Stone Stability in Non-uniform Flow
Hoan, N.T.; Stive, M.J.F.; Booij, R.; Hofland, B.; Verhagen, H.J.
2011-01-01
This paper presents the results of an experimental study on stone stability under nonuniform turbulent flow, in particular expanding flow. Detailed measurements of both flow and turbulence and the bed stability are described. Than various manners of quantifying the hydraulic loads exerted on the
Stone Stability under Stationary Nonuniform Flows
Steenstra, Remco; Hofland, B.; Paarlberg, Andries; Smale, Alfons; Huthoff, Fredrik; Uijttewaal, W.S.J.
2016-01-01
A stability parameter for rock in bed protections under nonuniform stationary flow is derived. The influence of the mean flow velocity, turbulence, and mean acceleration of the flow are included explicitly in the parameter. The relatively new notion of explicitly incorporating the mean acceleration
Josephson flux-flow oscillators in nonuniform microwave fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Salerno, Mario; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm
2000-01-01
We present a simple theory for Josephson flux-flow oscillators in the presence of nonuniform microwave fields. In particular we derive an analytical expression for the I-V characteristic of the oscillator from which we show that satellite steps are spaced around the main flux-flow resonance by only...
Stone stability under non-uniform flow
Hoan, N.T.
2008-01-01
Despite the fact that many studies on the stability of stones in bed protections under flowing water have been conducted, our knowledge is still far from advanced and reliable. Issues like how to quantify the hydraulic loads exerted on the stones on a bed and the associated stability of the stones
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lyapin Anton
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The influence of non-uniformity on mass transfer processes in open channels have been investigated under the action of urbanization factors. The study is related to the urgent problem of environmental degradation of water objects in urbanized areas. It is known that the water quality in the water objects depends on the manner in which the contaminants spread how they mix with the river water and diluted by it. The main results of the study consist of recommendations to incorporate non-uniformity factor to the calculation of diffusion dilution of wastewater and prediction of river processes. So the effect of the flow non-uniformity on the diffusion model of pollutants dilution and diffusion coefficient have been investigated. Formulas for the concentration profiles calculating and the average concentration of fine particulate matter in nonuniform gradually varied flow were presented. The deposition length of suspended contaminants were received, based on the hydraulic resistance laws of nonuniform gradually varied flow.
Reduction of gas flow nonuniformity in gas turbine engines by means of gas-dynamic methods
Matveev, V.; Baturin, O.; Kolmakova, D.; Popov, G.
2017-08-01
Gas flow nonuniformity is one of the main sources of rotor blade vibrations in the gas turbine engines. Usually, the flow circumferential nonuniformity occurs near the annular frames, located in the flow channel of the engine. This leads to the increased dynamic stresses in blades and as a consequence to the blade damage. The goal of the research was to find an acceptable method of reducing the level of gas flow nonuniformity as the source of dynamic stresses in the rotor blades. Two different methods were investigated during this research. Thus, this study gives the ideas about methods of improving the flow structure in gas turbine engine. On the basis of existing conditions (under development or existing engine) it allows the selection of the most suitable method for reducing gas flow nonuniformity.
Effects of non-uniform core flow on peak cladding temperature: MOXY/SCORE sensitivity calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, S.C.
1979-08-15
The MOXY/SCORE computer program is used to evaluate the potential effect on peak cladding temperature of selective cooling that may result from a nonuniform mass flux at the core boundaries during the blowdown phase of the LOFT L2-4 test. The results of this study indicate that the effect of the flow nonuniformity at the core boundaries will be neutralized by a strong radial flow redistribution in the neighborhood of core boundaries. The implication is that the flow nonuniformity at the core boundaries has no significant effect on the thermal-hydraulic behavior and cladding temperature at the hot plane.
Effects of non-uniform core flow on peak cladding temperature: MOXY/SCORE sensitivity calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, S.C.
1979-01-01
The MOXY/SCORE computer program is used to evaluate the potential effect on peak cladding temperature of selective cooling that may result from a nonuniform mass flux at the core boundaries during the blowdown phase of the LOFT L2-4 test. The results of this study indicate that the effect of the flow nonuniformity at the core boundaries will be neutralized by a strong radial flow redistribution in the neighborhood of core boundaries. The implication is that the flow nonuniformity at the core boundaries has no significant effect on the thermal-hydraulic behavior and cladding temperature at the hot plane
Matveev, V. N.; Baturin, O. V.; Kolmakova, D. A.; Popov, G. M.
2017-01-01
Circumferential nonuniformity of gas flow is one of the main problems in the gas turbine engine. Usually, the flow circumferential nonuniformity appears near the annular frame located in the flow passage of the engine. The presence of circumferential nonuniformity leads to the increased dynamic stresses in the blade rows and the blade damage. The goal of this research was to find the ways of the flow non-uniformity reduction, which would not require a fundamental changing of the engine design. A new method for reducing the circumferential nonuniformity of the gas flow was proposed that allows the prediction of the pressure peak values of the rotor blades without computationally expensive CFD calculations.
Outer region scaling using the freestream velocity for nonuniform open channel flow over gravel
Stewart, Robert L.; Fox, James F.
2017-06-01
The theoretical basis for outer region scaling using the freestream velocity for nonuniform open channel flows over gravel is derived and tested for the first time. Owing to the gradual expansion of the flow within the nonuniform case presented, it is hypothesized that the flow can be defined as an equilibrium turbulent boundary layer using the asymptotic invariance principle. The hypothesis is supported using similarity analysis to derive a solution, followed by further testing with experimental datasets. For the latter, 38 newly collected experimental velocity profiles across three nonuniform flows over gravel in a hydraulic flume are tested as are 43 velocity profiles previously published in seven peer-reviewed journal papers that focused on fluid mechanics of nonuniform open channel over gravel. The findings support the nonuniform flows as equilibrium defined by the asymptotic invariance principle, which is reflective of the consistency of the turbulent structure's form and function within the expanding flow. However, roughness impacts the flow structure when comparing across the published experimental datasets. As a secondary objective, we show how previously published mixed scales can be used to assist with freestream velocity scaling of the velocity deficit and thus empirically account for the roughness effects that extend into the outer region of the flow. One broader finding of this study is providing the theoretical context to relax the use of the elusive friction velocity when scaling nonuniform flows in gravel bed rivers; and instead to apply the freestream velocity. A second broader finding highlighted by our results is that scaling of nonuniform flow in gravel bed rivers is still not fully resolved theoretically since mixed scaling relies to some degree on empiricism. As researchers resolve the form and function of macroturbulence in the outer region, we hope to see the closing of this research gap.
Spatial linear flows of finite length with nonuniform intensity distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mikhaylov Ivan Evgrafovich
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Irrotational flows produced by spatial linear flows of finite length with different uneven lows of discharge over the flow length are represented in cylindrical coordinate system. Flows with the length 2a are placed in infinite space filled with ideal (inviscid fluid. In “А” variant discharge is fading linearly downward along the length of the flow. In “B” variant in upper half of the flow (length a discharge is fading linearly downward, in lower half of the flow discharge is fading linearly from the middle point to lower end. In “C” variant discharge of the flow is growing linearly from upper and lower ends to middle point.Equations for discharge distribution along the length of the flow are provided for each variant. Equations consist of two terms and include two dimensional parameters and current coordinate that allows integrating on flow length. Analytical expressions are derived for speed potential functions and flow speed components for flow speeds produced by analyzed flows. These analytical expressions consist of dimensional parameters of discharge distribution patterns along the length of the flow. Flow lines equation (meridional sections of flow surfaces for variants “A”, “B”, “C” is unsolvable in quadratures. Flow lines plotting is proposed to be made by finite difference method. Equations for flow line plotting are provided for each variant. Calculations of these equations show that the analyzed flows have the following flow lines: “A” has confocal hyperbolical curves, “B” and “C” have confocal hyperboles. Flow surfaces are confocal hyperboloids produced by rotation of these hyperboles about the axis passing through the flows. In “A” variant the space filled with fluid is separated by vividly horizontal flow surface in two parts. In upper part that includes the smaller part of the flow length flow lines are oriented downward, in lower part – upward. The equation defining coordinate of
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Si, Haiqing; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun
2013-01-01
Acoustic propagation in the presence of a non-uniform mean flow is studied numerically by using two different acoustic propagating models, which solve linearized Euler equations (LEE) and acoustic perturbation equations (APE). As noise induced by turbulent flows often propagates from near field t...
A dynamic model of gas flow in a non-uniform pipe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mensah, S.; Lepp, R.M.
1979-08-01
A gas-line model, based on the analysis of compressible flow with friction, has been developed to describe the dynamics of gas flow in a non-uniform line, i.e. one comprising segments of different lengths and diameters. Acoustic wave analysis was used in a novel way, by considering the line as a cascaded connection of uniform pipes separated by discontinuities. The transmission matrix representing this non-uniform line is the product of the matrices for each element in the system. To facilitate implementation of the theoretical model on a hybrid computer, modal approximatons to its transfer functions were derived. Both models were validated against experimental data. (author)
Kenjeres, S.
2008-01-01
The paper reports on a comprehensive mathematical model for simulations of blood flow under the presence of strong non-uniform magnetic fields. The model consists of a set of Navier–Stokes equations accounting for the Lorentz and magnetisation forces, and a simplified set of Maxwell’s equations
Non-uniform volumetric structures in Richtmyer-Meshkov flows
Staniç, M.; McFarland, J.; Stellingwerf, R.F.; Cassibry, J.T.; Ranjan, D.; Bonazza, R.; Greenough, J.A.; Abarzhi, S.I.
2013-01-01
We perform an integrated study of volumetric structures in Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) flows induced by moderate shocks. Experiments, theoretical analyses, Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics simulations, and ARES Arbitrary Lagrange Eulerian simulations are employed to analyze RM evolution for fluids with
CHF multiplier of subcooled flow boiling for non-uniform heating conditions in swirl tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inasaka, F.; Nariai, H.
1994-01-01
The high heat flux components of fusion reactors, such as divertor plates and beam dumps of neutral beam injectors, are estimated to be subjected to very high heat loads more than 10 MW/m 2 . Critical heat flux (CHF), which determines the upper limit of heat removal, is one of the most important problems in designing cooling systems. For practical applications in cooling systems, subcooled flow boiling in water combined with swirl-flow in tubes with internal twisted tape is thought to be the most superior for CHF characteristics in fusion reactor components, heat by irradiation comes in from one side of the wall, and cooling channel is then under circumferentially non-uniform heating condition. Authors have conducted the experiments on the CHF with internal twisted tapes under circumferentially non-uniform heating conditions and showed that when the intensity of non-uniformity increased, q cH (peak heat flux at burnout under nonuniform heating condition) in tube with internal twisted tape increased above the q c,unif (CHF under uniform heating condition), though the average qualities were the same for both cases. They also showed that this CHF enhancement was not seen in smooth tubes without tape under the same average qualities
Gas-Dynamic Methods to Reduce Gas Flow Nonuniformity from the Annular Frames of Gas Turbine Engines
Kolmakova, D.; Popov, G.
2018-01-01
Gas flow nonuniformity is one of the main sources of rotor blade vibrations in the gas turbine engines. Usually, the flow circumferential nonuniformity occurs near the annular frames, located in the flow channel of the engine. This leads to the increased dynamic stresses in blades and consequently to the blade damage. The goal of the research was to find an acceptable method of reducing the level of gas flow nonuniformity. Two different methods were investigated during this research. Thus, this study gives the ideas about methods of improving the flow structure in gas turbine engine. Based on existing conditions (under development or existing engine) it allows the selection of the most suitable method for reducing gas flow nonuniformity.
Zonal flow excitation by Shukla-Varma modes in a nonuniform dusty magnetoplasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shukla, P.K.; Stenflo, L.
2002-01-01
The nonlinear coupling between the Shukla-Varma (SV) modes and the zonal flows in a nonuniform dusty magnetoplasma is considered. By using a two-fluid model and the guiding center particle drifts, a pair of coupled mode equations is obtained. The latter are Fourier analyzed to obtain a nonlinear dispersion relation, which exhibits the excitation of zonal flows by the ponderomotive force of the SV modes. The increment of the parametrically excited zonal flows is presented. The relevance of our investigation to laboratory and space plasmas is discussed
Research of non-uniform multiple hole straighteners for measuring flow rate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wen Duanzhong; Zhong Dezhen; Cai Zhuti
1989-01-01
Standard throttling flowmeters are widely used in process flow rate measurement. Enough upstream and downstream straight pipe are necessary for it. If not, the error will be increased. Mounting straightener is an effective way for solving this problem. Advantages of non-uniform multiple hole straighteners studied by authors are good results for straighting, simple in Structure, convenient for mounting and low cost. So it can be popularized in many applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kenjeres, Sasa
2008-01-01
The paper reports on a comprehensive mathematical model for simulations of blood flow under the presence of strong non-uniform magnetic fields. The model consists of a set of Navier-Stokes equations accounting for the Lorentz and magnetisation forces, and a simplified set of Maxwell's equations (Biot-Savart/Ampere's law) for treating the imposed magnetic fields. The relevant hydrodynamic and electromagnetic properties of human blood were taken from the literature. The model is then validated for different test cases ranging from a simple cylindrical geometry to real-life right-coronary arteries in humans. The time-dependency of the wall-shear-stress for different stenosis growth rates and the effects of the imposed strong non-uniform magnetic fields on the blood flow pattern are presented and analysed. It is concluded that an imposed non-uniform magnetic field can create significant changes in the secondary flow patterns, thus making it possible to use this technique for optimisations of targeted drug delivery
Prevention of Bridge Scour with Non-uniform Circular Piers Plane under Steady Flows
Chen, Hsing-Ting; Wang, Chuan-Yi
2017-04-01
River bed scour and deposit variation extremely severe because of most of rivers are steep and rapid flows, and river discharge extremely unstable and highly unsteady during different seasons in Taiwan. In addition to the obstruction of piers foundation, it causes local scour and threatens the safety of bridges. In the past, riprap, wire gabion or wrap pier works were adopted as the protections of piers foundation, but there were no effectual outcomes. The events of break off piers still happen sometimes. For example, typhoon Kalmaegi (2008) and Morakot (2009) caused heavy damages on Ho-Fon bridge in the Da-jia river and Shuang-Yuan bridge in the Kao-Ping river, respectively. Accordingly, to understand the piers scour system and propose an appropriate protection of piers foundation becomes an important topic for this study currently. This research improves the protection works of the existing uniform bridge pier (diameter D) to ensure the safety of the bridge. The non-uniform plane of circular piers (diameter D*) are placed on the top of a bridge pier foundation to reduce the down flow impacting energy and scour by its' surface roughness characteristics. This study utilize hydraulic models to simulate local scour depth and scour depth change with time for non-uniform pier diameter ratio D/D* of 0.3,0.4,0.5,0.6,0.7 and 0.8, and different type pier and initial bed level (Y) relative under the foundation top elevation under steady flows of V/Vc=0.95,0.80 and 0.65. The research results show that the scour depth increases with an increase of flow intensity (V/Vc) under different types of steady flow hydrographs. The scour depth decreases with increase of initial bed level (Y=+0.2D*,0D*and -0.2D*) relative under the foundation top elevation of the different type pier. The maximum scour depth occurred in the front of the pier for all conditions. Because of the scouring retardation by the non-uniform plane of foundation, the scour depth is reduced for the un-exposed bridge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sadeghi-Goughari, Moslem [Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini, Mohammad [Sirjan University of Technology, Sirjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-02-15
The vibrational behavior of a viscous nanoflow-conveying single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) was investigated. The nonuniformity of the flow velocity distribution caused by the viscosity of fluid and the small-size effects on the flow field was considered. Euler-Bernoulli beam model was used to investigate flow-induced vibration of the nanotube, while the non-uniformity of the flow velocity and the small-size effects of the flow field were formulated through Knudsen number (Kn), as a discriminant parameter. For laminar flow in a circular nanotube, the momentum correction factor was developed as a function of Kn. For Kn = 0 (continuum flow), the momentum correction factor was found to be 1.33, which decreases by the increase in Kn may even reach near 1 for the transition flow regime. We observed that for passage of viscous flow through a nanotube with the non-uniform flow velocity, the critical continuum flow velocity for divergence decreased considerably as opposed to those for the uniform flow velocity, while by increasing Kn, the difference between the uniform and non-uniform flow models may be reduced. In the solution part, the differential transformation method (DTM) was used to solve the governing differential equations of motion.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sadeghi-Goughari, Moslem; Hosseini, Mohammad
2015-01-01
The vibrational behavior of a viscous nanoflow-conveying single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) was investigated. The nonuniformity of the flow velocity distribution caused by the viscosity of fluid and the small-size effects on the flow field was considered. Euler-Bernoulli beam model was used to investigate flow-induced vibration of the nanotube, while the non-uniformity of the flow velocity and the small-size effects of the flow field were formulated through Knudsen number (Kn), as a discriminant parameter. For laminar flow in a circular nanotube, the momentum correction factor was developed as a function of Kn. For Kn = 0 (continuum flow), the momentum correction factor was found to be 1.33, which decreases by the increase in Kn may even reach near 1 for the transition flow regime. We observed that for passage of viscous flow through a nanotube with the non-uniform flow velocity, the critical continuum flow velocity for divergence decreased considerably as opposed to those for the uniform flow velocity, while by increasing Kn, the difference between the uniform and non-uniform flow models may be reduced. In the solution part, the differential transformation method (DTM) was used to solve the governing differential equations of motion.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mellor, A.; Domenech-Garret, J.L.; Chemisana, D.; Rosell, J.I. [Departament de Medi Ambient i C.S., University of Lleida, Av. Alcalde Rovira Roure 191, E25198 (Spain)
2009-09-15
A two-dimensional finite element model of current flow in the front surface of a PV cell is presented. In order to validate this model we perform an experimental test. Later, particular attention is paid to the effects of non-uniform illumination in the finger direction which is typical in a linear concentrator system. Fill factor, open circuit voltage and efficiency are shown to decrease with increasing degree of non-uniform illumination. It is shown that these detrimental effects can be mitigated significantly by reoptimization of the number of front surface metallization fingers to suit the degree of non-uniformity. The behavior of current flow in the front surface of a cell operating at open circuit voltage under non-uniform illumination is discussed in detail. (author)
Study on the flow nonuniformity in a high capacity Stirling pulse tube cryocooler
You, X.; Zhi, X.; Duan, C.; Jiang, X.; Qiu, L.; Li, J.
2017-12-01
High capacity Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers (SPTC) have promising applications in high temperature superconductive motor and gas liquefaction. However, with the increase of cooling capacity, its performance deviates from well-accepted one-dimensional model simulation, such as Sage and Regen, mainly due to the strong field nonuniformity. In this study, several flow straighteners placed at both ends of the pulse tube are investigated to improve the flow distribution. A two-dimensional model of the pulse tube based on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method has been built to study the flow distribution of the pulse tube with different flow straighteners including copper screens, copper slots, taper transition and taper stainless slot. A SPTC set-up which has more than one hundred Watts cooling power at 80 K has been built and tested. The flow straighteners mentioned above have been applied and tested. The results show that with the best flow straightener the cooling performance of the SPTC can be significantly improved. Both CFD simulation and experiment show that the straighteners have impacts on the flow distribution and the performance of the high capacity SPTC.
Zemlyanaya, N. V.; Gulyakin, A. V.
2017-11-01
The uniformity of flow distribution in perforated manifolds is a relevant task. The efficiency of water supply, sewerage and perflation systems is determined by hydraulics of the flow with a variable mass. The extensive study of versatile available information showed that achieving a uniform flow distribution through all of the outlets is almost impossible. The analysis of the studies conducted by other authors and our numerical experiments performed with the help of the software package ANSYS 16.1 were made in this work. The results allowed us to formulate the main causes of non-uniform flow distribution. We decided to suggest a hypothesis to explain the static pressure rise problem at the end of a perforated manifold.
A parametric transfer function methodology for analyzing reactive transport in nonuniform flow.
Luo, Jian; Cirpka, Olaf A; Fienen, Michael N; Wu, Wei-min; Mehlhorn, Tonia L; Carley, Jack; Jardine, Philip M; Criddle, Craig S; Kitanidis, Peter K
2006-02-01
We analyze reactive transport during in-situ bioremediation in a nonuniform flow field, involving multiple extraction and injection wells, by the method of transfer functions. Gamma distributions are used as parametric models of the transfer functions. Apparent parameters of classical transport models may be estimated from those of the gamma distributions by matching temporal moments. We demonstrate the method by application to measured data taken at a field experiment on bioremediation conducted in a multiple-well system in Oak Ridge, TN. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) of a conservative tracer (bromide) and a reactive compound (ethanol) are measured at multi-level sampling (MLS) wells and in extraction wells. The BTCs of both compounds are jointly analyzed to estimate the first-order degradation rate of ethanol. To quantify the tracer loss, we compare the approaches of using a scaling factor and a first-order decay term. Results show that by including a scaling factor both gamma distributions and inverse-Gaussian distributions (transfer functions according to the advection-dispersion equation) are suitable to approximate the transfer functions and estimate the reactive rate coefficients for both MLS and extraction wells. However, using a first-order decay term for tracer loss fails to describe the BTCs at the extraction well, which is affected by the nonuniform distribution of travel paths.
Direct numerical simulation of turbulent pipe flow with nonuniform surface heat flux
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Satake, Shin-ichi; Kunugi, Tomoaki
1998-01-01
Turbulent transport computations of a scalar quantity for fully-developed turbulent pipe flow were carried out by means of a direct numerical simulation (DNS) procedure. In this paper, three wall-heating boundary conditions were considered as follows: Case-1) a uniform heat-flux condition along the wall, Case-2) a nonuniform wall-heating condition, that is, a cosine heat-flux distribution along the wall and Case-3) a nonuniform wall-heating condition with a constant temperature over a half of the pipe wall. The number of computational grids used in this paper is 256 x 128 x 128. Prandtl number of the working fluid is 0.71. The Nusselt number in case of Case-1 is in good agreement with the empirical correlation. In case of Case-3, the distributions of the turbulent quantity and the Nusselt number seem to be reasonable. However, as for Case-2, the distributions of the turbulent quantity and the Nusselt number seem to be unrealistic. Two numerical treatments of thermal boundary condition on the wall were applied and their results were discussed from the viewpoint of the turbulent transport feature. (author)
Compressor Performance Scaling in the Presence of Non-Uniform Flow
Hill, David Jarrod
Fuselage-embedded engines in future aircraft will see increased flow distortions due to the ingestion of airframe boundary layers. This reduces the required propulsive power compared to podded engines. Inlet flow distortions mean that localized regions of flow within the fan and first stage compressor are operating at off-design conditions. It is important to weigh the benefit of increased vehicle propulsive efficiency against the resultant reduction in engine efficiency. High computational cost has limited most past research to single distortion studies. The objective of this thesis is to extract scaling laws for transonic compressor performance in the presence of various distortion patterns and intensities. The machine studied is the NASA R67 transonic compressor. Volumetric source terms are used to model rotor and stator blade rows. The modelling approach is an innovative combination of existing flow turning and loss models, combined with a compressible flow correction. This approach allows for a steady calculation to capture distortion transfer; as a result, the computational cost is reduced by two orders of magnitude. At peak efficiency, the rotor work coefficient and isentropic efficiency are matched within 1.4% of previously published experimental results. A key finding of this thesis is that, in non-uniform flow, the state-of-the-art loss model employed is unable to capture the impact of variations in local flow coefficient, limiting the analysis of local entropy generation. New insight explains the mechanism governing the interaction between a total temperature distortion and a compressor rotor. A parametric study comprising 16 inlet distortions reveals that for total temperature distortions, upstream flow redistribution and rotor diffusion factor changes are shown to scale linearly with distortion severity. Linear diffusion factor scaling does not hold true for total pressure distortions. For combined total temperature and total pressure distortions, the
Effect of an alternating nonuniform magnetic field on ferrofluid flow and heat transfer in a channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goharkhah, Mohammad; Ashjaee, Mehdi
2014-01-01
Forced convective heat transfer of water based Fe 3 O 4 nanofluid (ferrofluid) in the presence of an alternating non-uniform magnetic field is investigated numerically. The geometry is a two-dimensional channel which is subjected to a uniform heat flux at the top and bottom surfaces. Nonuniform magnetic field produced by eight line source dipoles is imposed on several parts of the channel. Also, a rectangular wave function is applied to the dipoles in order to turn them on and off alternatingly. The effects of the alternating magnetic field strength and frequency on the convective heat transfer are investigated for four different Reynolds numbers (Re=100, 600, 1200 and 2000) in the laminar flow regime. Comparing the results with zero magnetic field case, show that the heat transfer enhancement increases with the Reynolds number and reaches a maximum of 13.9% at Re=2000 and f=20 Hz. Moreover, at a constant Reynolds number, it increases with the magnetic field intensity while an optimum value exists for the frequency. Also, the optimum frequency increases with the Reynolds number. On the other hand, the heat transfer enhancement due to the magnetic field is always accompanied by a pressure drop penalty. A maximum pressure drop increase of 6% is observed at Re=2000 and f=5 Hz which shows that the pressure drop increase is not as significant as the heat transfer enhancement. - Highlights: • An alternating magnetic field is imposed on ferrofluid flow in a heated channel. • Heat transfer is enhanced noticeably compared to the case with no magnetic field. • Heat transfer depends on Reynolds number, magnetic field intensity and frequency. • Optimum frequency is independent of intensity but increases with Reynolds number. • Pressure drop increase is not as significant as the heat transfer enhancement
Feng Sheng Qin; LianShouLiu
2002-01-01
The non-uniform longitudinal flow model (NUFM) proposed recently is extended to include also the transverse flow. The resulting longitudinally non-uniform collective expansion model (NUCEM) is applied to the calculation of rapidity distribution of kaons, lambdas and protons in relativistic heavy ion collisions at CERN-SPS energies. The model results are compared with the 200 A GeV/c S-S and 158 A GeV/c Pb-Pb collision data. The central dips observed in experiments are reproduced in a natural way. It is found that the depth of the central dip depends on the magnitude of the parameter e and the mass of produced particles, i.e. the non-uniformity of the longitudinal flow which is described by the parameter e determines the depth of the central dip for produced particles. Comparing with one-dimensional non-uniform longitudinal flow model, the rapidity distribution of lighter strange particle kaon also shows a dip due to the effect of transverse flow
Nonlinear Dynamics of Non-uniform Current-Vortex Sheets in Magnetohydrodynamic Flows
Matsuoka, C.; Nishihara, K.; Sano, T.
2017-04-01
A theoretical model is proposed to describe fully nonlinear dynamics of interfaces in two-dimensional MHD flows based on an idea of non-uniform current-vortex sheet. Application of vortex sheet model to MHD flows has a crucial difficulty because of non-conservative nature of magnetic tension. However, it is shown that when a magnetic field is initially parallel to an interface, the concept of vortex sheet can be extended to MHD flows (current-vortex sheet). Two-dimensional MHD flows are then described only by a one-dimensional Lagrange parameter on the sheet. It is also shown that bulk magnetic field and velocity can be calculated from their values on the sheet. The model is tested by MHD Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with sinusoidal vortex sheet strength. Two-dimensional ideal MHD simulations show that the nonlinear dynamics of a shocked interface with density stratification agrees fairly well with that for its corresponding potential flow. Numerical solutions of the model reproduce properly the results of the ideal MHD simulations, such as the roll-up of spike, exponential growth of magnetic field, and its saturation and oscillation. Nonlinear evolution of the interface is found to be determined by the Alfvén and Atwood numbers. Some of their dependence on the sheet dynamics and magnetic field amplification are discussed. It is shown by the model that the magnetic field amplification occurs locally associated with the nonlinear dynamics of the current-vortex sheet. We expect that our model can be applicable to a wide variety of MHD shear flows.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Ali Abbas
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In this present analysis, three dimensional peristaltic flow of hyperbolic tangent fluid in a non-uniform channel has been investigated. We have considered that the pressure is uniform over the whole cross section and the interial effects have been neglected. For this purpose we consider laminar flow under the assumptions of long wavelength (λ→∞ and creeping flow (Re→0 approximations. The attained highly nonlinear equations are solved with the help of Homotopy perturbation method. The influence of various physical parameters of interest is demonstrated graphically for wall tension, mass characterization, damping nature of the wall, wall rigidity, wall elastance, aspect ratio and the Weissenberg number. In this present investigation we found that the magnitude of the velocity is maximum in the center of the channel whereas it is minimum near the walls. Stream lines are also drawn to discuss the trapping mechanism for all the physical parameters. Comparison has also been presented between Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid.
Impacts of Traffic Tidal Flow on Pollutant Dispersion in a Non-Uniform Urban Street Canyon
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tingzhen Ming
2018-02-01
Full Text Available A three-dimensional geometrical model was established based on a section of street canyons in the 2nd Ring Road of Wuhan, China, and a mathematical model describing the fluid flow and pollutant dispersion characteristics in the street canyon was developed. The effect of traffic tidal flow was investigated based on the measurement results of the passing vehicles as the pollution source of the CFD method and on the spatial distribution of pollutants under various ambient crosswinds. Numerical investigation results indicated that: (i in this three-dimensional asymmetrical shallow street canyon, if the pollution source followed a non-uniform distribution due to the traffic tidal flow and the wind flow was perpendicular to the street, a leeward side source intensity stronger than the windward side intensity would cause an expansion of the pollution space even if the total source in the street is equal. When the ambient wind speed is 3 m/s, the pollutant source intensity near the leeward side that is stronger than that near the windward side (R = 2, R = 3, and R = 5 leads to an increased average concentration of CO at pedestrian breathing height by 26%, 37%, and 41%, respectively. (R is the ratio parameter of the left side pollution source and the right side pollution source; (ii However, this feature will become less significant with increasing wind speeds and changes of wind direction; (iii the pollution source intensity exerted a decisive influence on the pollutant level in the street canyon. With the decrease of the pollution source intensity, the pollutant concentration decreased proportionally.
Supersonic Mass Flux Measurements via Tunable Diode Laser Absorption and Non-Uniform Flow Modeling
Chang, Leyen S.; Strand, Christopher L.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Gaffney, Richard L.; Capriotti, Diego P.
2011-01-01
Measurements of mass flux are obtained in a vitiated supersonic ground test facility using a sensor based on line-of-sight (LOS) diode laser absorption of water vapor. Mass flux is determined from the product of measured velocity and density. The relative Doppler shift of an absorption transition for beams directed upstream and downstream in the flow is used to measure velocity. Temperature is determined from the ratio of absorption signals of two transitions (lambda(sub 1)=1349 nm and lambda(sub 2)=1341.5 nm) and is coupled with a facility pressure measurement to obtain density. The sensor exploits wavelength-modulation spectroscopy with second-harmonic detection (WMS-2f) for large signal-to-noise ratios and normalization with the 1f signal for rejection of non-absorption related transmission fluctuations. The sensor line-of-sight is translated both vertically and horizontally across the test section for spatially-resolved measurements. Time-resolved measurements of mass flux are used to assess the stability of flow conditions produced by the facility. Measurements of mass flux are within 1.5% of the value obtained using a facility predictive code. The distortion of the WMS lineshape caused by boundary layers along the laser line-of-sight is examined and the subsequent effect on the measured velocity is discussed. A method for correcting measured velocities for flow non-uniformities is introduced and application of this correction brings measured velocities within 4 m/s of the predicted value in a 1630 m/s flow.
Engdahl, Nicholas B; Benson, David A; Bolster, Diogo
2014-11-01
The ability for reactive constituents to mix is often the key limiting factor for the completion of reactions across a huge range of scales in a variety of media. In flowing systems, deformation and shear enhance mixing by bringing constituents into closer proximity, thus increasing reaction potential. Accurately quantifying this enhanced mixing is key to predicting reactions and typically is done by observing or simulating scalar transport. To eliminate this computationally expensive step, we use a Lagrangian stochastic framework to derive the enhancement to reaction potential by calculating the collocation probability of particle pairs in a heterogeneous flow field accounting for deformations. We relate the enhanced reaction potential to three well known flow topology metrics and demonstrate that it is best correlated to (and asymptotically linear with) one: the largest eigenvalue of the (right) Cauchy-Green tensor.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, Xiaodong; Wu, Yingwei; Zhou, Linglan; Tian, Wenxi; Su, Guanghui; Qiu, Suizheng; Zhang, Hong
2014-01-01
Highlights: • We developed a model based on homogeneous flow model to analyze two-phase flow instability in parallel channels. • The influence of axial non-uniform heating on the system stability has been investigated. • Influences of various factors on system instability under cosine heat flux have been studied. • The system under top-peaked heat flux is the most stable system. - Abstract: Two-phase flow instability in parallel channels heated by axial non-uniform heat flux has been theoretically studied in this paper. The system control equations of parallel channels were established based on the homogeneous flow model in two-phase region. Semi-implicit finite-difference scheme and staggered mesh method were used to discretize the equations, and the difference equations were solved by chasing method. Cosine, bottom-peaked and top-peaked heat fluxes were used to study the influence of non-uniform heating on two-phase flow instability of the parallel channels system. The marginal stability boundaries (MSB) of parallel channels and three-dimensional instability spaces (or instability reefs) under different heat flux conditions have been obtained. Compared with axial uniform heating, axial non-uniform heating will affect the system stability. Cosine and bottom-peaked heat fluxes can destabilize the system stability in high inlet subcooling region, while the opposite effect can be found in low inlet subcooling region. However, top-peaked heat flux can enhance the system stability in the whole region. In addition, for cosine heat flux, increasing the system pressure or inlet resistance coefficient can strengthen the system stability, and increasing the heating power will destabilize the system stability. The influence of inlet subcooling number on the system stability is multi-valued under cosine heat flux
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Revathi
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Non-similar solutions are found numerically to a system of coupled non-linear partial differential equations indicating, unsteady laminar water boundary layer flow over yawed cylinder using implicit finite difference scheme along with Quasi-linearization technique. The fluid properties such as viscosity and Prandtl number are considered as an inverse function of temperature. Unsteadiness is caused by upstream velocity in and directions and non-uniform mass transfer (suction/injection which is applied through slot on the surface of the geometry. The effect of yaw angle, variable fluid properties and non-uniform mass transfer on skin friction and heat transfer coefficients is analyzed. It is found that non-uniform slot suction and downstream movement of the slot cause the point of vanishing skin friction moves downstream, but non-uniform slot injection produces the opposite result of that corresponding to the suction case. When the yaw angle increases, both the skin friction coefficient in the – direction and the heat transfer coefficient decrease but the skin friction coefficient in the – direction increases for all times. The effect of the yaw angle is very little on the point of vanishing skin friction.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattacharyya Krishnendu
2013-01-01
In this paper, the effect of non-uniform heat flux on heat transfer in boundary layer stagnation-point flow over a shrinking sheet is studied. The variable boundary heat fluxes are considered of two types: direct power-law variation with the distance along the sheet and inverse power-law variation with the distance. The governing partial differential equations (PDEs) are transformed into non linear self-similar ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by similarity transformations, and then those are solved using very efficient shooting method. The direct variation and inverse variation of heat flux along the sheet have completely different effects on the temperature distribution. Moreover, the heat transfer characteristics in the presence of non-uniform heat flux for several values of physical parameters are also found to be interesting
Lyapin Anton; Lyapin Valery
2018-01-01
The influence of non-uniformity on mass transfer processes in open channels have been investigated under the action of urbanization factors. The study is related to the urgent problem of environmental degradation of water objects in urbanized areas. It is known that the water quality in the water objects depends on the manner in which the contaminants spread how they mix with the river water and diluted by it. The main results of the study consist of recommendations to incorporate non-uniform...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duan, Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); He, S., E-mail: s.he@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)
2017-02-15
Highlights: • Buoyancy may greatly redistribute the flow in a non-uniform channel. • Flow structures in the narrow gap are greatly changed when buoyancy is strong. • Large flow structures exist in wider gap, which is enhanced when heat is strong. • Buoyancy reduces mixing factor caused by large flow structures in narrow gap. - Abstract: It has been a long time since the ‘abnormal’ turbulent intensity distribution and high inter-sub-channel mixing rates were observed in the vicinity of the narrow gaps formed by the fuel rods in nuclear reactors. The extraordinary flow behaviour was first described as periodic flow structures by Hooper and Rehme (1984). Since then, the existences of large flow structures were demonstrated by many researchers in various non-uniform flow channels. It has been proved by many authors that the Strouhal number of the flow structure in the isothermal flow is dependent on the size of the narrow gap, not the Reynolds number once it is sufficiently large. This paper reports a numerical investigation on the effect of buoyancy on the large flow structures. A buoyancy-aided flow in a tightly-packed rod-bundle-like channel is modelled using large eddy simulation (LES) together with the Boussinesq approximation. The behaviour of the large flow structures in the gaps of the flow passage are studied using instantaneous flow fields, spectrum analysis and correlation analysis. It is found that the non-uniform buoyancy force in the cross section of the flow channel may greatly redistribute the velocity field once the overall buoyancy force is sufficiently strong, and consequently modify the large flow structures. The temporal and axial spatial scales of the large flow structures are influenced by buoyancy in a way similar to that turbulence is influenced. These scales reduce when the flow is laminarised, but start increasing in the turbulence regeneration region. The spanwise scale of the flow structures in the narrow gap remains more or
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moon, S.K.; Chun, S.Y.; Choi, K.Y.; Yang, S.K.
2001-01-01
An experimental study on transient critical heat flux (CHF) under flow coast-down has been performed for water flow in a non-uniformly heated vertical annulus under low flow and a wide range of pressure conditions. The objectives of this study are to systematically investigate the effect of the flow transient on the CHF and to compare the transient CHF with steady state CHF. The transient CHF experiments have been performed for three kinds of flow transient modes based on the coast-down data of the Kori 3/4 nuclear power plant reactor coolant pump. Most of the CHFs occurred in the annular-mist flow regime. Thus, it means that the possible CHF mechanism might be the liquid film dryout in the annular-mist flow regime. For flow transient mode with the smallest flow reduction rate, the time-to-CHF is the largest. At the same inlet subcooling, system pressure and heat flux, the effect of the initial mass flux on the critical mass flux can be negligible. However, the effect of the initial mass flux on the time-to-CHF becomes large as the heat flux decreases. Usually, the critical mass flux is large for slow flow reduction. There is a pressure effect on the ratio of the transient CHF data to steady state CHF data. Some conventional correlations show relatively better CHF prediction results for high system pressure, high quality and slow transient modes than for low system pressure, low quality and fast transient modes. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Touma, Rony [Department of Computer Science & Mathematics, Lebanese American University, Beirut (Lebanon); Zeidan, Dia [School of Basic Sciences and Humanities, German Jordanian University, Amman (Jordan)
2016-06-08
In this paper we extend a central finite volume method on nonuniform grids to the case of drift-flux two-phase flow problems. The numerical base scheme is an unstaggered, non oscillatory, second-order accurate finite volume scheme that evolves a piecewise linear numerical solution on a single grid and uses dual cells intermediately while updating the numerical solution to avoid the resolution of the Riemann problems arising at the cell interfaces. We then apply the numerical scheme and solve a classical drift-flux problem. The obtained results are in good agreement with corresponding ones appearing in the recent literature, thus confirming the potential of the proposed scheme.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shuchi, S.; Shimada, K.; Kamiyama, S.; Yamaguchi, H.
2002-01-01
We clarify numerically the wall friction coefficient, the distributions of velocity and shear rate, and the number of aggregated particles on steady magnetic fluid flow in a straight tube by taking into account the non-uniform distribution of mass concentration (DMC). Also the effect of DMC is clarified under the uniform and non-uniform transverse steady magnetic field. In comparison with the published data, the numerical results show good agreement with the experimental data
Structural elements of collapses in shallow water flows with horizontally nonuniform density
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goncharov, V. P., E-mail: v.goncharov@rambler.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics (Russian Federation); Pavlov, V. I., E-mail: Vadim.Pavlov@univ-lille1.fr [Universite de Lille 1, UFR de Mathematiques Pures et Appliquees-LML UMR 8107 (France)
2013-10-15
The mechanisms and structural elements of instability whose evolution results in the occurrence of the collapse are studied in the scope of the rotating shallow water model with a horizontally nonuniform density. The diagram stability based on the integral collapse criterion is suggested to explain system behavior in the space of constants of motion. Analysis of the instability shows that two collapse scenarios are possible. One scenario implies anisotropic collapse during which the contact area of a collapsing drop-like fragment with the bottom contracts into a rotating segment. The other implies isotropic contraction of the area into a point.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yohan Jung
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical investigation of the effects of a nonuniform tip clearance profile on the performance and flow field in a centrifugal compressor with a vaneless diffuser. This study focuses in particular on the magnitude and location of the wake. Six impellers with different tip clearance profiles were tested in the flow simulations. The accuracy of the numerical simulations was assessed by comparing the experimental data with the computational results for a system characterized by the original tip clearance. Although the performance improved for low tip clearances, a low tip clearance at the trailing edge improved the compressor performance more significantly than a low tip clearance at the leading edge. The flow field calculated for a system characterized by a low tip clearance at the trailing edge produced a more uniform velocity distribution both in the circumferential and in the axial directions at the impeller exit because the wake magnitude was reduced. As a consequence, this impeller provided a better potential for diffusion processes inside a vaneless diffuser.
Flow of a Newtonian fluid in a non-uniform wavy and permeable tube
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tesfahun Berhane
2017-10-01
equations of motion are linearized by perturbation method by assuming ? (ratio of inlet width to wavelength as a small parameter and the resulting equations are solved by numerical methods. The effects of permeability parameter (?, slope parameter (k, slip coefficient (? and Reynolds number (Re on the velocity profiles, pressure and ?ow rate are presented graphically. Results concerning the velocity, pressure and flow rate, indicate that the slip and permeability parameters influence the flow field significantly. Discussions are made from physiological point of view.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Finn, John M.
2015-01-01
Properties of integration schemes for solenoidal fields in three dimensions are studied, with a focus on integrating magnetic field lines in a plasma using adaptive time stepping. It is shown that implicit midpoint (IM) and a scheme we call three-dimensional leapfrog (LF) can do a good job (in the sense of preserving KAM tori) of integrating fields that are reversible, or (for LF) have a “special divergence-free” (SDF) property. We review the notion of a self-adjoint scheme, showing that such schemes are at least second order accurate and can always be formed by composing an arbitrary scheme with its adjoint. We also review the concept of reversibility, showing that a reversible but not exactly volume-preserving scheme can lead to a fractal invariant measure in a chaotic region, although this property may not often be observable. We also show numerical results indicating that the IM and LF schemes can fail to preserve KAM tori when the reversibility property (and the SDF property for LF) of the field is broken. We discuss extensions to measure preserving flows, the integration of magnetic field lines in a plasma and the integration of rays for several plasma waves. The main new result of this paper relates to non-uniform time stepping for volume-preserving flows. We investigate two potential schemes, both based on the general method of Feng and Shang [Numer. Math. 71, 451 (1995)], in which the flow is integrated in split time steps, each Hamiltonian in two dimensions. The first scheme is an extension of the method of extended phase space, a well-proven method of symplectic integration with non-uniform time steps. This method is found not to work, and an explanation is given. The second method investigated is a method based on transformation to canonical variables for the two split-step Hamiltonian systems. This method, which is related to the method of non-canonical generating functions of Richardson and Finn [Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 014004 (2012
Liquid-metal flow in a rectangular duct with a non-uniform magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walker, J.S.
1986-04-01
This paper treats liquid-metal flow in rectangular ducts with thin conducting walls. A transverse magnetic field changes from a uniform strength upstream to a weaker uniform strength downstream. The Hartmann number and the interaction parameter are assumed to be large, while the magnetic Reynolds number is assumed to be small. If the magnetic field changes gradually over a long duct length, the velocity and pressure are nearly uniform in each cross section and the flow differs slightly from locally fully developed flow. If the magnetic field changes more abruptly over a shorter duct length, the velocity and pressure are much larger near the walls parallel to the magnetic field than in the central part of duct. Solutions for the pressure drops due to the magnetic field change are presented
Non-uniform overland flow-infiltration model for roadside swales
García-Serrana, María; Gulliver, John S.; Nieber, John L.
2017-09-01
There is a need to quantify the hydrologic performance of vegetated roadside swales (drainage ditches) as stormwater control measures (SCMs). To quantify their infiltration performance in both the side slope and the channel of the swale, a model has been developed for coupling a Green-Ampt-Mein-Larson (GAML) infiltration submodel with kinematic wave submodels for both overland flow down the side slope and open channel flow for flow in the ditch. The coupled GAML submodel and overland flow submodel has been validated using data collected in twelve simulated runoff tests in three different highways located in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area, MN. The percentage of the total water infiltrated into the side slope is considerably greater than into the channel. Thus, the side slope of a roadside swale is the main component contributing to the loss of runoff by infiltration and the channel primarily conveys the water that runs off the side slope, for the typical design found in highways. Finally, as demonstrated in field observations and the model, the fraction of the runoff/rainfall infiltrated (Vi∗) into the roadside swale appears to increase with a dimensionless saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks∗), which is a function of the saturated hydraulic conductivity, rainfall intensity, and dimensions of the swale and contributing road surface. For design purposes, the relationship between Vi∗ and Ks∗ can provide a rough estimate of the fraction of runoff/rainfall infiltrated with the few essential parameters that appear to dominate the results.
Physiological breakdown of Jeffrey six constant nanofluid flow in an endoscope with nonuniform wall
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Nadeem
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This paper analyse the endoscopic effects of peristaltic nanofluid flow of Jeffrey six-constant fluid model in the presence of magnetohydrodynamics flow. The current problem is modeled in the cylindrical coordinate system and exact solutions are managed (where possible under low Reynolds number and long wave length approximation. The influence of emerging parameters on temperature and velocity profile are discussed graphically. The velocity equation is solved analytically by utilizing the homotopy perturbation technique strongly, while the exact solutions are computed from temperature equation. The obtained expressions for velocity , concentration and temperature is sketched during graphs and the collision of assorted parameters is evaluate for transform peristaltic waves. The solution depend on thermophoresis number Nt, local nanoparticles Grashof number Gr, and Brownian motion number Nb. The obtained expressions for the velocity, temperature, and nanoparticles concentration profiles are plotted and the impact of various physical parameters are investigated for different peristaltic waves.
Flow and heat transfer in gas turbine disk cavities subject to nonuniform external pressure field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roy, R.P.; Kim, Y.W.; Tong, T.W. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)
1995-10-01
Injestion of hot gas from the main-stream gas path into turbine disk cavities, particularly the first-stage disk cavity, has become a serious concern for the next-generation industrial gas turbines featuring high rotor inlet temperature. Fluid temperature in the cavities increases further due to windage generated by fluid drag at the rotating and stationary surfaces. The resulting problem of rotor disk heat-up is exacerbated by the high disk rim temperature due to adverse (relatively flat) temperature profile of the mainstream gas in the annular flow passage of the turbine. A designer is concerned about the level of stresses in the turbine rotor disk and its durability, both of which are affected significantly by the disk temperature distribution. This distribution also plays a major role in the radial position of the blade tip and thus, in establishing the clearance between the tip and the shroud. To counteract mainstream gas ingestion as well as to cool the rotor and the stator disks, it is necessary to inject cooling air (bled from the compressor discharge) into the wheel space. Since this bleeding of compressor air imposes a penalty on the engine cycle performance, the designers of disk cavity cooling and sealing systems need to accomplish these tasks with the minimum possible amount of bleed air without risking disk failure. This requires detailed knowledge of the flow characteristics and convective heat transfer in the cavity. The flow in the wheel space between the rotor and stator disks is quite complex. It is usually turbulent and contains recirculation regions. Instabilities such as vortices oscillating in space have been observed in the flow. It becomes necessary to obtain both a qualitative understanding of the general pattern of the fluid motion as well as a quantitative map of the velocity and pressure fields.
Modeling particle emission and power flow in pulsed-power driven, nonuniform transmission lines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nichelle Bruner
2008-04-01
Full Text Available Pulsed-power driven x-ray radiographic systems are being developed to operate at higher power in an effort to increase source brightness and penetration power. Essential to the design of these systems is a thorough understanding of electron power flow in the transmission line that couples the pulsed-power driver to the load. In this paper, analytic theory and fully relativistic particle-in-cell simulations are used to model power flow in several experimental transmission-line geometries fielded on Sandia National Laboratories’ upgraded Radiographic Integrated Test Stand [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28, 1653 (2000ITPSBD0093-381310.1109/27.901250]. Good agreement with measured electrical currents is demonstrated on a shot-by-shot basis for simulations which include detailed models accounting for space-charge-limited electron emission, surface heating, and stimulated particle emission. Resonant cavity modes related to the transmission-line impedance transitions are also shown to be excited by electron power flow. These modes can drive oscillations in the output power of the system, degrading radiographic resolution.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mirkov Nikola S.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we validate an improved finite volume approximation of Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations for simulation of wind flows in body-fitted grids generated by algebraic extrusion from digital terrain elevation data, proposed in N. Mirkov et. al. J. Comput. Phys. 287, 18-45(2015, [1]. The approach is based on second-order accurate finite volume method with collocated variable arrangement and pressure-velocity coupling trough SIMPLE algorithm. The main objective is the attenuation of spurious pressure field oscillations in regions with discontinuity in grid line slopes, as encountered in grids representing highly non-uniform terrains. Moreover, the approach relaxes the need for grid generation based on elliptic PDEs or grid smoothing by applying fixed point iterations (i.e. Gauss-Seidel to initial grid node positions resulting from algebraic grid generators. Drawbacks of previous approaches which ignored treatment of finite volume grid cell cases with intersection point offset in non-orthogonality corrections are removed. Application to real-life wind farm project at Dobrič (Srvljig, Serbia is used to assess the effectiveness of the method. The results validate the view in which accurate discretization of governing equations play more important role than the choice of turbulence modelling closures. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33036
A. Sinha; J.C. Misra; G.C. Shit
2016-01-01
This paper presents a theoretical analysis of blood flow and heat transfer in a permeable vessel in the presence of an external magnetic field. The unsteadiness in the coupled flow and temperature fields is considered to be caused due to the time-dependent stretching velocity and the surface temperature of the vessel. The non-uniform heat source/sink effect on blood flow and heat transfer is taken into account. This study is of potential value in the clinical treatment of cardiovascular disor...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gangfeng Wu
2018-05-01
Full Text Available The use of multiple-level non-uniform rectangular mesh in coupled flow and sediment transport modeling is preferred to achieve high accuracy in important region without increasing computational cost greatly. Here, a robust coupled hydrodynamic and non-equilibrium sediment transport model is developed on non-uniform rectangular mesh to simulate dam break flow over movable beds. The enhanced shallow water and sediment transport equations are adopted to consider the mass and momentum exchange between the flow phase and sediment phase. The flux at the interface is calculated by the positivity preserving central upwind scheme, which belongs to Godunov-type Riemann-problem-solver-free central schemes and is less expensive than other popular Riemann solvers while still capable of tracking wet/dry fronts accurately. The nonnegative water depth reconstruction method is used to achieve second-order accuracy in space. The model was first verified against two laboratory experiments of dam break flow over irregular fixed bed. Then the quantitative performance of the model was further investigated by comparing the computational results with measurement data of dam break flow over movable bed. The good agreements between the measurements and the numerical simulations are found for the flow depth, velocity and bed changes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Yoshida, Takuya; Nariai, Hideki; Inasaka, Fujio
1998-01-01
Effect of heated length on the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) of subcooled flow boiling with water was experimentally investigated by using direct current heated tube made of stainless steel a part of whose wall thickness was axially cut for realizing nonuniform heat flux condition. The higher enhancement of the CHF was derived for shorter tube length. The effective heated length was determined for the tube under axially nonuniform heat flux condition. When the lower heat flux part below the Net Vapor Generation (NVG) heat flux exists at the middle of tube length, then the effective heated length becomes the tube length downstream the lower heat flux parts. However, when the lower heat flux part is above the NVG, then the effective heated length is full tube length. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stevens, G.F.; Elliott, D.F.; Wood, R.W.
