMI, MODIS, and MISR instruments. Regulatory monitoring data were obtained from Canada's National Air Pollution Surveillance Network. Self-reported prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma, current asthma, allergies, and chronic bronchitis were obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey (a national sample of individuals 12 years of age and older). Multi-year ambient pollutant averages were assigned to each study participant based on their six digit postal code at the time of health survey, and were used as a marker for long-term exposure to air pollution. RS derived estimates of NO2 and PM2.5 were associated with 6e10% increases in respiratory and allergic health outcomes per interquartile range (3.97 mg m3 for PM2.5 and 1.03 ppb for NO2) among adults (aged 20e64) in the national study population. Risk estimates for air pollution and respiratory/ allergic health outcomes based on RS were similar to risk estimates based on regulatory monitoring for areas where regulatory monitoring data were available (within 40 km of a regulatory monitoring station). RS derived estimates of air pollution were also associated with adverse health outcomes among participants residing outside the catchment area of the regulatory monitoring network (p < 0.05).

  2. IN SITU COMPARISON OF TREE-RING RESPONSES TO CLIMATE AND POPULATION GENETICS: THE NEED TO CONTROL FOR LOCAL CLIMATE AND SITE VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Mathias Housset

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tree species responses to climate change will be greatly influenced by their evolutionary potential and their phenotypic plasticity. Investigating tree-rings responses to climate and population genetics at the regional scale is therefore crucial in assessing the tree behaviour to climate change. This study combined in situ dendroclimatology and population genetics over a latitudinal gradient and compared the variations between the two at the intra- and inter-population levels. This approach was applied on the northern marginal populations of Thuja occidentalis (eastern white-cedar in the Canadian boreal forest. We aimed first to assess the radial growth variability (response functional trait within populations across the gradient and to compare it with the genetic diversity (microsatellites. Second, we investigated the variability in the growth response to climate at the regional scale through the radial growth-climate relationships, and tested its correlation with environmental variables and population genetic structure. Model selection based on the Akaike Information Criteria revealed that the growth synchronicity between pairs of trees of a population covariates with both the genetic diversity of this population and the amount of precipitation (inverse correlation, although these variables only explained a small fraction of the observed variance. At the regional scale, variance partitioning and partial redundancy analysis indicate that the growth response to climate was greatly modulated by stand environmental variables, suggesting predominant plastic variations in growth-response to climate. Combining in situ dendroclimatology and population genetics is a promising way to investigate species’ response capacity to climate change in natural stands. We stress the need to control for local climate and site conditions effects on dendroclimatic response to climate to avoid misleading conclusions regarding the associations with genetic variables.

  3. Measurements of volatile organic compounds at a suburban ground site (T1) in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign: Measurement comparison, emission ratios, and source attribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bon, D.M.; Springston, S.; M.Ulbrich, I.; de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Kuster, W. C.; Alexander, M. L.; Baker, A.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, D.; Fall, R.; Jimenez, J. L., Herndon, S. C.; Huey, L. G.; Knighton, W. B.; Ortega, J.; Vargas, O.

    2011-03-16

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) mixing ratios were measured with two different instruments at the T1 ground site in Mexico City during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign in March of 2006. A gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) quantified 18 light alkanes, alkenes and acetylene while a proton-transfer-reaction ion-trap mass spectrometer (PIT-MS) quantified 12 VOC species including oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and aromatics. A GC separation system was used in conjunction with the PIT-MS (GC-PIT-MS) to evaluate PIT-MS measurements and to aid in the identification of unknown VOCs. The VOC measurements are also compared to simultaneous canister samples and to two independent proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometers (PTR-MS) deployed on a mobile and an airborne platform during MILAGRO. VOC diurnal cycles demonstrate the large influence of vehicle traffic and liquid propane gas (LPG) emissions during the night and photochemical processing during the afternoon. Emission ratios for VOCs and OVOCs relative to CO are derived from early-morning measurements. Average emission ratios for non-oxygenated species relative to CO are on average a factor of {approx}2 higher than measured for US cities. Emission ratios for OVOCs are estimated and compared to literature values the northeastern US and to tunnel studies in California. Positive matrix factorization analysis (PMF) is used to provide insight into VOC sources and processing. Three PMF factors were distinguished by the analysis including the emissions from vehicles, the use of liquid propane gas and the production of secondary VOCs + long-lived species. Emission ratios to CO calculated from the results of PMF analysis are compared to emission ratios calculated directly from measurements. The total PIT-MS signal is summed to estimate the fraction of identified versus unidentified VOC species.

  4. Involved Node, Site, Field and Residual Volume Radiotherapy for Lymphoma: A Comparison of Organ at Risk Dosimetry and Second Malignancy Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, L; Sethugavalar, B; Robertshaw, H; Bayman, E; Thomas, E; Gilson, D; Prestwich, R J D

    2015-07-01

    Recent radiotherapy guidelines for lymphoma have incl