1965-05-01
Some correlations of forced convection burn-out data are based on the approximate linearity of the relationship between burn-out heat flux and the channel-averaged quality at the burn-out point. These correlations perform satisfactorily on data obtained from uniformly heated configurations. Therefore the further inference is sometimes made that the burn-out heat flux is uniquely related to the quality, and that the burn-out in non-uniformly heated configurations can be calculated from measurements made with uniform heating. This report presents burn-out data for Freon 12 flowing vertically upwards through both uniformly and non-uniformly heated round tubes. This data shows that the quality at burn-out does depend on the heat flux profile, and that the inference mentioned above is not justified. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cho, Seok; Chun, Se Young; Moon, Sang Ki; Baek, Won Pil
2003-11-01
KAERI has performed an experimental study of water Critical Heat Flux (CHF) under zero flow conditions with a non-uniformly heated 3 by 3 rod bundle. Experimental conditions are in the range of a system pressure from 0.5 to 15.0 MPa and inlet water subcooling enthalpies from 67.5 to 351.5 kJ/kg. The test section used in the present experiments consisted of a vertical flow channel, upper and lower plenums, and a non-uniformly heated 3 by 3 rod bundle. The experimental results show that the CHFs in low-pressure conditions are somewhat scattered within a narrow range. As the system pressure increases, however, the CHFs show a consistent parametric trend. The CHFs occur in the upper region of the heated section, but the vertical distances of the detected CHFs from the bottom of the heated section are reduced as the system pressure increases. Even though the effects of the inlet water subcooling enthalpies and system pressure in the flooding CHF are relatively smaller than those of the flow boiling CHF, the CHF increases by increasing the inlet water subcooling enthalpies. Several existing correlations for the countercurrent flooding CHF based on Wallis's flooding correlation and Kutateladze's criterion for the onset of flooding are compared with the CHF data obtained in the present experiments to examine the applicability of the correlations.
Doi, Toshiyuki
2018-04-01
Slow flows of a rarefied gas between two plane parallel walls with nonuniform surface properties are studied based on kinetic theory. It is assumed that one wall is a diffuse reflection boundary and the other wall is a Maxwell-type boundary whose accommodation coefficient varies periodically in the direction perpendicular to the flow. The time-independent Poiseuille, thermal transpiration and Couette flows are considered. The flow behavior is numerically studied based on the linearized Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook-Welander model of the Boltzmann equation. The flow field, the mass and heat flow rates in the gas, and the tangential force acting on the wall surface are studied over a wide range of the gas rarefaction degree and the parameters characterizing the distribution of the accommodation coefficient. The locally convex velocity distribution is observed in Couette flow of a highly rarefied gas, similarly to Poiseuille flow and thermal transpiration. The reciprocity relations are numerically confirmed over a wide range of the flow parameters.
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N. Sandeep
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the influence of non-uniform heat source/sink, mass transfer and chemical reaction on an unsteady mixed convection boundary layer flow of a magneto-micropolar fluid past a stretching/shrinking sheet in the presence of viscous dissipation and suction/injection. The governing equations of the flow, heat and mass transfer are transformed into system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformation and then solved numerically using Shooting technique with Matlab Package. The influence of non-dimensional governing parameters on velocity, microrotation, temperature and concentration profiles are discussed and presented with the help of their graphical representations. Also, friction factor, heat and mass transfer rates have been computed and presented through tables. Under some special conditions, present results are compared with the existed results to check the accuracy and validity of the present study. An excellent agreement is observed with the existed results.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, F.-C., E-mail: lifch@hit.edu.cn; Sutevski, D.; Smolentsev, S.; Abdou, M.
2013-11-15
Highlights: • An indirect DP measurement approach for high-temperature LM MHD flow is developed. • Experiments and numerical simulations of PbLi MHD flow are performed. • Characteristics of DP in LM MHD flow under fringing magnetic field are studied. • Pressure distributions in LM MHD flow at entry and exit of magnet are different. -- Abstract: Experiments and three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations are performed to investigate the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) characteristics of liquid metal (LM) flows of molten lead-lithium (PbLi) eutectic alloy in an electrically conducting circular duct subjected to a transverse non-uniform (fringing) magnetic field. An indirect measurement approach for differential pressure in high temperature LM PbLi is first developed, and then detailed data on pressure drop in this PbLi MHD flow are measured. The obtained experimental results for the pressure distribution are in good agreement with numerical simulations. Using the numerical simulation results, the 3D effects caused by fringing magnetic field on the LM flow are illustrated via distributions for the axial pressure gradients and transverse pressure differences. It has been verified that a simple approach for estimation of pressure drop in LM MHD flow in a fringing magnetic field proposed by Miyazaki et al. [22] i.e., a simple integral of pressure gradient along the fringing field zone using a quasi-fully-developed flow assumption, is also applicable to the conditions of the present experiment providing the magnetic interaction parameter is large enough. Furthermore, for two different sections of the LM flow at the entry to and at the exit from the magnet, it is found that the pressure distributions in the duct cross sections in these two regions are different.
Florschuetz, L. W.; Metzger, D. E.; Su, C. C.; Isoda, Y.; Tseng, H. H.
1982-01-01
Two-dimensional arrays of circular air jets impinging on a heat transfer surface parallel to the jet orifice plate are considered. The jet flow, after impingement, is constrained to exit in a single direction along the channel formed by the jet orifice plate and the heat transfer surface. The configurations considered are intended to model those of interest in current and contemplated gas turbine airfoil midchord cooling applications. The effects of an initial crossflow which approaches the array through an upstream extension of the channel are considered. Flow distributions as well as heat transfer coefficients and adiabatic wall temperatures resolved to one streamwise hole spacing were measured as a function of the initial crossflow rate and temperature relative to the jet flow rate and temperature. Both Nusselt number profiles and dimensionless adiabatic wall temperature (effectiveness) profiles are presented and discussed. Special test results which show a significant reduction of jet orifice discharge coefficients owing to the effect of a confined crossflow are also presented, along with a flow distribution model which incorporates those effects. A nonuniform array flow distribution model is developed and validated.
Hayat, Tasawar; Qayyum, Sajid; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Asghar, Saleem
2017-01-01
This study investigates the mixed convection flow of Jeffrey liquid by an impermeable inclined stretching cylinder. Thermal radiation and non-uniform heat source/sink are considered. The convective boundary conditions at surface are imposed. Nonlinear expressions of momentum, energy and concentration are transformed into dimensionless systems. Convergent homotopic solutions of the governing systems are worked out by employing homotopic procedure. Impact of physical variables on the velocity, temperature and concentration distributions are sketched and discussed. Numerical computations for skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are carried out. It is concluded that velocity field enhances for Deborah number while reverse situation is observed regarding ratio of relaxation to retardation times. Temperature and heat transfer rate are enhanced via larger thermal Biot number. Effect of Schmidt number on the concentration and local Sherwood number is quite reverse.
Tsubota, Ken-Ichi; Wada, Shigeo; Liu, Hao
2014-08-01
Direct numerical simulations of the mechanics of a single red blood cell (RBC) were performed by considering the nonuniform natural state of the elastic membrane. A RBC was modeled as an incompressible viscous fluid encapsulated by an elastic membrane. The in-plane shear and area dilatation deformations of the membrane were modeled by Skalak constitutive equation, while out-of-plane bending deformation was formulated by the spring model. The natural state of the membrane with respect to in-plane shear deformation was modeled as a sphere ([Formula: see text]), biconcave disk shape ([Formula: see text]) and their intermediate shapes ([Formula: see text]) with the nonuniformity parameter [Formula: see text], while the natural state with respect to out-of-plane bending deformation was modeled as a flat plane. According to the numerical simulations, at an experimentally measured in-plane shear modulus of [Formula: see text] and an out-of-plane bending rigidity of [Formula: see text] of the cell membrane, the following results were obtained. (i) The RBC shape at equilibrium was biconcave discoid for [Formula: see text] and cupped otherwise; (ii) the experimentally measured fluid shear stress at the transition between tumbling and tank-treading motions under shear flow was reproduced for [Formula: see text]; (iii) the elongation deformation of the RBC during tank-treading motion from the simulation was consistent with that from in vitro experiments, irrespective of the [Formula: see text] value. Based on our RBC modeling, the three phenomena (i), (ii), and (iii) were mechanically consistent for [Formula: see text]. The condition [Formula: see text] precludes a biconcave discoid shape at equilibrium (i); however, it gives appropriate fluid shear stress at the motion transition under shear flow (ii), suggesting that a combined effect of [Formula: see text] and the natural state with respect to out-of-plane bending deformation is necessary for understanding details of the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Sinha
2016-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical analysis of blood flow and heat transfer in a permeable vessel in the presence of an external magnetic field. The unsteadiness in the coupled flow and temperature fields is considered to be caused due to the time-dependent stretching velocity and the surface temperature of the vessel. The non-uniform heat source/sink effect on blood flow and heat transfer is taken into account. This study is of potential value in the clinical treatment of cardiovascular disorders accompanied by accelerated circulation. The problem is treated mathematically by reducing it to a system of coupled nonlinear differential equations, which have been solved by using similarity transformation and boundary layer approximation. The resulting nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations are solved numerically by using an implicit finite difference scheme. Computational results are obtained for the velocity, temperature, the skin-friction coefficient and the rate of heat transfer in the vessel. The estimated results are compared with another analytical study reported earlier in scientific literatures. The present study reveals that the heat transfer rate is enhanced as the value of the unsteadiness parameter increases, but it reduces as the space-dependence parameter for heat source/sink increases.
Masood, W.; Mirza, Arshad M.
2014-04-01
A set of nonlinear equations governing the dynamics of finite amplitude drift-ion acoustic-waves is derived for sheared ion flows parallel and perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field in the presence of Cairns and Kappa distributed electrons. It is shown that stationary solution of the nonlinear equations can be represented in the form of a tripolar vortex for specific profiles of the equilibrium sheared flows. The tripolar vortices are, however, observed to form on a scale of the order of ion Larmor radius ρ i which is calculated to be around a Kilometer for the plasma parameters found in the Saturn's E-ring. The relevance of the present investigation in planetary environments is also pointed out.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buehler, L.
1993-02-01
Inductionless magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows at high Hartmann numbers are calculated by splitting the whole flow region into an inviscid core and into very thin boundary layers near channel walls. The momentum equations are linearized for high interaction parameters by neglecting inertial terms. These assumptions allow considerable simplifications of the governing equations in all subregions. In the core the general 3D equations are reduced to 2D equations by an analytical integration. The boundary conditions at channel walls are satisfied by the solution of boundary layer equations, leading to 2D equations for charge conservation in the layer. The interior of every arbitrary shaped channel is mapped by a coordinate transformation to a standard volume. The coupled 2D equations are solved numerically on the surface of this standard volume. (orig.)
Calculation of the force acting on a drop in a nonuniform flow of a current-supporting fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korovin, V.M.
1993-01-01
In the context of wide use of intense electric currents in various technological process, it is of practical interest to investigate the characteristics of the force action of electromagnetic fields on a variety of inclusions - solid particles, drops, gas bubbles - suspended in current-supporting fluids. In the available studies one treats the simplest case, in which the vortical component of the electromagnetic forces, generated by the interaction of the current with the internal magnetic field, is nonvanishing only in small vicinities near these inclusions, and therefore these electromagnetic forces do not generate global motion of the homogeneous current-supporting fluid. In practice, in most cases the vortical component of electromagnetic forces plays a substantial role in the whole operating region of the technological device, and the motion of the current-supporting fluid is created specifically by electromagnetic forces. In the case of a varying electromagnetic field the forces acting on particles are located in the conducting fluid, moving under the field action, were calculated by Korovim (Korovim, V. M., open-quotes The calculation of forces acting on suspended particles during the flow of a conducting fluid in a varying electromagnetic field,close quotes Magn. Gidrodin, No. 1 95-102 (1991)). In the present study the authors generalize the method suggested by Korovin for calculating forces applied to both drops and particles and gas bubbles suspended in the gradient flow of a fluid moving under the action of a constant electromagnetic field. 6 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirza, Arshad M.; Hasan, Asma; Azeem, M.; Saleem, H.
2003-01-01
It is found that the low-frequency ion acoustic and electrostatic drift waves can become unstable in uniform electron-ion and electron-positron-ion plasmas due to the ion shear flow. In a collisional plasma a drift-dissipative instability can also take place. In the presence of collisions the temporal behavior of nonlinear drift-dissipative mode can be represented in the form of well-known Lorenz and Stenflo type equations that admit chaotic trajectories. On the other hand, a quasi-stationary solution of the mode coupling equations can be represented in the form of monopolar vortex. The results of the present investigation can be helpful in understanding electrostatic turbulence and wave phenomena in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Sulochana
2016-02-01
Full Text Available We analyzed the momentum and heat transfer characteristics of unsteady MHD flow of a dusty nanofluid over a vertical stretching surface in presence of volume fraction of dust and nano particles with non uniform heat source/sink. We considered two types of nanofluids namely Ag-water and Cu-water embedded with conducting dust particles. The governing equations are transformed in to nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformation and solved numerically using Shooting technique. The effects of non-dimensional governing parameters on velocity and temperature profiles for fluid and dust phases are discussed and presented through graphs. Also, the skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are discussed and presented for two dusty nanofluids separately in tabular form. Results indicate that an increase in the volume fraction of dust particles enhances the heat transfer in Cu-water nanofluid compared with Ag-water nanofluid and a raise in the volume fraction of nano particles shows uniform heat transfer in both Cu-water and Ag-water nanofluids.
Ludewig, M.; Omori, S.; Rao, G. L.
1974-01-01
Tests were conducted to determine the experimental pressure drop and velocity data for water flowing through woven screens. The types of materials used are dutch twill and square weave fabrics. Pressure drop measures were made at four locations in a rectangular channel. The data are presented as change in pressure compared with the average entry velocity and the numerical relationship is determined by dividing the volumetric flow rate by the screen area open to flow. The equations of continuity and momentum are presented. A computer program listing an extension of a theoretical model and data from that computer program are included.
Fujikura, Hajime; Hayashi, Kentaro; Horikiri, Fumimasa; Narita, Yoshinobu; Konno, Taichiro; Yoshida, Takehiro; Ohta, Hiroshi; Mishima, Tomoyoshi
2018-04-01
In vertical GaN PN diodes (PNDs) grown entirely by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), large current nonuniformity was observed. This nonuniformity was induced by macrosteps on the GaN surface through modulation of carbon incorporation into the n-GaN crystal. It was eliminated in a hybrid PND consisting of a carbon-free n-GaN layer grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) and an MOCVD-regrown p-GaN layer. The hybrid PND showed a fairly low on-resistance (2 mΩ cm2) and high breakdown voltage (2 kV) even without a field plate electrode. These results clearly indicated the strong advantages of the HVPE-grown drift layer for improving power device performance, uniformity, and yield.
Linear q-nonuniform difference equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bangerezako, Gaspard
2010-01-01
We introduce basic concepts of q-nonuniform differentiation and integration and study linear q-nonuniform difference equations and systems, as well as their application in q-nonuniform difference linear control systems. (author)
Nonuniform sampling by quantiles
Craft, D. Levi; Sonstrom, Reilly E.; Rovnyak, Virginia G.; Rovnyak, David
2018-03-01
A flexible strategy for choosing samples nonuniformly from a Nyquist grid using the concept of statistical quantiles is presented for broad classes of NMR experimentation. Quantile-directed scheduling is intuitive and flexible for any weighting function, promotes reproducibility and seed independence, and is generalizable to multiple dimensions. In brief, weighting functions are divided into regions of equal probability, which define the samples to be acquired. Quantile scheduling therefore achieves close adherence to a probability distribution function, thereby minimizing gaps for any given degree of subsampling of the Nyquist grid. A characteristic of quantile scheduling is that one-dimensional, weighted NUS schedules are deterministic, however higher dimensional schedules are similar within a user-specified jittering parameter. To develop unweighted sampling, we investigated the minimum jitter needed to disrupt subharmonic tracts, and show that this criterion can be met in many cases by jittering within 25-50% of the subharmonic gap. For nD-NUS, three supplemental components to choosing samples by quantiles are proposed in this work: (i) forcing the corner samples to ensure sampling to specified maximum values in indirect evolution times, (ii) providing an option to triangular backfill sampling schedules to promote dense/uniform tracts at the beginning of signal evolution periods, and (iii) providing an option to force the edges of nD-NUS schedules to be identical to the 1D quantiles. Quantile-directed scheduling meets the diverse needs of current NUS experimentation, but can also be used for future NUS implementations such as off-grid NUS and more. A computer program implementing these principles (a.k.a. QSched) in 1D- and 2D-NUS is available under the general public license.
Abou-zeid, Mohamed Y.; Mohamed, Mona A. A.
2017-09-01
This article is an analytic discussion for the motion of power-law nanofluid with heat transfer under the effect of viscous dissipation, radiation, and internal heat generation. The governing equations are discussed under the assumptions of long wavelength and low Reynolds number. The solutions for temperature and nanoparticle profiles are obtained by using homotopy perturbation method. Results for the behaviours of the axial velocity, temperature, and nanoparticles as well as the skin friction coefficient, reduced Nusselt number, and Sherwood number with other physical parameters are obtained graphically and analytically. It is found that as the power-law exponent increases, both the axial velocity and temperature increase, whereas nanoparticles decreases. These results may have applicable importance in the research discussions of nanofluid flow in channels with small diameters under the effect of different temperature distributions.
Srivastava, Ashna; Tiwari, Naveen
2018-05-07
The stability analysis of a gravity-driven thin liquid film with an insoluble surfactant flowing over a surface with embedded, regularly spaced heaters is investigated. At the leading edge of a heater, the presence of a temperature gradient induces an opposing Marangoni stress at the interface leading to the formation of a capillary ridge. This ridge has been shown to be susceptible to thermocapillary (oscillating in the flow direction) and rivulet (spanwise periodic pattern) instabilities. The presence of an insoluble surfactant is shown to have a stabilizing effect on this system. The governing equations for the evolution of the film thickness and surfactant concentration are obtained within the lubrication approximation. The coupled two-dimensional base solutions for the film thickness and surfactant concentration show that there is no significant change in the height of the capillary ridge at the subsequent heaters downstream. The height of the capillary ridge is reduced by the presence of the surfactant. For very small Peclet number, the presence of multiple heaters has almost no significant effect on the film stability as compared to a single heater and similar trends are observed between the two configurations in the presence of the surfactant as for the case of a clean interface. However, for large Peclet number, the effect was observed on both types of instabilities for certain heater configurations. The Biot number is shown to have a strong effect on the stability results wherein the dominant mode of instability is altered (from rivulet to thermocapillary instability) for a passive or no surfactant case with increase in the Biot number. For an active surfactant thermocapillary instability is found to remain the dominant mode of instability for all the values of the Biot number. It is shown that increasing the number of heaters beyond a couple does not further affect the stability results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Likhachev, A P; Medin, S A
2010-01-01
The simultaneous development of the MHD instabilities of Raylegh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz types at the interface between high-conducting plasmoid and surrounding non- or low-conducting gas is considered. The linear stage of the RTI development is studied analytically for incompressible and compressible fluids. The nonlinear stage of the individual development of the RTI and the coupled development of both instabilities has been investigated numerically. The time-dependent two-dimensional numerical model based on the solution of the Euler gasdynamic equations with body momentum and energy sources of MHD origin has been developed and used in calculations. A disturbance introducing in the background flow has been periodic with varied assignment type and wave length. Fundamental difference between the results of linear and nonlinear analysis has been revealed. In particular, the increment of the RTI development at nonlinear stage is one-two order of magnitude less than that predicted by linear theory and rather weakly depends on initial disturbance mode. In linear analysis the coupled development of the RTI and the KHI is determined by simple summing of the two effects in the expression of wave increment, whereas in nonlinear case the mutual influence of the instabilities leads to essential alterations in their development, main of which is the intensive 'layer-by-layer' destruction of the plasmoid surface.
Potential coherent structures in nonuniform streaming dusty magnetoplasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vranjes, Jovo [Inst. of Physics, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Shukla, Padma Kant [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Bochum (Germany)
2001-07-01
In this paper we study linear and nonlinear behaviour of modified convective cells and vortices in nonuniform dusty magnetoplasmas with perpendicular and parallel to the magnetic field plasma flows, and in basically two different physical systems, with stationary (corresponding to the case of ShuklaVarma mode) and nonstationary (i.e. taking part in perturbations) dust particles. For the case of stationary dust, by choosing some specific profiles for the sheared plasma flow and the dust density, we analyze the eigenvalue equation in order to deduce the growth rate. A threshold is also obtained for the wavenumber separating spatially damped and convective modes (growing in space) due to its interaction with the sheared plasma flow. In the nonlinear regime, for both stationary and nonstationary dust particles, and in the presence of various plasma flows perpendicular and parallel to the magnetic field lines, a variety of possible nonlinear solutions, driven by the nonuniform shear flow and dust density is presented, i.e., single and double vortex chains accompanied with zonal flows, and tripolar and global vortices. (author)
Experimental and theoretical studies of the effects of nonuniformities in equilibrium MHD generators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosenbaum, M.; Shamma, S.E.; Louis, J.F.
1980-01-01
An experimental study of the effects of thermal and velocity nonuniformities is performed in an equilibrium plasma for a range of Hall parameters. An electrodeless MHD disk generator with radial flow is chosen as the ideal geometry for these experiments. By introducing equally spaced cold blades in the flow, it is possible to create well defined two-dimensional wake nonuniformities with strong variations of the plasma properties in the direction normal to the magnetic field and the flow. This type of nonuniformity is predicted to provide the strongest reduction of Hall coefficient and effective conductivity for high values of Hall parameter. This degradation is controlled by both the level of nonuniformities and the value of the ideal Hall parameter. The former is dependent upon the number of blades (root mean square deviation of the conductivity), and the latter is dependent upon the values of the magnetic field intensities. The results provide basic quantitative information about the effects of conductivity and velocity nonuniformities on the performance of equilibrium MHD generators over a wide range of Hall coefficients, between 2 and 7. Reduction formulae are established between the effective and ideal Hall parameters for different levels of nonuniformities intensities. Theoretical predictions are derived from a detailed two-dimensional electrodynamic analysis and a simplified engineering model based on a generalization of Rosa's layer model. These experiments validate the analytical studies and support the use of the theoretical layer models in describing the effect of boundary layers on the performance of linear generators
Nonuniform quantum turbulence in superfluids
Nemirovskii, Sergey K.
2018-04-01
The problem of quantum turbulence in a channel with an inhomogeneous counterflow of superfluid turbulent helium is studied. The counterflow velocity Vns x(y ) along the channel is supposed to have a parabolic profile in the transverse direction y . Such statement corresponds to the recent numerical simulation by Khomenko et al. [Phys. Rev. B 91, 180504 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.180504]. The authors reported about a sophisticated behavior of the vortex-line density (VLD) L (r ,t ) , different from L ∝Vns x(y) 2 , which follows from the straightforward application of the conventional Vinen theory. It is clear that Vinen theory should be refined by taking into account transverse effects, and the way it ought to be done is the subject of active discussion in the literature. In this work, we discuss several possible mechanisms of the transverse flux of VLD L (r ,t ) which should be incorporated in the standard Vinen equation to describe adequately the inhomogeneous quantum turbulence. It is shown that the most effective among these mechanisms is the one that is related to the phase-slippage phenomenon. The use of this flux in the modernized Vinen equation corrects the situation with an unusual distribution of the vortex-line density, and satisfactorily describes the behavior L (r ,t ) both in stationary and nonstationary situations. The general problem of the phenomenological Vinen theory in the case of nonuniform and nonstationary quantum turbulence is thoroughly discussed.
Haldane model under nonuniform strain
Ho, Yen-Hung; Castro, Eduardo V.; Cazalilla, Miguel A.
2017-10-01
We study the Haldane model under strain using a tight-binding approach, and compare the obtained results with the continuum-limit approximation. As in graphene, nonuniform strain leads to a time-reversal preserving pseudomagnetic field that induces (pseudo-)Landau levels. Unlike a real magnetic field, strain lifts the degeneracy of the zeroth pseudo-Landau levels at different valleys. Moreover, for the zigzag edge under uniaxial strain, strain removes the degeneracy within the pseudo-Landau levels by inducing a tilt in their energy dispersion. The latter arises from next-to-leading order corrections to the continuum-limit Hamiltonian, which are absent for a real magnetic field. We show that, for the lowest pseudo-Landau levels in the Haldane model, the dominant contribution to the tilt is different from graphene. In addition, although strain does not strongly modify the dispersion of the edge states, their interplay with the pseudo-Landau levels is different for the armchair and zigzag ribbons. Finally, we study the effect of strain in the band structure of the Haldane model at the critical point of the topological transition, thus shedding light on the interplay between nontrivial topology and strain in quantum anomalous Hall systems.
Quasiparticles in non-uniformly magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sosenko, P.P.
1994-01-01
A quasiparticle concept is generalized for the case of non-uniformly magnetized plasma. Exact and reduced continuity equations for the microscopic density in the quasiparticle phase space are derived, and the nature of quasiparticles is analyzed. The theory is developed for the general case of relativistic particles in electromagnetic fields, besides non-uniform but stationary magnetic fields. Effects of non-stationary magnetic fields are briefly investigated also. 26 refs
Non-uniform plastic deformation of micron scale objects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Hutchinson, J. W.
2003-01-01
Significant increases in apparent flow strength are observed when non-uniform plastic deformation of metals occurs at the scale ranging from roughly one to ten microns. Several basic plane strain problems are analyzed numerically in this paper based on a new formulation of strain gradient...... plasticity. The problems are the tangential and normal loading of a finite rectangular block of material bonded to rigid platens and having traction-free ends, and the normal loading of a half-space by a flat, rigid punch. The solutions illustrate fundamental features of plasticity at the micron scale...... that are not captured by conventional plasticity theory. These include the role of material length parameters in establishing the size dependence of strength and the elevation of resistance to plastic flow resulting from constraint on plastic flow at boundaries. Details of the finite element method employed...
Properties of multilayer nonuniform holographic structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pen, E F; Rodionov, Mikhail Yu
2010-01-01
Experimental results and analysis of properties of multilayer nonuniform holographic structures formed in photopolymer materials are presented. The theoretical hypotheses is proved that the characteristics of angular selectivity for the considered structures have a set of local maxima, whose number and width are determined by the thicknesses of intermediate layers and deep holograms and that the envelope of the maxima coincides with the selectivity contour of a single holographic array. It is also experimentally shown that hologram nonuniformities substantially distort shapes of selectivity characteristics: they become asymmetric, the local maxima differ in size and the depths of local minima reduce. The modelling results are made similar to experimental data by appropriately choosing the nonuniformity parameters. (imaging and image processing. holography)
Nonuniformities in organic liquid ionization calorimeters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wenzel, W.A.
1989-06-01
Hermeticity and uniformity in SSC calorimeter designs are compromised by structure and modularity. Some of the consequences of the cryogenic needs of liquid argon calorimetry are relatively well known. If the active medium is an organic liquid (TMP, TMS, etc.), a large number of independent liquid volumes is needed for safety and for rapid liquid exchange to eliminate local contamination. Modular construction ordinarily simplifies fabrication, assembly, handling and preliminary testing at the price of additional walls, other dead regions and many nonuniformities. Here we examine ways of minimizing the impact of some generic nonuniformities on the quality of calorimeter performance. 6 refs., 7 figs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gao, Pengfei; Zhan, Mei, E-mail: zhanmei@nwpu.edu.cn; Fan, Xiaoguang; Lei, Zhenni; Cai, Yang
2017-03-24
The flow behavior and microstructure evolution of a near α titanium alloy with nonuniform microstructure during hot deformation were studied by isothermal compression test and electron backscatter diffraction technique. It is found that the nonuniform microstructure prior to deformation consists of equiaxed α, lamellar α in the colony form and β phase, and the α colony keeps the Burgers orientation relationship with β phase. The flow stress of nonuniform microstructure exhibits significant flow softening after reaching the peak stress at a low strain, which is similar to the lamellar microstructure. Nevertheless, the existence of equiaxed α in nonuniform microstructure makes its flow stress and softening rate be lower than the lamellar microstructure. During deformation, the lamellar α undertakes most of the deformation and turns to be rotated, bended and globularized. Moreover, these phenomena exhibit significant heterogeneity due to the orientation dependence of the deformation of lamellar α. The continuous dynamic recrystallization and bending of lamellar α lead to the “fragmentation” during globularization of lamellar α. The bending of lamellar α is speculated as a form of plastic buckling, because the bending of lamellar α almost proceed in the manner of “rigid rotation” and presents opposite bending directions for the adjacent colonies.
Capacitated Vehicle Routing with Nonuniform Speeds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gørtz, Inge Li; Molinaro, Marco; Nagarajan, Viswanath
2016-01-01
is the distance traveled divided by its speed.Our algorithm relies on a new approximate minimum spanning tree construction called Level-Prim, which is related to but different from Light Approximate Shortest-path Trees. We also extend the widely used tour-splitting technique to nonuniform speeds, using ideas from...
Casimir energy of a nonuniform string
Hadasz, L.; Lambiase, G.; Nesterenko, V. V.
2000-07-01
The Casimir energy of a nonuniform string built up from two pieces with different speeds of sound is calculated. A standard procedure of subtracting the energy of an infinite uniform string is applied, the subtraction being interpreted as the renormalization of the string tension. It is shown that in the case of a homogeneous string this method is completely equivalent to zeta renormalization.
Radar Doppler Processing with Nonuniform Sampling.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-07-01
Conventional signal processing to estimate radar Doppler frequency often assumes uniform pulse/sample spacing. This is for the convenience of t he processing. More recent performance enhancements in processor capability allow optimally processing nonuniform pulse/sample spacing, thereby overcoming some of the baggage that attends uniform sampling, such as Doppler ambiguity and SNR losses due to sidelobe control measures.
Effects of non-uniformities on electrical conduction in weakly ionized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Numano, M.; Murakami, Y.; Nitta, T.
1989-01-01
The effect of non-uniformities on the flow of electric current in weakly ionized plasmas is investigated by taking into account the ion slip as well as the Hall current. An Ohm's law for a non-uniform plasma is derived, from which the formula previously obtained by Numano, i.e. an extension of Rosa's equation, is obtainable as a special case. Making use of this new Ohm's law, the effective electrical conductivity and the effective Hall parameter are determined for isotropically turbulent plasmas. It is found that when the ion-slip effect is absent they are in good agreement with the results obtained previously. (author)
A poloidal non-uniformity of the collisionless parallel current in a tokamak plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Romannikov, A.; Fenzi-Bonizec, C
2005-07-01
The collisionless distortion of the ion (electron) distribution function at certain points on a magnetic surface is studied in the framework of a simple model of a large aspect ratio tokamak plasma. The flow velocity driven by this distortion is calculated. The possibility of an additional non-uniform collisionless parallel current density on a magnetic surface, other than the known neo-classical non-uniformity is shown. The difference between the parallel current density on the low and high field side of a magnetic surface is close to the neoclassical bootstrap current density. The first Tore-Supra experimental test indicates the possibility of the poloidal non-uniformity of the parallel current density. (authors)
Derivation of nonlinear wave equations for ultrasound beam in nonuniform bubbly liquids
Kanagawa, Tetsuya; Yano, Takeru; Kawahara, Junya; Kobayashi, Kazumichi; Watanabe, Masao; Fujikawa, Shigeo
2012-09-01
Weakly nonlinear propagation of diffracted ultrasound beams in a nonuniform bubbly liquid is theoretically studied based on the method of multiple scales with the set of scaling relations of some physical parameters. It is assumed that the spatial distribution of the number density of bubbles in an initial state at rest is a slowly varying function of space coordinates and the amplitude of its variation is small compared with a mean number density. As a result, a Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation with dispersion and nonuniform effects for a low frequency case and a nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with dissipation, diffraction, and nonuniform effects for a high frequency case, are derived from the basic equations of bubbly flows.
Instruction sequence based non-uniform complexity classes
Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.
2013-01-01
We present an approach to non-uniform complexity in which single-pass instruction sequences play a key part, and answer various questions that arise from this approach. We introduce several kinds of non-uniform complexity classes. One kind includes a counterpart of the well-known non-uniform
Pumping tests in nonuniform aquifers - The radially symmetric case
Butler, J.J.
1988-01-01
tests in nonuniform aquifers. The relative diffusivity of material on either side of a discontinuity is shown to be the major factor in controlling flow behavior during the period in which the front of the cone of depression is moving across the discontinuity. Though resulting from an analysis of flow in an idealized configuration, the insights of this work into flow behavior during a pumping test are applicable to a wide class of nonuniform units. ?? 1988.
Vortices in nonuniform upper-hybrid field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davydova, T.A.; Vranjes, J.
1992-01-01
The equations describing the interaction of an upper-hybrid pump wave with small low-frequency density perturbations are discussed under assumption that the pump is spatially nonuniform. The conditions for the modulational instability are investigated. Instead of a dispersion relation, describing the growth of perturbations in the case of an uniform pump, in our case of nonuniform pump a differential equation is obtained and from its eigenvalues are found the instability criteria. Taking into account the slow-frequency self-interaction terms some localized solutions similar to dipole vortices are found, but described by analytic functions in all space. It is shown that their characteristic size and speed are determined by the pump intensity and its spatial structure. (au)
Non-uniform tube representation of proteins
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Mikael Sonne
Treating the full protein structure is often neither computationally nor physically possible. Instead one is forced to consider various reduced models capturing the properties of interest. Previous work have used tubular neighborhoods of the C-alpha backbone. However, assigning a unique radius...... might not correctly capture volume exclusion - of crucial importance when trying to understand a proteins $3$d-structure. We propose a new reduced model treating the protein as a non-uniform tube with a radius reflecting the positions of atoms. The tube representation is well suited considering X......-ray crystallographic resolution ~ 3Å while a varying radius accounts for the different sizes of side chains. Such a non-uniform tube better capture the protein geometry and has numerous applications in structural/computational biology from the classification of protein structures to sequence-structure prediction....
Allowance for influence of gravity field nonuniformity
Tsysar, A. P.
1987-03-01
The constants of a quartz-metal pendulum used in higher-order gravimetric networks have been determined and a formula has been derived for the total correction for gravity field nonuniformity measurements made with the pendulum. Nomograms were constructed on the basis of these formulas and are used in introducing corrections into pendulum measurements. A table was prepared giving the components of the correction for some values of the derivatives of gravity potential from surrounding masses. Errors can be caused by building walls, the pedestal on which the instrument sits and other factors, and these must be taken into account since they increase the normal gravity gradient. After introducing these correction components for the nonuniform gravity field, the gravity field at the measurement point is related to the instrument point coinciding with the middle of the pendulum knife blade.
Surface magnetic canting in a nonuniform film
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pini, M.G.; Rettori, A.; Pappas, D.P.; Anisimov, A.V.; Popov, A.P.
2004-01-01
The zero temperature equilibrium configuration of a nonuniform system made of a ferromagnetic (FM) monolayer on top of a semi-infinite FM film is calculated using a nonlinear mapping formulation of mean-field theory, where the surface is taken into account via an appropriate boundary condition. The analytical criterion for the existence of surface magnetic canting, previously obtained by Popov and Pappas, is also recovered
Statistical evaluation of unobserved nonuniform corrosion in A216 steel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pulsipher, B.A.
1988-07-01
Tests designed to promote nonuniform corrosion have been conducted at PNL on A216 steel. In all of the tests performed to date, there have been no manifestations of significant nonuniform corrosion. Although this may suggest that nonuniform corrosion in A216 steel may not be a significant problem in the nuclear waste repository, a question arises as to whether enough tests have been conducted for a sufficient length of time to rule out nonuniform corrosion of A216 steel. In this report, a method for determining the required number of tests is examined for two of the mechanisms of nonuniform corrosion: pitting and crevice corrosion
Subrandom methods for multidimensional nonuniform sampling.
Worley, Bradley
2016-08-01
Methods of nonuniform sampling that utilize pseudorandom number sequences to select points from a weighted Nyquist grid are commonplace in biomolecular NMR studies, due to the beneficial incoherence introduced by pseudorandom sampling. However, these methods require the specification of a non-arbitrary seed number in order to initialize a pseudorandom number generator. Because the performance of pseudorandom sampling schedules can substantially vary based on seed number, this can complicate the task of routine data collection. Approaches such as jittered sampling and stochastic gap sampling are effective at reducing random seed dependence of nonuniform sampling schedules, but still require the specification of a seed number. This work formalizes the use of subrandom number sequences in nonuniform sampling as a means of seed-independent sampling, and compares the performance of three subrandom methods to their pseudorandom counterparts using commonly applied schedule performance metrics. Reconstruction results using experimental datasets are also provided to validate claims made using these performance metrics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A DSP-based neural network non-uniformity correction algorithm for IRFPA
Liu, Chong-liang; Jin, Wei-qi; Cao, Yang; Liu, Xiu
2009-07-01
An effective neural network non-uniformity correction (NUC) algorithm based on DSP is proposed in this paper. The non-uniform response in infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) detectors produces corrupted images with a fixed-pattern noise(FPN).We introduced and analyzed the artificial neural network scene-based non-uniformity correction (SBNUC) algorithm. A design of DSP-based NUC development platform for IRFPA is described. The DSP hardware platform designed is of low power consumption, with 32-bit fixed point DSP TMS320DM643 as the kernel processor. The dependability and expansibility of the software have been improved by DSP/BIOS real-time operating system and Reference Framework 5. In order to realize real-time performance, the calibration parameters update is set at a lower task priority then video input and output in DSP/BIOS. In this way, calibration parameters updating will not affect video streams. The work flow of the system and the strategy of real-time realization are introduced. Experiments on real infrared imaging sequences demonstrate that this algorithm requires only a few frames to obtain high quality corrections. It is computationally efficient and suitable for all kinds of non-uniformity.
Marangoni flows induced by non-uniform surfactant distributions
Hanyak, M.
2012-01-01
The spreading dynamics of surfactants is of crucial importance for numerous technological applications ranging from printing and coating processes, pulmonary drug delivery to crude oil recovery. In the area of inkjet printing surfactants are necessary for lowering surface tension of water-based ink
Nonquasineutral electron vortices in nonuniform plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Angus, J. R.; Richardson, A. S.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Schumer, J. W. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States); Ottinger, P. F. [Engility Corporation, Chantilly, Virginia 20151 (United States)
2014-11-15
Electron vortices are observed in the numerical simulation of current carrying plasmas on fast time scales where the ion motion can be ignored. In plasmas with nonuniform density n, vortices drift in the B × ∇n direction with a speed that is on the order of the Hall speed. This provides a mechanism for magnetic field penetration into a plasma. Here, we consider strong vortices with rotation speeds V{sub ϕ} close to the speed of light c where the vortex size δ is on the order of the magnetic Debye length λ{sub B}=|B|/4πen and the vortex is thus nonquasineutral. Drifting vortices are typically studied using the electron magnetohydrodynamic model (EMHD), which ignores the displacement current and assumes quasineutrality. However, these assumptions are not strictly valid for drifting vortices when δ ≈ λ{sub B}. In this paper, 2D electron vortices in nonuniform plasmas are studied for the first time using a fully electromagnetic, collisionless fluid code. Relatively large amplitude oscillations with periods that correspond to high frequency extraordinary modes are observed in the average drift speed. The drift speed W is calculated by averaging the electron velocity field over the vorticity. Interestingly, the time-averaged W from these simulations matches very well with W from the much simpler EMHD simulations even for strong vortices with order unity charge density separation.
High-order nonuniformly correlated beams
Wu, Dan; Wang, Fei; Cai, Yangjian
2018-02-01
We have introduced a class of partially coherent beams with spatially varying correlations named high-order nonuniformly correlated (HNUC) beams, as an extension of conventional nonuniformly correlated (NUC) beams. Such beams bring a new parameter (mode order) which is used to tailor the spatial coherence properties. The behavior of the spectral density of the HNUC beams on propagation has been investigated through numerical examples with the help of discrete model decomposition and fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm. Our results reveal that by selecting the mode order appropriately, the more sharpened intensity maxima can be achieved at a certain propagation distance compared to that of the NUC beams, and the lateral shift of the intensity maxima on propagation is closed related to the mode order. Furthermore, analytical expressions for the r.m.s width and the propagation factor of the HNUC beams on free-space propagation are derived by means of Wigner distribution function. The influence of initial beam parameters on the evolution of the r.m.s width and the propagation factor, and the relation between the r.m.s width and the occurring of the sharpened intensity maxima on propagation have been studied and discussed in detail.
Downsampling Non-Uniformly Sampled Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fredrik Gustafsson
2007-10-01
Full Text Available Decimating a uniformly sampled signal a factor D involves low-pass antialias filtering with normalized cutoff frequency 1/D followed by picking out every Dth sample. Alternatively, decimation can be done in the frequency domain using the fast Fourier transform (FFT algorithm, after zero-padding the signal and truncating the FFT. We outline three approaches to decimate non-uniformly sampled signals, which are all based on interpolation. The interpolation is done in different domains, and the inter-sample behavior does not need to be known. The first one interpolates the signal to a uniformly sampling, after which standard decimation can be applied. The second one interpolates a continuous-time convolution integral, that implements the antialias filter, after which every Dth sample can be picked out. The third frequency domain approach computes an approximate Fourier transform, after which truncation and IFFT give the desired result. Simulations indicate that the second approach is particularly useful. A thorough analysis is therefore performed for this case, using the assumption that the non-uniformly distributed sampling instants are generated by a stochastic process.
A stability criterion for HNFDE with non-uniform delays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Xingwen; Zhong Shouming; Zhang Fengli
2005-01-01
Stability of functional differential equations (FDE) is an increasingly important problem in both science and engineering. Delays, whether uniform or non-uniform, play an important role in the dynamics of a system. Since non-uniform delay is more general and less focused than uniform delay, this paper concentrates on the stability of high-order neutral functional differential equations (HNFDE) with non-uniform delay, and proposes a sufficient condition for it. This result may be widely helpful, thanks to the frequent emergence of a HNFDE with non-uniform delay in various fields. Its effectiveness is illustrated by some examples
Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles.
Danly, C R; Merrill, F E; Barlow, D; Mariam, F G
2014-08-01
We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL's pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.
Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Barlow, D.; Mariam, F. G.
2014-01-01
We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL’s pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components
Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Barlow, D.; Mariam, F. G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)
2014-08-15
We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL’s pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.
Flexible RF filter using a nonuniform SCISSOR.
Zhuang, Leimeng
2016-03-15
This work presents a flexible radiofrequency (RF) filter using an integrated microwave photonic circuit that comprises a nonuniform side-coupled integrated spaced sequence of resonators (N-SCISSOR). The filter passband can be reconfigured by varying the N-SCISSOR parameters. When employing a dual-parallel Mach-Zechnder modulator, the filter is also able to perform frequency down-conversion. In the experiment, various filter response shapes are shown, ranging from a flat-top band-pass filter to a total opposite high-rejection (>40 dB) notch filter, with a frequency coverage of greater than two octaves. The frequency down-conversion function is also demonstrated.
Nonuniformity mitigation of beam illumination in heavy ion inertial fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawata, S; Noguchi, K; Suzuki, T; Kurosaki, T; Barada, D; Ogoyski, A I; Zhang, W; Xie, J; Zhang, H; Dai, D
2014-01-01
In inertial fusion, a target DT fuel should be compressed to typically 1000 times the solid density. The target implosion nonuniformity is introduced by a driver beam’s illumination nonuniformity, for example. The target implosion should be robust against the implosion nonuniformities. In this paper, the requirement for implosion uniformity is first discussed. The implosion non-uniformity should be less than a few percent. The implosion dynamics is also briefly reviewed in heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF). Heavy ions deposit their energy inside the target energy absorber, and the energy deposition layer is rather thick, depending on the ion particle energy. Then nonuniformity mitigation mechanisms of the heavy ion beam (HIB) illumination in HIF are discussed. A density valley appears in the energy absorber, and the large-scale density valley also works as a radiation energy confinement layer, which contributes to a radiation energy smoothing. In HIF, wobbling heavy ion beam illumination was also introduced to realize a uniform implosion. The wobbling HIB axis oscillation is precisely controlled. In the wobbling HIBs’ illumination, the illumination nonuniformity oscillates in time and space on an HIF target. The oscillating-HIB energy deposition may contribute to the reduction of the HIBs’ illumination nonuniformity by its smoothing effect on the HIB illumination nonuniformity and also by a growth mitigation effect on the Rayleigh–Taylor instability. (invited comment)
Experimental study on the CHF in uniformly and non-uniformly heated vertical annuli
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chun, Se Young; Moon, Sang Ki; Chung, Heung June; Park, Jong Kuk; Kim, Bok Deuk; Youn, Young Jung; Chung, Moon Ki
2001-09-01
Up to now, KAERI has performed critical heat flux experiments in water under zero-flow and low-flow conditions using a RCS CHF loop facility with uniformly and non-uniformly heated vertical annulus. Since the existing CHF experiments were mainly performed under low-pressure conditions, we performed the CHF experiment to investigate the pressure effect on the CHF under zero-flow and low-flow conditions for a wide range of system pressures. Also, two vertical annuli with the same geometry have been used to investigate the axial heat flux distributions on the CHF. This report summarizes the experimental results and provides the CHF data that can be used for the development for CHF correlation and a thermal hydraulic analysis code. The CHF data have been collected for system pressures ranging from 0.57 to 15.15 MPa, mass flux 0 and from 200 to 650 kg/m2s, inlet subcooling from 75 to 360 kJ/kg and exit quality from 0.07 to 0.57. At low-flow conditions, the total number of data are 242 and 290 with uniformly heated- and non-uniformly heated test sections, respectively. 41 and 94 CHF data are generated with uniformly heated- and non-uniformly heated test sections, respectively, in zero-flow CHF experiments that are performed by blocking test section bottoms. The CHF experiment result shows that the effects of system pressure, mass flux and inlet subcooling are consistent with conventional understandings and similar to those for round tubes. The behavior of the CHF is relatively complex at low pressures. Also, the effects of axial heat flux profile are large at low-pressure conditions.
Experimental study on the CHF in uniformly and non-uniformly heated vertical annuli
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chun, Se Young; Moon, Sang Ki; Chung, Heung June; Park, Jong Kuk; Kim, Bok Deuk; Youn, Young Jung; Chung, Moon Ki
2001-09-01
Up to now, KAERI has performed critical heat flux experiments in water under zero-flow and low-flow conditions using a RCS CHF loop facility with uniformly and non-uniformly heated vertical annulus. Since the existing CHF experiments were mainly performed under low-pressure conditions, we performed the CHF experiment to investigate the pressure effect on the CHF under zero-flow and low-flow conditions for a wide range of system pressures. Also, two vertical annuli with the same geometry have been used to investigate the axial heat flux distributions on the CHF. This report summarizes the experimental results and provides the CHF data that can be used for the development for CHF correlation and a thermal hydraulic analysis code. The CHF data have been collected for system pressures ranging from 0.57 to 15.15 MPa, mass flux 0 and from 200 to 650 kg/m2s, inlet subcooling from 75 to 360 kJ/kg and exit quality from 0.07 to 0.57. At low-flow conditions, the total number of data are 242 and 290 with uniformly heated- and non-uniformly heated test sections, respectively. 41 and 94 CHF data are generated with uniformly heated- and non-uniformly heated test sections, respectively, in zero-flow CHF experiments that are performed by blocking test section bottoms. The CHF experiment result shows that the effects of system pressure, mass flux and inlet subcooling are consistent with conventional understandings and similar to those for round tubes. The behavior of the CHF is relatively complex at low pressures. Also, the effects of axial heat flux profile are large at low-pressure conditions
Smoothing and instability with magnetic field in a non-uniformly laser-irradiated planar target
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bell, A.R.; Epperlein, E.M.
1986-01-01
Calculations are presented of the magneto-hydrodynamic response of a planar target to non-uniformities in energy deposition by a laser. The amplitude of the non-uniformities are assumed small and the equations are linearised in small perturbations about the solution for steady planar ablation driven by uniform laser energy deposition. The grad(n)xgrad(T) magnetic field source is included, along with Nernst convection and the Righi-Leduc heat flow. The magnetic field is shown to give a small increase in smoothing. A source term for magnetic field is included to simulate the effects of the Weibel instability. The instability is not strong enough to overcome the smoothing processes under the present assumptions. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kai-Long Hsiao
2010-01-01
Full Text Available A magnetic hydrodynamic (MHD of an incompressible viscoelastic fluid over a stretching sheet with electric and magnetic dissipation and nonuniform heat source/sink has been studied. The buoyant effect and the electric number E1 couple with magnetic parameter M to represent the dominance of the electric and magnetic effects, and adding the specific item of nonuniform heat source/sink is presented in governing equations which are the main contribution of this study. The similarity transformation, the finite-difference method, Newton method, and Gauss elimination method have been used to analyze the present problem. The numerical solutions of the flow velocity distributions, temperature profiles, and the important wall unknown values of f''(0 and θ'(0 have been carried out. The parameter Pr, E1, or Ec can increase the heat transfer effects, but the parameter M or A* may decrease the heat transfer effects.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hua-Bing, Li; Li, Jin; Bing, Qiu
2008-01-01
To study two-dimensional red blood cells deforming in a shear Bow with the membrane nonuniform on the rigidity and mass, the membrane is discretized into equilength segments. The fluid inside and outside the red blood cell is simulated by the D2Q9 lattice Boltzmann model and the hydrodynamic forces exerted on the membrane from the inner and outer of the red blood cell are calculated by a stress-integration method. Through the global deviation from the curvature of uniform-membrane, we find that when the membrane is nonuniform on the rigidity, the deviation first decreases with the time increases and implies that the terminal profile of the red blood cell is static. To a red blood cell with the mass nonuniform on the membrane, the deviation becomes more large, and the mass distribution affects the profile of the two sides of the flattened red blood cell in a shear flow. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))
Long GRBs sources population non-uniformity
Arkhangelskaja, Irene
Long GRBs observed in the very wide energy band. It is possible to separate two subsets of GRBs with high energy component (E > 500 MeV) presence. First type events energy spectra in low and high energy intervals are similar (as for GRB 021008) and described by Band, power law or broken power law models look like to usual bursts without emission in tens MeV region. For example, Band spectrum of GRB080916C covering 6 orders of magnitude. Second ones contain new additional high energy spectral component (for example, GRB 050525B and GRB 090902B). Both types of GRBs observed since CGRO mission beginning. The low energy precursors existence are typical for all types bursts. Both types of bursts temporal profiles can be similar in the various energy regions during some events or different in other cases. The absence of hard to soft evolution in low energy band and (or) presence of high energy precursors for some events are the special features of second class of GRBs by the results of preliminary data analysis and this facts gives opportunities to suppose differences between these two GRBs subsets sources. Also the results of long GRB redshifts distribution analysis have shown its shape contradiction to uniform population objects one for our Metagalaxy to both total and various redshifts definition methods GRBs sources samples. These evidences allow making preliminary conclusion about non-uniformity of long GRBs sources population.
Flexural Free Vibrations of Multistep Nonuniform Beams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guojin Tan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an exact approach to investigate the flexural free vibrations of multistep nonuniform beams. Firstly, one-step beam with moment of inertia and mass per unit length varying as I(x=α11+βxr+4 and m(x=α21+βxr was studied. By using appropriate transformations, the differential equation for flexural free vibration of one-step beam with variable cross section is reduced to a four-order differential equation with constant coefficients. According to different types of roots for the characteristic equation of four-order differential equation with constant coefficients, two kinds of modal shape functions are obtained, and the general solutions for flexural free vibration of one-step beam with variable cross section are presented. An exact approach to solve the natural frequencies and modal shapes of multistep beam with variable cross section is presented by using transfer matrix method, the exact general solutions of one-step beam, and iterative method. Numerical examples reveal that the calculated frequencies and modal shapes are in good agreement with the finite element method (FEM, which demonstrates the solutions of present method are exact ones.
Minimum nonuniform graph partitioning with unrelated weights
Makarychev, K. S.; Makarychev, Yu S.
2017-12-01
We give a bi-criteria approximation algorithm for the Minimum Nonuniform Graph Partitioning problem, recently introduced by Krauthgamer, Naor, Schwartz and Talwar. In this problem, we are given a graph G=(V,E) and k numbers ρ_1,\\dots, ρ_k. The goal is to partition V into k disjoint sets (bins) P_1,\\dots, P_k satisfying \\vert P_i\\vert≤ ρi \\vert V\\vert for all i, so as to minimize the number of edges cut by the partition. Our bi-criteria algorithm gives an O(\\sqrt{log \\vert V\\vert log k}) approximation for the objective function in general graphs and an O(1) approximation in graphs excluding a fixed minor. The approximate solution satisfies the relaxed capacity constraints \\vert P_i\\vert ≤ (5+ \\varepsilon)ρi \\vert V\\vert. This algorithm is an improvement upon the O(log \\vert V\\vert)-approximation algorithm by Krauthgamer, Naor, Schwartz and Talwar. We extend our results to the case of 'unrelated weights' and to the case of 'unrelated d-dimensional weights'. A preliminary version of this work was presented at the 41st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming (ICALP 2014). Bibliography: 7 titles.
High harmonic terahertz confocal gyrotron with nonuniform electron beam
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fu, Wenjie; Guan, Xiaotong; Yan, Yang [THz Research Center, School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)
2016-01-15
The harmonic confocal gyrotron with nonuniform electron beam is proposed in this paper in order to develop compact and high power terahertz radiation source. A 0.56 THz third harmonic confocal gyrotron with a dual arc section nonuniform electron beam has been designed and investigated. The studies show that confocal cavity has extremely low mode density, and has great advantage to operate at high harmonic. Nonuniform electron beam is an approach to improve output power and interaction efficiency of confocal gyrotron. A dual arc beam magnetron injection gun for designed confocal gyrotron has been developed and presented in this paper.
Non-uniformity Correction of Infrared Images by Midway Equalization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yohann Tendero
2012-07-01
Full Text Available The non-uniformity is a time-dependent noise caused by the lack of sensor equalization. We present here the detailed algorithm and on line demo of the non-uniformity correction method by midway infrared equalization. This method was designed to suit infrared images. Nevertheless, it can be applied to images produced for example by scanners, or by push-broom satellites. The obtained single image method works on static images, is fully automatic, having no user parameter, and requires no registration. It needs no camera motion compensation, no closed aperture sensor equalization and is able to correct for a fully non-linear non-uniformity.
Design of Nonuniform Filter Bank Transceivers for Frequency Selective Channels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuan-Pei Lin
2007-01-01
Full Text Available In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the theory and design of filter bank transceivers due to their superior frequency response. In many applications, it is desired to have transceivers that can support multiple services with different incoming data rates and different quality-of-service requirements. To meet these requirements, we can either do resource allocation or design transceivers with a nonuniform bandwidth partition. In this paper, we propose a method for the design of nonuniform filter bank transceivers for frequency selective channels. Both frequency response and signal-to-interference ratio (SIR can be incorporated in the transceiver design. Moreover, the technique can be extended to the case of nonuniform filter bank transceivers with rational sampling factors. Simulation results show that nonuniform filter bank transceivers with good filter responses as well as high SIR can be obtained by the proposed design method.
Pattern of diffusion-limited aggregation on nonuniform substrate
Ouyang Wen Ze; Zou Xian Wu; Jin Zhun Zhi
2003-01-01
Pattern of diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) on nonuniform substrate was investigated by computer simulations. The nonuniform substrates are represented by Leath percolations with the probability p. p stands for the degree of nonuniformity and takes values in the range p sub c<=p<=1, where p sub c is the threshold of percolation. The DLA cluster grows up on the Leath percolation substrate. The patterns of the DLA clusters appear asymmetrical and nonuniform, and the branches are relative few for the case p is close to p sub c. In addition, the pattern depends on the shape of substrate. As p increases from p sub c to 1, cluster changes to pure DLA gradually. Correspondingly, the fractal dimension increases from 1.46 to 1.68. Also, the random walks on Leath percolations through the range p sub c<=p<=1 were examined. Our simulations show the Honda-Toyoki-Matsushita relation is still reasonable for fractional dimensional systems.
Non-uniform sampling of NMR relaxation data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schwarz-Linnet, Troels; Teilum, Kaare
2016-01-01
The use of non-uniform sampling of NMR spectra may give significant reductions in the data acquisition time. For quantitative experiments such as the measurement of spin relaxation rates, non-uniform sampling is however not widely used as inaccuracies in peak intensities may lead to errors...... in the extracted dynamic parameters. By systematic reducing the coverage of the Nyquist grid of (15)N Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) relaxation dispersion datasets for four different proteins and performing a full data analysis of the resulting non-uniform sampled datasets, we have compared the performance...... of the multi-dimensional decomposition and iterative re-weighted least-squares algorithms in reconstructing spectra with accurate peak intensities. As long as a single fully sampled spectrum is included in a series of otherwise non-uniform sampled two-dimensional spectra, multi-dimensional decomposition...
Charged particle acceleration in nonuniform plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bulanov, S.V.; Naumova, N.M.; Pegoraro, F.
1996-11-01
The high-gradient electron acceleration schemes that have been demonstrated using LWFA appear promising for the development of plasma-based laser accelerators into practical devices. However, a question still exists: how to avoid the wake field deterioration and the loss of the phase synchronism between the plasma wave and the electrons that prevent them from being accelerated up to the theoretical limit. In order to obtain the highest possible values of the wake electric field one must use as intense laser pulses as possible i.e., pulses with dimensionless amplitudes a much-gt 1. Pulses that have a dimensionless amplitude larger than one tend to be subject to a host of instabilities, such as relativistic self-focusing, self modulation and stimulated Raman scattering, that affect their propagation in the plasma. Such processes could be beneficial, in so far as they increase the pulse energy density, enhance the wake field generation, and provide the mechanism for transporting the laser radiation over several Rayleigh lengths without diffraction spreading. However, it is still far from certain that these processes can be exploited in a controlled form and can lead to regular, stationary wake fields. It is known that, in order to create good quality wake fields, it would be preferable to use laser pulses with steep fronts of order λ p . The present paper aims at analyzing the influence of the laser pulse shape and of the plasma nonuniformity on the charged particle acceleration. This study is based on the results obtained with one dimensional PIC simulations
Liquid jets injected into non-uniform crossflow
Tambe, Samir
An experimental study has been conducted with liquid jets injected transversely into a crossflow to study the effect of non-uniformities in the crossflow velocity distribution to the jet behavior. Two different non-uniform crossflows were created during this work, a shear-laden crossflow and a swirling crossflow. The shear-laden crossflow was generated by merging two independent, co-directional, parallel airstreams creating a shear mixing layer at the interface between them. The crossflow exhibited a quasi-linear velocity gradient across the height of the test chamber. By varying the velocities of the two airstreams, the sense and the slope of the crossflow velocity gradient could be changed. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) studies were conducted to characterize the crossflow. The parameter, UR, is defined as the ratio of the velocities of the two streams and governs the velocity gradient. A positive velocity gradient was observed for UR > 1 and a negative velocity gradient for UR Phase Doppler Particle Anemometry (PDPA) studies were conducted to study the penetration and atomization of 0.5 mm diameter water jets injected into this crossflow. The crossflow velocity gradient was observed to have a significant effect on jet penetration as well as the post breakup spray. For high UR (> 1), jet penetration increased and the Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) distribution became more uniform. For low UR (Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) was used to study the crossflow velocities. The axial (Ux) and the tangential (Utheta) components of the crossflow velocity were observed to decrease with increasing radial distance away from the centerbody. The flow angle of the crossflow was smaller than the vane exit angle, with the difference increasing with the vane exit angle. Water jets were injected from a 0.5 mm diameter orifice located on a cylindrical centerbody. Multi-plane PIV measurements were conducted to study the penetration and droplet velocity distribution of the jets. The jets were
Compensation for nonuniform attenuation in SPECT brain imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glick, S.J.; King, M.A.; Pan, T.S.; Soares, E.J.
1996-01-01
Accurate compensation for photon attenuation is needed to perform quantitative brain single-photon-emission computed tomographic (SPECT) imaging. Bellini's attenuation-compensation method has been used with a nonuniform attenuation map to account for the nonuniform attenuation properties of the head. Simulation studies using a three-dimensional (3-D) digitized anthropomorphic brain phantom were conducted to compare quantitative accuracy of reconstructions obtained with the nonuniform Bellini method to that obtained with the Chang method and to iterative reconstruction using maximum-likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM). Using the Chang method and assuming the head to be a uniform attenuator gave reconstructions with an average bias of approximately 6-8%, whereas using the Bellini or the iterative ML-EM method with a nonuniform attenuation map gave an average bias of approximately 1%. The computation time required to implement nonuniform attenuation compensation with the Bellini algorithm is approximately equivalent to the time required to perform one iteration of ML-EM. Thus, using the Bellini method with a nonuniform attenuation map provides accurate compensation for photon attenuation within the head, and the method can be implemented in computation times suitable for routine clinical use
Wetting layer and void fraction nonuniformity in a liquid-metal MHD generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Branover, H.; Yakhot, A.
1981-01-01
The quetion of the effect of a liquid layer on the walls of an MHD channel in the case of uniform void fraction distribution in the flow core was first considered several years ago. More recently an analytic solution for high Hartmann numbers was obtained, which led to the conclusion that this layer does not have a significant effect on the efficiency of large generators. This paper postulates an analytic model which makes it possible to estimate the effect of a void fraction nonuniformity, in the presence of the wetting layer on the walls, on the generator performance. 3 refs
Linear and nonlinear electrostatic modes in a nonuniform magnetized electron plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vranjes, J.; Shukla, P.K.; Kono, M.; Poedts, S.
2001-01-01
Linear and nonlinear low-frequency modes in a magnetized electron plasma are studied, taking into account a proper description of the equilibrium plasma state that is inhomogeneous. Assuming a homogeneous magnetic field and sheared plasma flows, flute-like perturbations are studied in the presence of density and potential gradients. Linear analysis reveals the presence of a streaming instability and depicts conditions for global linear spiral mode. In the nonlinear domain, a tripolar vortex, which is driven and carried by the flow, is found. Also investigated are the consequences of a magnetic shear as well as nonuniformities along the magnetic field lines, which are shown to be responsible for the possible annulment of the magnetic shear effects. Streaming along the lines of the sheared magnetic field is also studied. A variety of nonlinear structures (viz. global multipolar vortices, local vortex chains, and tripolar vortices) is shown to be the consequence of the simultaneous action of the parallel and perpendicular flows
Kanagawa, Tetsuya
2015-05-01
This paper theoretically treats the weakly nonlinear propagation of diffracted sound beams in nonuniform bubbly liquids. The spatial distribution of the number density of the bubbles, initially in a quiescent state, is assumed to be a slowly varying function of the spatial coordinates; the amplitude of variation is assumed to be small compared to the mean number density. A previous derivation method of nonlinear wave equations for plane progressive waves in uniform bubbly liquids [Kanagawa, Yano, Watanabe, and Fujikawa (2010). J. Fluid Sci. Technol. 5(3), 351-369] is extended to handle quasi-plane beams in weakly nonuniform bubbly liquids. The diffraction effect is incorporated by adding a relation that scales the circular sound source diameter to the wavelength into the original set of scaling relations composed of nondimensional physical parameters. A set of basic equations for bubbly flows is composed of the averaged equations of mass and momentum, the Keller equation for bubble wall, and supplementary equations. As a result, two types of evolution equations, a nonlinear Schrödinger equation including dissipation, diffraction, and nonuniform effects for high-frequency short-wavelength case, and a Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov equation including dispersion and nonuniform effects for low-frequency long-wavelength case, are derived from the basic set.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Periyadurai, K. [Department of Mathematics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046, Tamil Nadu (India); Muthtamilselvan, M., E-mail: muthtamill@yahoo.co.in [Department of Mathematics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046, Tamil Nadu (India); Doh, Deog-Hee [Division of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering,Korea Maritime Ocean University, Busan 606781 (Korea, Republic of)
2016-12-15
In the present study, the effect of inclined magnetic field on natural convection of micro-polar fluid in a square cavity with uniform and nonuniform heated thin plate built in centrally is investigated numerically. The vertical walls are cooled while the top and bottom walls are insulated. The thin plate is assumed to be isothermal with a linearly varying temperature. The governing equations were solved by finite volume method using second order central difference scheme and upwind differencing scheme. The numerical investigation is carried out for different governing parameters namely, the Hartmann number, inclination angle of magnetic field, Rayleigh number, vortex viscosity and source non-uniformity parameters. The result shows that the heat transfer rate is decreased when increasing Hartmann number, inclination angle of magnetic field and vortex viscosity parameter. It is found that the non-uniformity parameter affects the fluid flow and temperature distribution especially for the high Rayleigh numbers. Finally, the overall heat transfer rate of micro-polar fluids is found to be smaller than that of Newtonian fluid. - Highlights: • We investigate the effect of inclined magnetic field on micropolar fluid in a cavity. • The effects of uniform and non-uniform heated plate are studied. • The present numerical results are compared with the experimental results. • The addition of vortex viscosity parameter declines the heat transfer performance. • The high heat transfer rate occurs in the vertical plate compared to the horizontal one.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nosek, Štěpán; Kukačka, Libor; Jurčáková, Klára; Kellnerová, Radka; Jaňour, Zbyněk
2017-01-01
This paper presents an extension of our previous wind-tunnel study (Nosek et al., 2016) in which we highlighted the need for investigation of the removal mechanisms of traffic pollution from all openings of a 3D street canyon. The extension represents the pollution flux (turbulent and advective) measurements at the lateral openings of three different 3D street canyons for the winds perpendicular and oblique to the along-canyon axis. The pollution was simulated by emitting a passive gas (ethane) from a homogeneous ground-level line source positioned along the centreline of the investigated street canyons. The street canyons were formed by courtyard-type buildings of two different regular urban-array models. The first model has a uniform building roof height, while the second model has a non-uniform roof height along each building's wall. The mean flow and concentration fields at the canyons' lateral openings confirm the findings of other studies that the buildings' roof-height variability at the intersections plays an important role in the dispersion of the traffic pollutants within the canyons. For the perpendicular wind, the non-uniform roof-height canyon appreciably removes or entrains the pollutant through its lateral openings, contrary to the uniform canyon, where the pollutant was removed primarily through the top. The analysis of the turbulent mass transport revealed that the coherent flow structures of the lateral momentum transport correlate with the ventilation processes at the lateral openings of all studied canyons. These flow structures coincide at the same areas and hence simultaneously transport the pollutant in opposite directions. - Highlights: • The pollutant transport strongly depends on the roof-height arrangement. • The non-uniform canyons also remove the pollutants through their lateral openings. • The higher the upstream wall, the more pollutant is removed through the top. • The lateral coherent structures correlate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mohammadpourfard, M., E-mail: Mohammadpour@azaruniv.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz 53751-71379 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aminfar, H., E-mail: hh_aminfar@tabrizu.ac.ir [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khajeh, K., E-mail: khajeh.k.2005@gmail.com [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-04-01
In this paper, the concentration polarization phenomena in a two dimensional tube under steady state conditions containing ferrofluid (blood and 4 vol% Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) is reported in the presence of non-uniform magnetic field. Lumen-wall model has been used for solving the mass transport equation. Hemodynamics parameters such as flow rate, viscosity, wall shear stress (WSS) and the macromolecules surface concentration which accumulate on the blood vessel wall, influenced the formation and progression of atherosclerosis disease. Effective parameters on the low density lipoprotein (LDL) surface concentration (LSC) such as: the wall filtration velocity, inlet Reynolds number and WSS under applied non-uniform magnetic field have been examined. Numerical solution of governing equations of the flow field have been obtained by using the single-phase model and the control volume technique. Magnetic field is generated by an electric current going through a thin and straight wire oriented perpendicular to the tube. Results show WSS in the vicinity of magnetic field source increased and LSC decreased along the wall. - Highlights: • In this paper the concentration polarization phenomena of blood flow is reported in the presence of non-uniform magnetic field. • In presence of non-uniform magnetic field LSC will decrease along the wall due to the increasing the velocity gradients near the magnetic source. • When non-uniform magnetic field intensity increases, LSC along the wall becomes lower. • Non-uniform magnetic field can affects the flow more in low Reynolds numbers.
LDPC Code Design for Nonuniform Power-Line Channels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sanaei Ali
2007-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate low-density parity-check code design for discrete multitone channels over power lines. Discrete multitone channels are well modeled as nonuniform channels, that is, different bits experience various channel parameters. We propose a coding system for discrete multitone channels that allows for using a single code over a nonuniform channel. The number of code parameters for the proposed system is much greater than the number of code parameters in conventional channel. Therefore, search-based optimization methods are impractical. We first formulate the problem of optimizing the rate of an irregular low-density parity-check code, with guaranteed convergence over a general nonuniform channel, as an iterative linear programming which is significantly more efficient than search-based methods. Then we use this technique for a typical power-line channel. The methodology of this paper is directly applicable to all decoding algorithms for which a density evolution analysis is possible.
Skin carcinogenesis following uniform and non-uniform β irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Charles, M.W.; Williams, J.P.; Coggle, J.E.
1989-01-01
Where workers or the general public may be exposed to ionising radiation, the irradiation is rarely uniform. The risk figures and dose limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) are based largely on clinical and epidemiological studies of reasonably uniform irradiated organs. The paucity of clinical or experimental data for highly non-uniform exposures has prevented the ICRP from providing adequate recommendations. This weakness has led on a number of occasions to the postulate that highly non-uniform exposures of organs could be 100,000 times more carcinogenic than ICRP risk figures would predict. This so-called ''hot-particle hypothesis'' found little support among reputable radiobiologists, but could not be clearly and definitively refuted on the basis of experiment. An experiment, based on skin tumour induction in mouse skin, is described which was developed to test the hypothesis. The skin of 1200 SAS/4 male mice has been exposed to a range of uniform and non-uniform sources of the β emitter 170 Tm (E max ∼ 1 MeV). Non-uniform exposures were produced using arrays of 32 or 8 2-mm diameter sources distributed over the same 8-cm 2 area as a uniform control source. Average skin doses varied from 2-100 Gy. The results for the non-uniform sources show a 30% reduction in tumour incidence by the 32-point array at the lower mean doses compared with the response from uniform sources. The eight-point array showed an order-of-magnitude reduction in tumour incidence compared to uniform irradiation at low doses. These results, in direct contradiction to the ''hot particle hypothesis'', indicate that non-uniform exposures produce significantly fewer tumours than uniform exposures. (author)
Microwave interaction with nonuniform hydrogen gas in carbon nanotubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babaei, S.; Babaei, Sh.
2009-01-01
In this paper we study the reflection, absorption, and transmission of microwave from nonuniform hydrogen gas in carbon nanotubes, grown by iron-catalyzed high-pressure carbon monoxide disproportionate (HiPco) process. A discussion on the effect of various hydrogen gas parameters on the reflected power, absorbed power, and transmitted power is presented. The nonuniform hydrogen gas slab is modeled by a series of subslabs. The overall number density profile across the whole slab follows a parabolic function. The total reflected, absorbed, and transmitted powers are then deduced and their functional dependence on the number density, collision frequency, and angle of propagation is studied
Assessment indices for uniform and non-uniform thermal environments
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
Different assessment indices for thermal environments were compared and selected for proper assessment of indoor thermal environments.30 subjects reported their overall thermal sensation,thermal comfort,and thermal acceptability in uniform and non-uniform conditions.The results show that these three assessment indices provide equivalent evaluations in uniform environments.However,overall thermal sensation differs from the other two indices and cannot be used as a proper index for the evaluation of non-uniform environments.The relationship between the percentage and the mean vote for each index is established.
Modeling of nonuniform corrosion in salt brines: Salt Repository Project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reimus, P.W.
1988-03-01
A mechanistic approach to modeling nonuniform corrosion in brines is presented in this report. Equations are derived for completely describing the electrochemical environment within a localized corrosion cavity, and appropriate initial and boundary conditions are invoked to obtain a solvable system of equations. The initial and boundary conditions can be adjusted to simulate pitting, crevice corrosion, or stress corrosion cracking. Although no numerical results are presented, a numerical strategy for solving the equations is presented. The report focuses on the nonuniform corrosion behavior of mild steel; however, the modeling approach presented is expected to apply to a broad range of metallic materials. 34 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs
Khine, Y. Y.; Walker, J. S.
1996-08-01
Centrifugal pumping flows are produced in the melt by the rotations of crystal and crucible during the Czochralski growth of silicon crystals. This paper treats the centrifugal pumping effects with a steady, strong, non-uniform axisymmetric magnetic field. We consider a family of magnetic fields ranging from a uniform axial field to a "cusp" field, which has a purely radial field at the crystal-melt interface and free surface. We present the numerical solutions for the centrifugal pumping flows as the magnetic field is changed continuously from a uniform axial field to a cusp one, and for arbitrary Hartmann number. Since the perfect alignment between the local magnetic field vector and the crystal-melt interface or free surface is not likely, we also investigate the effects of a slight misalignment.
Shape Preserving Interpolatory Subdivision Schemes for Nonuniform Data
Kuijt, F.; van Damme, Rudolf M.J.
2002-01-01
This article is concerned with a class of shape preserving four-point subdivision schemes which are stationary and which interpolate nonuniform univariate data {(xi, fi)}. These data are functional data, i.e., xi≠xj if i≠j. Subdivision for the strictly monotone x-values is performed by a subdivision
Field nonuniformity correction for quantitative analysis of digitized mammograms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pawluczyk, Olga; Yaffe, Martin J.
2001-01-01
Several factors, including the heel effect, variation in distance from the x-ray source to points in the image and path obliquity contribute to the signal nonuniformity of mammograms. To best use digitized mammograms for quantitative image analysis, these field non-uniformities must be corrected. An empirically based correction method, which uses a bowl-shaped calibration phantom, has been developed. Due to the annular spherical shape of the phantom, its attenuation is constant over the entire image. Remaining nonuniformities are due only to the heel and inverse square effects as well as the variable path through the beam filter, compression plate and image receptor. In logarithmic space, a normalized image of the phantom can be added to mammograms to correct for these effects. Then, an analytical correction for path obliquity in the breast can be applied to the images. It was found that the correction causes the errors associated with field nonuniformity to be reduced from 14% to 2% for a 4 cm block of material corresponding to a combination of 50% fibroglandular and 50% fatty breast tissue. A repeatability study has been conducted to show that in regions as far as 20 cm away from the chest wall, variations due to imaging conditions and phantom alignment contribute to <2% of overall corrected signal
Absolute parametric instability in a nonuniform plane plasma ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The paper reports an analysis of the effect of spatial plasma nonuniformity on absolute parametric instability (API) of electrostatic waves in magnetized plane waveguides subjected to an intense high-frequency (HF) electric field using the separation method. In this case the effect of strong static magnetic field is ...
Absolute parametric instability in a nonuniform plane plasma
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The paper reports an analysis of the effect of spatial plasma nonuniformity on absolute parametric instability (API) of electrostatic waves in magnetized plane waveguides subjected to an intense high-frequency (HF) electric field using the separation method. In this case the effect of strong static magnetic field is considered.
Instruction sequences and non-uniform complexity theory
Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.
2008-01-01
We develop theory concerning non-uniform complexity in a setting in which the notion of single-pass instruction sequence considered in program algebra is the central notion. We define counterparts of the complexity classes P/poly and NP/poly and formulate a counterpart of the complexity theoretic
Perbandingan Hasil Pemodelan Aliran Satu Dimensi Unsteady Flow dan Steady Flow pada Banjir Kota
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreas Tigor Oktaga
2016-06-01
Full Text Available One dimensional flow is often used as a flood simulation for the planning capacity of the river. Flood is a type of unsteady non-uniform flow, that can be simulated using HEC-RAS. HEC-RAS software is often used for flood modeling with a one-dimensional flow method. Unsteady flow modeling results in HEC-RAS sometimes refer to error and warning due to unstable analysis program. The stability program among others influenced bend in the river flow, the steep slope of the river bottom, and changes in cross-section shape. Because the flood handling required maximum discharge and maximum flood water level, then a steady flow is often used as an alternative to simulate the flood flow. This study aimed to determine the advantages and disadvantages of modeling unsteady non-uniform and steady non-uniform flow. The research location in the Kanal Banjir Barat, in the Semarang City. Hydraulics modeling uses HEC-RAS 4.1 and for discharge the plan is obtained from the HEC-HMS 3.5. Results of the comparison modeling hydraulics the modeling of steady non-uniform flow has a tendency water level is higher and modeling of unsteady non-uniform flow takes longer to analyze. Results of the comparison the average flood water level maximun is less than 15% (± 0,3 meters, that is 0.27 meters (13.16% for Q50, 0.25 meters (11.56% for Q100, dan 0.16 meters (4.73% for Q200. So the modeling steady non-uniform flow can still be used as a companion version the modeling unsteady non-uniform flow.
Chu, Chunlei; Stoffa, Paul L.
2012-01-01
sampled models onto vertically nonuniform grids. We use a 2D TTI salt model to demonstrate its effectiveness and show that the nonuniform grid implicit spatial finite difference method can produce highly accurate seismic modeling results with enhanced
Nosek, Štěpán; Kukačka, Libor; Jurčáková, Klára; Kellnerová, Radka; Jaňour, Zbyněk
2017-08-01
This paper presents an extension of our previous wind-tunnel study (Nosek et al., 2016) in which we highlighted the need for investigation of the removal mechanisms of traffic pollution from all openings of a 3D street canyon. The extension represents the pollution flux (turbulent and advective) measurements at the lateral openings of three different 3D street canyons for the winds perpendicular and oblique to the along-canyon axis. The pollution was simulated by emitting a passive gas (ethane) from a homogeneous ground-level line source positioned along the centreline of the investigated street canyons. The street canyons were formed by courtyard-type buildings of two different regular urban-array models. The first model has a uniform building roof height, while the second model has a non-uniform roof height along each building's wall. The mean flow and concentration fields at the canyons' lateral openings confirm the findings of other studies that the buildings' roof-height variability at the intersections plays an important role in the dispersion of the traffic pollutants within the canyons. For the perpendicular wind, the non-uniform roof-height canyon appreciably removes or entrains the pollutant through its lateral openings, contrary to the uniform canyon, where the pollutant was removed primarily through the top. The analysis of the turbulent mass transport revealed that the coherent flow structures of the lateral momentum transport correlate with the ventilation processes at the lateral openings of all studied canyons. These flow structures coincide at the same areas and hence simultaneously transport the pollutant in opposite directions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Influence Of Nonuniformity On Infrared Focal Plane Array Performance
Milton, A. F.; Barone, F. R.; Kruer, M. R.
1985-08-01
It is well known that detector response nonuniformity results in pattern noise with staring sensors that is a severe problem in the infrared due to the low intrinsic contrast of IR imagery. The pattern noise can be corrected by electronic processing; however, the ability to correct for pattern noise is limited by the interaction of interscene and intrascene variability with the dynamic range of the processor (number of bits) and, depending upon the algorithm used, by nonlinearities in the detector response. This paper quantifies these limitations and describes the interaction of detector gain nonuniformity and detector nonlinearities. Probabilistic models are developed to determine the maximum sensitivity that can be obtained using a two-point algorithm to correct a nonlinear response curve over a wide temperature range. Curves that permit a prediction of the noise equivalent differential temperature (NEAT) under varying circumstances are presented. A piecewise linear approach to dealing with severe detector response nonlinearities is presented and analyzed for its effectiveness.
Measurement of reactivity effect caused by nonuniform fuel distribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamane, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Yasushi; Yasui, Hazime; Nishina, Kojiro; Shiroya, Seiji
1991-01-01
A reactivity effect due to a spatial variation of nuclear fuel concentration is an important problem in a reprocessing plant. To estimate this reactivity effect theoretically, the ''Goertzel's necessary condition, and th Fuel Importance'' theory have been proposed. In order to verify these theories, we have performed systematic measurements of reactivity effect due to the nonuniformity in the fuel distribution within the Kyoto University Critical Assembly. Neutron flux distribution and Fuel Importance distribution were also determined. A nonuniform assembly whose fuel concentration in the center region was 40% higher than the uniform one was found to have an excess reactivity of 0.3%Δk/k, with the same total uranium mass for which the uniform assembly was just critical. Moreover, its spatial distribution of thermal neutron flux and of Fuel Importance were more flat than those of the uniform assembly, as expected by the Goertzel's condition and the Fuel Importance theory. (Author)
POSSOL, 2-D Poisson Equation Solver for Nonuniform Grid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orvis, W.J.
1988-01-01
1 - Description of program or function: POSSOL is a two-dimensional Poisson equation solver for problems with arbitrary non-uniform gridding in Cartesian coordinates. It is an adaptation of the uniform grid PWSCRT routine developed by Schwarztrauber and Sweet at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). 2 - Method of solution: POSSOL will solve the Helmholtz equation on an arbitrary, non-uniform grid on a rectangular domain allowing only one type of boundary condition on any one side. It can also be used to handle more than one type of boundary condition on a side by means of a capacitance matrix technique. There are three types of boundary conditions that can be applied: fixed, derivative, or periodic
Numerical simulation of effect of laser nonuniformity in interior interface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Xiaojin; Wu Junfeng; Ye Wenhua
2007-01-01
Using the LARED-S code and referring to the NIF direct-drive DT ignition target, the effect of laser nonuniformity on the interior interface in direct-drive spherical implosion with high convergence ratio was numerically studied. The two-dimensional results show that the implosion with high convergence ratio is sensitive to the nonuniformity of driving laser, and the growth of hydrodynamic instability on interior interface destroys the symmetric-drive and reduces the volume of central hot spot observably. Taking the limit that perturbation amplitude is equal to 1/3 radius of central hot spot, the simulation also gives that the requirements for the laser uniformity for different mode number(less than 12) on simple physical model are between 2.5% -0.25%, and the modes between 8-10 have the most rigorous requirement which is about 0.25%. (authors)
Protostellar formation in rotating interstellar clouds. VI. Nonuniform initial conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boss, A.P.
1987-01-01
The collapse and fragmentation of rotating protostellar clouds is explored, starting from nonuniform density and nonuniform rotation initial conditions. Whether binary fragmentation occurs during the first dynamic collapse phase depends strongly on the initial density profile. Exponential clouds are only somewhat more resistant to fragmentation than uniform-density clouds, but power-law clouds do not undergo fragmentation for likely values of a relevant parameter. Because binary fragments start from profiles intermediate between uniform density and exponential clouds, minimum protostellar mass for population I stars should be increased to approximately 0.02 solar mass. The axisymmetric Terey et al. (1984) model should be stable with respect to nonaxisymmetric perturbations. Considering the observed binary frequency, collapse from power-law initial conditions appears to be less common than collapse from more uniform initial conditions. 34 references
Computation of nonuniform transmission lines using the FDTD method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miranda, G.C.; Paulino, J.O.S. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). School of Engineering
1997-12-31
Calculation of lightning overvoltages on transmission lines has been described. Lightning induced overvoltages are of great significance under certain conditions because of the main characteristics of the phenomena. The lightning channel model is one of the most important parameters essential to obtaining the generated electromagnetic fields. In this study, nonuniform transmission line equations were solved using the finite difference method and the leap-frog scheme, the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. The subroutine was interfaced with the Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP). Two models were used to represent the characteristic impedance of the nonuniform lines used to model the transmission line towers and the lightning main channel. The advantages of the FDTD method was the much smaller code and faster processing time. 35 refs., 5 figs.
Non-uniformity measurements of PbWO4 crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Depasse, P.; Ernenwein, J.P.; Ille, B.; Martin, F.; Rosset, C.; Zach, F.
1998-11-01
Two independent methods have been used to measure the longitudinal non-uniformity scintillation response of 3 different (23-cm long) PbWO 4 crystals. The first one is the classical 60 Co source method. The source is collimated along the crystal, each 1,5-cm, and the scintillation signal is measured with a photomultiplier (a hybrid photomultiplier in our case). The second one is the use of cosmic particles (Minimum Ionizing Particles). A cosmic bench allows reconstructing the track of the MIP's and thus the energy deposit with the help of a full GEANT simulation of the setup. Variations of E along the crystal artificially cut in 1,5-cm divisions, leads to determine the non-uniformity. The conclusion is that both methods agree quite well. Furthermore, a good estimation of crystal light yield can be obtained. (author)
Non-uniformity of phase structure in immiscible polymer blends
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Fortelný, Ivan; Lapčíková, Monika; Lednický, František; Starý, Zdeněk; Kruliš, Zdeněk
2008-01-01
Roč. 48, č. 3 (2008), s. 564-571 ISSN 0032-3888 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/06/0729; GA ČR GA106/06/0761 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polymer blends * melt mixing * non-uniform morphology Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.245, year: 2008
Using Nonuniform Fiber to Generate Slow Light via SBS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenhai Li
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The data pulse delay based on slow light induced by stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS in a nonuniform dispersion decreasing fiber (DDF is demonstrated experimentally, and the distortions of data pulses at different beat frequencies are studied. We found that a delay exceeding a pulse width can be achieved at particular beat frequency, and the DDF has larger delay versus gain slope coefficient with much better output pulse quality than single-mode fiber.
Linearization of Nonautonomous Impulsive System with Nonuniform Exponential Dichotomy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yongfei Gao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper gives a version of Hartman-Grobman theorem for the impulsive differential equations. We assume that the linear impulsive system has a nonuniform exponential dichotomy. Under some suitable conditions, we proved that the nonlinear impulsive system is topologically conjugated to its linear system. Indeed, we do construct the topologically equivalent function (the transformation. Moreover, the method to prove the topological conjugacy is quite different from those in previous works (e.g., see Barreira and Valls, 2006.
GEPOIS: a two dimensional nonuniform mesh Poisson solver
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quintenz, J.P.; Freeman, J.R.
1979-06-01
A computer code is described which solves Poisson's equation for the electric potential over a two dimensional cylindrical (r,z) nonuniform mesh which can contain internal electrodes. Poisson's equation is solved over a given region subject to a specified charge distribution with either Neumann or Dirichlet perimeter boundary conditions and with Dirichlet boundary conditions on internal surfaces. The static electric field is also computed over the region with special care given to normal electric field components at boundary surfaces
Modelling of HVDC wall bushing flashover in nonuniform rain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rizk, F.A.M.; Kamel, S.I.
1991-01-01
This paper presents the first mathematical model to provide necessary and sufficient conditions for flashover of an HVDC wall bushing under nonuniform rain. The suggested mechanism is initiated by streamer bridging of the dry zone enhanced by nonuniform voltage distribution along the bushing and within the dry zone. Fast voltage collapse across the dry zone die to energy stored in the bushing stray capacitance to ground leads to impulsive stressing of the wet part of the bushing. The nonuniform distribution of the impulse stress and the process of streamer bridging, fast voltage collapse as well as subsequent recharging of the bushing capacitances can lead to continued discharge propagation and flashover of the complete bushing. The findings of the model have been satisfactorily compared with previous experiments and field observations and can, for the first time, account for the following aspects of the flashover mechanism: critical dry zone length, polarity effect, specific leakage path, wet layer conductance per unit leakage length as well as the DC system voltage
ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT BOARDS NON-UNIFORM COOLING SYSTEM MODEL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. V. Yevdulov
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract. The paper considers a mathematical model of non-uniform cooling of electronic circuit boards. The block diagram of the system implementing this approach, the method of calculation of the electronic board temperature field, as well as the principle of its thermal performance optimizing are presented. In the considered scheme the main heat elimination from electronic board is produced by the radiator system, and additional cooling of the most temperature-sensitive components is produced by thermoelectric batteries. Are given the two-dimensional temperature fields of the electronic board during its uniform and non-uniform cooling, is carried out their comparison. As follows from the calculations results, when using a uniform overall cooling of electronic unit there is a waste of energy for the cooling 0f electronic board parts which temperature is within acceptable temperature range without the cooling system. This approach leads to the increase in the cooling capacity of used thermoelectric batteries in comparison with the desired values. This largely reduces the efficiency of heat elimination system. The use for electronic boards cooling of non-uniform local heat elimination removes this disadvantage. The obtained dependences show that in this case, the energy required to create a given temperature is smaller than when using a common uniform cooling. In this approach the temperature field of the electronic board is more uniform and the cooling is more efficient.
Current limitation and formation of plasma double layers in a non-uniform magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plamondon, R.; Teichmann, J.; Torven, S.
1986-07-01
Formation of strong double layers has been observed experimentally in a magnetised plasma column maintained by a plasma source. The magnetic field is approximately axially homogenous except in a region at the anode where the electric current flows into a magnetic mirror. The double layer has a stationary position only in the region of non-uniform magnetic field or at the aperture separating the source and the plasma column. It is characterized by a negative differential resistance in the current-voltage characteristic of the device. The parameter space,where the double layer exists, has been studied as well as the corresponding potential profiles and fluctuation spectra. The electric current and the axial electric field are oppositely directed between the plasma source and a potential minimum which is formed in the region of inhomogeneous magnetic field. Electron reflection by the resulting potential barrier is found to be an important current limitation mechanism. (authors)
Faes, Luca; Nollo, Giandomenico; Porta, Alberto
2012-03-01
The complexity of the short-term cardiovascular control prompts for the introduction of multivariate (MV) nonlinear time series analysis methods to assess directional interactions reflecting the underlying regulatory mechanisms. This study introduces a new approach for the detection of nonlinear Granger causality in MV time series, based on embedding the series by a sequential, non-uniform procedure, and on estimating the information flow from one series to another by means of the corrected conditional entropy. The approach is validated on short realizations of linear stochastic and nonlinear deterministic processes, and then evaluated on heart period, systolic arterial pressure and respiration variability series measured from healthy humans in the resting supine position and in the upright position after head-up tilt. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A generalised correlation for the steady state flow in single-phase natural circulation loops
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vijayan, P.K.; Bade, M.H.; Saha, D.; Sinha, R.K.; Venkat Raj, V.
2000-08-01
To establish the heat transport capability of natural circulation loops, it is essential to know the flow rate. A generalized correlation for steady state flow valid for uniform and non-uniform diameter loops has been theoretically derived
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Senatore, Giacomo [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Universita di Pisa, Pisa 56122 (Italy); Davis, Sean; Jacobs, Gustaaf, E-mail: gjacobs@mail.sdsu.edu [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, San Diego State University, San Diego, 92182 California (United States)
2015-03-15
The effect of non-uniformity in bulk particle mass loading on the linear development of a particle-laden shear layer is analyzed by means of a stochastic Eulerian-Eulerian model. From the set of governing equations of the two-fluid model, a modified Rayleigh equation is derived that governs the linear growth of a spatially periodic disturbance. Eigenvalues for this Rayleigh equation are determined numerically using proper conditions at the co-flowing gas and particle interface locations. For the first time, it is shown that non-uniform loading of small-inertia particles (Stokes number (St) <0.2) may destabilize the inviscid mixing layer development as compared to the pure-gas flow. The destabilization is triggered by an energy transfer rate that globally flows from the particle phase to the gas phase. For intermediate St (1 < St < 10), a maximum stabilizing effect is computed, while at larger St, two unstable modes may coexist. The growth rate computations from linear stability analysis are verified numerically through simulations based on an Eulerian-Lagrangian (EL) model based on the inviscid Euler equations and a point particle model. The growth rates found in numerical experiments using the EL method are in very good agreement with growth rates from the linear stability analysis and validate the destabilizing effect induced by the presence of particles with low St.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Konno, J [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)
1997-09-25
In a flow system for vapor/solid catalytic reactions, there is a concentration distribution along the external catalyst surface, observed in the vicinity of the surface. Change in the reaction rate constant is followed for the case where the concentration distribution varies by flow. A 2-dimensional numerical model in which flow field and property conditions are simplified is used to analyze the change on the assumption that high-activity and low-activity sites are regularly distributed over the external catalyst surface. The transport equations for the reactants are numerically solved for given flow fields. It is found that the concentration distribution shape and equivalent reaction rate constant are almost the same as those in a stationary system at Pecret number of around 10 or lower, the concentration distribution gradually becomes uniform whereas equivalent rate constant increases as flow rate increases at Pecret number in a range from around 10 to 10{sup 6}, and they are almost constant at Pecret number beyond around 10{sup 6}. 3 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.
The demagnetizing field of a non-uniform rectangular prism
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Smith, Anders; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Christensen, Dennis
2010-01-01
The effect of demagnetization on the magnetic properties of a rectangular ferromagnetic prism under non-uniform conditions is investigated. A numerical model for solving the spatially varying internal magnetic field is developed, validated and applied to relevant cases. The demagnetizing field...... is solved by an analytical calculation and the coupling between applied field, the demagnetization tensor field and spatially varying temperature is solved through iteration. We show that the demagnetizing field is of great importance in many cases and that it is necessary to take into account the non...
Nonuniform nuclear structures and QPOs in giant flares
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sotani, Hajime
2012-01-01
We show that the shear modes in the neutron star crust are quite sensitive to the existence of nonuniform nuclear structures, the so-called “pasta”. Due to the existence of pasta phase, the frequencies of shear modes are reduced. Since the torsional shear frequencies depend strongly on the structure of pasta phase, through the observations of stellar oscillations, one can probe the pasta structure in the crust. Additionally, considering the effect of pasta phase, we show the possibility to explain all the observed frequencies in the SGR 1806-20 with using only crust torsional oscillations.
Nonuniform nuclear structures and QPOs in giant flares
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sotani, Hajime [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)
2012-11-12
We show that the shear modes in the neutron star crust are quite sensitive to the existence of nonuniform nuclear structures, the so-called 'pasta'. Due to the existence of pasta phase, the frequencies of shear modes are reduced. Since the torsional shear frequencies depend strongly on the structure of pasta phase, through the observations of stellar oscillations, one can probe the pasta structure in the crust. Additionally, considering the effect of pasta phase, we show the possibility to explain all the observed frequencies in the SGR 1806-20 with using only crust torsional oscillations.
Linear kinetic enlightenment of a slab of nonuniform plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Revenchuk, S.M.
1996-01-01
A phenomenon of linear kinetic regeneration of a harmonic electric-field perturbation beyond the nonuniform opacity barrier due to electrons trapped by a potential well is investigated. Such electrons are reflected by the well walls without loss of phase memory about the external perturbation, which is rehabilitated on the other side of the barrier. The incidence of the electromagnetic wave polarized in the plane of incidence on a plasma slab. Analytic expressions for the regenerated electric field and regeneration coefficient are obtained in the ballistic approximation. The dependence of the regeneration coefficient on shape of the electrostatic potential confining the wave barrier is discussed
Integer channels in nonuniform non-equilibrium 2D systems
Shikin, V.
2018-01-01
We discuss the non-equilibrium properties of integer channels in nonuniform 2D electron (hole) systems in the presence of a strong magnetic field. The results are applied to a qualitative explanation of the Corbino disk current-voltage characteristics (IVC) in the quantum Hall effect (QHE) regime. Special consideration is paid to the so-called "QHE breakdown" effect, which is readily observed in both the Hall bar and Corbino geometries of the tested cells. The QHE breakdown is especially evident in the Corbino samples, allowing for a more in-depth study of these effects.
A non-uniform expansion mechanical safety model of the stent.
Yang, J; Huang, N; Du, Q
2009-01-01
Stents have a serial unstable structure that readily leads to non-uniform expansion. Non-uniform expansion in turn creates a stent safety problem. We explain how a stent may be simplified to a serial unstable structure, and present a method to calculate the non-uniform expansion of the stent on the basis of the serial unstable structure. We propose a safety criterion based on the expansion displacement instead of the strain, and explain that the parameter Rd, the ratio of the maximum displacement of the elements to normal displacement, is meaningful to assess the safety level of the stent. We also examine how laser cutting influences non-uniform expansion. The examples illustrate how to calculate the parameter Rd to assess non-uniform expansion of the stent, and demonstrate how the laser cutting offset and strengthening coefficient of the material influence the stent expansion behaviour. The methods are valuable for assessing stent safety due to non-uniform expansion.
Illumination non-uniformity of spirally wobbling beam in heavy ion fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, T.; Noguchi, K.; Kurosaki, T.; Barada, D.; Kawata, S.; Ma, Y. Y.; Ogoyski, A.I.
2016-01-01
In inertial confinement fusion, the driver beam illumination non-uniformity leads a degradation of fusion energy output. The illumination non-uniformity allowed is less than a few percent in inertial fusion target implosion. Heavy ion beam (HIB) accelerator provides a capability to oscillate a beam axis with a high frequency. The wobbling beams may provide a new method to reduce or smooth the beam illumination non-uniformity. In this paper the HIBs wobbling illumination scheme was optimized. (paper)
Physical Limitations To Nonuniformity Correction In IR Focal Plane Arrays
Scribner, D. A.; Kruer, M. R.; Gridley, J. C.; Sarkady, K.
1988-05-01
Simple nonuniformity correction algorithms currently in use can be severely limited by nonlinear response characteristics of the individual pixels in an IR focal plane array. Although more complicated multi-point algorithms improve the correction process they too can be limited by nonlinearities. Furthermore, analysis of single pixel noise power spectrums usually show some level of 1 /f noise. This in turn causes pixel outputs to drift independent of each other thus causing the spatial noise (often called fixed pattern noise) of the array to increase as a function of time since the last calibration. Measurements are presented for two arrays (a HgCdTe hybrid and a Pt:Si CCD) describing pixel nonlinearities, 1/f noise, and residual spatial noise (after nonuniforming correction). Of particular emphasis is spatial noise as a function of the lapsed time since the last calibration and the calibration process selected. The resulting spatial noise is examined in terms of its effect on the NEAT performance of each array tested and comparisons are made. Finally, a discussion of implications for array developers is given.
Going from microscopic to macroscopic on nonuniform growing domains.
Yates, Christian A; Baker, Ruth E; Erban, Radek; Maini, Philip K
2012-08-01
Throughout development, chemical cues are employed to guide the functional specification of underlying tissues while the spatiotemporal distributions of such chemicals can be influenced by the growth of the tissue itself. These chemicals, termed morphogens, are often modeled using partial differential equations (PDEs). The connection between discrete stochastic and deterministic continuum models of particle migration on growing domains was elucidated by Baker, Yates, and Erban [Bull. Math. Biol. 72, 719 (2010)] in which the migration of individual particles was modeled as an on-lattice position-jump process. We build on this work by incorporating a more physically reasonable description of domain growth. Instead of allowing underlying lattice elements to instantaneously double in size and divide, we allow incremental element growth and splitting upon reaching a predefined threshold size. Such a description of domain growth necessitates a nonuniform partition of the domain. We first demonstrate that an individual-based stochastic model for particle diffusion on such a nonuniform domain partition is equivalent to a PDE model of the same phenomenon on a nongrowing domain, providing the transition rates (which we derive) are chosen correctly and we partition the domain in the correct manner. We extend this analysis to the case where the domain is allowed to change in size, altering the transition rates as necessary. Through application of the master equation formalism we derive a PDE for particle density on this growing domain and corroborate our findings with numerical simulations.
Electrostatic ion-cyclotron waves in a nonuniform magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cartier, S.L.; D'Angelo, N.; Merlino, R.L.
1985-01-01
The properties of electrostatic ion-cyclotron waves excited in a single-ended cesium Q machine with a nonuniform magnetic field are described. The electrostatic ion-cyclotron waves are generated in the usual manner by drawing an electron current to a small exciter disk immersed in the plasma column. The parallel and perpendicular (to B) wavelengths and phase velocities are determined by mapping out two-dimensional wave phase contours. The wave frequency f depends on the location of the exciter disk in the nonuniform magnetic field, and propagating waves are only observed in the region where f> or approx. =f/sub c/i, where f/sub c/i is the local ion-cyclotron frequency. The parallel phase velocity is in the direction of the electron drift. From measurements of the plasma properties along the axis, it is inferred that the electron drift velocity is not uniform along the entire current channel. The evidence suggests that the waves begin being excited at that axial position where the critical drift velocity is first exceeded, consistent with a current-driven excitation mechanism
Non-Uniform Cathode Emission Studies of a MIG Gun
Marchewka, C. D.; Shapiro, M. A.; Sirigiri, J. R.; Temkin, R. J.
2004-11-01
We present the initial results of the modeling of the effect of emission non-uniformity in 96 kV, 40 A Magnetron Injection Gun (MIG) of a 1.5 MW 110 GHz gyrotron using a 3D gun simulation code. The azimuthal emission nonuniformity can lead to increased mode competition and an overall decreased efficiency of the device [1]. The electron beam is modeled from the cathode to a downstream position where the velocity spread saturates using the AMAZE 3D suite of codes. After bench marking the results of the 3D code with 2D codes such as TRAK2D and EGUN, the emitter was modified to simulate asymmetric emission from the cathode to gain an understanding into the effects of inhomogeneous beam current density on the velocity spread and pitch factor of the electron beam. [1] G. S. Nusinovich, A.N. Vlasov, M. Botton, T. M. Antonsen, Jr., S. Cauffman, K. Felch, ``Effect of the azimuthal inhomogeneity of electron emission on gyrotron operation,'' Phys. Plasmas, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 3473-3479, 2001
Measurement of Anisotropic Particle Interactions with Nonuniform ac Electric Fields.
Rupp, Bradley; Torres-Díaz, Isaac; Hua, Xiaoqing; Bevan, Michael A
2018-02-20
Optical microscopy measurements are reported for single anisotropic polymer particles interacting with nonuniform ac electric fields. The present study is limited to conditions where gravity confines particles with their long axis parallel to the substrate such that particles can be treated using quasi-2D analysis. Field parameters are investigated that result in particles residing at either electric field maxima or minima and with long axes oriented either parallel or perpendicular to the electric field direction. By nonintrusively observing thermally sampled positions and orientations at different field frequencies and amplitudes, a Boltzmann inversion of the time-averaged probability of states yields kT-scale energy landscapes (including dipole-field, particle-substrate, and gravitational potentials). The measured energy landscapes show agreement with theoretical potentials using particle conductivity as the sole adjustable material property. Understanding anisotropic particle-field energy landscapes vs field parameters enables quantitative control of local forces and torques on single anisotropic particles to manipulate their position and orientation within nonuniform fields.
Laterally excited flexible tanks with nonuniform density liquid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, Yu
1996-01-01
A study of the dynamic responses of flexible tanks containing nonuniform liquid under horizontal base excitations is presented. The system considered is an upright, circular cylindrical tank filled with an incompressible and inviscid liquid in which the density increases with the liquid depth. Only the impulsive components of response are considered in this study since the convective components can be computed by considering the tank to be rigid. It is shown in this study that for tanks with height-to-radius ratios between 0.3 and 1.2, the response quantities may be estimated utilizing the rigid tank solutions. Also, it is found that the pressure distribution along the tank wall is not sensitive to the detailed distribution function of the liquid density, and that the base shear and moments for the tank with nonuniform liquid can be estimated conservatively by assuming that the tank is filled with an equivalent uniform liquid density that preserves the total liquid weight. Finally, a simple equation for evaluating the fundamental natural frequency of the system is proposed
Identification of the material properties in nonuniform nanostructures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bao, Gang; Xu, Xiang
2015-01-01
This paper is concerned with addressing two significant challenges arising from quantifying mechanical properties of nanomaterials, namely nonuniformity of the nanomaterial and the high noise level of measurements. For nonuniformity, an explicit solution is derived for the general Euler–Bernoulli equation in terms of the Green function for the Poisson equation. Then, by examining a stochastic source, the systematic error may be removed from measurements, which leads to more accurate estimation of mechanical properties. Based on Itô integral properties, three deterministic Fredholm integral equations can be deduced to extract the stiffness and the structure of the random source from measured data. To overcome ill-posedness and high nonlinearity in solving the Fredholm equations, a Tikhonov regularization method is developed with an a priori strategy of choosing the regularization parameter. Moreover, under a regularity assumption for the stiffness coefficient and structures of the random source, the convergence rate can be obtained in the sense of probability. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the validity and effectiveness of the novel model and regularization method. (paper)
Nonuniform code concatenation for universal fault-tolerant quantum computing
Nikahd, Eesa; Sedighi, Mehdi; Saheb Zamani, Morteza
2017-09-01
Using transversal gates is a straightforward and efficient technique for fault-tolerant quantum computing. Since transversal gates alone cannot be computationally universal, they must be combined with other approaches such as magic state distillation, code switching, or code concatenation to achieve universality. In this paper we propose an alternative approach for universal fault-tolerant quantum computing, mainly based on the code concatenation approach proposed in [T. Jochym-O'Connor and R. Laflamme, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 010505 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.010505], but in a nonuniform fashion. The proposed approach is described based on nonuniform concatenation of the 7-qubit Steane code with the 15-qubit Reed-Muller code, as well as the 5-qubit code with the 15-qubit Reed-Muller code, which lead to two 49-qubit and 47-qubit codes, respectively. These codes can correct any arbitrary single physical error with the ability to perform a universal set of fault-tolerant gates, without using magic state distillation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krasnov, V.M.; Oboznov, V.A.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig
1997-01-01
Fluxon dynamics in nonuniform Josephson junctions was studied both experimentally and theoretically. Two types of nonuniform junctions were considered: the first type had a nonuniform spatial distribution of critical and bias currents and the second had a temperature gradient applied along...... the junction. An analytical expression for the I-V curve in the presence of a temperature gradient or spatial nonuniformity was derived. It was shown that there is no static thermomagnetic Nernst effect due to Josephson fluxon motion despite the existence of a force pushing fluxons in the direction of smaller...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hajmohammadi, M.R.; Poozesh, S.; Rahmani, M.; Campo, A.
2013-01-01
This paper explores the bearing that a non-uniform distribution of heat flux used as a wall boundary condition exerts on the heat transfer improvement in a round pipe. Because the overall heat load is considered fixed, the heat transfer improvement is viewed through a reduction in the maximum temperature (‘hot spot’) by imposing optimal distribution of heat flux. Two cases are studied in detail 1) fully developed and 2) developing flow. Peak temperatures in the heated pipe wall are calculated via an analytical approach for the fully developed case, while a numerical simulation based on CFD is employed for the developing case. By relaxing the heat flux distribution on the pipe wall, the numerical results imply that the optimum distribution of heat flux, which minimizes the peak temperatures corresponds with the ‘descending’ distribution. Given that the foregoing approach is quite different from the ‘ascending’ heat flux distribution recommended in the literature by means of the entropy generation minimization (EGM) method, it is inferred that the optimization of heat transfer and fluid flow, in comparison with the thermodynamic optimization, may bring forth quite different guidelines for the designs of thermal systems under the same constraints and circumstances. -- Highlights: • Considered the bearing of non-uniform distribution of heat flux on the hot spots. • Determined the optimal distribution of heat flux that minimizes the hot spots. • Results are compared with those obtained by EGM method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aburjania, G. D.; Chargazia, Kh. Z.
2011-01-01
A study is made of the generation and subsequent linear and nonlinear evolution of ultralow-frequency planetary electromagnetic waves in the E region of a dissipative ionosphere in the presence of a nonuniform zonal wind (a sheared flow). Hall currents flowing in the E region and such permanent global factors as the spatial nonuniformity of the geomagnetic field and of the normal component of the Earth’s angular velocity give rise to fast and slow planetary-scale electromagnetic waves. The efficiency of the linear amplification of planetary electromagnetic waves in their interaction with a nonuniform zonal wind is analyzed. When there are sheared flows, the operators of linear problems are non-self-conjugate and the corresponding eigenfunctions are nonorthogonal, so the canonical modal approach is poorly suited for studying such motions and it is necessary to utilize the so-called nonmodal mathematical analysis. It is shown that, in the linear evolutionary stage, planetary electromagnetic waves efficiently extract energy from the sheared flow, thereby substantially increasing their amplitude and, accordingly, energy. The criterion for instability of a sheared flow in an ionospheric medium is derived. As the shear instability develops and the perturbation amplitude grows, a nonlinear self-localization mechanism comes into play and the process ends with the self-organization of nonlinear, highly localized, solitary vortex structures. The system thus acquires a new degree of freedom, thereby providing a new way for the perturbation to evolve in a medium with a sheared flow. Depending on the shape of the sheared flow velocity profile, nonlinear structures can be either purely monopole vortices or vortex streets against the background of the zonal wind. The accumulation of such vortices can lead to a strongly turbulent state in an ionospheric medium.
Thermal load non-uniformity estimation for superheater tube bundle damage evaluation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naď Martin
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Industrial boiler damage is a common phenomenon encountered in boiler operation which usually lasts several decades. Since boiler shutdown may be required because of localized failures, it is crucial to predict the most vulnerable parts. If damage occurs, it is necessary to perform root cause analysis and devise corrective measures (repairs, design modifications, etc.. Boiler tube bundles, such as those in superheaters, preheaters and reheaters, are the most exposed and often the most damaged boiler parts. Both short-term and long-term overheating are common causes of tube failures. In these cases, the design temperatures are exceeded, which often results in decrease of remaining creep life. Advanced models for damage evaluation require temperature history, which is available only in rare cases when it has been measured and recorded for the whole service life. However, in most cases it is necessary to estimate the temperature history from available operation history data (inlet and outlet pressures and temperatures etc.. The task may be very challenging because of the combination of complex flow behaviour in the flue gas domain and heat transfer phenomena. This paper focuses on estimating thermal load non-uniformity on superheater tubes via Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulation of flue gas flow including heat transfer within the domain consisting of a furnace and a part of the first stage of the boiler.
Kinetics of charged particles in a high-voltage gas discharge in a nonuniform electrostatic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kolpakov, V. A., E-mail: kolpakov683@gmail.com; Krichevskii, S. V.; Markushin, M. A. [Korolev Samara National Research University (Russian Federation)
2017-01-15
A high-voltage gas discharge is of interest as a possible means of generating directed flows of low-temperature plasma in the off-electrode space distinguished by its original features [1–4]. We propose a model for calculating the trajectories of charges particles in a high-voltage gas discharge in nitrogen at a pressure of 0.15 Torr existing in a nonuniform electrostatic field and the strength of this field. Based on the results of our calculations, we supplement and refine the extensive experimental data concerning the investigation of such a discharge published in [1, 2, 5–8]; good agreement between the theory and experiment has been achieved. The discharge burning is initiated and maintained through bulk electron-impact ionization and ion–electron emission. We have determined the sizes of the cathode surface regions responsible for these processes, including the sizes of the axial zone involved in the discharge generation. The main effect determining the kinetics of charged particles consists in a sharp decrease in the strength of the field under consideration outside the interelectrode space, which allows a free motion of charges with specific energies and trajectories to be generated in it. The simulation results confirm that complex electrode systems that allow directed plasma flows to be generated at a discharge current of hundreds or thousands of milliamperes and a voltage on the electrodes of 0.3–1 kV can be implemented in practice [3, 9, 10].
Non-uniform velocity profile mechanism for flame stabilization in a porous radiant burner
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Catapan, R.C.; Costa, M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Oliveira, A.A.M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario Professor Joao David Ferreira Lima, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)
2011-01-15
Industrial processes where the heating of large surfaces is required lead to the possibility of using large surface porous radiant burners. This causes additional temperature uniformity problems, since it is increasingly difficult to evenly distribute the reactant mixture over a large burner surface while retaining its stability and keeping low pollutant emissions. In order to allow for larger surface area burners, a non-uniform velocity profile mechanism for flame stabilization in a porous radiant burner using a single large injection hole is proposed and analyzed for a double-layered burner operating in open and closed hot (laboratory-scale furnace, with temperature-controlled, isothermal walls) environments. In both environments, local mean temperatures within the porous medium have been measured. For lower reactant flow rate and ambient temperature the flame shape is conical and anchored at the rim of the injection hole. As the volumetric flow rate or furnace temperature is raised, the flame undergoes a transition to a plane flame stabilized near the external burner surface. However, the stability range envelope remains the same in both regimes. (author)
Jin, Minglei; Jin, Weiqi; Li, Yiyang; Li, Shuo
2015-08-01
In this paper, we propose a novel scene-based non-uniformity correction algorithm for infrared image processing-temporal high-pass non-uniformity correction algorithm based on grayscale mapping (THP and GM). The main sources of non-uniformity are: (1) detector fabrication inaccuracies; (2) non-linearity and variations in the read-out electronics and (3) optical path effects. The non-uniformity will be reduced by non-uniformity correction (NUC) algorithms. The NUC algorithms are often divided into calibration-based non-uniformity correction (CBNUC) algorithms and scene-based non-uniformity correction (SBNUC) algorithms. As non-uniformity drifts temporally, CBNUC algorithms must be repeated by inserting a uniform radiation source which SBNUC algorithms do not need into the view, so the SBNUC algorithm becomes an essential part of infrared imaging system. The SBNUC algorithms' poor robustness often leads two defects: artifacts and over-correction, meanwhile due to complicated calculation process and large storage consumption, hardware implementation of the SBNUC algorithms is difficult, especially in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform. The THP and GM algorithm proposed in this paper can eliminate the non-uniformity without causing defects. The hardware implementation of the algorithm only based on FPGA has two advantages: (1) low resources consumption, and (2) small hardware delay: less than 20 lines, it can be transplanted to a variety of infrared detectors equipped with FPGA image processing module, it can reduce the stripe non-uniformity and the ripple non-uniformity.
Effective electrodiffusion equation for non-uniform nanochannels.
Marini Bettolo Marconi, Umberto; Melchionna, Simone; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio
2013-06-28
We derive a one-dimensional formulation of the Planck-Nernst-Poisson equation to describe the dynamics of a symmetric binary electrolyte in channels whose section is nanometric and varies along the axial direction. The approach is in the spirit of the Fick-Jacobs diffusion equation and leads to a system of coupled equations for the partial densities which depends on the charge sitting at the walls in a non-trivial fashion. We consider two kinds of non-uniformities, those due to the spatial variation of charge distribution and those due to the shape variation of the pore and report one- and three-dimensional solutions of the electrokinetic equations.
Vacuum polarisation in some static nonuniform magnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calucci, G. [Trieste Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica Teorica]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy)
1995-11-01
Vacuum polarisation in QED in presence of some configurations of external magnetic fields is investigated. The configuration considered correspond to fields is investigated. The configuration considered correspond to fields lying in a plane and without sources. The motion of a Dirac electron in this field configuration is studied and arguments are found to conclude that the lowest level gives the most important contribution. The result is that the main effect is not very different from the uniform case, the possibilities of calculating the corrections due to the uniformity is explicitly shown. A typical effect of nonuniformity of the field shows out in the refractivity of the field shows out in the refractivity of the vacuum.
Decomposed Photo Response Non-Uniformity for Digital Forensic Analysis
Li, Yue; Li, Chang-Tsun
The last few years have seen the applications of Photo Response Non-Uniformity noise (PRNU) - a unique stochastic fingerprint of image sensors, to various types of digital forensic investigations such as source device identification and integrity verification. In this work we proposed a new way of extracting PRNU noise pattern, called Decomposed PRNU (DPRNU), by exploiting the difference between the physical andartificial color components of the photos taken by digital cameras that use a Color Filter Array for interpolating artificial components from physical ones. Experimental results presented in this work have shown the superiority of the proposed DPRNU to the commonly used version. We also proposed a new performance metrics, Corrected Positive Rate (CPR) to evaluate the performance of the common PRNU and the proposed DPRNU.
Gamma camera system with improved means for correcting nonuniformity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lange, K.; Jeppesen, J.
1979-01-01
In a gamma camera system, means are provided for correcting nonuniformity or lack of correspondence between the positions of scintillations and their calculated and displayed by x-y coordinates. In an accumulation mode, pulse counts corresponding with scintillations in various areas of the radiation field are stored in memory locations corresponding with their locations in the radiation field. A uniform radiation source is presented to the detectors during the accumulation is interrupted at which time other locations have fewer counts in them. In the run mode, counts are stored in corresponding locations of a memory and these counts are compared continuously with those stored in the accumulation mode. Means are provided for injecting a number of counts during the run mode proportional to the difference between the counts accumulated during the accumulation mode in a given area increment and the counts that should have been obtained from a uniform source
Non-Uniform Heat Transfer in Thermal Regenerators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jesper Buch
, a numerical model, which simulates a single-blow operation in a parallel-plate regenerator, was developed and used to model the heat transfer under various conditions. In addition to the modeling of the heat transfer, a series of experiments on passive regenerators with non-uniform, but precisely controlled....... Additionally, the experiments gave real comparative results, whereas the model to a certain degree more served to provide insight to the heat transfer processes taking place inside the regenera- tors, something that would be - if not impossible - then highly impractical to do experimentally. It has been found......This thesis presents investigations on the heat transfer in complex heat ex- changers in general and in regenerative heat exchangers (regenerators) in par- ticular. The motivation for this work is a result of inconsistencies obeserved in the results from a series of experiments on active magnetic...
A tuning method for nonuniform traveling-wave accelerating structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gong Cunkui; Zheng Shuxin; Shao Jiahang; Jia Xiaoyu; Chen Huaibi
2013-01-01
The tuning method of uniform traveling-wave structures based on non-resonant perturbation field distribution measurement has been widely used in tuning both constant-impedance and constant-gradient structures. In this paper, the method of tuning nonuniform structures is proposed on the basis of the above theory. The internal reflection coefficient of each cell is obtained from analyzing the normalized voltage distribution. A numerical simulation of tuning process according to the coupled cavity chain theory has been done and the result shows each cell is in right phase advance after tuning. The method will be used in the tuning of a disk-loaded traveling-wave structure being developed at the Accelerator Laboratory, Tsinghua University. (authors)
Vacuum polarisation in some static nonuniform magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calucci, G.
1995-11-01
Vacuum polarisation in QED in presence of some configurations of external magnetic fields is investigated. The configuration considered correspond to fields is investigated. The configuration considered correspond to fields lying in a plane and without sources. The motion of a Dirac electron in this field configuration is studied and arguments are found to conclude that the lowest level gives the most important contribution. The result is that the main effect is not very different from the uniform case, the possibilities of calculating the corrections due to the uniformity is explicitly shown. A typical effect of nonuniformity of the field shows out in the refractivity of the field shows out in the refractivity of the vacuum
Analyte preconcentration in nanofluidic channels with nonuniform zeta potential
Eden, A.; McCallum, C.; Storey, B. D.; Pennathur, S.; Meinhart, C. D.
2017-12-01
It is well known that charged analytes in the presence of nonuniform electric fields concentrate at locations where the relevant driving forces balance, and a wide range of ionic stacking and focusing methods are commonly employed to leverage these physical mechanisms in order to improve signal levels in biosensing applications. In particular, nanofluidic channels with spatially varying conductivity distributions have been shown to provide increased preconcentration of charged analytes due to the existence of a finite electric double layer (EDL), in which electrostatic attraction and repulsion from charged surfaces produce nonuniform transverse ion distributions. In this work, we use numerical simulations to show that one can achieve greater levels of sample accumulation by using field-effect control via wall-embedded electrodes to tailor the surface potential heterogeneity in a nanochannel with overlapped EDLs. In addition to previously demonstrated stacking and focusing mechanisms, we find that the coupling between two-dimensional ion distributions and the axial electric field under overlapped EDL conditions can generate an ion concentration polarization interface in the middle of the channel. Under an applied electric field, this interface can be used to concentrate sample ions between two stationary regions of different surface potential and charge density. Our numerical model uses the Poisson-Nernst-Planck system of equations coupled with the Stokes equation to demonstrate the phenomenon, and we discuss in detail the driving forces behind the predicted sample enhancement. The numerical velocity and salt concentration profiles exhibit good agreement with analytical results from a simplified one-dimensional area-averaged model for several limiting cases, and we show predicted amplification ratios of up to 105.
Restoration of non-uniform exposure motion blurred image
Luo, Yuanhong; Xu, Tingfa; Wang, Ningming; Liu, Feng
2014-11-01
Restoring motion-blurred image is the key technologies in the opto-electronic detection system. The imaging sensors such as CCD and infrared imaging sensor, which are mounted on the motion platforms, quickly move together with the platforms of high speed. As a result, the images become blur. The image degradation will cause great trouble for the succeeding jobs such as objects detection, target recognition and tracking. So the motion-blurred images must be restoration before detecting motion targets in the subsequent images. On the demand of the real weapon task, in order to deal with targets in the complex background, this dissertation uses the new theories in the field of image processing and computer vision to research the new technology of motion deblurring and motion detection. The principle content is as follows: 1) When the prior knowledge about degradation function is unknown, the uniform motion blurred images are restored. At first, the blur parameters, including the motion blur extent and direction of PSF(point spread function), are estimated individually in domain of logarithmic frequency. The direction of PSF is calculated by extracting the central light line of the spectrum, and the extent is computed by minimizing the correction between the fourier spectrum of the blurred image and a detecting function. Moreover, in order to remove the strip in the deblurred image, windows technique is employed in the algorithm, which makes the deblurred image clear. 2) According to the principle of infrared image non-uniform exposure, a new restoration model for infrared blurred images is developed. The fitting of infrared image non-uniform exposure curve is performed by experiment data. The blurred images are restored by the fitting curve.
THE INFLUENCE OF NONUNIFORM CLOUD COVER ON TRANSIT TRANSMISSION SPECTRA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Line, Michael R. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, CA 94035 (United States); Parmentier, Vivien, E-mail: mrline@ucsc.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California–Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)
2016-03-20
We model the impact of nonuniform cloud cover on transit transmission spectra. Patchy clouds exist in nearly every solar system atmosphere, brown dwarfs, and transiting exoplanets. Our major findings suggest that fractional cloud coverage can exactly mimic high mean molecular weight atmospheres and vice versa over certain wavelength regions, in particular, over the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) bandpass (1.1–1.7 μm). We also find that patchy cloud coverage exhibits a signature that is different from uniform global clouds. Furthermore, we explain analytically why the “patchy cloud-high mean molecular weight” degeneracy exists. We also explore the degeneracy of nonuniform cloud coverage in atmospheric retrievals on both synthetic and real planets. We find from retrievals on a synthetic solar composition hot Jupiter with patchy clouds and a cloud-free high mean molecular weight warm Neptune that both cloud-free high mean molecular weight atmospheres and partially cloudy atmospheres can explain the data equally well. Another key finding is that the HST WFC3 transit transmission spectra of two well-observed objects, the hot Jupiter HD 189733b and the warm Neptune HAT-P-11b, can be explained well by solar composition atmospheres with patchy clouds without the need to invoke high mean molecular weight or global clouds. The degeneracy between high molecular weight and solar composition partially cloudy atmospheres can be broken by observing the molecular Rayleigh scattering differences between the two. Furthermore, the signature of partially cloudy limbs also appears as a ∼100 ppm residual in the ingress and egress of the transit light curves, provided that the transit timing is known to seconds.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Filatrella, G; Pedersen, Niels Falsig
1999-01-01
We have numerically investigated the behavior of stacks of long Josephson junctions considering a nonuniform bias profile. In the presence of a microwave field the nonuniform bias, which favors the formation of fluxons, can give rise to a change of the sequence of radio-frequency induced steps...
Chen, T
2002-01-01
Motion of the ultracold neutrons in the nonuniform magnetic field with a square nonuniformity by two coordinates is considered. The Schroedinger equation is solved with application of the quasi-classical (eikonal) approach. The theoretical possibility of the neutrons spatial focusing with formation of the point focus and also the neutrons bunches is shown
Testing for Nonuniform Differential Item Functioning with Multiple Indicator Multiple Cause Models
Woods, Carol M.; Grimm, Kevin J.
2011-01-01
In extant literature, multiple indicator multiple cause (MIMIC) models have been presented for identifying items that display uniform differential item functioning (DIF) only, not nonuniform DIF. This article addresses, for apparently the first time, the use of MIMIC models for testing both uniform and nonuniform DIF with categorical indicators. A…
Parallel processing and non-uniform grids in global air quality modeling
Berkvens, P.J.F.; Bochev, Mikhail A.
2002-01-01
A large-scale global air quality model, running efficiently on a single vector processor, is enhanced to make more realistic and more long-term simulations feasible. Two strategies are combined: non-uniform grids and parallel processing. The communication through the hierarchy of non-uniform grids
Liu, Hai-Zheng; Shi, Ze-Lin; Feng, Bin; Hui, Bin; Zhao, Yao-Hong
2016-03-01
Integrating microgrid polarimeters on focal plane array (FPA) of an infrared detector causes non-uniformity of polarization response. In order to reduce the effect of polarization non-uniformity, this paper constructs an experimental setup for capturing raw flat-field images and proposes a procedure for acquiring non-uniform calibration (NUC) matrix and calibrating raw polarization images. The proposed procedure takes the incident radiation as a polarization vector and offers a calibration matrix for each pixel. Both our matrix calibration and two-point calibration are applied to our mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) polarization imaging system with integrated microgrid polarimeters. Compared with two point calibration, our matrix calibration reduces non-uniformity by 30 40% under condition of flat-field data test with polarization. The ourdoor scene observation experiment indicates that our calibration can effectively reduce polarization non-uniformity and improve the image quality of our MWIR polarization imaging system.
El-Amin, Mohamed; Sun, Shuyu
2010-01-01
In most of real-world applications, such as the case of heat stores, inlet is not kept at a constant temperature but it may vary with time during charging process. In this paper, a vertical water jet injected into a rectangular storage tank is measured experimentally and simulated numerically. Two cases of study are considered; one is a hot water jet with uniform inlet temperature (UIT) injected into a cold water tank, and the other is a cold water jet with non-uniform inlet temperature (NUIT) injected into a hot water tank. Three different temperature differences and three different flow rates are studied for the hot water jet with UIT which is injected into a cold water tank. Also, three different initial temperatures with constant flow rate as well as three different flow rates with constant initial temperature are considered for the cold jet with NUIT which is injected into a hot water tank. Turbulence intensity at the inlet as well as Reynolds number for the NUIT cases are therefore functions of inlet temperature and time. Both experimental measurements and numerical calculations are carried out for the same measured flow and thermal conditions. The realizable k-ε model is used for modeling the turbulent flow. Numerical solutions are obtained for unsteady flow while pressure, velocity, temperature and turbulence distributions inside the water tank are analyzed. The simulated results are compared to the measured results, and they show a good agreement at low temperatures. © 2010 IEEE.
El-Amin, Mohamed
2010-12-01
In most of real-world applications, such as the case of heat stores, inlet is not kept at a constant temperature but it may vary with time during charging process. In this paper, a vertical water jet injected into a rectangular storage tank is measured experimentally and simulated numerically. Two cases of study are considered; one is a hot water jet with uniform inlet temperature (UIT) injected into a cold water tank, and the other is a cold water jet with non-uniform inlet temperature (NUIT) injected into a hot water tank. Three different temperature differences and three different flow rates are studied for the hot water jet with UIT which is injected into a cold water tank. Also, three different initial temperatures with constant flow rate as well as three different flow rates with constant initial temperature are considered for the cold jet with NUIT which is injected into a hot water tank. Turbulence intensity at the inlet as well as Reynolds number for the NUIT cases are therefore functions of inlet temperature and time. Both experimental measurements and numerical calculations are carried out for the same measured flow and thermal conditions. The realizable k-ε model is used for modeling the turbulent flow. Numerical solutions are obtained for unsteady flow while pressure, velocity, temperature and turbulence distributions inside the water tank are analyzed. The simulated results are compared to the measured results, and they show a good agreement at low temperatures. © 2010 IEEE.
Xia, Yongfang; Shi, Junrui; Xu, Youning; Ma, Rui
2018-03-01
Filtration combustion (FC) is one style of porous media combustion with inert matrix, in which the combustion wave front propagates, only downstream or reciprocally. In this paper, we investigate the FC flame front inclinational instability of lean methane/air mixtures flowing through a packed bed as a combustion wave front perturbation of the initial preheating temperature non-uniformity is assumed. The predicted results show that the growth rate of the flame front inclinational angle is proportional to the magnitude of the initial preheating temperature difference. Additionally, depending on gas inlet gas velocity and equivalence ratio, it is demonstrated that increase of gas inlet gas velocity accelerates the FC wave front deformation, and the inclinational instability evolves faster at lower equivalence ratio. The development of the flame front inclinational angle may be regarded as a two-staged evolution, which includes rapid increase, and approaching maximum value of inclinational angle due to the quasi-steady condition of the combustion system. The hydrodynamic and thermal mechanisms of the FC inclinational instability are analyzed. Consequently, the local propagation velocity of the FC wave front is non-uniform to result in the development of inclinational angle at the first stage of rapid increase.
Degradation nonuniformity in the solar diffuser bidirectional reflectance distribution function.
Sun, Junqiang; Chu, Mike; Wang, Menghua
2016-08-01
The assumption of angular dependence stability of the solar diffuser (SD) throughout degradation is critical to the on-orbit calibration of the reflective solar bands (RSBs) in many satellite sensors. Recent evidence has pointed to the contrary, and in this work, we present a thorough investigative effort into the angular dependence of the SD degradation for the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite and for the twin Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Terra and Aqua spacecrafts. One common key step in the RSB calibration is the use of the SD degradation performance measured by an accompanying solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) as a valid substitute for the SD degradation factor in the direction of the RSB view. If SD degradations between these two respective directions do not maintain the same relative relationship over time, then the unmitigated use of the SDSM-measured SD degradation factor in the RSB calibration calculation will generate bias, and consequently, long-term drift in derived science products. We exploit the available history of the on-orbit calibration events to examine the response of the SDSM and the RSB detectors to the incident illumination reflecting off SD versus solar declination angle and show that the angular dependency, particularly at short wavelengths, evolves with respect to time. The generalized and the decisive conclusion is that the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of the SD degrades nonuniformly with respect to both incident and outgoing directions. Thus, the SDSM-based measurements provide SD degradation factors that are biased relative to the RSB view direction with respect to the SD. The analysis also reveals additional interesting phenomena, for example, the sharp behavioral change in the evolving angular dependence observed in Terra MODIS and SNPP VIIRS. For SNPP VIIRS the mitigation for this
EFFICIENCY EVALUATION OF ENTERPRISE INFORMATION SYSTEMS WITH NON-UNIFORM LOAD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. V. Kalinin
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of characteristics evaluation for enterprise information systems at the design stage. In the design of ERP-systems the most interest characteristic is not the average time, but the probability of timely delivery of different type messages (for example, command, service, multimedia, files, etc. from the sender to the recipient. In addition,the possibility of using the priority information management built on the basis of service disciplines of general form with mixed priorities needs to be considered. An open queuing network with non-uniform data flow is used for solution of this problem. The method for calculation of information systems characteristics is proposed based on the decomposition of the network model. The end results obtained with this approach and by means of priority management are approximate because different classes of message streams at the output and input nodes of the computer system differ from the simple ones. However, result errors of the proposed analytical method are in acceptable limits for engineering calculations as it was shown by simulation in a wide range of parameters corresponding to real systems. Obtained results are usable for optimization problem solution of data transmission networks in modern information systems, involving routing algorithm definition and priorities specification for different classes of messages to provide given delivery time.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yi, Wei [School of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009 (Australia); School of Dentistry, The University of Western Australia, WA 6009 (Australia); Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Hu, Xiaozhi, E-mail: xiao.zhi.hu@uwa.edu.au [School of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009 (Australia); Ichim, Paul [School of Dentistry, The University of Western Australia, WA 6009 (Australia); Sun, Xudong [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China)
2012-12-15
Brittle low-strength and low-toughness pressable dental ceramic can be reinforced by ductile elongated gold-particles (GP). A customized crown structure can be adequately strengthened by distributing GP only in critical sections of the crown, where high tensile stresses are experienced. In the present study, a non-uniformly structured ceramic-matrix composite with excellent interfacial bonding, twofold fracture toughness and strength at desired locations, is fabricated using pressable dental ceramic and GP. The layout pattern and sequence of different GP/ceramic powder mixtures, high-temperature flow properties of these mixtures during hot-pressing and the sample mold geometry are used to control the distribution and locations of GP for selective toughening and strengthening. Nano-crystalline structures of the pressable ceramic-matrix and the nano-scaled interfacial region around GP have been revealed by high-magnification field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Toughening and strengthening mechanisms of the elongated GP including residual stresses from composite processing and ductile fracture of GP are discussed together with SEM observations. Bulk flexural strength and local micro-indentation fracture and deformation characteristics of the selective-toughened ceramic/metal composite have been compared to those of the monolithic pressable ceramic to validate the toughening and strengthening mechanisms.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yi, Wei; Hu, Xiaozhi; Ichim, Paul; Sun, Xudong
2012-01-01
Brittle low-strength and low-toughness pressable dental ceramic can be reinforced by ductile elongated gold-particles (GP). A customized crown structure can be adequately strengthened by distributing GP only in critical sections of the crown, where high tensile stresses are experienced. In the present study, a non-uniformly structured ceramic–matrix composite with excellent interfacial bonding, twofold fracture toughness and strength at desired locations, is fabricated using pressable dental ceramic and GP. The layout pattern and sequence of different GP/ceramic powder mixtures, high-temperature flow properties of these mixtures during hot-pressing and the sample mold geometry are used to control the distribution and locations of GP for selective toughening and strengthening. Nano-crystalline structures of the pressable ceramic–matrix and the nano-scaled interfacial region around GP have been revealed by high-magnification field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Toughening and strengthening mechanisms of the elongated GP including residual stresses from composite processing and ductile fracture of GP are discussed together with SEM observations. Bulk flexural strength and local micro-indentation fracture and deformation characteristics of the selective-toughened ceramic/metal composite have been compared to those of the monolithic pressable ceramic to validate the toughening and strengthening mechanisms.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasan, M.Z.
1988-05-01
An analytical solution for the temperature profile and film temperature drop for fully-developed, laminar flow in a circular tube is provided. The surface heat flux varies circcimferentally but is constant along the axis of the tube. The volulmetric heat generation is uniform in the fluid. The fully developed laminar velocity profile is approximated by a power velocity profile to represent the flattening effect of a perpendicular magnetic field when the coolant is electrivally conductive. The presence of volumetric heat generation in the fluid adds another component to the film temperature drop to that due to the surface heat flux. The reduction of the boundary layer thickness by a perpendicular magnetic field reduces both of these two film temperature drops. A strong perpendicular magnetic field can reduce the film termperatiure drop by a factor of two if the fluid is electrically conducting. The effect of perpendicualr magnetic field )or the flatness of the velocity profile) is less pronounced on teh film termperature drop due to nonuniform surfacae heat flux than on that due to uniform surface heat flux. An example is provided to show the relative effects on these two film temperd
Ko, William L.; Fleischer, Van Tran
2009-01-01
The Ko displacement theory previously formulated for deformed shape predictions of nonuniform beam structures is further developed mathematically. The further-developed displacement equations are expressed explicitly in terms of geometrical parameters of the beam and bending strains at equally spaced strain-sensing stations along the multiplexed fiber-optic sensor line installed on the bottom surface of the beam. The bending strain data can then be input into the displacement equations for calculations of local slopes, deflections, and cross-sectional twist angles for generating the overall deformed shapes of the nonuniform beam. The further-developed displacement theory can also be applied to the deformed shape predictions of nonuniform two-point supported beams, nonuniform panels, nonuniform aircraft wings and fuselages, and so forth. The high degree of accuracy of the further-developed displacement theory for nonuniform beams is validated by finite-element analysis of various nonuniform beam structures. Such structures include tapered tubular beams, depth-tapered unswept and swept wing boxes, width-tapered wing boxes, and double-tapered wing boxes, all under combined bending and torsional loads. The Ko displacement theory, combined with the fiber-optic strain-sensing system, provide a powerful tool for in-flight deformed shape monitoring of unmanned aerospace vehicles by ground-based pilots to maintain safe flights.
Non-uniform sampling and wide range angular spectrum method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Yong-Hae; Byun, Chun-Won; Oh, Himchan; Lee, JaeWon; Pi, Jae-Eun; Heon Kim, Gi; Lee, Myung-Lae; Ryu, Hojun; Chu, Hye-Yong; Hwang, Chi-Sun
2014-01-01
A novel method is proposed for simulating free space field propagation from a source plane to a destination plane that is applicable for both small and large propagation distances. The angular spectrum method (ASM) was widely used for simulating near field propagation, but it caused a numerical error when the propagation distance was large because of aliasing due to under sampling. Band limited ASM satisfied the Nyquist condition on sampling by limiting a bandwidth of a propagation field to avoid an aliasing error so that it could extend the applicable propagation distance of the ASM. However, the band limited ASM also made an error due to the decrease of an effective sampling number in a Fourier space when the propagation distance was large. In the proposed wide range ASM, we use a non-uniform sampling in a Fourier space to keep a constant effective sampling number even though the propagation distance is large. As a result, the wide range ASM can produce simulation results with high accuracy for both far and near field propagation. For non-paraxial wave propagation, we applied the wide range ASM to a shifted destination plane as well. (paper)
Terrestrial carbon cycle affected by non-uniform climate warming
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jianyang Xia; Yiqi Luo; Jiquan Chen; Shilong Piao; Ciais, Philippe; Shiqiang Wan
2014-01-01
Feedbacks between the terrestrial carbon cycle and climate change could affect many ecosystem functions and services, such as food production, carbon sequestration and climate regulation. The rate of climate warming varies on diurnal and seasonal timescales. A synthesis of global air temperature data reveals a greater rate of warming in winter than in summer in northern mid and high latitudes, and the inverse pattern in some tropical regions. The data also reveal a decline in the diurnal temperature range over 51% of the global land area and an increase over only 13%, because night-time temperatures in most locations have risen faster than daytime temperatures. Analyses of satellite data, model simulations and in situ observations suggest that the impact of seasonal warming varies between regions. For example, spring warming has largely stimulated ecosystem productivity at latitudes between 30 degrees and 90 degrees N, but suppressed productivity in other regions. Contrasting impacts of day- and night-time warming on plant carbon gain and loss are apparent in many regions. We argue that ascertaining the effects of non-uniform climate warming on terrestrial ecosystems is a key challenge in carbon cycle research. (authors)
Coronal heating by Alfven waves dissipation in compressible nonuniform media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malara, Francesco; Primavera, Leonardo; Veltri, Pierluigi
1996-01-01
The possibility to produce small scales and then to efficiently dissipate energy has been studied by Malara et al. [1992b] in the case of MHD disturbances propagating in an weakly dissipative incompressible and inhomogeneous medium, for a strictly 2D geometry. We extend this work to include both compressibility and the third component for vector quantities. Numerical simulations show that, when an Alfven wave propagates in a compressible nonuniform medium, the two dynamical effects responsible for the small scales formation in the incompressible case are still at work: energy pinching and phase-mixing. These effects give rise to the formation of compressible perturbations (fast and slow waves or a static entropy wave). Some of these compressive fluctuations are subject to the steepening of the wave front and become shock waves, which are extremely efficient in dissipating their energy, their dissipation being independent of the Reynolds number. Rough estimates of the typical times the various dynamical processes take to produce small scales show that these times are consistent with those required to dissipate inside the solar corona the energy of Alfven waves of photospheric origin
Evaluation of nonuniform field exposures with coupling factors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sunohara, Tetsu; Hirata, Akimasa; Laakso, Ilkka; De Santis, Valerio; Onishi, Teruo
2015-01-01
In this study, the safety compliance for nonuniform field exposures is discussed using coupling factor concepts. The coupling factor, which is defined in the International Electrotechnical Commission 62311 standard, is extended to consider the effects of harmonics and also to apply to the specific absorption rate (for frequencies up to 30 MHz). The proposed compliance procedure is applied to and demonstrated for a prototype wireless power transfer (WPT) system with induction coupling operating at the fundamental frequency in 140 kHz band. First, measurements confirm that the perturbation of the external magnetic field strength and S 11 parameter of a one-loop antenna by a human-equivalent phantom are sufficiently small, suggesting the applicability of the magneto-quasi-static approximation to frequencies up to 30 MHz. Then, the frequency characteristics of the coupling factor are derived for the WPT system. For the prototype system that is not optimized for commercial usage, the maximum allowable transmitting power is relaxed by a factor of 23 with the proposed procedure. The contribution of the harmonics decreased the allowable transmitting power by 39%, indicating their importance for safety compliance. (paper)
Divergent and nonuniform gene expression patterns in mouse brain
Morris, John A.; Royall, Joshua J.; Bertagnolli, Darren; Boe, Andrew F.; Burnell, Josh J.; Byrnes, Emi J.; Copeland, Cathy; Desta, Tsega; Fischer, Shanna R.; Goldy, Jeff; Glattfelder, Katie J.; Kidney, Jolene M.; Lemon, Tracy; Orta, Geralyn J.; Parry, Sheana E.; Pathak, Sayan D.; Pearson, Owen C.; Reding, Melissa; Shapouri, Sheila; Smith, Kimberly A.; Soden, Chad; Solan, Beth M.; Weller, John; Takahashi, Joseph S.; Overly, Caroline C.; Lein, Ed S.; Hawrylycz, Michael J.; Hohmann, John G.; Jones, Allan R.
2010-01-01
Considerable progress has been made in understanding variations in gene sequence and expression level associated with phenotype, yet how genetic diversity translates into complex phenotypic differences remains poorly understood. Here, we examine the relationship between genetic background and spatial patterns of gene expression across seven strains of mice, providing the most extensive cellular-resolution comparative analysis of gene expression in the mammalian brain to date. Using comprehensive brainwide anatomic coverage (more than 200 brain regions), we applied in situ hybridization to analyze the spatial expression patterns of 49 genes encoding well-known pharmaceutical drug targets. Remarkably, over 50% of the genes examined showed interstrain expression variation. In addition, the variability was nonuniformly distributed across strain and neuroanatomic region, suggesting certain organizing principles. First, the degree of expression variance among strains mirrors genealogic relationships. Second, expression pattern differences were concentrated in higher-order brain regions such as the cortex and hippocampus. Divergence in gene expression patterns across the brain could contribute significantly to variations in behavior and responses to neuroactive drugs in laboratory mouse strains and may help to explain individual differences in human responsiveness to neuroactive drugs. PMID:20956311
Resource reflecting functor and its application to non-uniformity
Srinivasan, Priyaa Varshinee; Sanders, Barry C.; Cockett, Robin
In this work, we formulate an abstract approach to translate one resource theory to another. We adopt the notion of resource theories as partitioned symmetric monoidal categories and extend this notion by considering resource-reflecting functors between resource theories. A functor F is a structure preserving map and F is said to be resource-reflecting if F (g) being a free transformation implies that the transformation g is also free. Thus, a resource-reflecting functor demonstrates that the existence of a free transformation between two resources in the domain resource theory can be inferred from the existence of a free transformation in the codomain theory. As an example, we construct one such functor from the resource theory of non-uniformity to a resource theory of majorization. Thus, our work lays a foundation for expressing similarities between resource theories and for applying results achieved in one resource theory to another. An abstract approach to the translation between theories enables common patterns to be identified between resource theories thereby reducing the effort of solving the same problem for different theories. BCS appreciates financial support from Alberta Innovates, NSERC, China's 1000 Talent Plan and the IQIM, which is an NSF Physics Frontiers Centre (NSF Grant PHY-1125565) with support of the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (GBMF-2644).
The Influence of nonuniform activity distribution on cellular dosimetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naling, Song; Yuan, Tian; Liangan, Zhang; Guangfu, Dai
2008-01-01
S value is an important parameter in determination of absorbed dose in nuclear medicine and radiobiology. The distribution of radioactivity shows significant influence on the S value especially in microdosimetry. In present work, a semi Monte Carlo Model is developed to calculate the microdosimetric cellular S value for different micro-distributions of radioactivity, i.e. uniform, linear increase, linear decrease, exponential increase, exponential decrease and centroid distribution. Emission of alpha particles is simulated by Monte Carlo model and the energy imparted to the target volume is calculated by the analytical Continuous Slowing Down Approximation (CSDA) model and the spline interpolation of range-energy relationship. We calculate tables of S values for 213 Po and 210 Po with various dimensions and most important with various possible micro-distributions of radioactivity, such as linear increase, linear decrease, exponential increase and exponential decrease. Then we compare the S values from cell to cell of uniform distribution with the Hamacher's results to test the feasibility of our model. S values of some nonuniform micro-distributions are compared to the corresponding data of the uniform distribution. The possible sources of these differences are theoretical analyzed. (author)
Micromagnetics of thermally activated switching in nonuniformly magnetized nanodots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torres, L.; Lopez-Diaz, L.; Moro, E.; Francisco, C. de; Alejos, O.
2001-01-01
Patterned magnetic elements are being proposed as media for the future ultrahigh density storage systems. The equilibrium states of different patterned magnetic dots at zero temperature have been studied in numerous micromagnetic works while in the last year some studies have begun to include the effect of temperature in the computations. In this research a stochastic dynamic micromagnetic study is carried out for rectangular magnetic dots with size 10 by 3.1 times the exchange length, patterned in a film with a thickness of 5 times the exchange length. Two kinds of nonuniform magnetized nanodots are studied in detail: those in which the state prior to the switching follows the shape of a 'C' and those following an 'S'. In both cases a field near to the zero-temperature switching field is applied and then the thermally activated switching is observed. The dependence of the switching time on temperature is analyzed. It is observed how for the 'C' configuration an Arrhenius-like behavior is obtained in a large temperature window while this is not the case for the 'S' configuration. The micromagnetic structure of the switching thermally activated modes leading to these behaviors is also studied
Evaluation of nonuniform field exposures with coupling factors.
Sunohara, Tetsu; Hirata, Akimasa; Laakso, Ilkka; De Santis, Valerio; Onishi, Teruo
2015-10-21
In this study, the safety compliance for nonuniform field exposures is discussed using coupling factor concepts. The coupling factor, which is defined in the International Electrotechnical Commission 62311 standard, is extended to consider the effects of harmonics and also to apply to the specific absorption rate (for frequencies up to 30 MHz). The proposed compliance procedure is applied to and demonstrated for a prototype wireless power transfer (WPT) system with induction coupling operating at the fundamental frequency in 140 kHz band. First, measurements confirm that the perturbation of the external magnetic field strength and S11 parameter of a one-loop antenna by a human-equivalent phantom are sufficiently small, suggesting the applicability of the magneto-quasi-static approximation to frequencies up to 30 MHz. Then, the frequency characteristics of the coupling factor are derived for the WPT system. For the prototype system that is not optimized for commercial usage, the maximum allowable transmitting power is relaxed by a factor of 23 with the proposed procedure. The contribution of the harmonics decreased the allowable transmitting power by 39%, indicating their importance for safety compliance.
Alternative methods for evaluation of non-uniformity in nuclear medicine images
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rasaneh, S.; Rajabi, H.; Hajizadeh, E.
2005-01-01
Non-uniformity test is the most essential in daily quality control procedures of nuclear medicine equipment's. However, the calculation of non-uniformity is hindered due to high level of noise in nuclear medicine data. Non-uniformity may be considered as a type of systematic error while noise is certainly a random error. The present methods of uniformity evaluation are not able to distinguish between systematic and random error and therefore produce incorrect results when noise is significant. In the present study, two hypothetical methods have been tested for evaluation of non-uniformity in nuclear medicine images. Materials and Methods: Using the Monte Carlo method, uniform and non-uniform flood images of different matrix sizes and different counts were generated. The uniformity of the images was calculated using the conventional method and proposed methods. The results were compared with the known non-uniformity data of simulated images. Results: It was observed that the value of integral uniformity never went below the recommended values except in small matrix size of high counts (more than 80 millions counts). The differential uniformity was quite insensitive to the degree of non-uniformity in large matrix size. Matrix size of 64*64 was only found to be suitable for the calculation of differential uniformity. It was observed that in uniform images, a small amount of non-uniformity changes the p-value of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and noise amplitude of fast fourier transformation test significantly while the conventional methods failed to detect the nonuniformity. Conclusion: The conventional methods do not distinguish noise, which is always present in the data and occasional non-uniformity at low count density. In a uniform intact flood image, the difference between maximum and minimum pixel count (the value of integral uniformity) is much more than the recommended values for non-uniformity. After filtration of image, this difference decreases, but remains high
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mostrom, M.A.
1979-01-01
Coaxial transmission lines, used to transfer the high voltage pulse into the diode region of a relativistic electron beam generator, have been studied using the two-dimensional time-dependent fully relativistic and electromagnetic particle simulation code CCUBE. A simple theory of magnetic insulation that agrees well with simulation results for a straight cylindrical coax in a uniform external magnetic field is used to interpret the effects of anode--cathode shaping and nonuniform external magnetic fields. Loss of magnetic insulation appears to be minimized by satisfying two conditions: (1) the cathode surface should follow a flux surface of the external magnetic field; (2) the anode should then be shaped to insure that the magnetic insulation impedance, including transients, is always greater than the effective load impedance wherever there is an electron flow in the anode--cathode gap
Mechanism and scaling for convection of isolated structures in nonuniformly magnetized plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Garcia, O.E.; Bian, N.H.; Naulin, V.
2005-01-01
Large-scale radial advection of isolated structures in nonuniformly magnetized plasmas is investigated. The underlying mechanism considered is due to the nonlinear evolution of interchange motions, without any presumption of plasma sheaths. Theoretical arguments supported by numerical simulations...
Analysis of Quantum Effects in Non-Uniformly Doped MOS Structures
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Fiegna, Claudio
1997-01-01
This paper presents results from the self-consistent solution of Schrodinger and Poisson equations obtained in one-dimensional non-uniformly doped MOS structures suitable for the fabrication of very short transistors...
The magnetostriction in a superconductor-magnet system under non-uniform magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Xueyi; Jiang, Lang; Wu, Hao [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Disaster and Environment in Western China attached to the Ministry of Education of China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Gao, Zhiwen, E-mail: gaozhw@lzu.edu.cn [Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China)
2017-03-15
Highlights: • We studied firstly magnetostriction in HTS under non-uniform magnetic field. • The superconductors may be homogeneous and nonhomogeneous. • The magnetostrictions response of the HTS is sensitive to the critical current density and amplitude of the applied magnetic field. • The magnetostriction of nonhomogeneous HTS is larger than that of homogeneous HTS. - Abstract: This paper describes a numerical model to examine the magnetostriction of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) under non-uniform magnetic field in conjunction with finite element analysis. Through this model, the magnetostriction of homogeneous and nonhomogeneous HTS can be implemented under non-uniform magnetic field. Further, the effects of critical current density, applied field frequency and amplitude are also considered. The computational study can provide a fundamental mechanistic understanding the effects of non-uniform magnetic field on magnetostriction of HTS.
Factorization method for difference equations of hypergeometric type on nonuniform lattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alvarez-Nodarse, R. [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain); Instituto Carlos I de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain); Costas-Santos, R.S. [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain)
2001-07-13
We study the factorization of the hypergeometric-type difference equation of Nikiforov and Uvarov on nonuniform lattices. An explicit form of the raising and lowering operators is derived and some relevant examples are given. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manglos, S.H.; Jaszczak, R.J.; Floyd, C.E.
1988-01-01
A method is developed to improve quantitation in SPECT imaging by using an attenuation compensation method which includes the correct non-uniform attenuation spatial distribution (''map''). The method is based on the technique of weighted back projection, previously developed for uniform attenuation. The method is tested by imaging a non-uniform phantom, reconstructing with the known attenuation map, and quantitatively comparing the resultant image with the known activity distribution. Reconstructed image profiles are dramatically improved in comparison to reconstructions without compensation or with an assumed uniform attenuation map. Contrast measurements further quantify the improvement. Line spread function distortions seen previously in non-uniform geometries are essentially eliminated by the method. Therefore, the method appears to be appropriate for these geometries, if the non-uniform map can be determined. Some additional image distortions introduced by the compensation method are noted and will require further study
Clinical implications of alternative TCP models for nonuniform dose distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deasy, J. O.
1995-01-01
Several tumor control probability (TCP) models for nonuniform dose distributions were compared, including: (a) a logistic/inter-patient-heterogeneity model, (b) a probit/inter-patient-heterogeneity model, (c) a Poisson/radioresistant-strain/identical-patients model, (d) a Poisson/inter-patient-heterogeneity model and (e) a Poisson/intra-tumor- and inter-patient-heterogeneity model. The models were analyzed in terms of the probability of controlling a single tumor voxel (the voxel control probability, or VCP), as a function of voxel volume and dose. Alternatively, the VCP surface can be thought of as the effect of a small cold spot. The models based on the Poisson equation which include inter-patient heterogeneity ((d) and (e)) have VCP surfaces (VCP as a function of dose and volume) which have a threshold 'waterfall' shape: below the waterfall (in dose), VCP is nearly zero. The threshold dose decreases with decreasing voxel volume. However, models (a), (b), and (c) all show a high probability of controlling a voxel (VCP>50%) with very low dose (e.g., 1 Gy) if the voxel is small (smaller than about 10 -3 of the tumor volume). Model (c) does not have the waterfall shape at low volumes due to the assumption of patient uniformity and a neglect of the effect of the clonogens which are more radiosensitive (and more numerous). Models (a) and (b) deviate from the waterfall shape at low volumes due to numerical differences between the functions used and the Poisson function. Hence, the Possion models which include inter-patient heterogeneities ((d) and (e)) are more sensitive to the effects of small cold spots than the other models considered
Variational theory of cyclotron emission from nonuniformly magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shvets, V.F.; Swanson, D.G.
1992-01-01
Whereas direct calculations of emission from a source model in both homogeneous and weakly inhomogeneous media have been previously executed, there are no previous theories of the source distribution function from nonuniformly magnetized plasmas where mode conversion phenomena must be taken into account. Whenever the emitting layer is localized due to gradients of the external magnetic field, mode conversion leads to the Generalized Kirchhoff's Law (GKL) E 1 /A 1 = E 2 /A 2 = E 3 /A 3 , where A j represents the absorbed fraction on the j-th wave branch and E j is the corresponding emitted energy along j-th branch. Recently integral expressions for A j and E j in terms of arbitrary localized sink and source distributions have been obtained. The GKL relating absorption to emission along each branch of coexisting in the inhomogeneous mode conversion layer affects the shape of source distribution through a functional of the emissivity. Moreover, E j /A j ≡ I bb , where I bb is a black body radiated power. Accordingly, the distributed emission source function should be an extremal of the emissivity functional. The authors have developed the corresponding variational analysis with nontrivial GKL constraints. As a result they have discovered the correct representation of the ratio of source and sink distributions in the form of an expansion in linearly independent adjoint wave solutions of the absorption problem. Finally, unknown coefficients have been found numerically by further maximization taking account of both source boundedness and the GKL constraints. Calculations performed for a broad variety of plasma parameters will be presented
Emittance growth caused by nonuniform charge distribution of bunched beam in linac
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Yinbao; Zhang Zhenhai
1993-09-01
The nonlinear space charge effect of bunched beam in linac is one of the important reasons that induces the emittance growth because of the conversion of the field energy to kinetic energy. The authors have worked out the internal field energies associated with some nonuniform space change distributions of a bunched beam, such as Gaussian distribution, waterbag distribution and parabolic distribution. And the emittance growths caused by these nonuniformities are obtained
Influence of Non-Uniform Magnetic Field on Quantum Teleportation in Heisenberg XY Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHAO Bin; YANG Tie-jian; ZHAO Yue-hong; ZOU Jian
2007-01-01
By considering the intrinsic decoherence, the validity of quantum teleportation of a two-qubit 1D Heisenberg XY chain in a non-uniform external magnetic field is studied. The fidelity as the measurement of a possible quantum teleportation is calculated and the effects of the non-uniform magnetic field and the intrinsic decoherence are discussed. It is found that anti-parallel magnetic field is more favorable for teleportation and the fidelity is suppressed by the intrinsic decoherence.
Bubble-induced mixing of two horizontal liquid layers with non-uniform gas injection at the bottom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheung, F.B.; Pedersen, D.R.; Leinweber, G.
1986-01-01
During a postulated severe core meltdown accident in an LMFBR, a large amount of sodium coolant may spill into the reactor concrete cavity. A layer of liquid products may form as a result of the sodium-concrete reactions. The liquid product layer, which is highly viscous and much heavier than sodium, separates the concrete from the sodium pool. In general, the downward transport of sodium through the liquid product layer to the unreacted concrete surface, which controls the rate of chemical erosion of the concrete, depends strongly on the agitation induced by gas evolution from the heated concrete. In this study, experiments were conducted to explore the effect of non-uniform gas injection on mixing of two horizontal mutually soluble liquid layers. The liquid in the lower layer was chosen to be more viscous and heavier than the liquid in the upper layer. To simulate the reactor accident situation, gas was injected at the bottom of the liquid-liquid system through a circular hole that covered only the center portion of the bottom surface of the lower liquid layer. The bubble-induced mixing motions were observed and the rate of mixing was measured for different hole sizes and various gas flow rates. The results of this study clearly show that the rate of gas injection is not the only parameter controlling the mixing of the liquid-liquid system. The effect of non-uniform gas injection is important at high gas flow rates. Within the present experimental conditions, the reduction in the overall mixing rate can be as large as a factor of three
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Damasen Ikwaba Paul
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV concentrators are a promising approach for lowering PV electricity costs in the near future. However, most of the concentrators that are currently used for PV applications yield nonuniform flux profiles on the surface of a PV module which in turn reduces its electrical performance if the cells are serially connected. One way of overcoming this effect is the use of PV modules with isolated cells so that each cell generates current that is proportional to the energy flux absorbed. However, there are some cases where nonuniform illumination also exists in a single cell in an isolated cells PV module. This paper systematically studied the effect of nonuniform illumination on various cell performance parameters of a single monocrystalline standard PV cell at low and medium energy concentration ratios. Furthermore, the effect of orientation, size, and geometrical shapes of nonuniform illumination was also investigated. It was found that the effect of nonuniform illumination on various PV cell performance parameters of a single standard PV cell becomes noticeable at medium energy flux concentration whilst the location, size, and geometrical shape of nonuniform illumination have no effect on the performance parameters of the cell.
Chu, Chunlei
2012-01-01
Discrete earth models are commonly represented by uniform structured grids. In order to ensure accurate numerical description of all wave components propagating through these uniform grids, the grid size must be determined by the slowest velocity of the entire model. Consequently, high velocity areas are always oversampled, which inevitably increases the computational cost. A practical solution to this problem is to use nonuniform grids. We propose a nonuniform grid implicit spatial finite difference method which utilizes nonuniform grids to obtain high efficiency and relies on implicit operators to achieve high accuracy. We present a simple way of deriving implicit finite difference operators of arbitrary stencil widths on general nonuniform grids for the first and second derivatives and, as a demonstration example, apply these operators to the pseudo-acoustic wave equation in tilted transversely isotropic (TTI) media. We propose an efficient gridding algorithm that can be used to convert uniformly sampled models onto vertically nonuniform grids. We use a 2D TTI salt model to demonstrate its effectiveness and show that the nonuniform grid implicit spatial finite difference method can produce highly accurate seismic modeling results with enhanced efficiency, compared to uniform grid explicit finite difference implementations. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Surfactant induced flows in thin liquid films : an experimental study
Sinz, D.K.N.
2012-01-01
The topic of the experimental work summarized in my thesis is the flow in thin liquid films induced by non-uniformly distributed surfactants. The flow dynamics as a consequence of the deposition of a droplet of an insoluble surfactant onto a thin liquid film covering a solid substrate where
Agricultural sprays in cross-flow and drift
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Farooq, M.; Balachandar, R.; Wulfsohn, Dvoralai
2001-01-01
The droplet size and velocity characteristics of an agricultural spray were studied in a wind tunnel in the presence of a non-uniform cross-flow. The spray was generated at three nozzle-operating pressures. The droplet size and velocity was measured in both the cross-flow direction and the vertical...
CAVITATION STUDY OF A PROPELLER OPERATING IN A NONUNIFORM FLOW CREATED BY A WIRE GRID SCREEN.
a given axial wake as produced by a wire mesh with the cavitation in the same wake as reported by van Manen . The second objective was to determine...observed by van Manen except that the intensity varied suggesting that the cavitation index used in the two studies may not be equivalent. (Author)
2013-06-01
during the cooling of a curved channel. Shape of the plasma channel (3D restoration). The most conventional source of data for analysis in studying...results in strong compression followed by strong rarefaction behind the shock. At convex sides, the shock wave is diverging, and thus is characterized...by smaller compression followed by weaker rarefaction as compared to the convex sides. As a result, a pressure gradient builds up, with pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyahara, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Makoto; Watanabe, Tamaki
1977-01-01
The α-ray thickness gauge is used to measure non-destructively the thicknesses of thin films, and up to the present day, a thin film with uniform thickness is only taken up as the object of α-ray thickness gauge. When the thickness is determined from the displacement between the absorption curves in the presence and absence of thin film, the absorption curve must be displaced in parallel. When many uniform particles were dispersed as sample, the shape of the absorption curve was calculated as the sum of many absorption curves corresponding to the thin films with different thicknesses. By the comparison of the calculated and measured absorption curves, the number of particles, or the mean superficial density can be determined. This means the extension of thickness measurement from uniform to non-uniform films. Furthermore, these particle models being applied to non-uniform thin film, the possibility of measuring the mean thickness and non-uniformity was discussed. As the result, if the maximum difference of the thickness was more than 0.2 mg/cm 2 , the nonuniformity was considered to distinguish by the usual equipment. In this paper, an α-ray thickness gauge using the absorption curve method was treated, but one can apply this easily to an α-ray thickness gauge using α-ray energy spectra before and after the penetration of thin film. (auth.)
Non-uniform current distribution in a force-cooled superconductor under changing magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koizumi, Norikiyo
2000-02-01
instability even in the slow charge. On the other hand, both BICC and IICC are induced in the CICC of the chrome-plated strands because the current can flow across the strands in this conductor. IICC makes the circulation current larger at the high-field part, where the leakage magnetic flux is large. Since the decay time constant of IICC is a few seconds in the CICC of the chrome-plated strands whose instability is studied here, this CICC exhibits the instability in the fast charge, whose ramping time is less than 10 s, due to current imbalance. The author developed the technique to remove the instability due to non-uniform current distribution. The induced circulation current can be reduced by temporary generating the normal resistance at some parts of the conductor using inductive heaters. This technique is excellent in the viewpoint in which it can be applied after the coil has exhibited the instability. Not only discovery and explication of above mentioned instability but also development of such technique can be achieved through this study. The technology of the large superconducting coil for fusion reactors is thus developed through this research. (author)
Non-Uniformity Correction Using Nonlinear Characteristic Performance Curves for Calibration
Lovejoy, McKenna Roberts
Infrared imaging is an expansive field with many applications. Advances in infrared technology have lead to a greater demand from both commercial and military sectors. However, a known problem with infrared imaging is its non-uniformity. This non-uniformity stems from the fact that each pixel in an infrared focal plane array has its own photoresponse. Many factors such as exposure time, temperature, and amplifier choice affect how the pixels respond to incoming illumination and thus impact image uniformity. To improve performance non-uniformity correction (NUC) techniques are applied. Standard calibration based techniques commonly use a linear model to approximate the nonlinear response. This often leaves unacceptable levels of residual non-uniformity. Calibration techniques often have to be repeated during use to continually correct the image. In this dissertation alternates to linear NUC algorithms are investigated. The goal of this dissertation is to determine and compare nonlinear non-uniformity correction algorithms. Ideally the results will provide better NUC performance resulting in less residual non-uniformity as well as reduce the need for recalibration. This dissertation will consider new approaches to nonlinear NUC such as higher order polynomials and exponentials. More specifically, a new gain equalization algorithm has been developed. The various nonlinear non-uniformity correction algorithms will be compared with common linear non-uniformity correction algorithms. Performance will be compared based on RMS errors, residual non-uniformity, and the impact quantization has on correction. Performance will be improved by identifying and replacing bad pixels prior to correction. Two bad pixel identification and replacement techniques will be investigated and compared. Performance will be presented in the form of simulation results as well as before and after images taken with short wave infrared cameras. The initial results show, using a third order
Evaluation of flow hood measurements for residential register flows; TOPICAL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walker, I.S.; Wray, C.P.; Dickerhoff, D.J.; Sherman, M.H.
2001-01-01
Flow measurement at residential registers using flow hoods is becoming more common. These measurements are used to determine if the HVAC system is providing adequate comfort, appropriate flow over heat exchangers and in estimates of system energy losses. These HVAC system performance metrics are determined by using register measurements to find out if individual rooms are getting the correct airflow, and in estimates of total air handler flow and duct air leakage. The work discussed in this paper shows that commercially available flow hoods are poor at measuring flows in residential systems. There is also evidence in this and other studies that flow hoods can have significant errors even when used on the non-residential systems they were originally developed for. The measurement uncertainties arise from poor calibrations and the sensitivity of exiting flow hoods to non-uniformity of flows entering the device. The errors are usually large-on the order of 20% of measured flow, which is unacceptably high for most applications. Active flow hoods that have flow measurement devices that are insensitive to the entering airflow pattern were found to be clearly superior to commercially available flow hoods. In addition, it is clear that current calibration procedures for flow hoods may not take into account any field application problems and a new flow hood measurement standard should be developed to address this issue
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sara Bardestani
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Triangular channels have different applications in many water and wastewater engineering problems. For this purpose investigating hydraulic characteristics of flow in these sections has great importance. Researchers have presented different prediction methods for the velocity contours in prismatic sections. Most proposed methods are not able to consider the effect of walls roughness, the roughness distribution and secondary flows. However, due to complexity and nonlinearity of velocity contours in open channel flow, there is no simple relationship that can be fully able to exactly draw the velocity contours. In this paper an efficient approach for modeling velocity contours in triangular open channels with non-uniform roughness distributions by Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS has been suggested. For training and testing model, the experimental data including 1703 data in triangular channels with geometric symmetry and non-uniform roughness distributions have been used. Comparing experimental results with predicted values by model indicates that ANFIS model is capable to be used in simulation of local velocity and determining velocity contours and the independent evaluation showed that the calculated values of discharge and depth-averaged velocity from model information are precisely in conformity with experimental values.
Tripathi, D; Anwar Bég, O
2014-02-01
A mathematical study of the peristaltic flow of complex rheological viscoelastic fluids using the generalized fractional Burgers' model through a non-uniform channel is presented. This model is designed to study the movement of chyme and undigested chyme (biophysical waste materials) through the small intestine to the large intestine. To simulate blockages and impedance of debris generated by cell shedding, infections, adhesions on the wall and undigested material, a drag force porous media model is utilized. This effectively mimicks resistance to chyme percolation generated by solid matrix particles in the regime. The conduit geometry is mathematically simulated as a sinusoidal propagation with linear increment in shape of the bolus along the length of channel. A modified Darcy-Brinkman model is employed to simulate the generalized flows through isotropic, homogenous porous media, a simplified but physically robust approximation to actual clinical situations. To model the rheological properties of chyme, a viscoelastic Burgers' fluid formulation is adopted. The governing equations are simplified by assuming long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximations. Numerical and approximate analytical solutions are obtained with two semi-numerical techniques, namely the homotopy perturbation method and the variational iteration method. Visualization of the results is achieved with Mathematica software. The influence of the dominant hydromechanical and geometric parameters such as fractional viscoelastic parameters, wave number, non-uniformity constant, permeability parameter, and material constants on the peristaltic flow characteristics are depicted graphically. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Multi-Scale Coupling Between Monte Carlo Molecular Simulation and Darcy-Scale Flow in Porous Media
Saad, Ahmed Mohamed; Kadoura, Ahmad Salim; Sun, Shuyu
2016-01-01
In this work, an efficient coupling between Monte Carlo (MC) molecular simulation and Darcy-scale flow in porous media is presented. The cell centered finite difference method with non-uniform rectangular mesh were used to discretize the simulation
Experimental study of particle-driven secondary flow in turbulent pipe flows
Belt, R.J.; Daalmans, A.C.L.M.; Portela, L.M.
2012-01-01
In fully developed single-phase turbulent flow in straight pipes, it is known that mean motions can occur in the plane of the pipe cross-section, when the cross-section is non-circular, or when the wall roughness is non-uniform around the circumference of a circular pipe. This phenomenon is known as
Zhang, Wencan; Chen, Jiqing; Lan, Fengchong
2014-03-01
The existing investigations on thermal comfort mostly focus on the thermal environment conditions, especially of the air-flow field and the temperature distributions in vehicle cabin. Less attention appears to direct to the thermal comfort or thermal sensation of occupants, even to the relationship between thermal conditions and thermal sensation. In this paper, a series of experiments were designed and conducted for understanding the non-uniform conditions and the occupant's thermal responses in vehicle cabin during the heating period. To accurately assess the transient temperature distribution in cabin in common daily condition, the air temperature at a number of positions is measured in a full size vehicle cabin under natural winter environment in South China by using a discrete thermocouples network. The occupant body is divided into nine segments, the skin temperature at each segment and the occupant's local thermal sensation at the head, body, upper limb and lower limb are monitored continuously. The skin temperature is observed by using a discrete thermocouples network, and the local thermal sensation is evaluated by using a seven-point thermal comfort survey questionnaire proposed by American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc(ASHRAE) Standard. The relationship between the skin temperature and the thermal sensation is discussed and regressed by statistics method. The results show that the interior air temperature is highly non-uniform over the vehicle cabin. The locations where the occupants sit have a significant effect on the occupant's thermal responses, including the skin temperature and the thermal sensation. The skin temperature and thermal sensation are quite different between body segments due to the effect of non-uniform conditions, clothing resistance, and the human thermal regulating system. A quantitative relationship between the thermal sensation and the skin temperature at each body segment of occupant in
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fahad Al-Amri
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A numerical heat transfer model was developed to investigate the temperature of a triple junction solar cell and the thermal characteristics of the airflow in a channel behind the solar cell assembly using nonuniform incident illumination. The effects of nonuniformity parameters, emissivity of the two channel walls, and Reynolds number were studied. The maximum solar cell temperature sharply increased in the presence of nonuniform light profiles, causing a drastic reduction in overall efficiency. This resulted in two possible solutions for solar cells to operate in optimum efficiency level: (i adding new receiver plate with higher surface area or (ii using forced cooling techniques to reduce the solar cell temperature. Thus, surface radiation exchanges inside the duct and Re significantly reduced the maximum solar cell temperature, but a conventional plain channel cooling system was inefficient for cooling the solar cell at medium concentrations when the system was subjected to a nonuniform light distribution. Nonuniformity of the incident light and surface radiation in the duct had negligible effects on the collected thermal energy.
On natural frequencies of non-uniform beams modulated by finite periodic cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Yanlong; Zhou, Xiaoling; Wang, Wei; Wang, Longqi; Peng, Fujun; Li, Bin
2016-01-01
It is well known that an infinite periodic beam can support flexural wave band gaps. However, in real applications, the number of the periodic cells is always limited. If a uniform beam is replaced by a non-uniform beam with finite periodicity, the vibration changes are vital by mysterious. This paper employs the transfer matrix method (TMM) to study the natural frequencies of the non-uniform beams with modulation by finite periodic cells. The effects of the amounts, cross section ratios, and arrangement forms of the periodic cells on the natural frequencies are explored. The relationship between the natural frequencies of the non-uniform beams with finite periodicity and the band gap boundaries of the corresponding infinite periodic beam is also investigated. Numerical results and conclusions obtained here are favorable for designing beams with good vibration control ability. - Highlights: • The transfer matrix method to study the natural frequencies of the finite periodic non-uniform beams is derived. • The transfer matrix method to study the band gaps of the infinite periodic non-uniform beams is derived. • The effects of the periodic cells on the natural frequencies are explored. • The relationships of the natural frequencies and band gap boundaries are investigated.
Space cutter compensation method for five-axis nonuniform rational basis spline machining
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yanyu Ding
2015-07-01
Full Text Available In view of the good machining performance of traditional three-axis nonuniform rational basis spline interpolation and the space cutter compensation issue in multi-axis machining, this article presents a triple nonuniform rational basis spline five-axis interpolation method, which uses three nonuniform rational basis spline curves to describe cutter center location, cutter axis vector, and cutter contact point trajectory, respectively. The relative position of the cutter and workpiece is calculated under the workpiece coordinate system, and the cutter machining trajectory can be described precisely and smoothly using this method. The three nonuniform rational basis spline curves are transformed into a 12-dimentional Bézier curve to carry out discretization during the discrete process. With the cutter contact point trajectory as the precision control condition, the discretization is fast. As for different cutters and corners, the complete description method of space cutter compensation vector is presented in this article. Finally, the five-axis nonuniform rational basis spline machining method is further verified in a two-turntable five-axis machine.
On natural frequencies of non-uniform beams modulated by finite periodic cells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, Yanlong, E-mail: xuyanlong@nwpu.edu.cn [School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072, Shaanxi (China); Zhou, Xiaoling [Shanghai Institute of Aerospace System Engineering, Shanghai 201109 (China); Wang, Wei [School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072, Shaanxi (China); Wang, Longqi [School of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Peng, Fujun [Shanghai Institute of Aerospace System Engineering, Shanghai 201109 (China); Li, Bin [School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072, Shaanxi (China)
2016-09-23
It is well known that an infinite periodic beam can support flexural wave band gaps. However, in real applications, the number of the periodic cells is always limited. If a uniform beam is replaced by a non-uniform beam with finite periodicity, the vibration changes are vital by mysterious. This paper employs the transfer matrix method (TMM) to study the natural frequencies of the non-uniform beams with modulation by finite periodic cells. The effects of the amounts, cross section ratios, and arrangement forms of the periodic cells on the natural frequencies are explored. The relationship between the natural frequencies of the non-uniform beams with finite periodicity and the band gap boundaries of the corresponding infinite periodic beam is also investigated. Numerical results and conclusions obtained here are favorable for designing beams with good vibration control ability. - Highlights: • The transfer matrix method to study the natural frequencies of the finite periodic non-uniform beams is derived. • The transfer matrix method to study the band gaps of the infinite periodic non-uniform beams is derived. • The effects of the periodic cells on the natural frequencies are explored. • The relationships of the natural frequencies and band gap boundaries are investigated.
2015-12-01
ARL-SR-0347 ● DEC 2015 US Army Research Laboratory An Investigation into Conversion from Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline Boundary...US Army Research Laboratory An Investigation into Conversion from Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline Boundary Representation Geometry to...from Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline Boundary Representation Geometry to Constructive Solid Geometry 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c
Nonuniform charging effects on ion drag force in drifting dusty plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, Dong-Man; Chang, Won-Seok; Jung, Young-Dae
2006-01-01
The nonuniform polarization charging effects on the ion drag force are investigated in drifting dusty plasmas. The ion drag force due to the ion-dust grain interaction is obtained as a function of the dust charge, ion charge, plasma temperature, Mach number, Debye length, and collision energy. The result shows that the nonuniform charging effects enhance the momentum transfer cross section as well as the ion drag force. It is found that the momentum transfer cross section and the ion drag force including nonuniform polarization charging effects increase with increasing the Mach number and also the ion drag force increases with increasing the temperature. In addition, it is found that the ion drag force is slightly decreasing with an increase of the Debye length
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahn, S. K.; Chang, H. Y.
2008-01-01
To elucidate plasma nonuniformity in high frequency capacitive discharges, Langmuir probe and B-dot probe measurements were carried out in the radial direction in a cylindrical capacitive discharge driven at 90 MHz with argon pressures of 50 and 400 mTorr. Through the measurements, a significant inductive electric field (i.e., time-varying magnetic field) was observed at the radial edge, and it was found that the inductive electric field creates strong plasma nonuniformity at high pressure operation. The plasma nonuniformity at high pressure operation is physically similar to the E-H mode transition typically observed in inductive discharges. This result agrees well with the theories of electromagnetic effects in large area and/or high frequency capacitive discharges
Joint de-blurring and nonuniformity correction method for infrared microscopy imaging
Jara, Anselmo; Torres, Sergio; Machuca, Guillermo; Ramírez, Wagner; Gutiérrez, Pablo A.; Viafora, Laura A.; Godoy, Sebastián E.; Vera, Esteban
2018-05-01
In this work, we present a new technique to simultaneously reduce two major degradation artifacts found in mid-wavelength infrared microscopy imagery, namely the inherent focal-plane array nonuniformity noise and the scene defocus presented due to the point spread function of the infrared microscope. We correct both nuisances using a novel, recursive method that combines the constant range nonuniformity correction algorithm with a frame-by-frame deconvolution approach. The ability of the method to jointly compensate for both nonuniformity noise and blur is demonstrated using two different real mid-wavelength infrared microscopic video sequences, which were captured from two microscopic living organisms using a Janos-Sofradir mid-wavelength infrared microscopy setup. The performance of the proposed method is assessed on real and simulated infrared data by computing the root mean-square error and the roughness-laplacian pattern index, which was specifically developed for the present work.
An efficient shutter-less non-uniformity correction method for infrared focal plane arrays
Huang, Xiyan; Sui, Xiubao; Zhao, Yao
2017-02-01
The non-uniformity response in infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) detectors has a bad effect on images with fixed pattern noise. At present, it is common to use shutter to prevent from radiation of target and to update the parameters of non-uniformity correction in the infrared imaging system. The use of shutter causes "freezing" image. And inevitably, there exists the problems of the instability and reliability of system, power consumption, and concealment of infrared detection. In this paper, we present an efficient shutter-less non-uniformity correction (NUC) method for infrared focal plane arrays. The infrared imaging system can use the data gaining in thermostat to calculate the incident infrared radiation by shell real-timely. And the primary output of detector except the shell radiation can be corrected by the gain coefficient. This method has been tested in real infrared imaging system, reaching high correction level, reducing fixed pattern noise, adapting wide temperature range.
Vibration of nonuniform carbon nanotube with attached mass via nonlocal Timoshenko beam theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, Hai Li; Shen, Zhi Bin; Li, Dao Kui
2014-01-01
This paper studies the vibrational behavior of nonuniform single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) carrying a nanoparticle. A nonuniform cantilever beam with a concentrated mass at the free end is analyzed according to the nonlocal Timoshenko beam theory. A governing equation of a nonuniform SWCNT with attached mass is established. The transfer function method incorporating with the perturbation method is utilized to obtain the resonant frequencies of a vibrating nonlocal cantilever-mass system. The effects of the nonlocal parameter, taper ratio and attached mass on the natural frequencies and frequency shifts are discussed. Obtained results indicate that the sensitivity of the frequency shifts on the attached mass increases when the length-to-diameter ratio decreases. Tapered SWCNT possesses higher fundamental frequencies if the taper ratio becomes larger.
Computer Simulation of Nonuniform MTLs via Implicit Wendroff and State-Variable Methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Brancik
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with techniques for a computer simulation of nonuniform multiconductor transmission lines (MTLs based on the implicit Wendroff and the statevariable methods. The techniques fall into a class of finitedifference time-domain (FDTD methods useful to solve various electromagnetic systems. Their basic variants are extended and modified to enable solving both voltage and current distributions along nonuniform MTL’s wires and their sensitivities with respect to lumped and distributed parameters. An experimental error analysis is performed based on the Thomson cable whose analytical solutions are known, and some examples of simulation of both uniform and nonuniform MTLs are presented. Based on the Matlab language programme, CPU times are analyzed to compare efficiency of the methods. Some results for nonlinear MTLs simulation are presented as well.
Research on Creep Relaxation Non-uniformity and Effect on Performance of Combined Rotor
Liu, Qingya; He, Jingfei; Zhao, Lijia
2017-11-01
The combined rotor of gas turbine is connected by a certain number of rod bolts. It works in the high temperature environment for a long time, and the rod bolts will creep and relax. Under the influence of elastic interaction, the loss of pretightening force of rod bolts at different positions is non-uniform, which will cause the connection of the combined rotor to be out of tune. In this paper, the creep relaxation non-uniformity model for a class F heavy duty gas turbine is established. On the basis of this, the performance degradation and structural strength change of combined rotor resulting from creep relaxation non-uniformity of rod bolts are studied. The results show that the ratio of preload mistuning increases with time and then converges, and there is a threshold inflection point in about seven thousand hours.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roussette, S.
2005-05-01
The description of the overall behavior of nonlinear materials with nonlinear dissipative phases requires an infinity of internal variables. An approximate model involving only a finite number of internal variables, Nonuniform Transformation Field Analysis, is obtained by considering a decomposition of these variables on a finite set of nonuniform transformation fields, called plastic modes. The method is initially developed for incompressible elasto viscoplastic materials. Karhunen-Loeve expansion is proposed to optimize the plastic modes. Then the method is extended to porous elasto viscoplastic materials. Finally the transformation field analysis, developed by Dvorak, is applied to nuclear fuels MOX. This method enables to make sensitivity studies to determine the role of some microstructural parameters on the fuel behaviour. Moreover the adequacy of the nonuniform method for fuels MOX is shown, the final objective being to be able to apply the model to the MOX in 3D. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reutov, V.F.; Farkhutdinov, K.G.
1977-01-01
The results are presented of the investigation into the perimeter radiation swelling of Kh18N10T stainless steel cladding in different cross sections of a peripheral fuel element of the BR-5 reactor. The fluence on the cladding is 1.8-2.9 x 10 22 fast neutr/cm 2 , the operating temperatures in different parts of the fuel element being 430 deg to 585 deg C. There has been observed circumferential non-uniformity of the distribution, concentration, and of the total volume of radiation cavities, which is due to temperature non-uniformity along the cladding perimeter. It is shown that such non-uniformity of radiation swelling of the cladding material may result in bending of the peripheral fuel element with regard to the fuel assembly sheath walls
Hariri, Saman; Mokhtari, Mojtaba; Gerdroodbary, M. Barzegar; Fallah, Keivan
2017-02-01
In this article, a three-dimensional numerical investigation is performed to study the effect of a magnetic field on a ferrofluid inside a tube. This study comprehensively analyzes the influence of a non-uniform magnetic field in the heat transfer of a tube while a ferrofluid (water with 0.86 vol% nanoparticles (Fe3O4) is let flow. The SIMPLEC algorithm is used for obtaining the flow and heat transfer inside the tube. The influence of various parameters, such as concentration of nanoparticles, intensity of the magnetic field, wire distance and Reynolds number, on the heat transfer is investigated. According to the obtained results, the presence of a non-uniform magnetic field significantly increases the Nusselt number (more than 300%) inside the tube. Also, the magnetic field induced by the parallel wire affects the average velocity of the ferrofluid and forms two strong eddies in the tube. Our findings show that the diffusion also raises as the concentration of the nanoparticle is increased.
Photocathode non-uniformity contribution to the energy resolution of scintillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mottaghian, M.; Koohi-Fayegh, R.; Ghal-Eh, N.; Etaati, G. R.
2010-01-01
This paper introduces the basics of the light transport simulation in scintillators and the wavelength-dependencies in the process. The non-uniformity measurement of the photocathode surface is undertaken, showing that for the photocathode used in this study the quantum efficiency falls to about 4% of its maximum value, especially in areas far from the centre. The wavelength-and position-dependent quantum efficiency is implemented in the Monte Carlo light transport code, showing that, the contribution of the photocathode non-uniformity to the energy resolution is estimated to be around 18%, when all position-and wavelength-dependencies are included. (authors)
Generation of zonal magnetic fields by drift waves in a current carrying nonuniform magnetoplasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shukla, Nitin; Shukla, P.K.
2010-01-01
It is shown that zonal magnetic fields (ZMFs) can be nonlinearly excited by incoherent drift waves (DWs) in a current carrying nonuniform magnetoplasma. The dynamics of incoherent DWs in the presence of ZMFs is governed by a wave-kinetic equation. The governing equation for ZMFs in the presence of nonlinear advection force of the DWs is obtained from the parallel component of the electron momentum equation and the Faraday law. Standard techniques are used to derive a nonlinear dispersion relation, which depicts instability via which ZMFs are excited in plasmas. ZMFs may inhibit the turbulent cross-field particle and energy transport in a nonuniform magnetoplasma.
The Pierce diode with an external circuit: II, Non-uniform equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lawson, W.S.
1987-01-01
The non-uniform (non-linear) equilibria of the classical (short circuit) Pierce diode and the extended (series RLC external circuit) Pierce diode are described theoretically, and explored via computer simulation. It is found that most equilibria are correctly predicted by theory, but that the continuous set of equilibria of the classical Pierce diode at α = 2π are not observed. The stability characteristics of the non-uniform equilibria are also worked out, and are consistent with the simulations. 8 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs
Additive non-uniform random sampling in superimposed fiber Bragg grating strain gauge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, Y C; Liu, H Y; Yan, S B; Li, J M; Tang, J; Yang, Y H; Yang, M W
2013-01-01
This paper demonstrates an additive non-uniform random sampling and interrogation method for dynamic and/or static strain gauge using a reflection spectrum from two superimposed fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). The superimposed FBGs are designed to generate non-equidistant space of a sensing pulse train in the time domain during dynamic strain gauge. By combining centroid finding with smooth filtering methods, both the interrogation speed and accuracy are improved. A 1.9 kHz dynamic strain is measured by generating an additive non-uniform randomly distributed 2 kHz optical sensing pulse train from a mean 500 Hz triangular periodically changing scanning frequency. (paper)
Additive non-uniform random sampling in superimposed fiber Bragg grating strain gauge
Ma, Y. C.; Liu, H. Y.; Yan, S. B.; Yang, Y. H.; Yang, M. W.; Li, J. M.; Tang, J.
2013-05-01
This paper demonstrates an additive non-uniform random sampling and interrogation method for dynamic and/or static strain gauge using a reflection spectrum from two superimposed fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). The superimposed FBGs are designed to generate non-equidistant space of a sensing pulse train in the time domain during dynamic strain gauge. By combining centroid finding with smooth filtering methods, both the interrogation speed and accuracy are improved. A 1.9 kHz dynamic strain is measured by generating an additive non-uniform randomly distributed 2 kHz optical sensing pulse train from a mean 500 Hz triangular periodically changing scanning frequency.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abdelrasoul, Amira; Doan, Huu; Lohi, Ali; Cheng, Chil-Hung [Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto (Canada)
2016-03-15
Tha aim of the present study was to develop a series of numerical models for an accurate prediction of the power consumption in ultrafiltration of simulated latex effluent. The developed power consumption model incorporated fouling attachment, as well as chemical and physical factors in membrane fouling, in order to ensure accurate prediction and scale-up. This model was applied to heterogeneous membranes with non-uniform pore sizes at a given operating conditions and membrane surface charges. Polysulfone flat membrane, with a membrane molecular weight cutoff (MWCO) of 60,000 dalton, at different surface charges was used under a constant flow rate and cross-flow mode. In addition, the developed models were examined using various membranes at a variety of surface charges so as to test the overall reliability and accuracy of these models. The power consumption predicted by the models corresponded to the calculated values from the experimental data for various hydrophilic and hydrophobic membranes with an error margin of 6.0% up to 19.1%.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhong Xiaolin; Tatineni, Mahidhar
2003-01-01
The direct numerical simulation of receptivity, instability and transition of hypersonic boundary layers requires high-order accurate schemes because lower-order schemes do not have an adequate accuracy level to compute the large range of time and length scales in such flow fields. The main limiting factor in the application of high-order schemes to practical boundary-layer flow problems is the numerical instability of high-order boundary closure schemes on the wall. This paper presents a family of high-order non-uniform grid finite difference schemes with stable boundary closures for the direct numerical simulation of hypersonic boundary-layer transition. By using an appropriate grid stretching, and clustering grid points near the boundary, high-order schemes with stable boundary closures can be obtained. The order of the schemes ranges from first-order at the lowest, to the global spectral collocation method at the highest. The accuracy and stability of the new high-order numerical schemes is tested by numerical simulations of the linear wave equation and two-dimensional incompressible flat plate boundary layer flows. The high-order non-uniform-grid schemes (up to the 11th-order) are subsequently applied for the simulation of the receptivity of a hypersonic boundary layer to free stream disturbances over a blunt leading edge. The steady and unsteady results show that the new high-order schemes are stable and are able to produce high accuracy for computations of the nonlinear two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for the wall bounded supersonic flow
Acoustic holography for piston sound radiation with non-uniform velocity profiles
Aarts, R.M.; Janssen, A.J.E.M.
2010-01-01
The theory of orthogonal (Zernike) expansions of functions on a disk, as used in the diffraction theory of optical aberrations, is applied to obtain (semi-) analytical results for the radiation of sound due to a non-uniformly moving, baffled, circular piston. For this particular case, a scheme for
Magneto-acoustic resonance in a non-uniform current carrying plasma column
Vaclavik, J.
2017-01-01
The forced radial magneto-acoustic oscillations in a plasma column with nonuniform mass density and temperature are investigated. It turns out that the oscillations have a resonant character similar to that of the magneto-acoustic oscillations in a uniform plasma column. The properties of the axial and azimuthal components of the oscillating magnetic field are discussed in detail
Deep convolutional neural networks for dense non-uniform motion deblurring
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Cronje, J
2015-11-01
Full Text Available to form a dense non-uniform motion estimation map. Furthermore, a second CNN is trained to perform deblurring given a blurry image patch and the estimated motion vector. Combining the two trained networks result in a deep learning approach that can enhance...
Pondermotive absorption of a short intense laser pulse in a non-uniform plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andreev, A A; Platonov, K Yu [Inst. for Laser Physics, SC ` Vavilov State Optical Inst.` 12, Birzhevaya line, St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Tanaka, K A
1998-03-01
An analytical description of the pondermotive absorption mechanism at a short high intense laser pulse interaction with a strong inhomogeneous plasma is presented. The optimal conditions for the maximum of resonance absorption of laser pulse interaction with non-uniform plasma at normal incidence are founded. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Yao
2007-12-01
Full Text Available We investigate the maximum likelihood (ML direction-of-arrival (DOA estimation of multiple wideband sources in the presence of unknown nonuniform sensor noise. New closed-form expression for the direction estimation CramÃƒÂ©r-Rao-Bound (CRB has been derived. The performance of the conventional wideband uniform ML estimator under nonuniform noise has been studied. In order to mitigate the performance degradation caused by the nonuniformity of the noise, a new deterministic wideband nonuniform ML DOA estimator is derived and two associated processing algorithms are proposed. The first algorithm is based on an iterative procedure which stepwise concentrates the log-likelihood function with respect to the DOAs and the noise nuisance parameters, while the second is a noniterative algorithm that maximizes the derived approximately concentrated log-likelihood function. The performance of the proposed algorithms is tested through extensive computer simulations. Simulation results show the stepwise-concentrated ML algorithm (SC-ML requires only a few iterations to converge and both the SC-ML and the approximately-concentrated ML algorithm (AC-ML attain a solution close to the derived CRB at high signal-to-noise ratio.
Dynamic behaviour of non-uniform Bernoulli-Euler beams subjected ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper investigates the dynamics behaviour of non-uniform Bernoulli-Euler beams subjected to concentrated loads ravelling at variable velocities. The solution technique is based on the Generalized Galerkin Method and the use of the generating function of the Bessel function type. The results show that, for all the ...
On The Dynamic Analysis of Non-Uniform Beams Under Uniformly ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... the non-uniform continuous beam was replaced by a non-continuous (discrete) system made up of beam elements. The modified elemental and overall stiffness, and mass matrices, the elemental and overall centripetal acceleration matrices as well as the load vector were derived. Next, the Newmark's direct integration ...
Analysis of single blow effectiveness in non-uniform parallel plate regenerators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jesper Buch; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Engelbrecht, Kurt
2011-01-01
Non-uniform distributions of plate spacings in parallel plate regenerators have been found to induce loss of performance. In this paper, it has been investigated how variations of three geometric parameters (the aspect ratio, the porosity, and the standard deviation of the plate spacing) affects...
Low-frequency electrostatic dust-modes in a non-uniform
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A self-consistent and general description of obliquely propagating low-frequency electrostatic dust-modes in a non-uniform magnetized dusty plasma system has been presented. A number of different situations, which correspond to different low-frequency electrostatic dust-modes, namely, dust-acoustic mode, dust-drift ...
Sharp lower bounds on the extractable randomness from non-uniform sources
Skoric, B.; Obi, C.; Verbitskiy, E.A.; Schoenmakers, B.
2011-01-01
Extraction of uniform randomness from (noisy) non-uniform sources is an important primitive in many security applications, e.g. (pseudo-)random number generators, privacy-preserving biometrics, and key storage based on Physical Unclonable Functions. Generic extraction methods exist, using universal
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefan Leger
2017-10-01
Conclusion: The proposed PCM algorithm led to a significantly improved image quality compared to the originally acquired images, suggesting that it is applicable to the correction of MRI data. Thus it may help to reduce intensity non-uniformity which is an important step for advanced image analysis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sonali Sachin Sankpal
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Scattering and absorption of light is main reason for limited visibility in water. The suspended particles and dissolved chemical compounds in water are also responsible for scattering and absorption of light in water. The limited visibility in water results in degradation of underwater images. The visibility can be increased by using artificial light source in underwater imaging system. But the artificial light illuminates the scene in a nonuniform fashion. It produces bright spot at the center with the dark region at surroundings. In some cases imaging system itself creates dark region in the image by producing shadow on the objects. The problem of nonuniform illumination is neglected by the researchers in most of the image enhancement techniques of underwater images. Also very few methods are discussed showing the results on color images. This paper suggests a method for nonuniform illumination correction for underwater images. The method assumes that natural underwater images are Rayleigh distributed. This paper used maximum likelihood estimation of scale parameter to map distribution of image to Rayleigh distribution. The method is compared with traditional methods for nonuniform illumination correction using no-reference image quality metrics like average luminance, average information entropy, normalized neighborhood function, average contrast, and comprehensive assessment function.
Mezgebo, Biniyam; Nagib, Karim; Fernando, Namal; Kordi, Behzad; Sherif, Sherif
2018-02-01
Swept Source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) is an important imaging modality for both medical and industrial diagnostic applications. A cross-sectional SS-OCT image is obtained by applying an inverse discrete Fourier transform (DFT) to axial interferograms measured in the frequency domain (k-space). This inverse DFT is typically implemented as a fast Fourier transform (FFT) that requires the data samples to be equidistant in k-space. As the frequency of light produced by a typical wavelength-swept laser is nonlinear in time, the recorded interferogram samples will not be uniformly spaced in k-space. Many image reconstruction methods have been proposed to overcome this problem. Most such methods rely on oversampling the measured interferogram then use either hardware, e.g., Mach-Zhender interferometer as a frequency clock module, or software, e.g., interpolation in k-space, to obtain equally spaced samples that are suitable for the FFT. To overcome the problem of nonuniform sampling in k-space without any need for interferogram oversampling, an earlier method demonstrated the use of the nonuniform discrete Fourier transform (NDFT) for image reconstruction in SS-OCT. In this paper, we present a more accurate method for SS-OCT image reconstruction from nonuniform samples in k-space using a scaled nonuniform Fourier transform. The result is demonstrated using SS-OCT images of Axolotl salamander eggs.
Effects of transverse temperature field nonuniformity on stress in silicon sheet growth
Mataga, P. A.; Hutchinson, J. W.; Chalmers, B.; Bell, R. O.; Kalejs, J. P.
1987-01-01
Stress and strain rate distributions are calculated using finite element analysis for steady-state growth of thin silicon sheet temperature nonuniformities imposed in the transverse (sheet width) dimension. Significant reductions in residual stress are predicted to occur for the case where the sheet edge is cooled relative to its center provided plastic deformation with high creep rates is present.
An improved non-uniformity correction algorithm and its GPU parallel implementation
Cheng, Kuanhong; Zhou, Huixin; Qin, Hanlin; Zhao, Dong; Qian, Kun; Rong, Shenghui
2018-05-01
The performance of SLP-THP based non-uniformity correction algorithm is seriously affected by the result of SLP filter, which always leads to image blurring and ghosting artifacts. To address this problem, an improved SLP-THP based non-uniformity correction method with curvature constraint was proposed. Here we put forward a new way to estimate spatial low frequency component. First, the details and contours of input image were obtained respectively by minimizing local Gaussian curvature and mean curvature of image surface. Then, the guided filter was utilized to combine these two parts together to get the estimate of spatial low frequency component. Finally, we brought this SLP component into SLP-THP method to achieve non-uniformity correction. The performance of proposed algorithm was verified by several real and simulated infrared image sequences. The experimental results indicated that the proposed algorithm can reduce the non-uniformity without detail losing. After that, a GPU based parallel implementation that runs 150 times faster than CPU was presented, which showed the proposed algorithm has great potential for real time application.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
В.В. Астанін
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The publication is dedicated to determining of stress state in particular the stress concentration factors for thin – walled members of the structures subject to nonuniform tension. A structure member has obtained the operation damage generation by corrosion and other causes.
Effect of disjoining pressure in a thin film equation with non-uniform forcing
MOULTON, D. E.; LEGA, J.
2013-01-01
We explore the effect of disjoining pressure on a thin film equation in the presence of a non-uniform body force, motivated by a model describing the reverse draining of a magnetic film. To this end, we use a combination of numerical investigations
Non-uniform approximations for sums of discrete m-dependent random variables
Vellaisamy, P.; Cekanavicius, V.
2013-01-01
Non-uniform estimates are obtained for Poisson, compound Poisson, translated Poisson, negative binomial and binomial approximations to sums of of m-dependent integer-valued random variables. Estimates for Wasserstein metric also follow easily from our results. The results are then exemplified by the approximation of Poisson binomial distribution, 2-runs and $m$-dependent $(k_1,k_2)$-events.
Detection of Uniform and Nonuniform Differential Item Functioning by Item-Focused Trees
Berger, Moritz; Tutz, Gerhard
2016-01-01
Detection of differential item functioning (DIF) by use of the logistic modeling approach has a long tradition. One big advantage of the approach is that it can be used to investigate nonuniform (NUDIF) as well as uniform DIF (UDIF). The classical approach allows one to detect DIF by distinguishing between multiple groups. We propose an…
Modelling non-uniform strain distributions in aerospace composites using fibre Bragg gratings
Rajabzadehdizaji, Aydin; Groves, R.M.; Hendriks, R.C.; Heusdens, R.; Chung, Y.; Jin, W.; Lee, B.; Canning, J.; Nakamura, K.; Yuan, L.
2017-01-01
In this paper the behaviour of fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors under non-uniform strain distributions was analysed. Using the fundamental matrix approach, the length of the FBG sensor was discretised, with each segment undergoing different strain values. FBG sensors that are embedded inside
Critical opalescence of neutrons in nonuniform liquid in the gravitational field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugakov, V.I.; Chalyj, A.V.; Chernenko, L.M.
1990-01-01
The altitude dependence of the refractive index and refractive angle of the neutron beam in a nonuniform liquid near the critical point is investigated. The neutron wave function in a passing beam as well as monochromatic transmission and reflection coefficients of neutrons are found
Modeling of parallel-plate regenerators with non-uniform plate distributions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jesper Buch; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden
2010-01-01
plate spacing distributions are presented in order to understand the impact of spacing non-uniformity. Simulations of more realistic distributions where the plate spacings follow normal distributions are then discussed in order to describe the deviation of the performance of a regenerator relative...
A Single Image Deblurring Algorithm for Nonuniform Motion Blur Using Uniform Defocus Map Estimation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chia-Feng Chang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available One of the most common artifacts in digital photography is motion blur. When capturing an image under dim light by using a handheld camera, the tendency of the photographer’s hand to shake causes the image to blur. In response to this problem, image deblurring has become an active topic in computational photography and image processing in recent years. From the view of signal processing, image deblurring can be reduced to a deconvolution problem if the kernel function of the motion blur is assumed to be shift invariant. However, the kernel function is not always shift invariant in real cases; for example, in-plane rotation of a camera or a moving object can blur different parts of an image according to different kernel functions. An image that is degraded by multiple blur kernels is called a nonuniform blur image. In this paper, we propose a novel single image deblurring algorithm for nonuniform motion blur images that is blurred by moving object. First, a proposed uniform defocus map method is presented for measurement of the amounts and directions of motion blur. These blurred regions are then used to estimate point spread functions simultaneously. Finally, a fast deconvolution algorithm is used to restore the nonuniform blur image. We expect that the proposed method can achieve satisfactory deblurring of a single nonuniform blur image.
Below-threshold harmonic generation from strong non-uniform fields
Yavuz, I.
2017-10-01
Strong-field photoemission below the ionization threshold is a rich/complex region where atomic emission and harmonic generation may coexist. We studied the mechanism of below-threshold harmonics (BTH) from spatially non-uniform local fields near the metallic nanostructures. Discrete harmonics are generated due to the broken inversion symmetry, suggesting enriched coherent emission in the vuv frequency range. Through the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, we investigate wavelength and intensity dependence of BTH. Wavelength dependence identifies counter-regular resonances; individual contributions from the multi-photon emission and channel-closing effects due to quantum path interferences. In order to understand the underlying mechanism of BTH, we devised a generalized semi-classical model, including the influence of Coulomb and non-uniform field interactions. As in uniform fields, Coulomb potential in non-uniform fields is the determinant of BTH; we observed that the generation of BTH are due to returning trajectories with negative energies. Due to large distance effectiveness of the non-uniformity, only long trajectories are noticeably affected.
New fundamental insights into capacitance modeling of laterally nonuniform MOS devices
Aarts, A.C.T.; Hout, van der R.; Paasschens, J.C.J.; Scholten, A.J.; Willemsen, M.B.; Klaassen, D.B.M.
2006-01-01
In compact transistor modeling for circuit simulation, the capacitances of conventional MOS devices are commonly determined as the derivatives of terminal charges, which in their turn are obtained from the so-called Ward-Dutton charge partitioning scheme. For devices with a laterally nonuniform
Li, Yiyang; Jin, Weiqi; Li, Shuo; Zhang, Xu; Zhu, Jin
2017-05-08
Cooled infrared detector arrays always suffer from undesired ripple residual nonuniformity (RNU) in sky scene observations. The ripple residual nonuniformity seriously affects the imaging quality, especially for small target detection. It is difficult to eliminate it using the calibration-based techniques and the current scene-based nonuniformity algorithms. In this paper, we present a modified temporal high-pass nonuniformity correction algorithm using fuzzy scene classification. The fuzzy scene classification is designed to control the correction threshold so that the algorithm can remove ripple RNU without degrading the scene details. We test the algorithm on a real infrared sequence by comparing it to several well-established methods. The result shows that the algorithm has obvious advantages compared with the tested methods in terms of detail conservation and convergence speed for ripple RNU correction. Furthermore, we display our architecture with a prototype built on a Xilinx Virtex-5 XC5VLX50T field-programmable gate array (FPGA), which has two advantages: (1) low resources consumption; and (2) small hardware delay (less than 10 image rows). It has been successfully applied in an actual system.
Numerical Study of the Inertia Effect on Flow Distribution in Micro-gap Plate Heat Exchanger
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Jang Min; Yoon, Seok Ho; Lee, Kong Hoon; Song Chan Ho
2014-01-01
This paper presents numerical study on flow and heat transfer characteristics in micro-gap plate heat exchanger. In particular, we investigate the effect of flow inertia on the flow distribution from single main channel to multiple parallel micro-gaps. The flow regime of the main channel is varied from laminar regime (Reynolds number of 100) to turbulent regime (Reynolds number of 10000) by changing the flow rate, and non-uniformity of the flow distribution and temperature field is evaluated quantitatively based on the standard deviation. The flow distribution is found to be significantly affected by not only the header design but also the flow rate of the main channel. It is also observed that the non-uniformity of the temperature field has its maximum at the intermediate flow regime
Axisymmetric free convection boundary-layer flow past slender bodies
Kuiken, H.K.
1968-01-01
Radial curvature effects on axisymmetric free convection boundary-layer flow are investigated for vertical cylinders and cones for some special non-uniform temperature differences between the surface and the ambient fluid. The solution is given as a power series expansion, the first term being equal
Zingg, Sara; Anagnostou, Georg
2018-01-01
Non-uniform permeability may result in complex hydraulic head fields with potentially very high hydraulic gradients close to the tunnel face, which may be adverse for stability depending on the ground strength. Pore pressure relief by drainage measures in advance of the tunnel excavation improves stability, but the effectiveness of drainage boreholes may be low in the case of alternating aquifers and aquitards. This paper analyses the effects of hydraulic heterogeneity and advance drainage quantitatively by means of limit equilibrium computations that take account of the seepage forces acting upon the ground in the vicinity the tunnel face. The piezometric field is determined numerically by means of steady-state, three-dimensional seepage flow analyses considering the heterogeneous structure of the ground and a typical advance drainage scheme consisting of six axial boreholes drilled from the tunnel face. A suite of stability analyses was carried out covering a wide range of heterogeneity scales. The computational results show the effect of the orientation, thickness, location, number and permeability ratio of aquifers and aquitards and provide valuable indications about potentially critical situations, the effectiveness of advance drainage and the adequate arrangement of drainage boreholes. The paper shows that hydraulic heterogeneity results in highly variable face behaviour, even if the shear strength of the ground is constant along the alignment, but ground behaviour is considerably less variable in the presence of advance drainage measures.
Bubble-induced mixing of two horizontal liquid layers with non-uniform gas injection at the bottom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheung, F.B.; Leinweber, G.; Pedersen, D.R.
1984-01-01
During a postulated severe core meltdown accident in an LMFBR, a large amount of sodium coolant may spill into the reactor concrete cavity. A layer of liquid products may form as a result of the sodium-concrete reactions. The liquid product layer, which is highly viscous and much heavier than sodium, separates the concrete from the sodium pool. In general, the downward transport of sodium through the liquid product layer to the unreacted concrete surface, which controls the rate of chemical erosion of the concrete, depends strongly on the agitation induced by gas evolution from the heated concrete. In this study, experiments were conducted to explore the effect of non-uniform gas injection on mixing of two horizontal mutually soluble liquid layers. The liquid in the lower layer was chosen to be more viscous and heavier than the liquid in the upper layer. To simulate the reactor accident situation, gas was injected at the bottom of the liquid-liquid system through a circular hole that covered only the center portion of the bottom surface of the lower liquid layer. The bubble-induced mixing motions were observed and the rate of mixing was measured for different hole sizes and for various gas flow rates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sutrisno Wahyuniarsih
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Uniform corrosion still widely used by a lot of researchers and engineers to analyze the corrosion induced cracking. However, in practice, corrosion process occurred non-uniformly. The part nearest to the exposed surface is more likely to have faster corrosion initiation compared with other regions. This research is mainly focused on investigating the effect of non-uniform rust distribution to cover cracking in reinforced concrete. An experimental test performed using accelerated corrosion test by using 5% NaCl solution and applied a constant electric current to the concrete samples. The rust distribution and measurement were observed by using a digital microscope. Based on the experimental result, it was found that the rust was distributed in a non-uniform pattern. As a result, the cracks also formed non-uniformly along the perimeter of steel bar. At the last part of this paper, a simulation result of concrete cracking induced by non-uniform corrosion is presented. The result compared with a simulation using uniform corrosion assumption to investigate the damage pattern of each model. The simulation result reveals stress evolution due to rust expansion which leads to concrete cracking. Furthermore, a comparison of stresses induced by non-uniform corrosion and uniform corrosion indicates that non-uniform corrosion could lead to earlier damage to the structure which is specified by the formation and propagation of the crack.
Vortical Structures and Turbulent Bursts Behind Magnetic Obstacles in Transitional Flow Regimes
Kenjeres, S.; Ten Cate, S.; Voesenek, C.J.
2011-01-01
The present paper reports on numerical investigations of vortical structures in transient flow regimes generated by the local action of the Lorentz force on an electrically conductive fluid. The locally imposed non-uniform magnetic field generates similar effects as observed for flows over submerged
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen Pei; Zhang Wanrong; Huang Lu; Jin Dongyue; Xie Hongyun
2011-01-01
An improved inductor layout with non-uniform metal width and non-uniform spacing is proposed to increase the quality factor (Q factor). For this inductor layout, from outer coil to inner coil, the metal width is reduced by an arithmetic-progression step, while the metal spacing is increased by a geometric-progression step. An improved layout with variable width and changed spacing is of benefit to the Q factor of RF spiral inductor improvement (approximately 42.86%), mainly due to the suppression of eddy-current loss by weakening the current crowding effect in the center of the spiral inductor. In order to increase the Q factor further, for the novel inductor, a patterned ground shield is used with optimized layout together. The results indicate that, in the range of 0.5 to 16 GHz, the Q factor of the novel inductor is at an optimum, which improves by 67% more than conventional inductors with uniform geometry dimensions (equal width and equal spacing), is enhanced by nearly 23% more than a PGS inductor with uniform geometry dimensions, and improves by almost 20% more than an inductor with an improved layout. (semiconductor devices)
Conductance dips and spin precession in a nonuniform waveguide with spin–orbit coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malyshev, A. I., E-mail: malyshev@phys.unn.ru; Kozulin, A. S. [Lobachevsky Nizhny Novgorod State University (Russian Federation)
2015-07-15
An infinite waveguide with a nonuniformity, a segment of finite length with spin–orbit coupling, is considered in the case when the Rashba and Dresselhaus parameters are identical. Analytical expressions have been derived in the single-mode approximation for the conductance of the system for an arbitrary initial spin state. Based on numerical calculations with several size quantization modes, we have detected and described the conductance dips arising when the waves are localized in the nonuniformity due to the formation of an effective potential well in it. We show that allowance for the evanescent modes under carrier spin precession in an effective magnetic field does not lead to a change in the direction of the average spin vector at the output of the system.
Non-Uniform Dose Mapping Controlled by Modulated Vertical and Horizontal Scans
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ninomiya, S.; Kimura, Y.; Kudo, T.; Ochi, A.; Toda, R.; Tsukihara, M.; Sato, F.; Fuse, G.; Ueno, K.; Sugitani, M.
2008-01-01
Since geometries of semi-conductor devices continue to shrink, the requirement for each process becomes severer to keep uniformity of electrical parameters of the semi-conductor devices. A larger wafer also causes larger variations. Thus it has been strongly required for ion implantation process to compensate for the variations from other processes because of its good dose controllability. A newly developed mapping of intentional non-uniform dosage system, which is named 'MIND system', is implemented in SEN's single-wafer-type implanters. The MIND system controls both horizontal and vertical scan speed simultaneously. Intentional two-dimensional non-uniform profiles of sheet resistance, such as concentric and eccentric profiles, are obtained only by single-step ion implantation.
Study of submelt laser induced junction nonuniformities using Therma-Probe
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rosseel, E.; Bogdanowicz, J; Clarysse, T.
2010-01-01
to standard and micro-four-point probe sheet resistance data, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and Hall measurements obtained during earlier studies. Besides the impact of the nonuniformities on the “conventional” thermal wave signal, they found a strong correlation to the dc reflectance of the probe laser...... both at macroscopic and microscopic levels. In this work, the authors present high resolution Therma-Probe® measurements to assess the junction nonuniformity on 0.5 keV boron junctions and zoom in on the effect of temperature variations and multiple subsequent laser scans. The results are compared...... (lambda = 675 nm). The dc probe reflectance is dominated by free carriers and is highly correlated to the sheet resistance both on blanket wafers and on real device wafers. ©2010 American Vacuum Society...
Nonuniform Sparse Data Clustering Cascade Algorithm Based on Dynamic Cumulative Entropy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ning Li
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A small amount of prior knowledge and randomly chosen initial cluster centers have a direct impact on the accuracy of the performance of iterative clustering algorithm. In this paper we propose a new algorithm to compute initial cluster centers for k-means clustering and the best number of the clusters with little prior knowledge and optimize clustering result. It constructs the Euclidean distance control factor based on aggregation density sparse degree to select the initial cluster center of nonuniform sparse data and obtains initial data clusters by multidimensional diffusion density distribution. Multiobjective clustering approach based on dynamic cumulative entropy is adopted to optimize the initial data clusters and the best number of the clusters. The experimental results show that the newly proposed algorithm has good performance to obtain the initial cluster centers for the k-means algorithm and it effectively improves the clustering accuracy of nonuniform sparse data by about 5%.
Effects of non-uniform embedments on earthquake responses of nuclear reactor building
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koyanagi, Y.; Okamoto, S.; Yoshida, K.; Inove, H.
1989-01-01
The nuclear reactor buildings have the portion embedded in soil. In the seismic design of such structures, it is essential to consider the effects of the embedment on the earthquake response. Most studies on these effects, however, assume the uniform embedment, i.e. the depth of the embedment is constant, which is convenient for the design and analysis. The behavior of the earthquake response considering the three-dimensional aspects of non-uniform embedment has not been made clear yet. In this paper, the authors evaluate the effects of the non-uniform embedment in an inclined ground surface on the earthquake response of a nuclear reactor building as illustrated. A typical PWR type reactor building is chosen as an analysis structure model. Four different types of embedment are set up for the comparison study. The three-dimensional analysis is carried out considering the geometry of embedment
Selective catalytic reduction converter design: The effect of ammonia nonuniformity at inlet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paramadayalan, Thiyagarajan; Pant, Atul
2013-01-01
A three-dimensional CFD model of SCR converter with detailed chemistry is developed. The model is used to study the effects of radial variation in inlet ammonia profile on SCR emission performance at different temperatures. The model shows that radial variation in inlet ammonia concentration affects the SCR performance in the operating range of 200-400 .deg. C. In automotive SCR systems, ammonia is non-uniformly distributed due to evaporation/reaction of injected urea, and using a 1D model or a 3D model with flat ammonia profile at inlet for these conditions can result in erroneous emission prediction. The 3D SCR model is also used to study the effect of converter design parameters like inlet cone angle and monolith cell density on the SCR performance for a non-uniform ammonia concentration profile at the inlet. The performance of SCR is evaluated using DeNO x efficiency and ammonia slip
A new purely growing instability in a strongly magnetized nonuniform pair plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shukla, Nitin; Shukla, P.K.
2007-01-01
It is shown that a strongly magnetized nonuniform electron-positron (hereafter referred to as e-p or pair) plasma is unstable against low-frequency (in comparison with the electron gyrofrequency) electrostatic oscillations. For this purpose, a dispersion relation is derived by using the Poisson equation as well as the electron and positron continuity equations with the guiding center drifts for the electron and positron fluids. The dispersion relation admits a purely growing instability in the presence of the equilibrium density and magnetic field inhomogeneities. Physically, instability arises because of the inhomogeneous magnetic field induced differential electron and positron density fluctuations, which do not keep in phase with the electrostatic potential arising from the charge separation in our nonuniform pair plasmas
Tunable pinning effects produced by non-uniform antidot arrays in YBCO thin films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
George, J.; Jones, A.; Al-Qurainy, M. [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Fedoseev, S.A. [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Rosenfeld, A. [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Pan, A.V. [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation)
2017-04-15
Uniform, graded and spaced arrays of 3 μm triangular antidots in pulsed laser deposited YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO) superconducting thin films are compared by examining the improvements in the critical current density J{sub c} they produced. The comparison is made to establish the role of their lithographically defined (non-)uniformity and the effectiveness to control and/or enhance the critical current density. It is found that almost all types of non-uniform arrays, including graded ones enhance J{sub c} over the broad applied magnetic field and temperature range due to the modified critical state. Whereas uniform arrays of antidots either reduce or produce no effect on J{sub c} compared to the original (as-deposited) thin films. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Selective exfoliation of single-layer graphene from non-uniform graphene grown on Cu
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lim, Jae-Young; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Jang, Hyeon-Sik; Whang, Dongmok; Joo, Won-Jae; Hwang, SungWoo
2015-01-01
Graphene growth on a copper surface via metal-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition has several advantages in terms of providing high-quality graphene with the potential for scale-up, but the product is usually inhomogeneous due to the inability to control the graphene layer growth. The non-uniform regions strongly affect the reliability of the graphene in practical electronic applications. Herein, we report a novel graphene transfer method that allows for the selective exfoliation of single-layer graphene from non-uniform graphene grown on a Cu foil. Differences in the interlayer bonding energy are exploited to mechanically separate only the top single-layer graphene and transfer this to an arbitrary substrate. The dry-transferred single-layer graphene showed electrical characteristics that were more uniform than those of graphene transferred using conventional wet-etching transfer steps. (paper)
Absolute parametric instability of low frequency waves in a 2-D nonuniform anisotropic warm plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaki, N.G.
2004-01-01
Using the separation method, the problem of absolute parametric instability (API) of electrostatic waves in magnetized pumped warm plasma is investigated. In this case the effect of static strong magnetic field is considered. The problem of strong magnetic field is solved in 2-D nonuniform plane plasma. The equations which describe the spatial part of the electric potential are obtained. Also the growth rates and conditions of the parametric instability for periodic cases are obtained. It is found that the spatial nonuniformity of the plasma exerts a stabilizing effect on the API. It is shown that the growth rates of periodic and aperiodic API in warm plasma are reduced in comparison with a cold plasma case
Non-uniformly sampled grids in double pole coordinate system for freeform reflector construction
Ma, Donglin; Pacheco, Shaun; Feng, Zexin; Liang, Rongguang
2015-08-01
We propose a new method to design freeform reflectors by nonuniformly sampling the source intensity distribution in double pole coordinate system. In double pole coordinate system, there is no pole for the whole hemisphere because both poles of the spherical coordinate system are moved to southernmost point of the sphere and overlapped together. With symmetric definition of both angular coordinates in the modified double pole coordinate system, a better match between the source intensity distribution and target irradiance distribution can be achieved for reflectors with large acceptance solid angle, leading to higher light efficiency and better uniformity on the target surface. With non-uniform sampling of the source intensity, we can design circular freeform reflector to obtain uniform rectangular illumination pattern. Aided by the feedback optimization, the freeform reflector can achieve the collection efficiency for ideal point source over 0.7 and relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 0.1.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, A.H.; Plawsky, J.L.; Wayner, P.C. Jr.
1993-01-01
The long-term objective of this research program is to determine the stability and heat transfer characteristics of evaporating thin films. The current objective is to develop and use a microscopic image-processing system (IPS) which has two parts: an image analyzing interferometer (IAI) and an image scanning ellipsometer (ISE). The primary purpose of this paper is to present the basic concept of ISE, which is a novel technique to measure the two dimensional thickness profile of a non-uniform, thin film, from several nm up to several μm, in a steady state as well as in a transient state. It is a full-field imaging technique which can study every point on the surface simultaneously with high spatial resolution and thickness sensitivity, i.e., it can measure and map the 2-D film thickness profile. The ISE was tested by measuring the thickness profile and the refractive index of a nonuniform solid film
Many-junction photovoltaic device performance under non-uniform high-concentration illumination
Valdivia, Christopher E.; Wilkins, Matthew M.; Chahal, Sanmeet S.; Proulx, Francine; Provost, Philippe-Olivier; Masson, Denis P.; Fafard, Simon; Hinzer, Karin
2017-09-01
A parameterized 3D distributed circuit model was developed to calculate the performance of III-V solar cells and photonic power converters (PPC) with a variable number of epitaxial vertically-stacked pn junctions. PPC devices are designed with many pn junctions to realize higher voltages and to operate under non-uniform illumination profiles from a laser or LED. Performance impacts of non-uniform illumination were greatly reduced with increasing number of junctions, with simulations comparing PPC devices with 3 to 20 junctions. Experimental results using Azastra Opto's 12- and 20-junction PPC illuminated by an 845 nm diode laser show high performance even with a small gap between the PPC and optical fiber output, until the local tunnel junction limit is reached.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. M. Jeevani W. Jayasinghe
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Genetic algorithm (GA has been a popular optimization technique used for performance improvement of microstrip patch antennas (MPAs. When using GA, the patch geometry is optimized by dividing the patch area into small rectangular cells. This has an inherent problem of adjacent cells being connected to each other with infinitesimal connections, which may not be achievable in practice due to fabrication tolerances in chemical etching. As a solution, this paper presents a novel method of dividing the patch area into cells with nonuniform overlaps. The optimized design, which is obtained by using fixed overlap sizes, shows a quad-band performance covering GSM1800, GSM1900, LTE2300, and Bluetooth bands. In contrast, use of nonuniform overlap sizes leads to obtaining a pentaband design covering GSM1800, GSM1900, UMTS, LTE2300, and Bluetooth bandswith fractional bands with of 38% due to the extra design flexibility.
Effects of a nonuniform open magnetic field on the plasma presheath
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, Kunihiro; Miyawaki, Fujio
1991-01-01
Effects of a nonuniform magnetic field on the plasma presheath is numerically investigated using the plasma equation for a collisionless plasma with a finite-temperature particle source. The present calculation confirms that analytical solutions previously published by the authors are available over a wide range of mirror ratio. Potential drop in the presheath, which considerably depends on both the magnetic strength profile and the spatial distribution of the particle source, is remarkably increased by applying an expanding magnetic field when plasma particles are generated in the inner part of the plasma. An effect of a nonuniform magnetic field on sheath formation is also discussed by using the calculated ion distribution function. If the plasma equation has no singularity at the sheath edge, its solution satisfies the generalized Bohm criterion with the inequality sign in the expanding magnetic field. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naletova, V.A.; Kvitantsev, A.S.
2002-01-01
A prolate spheroidal body immersed into a nonuniformly heated magnetic liquid in an applied magnetic field has been considered. The expressions for the pressure and velocity of the liquid, temperature and magnetic field have been obtained. The formula for a thermomagnetic force acting on the body has been calculated. It has been shown that the body shape needs to be taken into account when we study the thermomagnetic diffusion of the prolate bodies
Lücken, Leonhard; Yanchuk, Serhiy; Popovych, Oleksandr V.; Tass, Peter A.
2013-01-01
Several brain diseases are characterized by abnormal neuronal synchronization. Desynchronization of abnormal neural synchrony is theoretically compelling because of the complex dynamical mechanisms involved. We here present a novel type of coordinated reset (CR) stimulation. CR means to deliver phase resetting stimuli at different neuronal sub-populations sequentially, i.e., at times equidistantly distributed in a stimulation cycle. This uniform timing pattern seems to be intuitive and actually applies to the neural network models used for the study of CR so far. CR resets the population to an unstable cluster state from where it passes through a desynchronized transient, eventually resynchronizing if left unperturbed. In contrast, we show that the optimal stimulation times are non-uniform. Using the model of weakly pulse-coupled neurons with phase response curves, we provide an approach that enables to determine optimal stimulation timing patterns that substantially maximize the desynchronized transient time following the application of CR stimulation. This approach includes an optimization search for clusters in a low-dimensional pulse coupled map. As a consequence, model-specific non-uniformly spaced cluster states cause considerably longer desynchronization transients. Intriguingly, such a desynchronization boost with non-uniform CR stimulation can already be achieved by only slight modifications of the uniform CR timing pattern. Our results suggest that the non-uniformness of the stimulation times can be a medically valuable parameter in the calibration procedure for CR stimulation, where the latter has successfully been used in clinical and pre-clinical studies for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and tinnitus. PMID:23750134
The use of non-uniform drowning terminology: a follow-up study.
Schmidt, Andrew C; Sempsrott, Justin R; Szpilman, David; Queiroga, Ana Catarina; Davison, Matt S; Zeigler, Ryan J; McAlister, Sean J
2017-07-17
In 2002, the World Congress on Drowning developed a uniform definition for drowning. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of "non-uniform drowning terminology" (NUDT) and "non-uniform drowning definitions" (NUDD) in peer-reviewed scientific literature from 2010 to 2016, and compare these findings with those from our unpublished study performing a similar analysis on literature from 2003 to 2010. A systematic review was performed using drowning-specific search terms in Pubmed and Web of Science. Titles and abstracts published between July 2010 and January 2016 were screened for relevance to the study focus. Articles meeting screening criteria were reviewed for exclusion criteria to produce the final group of studies. These articles were reviewed by four reviewers for NUDT and NUDD. The Fisher exact test was used to determine any statistically significant changes. The final group of studies included 167 articles. A total of 53 articles (32%) utilized NUDT, with 100% of these including the term "near drowning". The proportion of articles utilizing NUDT was significantly less than reported by our previous study (p drowning (uniform or non-uniform), with 15% of these utilizing NUDD. Our study reveals a statistically significant improvement over the past thirteen years in the use of uniform drowning terminology in peer-reviewed scientific literature, although year-to-year variability over the current study period does not yield an obvious trend. Of the articles reviewed during the 2010-2016 study period, 32% included outdated and non-uniform drowning terminology and definitions. While this reveals an absolute decrease of 11% as compared with the previous study period (2003-2010), there is still significant room for improvement.
A splitting algorithm for the wavelet transform of cubic splines on a nonuniform grid
Sulaimanov, Z. M.; Shumilov, B. M.
2017-10-01
For cubic splines with nonuniform nodes, splitting with respect to the even and odd nodes is used to obtain a wavelet expansion algorithm in the form of the solution to a three-diagonal system of linear algebraic equations for the coefficients. Computations by hand are used to investigate the application of this algorithm for numerical differentiation. The results are illustrated by solving a prediction problem.
Influence of Non-uniform Temperature Field on Spectra of Fibre Bragg Grating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan, Zhou; Xing-Fang, He; Xiao-Yong, Fang; Jie, Yuan; Li-Qun, Yin; Mao-Sheng, Cao
2009-01-01
We simulate the spectrum characteristics of fibre Bragg grating (FBG) with non-uniform temperature using the transmission matrix method, and the results are analysed. It is found that firstly the modulated coefficient of average refractive index is a very important parameter that influences the spectrum characteristic of the fibre Bragg grating, and secondly the spectrum curves are different in different temperature fields at the same parameter. Hence, we can determine the metrical temperature by analysing the spectrum of fibre Bragg grating
Experience with nonuniform damping in the seismic analysis of nuclear plant components
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winkel, B.V.; Julyk, L.J.
1983-01-01
Individual components of nuclear power plants may exhibit pronounced differences in damping magnitude. Various methods for accounting for nonuniform damping in a structural model are reviewed and evaluated. The methods are compared by solving a beam/pipe model subjected to a typical seismic ground motion. A two-degree-of-freedom variable damping parameter study is also presented. Based upon the experience of evaluating and applying the available methods, application guidelines are presented
Human thermal sensation and comfort in a non-uniform environment with personalized heating.
Deng, Qihong; Wang, Runhuai; Li, Yuguo; Miao, Yufeng; Zhao, Jinping
2017-02-01
Thermal comfort in traditionally uniform environment is apparent and can be improved by increasing energy expenses. To save energy, non-uniform environment implemented by personalized conditioning system attracts considerable attention, but human response in such environment is unclear. To investigate regional- and whole-body thermal sensation and comfort in a cool environment with personalized heating. In total 36 subjects (17 males and 19 females) including children, adults and the elderly, were involved in our experiment. Each subject was first asked to sit on a seat in an 18°C chamber (uniform environment) for 40min and then sit on a heating seat in a 16°C chamber (non-uniform environment) for another 40min after 10min break. Subjects' regional- and whole-body thermal sensation and comfort were surveyed by questionnaire and their skin temperatures were measured by wireless sensors. We statistically analyzed subjects' thermal sensation and comfort and their skin temperatures in different age and gender groups and compared them between the uniform and non-uniform environments. Overall thermal sensation and comfort votes were respectively neutral and just comfortable in 16°C chamber with personalized heating, which were significantly higher than those in 18°C chamber without heating (pthermal sensation and comfort was consistent in subjects of different age and gender. However, adults and the females were more sensitive to the effect of personalized heating and felt cooler and less comfort than children/elderly and the males respectively. Variations of the regional thermal sensation/comfort across human body were consistent with those of skin temperature. Personalized heating significantly improved human thermal sensation and comfort in non-uniform cooler environment, probably due to the fact that it increased skin temperature. However, the link between thermal sensation/comfort and variations of skin temperature is rather complex and warrant further
2011-12-07
with nonuniform interfaces plays an essential role in the interfacial instabilities in iner- tial confinement fusion (ICF), in shock-induced...involved in interfacial instabilities at the atomic scale, providing insights on such phenomenon. Thus ReaxFF provides the possibility of realistic...on the IPDI and DOA to determine the charges and structures for the binder model. These QM results and model preparation procedure are provided as part
On the Super-Turing Computational Power of Non-Uniform Families of Neuromata
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Wiedermann, Jiří
2002-01-01
Roč. 12, č. 5 (2002), s. 509-516 ISSN 1210-0552. [SOFSEM 2002 Workshop on Soft Computing. Milovy, 28.11.2002-29.11.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/00/1489 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : neuromata * Turing machines with advice * non-uniform computational complexity * super-Turing computational power Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Afridi, S; Sandhu, M; Hunter, I
2016-01-01
This paper presents a method to improve the spurious performance of integrated ceramic waveguide filters. Nonuniform width ceramic waveguide resonator and evanescent mode ceramic resonators are employed together to the resonant frequencies of higher order modes. The proposed designs give 75% improvement in stop band response when compared to uniform width ceramic waveguide filter. Simulated results of two six pole chebyshev filters are presented here with improved stop band performance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulikovsky, A.A.
2001-01-01
The efficiency of streamer corona depends on a number of factors such as geometry of electrodes, voltage pulse parameters, gas pressure etc. In a past 5 years a two-dimensional models of streamer in nonuniform fields in air have been developed. These models allow to simulate streamer dynamics and generation of species and to investigate the influence of external parameters on species production. In this work the influence of Laplacian field on efficiency of radicals generation is investigated
Radiation flaw detector for testing non-uniform surface bodies of revolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valevich, M.I.
1984-01-01
Radiation flaw detector for testing bodies of revolution with non-uniform surface, welded joints, etc., based on spatial filtration and differentiation of ionizing radiation flux has been described. The calculation of the most important unit of flaw detector - integrators - is made. Experimental studies of the sensitivity have shown, that the radiation flaw detector can be used for rapid testing of products with the sensitivity comparable with the sensitivity of radiographic testing of steel
Enceladus's crust as a non-uniform thin shell: I tidal deformations
Beuthe, Mikael
2018-03-01
The geologic activity at Enceladus's south pole remains unexplained, though tidal deformations are probably the ultimate cause. Recent gravity and libration data indicate that Enceladus's icy crust floats on a global ocean, is rather thin, and has a strongly non-uniform thickness. Tidal effects are enhanced by crustal thinning at the south pole, so that realistic models of tidal tectonics and dissipation should take into account the lateral variations of shell structure. I construct here the theory of non-uniform viscoelastic thin shells, allowing for depth-dependent rheology and large lateral variations of shell thickness and rheology. Coupling to tides yields two 2D linear partial differential equations of the fourth order on the sphere which take into account self-gravity, density stratification below the shell, and core viscoelasticity. If the shell is laterally uniform, the solution agrees with analytical formulas for tidal Love numbers; errors on displacements and stresses are less than 5% and 15%, respectively, if the thickness is less than 10% of the radius. If the shell is non-uniform, the tidal thin shell equations are solved as a system of coupled linear equations in a spherical harmonic basis. Compared to finite element models, thin shell predictions are similar for the deformations due to Enceladus's pressurized ocean, but differ for the tides of Ganymede. If Enceladus's shell is conductive with isostatic thickness variations, surface stresses are approximately inversely proportional to the local shell thickness. The radial tide is only moderately enhanced at the south pole. The combination of crustal thinning and convection below the poles can amplify south polar stresses by a factor of 10, but it cannot explain the apparent time lag between the maximum plume brightness and the opening of tiger stripes. In a second paper, I will study the impact of a non-uniform crust on tidal dissipation.
Image restoration from non-uniform magnetic field influence for direct Fourier NMR imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sekihara, K.; Kuroda, M.; Kohno, H.
1984-01-01
A new technique is proposed for NMR image restoration from the influence of main magnetic field non-uniformities. This technique is applicable to direct Fourier NMR imaging. The mathematical basis and details of this technique are fully described. Modification to include image restoration from non-linear field gradient influence is also presented. Computer simulation demonstrates the effectiveness of this technique for both Fourier zeugmatography and spin-warp imaging. (author)
Beam pattern improvement by compensating array nonuniformities in a guided wave phased array
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwon, Hyu-Sang; Lee, Seung-Seok; Kim, Jin-Yeon
2013-01-01
This paper presents a simple data processing algorithm which can improve the performance of a uniform circular array based on guided wave transducers. The algorithm, being intended to be used with the delay-and-sum beamformer, effectively eliminates the effects of nonuniformities that can significantly degrade the beam pattern. Nonuniformities can arise intrinsically from the array geometry when the circular array is transformed to a linear array for beam steering and extrinsically from unequal conditions of transducers such as element-to-element variations of sensitivity and directivity. The effects of nonuniformities are compensated by appropriately imposing weight factors on the elements in the projected linear array. Different cases are simulated, where the improvements of the beam pattern, especially the level of the highest sidelobe, are clearly seen, and related issues are discussed. An experiment is performed which uses A0 mode Lamb waves in a steel plate, to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed method. The discrepancy between theoretical and experimental beam patterns is explained by accounting for near-field effects. (paper)
3D-2D Deformable Image Registration Using Feature-Based Nonuniform Meshes.
Zhong, Zichun; Guo, Xiaohu; Cai, Yiqi; Yang, Yin; Wang, Jing; Jia, Xun; Mao, Weihua
2016-01-01
By using prior information of planning CT images and feature-based nonuniform meshes, this paper demonstrates that volumetric images can be efficiently registered with a very small portion of 2D projection images of a Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scan. After a density field is computed based on the extracted feature edges from planning CT images, nonuniform tetrahedral meshes will be automatically generated to better characterize the image features according to the density field; that is, finer meshes are generated for features. The displacement vector fields (DVFs) are specified at the mesh vertices to drive the deformation of original CT images. Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) of the deformed anatomy are generated and compared with corresponding 2D projections. DVFs are optimized to minimize the objective function including differences between DRRs and projections and the regularity. To further accelerate the above 3D-2D registration, a procedure to obtain good initial deformations by deforming the volume surface to match 2D body boundary on projections has been developed. This complete method is evaluated quantitatively by using several digital phantoms and data from head and neck cancer patients. The feature-based nonuniform meshing method leads to better results than either uniform orthogonal grid or uniform tetrahedral meshes.
3D-2D Deformable Image Registration Using Feature-Based Nonuniform Meshes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zichun Zhong
2016-01-01
Full Text Available By using prior information of planning CT images and feature-based nonuniform meshes, this paper demonstrates that volumetric images can be efficiently registered with a very small portion of 2D projection images of a Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT scan. After a density field is computed based on the extracted feature edges from planning CT images, nonuniform tetrahedral meshes will be automatically generated to better characterize the image features according to the density field; that is, finer meshes are generated for features. The displacement vector fields (DVFs are specified at the mesh vertices to drive the deformation of original CT images. Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs of the deformed anatomy are generated and compared with corresponding 2D projections. DVFs are optimized to minimize the objective function including differences between DRRs and projections and the regularity. To further accelerate the above 3D-2D registration, a procedure to obtain good initial deformations by deforming the volume surface to match 2D body boundary on projections has been developed. This complete method is evaluated quantitatively by using several digital phantoms and data from head and neck cancer patients. The feature-based nonuniform meshing method leads to better results than either uniform orthogonal grid or uniform tetrahedral meshes.
Bridge density functional approximation for non-uniform hard core repulsive Yukawa fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Shiqi
2008-01-01
In this work, a bridge density functional approximation (BDFA) (J. Chem. Phys. 112, 8079 (2000)) for a non-uniform hard-sphere fluid is extended to a non-uniform hard-core repulsive Yukawa (HCRY) fluid. It is found that the choice of a bulk bridge functional approximation is crucial for both a uniform HCRY fluid and a non-uniform HCRY fluid. A new bridge functional approximation is proposed, which can accurately predict the radial distribution function of the bulk HCRY fluid. With the new bridge functional approximation and its associated bulk second order direct correlation function as input, the BDFA can be used to well calculate the density profile of the HCRY fluid subjected to the influence of varying external fields, and the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the corresponding simulation data. The calculated results indicate that the present BDFA captures quantitatively the phenomena such as the coexistence of solid-like high density phase and low density gas phase, and the adsorption properties of the HCRY fluid, which qualitatively differ from those of the fluids combining both hard-core repulsion and an attractive tail. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cerbelli, S.; Giona, M.
2008-01-01
Numerical investigations conducted over a wealth of nonlinear area-preserving smooth maps (e.g. the Standard Map) showed that these systems possess physically relevant features that are not captured by any continuous archetype of two-dimensional conservative dynamics. Among these properties are the dispersive behavior of stretch factor statistics, the multifractal character of the measure associated with invariant foliations, the sign-alternating property, accounting for the nestedly bent structure of invariant foliations, and the strict inequality between the topological entropy, h top , and the Lyapunov exponent, Λ. We refer to systems possessing all of these properties as nonuniformly chaotic. In this article, we present a globally continuous, piecewise-smooth area-preserving transformation, the toral homeomorphism H, as an archetype of nonuniformly chaotic behavior. The relatively simple structure of point set dynamics and the closed-form knowledge of the pointwise expanding and contracting invariant directions associated with H, permits to derive either analytically, or with arbitrary numerical precision, the standard chaotic properties as well as the dynamics of the physically relevant properties that define nonuniform chaos. Potentialities and limitations of the model proposed in representing geometric and statistical properties of physically relevant smooth systems are discussed in detail
Characterization and Processing of Non-Uniformities in Back-Illuminated CCDs
Lemm, Alia D.; Della-Rose, Devin J.; Maddocks, Sally
2018-01-01
In astronomical photometry, Charged Coupled Device (CCD) detectors are used to achieve high precision photometry and must be properly calibrated to correct for noise and pixel non-uniformities. Uncalibrated images may contain bias offset, dark current, bias structure and uneven illumination. In addition, standard data reduction is often not sufficient to “normalize” imagery to single-digit millimagnitude (mmag) precision. We are investigating an apparent non-uniformity, or interference pattern, in a back-illuminated sensor, the Alta U-47, attached to a DFM Engineering 41-cm Ritchey-Chrétien f/8 telescope. Based on the amplitude of this effect, we estimate that instrument magnitude peak-to-valley deviations of 50 mmag or more may result. Our initial testing strongly suggests that reflected skylight from high pressure sodium city lights may be the cause of this interference pattern. Our research goals are twofold: to fully characterize this non-uniformity and to determine the best method to remove this interference pattern from our reduced CCD images.
Synergistic nonuniform shortening of atrial refractory period induced by autonomic stimulation.
Takei, M; Furukawa, Y; Narita, M; Ren, L M; Karasawa, Y; Murakami, M; Chiba, S
1991-12-01
We investigated the nonuniform effects of autonomic nerve stimulation of the effective refractory period (ERP) of the right atrium in the anesthetized dog. Stimulation of the discrete intracardiac sympathetic nerves to the sinoatrial (SA) nodal region uniformly shortened ERPs at three sites in the right atrium after administration of atropine. Right ansa subclavia (RS) stimulation similarly shortened ERPs in the absence of atropine. Stimulation of the discrete intracardiac parasympathetic nerves to the SA nodal region (SAP stimulation) shortened ERPs of the right atrium in a nonuniform manner. Simultaneous RS and SAP stimulation additively shortened ERPs at each site and decreased sinus rate much more than SAP stimulation alone. Shortening of ERP induced by SAP stimulation was greater than that induced by RS stimulation at similar absolute changes in heart rate. These results suggest that simultaneous activation of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves nonuniformly shortens the ERP in the right atrium as the algebraic sum of the individual responses to each stimulation. However, parasympathetics exert the principal neural control over atrial ERP.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaki, N.G.; Bekheit, A.H.
2011-01-01
The periodic absolute parametric instability (API) of the low-frequency oscillations excited by a monochromatic pumping field of arbitrary amplitude in a warm I-D nonuniform magneto active plasma is investigated. One can use the separation method to solve the two-fluid plasma equations which describe the system. The method used enables us to determine the frequencies and growth rates of unstable modes and the self-consistent electric field. Plasma electrons are considered to have a thermal velocity. One can examine different solutions for the spatial equation in the following cases: A) API in uniform Plasma B) API in nonuniform plasma, we study this case for two variants: B.1) Exact harmonic oscillator and B.2) Bounded harmonic oscillator (bounded plasma). Increment is found in the buildup of the oscillations, and it is shown that the spatial nonuniformity of the plasma exerts a stabilizing effect on the parametric instability. It is shown that the growth rate of API in warm plasma is reduced compared to cold plasma. It is found also that the warmness of the plasma has no effect on the solution of the space part of the problem ( only through the separation constant )
Krupiński, Michał; Bareła, Jaroslaw; Firmanty, Krzysztof; Kastek, Mariusz
2013-10-01
Uneven response of particular detectors (pixels) to the same incident power of infrared radiation is an inherent feature of microbolometer focal plane arrays. As a result an image degradation occurs, known as Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN), which distorts the thermal representation of an observed scene and impairs the parameters of a thermal camera. In order to compensate such non-uniformity, several NUC correction methods are applied in digital data processing modules implemented in thermal cameras. Coefficients required to perform the non-uniformity correction procedure (NUC coefficients) are determined by calibrating the camera against uniform radiation sources (blackbodies). Non-uniformity correction is performed in a digital processing unit in order to remove FPN pattern in the registered thermal images. Relevant correction coefficients are calculated on the basis of recorded detector responses to several values of radiant flux emitted from reference IR radiation sources (blackbodies). The measurement of correction coefficients requires specialized setup, in which uniform, extended radiation sources with high temperature stability are one of key elements. Measurement stand for NUC correction developed in Institute of Optoelectronics, MUT, comprises two integrated extended blackbodies with the following specifications: area 200×200 mm, stabilized absolute temperature range +15 °C÷100 °C, and uniformity of temperature distribution across entire surface +/-0.014 °C. Test stand, method used for the measurement of NUC coefficients and the results obtained during the measurements conducted on a prototype thermal camera will be presented in the paper.
Impulsive response of nonuniform density liquid in a laterally excited tank
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, Y.; Chang, Y.W.
1994-04-01
A study on the impulsive component of the dynamic response of a liquid of nonuniform density in a tank undergoing lateral base excitations is presented. The system considered is a circular cylindrical tank containing an incompressible and inviscid liquid whose density increases with the liquid depth. The density distribution along the depth can be of any arbitrary continuous or discontinuous function. In the analysis, the liquid field is divided into n layers. The thickness of the liquid layers can be different, but the density of each liquid layer is considered to be uniform and is equal to the value of the original liquid density at the mid-height of that layer. The problem is solved by the eigenfunction expansion in conjunction with the transfer matrix technique. The effect of the nonuniform liquid density on the impulsive component of the dynamic response is illustrated in a numerical example in which the linear and cosine distributions of the liquid density are assumed. The response quantities examined include the impulsive pressure, base shear and moments. The results are presented in tabular and graphical forms. It is found that the impulsive pressure distribution along the tank wall is not sensitive to the detailed distribution function of the density, and the base shear and moments for the nonuniform liquid can be estimated by assuming an equivalent uniform liquid density that preserves the total liquid weight. The effect of tank flexibility is assessed by a simple approach in which the response quantities for flexible tanks are evaluated by simplified equations
Non-uniform cosine modulated filter banks using meta-heuristic algorithms in CSD space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shaeen Kalathil
2015-11-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient design of non-uniform cosine modulated filter banks (CMFB using canonic signed digit (CSD coefficients. CMFB has got an easy and efficient design approach. Non-uniform decomposition can be easily obtained by merging the appropriate filters of a uniform filter bank. Only the prototype filter needs to be designed and optimized. In this paper, the prototype filter is designed using window method, weighted Chebyshev approximation and weighted constrained least square approximation. The coefficients are quantized into CSD, using a look-up-table. The finite precision CSD rounding, deteriorates the filter bank performances. The performances of the filter bank are improved using suitably modified meta-heuristic algorithms. The different meta-heuristic algorithms which are modified and used in this paper are Artificial Bee Colony algorithm, Gravitational Search algorithm, Harmony Search algorithm and Genetic algorithm and they result in filter banks with less implementation complexity, power consumption and area requirements when compared with those of the conventional continuous coefficient non-uniform CMFB.
Measurement of fuel importance distribution in non-uniformly distributed fuel systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamane, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Yasushi; Yasui, Hazime; Izima, Kazunori; Shiroya, Seiji; Kobayashi, Keiji.
1995-01-01
A reactivity effect due to a spatial variation of nuclear fuel concentration is an important problem for nuclear criticality safety in a reprocessing plant. As a theory estimating this reactivity effect, the Goertzel and fuel importance theories are well known. It has been shown that the Goertzel's theory is valid in the range of our experiments based on measurements of reactivity effect and thermal neutron flux in non-uniformly distributed fuel systems. On the other hand, there have been no reports concerning systematic experimental studies on the flatness of fuel importance which is a more general index than the Goertzel's theory. It is derived from the perturbation theory that the fuel importance is proportional to the reactivity change resulting from a change of small amount of fuel mass. Using a uniform and three kinds of nonuniform fuel systems consisting of 93.2% enriched uranium plates and polyethylene plates, the fuel importance distributions were measured. As a result, it was found experimentally that the fuel importance distribution became flat, as its reactivity effect became large. Therefore it was concluded that the flatness of fuel importance distribution is the useful index for estimating reactivity effect of non-uniformly distributed fuel system. (author)
Effect of non-uniform surface resistance on the quality factor of superconducting niobium cavity
Tan, Weiwei; Lu, Xiangyang; Yang, Ziqin; Zhao, Jifei; Yang, Deyu; Yang, Yujia
2016-08-01
The formula Rs = G /Q0 is commonly used in the calculation of the surface resistance of radio frequency niobium superconducting cavities. The applying of such equation is under the assumption that surface resistance is consistent over the cavity. However, the distribution of the magnetic field varies over the cavity. The magnetic field in the equator is much higher than that in the iris. According to Thermal Feedback Theory, it leads non-uniform distribution of the density of heat flux, which results in a different temperature distribution along the cavity inter surface. The BCS surface resistance, which depends largely on the temperature, is different in each local inner surface. In this paper, the effect of surface non-uniform resistance on the quality factor has been studied, through the calculation of Q0 in the original definition of it. The results show that it is necessary to consider the non-uniform distribution of magnetic field when the accelerating field is above 20 MV/m for TESLA cavities. Also, the effect of inhomogeneity of residual resistance on the quality factor is discussed. Its distribution barely affects the quality factor.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaki, N.G.; Bekheit, A.H.
2011-01-01
The periodic absolute parametric instability (API) of the low-frequency oscillations excited by a monochromatic pumping field of an arbitrary amplitude in a warm 1-D (one-dimensional) nonuniform magnetoactive plasma is investigated. The separation method can be used for solving the two-fluid plasma equations describing the system. By applying this method we were able to determine the frequencies and growth rates of unstable modes and the self-consistent electric field. Plasma electrons are considered to have a thermal velocity. Different solutions for the spatial equation can be obtained the following cases: A) API in a uniform plasma, B) API in a nonuniform plasma. The latter has been studied here for two cases: B.1) the exact harmonic oscillator and B.2) the bounded harmonic oscillator (a bounded plasma). An increment has been found in the build-up of the oscillations, and it has been shown that the spatial nonuniformity of the plasma exerts the stabilizing effect on the parametric instability. A reduced growth rate of API in the warm plasma, in comparison to the cold plasma, is reported. It has also been found that the warmness of the plasma has no effect on the solution of the space part of the problem (only through the separation constant). (authors)
On the burnout in annular channels at non-uniform heat release distribution in length
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ornatskij, A.P.; Chernobaj, V.A.; Vasil'ev, A.F.; Struts, G.V.
1982-01-01
The effect of axial heat release non-uniformity on the conditions of the burnout in annular channels is investigated. The investigation is carried out in annular channels with different laws of heat flux density distribution by channel length. The heat release non-uniformity coefficient was varied from 4.4 to 10, the pressure from 9.8 to 17.6 MPa, mass rate from 500 to 1700 kg (m 2 xS), liquid temperature (chemically desalted water) at the channel inlet constituted 30-300 deg C. The experiments have been performed at the test bench with a closed circulation circuit. The data obtained testify to the fact that under non-uniform heat release the influence of main operating parameters on the value of critical power is of the same character as under uniform heat release. The character of wall temperature variation by channel length before the burnout is determined by the form of heat supply temperature profile. The temperature maximum is observed in the region lying behind the cross section with maximum heat flux. The conclusion is drawn that the dominant influence on the position of the cross section in which the burnout arises is exerted by the form of heat flux density distribution by length. Independently of this distribution form the burnout developes when the vapour content near the wall reaches a limiting value
Distributed ISAR Subimage Fusion of Nonuniform Rotating Target Based on Matching Fourier Transform.
Li, Yuanyuan; Fu, Yaowen; Zhang, Wenpeng
2018-06-04
In real applications, the image quality of the conventional monostatic Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) for the maneuvering target is subject to the strong fluctuation of Radar Cross Section (RCS), as the target aspect varies enormously. Meanwhile, the maneuvering target introduces nonuniform rotation after translation motion compensation which degrades the imaging performance of the conventional Fourier Transform (FT)-based method in the cross-range dimension. In this paper, a method which combines the distributed ISAR technique and the Matching Fourier Transform (MFT) is proposed to overcome these problems. Firstly, according to the characteristics of the distributed ISAR, the multiple channel echoes of the nonuniform rotation target from different observation angles can be acquired. Then, by applying the MFT to the echo of each channel, the defocused problem of nonuniform rotation target which is inevitable by using the FT-based imaging method can be avoided. Finally, after preprocessing, scaling and rotation of all subimages, the noncoherent fusion image containing all the RCS information in all channels can be obtained. The accumulation coefficients of all subimages are calculated adaptively according to the their image qualities. Simulation and experimental data are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, and fusion image with improved recognizability can be obtained. Therefore, by using the distributed ISAR technique and MFT, subimages of high-maneuvering target from different observation angles can be obtained. Meanwhile, by employing the adaptive subimage fusion method, the RCS fluctuation can be alleviated and more recognizable final image can be obtained.
The magneto-optical properties of non-uniform graphene nanoribbons
Chung, Hsien-Ching; Lin, Ming-Fa
2015-03-01
When synthesizing few-layer graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), non-uniform GNRs would be made simultaneously. Recently, the non-uniform GNRs, which is a stack of two GNRs with unequal widths, have been fabricated by mechanically exfoliated from bulk graphite. Some theoretical predictions have been reported, such as gap opening and transport properties. Under the influence of magnetic fields, magnetic quantization takes place and drastically changes the electronic properties. By tuning the geometric configuration, four categories of magneto-electronic spectra are exhibited. (1) The spectrum is mostly contributed by quasi-Landau levels (QLLs) of monolayer GNRs. (2) The spectrum displays two groups of QLLs, and the non-uniform GNR behaves like a bilayer one. (3) An intermediate category, the spectrum is composite disordered. (4) The spectrum presents the coexistence of monolayer and bilayer spectra. In this work, the magneto-electronic and optical properties for different geometric configurations are given, such as energy dispersions, density of states, wave functions, and magneto-absorption spectra are presented. Furthermore, the transformation between monolayer and bilayer spectra as well as the coexistence of monolayer and bilayer spectra are discussed in detail. One of us (Hsien-Ching Chung) thanks Ming-Hui Chung and Su-Ming Chen for financial support. This work was supported in part by the National Science Council of Taiwan under Grant Number 98-2112-M-006-013-MY4.
A CFD Study on Inlet Plenum Flow Field of Pebble Bed Reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Min Hwan; Lee, Won Jae; Chang, Jong Hwa
2005-01-01
High temperature gas cooled reactor, largely divided into two types of PBR (Pebble Bed Reactor) and PMR (Prismatic Modular Reactor), has becomes great interest of researchers in connection with the hydrogen production. KAERI has started a project to develop the gas cooled reactor for the hydrogen production and has been doing in-depth study for selecting the reactor type between PBR and PMR. As a part of the study, PBMR (Pebble Bed Modular Reactor) was selected as a reference PBR reactor for the CFD analysis and the flow field of its inlet plenum was simulated with computational fluid dynamics program CFX5. Due to asymmetrical arrangement of pipes to the inlet plenum, non-uniform flow distribution has been expected to occur, giving rise to non-uniform power distribution at the core. Flow fields of different arrangement of inlet pipes were also investigated, as one of measures to reduce the non-uniformity
Zonal Flow Dynamics and Size-scaling of Anomalous Transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Chen; White, Roscoe B.; Zonca, F.
2003-01-01
Nonlinear equations for the slow space-time evolution of the radial drift wave envelope and zonal flow amplitude have been self-consistently derived for a model nonuniform tokamak equilibrium within the coherent 4-wave drift wave-zonal flow modulation interaction model of Chen, Lin, and White [Phys. Plasmas 7 (2000) 3129]. Solutions clearly demonstrate turbulence spreading due to nonlinearly enhanced dispersiveness and, consequently, the device-size dependence of the saturated wave intensities and transport coefficients
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Elmstrom, Michael
2004-01-01
A computational fluid dynamic (CFD) investigation is presented that provides predictions of the aerodynamic impact of uniform and non-uniform coatings applied to the leading edge of a compressor airfoil in a cascade. Using a NACA 65(12...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeom Kee Paik
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The Galerkin method is applied to analyze the elastic large deflection behavior of metal plates subject to a combination of in-plane loads such as biaxial loads, edge shear and biaxial inplane bending moments, and uniformly or nonuniformly distributed lateral pressure loads. The motive of the present study was initiated by the fact that metal plates of ships and ship-shaped offshore structures at sea are often subjected to non-uniformly distributed lateral pressure loads arising from cargo or water pressure, together with inplane axial loads or inplane bending moments, but the current practice of the maritime industry usually applies some simplified design methods assuming that the non-uniform pressure distribution in the plates can be replaced by an equivalence of uniform pressure distribution. Applied examples are presented, demonstrating that the current plate design methods of the maritime industry may be inappropriate when the non-uniformity of lateral pressure loads becomes more significant.
Huang, X.; Aldering, G.; Biederman, M.; Herger, B.
2017-11-01
For Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed through a nonuniform interstellar medium (ISM) in its host galaxy, we investigate whether the nonuniformity can cause observable time variations in dust extinction and in gas absorption due to the expansion of the SN photosphere with time. We show that, owing to the steep spectral index of the ISM density power spectrum, sizable density fluctuation amplitudes at the length scale of typical ISM structures (≳ 10 {pc}) will translate to much smaller fluctuations on the scales of an SN photosphere. Therefore, the typical amplitude of time variation due to a nonuniform ISM, of absorption equivalent widths, and of extinction, would be small. As a result, we conclude that nonuniform ISM density should not impact cosmology measurements based on SNe Ia. We apply our predictions based on the ISM density power-law power spectrum to the observations of two highly reddened SNe Ia, SN 2012cu and SN 2014J.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Majumdar, Bishnu; Patel, Narayan Prasad; Vijayan, V.
2006-01-01
The aim of this study is to derive the non-uniformity correction factor for the two therapy ionization chambers for the dose measurement near the brachytherapy source. The two ionization chambers of 0.6 cc and 0.1 cc volume were used. The measurement in air was performed for distances between 0.8 cm and 20 cm from the source in specially designed measurement jig. The non-uniformity correction factors were derived from the measured values. The experimentally derived factors were compared with the theoretically calculated non-uniformity correction factors and a close agreement was found between these two studies. The experimentally derived non-uniformity correction factor supports the anisotropic theory. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ranganayakulu, C. [Aeronautical Development Agency, Bangalore (India); Seetharamu, K.N. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Southern Malaysia (KCP), Tronoh (Malaysia)
2000-05-01
An analysis of a crossflow plate-fin compact heat exchanger, accounting for the combined effect of two-dimensional longitudinal heat conduction through the exchanger wall and nonuniform inlet fluid flow distribution on both hot and cold fluid sides is carried out using a finite element method. Using the fluid flow maldistribution models, the exchanger effectiveness and its deterioration due to the combined effects of longitudinal heat conduction and flow nonuniformity are calculated for various design and operating conditions of the exchanger. It was found that the performance deteriorations are quite significant in some typical applications due to the combined effects of wall longitudinal heat conduction and inlet fluid flow nonuniformity on crossflow plate-fin heat exchanger. (orig.)
Program Computes Flows Of Fluids And Heat
Cullimore, Brent; Ring, Steven; Welch, Mark
1993-01-01
SINDA'85/FLUINT incorporates lumped-parameter-network and one-dimensional-flow mathematical models. System enables analysis of mutual influences of thermal and flow phenomena. Offers two finite-difference numerical solution techniques: forward-difference explicit approximation and Crank-Nicholson approximation. Enables simulation of nonuniform heating and facilitates mathematical modeling of thin-walled heat exchangers. Ability to model nonequilibrium behavior within two-phase volumes included. Recent changes in program improve modeling of real evaporator pumps and other capillary-assist evaporators. Written in FORTRAN 77.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aminfar, Habib, E-mail: hh_aminfar@tabrizu.ac.i [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadpourfard, Mousa, E-mail: Mohammadpour@azaruniv.ed [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Azarbaijan University of Tarbiat Moallem, Tabriz, P.O. Box 53751-71379 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Narmani Kahnamouei, Yousef, E-mail: Narmani87@ms.tabrizu.ac.i [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2011-08-15
In this paper, results of applying a non-uniform magnetic field on a ferrofluid (kerosene and 4 vol% Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) flow in a vertical tube have been reported. The hydrodynamics and thermal behavior of the flow are investigated numerically using the two phase mixture model and the control volume technique. Two positive and negative magnetic field gradients have been examined. Based on the obtained results the Nusselt number can be controlled externally using the magnetic field with different intensity and gradients. It is concluded that the magnetic field with negative gradient acts similar to Buoyancy force and augments the Nusselt number, while the magnetic field with positive gradient decreases it. Also with the negative gradient of the magnetic field, pumping power increases and vice versa for the positive gradient case. - Highlights: We model hydrothermal behavior of a ferrofluid flow using two phase mixture model. Various external non-uniform magnetic fields were implemented in a vertical tube. Nusselt number can be controlled using the magnetic field with different gradients. The magnetic field is more effective in low Reynolds numbers. Heat transfer enhancement using the magnetic field needs high pumping power.
How nonuniform contact profiles of T cell receptors modulate thymic selection outcomes
Chen, Hanrong; Chakraborty, Arup K.; Kardar, Mehran
2018-03-01
T cell receptors (TCRs) bind foreign or self-peptides attached to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, and the strength of this interaction determines T cell activation. Optimizing the ability of T cells to recognize a diversity of foreign peptides yet be tolerant of self-peptides is crucial for the adaptive immune system to properly function. This is achieved by selection of T cells in the thymus, where immature T cells expressing unique, stochastically generated TCRs interact with a large number of self-peptide-MHC; if a TCR does not bind strongly enough to any self-peptide-MHC, or too strongly with at least one self-peptide-MHC, the T cell dies. Past theoretical work cast thymic selection as an extreme value problem and characterized the statistical enrichment or depletion of amino acids in the postselection TCR repertoire, showing how T cells are selected to be able to specifically recognize peptides derived from diverse pathogens yet have limited self-reactivity. Here, we investigate how the diversity of the postselection TCR repertoire is modified when TCRs make nonuniform contacts with peptide-MHC. Specifically, we were motivated by recent experiments showing that amino acids at certain positions of a TCR sequence have large effects on thymic selection outcomes, and crystal structure data that reveal a nonuniform contact profile between a TCR and its peptide-MHC ligand. Using a representative TCR contact profile as an illustration, we show via simulations that the statistical enrichment or depletion of amino acids now varies by position according to the contact profile, and, importantly, it depends on the implementation of nonuniform contacts during thymic selection. We explain these nontrivial results analytically. Our study has implications for understanding the selection forces that shape the functionality of the postselection TCR repertoire.
Efficient SPECT scatter calculation in non-uniform media using correlated Monte Carlo simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beekman, F.J.
1999-01-01
Accurate simulation of scatter in projection data of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is computationally extremely demanding for activity distribution in non-uniform dense media. This paper suggests how the computation time and memory requirements can be significantly reduced. First the scatter projection of a uniform dense object (P SDSE ) is calculated using a previously developed accurate and fast method which includes all orders of scatter (slab-derived scatter estimation), and then P SDSE is transformed towards the desired projection P which is based on the non-uniform object. The transform of P SDSE is based on two first-order Compton scatter Monte Carlo (MC) simulated projections. One is based on the uniform object (P u ) and the other on the object with non-uniformities (P ν ). P is estimated by P-tilde=P SDSE P ν /P u . A tremendous decrease in noise in P-tilde is achieved by tracking photon paths for P ν identical to those which were tracked for the calculation of P u and by using analytical rather than stochastic modelling of the collimator. The method was validated by comparing the results with standard MC-simulated scatter projections (P) of 99m Tc and 201 Tl point sources in a digital thorax phantom. After correction, excellent agreement was obtained between P-tilde and P. The total computation time required to calculate an accurate scatter projection of an extended distribution in a thorax phantom on a PC is a only few tens of seconds per projection, which makes the method attractive for application in accurate scatter correction in clinical SPECT. Furthermore, the method removes the need of excessive computer memory involved with previously proposed 3D model-based scatter correction methods. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vitaly Osmachkin [Russian Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' 1, Kurchatov sq, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)
2005-07-01
Full text of publication follows: The influence of power transient, changes of flow rate, inlet temperatures or pressure in cores of nuclear reactors on heat transfer and burnout conditions in channels depend on rate of such violations. Non-uniform distribution of the heat flux is also important factor for heat transfer and development of crisis phenomenon. Such effects may be significant for NPPs safety. But they have not yet generally accepted interpretation. Steady state approach is often recommended for use in calculations. In the paper a review of experimental observed so-called non-equilibrium effects is presented. The effects of space and time factors are displaying due delay in reformation turbulence intensity, velocity, temperatures or void fraction profiles, water film flow on the surface of heated channels. For estimation of such effect different methods are used. Modern computer codes based on two or three fluids approaches are considered as most effective. But simple and clear correlations may light up the mechanics of effects on heat transfer and improve general understanding of scale and significance of the transient events. In the paper the simplified methods for assessment the influence of lags in the development of distributions of parameters of flow, the relaxation of temporal or space violations are considered. They are compared with more sophisticated approaches. Velocities of disturbance fronts moving along the channels are discussed also. (author)
A novel compensation method for the anode gain non-uniformity of multi-anode photomultiplier tubes.
Lee, Chan Mi; Il Kwon, Sun; Ko, Guen Bae; Ito, Mikiko; Yoon, Hyun Suk; Lee, Dong Soo; Hong, Seong Jong; Lee, Jae Sung
2012-01-07
The position-sensitive multi-anode photomultiplier tube (MA-PMT) is widely used in high-resolution scintillation detectors. However, the anode gain nonuniformity of this device is a limiting factor that degrades the intrinsic performance of the detector module. The aim of this work was to develop a gain compensation method for the MA-PMT and evaluate the resulting enhancement in the performance of the detector. The method employs a circuit that is composed only of resistors and is placed between the MA-PMT and a resistive charge division network (RCN) used for position encoding. The goal of the circuit is to divide the output current from each anode, so the same current flows into the RCN regardless of the anode gain. The current division is controlled by the combination of a fixed-value series resistor with an output impedance that is much larger than the input impedance of the RCN, and a parallel resistor, which detours part of the current to ground. PSpice simulations of the compensation circuit and the RCN were performed to determine optimal values for the compensation resistors when used with Hamamatsu H8500 MAPMTs. The intrinsic characteristics of a detector module consisting of this MA-PMT and a lutetium-gadolinium-oxyorthosilicate (LGSO) crystal array were tested with and without the gain compensation method. In simulation, the average coefficient of variation and max/min ratio decreased from 15.7% to 2.7% and 2.0 to 1.2, respectively. In the flood map of the LGSO-H8500 detector, the uniformity of the photopeak position for individual crystals and the energy resolution were much improved. The feasibility of the method was shown by applying it to an octagonal prototype positron emission tomography scanner.
Flow balancing in liquid metal blankets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tillack, M.S.; Morley, N.B.
1995-01-01
Non-uniform flow distribution between parallel channels is one of the most serious concerns for self-cooled liquid metal blankets with electrically insulated walls. We show that uncertainties in flow distribution can be dramatically reduced by relatively simple design modifications. Several design features which impose flow uniformity by electrically coupling parallel channels are surveyed. Basic mechanisms for ''flow balancing'' are described, and a particular self-regulating concept using discrete passive electrodes is proposed for the US ITER advanced blanket concept. Scoping calculations suggest that this simple technique can be very powerful in equalizing the flow, even with massive insulator failures in individual channels. More detailed analyses and experimental verification will be required to demonstrate this concept for ITER. (orig.)
The importance of non-uniform dose-distribution in an organ
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richmond, C.R.
1975-01-01
The recent revival of interest in the 'hot particle' problem, especially as regards particulate plutonium and other actinide elements in the lung, stimulated the preparation of this paper. Non-uniformity of dose-distribution has been of concern to standards-setting bodies and other groups such as the National Academy of Sciences and to health protectionists for many years. This paper reviews data from animal experiments that are used by some to implicate particulate plutonium as being especially hazardous to man. Other relevant biological data are also discussed. (author)
The effect of nanoparticle nonuniformity on the ratio of gyration and hydrodynamic radiuses
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kratochvíl, Pavel; Netopilík, Miloš
2017-01-01
Roč. 22, č. 2 (2017), s. 112-117 ISSN 1023-666X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-02938S Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24504; AV ČR(CZ) ASRT-16-02 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : diffusion coefficient * nanoparticles * nonuniformity correction Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.515, year: 2015
Propagation profile of ablation front driven by a nonuniform UV laser beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsushima, I.; Tanimoto, M.; Kasai, T.; Yano, M.
1985-01-01
Spatial profile of ablation front is observed under the irradiation of spatially modulated 0.27-μm laser beam. Propagation depth of the ablation front is derived by means of various methods which detect x-ray radiation from aluminum substrates overcoated with polyethylene layers of different thicknesses. A higher mass ablation rate is observed for the UV laser than the longer wavelength lasers. However, observation with an x-ray television camera shows that the spatial nonuniformity in the laser beam is projected on the ablation front surface without substantial smoothing
Non-uniform absorption of terahertz radiation on superconducting hot electron bolometer microbridges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miao, W.; Zhang, W.; Zhong, J. Q.; Shi, S. C.; Delorme, Y.; Lefevre, R.; Feret, A.; Vacelet, T.
2014-01-01
We interpret the experimental observation of a frequency-dependence of superconducting hot electron bolometer (HEB) mixers by taking into account the non-uniform absorption of the terahertz radiation on the superconducting HEB microbridge. The radiation absorption is assumed to be proportional to the local surface resistance of the HEB microbridge, which is computed using the Mattis-Bardeen theory. With this assumption the dc and mixing characteristics of a superconducting niobium-nitride (NbN) HEB device have been modeled at frequencies below and above the equilibrium gap frequency of the NbN film
The effect of non-uniform fuel rod temperatures on effective resonance integrals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reichel, A.
1961-06-01
The effective resonance integral for heterogeneous lattices can be reduced to the effective resonance integral for an equivalent homogeneous system with a fairly well defined error depending on lump size and geometry. This report investigates the effect of a radial parabolic temperature variation in cylindrical lumps on the equivalent homogeneous effective resonance integral. Also determined is the equivalent uniform temperature to be taken in the usual formulae to allow for non-uniform fuel rod temperature. This effective temperature is found to be T eff. = T s + 4/9 (T c - T s ) where T s and T c are the surface and central temperatures of the lump. (author)
Interpretation of UV radiometric measurements of spectrally non-uniform sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murphy, P.J.; Gardner, D.G.
1988-01-01
Narrow bandpass UV radiometers are used in a variety of high-temperature measurement applications. Significant systematic errors, in the form of an apparent wavelength shift in the system response curve, may be introduced when interpreting data obtained from spectrally nonuniform sources. Theoretical calculations, using transmission curves from commercially available narrow bandpass filters, show that the apparent shift in the system spectral response is a function of temperature for a blackbody source. A brief comparison between the theoretical analysis and experimentaal data is presented
Optical security devices using nonuniform schlieren texture of UV-curable nematic liquid crystal.
Nakayama, Keizo; Ohtsubo, Junji
2016-02-10
We proposed and quantitatively evaluated an optical security device that provides nonuniform or random patterns of schlieren texture in nematic liquid crystal as unique identification information with a design by employing computer image processing and normalized cross correlation. Using the same photomask as the first author's university logo, the written patterns, which were composed of polymerized isotropic areas and polymerized nematic areas, were stable among different cells. Judging from the maximum correlation coefficient of 0.09, the patterns of the schlieren texture were unique in different cells. These results indicate that photocurable nematic liquid crystal materials have the potential to be applied to security devices for anticounterfeiting measures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, Anatol M
2010-01-01
The optical nondestructive characterization of chemical transformation dynamics and diffusion kinetics, including phase transitions, in heterogeneous media with a random distribution of nanoparticles (nano-nonuniformities), is of great theoretical and practical importance. Such characterization, with the help of coherence loss spectroscopy, considered in this paper can be applied for the control of a number of industrial processes dynamics, environmental monitoring, and medical diagnostics and therapy. As a specific example, the growth of crystal nuclei (embrions) as a result of the diffusion to them of a substance from the surrounding supersaturated solution is considered
Non-Uniform Free-Free Absorption in the GPS Radio Galaxy 0108+388
Marr, J M; Crawford, F
2001-01-01
We have observed the canonical gigahertz-peaked spectrum source 0108+388 with the VLBA at a range of frequencies above and below the spectral peak. The activity that dominates the radio emission from 0108+388, which is also classified as a Compact Symmetric Object, is thought to be less than 1000 years old. We present strong evidence that the spectral turnover in 0108+388 results from free-free absorption by non-uniform gas, possibly in the form of a disk in the central tens of parsecs.
A mechanical model of a non-uniform ionomeric polymer metal composite actuator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anton, Mart; Aabloo, Alvo; Punning, Andres; Kruusmaa, Maarja
2008-01-01
This paper describes a mechanical model of an IPMC (ionomeric polymer metal composite) actuator in a cantilever beam configuration. The main contribution of our model is that it gives the most detailed description reported so far of the quasistatic mechanical behaviour of the actuator with non-uniform bending at large deflections. We also investigate a case where part of an IPMC actuator is replaced with a rigid elongation and demonstrate that this configuration would make the actuator behave more linearly. The model is experimentally validated with MuscleSheet(TM) IPMCs, purchased from BioMimetics Inc
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alvarez-Nodarse, R [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Sevilla, Apdo. 1160, E-41080 Sevilla (Spain); Atakishiyev, N M [Instituto de Matematicas, UNAM, Apartado Postal 273-3, CP 62210 Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico (Germany); Costas-Santos, R S [Departamento de Matematicas, EPS, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Ave. Universidad 30, E-28911, Leganes, Madrid (Spain)
2005-01-07
We argue that one can factorize the difference equation of hypergeometric type on non-uniform lattices in the general case. It is shown that in the most cases of q-linear spectrum of the eigenvalues, this directly leads to the dynamical symmetry algebra su{sub q}(1, 1), whose generators are explicitly constructed in terms of the difference operators, obtained in the process of factorization. Thus all models with the q-linear spectrum (some of them, but not all, previously considered in a number of publications) can be treated in a unified form.
Initial particle loadings for a nonuniform simulation plasma in a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naitou, Hiroshi; Kamimura, Tetsuo; Tokuda, Sinji.
1978-09-01
Improved methods for initially loading particles in a magnetized simulation plasma with nonuniform density and temperature distributions are proposed. In the usual guiding center loading (GCL), a charge separation coming from finite Larmor radius effects remains due to the difference between the guiding center density and the actual density. The modified guiding center loading (MGCL) presented here eliminates the electric field so generated and can be used for arbitrary density and temperature profiles. Some applications of these methods to actual simulations are given for comparison. The significance of these methods of initial particle loadings is also discussed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piquero, Gemma; Vargas-Balbuena, Javier
2004-01-01
We provide a simple theoretical study of beams non-uniformly polarized across their transverse sections which can be introduced in undergraduate optics courses. In order to generate such beams we propose to use a slightly convergent (or divergent) linearly and uniformly polarized beam impinging on an anisotropic uniaxial material with the beam propagation direction along the optic axis. Analytical expressions for the Jones vector, Stokes parameters, ellipticity and azimuth at each point of the transverse section, perpendicular to the propagation direction, are obtained at the output of this system. By means of these parameters a detailed description of the state of polarization across the transverse profile is given
A new correlation of non-uniformly heated round tube burnout data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirby, G.J.
1966-07-01
A new correlation of non-uniformly heated round tube burnout data is presented. This fits the available data better than any previously published correlation - the root-mean-square deviation being 5.7% for all data at 1000 p.s.i.a. and the worst fit being to data at 2000 p.s.i.a. where the r.m.s. error is 6.6%. The correlation is used to investigate the effect of flux profile changes and no significant increase in burnout power is obtained by modifying the present chopped cosine distribution. (author)
The reliability of multistory buildings with the effect of non-uniform settlements of foundation
Al'Malul, Rafik; Gadzhuntsev, Michail
2018-03-01
The issue is the evaluation of reliability of construction considering the influence of the variation of the support settlement, which is changing during the lifetime of constructions due to the consolidation process of the ground. Recently, the specialists give special emphasis to the necessity to develop the methods for the estimation of reliability and durability of structures. The problem, the article considers, is the determination of the reliability of multistory buildings with non-uniform changing-in-time sediments caused by the consolidation process in soils. Failure of structures may occur before the draft reaches it`s stabilizing value, because of the violations of the conditions of normal use.
Laser investigation of the non-uniformity of fluorescent species in dental enamel
Tran, Stephanie U.; Ridge, Jeremy S.; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Seibel, Eric J.
In the present study, artificial type I and type II erosions were created on dental specimen using acetic acid and EDTA respectively. Specimens were prepared by etching extracted teeth samples in acid to varying degrees, after which the absolute fluorescence intensity ratio of the etched enamel relative to sound enamel was recorded for each specimen using 405 and 532 nm laser excitation. Results showed differences in the fluorescence ratio of etched to sound enamel for type I and II erosions. These findings suggest a non-uniform distribution of fluorescent species in the interprismatic region as compared to the prismatic region.
Fang, Hongwei
1996-02-01
Based on the tensor analysis of water-sediment two-phase flow, the basic model equations for clear water flow and sediment-laden flow are deduced in the general curve coordinates for natural water variable-density turbulent flow. Furthermore, corresponding boundary conditions are also presented in connection with the composition and movement of non-uniform bed material. The theoretical results are applied to the calculation of the float open caisson in the construction period and good results are obtained.
Diffusion in Poiseuille and Couette flows of binary mixtures of incompressible newtonian fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caetano Filho, E.; Qassim, R.Y.
1981-07-01
Using the continuum theory of binary mixtures of incompressible Newtonian fluids, Poiseuille and Couette flows are studied with a view to determining whether diffusion occurs in such flows. It is shown that diffusion is absent in the Couette case. However, in Poiseuille flow there are significant differences between the velocities of the species comprising the mixture. This result is in broad agreement with that of Mills for similar mixtures of nonuniform composition. (Author) [pt
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Youwei He
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Although technical advances in hydraulically fracturing and drilling enable commercial production from tight reservoirs, oil/gas recovery remains at a low level. Due to the technical and economic limitations of well-testing operations in tight reservoirs, rate-transient analysis (RTA has become a more attractive option. However, current RTA models hardly consider the effect of the non-uniform production on rate decline behaviors. In fact, PLT results demonstrate that production profile is non-uniform. To fill this gap, this paper presents an improved RTA model of multi-fractured horizontal wells (MFHWs to investigate the effects of non-uniform properties of hydraulic fractures (production of fractures, fracture half-length, number of fractures, fracture conductivity, and vertical permeability on rate transient behaviors through the diagnostic type curves. Results indicate obvious differences on the rate decline curves among the type curves of uniform properties of fractures (UPF and non-uniform properties of fractures (NPF. The use of dimensionless production integral derivative curve magnifies the differences so that we can diagnose the phenomenon of non-uniform production. Therefore, it’s significant to incorporate the effects of NPF into the RDA models of MFHWs, and the model proposed in this paper enables us to better evaluate well performance based on long-term production data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toelli, H.; Bielajew, A. F.; Mattsson, O.; Sernbo, G.
1995-01-01
When ionization chambers are used in brachytherapy dosimetry, the measurements must be corrected for the non-uniformity of the incident photon fluence. The theory for determination of non-uniformity correction factors, developed by Kondo and Randolph (Rad. Res. 1960) assumes that the electron fluence within the air cavity is isotropic and does not take into account material differences in the chamber wall. The theory was extended by Bielajew (PMB 1990) using an anisotropic electron angular fluence in the cavity. In contrast to the theory by Kondo and Randolph, the anisotropic theory predicts a wall material dependence in the non-uniformity correction factors. This work presents experimental determination of non-uniformity correction factors at distances between 10 and 140 mm from an Ir-192 source. The experimental work makes use of a PTW23331-chamber and Farmer-type chambers (NE2571 and NE2581) with different materials in the walls. The results of the experiments agree well with the anisotropic theory. Due to the geometrical shape of the NE-type chambers, it is shown that the full length of the these chambers, 24.1mm, is not an appropriate input parameter when theoretical non-uniformity correction factors are evaluated
Advanced GF(32) nonbinary LDPC coded modulation with non-uniform 9-QAM outperforming star 8-QAM.
Liu, Tao; Lin, Changyu; Djordjevic, Ivan B
2016-06-27
In this paper, we first describe a 9-symbol non-uniform signaling scheme based on Huffman code, in which different symbols are transmitted with different probabilities. By using the Huffman procedure, prefix code is designed to approach the optimal performance. Then, we introduce an algorithm to determine the optimal signal constellation sets for our proposed non-uniform scheme with the criterion of maximizing constellation figure of merit (CFM). The proposed nonuniform polarization multiplexed signaling 9-QAM scheme has the same spectral efficiency as the conventional 8-QAM. Additionally, we propose a specially designed GF(32) nonbinary quasi-cyclic LDPC code for the coded modulation system based on the 9-QAM non-uniform scheme. Further, we study the efficiency of our proposed non-uniform 9-QAM, combined with nonbinary LDPC coding, and demonstrate by Monte Carlo simulation that the proposed GF(23) nonbinary LDPC coded 9-QAM scheme outperforms nonbinary LDPC coded uniform 8-QAM by at least 0.8dB.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soler, Roberto; Terradas, Jaume; Oliver, Ramón; Goossens, Marcel
2013-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves are ubiquitously observed in the solar atmosphere. Kink waves are a type of transverse MHD waves in magnetic flux tubes that are damped due to resonant absorption. The theoretical study of kink MHD waves in solar flux tubes is usually based on the simplification that the transverse variation of density is confined to a nonuniform layer much thinner than the radius of the tube, i.e., the so-called thin boundary approximation. Here, we develop a general analytic method to compute the dispersion relation and the eigenfunctions of ideal MHD waves in pressureless flux tubes with transversely nonuniform layers of arbitrary thickness. Results for kink waves are produced and compared with fully numerical resistive MHD eigenvalue computations in the limit of small resistivity. We find that the frequency and resonant damping rate are the same in both ideal and resistive cases. The actual results for thick nonuniform layers deviate from the behavior predicted in the thin boundary approximation and strongly depend on the shape of the nonuniform layer. The eigenfunctions in ideal MHD are very different from those in resistive MHD. The ideal eigenfunctions display a global character regardless of the thickness of the nonuniform layer, while the resistive eigenfunctions are localized around the resonance and are indistinguishable from those of ordinary resistive Alfvén modes. Consequently, the spatial distribution of wave energy in the ideal and resistive cases is dramatically different. This poses a fundamental theoretical problem with clear observational consequences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, E.
1998-01-01
Instanton methods have been used, in the context of a classical Ginzburg-Landau field theory, to compute the averaged density of states and probability Green close-quote s function for electrons scattered by statistically uniform site energy perturbations. At tree level, all states below some critical energy appear localized, and all states above extended. The same methods are applied here to macroscopically nonuniform systems, for which it is shown that localized and extended states can be coupled through a tunneling barrier created by the instanton background. Both electronic and acoustic systems are considered. An incoherent exponential decay is predicted for the late-time impulse response in both cases, valid for long-wavelength nonuniformity, and scaling relations are derived for the decay time constant as a function of energy or frequency and spatial dimension. The acoustic results are found to lie within a range of scaling relations obtained empirically from measurements of seismic coda, suggesting a connection between the universal properties of localization and the robustness of the observed scaling. The relation of instantons to the acoustic coherent-potential approximation is demonstrated in the recovery of the uniform limit. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Secure Cooperative Spectrum Sensing for the Cognitive Radio Network Using Nonuniform Reliability
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Usman
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Both reliable detection of the primary signal in a noisy and fading environment and nullifying the effect of unauthorized users are important tasks in cognitive radio networks. To address these issues, we consider a cooperative spectrum sensing approach where each user is assigned nonuniform reliability based on the sensing performance. Users with poor channel or faulty sensor are assigned low reliability. The nonuniform reliabilities serve as identification tags and are used to isolate users with malicious behavior. We consider a link layer attack similar to the Byzantine attack, which falsifies the spectrum sensing data. Three different strategies are presented in this paper to ignore unreliable and malicious users in the network. Considering only reliable users for global decision improves sensing time and decreases collisions in the control channel. The fusion center uses the degree of reliability as a weighting factor to determine the global decision in scheme I. Schemes II and III consider the unreliability of users, which makes the computations even simpler. The proposed schemes reduce the number of sensing reports and increase the inference accuracy. The advantages of our proposed schemes over conventional cooperative spectrum sensing and the Chair-Varshney optimum rule are demonstrated through simulations.
An optimized cosine-modulated nonuniform filter bank design for subband coding of ECG signal
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Kumar
2015-07-01
Full Text Available A simple iterative technique for the design of nonuniform cosine modulated filter banks (CMFBS is presented in this paper. The proposed technique employs a single parameter for optimization. The nonuniform cosine modulated filter banks are derived by merging the adjacent filters of uniform cosine modulated filter banks. The prototype filter is designed with the aid of different adjustable window functions such as Kaiser, Cosh and Exponential, and by using the constrained equiripple finite impulse response (FIR digital filter design technique. In this method, either cut off frequency or passband edge frequency is varied in order to adjust the filter coefficients so that reconstruction error could be optimized/minimized to zero. Performance and effectiveness of the proposed method in terms of peak reconstruction error (PRE, aliasing distortion (AD, computational (CPU time, and number of iteration (NOI have been shown through the numerical examples and comparative studies. Finally, the technique is exploited for the subband coding of electrocardiogram (ECG and speech signals.
Filippov, Alexander E; Gorb, Stanislav N
2015-02-06
One of the important problems appearing in experimental realizations of artificial adhesives inspired by gecko foot hair is so-called clusterization. If an artificially produced structure is flexible enough to allow efficient contact with natural rough surfaces, after a few attachment-detachment cycles, the fibres of the structure tend to adhere one to another and form clusters. Normally, such clusters are much larger than original fibres and, because they are less flexible, form much worse adhesive contacts especially with the rough surfaces. Main problem here is that the forces responsible for the clusterization are the same intermolecular forces which attract fibres to fractal surface of the substrate. However, arrays of real gecko setae are much less susceptible to this problem. One of the possible reasons for this is that ends of the seta have more sophisticated non-uniformly distributed three-dimensional structure than that of existing artificial systems. In this paper, we simulated three-dimensional spatial geometry of non-uniformly distributed branches of nanofibres of the setal tip numerically, studied its attachment-detachment dynamics and discussed its advantages versus uniformly distributed geometry.
Holland, Alexander; Aboy, Mateo
2009-07-01
We present a novel method to iteratively calculate discrete Fourier transforms for discrete time signals with sample time intervals that may be widely nonuniform. The proposed recursive Fourier transform (RFT) does not require interpolation of the samples to uniform time intervals, and each iterative transform update of N frequencies has computational order N. Because of the inherent non-uniformity in the time between successive heart beats, an application particularly well suited for this transform is power spectral density (PSD) estimation for heart rate variability. We compare RFT based spectrum estimation with Lomb-Scargle Transform (LST) based estimation. PSD estimation based on the LST also does not require uniform time samples, but the LST has a computational order greater than Nlog(N). We conducted an assessment study involving the analysis of quasi-stationary signals with various levels of randomly missing heart beats. Our results indicate that the RFT leads to comparable estimation performance to the LST with significantly less computational overhead and complexity for applications requiring iterative spectrum estimations.
Khmyrova, Irina; Watanabe, Norikazu; Kholopova, Julia; Kovalchuk, Anatoly; Shapoval, Sergei
2014-07-20
We develop an analytical and numerical model for performing simulation of light extraction through the planar output interface of the light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with nonuniform current injection. Spatial nonuniformity of injected current is a peculiar feature of the LEDs in which top metal electrode is patterned as a mesh in order to enhance the output power of light extracted through the top surface. Basic features of the model are the bi-plane computation domain, related to other areas of numerical grid (NG) cells in these two planes, representation of light-generating layer by an ensemble of point light sources, numerical "collection" of light photons from the area limited by acceptance circle and adjustment of NG-cell areas in the computation procedure by the angle-tuned aperture function. The developed model and procedure are used to simulate spatial distributions of the output optical power as well as the total output power at different mesh pitches. The proposed model and simulation strategy can be very efficient in evaluation of the output optical performance of LEDs with periodical or symmetrical configuration of the electrodes.
Adding muscle where you need it: non-uniform hypertrophy patterns in elite sprinters.
Handsfield, G G; Knaus, K R; Fiorentino, N M; Meyer, C H; Hart, J M; Blemker, S S
2017-10-01
Sprint runners achieve much higher gait velocities and accelerations than average humans, due in part to large forces generated by their lower limb muscles. Various factors have been explored in the past to understand sprint biomechanics, but the distribution of muscle volumes in the lower limb has not been investigated in elite sprinters. In this study, we used non-Cartesian MRI to determine muscle sizes in vivo in a group of 15 NCAA Division I sprinters. Normalizing muscle sizes by body size, we compared sprinter muscles to non-sprinter muscles, calculated Z-scores to determine non-uniformly large muscles in sprinters, assessed bilateral symmetry, and assessed gender differences in sprinters' muscles. While limb musculature per height-mass was 22% greater in sprinters than in non-sprinters, individual muscles were not all uniformly larger. Hip- and knee-crossing muscles were significantly larger among sprinters (mean difference: 30%, range: 19-54%) but only one ankle-crossing muscle was significantly larger (tibialis posterior, 28%). Population-wide asymmetry was not significant in the sprint population but individual muscle asymmetries exceeded 15%. Gender differences in normalized muscle sizes were not significant. The results of this study suggest that non-uniform hypertrophy patterns, particularly large hip and knee flexors and extensors, are advantageous for fast sprinting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The influence of nonuniform micro-distribution of alpha emitter on microdosimetry in cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tian Yuan; Zhang Liang'an; Dai Guangfu
2007-01-01
Objective: To study the influence of nonuniform micro-distribution of alpha emitter on cellular S values(in the radioimmunotherapy). Methods: Emission of alpha particles is randomly simulated by Monte Carlo method; the incident energy and exit energy are calculated with interpolation technique based on the relationship between range and energy of alpha particle and the analytical Continuous Slowing Down Approximation (CSDA) model. So energy deposited in the target area can be obtained. To take 213 Po as an example, cellular S values with various cell dimensions and possible micro-distributions of radioactivity are calculated, such as linear increase, linear decrease, exponential increase and exponential decrease. Results: S values from cell to cell of uniform distribution showed no difference with the Hamacher's results. S values of different micro-distributions are distinguishing with each other. It is indicated that different micro-distributions of radioactivity will result in significant change of average chord length of alpha particles traveling in the target area, as well as the change of average stopping power over the chord, which is primary reason for differences of S values. Conclusions: The nonuniform micro-distributions show remarkable influence on cellular S values and hence should be taken consideration in cellular absorbed dose estimation, especially in microdosimetry. (authors)
Design of Chebychev’s Low Pass Filters Using Nonuniform Transmission Lines
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Said Attamimi
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Transmission lines are utilized in many applications to convey energy as well as information. Nonuniform transmission lines (NTLs are obtained through variation of the characteristic quantities along the axial direction. Such NTLs can be used to design network elements, like matching circuits, delay equalizers, filters, VLSI interconnections, etc. In this work, NTLs were analyzed with a numerical method based on the implementation of method of moment. In order to approximate the voltage and current distribution along the transmission line, a sum of basis functions with unknown amplitudes was introduced. As basis function, a constant function was used. In this work, we observed several cases such as lossless and lossy uniform transmission lines with matching and arbitrary load. These cases verified the algorithm developed in this work. The second example consists of nonuniform transmission lines in the form of abruptly changing transmission lines. This structure was used to design a Chebychev’s low pass filter. The calculated reflection and transmission factors of the filters showed some coincidences with the measurements.
Sutherland, B. R.
2016-02-01
It is well established that two-dimensional internal plane waves and modes in uniformly stratified fluid efficiently transfer energy to smaller scale waves and ultimately turbulent mixing through parametric subharmonic instability (PSI). The numerical simulations of MacKinnon & Winters (GRL 2005) predicted PSI should act efficiently to disrupt the internal tide. However, while in situ observations showed the presence of PSI, it was not found to be appreciable. One reason for the discrepancy between simulations and observations is that the former examined an internal mode in uniformly stratified fluid whereas, in reality, the internal tide exists in non-uniform stratification and is manifest as sinusoidal oscillations of the thermocline. Through theory supported by numerical simulations, it is shown that internal modes in non-uniform stratification immediately excite superharmonics, not subharmonic disturbances. These have double the horizontal wavenumber and double the frequency of the parent mode and hence move with the same horizontal phase speed of the parent mode. As the disturbances grow in amplitude, however, they interact with the parent mode generating small-scale vertically propagating internal waves within the strongly stratified layer. The occurrence of PSI over very long times can occur, as in the simulations of Hazewinkel and Winters (JPO 2011). However, a comprehensive understanding of the energy cascade from the internal tide to small scales must consider the evolution of excited superharmonic disturbances.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. K. Nekrasov
2006-03-01
Full Text Available A general nonlinear theory for low-frequency electromagnetic field generation due to high-frequency nonuniform and nonstationary electromagnetic radiations in cold, uniform, multicomponent, dusty magnetoplasmas is developed. This theory permits us to consider the nonlinear action of all waves that can exist in such plasmas. The equations are derived for the dust grain velocities in the low-frequency nonlinear electric fields arising due to the presence of electromagnetic cyclotron waves travelling along the background magnetic field. The dust grains are considered to be magnetized as well as unmagnetized. Different regimes for the dust particle dynamics, depending on the spatio-temporal change of the wave amplitudes and plasma parameters, are discussed. It is shown that induced nonlinear electric fields can have both an electrostatic and electromagnetic nature. Conditions for maximum dust acceleration are found. The results obtained may be useful for understanding the possible mechanisms of dust grain dynamics in astrophysical, cosmic and laboratory plasmas under the action of nonuniform and nonstationary electromagnetic waves.
Non-Uniform Laser Surface Texturing of an Un-Tapered Square Pad for Tribological Applications
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Antonio Ancona
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Femtosecond laser surface micro-texturing has emerged as a promising technology to enhance the tribological properties of different kinds of electromechanical devices. In this research paper, we have exploited the intrinsic flexibility and micrometric accuracy of femtosecond laser ablation to realize complex micro-structural modifications on the surface of a laboratory prototype of a steel thrust bearing (un-tapered pad. The Bruggeman Texture Hydrodynamics theory (BTH is employed for the design of the anisotropic and non-uniform texture maximizing the thrust load of the pad prototype. The preliminary experimental results, reported in this work, show that the non-uniform micro-texture largely affects the friction characteristics of the contact. In particular, in agreement with the BTH predictions, the tribo-system shows friction properties that are strongly sensitive to the direction of the sliding speed, as a consequence of the micro-fluid dynamics which are designed to occur only in a specific sliding direction. We suggest that the joint action of virtual prototyping (BTH lubrication theory and ultrafast laser micro-prototyping can lead to unconventional and impressive results in terms of enhanced or tailored contact mechanics properties of the generic lubricated tribopair.
Analysis of effect on microdose of 10B nonuniform distribution in cellular
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xie Qin; Geng Changran; Tang Xiaobin; Chen Da
2012-01-01
Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is one of the effective way to treat malignant melanoma and head-neck cancer. The intercellular nonuniform distributions of 10 B in tumor cell impact the estimates of inactivation dose. The α-Li Version l.0 code was developed based on Monte-Carlo method to calculate the S values of cell induced by α and 7 Li particle which are the products of 10 B (n,a) 7 Li. The calculation included two types of cell size, eight kinds of energy of a particle and three kinds of source distributions. Differences between results of this code and an analytical algorithm of MIRD committee were within 1%. On this basis, a total of 3420 cases were calculated and analyzed with different kinds of nucleus radius, cell radius, and source launch position combination. Finally, cellular S values of 10 B (n,a) 7 Li calculated in this paper can be used to compute the excellent precision dose under 10 B compound nonuniform distribution in intercellular scale. (authors)
Quantum ratchet effect in a time non-uniform double-kicked model
Chen, Lei; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Hui, Wu; Chu, Cheng-Yu; Chai, Ji-Min; Xiao, Jin; Zhao, Yu; Ma, Jin-Xiang
2017-07-01
The quantum ratchet effect means that the directed transport emerges in a quantum system without a net force. The delta-kicked model is a quantum Hamiltonian model for the quantum ratchet effect. This paper investigates the quantum ratchet effect based on a time non-uniform double-kicked model, in which two flashing potentials alternately act on a particle with a homogeneous initial state of zero momentum, while the intervals between adjacent actions are not equal. The evolution equation of the state of the particle is derived from its Schrödinger equation, and the numerical method to solve the evolution equation is pointed out. The results show that quantum resonances can induce the ratchet effect in this time non-uniform double-kicked model under certain conditions; some quantum resonances, which cannot induce the ratchet effect in previous models, can induce the ratchet effect in this model, and the strengths of the ratchet effect in this model are stronger than those in previous models under certain conditions. These results enrich people’s understanding of the delta-kicked model, and provides a new optional scheme to control the quantum transport of cold atoms in experiment.
Van Londersele, Arne; De Zutter, Daniël; Vande Ginste, Dries
2017-08-01
This work focuses on efficient full-wave solutions of multiscale electromagnetic problems in the time domain. Three local implicitization techniques are proposed and carefully analyzed in order to relax the traditional time step limit of the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method on a nonuniform, staggered, tensor product grid: Newmark, Crank-Nicolson (CN) and Alternating-Direction-Implicit (ADI) implicitization. All of them are applied in preferable directions, alike Hybrid Implicit-Explicit (HIE) methods, as to limit the rank of the sparse linear systems. Both exponential and linear stability are rigorously investigated for arbitrary grid spacings and arbitrary inhomogeneous, possibly lossy, isotropic media. Numerical examples confirm the conservation of energy inside a cavity for a million iterations if the time step is chosen below the proposed, relaxed limit. Apart from the theoretical contributions, new accomplishments such as the development of the leapfrog Alternating-Direction-Hybrid-Implicit-Explicit (ADHIE) FDTD method and a less stringent Courant-like time step limit for the conventional, fully explicit FDTD method on a nonuniform grid, have immediate practical applications.
Gravitational Influences on Flame Propagation through Non-Uniform, Premixed Gas Systems
Miller, Fletcher J.; Easton, John; Ross, Howard D.; Marchese, Anthony; Perry, David; Kulis, Michael
2001-01-01
Flame propagation through non-uniformly premixed (or layered) gases has importance both in useful combustion systems and in unintentional fires. As summarized previously, non-uniform premixed gas combustion receives scant attention compared to the more usual limiting cases of diffusion or uniformly premixed flames, especially regarding the role gravity plays. This paper summarizes our progress on furthering the knowledge of layered combustion, in which a fuel concentration gradient exists normal to the direction of flame spread. We present experimental and numerical results for flame spread through propanol-air layers formed near the flash point temperature (25 C) or near the stoichiometric temperature (33 C). Both the model and experimental results show that the removal of gravity results in a faster spreading flame, by as much as 80% depending on conditions. This is exactly the opposite effect as that predicted by an earlier model reported. We also found that having a gallery lid results in faster flame spread, an effect more pronounced at normal gravity, demonstrating the importance of enclosure geometry. Also reported here is the beginning of our spectroscopic measurements of fuel vapor.
Use of extremity insulation during whole body hyperthermia to reduce temperature nonuniformity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thrall, D.E.; Page, R.L.
1987-01-01
The author previously documented during whole body hyperthermia in dogs using a radiant heating device that temperature at superficial sites, including tibial bone marrow, falls below systemic arterial temperature during the plateau phase of heating. This may be due to direct heat loss to the environment. Sites where temperature is lower than systemic arterial temperature during the plateau phase may become sanctuary sites where tumor deposits are spared because they do not receive the prescribed thermal dose. In an attempt to decrease temperature nonuniformity and increase thermal dose delivered to such superficial sites, extremity insulation has been employed during whole body hyperthermia in dogs. The author measured temperature at cutaneous and subcutaneous sites and within tibial bone marrow in insulated and noninsulated extremities of dogs undergoing whole body hyperthermia in the radiant heating device. The author found that extremity insulation is effective in reducing extremity temperature nonuniformity. Specific results are presented. Extremity insulation may be necessary during whole body hyperthermia to assure that extremity tumor deposits receive a thermal dose similar to that prescribed for the entire body
Planned studies of charge collection in non-uniformly irradiated Si and GaAs detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosenfeld, A.; Reinhard, M.; Carolan, M.; Kaplan, G.; Lerch, M.; Alexiev, D.
1995-01-01
The aim of this project is to study the time and amplitude characteristics of silicon ion-implanted detectors non-uniformly irradiated with fast neutrons in order to predict their radiation behaviour in the LHC and space. It is expected in such detectors increases of the charge deficit due to trapping by large scale traps and transient time increases due to the reduction of the mobility. The theoretical model will be modified to describe the charge kinetics in the electrical field of the detector created by a non uniform space charge distribution. Experimental confirmation techniques are needed to develop non uniform predictable damage of silicon detectors using fast neutron sources (accelerators, reactors) and to study peculiarities of the charge transport in different parts of the detector. In parallel to experimental research will be started the theoretical development of the charge transport model for non-uniform distribution of space charge in the depletion layer (Neff). The model will include the linear distribution of Neff(y) along the detector as well as the change of sign of Neff (conversion from n to p type of silicon) inside the detector
Concave pulse shaping of a circularly polarized laser pulse from non-uniform overdense plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hur, Min Sup [School of Natural Science, UNIST, BanYeon-Ri 100, Ulju-gun, Ulsan, 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Kulagin, Victor V. [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow State University, Universitetsky prosp. 13, Moscow, 119992 (Russian Federation); Suk, Hyyong, E-mail: hysuk@gist.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Photon Science, GIST, 123 Cheomdan-gwangiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju, 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-03-20
Pulse shaping of circularly polarized laser pulses in nonuniform overdense plasmas are investigated numerically. Specifically we show by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations the generation of a concave pulse front of a circularly polarized, a few tens of petawatt laser pulse from a density-tapered, overdense plasma slab. The concept used for the transverse-directional shaping is the differential transmittance depending on the plasma density, and the laser intensity. For suitable selection of the slab parameters for the concave pulse shaping, we studied numerically the pulse transmittance, which can be used for further parameter design of the pulse shaping. The concavely shaped circularly polarized pulse is expected to add more freedom in controlling the ion-beam characteristics in the RPDA regime. - Highlights: • Laser pulse shaping for a concave front by non-uniform overdense plasma was studied. • Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations were used for the investigation. • A laser pulse can be shaped by a density-tapered overdense plasma. • The concave and sharp pulse front are useful in many laser–plasma applications. • They are important for ion acceleration, especially in the radiation pressure dominant regime.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaki, N.G.
2009-01-01
In this paper, the effect of spatial plasma nonuniformity on periodic Absolute Parametric Instability (API) of electrostatic waves in a magnetized pump warm plasma is investigated in a cylindrical geometry. An API plays a crucial role in the processes of the energy transfer from the electromagnetic radiation to the plasma and may have an important consequences for experiments on RF plasma heating in a magnetic traps and for a laser-fusion system. In conclusion; it is found that: A) allowance for the spatial nonuniformity of the plasma density leads to A.I) localization of an unstable wave in a finite region of a plasma volume, A.2) increasing the threshold value of the pump wave amplitude above which parametric amplification occurs and A.3) decreasing the value of the growth rate of unstable waves, B) more growth rate of periodic API is decreased due to electrons warmness in comparison with the case of cold plasma, and C) Independent of the geometry of the problem ( plane or cylinder), the results of the API in a warm plasma waveguide are still valid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gutschwager, Berndt; Hollandt, Jörg
2017-01-01
We present a novel method of nonuniformity correction (NUC) of infrared cameras and focal plane arrays (FPA) in a wide optical spectral range by reading radiance temperatures and by applying a radiation source with an unknown and spatially nonhomogeneous radiance temperature distribution. The benefit of this novel method is that it works with the display and the calculation of radiance temperatures, it can be applied to radiation sources of arbitrary spatial radiance temperature distribution, and it only requires sufficient temporal stability of this distribution during the measurement process. In contrast to this method, an initially presented method described the calculation of NUC correction with the reading of monitored radiance values. Both methods are based on the recording of several (at least three) images of a radiation source and a purposeful row- and line-shift of these sequent images in relation to the first primary image. The mathematical procedure is explained in detail. Its numerical verification with a source of a predefined nonhomogeneous radiance temperature distribution and a thermal imager of a predefined nonuniform FPA responsivity is presented. (paper)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yue Zheng
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate the impact interaction between the abutment and the girder subjected to nonuniform seismic excitation. An impact model based on tests is presented by taking material properties of the backfill of the abutment into consideration. The conditional simulation is performed to investigate the spatial variation of earthquake ground motions. A two-span continuous steel box girder bridge is taken as the example to analyze and assess the pounding interaction between the abutment and the girder. The detailed nonlinear finite element (FE model is established and the steel girder and the reinforced concrete piers are modeled by nonlinear fiber elements. The pounding element of the abutment is simulated by using a trilinear compression gap element. The elastic-perfectly plastic element is used to model the nonlinear rubber bearings. The comparisons of the pounding forces, the shear forces of the nonlinear bearings, the moments of reinforced concrete piers, and the axial pounding stresses of the steel girder are studied. The made observations indicate that the nonuniform excitation for multisupport bridge is imperative in the analysis and evaluation of the pounding effects of the bridges.
Korepanov, Alexey
2017-12-01
Let {T : M \\to M} be a nonuniformly expanding dynamical system, such as logistic or intermittent map. Let {v : M \\to R^d} be an observable and {v_n = \\sum_{k=0}^{n-1} v circ T^k} denote the Birkhoff sums. Given a probability measure {μ} on M, we consider v n as a discrete time random process on the probability space {(M, μ)} . In smooth ergodic theory there are various natural choices of {μ} , such as the Lebesgue measure, or the absolutely continuous T-invariant measure. They give rise to different random processes. We investigate relation between such processes. We show that in a large class of measures, it is possible to couple (redefine on a new probability space) every two processes so that they are almost surely close to each other, with explicit estimates of "closeness". The purpose of this work is to close a gap in the proof of the almost sure invariance principle for nonuniformly hyperbolic transformations by Melbourne and Nicol.
Le Roux, J. A.; Arthur, A. D.
2017-09-01
Time-dependent solar energetic particle (SEP) acceleration is investigated at a fast, nearly parallel spherical traveling shock in the strongly non-uniform corona by solving the standard focused transport equation for SEPs and transport equations for parallel propagating Alfvén waves that form a set of coupled equations. This enables the modeling of self-excitation of Alfvén waves in the inertial range by SEPs ahead of the shock and its role in enhancing the efficiency of the diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) of SEPs in a self-regulatory fashion. Preliminary results suggest that, because of the highly non-uniform coronal conditions that the shock encounters, both DSA and wave excitation are highly time-dependent processes. Thus, DSA spectra of SEPs strongly deviate from the simple power-law prediction of standard steady-state DSA theory and initially strong wave excitation weakens rapidly. Consequently, the ability of DSA to produce high energy SEPs in the corona of ∼1 GeV, as observed in the strongest gradual SEP events, appears to be strongly curtailed at a fast nearly parallel shock, but further research is needed before final conclusions can be drawn.
Calibration of EBT2 film by the PDD method with scanner non-uniformity correction.
Chang, Liyun; Chui, Chen-Shou; Ding, Hueisch-Jy; Hwang, Ing-Ming; Ho, Sheng-Yow
2012-09-21
The EBT2 film together with a flatbed scanner is a convenient dosimetry QA tool for verification of clinical radiotherapy treatments. However, it suffers from a relatively high degree of uncertainty and a tedious film calibration process for every new lot of films, including cutting the films into several small pieces, exposing with different doses, restoring them back and selecting the proper region of interest (ROI) for each piece for curve fitting. In this work, we present a percentage depth dose (PDD) method that can accurately calibrate the EBT2 film together with the scanner non-uniformity correction and provide an easy way to perform film dosimetry. All films were scanned before and after the irradiation in one of the two homemade 2 mm thick acrylic frames (one portrait and the other landscape), which was located at a fixed position on the scan bed of an Epson 10 000XL scanner. After the pre-irradiated scan, the film was placed parallel to the beam central axis and sandwiched between six polystyrene plates (5 cm thick each), followed by irradiation of a 20 × 20 cm² 6 MV photon beam. Two different beams on times were used on two different films to deliver a dose to the film ranging from 32 to 320 cGy. After the post-irradiated scan, the net optical densities for a total of 235 points on the beam central axis on the films were auto-extracted and compared with the corresponding depth doses that were calculated through the measurement of a 0.6 cc farmer chamber and the related PDD table to perform the curve fitting. The portrait film location was selected for routine calibration, since the central beam axis on the film is parallel to the scanning direction, where non-uniformity correction is not needed (Ferreira et al 2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 1073-85). To perform the scanner non-uniformity calibration, the cross-beam profiles of the film were analysed by referencing the measured profiles from a Profiler™. Finally, to verify our method, the films were
Calibration of EBT2 film by the PDD method with scanner non-uniformity correction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang Liyun; Ding, Hueisch-Jy; Chui, Chen-Shou; Hwang, Ing-Ming; Ho, Sheng-Yow
2012-01-01
The EBT2 film together with a flatbed scanner is a convenient dosimetry QA tool for verification of clinical radiotherapy treatments. However, it suffers from a relatively high degree of uncertainty and a tedious film calibration process for every new lot of films, including cutting the films into several small pieces, exposing with different doses, restoring them back and selecting the proper region of interest (ROI) for each piece for curve fitting. In this work, we present a percentage depth dose (PDD) method that can accurately calibrate the EBT2 film together with the scanner non-uniformity correction and provide an easy way to perform film dosimetry. All films were scanned before and after the irradiation in one of the two homemade 2 mm thick acrylic frames (one portrait and the other landscape), which was located at a fixed position on the scan bed of an Epson 10 000XL scanner. After the pre-irradiated scan, the film was placed parallel to the beam central axis and sandwiched between six polystyrene plates (5 cm thick each), followed by irradiation of a 20 × 20 cm 2 6 MV photon beam. Two different beams on times were used on two different films to deliver a dose to the film ranging from 32 to 320 cGy. After the post-irradiated scan, the net optical densities for a total of 235 points on the beam central axis on the films were auto-extracted and compared with the corresponding depth doses that were calculated through the measurement of a 0.6 cc farmer chamber and the related PDD table to perform the curve fitting. The portrait film location was selected for routine calibration, since the central beam axis on the film is parallel to the scanning direction, where non-uniformity correction is not needed (Ferreira et al 2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 1073–85). To perform the scanner non-uniformity calibration, the cross-beam profiles of the film were analysed by referencing the measured profiles from a Profiler™. Finally, to verify our method, the films were
Experimental study of particle-driven secondary flow in turbulent pipe flows
Belt, R.J.; Daalmans, A.C.L.M.; Portela, L.M.
2012-01-01
In fully developed single-phase turbulent flow in straight pipes, it is known that mean motions can occur in the plane of the pipe cross-section, when the cross-section is non-circular, or when the wall roughness is non-uniform around the circumference of a circular pipe. This phenomenon is known as secondary flow of the second kind and is associated with the anisotropy in the Reynolds stress tensor in the pipe cross-section. In this work, we show, using careful laser Doppler anemometry exper...
Bakhshi Khaniki, Hossein; Rajasekaran, Sundaramoorthy
2018-05-01
This study develops a comprehensive investigation on mechanical behavior of non-uniform bi-directional functionally graded beam sensors in the framework of modified couple stress theory. Material variation is modelled through both length and thickness directions using power-law, sigmoid and exponential functions. Moreover, beam is assumed with linear, exponential and parabolic cross-section variation through the length using power-law and sigmoid varying functions. Using these assumptions, a general model for microbeams is presented and formulated by employing Hamilton’s principle. Governing equations are solved using a mixed finite element method with Lagrangian interpolation technique, Gaussian quadrature method and Wilson’s Lagrangian multiplier method. It is shown that by using bi-directional functionally graded materials in nonuniform microbeams, mechanical behavior of such structures could be affected noticeably and scale parameter has a significant effect in changing the rigidity of nonuniform bi-directional functionally graded beams.
A nonuniform-polarization high-energy ultra-broadband laser with a long erbium-doped fiber
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mao, Dong
2013-01-01
We have experimentally investigated nonuniformly polarized broadband high-energy pulses delivered from a mode-locked laser with an ultra-long erbium-doped fiber (EDF). The pulses exhibit a broadband spectrum of ∼73 nm and can avoid optical wave breaking at high-pump regimes. The polarization states of the pulses evolve from uniform to nonuniform at each round trip in the oscillator, which is distinct from other pulses. Remarkably, the output pulses broaden in anomalous- or normal-dispersion regimes while they can be shortened with an EDF amplifier external to the cavity. Our results suggest that the long EDF results in a nonuniform-polarization state and plays a decisive role in the formation of high-energy pulses. (paper)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Đorđe Vujčić
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Print quality is very important for every printing technique. It depends on many different quality attributes. This research included analysis of macro non-uniformities and line reproduction. 16 different paper substrates printed by electrophotographic process were analyzed. They were separated in two groups: coated and uncoated papers. Analysis of macro non-uniformity showed that print mottle has lower values when printed on coated papers than on uncoated papers. Line reproduction analysis showed that the toner spreaded, during melting and fixation, on line edges for both types of paper. According to these results it can be concluded that paper substrate affects the macro non-uniformity and line reproduction, thus overall print quality.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zupančič, Matevž, E-mail: matevz.zupancic@fs.uni-lj.si; Može, Matic; Gregorčič, Peter; Golobič, Iztok
2017-03-31
Highlights: • Surfaces with periodically changed wettability were produced by a ns marking laser. • Heat transfer was investigated on uniformly and non-uniformly wettable surfaces. • Microporous surfaces with non-uniform wettability enhance boiling heat transfer. • The most bubble nucleations were observed in the vicinity of the microcavities. • Results agree with the predictions of the nucleation criteria. - Abstract: Microstructured uniformly and non-uniformly wettable surfaces were created on 25-μm-thin stainless steel foils by laser texturing using a marking nanosecond Nd:YAG laser (λ = 1064 nm) and utilizing various laser fluences and scan line separations. High-speed photography and high-speed IR thermography were used to investigate nucleate boiling heat transfer on the microstructured surfaces. The most pronounced results were obtained on a surface with non-uniform microstructure and non-uniform wettability. The obtained results show up to a 110% higher heat transfer coefficients and 20–40 times higher nucleation site densities compared to the untextured surface. We show that the number of active nucleation sites is significantly increased in the vicinity of microcavities that appeared in areas with the smallest (10 μm) scan line separation. Furthermore, this confirms the predictions of nucleation criteria and proves that straightforward, cost-effective nanosecond laser texturing allows the production of cavities with diameters of up to a few micrometers and surfaces with non-uniform wettability. Additionally, this opens up important possibilities for a more deterministic control over the complex boiling process.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zheng Hu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available High-speed blades are often prone to fatigue due to severe blade vibrations. In particular, synchronous vibrations can cause irreversible damages to the blade. Blade tip-timing methods (BTT have become a promising way to monitor blade vibrations. However, synchronous vibrations are unsuitably monitored by uniform BTT sampling. Therefore, non-equally mounted probes have been used, which will result in the non-uniformity of the sampling signal. Since under-sampling is an intrinsic drawback of BTT methods, how to analyze non-uniformly under-sampled BTT signals is a big challenge. In this paper, a novel reconstruction method for non-uniformly under-sampled BTT data is presented. The method is based on the periodically non-uniform sampling theorem. Firstly, a mathematical model of a non-uniform BTT sampling process is built. It can be treated as the sum of certain uniform sample streams. For each stream, an interpolating function is required to prevent aliasing in the reconstructed signal. Secondly, simultaneous equations of all interpolating functions in each sub-band are built and corresponding solutions are ultimately derived to remove unwanted replicas of the original signal caused by the sampling, which may overlay the original signal. In the end, numerical simulations and experiments are carried out to validate the feasibility of the proposed method. The results demonstrate the accuracy of the reconstructed signal depends on the sampling frequency, the blade vibration frequency, the blade vibration bandwidth, the probe static offset and the number of samples. In practice, both types of blade vibration signals can be particularly reconstructed by non-uniform BTT data acquired from only two probes.
Raju, C. S. K.; Sanjeevi, P.; Raju, M. C.; Ibrahim, S. M.; Lorenzini, G.; Lorenzini, E.
2017-11-01
A theoretical analysis is performed for studying the flow and heat and mass transfer characteristics of Maxwell fluid over a cylinder with Cattaneo-Christov and non-uniform heat source/sink. The Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameters also considered into account. Numerical solutions are carried out by using Runge-Kutta-based shooting technique. The effects of various governing parameters on the flow and temperature profiles are demonstrated graphically. We also computed the friction factor coefficient, local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers for the permeable and impermeable flow over a cylinder cases. It is found that the rising values of Biot number, non-uniform heat source/sink and thermophoresis parameters reduce the rate of heat transfer. It is also found that the friction factor coefficient is high in impermeable flow over a cylinder case when compared with the permeable flow over a cylinder case.
An Investigation of Ionic Flows in a Sphere-Plate Electrode Gap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alisoy, H. Z.; Alagoz, B. B.; Alagoz, S.; Alisoy, G. T.
2013-01-01
This paper presents analyses of ion flow characteristics and ion discharge pulses in a sphere-ground plate electrode system. As a result of variation in electric field intensity in the electrode gap, the ion flows towards electrodes generate non-uniform discharging pulses. Inspection of these pulses provides useful information on ionic stream kinetics, the effective thickness of ion cover around electrodes, and the timing of ion clouds discharge pulse sequences. A finite difference time domain (FDTD) based space-charge motion simulation is used for the numerical analysis of the spatio-temporal development of ionic flows following the first Townsend avalanche, and the simulation results demonstrate expansion of the positive ion flow and compression of the negative ion flow, which results in non-uniform discharge pulse characteristics
An Investigation of Ionic Flows in a Sphere-Plate Electrode Gap
Z. Alisoy, H.; Alagoz, S.; T. Alisoy, G.; B. Alagoz, B.
2013-10-01
This paper presents analyses of ion flow characteristics and ion discharge pulses in a sphere-ground plate electrode system. As a result of variation in electric field intensity in the electrode gap, the ion flows towards electrodes generate non-uniform discharging pulses. Inspection of these pulses provides useful information on ionic stream kinetics, the effective thickness of ion cover around electrodes, and the timing of ion clouds discharge pulse sequences. A finite difference time domain (FDTD) based space-charge motion simulation is used for the numerical analysis of the spatio-temporal development of ionic flows following the first Townsend avalanche, and the simulation results demonstrate expansion of the positive ion flow and compression of the negative ion flow, which results in non-uniform discharge pulse characteristics.
Induced charge of spherical dust particle on plasma-facing wall in non-uniform electric field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tomita, Y.; Smirnov, R.; Zhu, S.
2005-01-01
Induced charge of a spherical dust particle on a plasma-facing wall is investigated analytically, where non-uniform electric field is applied externally. The one-dimensional non-uniform electrostatic potential is approximated by the polynomial of the normal coordinate toward the wall. The bipolar coordinate is introduced to solve the Laplace equation of the induced electrostatic potential. The boundary condition at the dust surface determines the unknown coefficients of the general solution of the Laplace equation for the induced potential. From the obtained potential the surface induced charge can be calculated. This result allows estimating the effect of the surrounding plasma, which shields the induced charge. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khattab, K.; Ghazi, N.; Omar, H.
2007-01-01
A 3-D neutronic model, using the WIMSD4 and CITATION codes, for the Syrian Miniature Neutron source Reactor (MNSR) is used to calculate the axial thermal neutron flux non-uniform factor in the inner irradiation capsule. The calculated result is 4%. A copper wire is used to measure the axial thermal neutron flux non-uniform factor in the inner irradiation capsule to be compared with the calculated result. The measured result is 5%. Good agreement between the measured and calculated results is obtained. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khattab, K.; Ghazi, N.; Omar, H.
2007-01-01
A 3-D neutronic model, using the WIMSD4 and CITATION codes, for the Syrian Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) is used to calculate the axial thermal neutron flux non-uniform factor in the inner irradiation capsule. The calculated result is 4%. A copper wire is used to measure the axial thermal neutron flux non-uniform factor in the inner irradiation capsule to be compared with the calculated result. The measured result is 5%. Good agreement between the measured and calculated results is obtained
Rao, Rathnamala; Katti, Guruprasad; Havaldar, Dnyanesh S.; DasGupta, Nandita; DasGupta, Amitava
2009-03-01
The paper describes the unified analytical threshold voltage model for non-uniformly doped, dual metal gate (DMG) fully depleted silicon-on-insulator (FDSOI) MOSFETs based on the solution of 2D Poisson's equation. 2D Poisson's equation is solved analytically for appropriate boundary conditions using separation of variables technique. The solution is then extended to obtain the threshold voltage of the FDSOI MOSFET. The model is able to handle any kind of non-uniform doping, viz. vertical, lateral as well as laterally asymetric channel (LAC) profile in the SOI film in addition to the DMG structure. The analytical results are validated with the numerical simulations using the device simulator MEDICI.
A method for real time detecting of non-uniform magnetic field
Marusenkov, Andriy
2015-04-01
The principle of measuring magnetic signatures for observing diverse objects is widely used in Near Surface work (unexploded ordnance (UXO); engineering & environmental; archaeology) and security and vehicle detection systems as well. As a rule, the magnitude of the signals to be measured is much lower than that of the quasi-uniform Earth magnetic field. Usually magnetometers for these purposes contain two or more spatially separated sensors to estimate the full tensor gradient of the magnetic field or, more frequently, only partial gradient components. The both types (scalar and vector) of magnetic sensors could be used. The identity of the scale factors and proper alignment of the sensitivity axes of the vector sensors are very important for deep suppression of the ambient field and detection of weak target signals. As a rule, the periodical calibration procedure is used to keep matching sensors' parameters as close as possible. In the present report we propose the technique for detection magnetic anomalies, which is almost insensitive to imperfect matching of the sensors. This method based on the idea that the difference signals between two sensors are considerably different when the instrument is rotated or moved in uniform and non-uniform fields. Due to the misfit of calibration parameters the difference signal observed at the rotation in the uniform field is similar to the total signal - the sum of the signals of both sensors. Zero change of the difference and total signals is expected, if the instrument moves in the uniform field along a straight line. In contrast, the same move in the non-uniform field produces some response of each of the sensors. In case one measures dB/dx and moves along x direction, the sensors signals is shifted in time with the lag proportional to the distance between sensors and the speed of move. It means that the difference signal looks like derivative of the total signal at move in the non-uniform field. So, using quite simple
Hiatt, Matthew; Passalacqua, Paola
2017-01-01
Recent field work at the Wax Lake Delta (WLD) in coastal Louisiana indicates lateral outflow from channels to islands upstream of the receiving basin; in this region of the delta the flow transitions from confined to unconfined (i.e., from a uniform discharge profile to a nonuniform discharge
Kinetics of gravity-driven slug flow in partially wettable capillaries of varying cross section
Nissan, Alon; Wang, Qiuling; Wallach, Rony
2016-11-01
A mathematical model for slug (finite liquid volume) motion in not-fully-wettable capillary tubes with sinusoidally varying cross-sectional areas was developed. The model, based on the Navier-Stokes equation, accounts for the full viscous terms due to nonuniform geometry, the inertial term, the slug's front and rear meniscus hysteresis effect, and dependence of contact angle on flow velocity (dynamic contact angle). The model includes a velocity-dependent film that is left behind the advancing slug, reducing its mass. The model was successfully verified experimentally by recording slug movement in uniform and sinusoidal capillary tubes with a gray-scale high-speed camera. Simulation showed that tube nonuniformity has a substantial effect on slug flow pattern: in a uniform tube it is monotonic and depends mainly on the slug's momentary mass/length; an undulating tube radius results in nonmonotonic flow characteristics. The static nonzero contact angle varies locally in nonuniform tubes owing to the additional effect of wall slope. Moreover, the nonuniform cross-sectional area induces slug acceleration, deceleration, blockage, and metastable-equilibrium locations. Increasing contact angle further amplifies the geometry effect on slug propagation. The developed model provides a modified means of emulating slug flow in differently wettable porous media for intermittent inlet water supply (e.g., raindrops on the soil surface).
Modelling of the flow of stable air over a complex region
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Scholtz, MT
1976-01-01
Full Text Available The flow of stable air over a general region of complex topography and non-uniform surface temperature has been investigated. In order to gain further understanding of the motion of surface air, it was necessary to study the vertical structure...
Compensation of flow maldistribution in fin-and-tube evaporators for residential air-conditioning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Brix, Wiebke; Elmegaard, Brian
2011-01-01
Compensation of flow maldistribution in multi-channel fin-and-tube evaporators for residential air-conditioning is investigated by numerical modeling. The considered sources of maldistribution are distribution of the liquid and vapor phases in the distributor and non-uniform airflow distribution....
Core Flow Distribution from Coupled Supercritical Water Reactor Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Po Hu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces an extended code package PARCS/RELAP5 to analyze steady state of SCWR US reference design. An 8 × 8 quarter core model in PARCS and a reactor core model in RELAP5 are used to study the core flow distribution under various steady state conditions. The possibility of moderator flow reversal is found in some hot moderator channels. Different moderator flow orifice strategies, both uniform across the core and nonuniform based on the power distribution, are explored with the goal of preventing the reversal.
Alteration of helical vortex core without change in flow topology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Velte, Clara Marika; Okulov, Valery; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver
2011-01-01
topology. The helical symmetry as such is preserved, although the characteristic parameters of helical symmetry of the vortex core transfer from a smooth linear variation to a different trend under the influence of a non-uniform pressure gradient, causing an increase in helical pitch without changing its......The abrupt expansion of the slender vortex core with changes in flow topology is commonly known as vortex breakdown. We present new experimental observations of an alteration of the helical vortex core in wall bounded turbulent flow with abrupt growth in core size, but without change in flow...
Transient phenomena in multiphase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Afgan, N.H.
1988-01-01
This book is devoted to formulation of the two-phase system. Emphasis is given to classical instantaneous equations of mass momentum and energy for local conditions and respective averaging procedures and their relevance to the structure of transfer laws. In formulating an equation for a two-velocity continuum, two-phase dispersed flow, two-velocity and local inertial effects associated with contraction and expansion of the mixture have been considered. Particular attention is paid to the effects of interface topology and area concentration as well as the latter's dependence on interfacial transfer laws. Also covered are low bubble concentrations in basic nonuniform unsteady flow where interactions between bubbles are negligible but where the effects of bubbles must still be considered. Special emphasis has been given to the pairwise interaction of the bubble and respective hydrodynamic equations describing the motion of a pair of spherical bubbles through a liquid This book introduces turbulence phenomena in two-phase flow and related problems of phase distribution in two-phase flow. This includes an extensive survey of turbulence and phase distribution models in transient two-phase flow. It is shown that if the turbulent structure of the continuous phase of bubbly two-phase is either measured or can be predicted, then the observed lateral phase distribution can be determined by using an multidimensional two-fluid model in which all lateral forces are properly modeled
Synchronization in a non-uniform network of excitatory spiking neurons
Echeveste, Rodrigo; Gros, Claudius
Spontaneous synchronization of pulse coupled elements is ubiquitous in nature and seems to be of vital importance for life. Networks of pacemaker cells in the heart, extended populations of southeast asian fireflies, and neuronal oscillations in cortical networks, are examples of this. In the present work, a rich repertoire of dynamical states with different degrees of synchronization are found in a network of excitatory-only spiking neurons connected in a non-uniform fashion. In particular, uncorrelated and partially correlated states are found without the need for inhibitory neurons or external currents. The phase transitions between these states, as well the robustness, stability, and response of the network to external stimulus are studied.
Study of entropy generation in a slab with non-uniform internal heat generation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
El Haj Assad Mamdouh
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Analysis of entropy generation in a rectangular slab with a nonuniform internal heat generation is presented. Dimensionless local and total entropy generation during steady state heat conduction through the slab are obtained. Two different boundary conditions have been considered in the analysis, the first with asymmetric convection and the second with constant slab surface temperature. Temperature distribution within the slab is obtained analytically. The study investigates the effect of some relevant dimensionless heat transfer parameters on entropy generation. The results show that there exists a minimum local entropy generation but there does not exist a minimum total entropy generation for certain combinations of the heat transfer parameters. The results of calculations are presented graphically.
Khine, Y. Y.; Walker, J. S.
1995-02-01
This paper treats the buoyant convection during the Czochralski growth of silicon crystals with a steady, strong, non-uniform, axisymmetric magnetic field. We consider a family of magnetic fields which includes a uniform axial magnetic field and a "cusp" field which is produced by identical solenoids placed symmetrically above and below the plane of the crystal-melt interface and free surface. We investigate the evolution of the buoyant convection as the magnetic field is changed continuously from a uniform axial field to a cusp field, with a constant value of the root-mean-squared magnetic flux density in the melt. We also investigate changes as the magnetic flux density is increased. While the cusp field appears very promising, perfect alignment between the local magnetic field vector and the crystal-melt interface or free surface is not possible, so the effects of a slight misalignment are also investigated.
Shape and fission instabilities of ferrofluids in non-uniform magnetic fields
Vieu, Thibault; Walter, Clément
2018-04-01
We study static distributions of ferrofluid submitted to non-uniform magnetic fields. We show how the normal-field instability is modified in the presence of a weak magnetic field gradient. Then we consider a ferrofluid droplet and show how the gradient affects its shape. A rich phase transitions phenomenology is found. We also investigate the creation of droplets by successive splits when a magnet is vertically approached from below and derive theoretical expressions which are solved numerically to obtain the number of droplets and their aspect ratio as function of the field configuration. A quantitative comparison is performed with previous experimental results, as well as with our own experiments, and yields good agreement with the theoretical modeling.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lana Damaj
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A wideband dual-polarized coplanar waveguide (CPW fed antenna integrating a wide stop-band filter is presented. The designed filter is based on a nonuniform defected ground structure (DGS in order to obtain a wide stop-band and a compact size. This filter is used to reject harmonics and spurious radiation arising from the RF front end. The complete structure (antenna and filter has been optimized to have a compact size of 0.6×0.6λ02 (λ0 being the free-space wavelength at the lowest operating frequency. The realized antenna operates in the frequency range between 2.7 GHz and 5.9 GHz (bandwidth of about 74%. The isolation between feeding ports is more than 18 dB. The complete structure has a wide stop-band characteristic (103% for harmonic rejection. The simulated numerical results have been confirmed with measurements.
Strain distributions in nano-onions with uniform and non-uniform compositions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duan, H L; Karihaloo, B L; Wang, J; Yi, X
2006-01-01
Nano-onions are ellipsoidal or spherical particles consisting of a core surrounded by concentric shells of nanometre size. Nano-onions produced by self-assembly and colloidal techniques have different structures and compositions, and thus differ in the state of strains. The mismatch of the thermal expansion coefficients and lattice constants between neighbouring shells induces stress/strain fields in the core and shells, which in turn affect their physical/mechanical properties and/or the properties of the composites containing them. In this paper, the strains in embedded and free-standing nano-onions with uniform and non-uniform compositions are studied in detail. It is found that the strains in the nano-onions can be modified by adjusting their compositions and structures. The results are useful for the band structure engineering of semiconductor nano-onions
Simulation of Non-Uniform Electron Beams in the Gyrotron Electron-Optical System
Louksha, O. I.; Trofimov, P. A.
2018-04-01
New calculated data on the effect of emission inhomogeneities on the quality of the electron beam, which is formed in an electron-optical system of a gyrotron, have been obtained. The calculations were based on emission current density distributions, which were measured for the different cathodes in the gyrotron of Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University. A satisfactory agreement between the experimental and calculated data on the influence of emission nonuniformities on the velocity spread of electrons has been shown. The necessity of considering the real distribution of the emission current density over the cathode surface to determine the main parameters of the electron beam—the velocity and energy spreads of the electrons, spatial structure of the beam, and coefficient of reflection of electrons from the magnetic mirror—has been demonstrated. The maximum level of emission inhomogeneities, which are permissible for effective work of gyrotrons, has been discussed.
Electrical field excitation in non-uniform plasma by a modulated electron beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anisimov, I.O.; Borisov, O.A.
2000-01-01
Excitation of electric fields due to a modulated electron beam in a warm non-uniform plasma is treated for weak beams in warm plasma. It is shown that the maximum electric field magnitude that is reached near the local plasma resonance point depends significantly on the direction of the electron stream motion. In collisional plasma the magnitude of the Langmuir wave that propagates to the subcritical plasma also depends on the direction of the electron stream motion. The motion of the modulated electron stream front results in beatings between oscillations on the modulation frequency and on the local electron plasma frequencies at the initial moment. Later these beatings damp in the supercritical plasma, whereas in the subcritical plasma they are transformed into spatial beatings between the field of the modulated electron stream and the excited Langmuir wave. (orig.)
High-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography using non-uniform fast Fourier transform
Chan, Kenny K. H.; Tang, Shuo
2010-01-01
The useful imaging range in spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is often limited by the depth dependent sensitivity fall-off. Processing SD-OCT data with the non-uniform fast Fourier transform (NFFT) can improve the sensitivity fall-off at maximum depth by greater than 5dB concurrently with a 30 fold decrease in processing time compared to the fast Fourier transform with cubic spline interpolation method. NFFT can also improve local signal to noise ratio (SNR) and reduce image artifacts introduced in post-processing. Combined with parallel processing, NFFT is shown to have the ability to process up to 90k A-lines per second. High-speed SD-OCT imaging is demonstrated at camera-limited 100 frames per second on an ex-vivo squid eye. PMID:21258551
Sparse-View Ultrasound Diffraction Tomography Using Compressed Sensing with Nonuniform FFT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shaoyan Hua
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Accurate reconstruction of the object from sparse-view sampling data is an appealing issue for ultrasound diffraction tomography (UDT. In this paper, we present a reconstruction method based on compressed sensing framework for sparse-view UDT. Due to the piecewise uniform characteristics of anatomy structures, the total variation is introduced into the cost function to find a more faithful sparse representation of the object. The inverse problem of UDT is iteratively resolved by conjugate gradient with nonuniform fast Fourier transform. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method that the main characteristics of the object can be properly presented with only 16 views. Compared to interpolation and multiband method, the proposed method can provide higher resolution and lower artifacts with the same view number. The robustness to noise and the computation complexity are also discussed.
Neutron-diffraction measurement of the evolution of strain for non-uniform plastic deformation
Rogge, R B; Boyce, D
2002-01-01
Neutrons are particularly adept for the validation of modeling predictions of stress and strain. In recent years, there has been a significant effort to model the evolution of both the macroscopic stresses and the intergranular stress during plastic deformation. These have had broad implications with regard to understanding the evolution of residual stress and to diffraction-based measurements of strain. Generally the modeling and associated measurements have been performed for simple uniaxial tension, leaving questions with regard to plastic deformation under multi-axial stress and non-uniform stress. Extensive measurements of the strain profile across a plastic hinge for each of a series of loading and unloading cycles to progressively higher degrees of plastic deformation are presented. These measurements are used to assess multiple-length-scale finite-element modeling (FEM) of the plastic hinge, in which the elements will range in size from single crystallites (as used in successful simulations of uniaxia...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shaeen Kalathil
2018-01-01
Full Text Available A novel approach for the efficient realization of digital channelizers in software defined radios using recombination filter banks is proposed in this paper. Digital channelizer is the core of software defined radio. Computationally efficient design supporting multiple channels with different bandwidths and low complexity are inevitable requirements for the digital channelizers. Recombination filter banks method is used to obtain non-uniform filter banks with rational sampling factors, using a two stage structure. It consists of a uniform filter bank and trans-multiplexer. In this work, the uniform filter bank and trans-multiplexer are designed using cosine modulated filter banks. The prototype filter design is made simple, efficient and fast, using window method. The multiplier-less realization of recombination filter banks in the canonic signed digit space using nature inspired optimization algorithms, results in reduced implementation complexity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xin Mi Yang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We make preliminary investigations on a new approach to reducing radar cross section (RCS of conducting objects. This approach employs novel planar metasurfaces characterizing nonuniform distribution of reflection phase. The operation principle of this approach and the design rule of the associated metasurfaces are explained using a simplified theoretical model. We then present a design example of such metasurfaces, in which three-layer stacked square patches with variable sizes are utilized as the reflecting elements. The proposed RCS-reduction approach is verified by both numerical simulations and measurements on the example, under the assumption of normal plane wave incidence. It is observed that, in a fairly wide frequency band (from 3.6 to 5.5 GHz, the presented example is capable of suppressing the specular reflections of conducting plates significantly (by more than 7 dB for two orthogonal incident polarizations.
Observation of non-uniform erosion and deposition phenomena on graphite after plasma exposure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hildebrandt, D.; Grote, H.; Schneider, W.; Wienhold, P.; Seggern, J. von
1999-01-01
The modifications of fine grain isotropic graphite surfaces after plasma exposure have been investigated using surface analysis techniques with high spatial resolution in area and depth. The samples are graphite target tiles of ASDEX-upgrade and coated graphite collector samples exposed for special erosion/deposition experiments in the divertor plasma of ASDEX-upgrade or in the scrape-off plasma of TEXTOR-94. In addition, a graphite sample was exposed to a low temperature, clean deuterium plasma to study the modifications of the surface morphology during plasma exposure. The results give clear indications of non-uniform erosion and deposition processes. The change of the surface morphology during these processes is discussed. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gadalla, M.A.
1992-01-01
This paper presents an overview analyses of the thermal instability or thermal viability of infinite cylindrical structures with non-linear and non-uniform internal heat generation. The structure may be subjected to different and combined boundary conditions. An analytical solution is obtained for the generalized problem in spite of the non-linearity and the non-homogeneity of the source term. Four case studies with different boundary conditions are presented. The analyses show that the critical parameter for thermal stability may be though of as an altitude of surface below which the cylindrical structure will be thermally stable and performance worthy. The results also show that the bounds of thermal stability of a cylindrical structure system (solid or hollow) is eminently determined by the boundary conditions to which the system is subjected and can significantly alter the life-span of the structure
Nonuniform distribution of gas-liquid system in gas-distributing collector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kasimov, R.Sh.; Abdullayev, E.A.; Eyubov, A.A.; Khudobakhshiyev, M.R.
1979-01-01
In the example of studying GS-1 of the field Shatlyk, the effect of nonuniform distribution of the liquid phase is examined (hydrocarbon condensate, water) on production lines of the unit of low temperature separation on the process of field preparation of gas. In particular, the unequal efficiency of single-type equipment operating under comparable conditions is noted: differences in the magnitude of under recuperation of coal of the recuperation heat exchangers, in the values of the integrated effect of Joule-Thomson, the coefficients of removal of low-temperature separators, etc. A consequence of this situation is deterioration in the quality of gas fed to the main pipe line. It is suggested that efforts be concentrated on developing technical designs which guarantee uniform supply of liquid from the field collector to the production lines of the unit for low temperature separation.
Huang, Zheyong; Shen, Yunli; Pei, Ning; Sun, Aijun; Xu, Jianfeng; Song, Yanan; Huang, Gangyong; Sun, Xiaoning; Zhang, Shuning; Qin, Qing; Zhu, Hongming; Yang, Shan; Yang, Xiangdong; Zou, Yunzeng; Qian, Juying; Ge, Junbo
2013-12-01
Magnetic targeting has been recently introduced to enhance cell retention in animals with acute myocardial infarction. However, it is unclear whether the magnetic accumulation of intravascular cells increases the risk of coronary embolism. Upon finite element analysis, we found that the permanent magnetic field was nonuniform, manifestated as attenuation along the vertical axis and polarisation along the horizontal axis. In the in vitro experiments, iron-labelled mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were accumulated in layers predominantly at the edge of the magnet. In an ischaemic rat model subjected to intracavitary MSCs injection, magnetic targeting induced unfavourable vascular embolisation and an inhomogeneous distribution of the donor cells, which prevented the enhanced cell retention from translating into additional functional benefit. These potential complications of magnetic targeting should be thoroughly investigated and overcome before clinical application. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nonunique and nonuniform mapping in few-body Coulomb-explosion imaging
Sayler, A. M.; Eckner, E.; McKenna, J.; Esry, B. D.; Carnes, K. D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Paulus, G. G.
2018-03-01
Much of our knowledge of molecular geometry and interaction dynamics comes from indirect measurements of the molecular fragments following breakup. This technique—Coulomb-explosion imaging (CEI), i.e., determining the initial molecular configuration of a system from the momenta of the resulting fragments using knowledge of the particle interactions—is one of the fundamental tools of molecular physics. Moreover, CEI has been a staple of molecular studies for decades. Here we show that one often cannot assign a unique initial configuration to the few-body breakup of a polyatomic molecule given the measurement of the resulting fragments' momenta. Specifically, multiple initial configurations can result in identical momenta for a molecule breaking into three or more parts. Further, the nonunique and nonuniform mapping from the initial configuration to the measured momenta also significantly complicates the determination of molecular alignment at the time of breakup.
Non-uniform interhemispheric temperature trends over the past 550 years
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duncan, Richard P. [Landcare Research, PO Box 40, Lincoln (New Zealand); Lincoln University, Bio-Protection Research Centre, PO Box 84, Lincoln (New Zealand); Fenwick, Pavla; Palmer, Jonathan G. [Gondwana Tree-ring Laboratory, PO Box 14, Canterbury (New Zealand); McGlone, Matt S. [Landcare Research, PO Box 40, Lincoln (New Zealand); Turney, Chris S.M. [University of Exeter, School of Geography, Exeter (United Kingdom)
2010-12-15
The warming trend over the last century in the northern hemisphere (NH) was interrupted by cooling from ad 1940 to 1975, a period during which the southern hemisphere experienced pronounced warming. The cause of these departures from steady warming at multidecadal timescales are unclear; the prevailing explanation is that they are driven by non-uniformity in external forcings but recent models suggest internal climate drivers may play a key role. Paleoclimate datasets can help provide a long-term perspective. Here we use tree-rings to reconstruct New Zealand mean annual temperature over the last 550 years and demonstrate that this has frequently cycled out-of-phase with NH mean annual temperature at a periodicity of around 30-60 years. Hence, observed multidecadal fluctuations around the recent warming trend have precedents in the past, strongly implicating natural climate variation as their cause. We consider the implications of these changes in understanding and modelling future climate change. (orig.)
Novel Diagonal Reloading Based Direction of Arrival Estimation in Unknown Non-Uniform Noise
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hao Zhou
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Nested array can expand the degrees of freedom (DOF from difference coarray perspective, but suffering from the performance degradation of direction of arrival (DOA estimation in unknown non-uniform noise. In this paper, a novel diagonal reloading (DR based DOA estimation algorithm is proposed using a recently developed nested MIMO array. The elements in the main diagonal of the sample covariance matrix are eliminated; next the smallest MN-K eigenvalues of the revised matrix are obtained and averaged to estimate the sum value of the signal power. Further the estimated sum value is filled into the main diagonal of the revised matrix for estimating the signal covariance matrix. In this case, the negative effect of noise is eliminated without losing the useful information of the signal matrix. Besides, the degrees of freedom are expanded obviously, resulting in the performance improvement. Several simulations are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Particle-in-cell simulations of collisionless magnetic reconnection with a non-uniform guide field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilson, F.; Neukirch, T.; Harrison, M. G.; Hesse, M.; Stark, C. R.
2016-01-01
Results are presented of a first study of collisionless magnetic reconnection starting from a recently found exact nonlinear force-free Vlasov–Maxwell equilibrium. The initial state has a Harris sheet magnetic field profile in one direction and a non-uniform guide field in a second direction, resulting in a spatially constant magnetic field strength as well as a constant initial plasma density and plasma pressure. It is found that the reconnection process initially resembles guide field reconnection, but that a gradual transition to anti-parallel reconnection happens as the system evolves. The time evolution of a number of plasma parameters is investigated, and the results are compared with simulations starting from a Harris sheet equilibrium and a Harris sheet plus constant guide field equilibrium.
The Pierce diode with an external circuit. I. Oscillations about nonuniform equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lawson, W.S.
1989-01-01
The nonuniform (nonlinear) equilibria of the classical (short circuit) Pierce diode and the extended (series RLC external circuit) Pierce diode are described, and the spectrum of oscillations (stable and unstable) about these equilibria are worked out. It is found that only the external capacitance alters the equilibria, though all elements alter the spectrum. In particular, the introduction of an external capacitor destabilizes some equilibria that are marginally stable without the capacitor. Computer simulations are performed to test the theoretical predictions for the case of an external capacitor only. It is found that most equilibria are correctly predicted by theory, but that the continuous set of equilibria of the classical Pierce diode at Pierce parameters (α=ω/sub pL//v 0 ) that are multiples of 2π are not observed. This appears to be a failure of the simulation method under the rather singular conditions rather than a failure of the theory
Non-uniform Mutation Rates for Problems with Unknown Solution Lengths
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cathabard, Stephan; Lehre, Per Kristian; Yao, Xin
2011-01-01
Many practical optimisation problems allow candidate solu- tions of varying lengths, and where the length of the opti- mal solution is thereby a priori unknown. We suggest that non-uniform mutation rates can be beneficial when solving such problems. In particular, we consider a mutation oper- ator...... that flips each bit with a probability that is inversely proportional to the bit position, rather than the bitstring length. The runtime of the (1+1) EA using this mutation operator is analysed rigorously on standard example func- tions. Furthermore, the behaviour of the new mutation op- erator...... distribution, and show that the new operator can yield exponentially faster runtimes for some parameters of this distribution. The experimental results show that the new mutation operator leads to dramatically shorter runtimes on a class of instances of the software engi- neering problem that is conjectured...
Non-uniform regulations of underground storage tanks in the United States
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nadim, F.; Hoag, G.E.; Liu, S.; Carley, R.J.; Zack, P.
2000-01-01
Leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) are one of the major sources of ground water contamination. United States federal regulations for USTs were established in September of 1988. Since that time little or no amendments have been made to these regulations. In order to protect sensitive areas such as aquifer recharge zones for public water supply wells and wetlands, different states have been obligated to apply more stringent standards than the federal UST regulations. This practice however, has led to a non-uniform application of regulations for USTs throughout the country. In this article, United States regulations for USTs are reviewed and its deficits are highlighted. Based on these regulations and the experience of northeastern states of United States, a sequence of leak and spill preventive measures for USTs is proposed. Application of the proposed measures could substantially reduce the possibility of UST failure and would be more protective of the subsurface environment. (author)
Reactivity effect of non-uniformly distributed fuel in fuel solution systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirano, Yasushi; Yamane, Yoshihiro; Nishina, Kojiro; Mitsuhashi, Ishi.
1991-01-01
A numerical method to determine the optimal fuel distribution for minimum critical mass, or maximum k-effective, is developed using the Maximum Principle in order to evaluate the maximum effect of non-uniformly distributed fuel on reactivity. This algorithm maximizes the Hamiltonian directly by an iterative method under a certain constraint-the maintenance of criticality or total fuel mass. It ultimately reaches the same optimal state of a flattened fuel importance distribution as another algorithm by Dam based on perturbation theory. This method was applied to two kinds of spherical cores with water reflector in the simulating reprocessing facility. In the slightly-enriched uranyl nitrate solution core, the minimum critical mass decreased by less than 1% at the optimal moderation state. In the plutonium nitrate solution core, the k-effective increment amounted up to 4.3% Δk within the range of present study. (author)
Ion flux nonuniformities in large-area high-frequency capacitive discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perret, A.; Chabert, P.; Booth, J.-P.; Jolly, J.; Guillon, J.; Auvray, Ph.
2003-01-01
Strong nonuniformities of plasma production are expected in capacitive discharges if the excitation wavelength becomes comparable to the reactor size (standing-wave effect) and/or if the plasma skin depth becomes comparable to the plate separation (skin effect) [M. A. Lieberman et al., Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 11, 283 (2002)]. Ion flux uniformity measurements were carried out in a large-area square (40 cmx40 cm) capacitive discharge driven at frequencies between 13.56 MHz and 81.36 MHz in argon gas at 150 mTorr. At 13.56 MHz, the ion flux was uniform to ±5%. At 60 MHz (and above) and at low rf power, the standing-wave effect was seen (maximum of the ion flux at the center), in good quantitative agreement with theory. At higher rf power, maxima of the ion flux were observed at the edges, due either to the skin effect or to other edge effects
Non-Uniform Sampling and J-UNIO Automation for Efficient Protein NMR Structure Determination.
Didenko, Tatiana; Proudfoot, Andrew; Dutta, Samit Kumar; Serrano, Pedro; Wüthrich, Kurt
2015-08-24
High-resolution structure determination of small proteins in solution is one of the big assets of NMR spectroscopy in structural biology. Improvements in the efficiency of NMR structure determination by advances in NMR experiments and automation of data handling therefore attracts continued interest. Here, non-uniform sampling (NUS) of 3D heteronuclear-resolved [(1)H,(1)H]-NOESY data yielded two- to three-fold savings of instrument time for structure determinations of soluble proteins. With the 152-residue protein NP_372339.1 from Staphylococcus aureus and the 71-residue protein NP_346341.1 from Streptococcus pneumonia we show that high-quality structures can be obtained with NUS NMR data, which are equally well amenable to robust automated analysis as the corresponding uniformly sampled data. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Sui, Qi; Zhou, Hong; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Haifeng; Feng, Li; Zhang, Peng
2018-02-01
In this work, biomimetic laser treatment was performed on repairing and remanufacturing the nonuniform worn rail surface. The wearing depth distribution of three work regions of a failure rail surface was discussed, and different thickness hardening layers with different microstructure, microhardness and wear resistances were detected from the worm surfaces. Varying wear resistances of the surfaces with different biomimetic morphologies were obtained by biomimetic laser treatments, and the corresponding effect on the lubrication sliding wear of treated and untreated surfaces were studied for comparative study. In addition, the relationship between wear resistance and the spacing of units was also provided, which can lay the important theoretical foundation for avoiding the wear resistance of the serious worn surface is less than that of the slight worn surface in the future practical applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soussaline, F.; LeCoq, C.; Raynaud, C.; Kellershohn, C.
1982-09-01
The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of the RIM technique when used in brain studies. The analytical Regulatorizing Iterative Method (RIM) is designed to provide fast and accurate reconstruction of tomographic images when non-uniform attenuation is to be accounted for. As indicated by phantom studies, this method improves the contrast and the signal-to-noise ratio as compared to those obtained with FBP (Filtered Back Projection) technique. Preliminary results obtained in brain studies using AMPI-123 (isopropil-amphetamine I-123) are very encouraging in terms of quantitative regional cellular activity. However, the clinical usefulness of this mathematically accurate reconstruction procedure is going to be demonstrated in our Institution, in comparing quantitative data in heart or liver studies where control values can be obtained
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soussaline, F.; LeCoq, C.; Raynaud, C.; Kellershohn
1982-01-01
The potential of the Regularizing Iterative Method (RIM), when used in brain studies, is evaluated. RIM is designed to provide fast and accurate reconstruction of tomographic images when non-uniform attenuation is to be accounted for. As indicated by phantom studies, this method improves the contrast and the signal-to-noise ratio as compared to those obtained with Filtered Back Projection (FBP) technique. Preliminary results obtained in brain studies using isopropil-amphetamine I-123 (AMPI-123) are very encouraging in terms of quantitative regional cellular activity. However, the clinical usefulness of this mathematically accurate reconstruction procedure is going to be demonstrated, in comparing quantitative data in heart or liver studies where control values can be obtained
Effect of nonuniform radial density distribution on the space charge dominated beam bunching
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sing Babu, P.; Goswami, A.; Pandit, V. S.
2011-01-01
Beam dynamics of a space charge dominated beam during the bunch compression is studied self consistently for the case of fixed shape non-uniform bell shape and hollow shape density distributions in the transverse direction. We have used thick slices at different parts of the beam to account for variation in the beam radius in the study of the transverse dynamics. The longitudinal dynamics has been studied using the disc model. The axial variation of the radius of the slices and emittance growth arising from the phase dependence of the transverse rf forces are also included in the simulation. We have modified the beam envelope equation to take into account the longitudinal space charge effect on the transverse motion which arises due to the finite bunch size. To demonstrate the application of the theoretical formulations developed, we have studied a sinusoidal beam bunching system and presented detailed numerical results.
Charged particle and photon acceleration by wakefield plasma waves in non-uniform plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bulanov, S.V.; Kirsanov, V.I.; Sakharov, A.S.; Pegoraro, F.
1993-01-01
We discuss the acceleration of charged particles and the upshift of the frequency of short wave packets of laser radiation. The acceleration and the upshift are caused by wake plasma waves excited by a strong laser pulse in a non-uniform plasma. We show that unlimited acceleration of charged particles is possible for specific spatial dependencies of the plasma density. In this unlimited acceleration regime, particles have a fixed phase relationship with respect to the plasma wave, while their energy increases with time. When the wave breaking limit is approached and surpassed, the efficiency of the acceleration of the charged particles and of the frequency upshift of the photons can be increased significantly. (author) 3 refs
A thin-walled pressurized sphere exposed to external general corrosion and nonuniform heating
Sedova, Olga S.; Pronina, Yulia G.; Kuchin, Nikolai L.
2018-05-01
A thin-walled spherical shell subjected to simultaneous action of internal and external pressure, nonuniform heating and outside mechanochemical corrosion is considered. It is assumed that the shell is homogeneous, isotropic and linearly elastic. The rate of corrosion is linearly dependent on the equivalent stress, which is the sum of mechanical and temperature stress components. Paper presents a new analytical solution, which takes into account the effect of the internal and external pressure values themselves, not only their difference. At the same time, the new solution has a rather simple form as compared to the results based on the solution to the Lame problem for a thick-walled sphere under pressure. The solution obtained can serve as a benchmark for numerical analysis and for a qualitative forecast of durability of the vessel.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Peric
2012-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper high dynamic range nonuniform two-dimensional vector quantization model for Laplacean source was provided. Semilogarithmic A-law compression characteristic was used as radial scalar compression characteristic of two-dimensional vector quantization. Optimal number value of concentric quantization domains (amplitude levels is expressed in the function of parameter A. Exact distortion analysis with obtained closed form expressions is provided. It has been shown that proposed model provides high SQNR values in wide range of variances, and overachieves quality obtained by scalar A-law quantization at same bit rate, so it can be used in various switching and adaptation implementations for realization of high quality signal compression.
Non-uniform groundwater discharge across a stream bed: Heat as a tracer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jannick Kolbjørn; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard
2011-01-01
Time series analysis of conO nuous streambed temperature during a period of 47 d revealed that discharge to a stream is nonuniform, with strongly increasing verO cal fl uxes throughout the top 20 cm of the streambed–aquifer interface. An analyO cal soluO on to the transient heat transport equa...... near the streambed. Seepage meter measurements in the middle of the stream oO en resulted in highly variable fl ux esO - mates, which could have been caused by hyporheic fl ow due to the presence of a gravel layer. Discharge and recharge to the stream at the bank near the meadow was relaO vely steady...
Song, Zhaoning
2016-11-23
Perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells with high power conversion efficiencies have the potential to become a commercially viable photovoltaic option in the near future. However, device design and optimization is challenging because conventional characterization methods do not give clear feedback on the localized chemical and physical factors that limit performance within individual subcells, especially when stability and degradation is a concern. In this study, we use light beam induced current (LBIC) to probe photocurrent collection nonuniformities in the individual subcells of perovskite/silicon tandems. The choices of lasers and light biasing conditions allow efficiency-limiting effects relating to processing defects, optical interference within the individual cells, and the evolution of water-induced device degradation to be spatially resolved. The results reveal several types of microscopic defects and demonstrate that eliminating these and managing the optical properties within the multilayer structures will be important for future optimization of perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells.
Effect of disjoining pressure in a thin film equation with non-uniform forcing
MOULTON, D. E.
2013-08-02
We explore the effect of disjoining pressure on a thin film equation in the presence of a non-uniform body force, motivated by a model describing the reverse draining of a magnetic film. To this end, we use a combination of numerical investigations and analytical considerations. The disjoining pressure has a regularizing influence on the evolution of the system and appears to select a single steady-state solution for fixed height boundary conditions; this is in contrast with the existence of a continuum of locally attracting solutions that exist in the absence of disjoining pressure for the same boundary conditions. We numerically implement matched asymptotic expansions to construct equilibrium solutions and also investigate how they behave as the disjoining pressure is sent to zero. Finally, we consider the effect of the competition between forcing and disjoining pressure on the coarsening dynamics of the thin film for fixed contact angle boundary conditions. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2013.
Characterization of flow in a scroll duct
Begg, E. K.; Bennett, J. C.
1985-01-01
A quantitative, flow visualization study was made of a partially elliptic cross section, inward curving duct (scroll duct), with an axial outflow through a vaneless annular cutlet. The working fluid was water, with a Re(d) of 40,000 at the inlet to the scroll duct, this Reynolds number being representative of the conditions in an actual gas turbine scroll. Both still and high speed moving pictures of fluorescein dye injected into the flow and illuminated by an argon ion laser were used to document the flow. Strong secondary flow, similar to the secondary flow in a pipe bend, was found in the bottom half of the scroll within the first 180 degs of turning. The pressure field set up by the turning duct was strong enough to affect the inlet flow condition. At 90 degs downstream, the large scale secondary flow was found to be oscillatory in nature. The exit flow was nonuniform in the annular exit. By 270 degs downstream, the flow appeared unorganized with no distinctive secondary flow pattern. Large scale structures from the upstream core region appeared by 90 degs and continued through the duct to reenter at the inlet section.
Non-uniform dispersion of the source-sink relationship alters wavefront curvature.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lucia Romero
Full Text Available The distribution of cellular source-sink relationships plays an important role in cardiac propagation. It can lead to conduction slowing and block as well as wave fractionation. It is of great interest to unravel the mechanisms underlying evolution in wavefront geometry. Our goal is to investigate the role of the source-sink relationship on wavefront geometry using computer simulations. We analyzed the role of variability in the microscopic source-sink relationship in driving changes in wavefront geometry. The electrophysiological activity of a homogeneous isotropic tissue was simulated using the ten Tusscher and Panfilov 2006 action potential model and the source-sink relationship was characterized using an improved version of the Romero et al. safety factor formulation (SFm2. Our simulations reveal that non-uniform dispersion of the cellular source-sink relationship (dispersion along the wavefront leads to alterations in curvature. To better understand the role of the source-sink relationship in the process of wave formation, the electrophysiological activity at the initiation of excitation waves in a 1D strand was examined and the source-sink relationship was characterized using the two recently updated safety factor formulations: the SFm2 and the Boyle-Vigmond (SFVB definitions. The electrophysiological activity at the initiation of excitation waves was intimately related to the SFm2 profiles, while the SFVB led to several counterintuitive observations. Importantly, with the SFm2 characterization, a critical source-sink relationship for initiation of excitation waves was identified, which was independent of the size of the electrode of excitation, membrane excitability, or tissue conductivity. In conclusion, our work suggests that non-uniform dispersion of the source-sink relationship alters wavefront curvature and a critical source-sink relationship profile separates wave expansion from collapse. Our study reinforces the idea that the
Spontaneous formation of non-uniform double helices for elastic rods under torsion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Hongyuan; Zhao, Shumin; Xia, Minggang; He, Siyu; Yang, Qifan; Yan, Yuming; Zhao, Hanqiao
2017-01-01
The spontaneous formation of double helices for filaments under torsion is common and significant. For example, the research on the supercoiling of DNA is helpful for understanding the replication and transcription of DNA. Similar double helices can appear in carbon nanotube yarns, cables, telephone wires and so forth. We noticed that non-uniform double helices can be produced due to the surface friction induced by the self-contact. Therefore an ideal model was presented to investigate the formation of double helices for elastic rods under torque. A general equilibrium condition which is valid for both the smooth surface and the rough surface situations is derived by using the variational method. By adding further constraints, the smooth and rough surface situations are investigated in detail respectively. Additionally, the model showed that the specific process of how to twist and slack the rod can determine the surface friction and hence influence the configuration of the double helix formed by rods with rough surfaces. Based on this principle, a method of manufacturing double helices with designed configurations was proposed and demonstrated. Finally, experiments were performed to verify the model and the results agreed well with the theory. - Highlights: • An ideal model is conceived to investigate the spontaneous formation of double helices for rods under torsion. • Variational method is used to obtain a universal result for the double helix formation process • Self-contact and surface friction is considered to analyze the non-uniform double helix. • A novel method of producing double helix with arbitrary configuration is proposed and demonstrated. • The experiment results agree well with the theory.
A generic Approach for Reliability Predictions considering non-uniformly Deterioration Behaviour
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krause, Jakob; Kabitzsch, Klaus
2012-01-01
Predictive maintenance offers the possibility to prognosticate the remaining time until a maintenance action of a machine has to be scheduled. Unfortunately, current predictive maintenance solutions are only suitable for very specific use cases like reliability predictions based on vibration monitoring. Furthermore, they do not consider the fact that machines may deteriorate non-uniformly, depending on external influences (e.g., the work piece material in a milling machine or the changing fruit acid concentration in a bottling plant). In this paper two concepts for a generic predictive maintenance solution which also considers non-uniformly aging behaviour are introduced. The first concept is based on system models representing the health state of a technical system. As these models are usually statically (viz. without a timely dimension) their coefficients are determined periodically and the resulting time series is used as aging indicator. The second concept focuses on external influences (contexts) which change the behaviour of the previous mentioned aging indicators in order to increase the accuracy of reliability predictions. Therefore, context-depended time series models are determined and used to predict machine reliability. Both concepts were evaluated on data of an air ventilation system. Thereby, it could be shown that they are suitable to determine aging indicators in a generic way and to incorporate external influences in the reliability prediction. Through this, the quality of reliability predictions can be significantly increased. In reality this leads to a more accurate scheduling of maintenance actions. Furthermore, the generic character of the solutions makes the concepts suitable for a wide range of aging processes.
Non-uniform versus uniform attenuation correction in brain perfusion SPET of healthy volunteers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Laere, K.; Versijpt, J.; Dierckx, R.; Koole, M.
2001-01-01
Although non-uniform attenuation correction (NUAC) can supply more accurate absolute quantification, it is not entirely clear whether NUAC provides clear-cut benefits in the routine clinical practice of brain SPET imaging. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of NUAC versus uniform attenuation correction (UAC) on volume of interest (VOI)-based semi-quantification of a large age- and gender-stratified brain perfusion normal database. Eighty-nine healthy volunteers (46 females and 43 males, aged 20-81 years) underwent standardised high-resolution single-photon emission tomography (SPET) with 925 MBq 99m Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) on a Toshiba GCA-9300A camera with 153 Gd or 99m Tc transmission CT scanning. Emission images were reconstructed by filtered back-projection and scatter corrected using the triple-energy window correction method. Both non-uniform Chang attenuation correction (one iteration) and uniform Sorenson correction (attenuation coefficient 0.09 cm -1 ) were applied. Images were automatically re-oriented to a stereotactic template on which 35 predefined VOIs were defined for semi-quantification (normalisation on total VOI counts). Small but significant differences between relative VOI uptake values for NUAC versus UAC in the infratentorial region were found. VOI standard deviations were significantly smaller for UAC, 4.5% (range 2.6-7.5), than for NUAC, 5.0% (2.3-9.0) (P 99m Tc-ECD uptake values in healthy volunteers to those obtained with NUAC, although values for the infratentorial region are slightly lower. NUAC produces a slight increase in inter-subject variability. Further study is necessary in various patient populations to establish the full clinical impact of NUAC in brain perfusion SPET. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tyynelä, Jani; Leinonen, Jussi; Moisseev, Dmitri; Nousiainen, Timo; Lerber, Annakaisa von
2014-01-01
In a number of studies it is reported that at the early stages, melting of aggregate snowflakes is enhanced at lower parts. In this paper, the manifestation of the resulting nonuniform distribution of water is studied for radar backscattering cross sections at C, Ku, Ka and W bands. The melting particles are described as spheroids with a mixture of water and air at the bottom part of the particle and a mixture of ice and air at the upper part. The radar backscattering is modeled using the discrete-dipole approximation in a horizontally pointing geometry. The results are compared to the T-matrix method, Mie theory, and the Rayleigh approximation using the Maxwell Garnett mixing formula. We find that the differential reflectivity and the linear depolarization ratio show systematic differences between the discrete-dipole approximation and the T-matrix method, but that the differences are relatively small. The horizontal cross sections show only small differences between the methods with the aspect ratio and the presence of resonance peaks having a larger effect on it than the nonuniform distribution of water. Overall, the effect of anisotropic distribution of water, reported for early stages of melting, is not significant for radar observations at the studied frequencies. -- Highlights: • We model backscattering from spheroidal melting snowflakes at C, Ku, Ka, and W bands. • We study the effect of anisotropic distribution of meltwater in the snow particles. • We find systematic, but relatively small differences for the backscattering properties. • We find that the aspect ratio and resonance peaks have a bigger effect than anisotropic distribution of water. • Anisotropic distribution of water is not significant for radar observations at early stages of melting
Tumour control probability (TCP) for non-uniform activity distribution in radionuclide therapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uusijaervi, Helena; Bernhardt, Peter; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva
2008-01-01
Non-uniform radionuclide distribution in tumours will lead to a non-uniform absorbed dose. The aim of this study was to investigate how tumour control probability (TCP) depends on the radionuclide distribution in the tumour, both macroscopically and at the subcellular level. The absorbed dose in the cell nuclei of tumours was calculated for 90 Y, 177 Lu, 103m Rh and 211 At. The radionuclides were uniformly distributed within the subcellular compartment and they were uniformly, normally or log-normally distributed among the cells in the tumour. When all cells contain the same amount of activity, the cumulated activities required for TCP = 0.99 (A-tilde TCP=0.99 ) were 1.5-2 and 2-3 times higher when the activity was distributed on the cell membrane compared to in the cell nucleus for 103m Rh and 211 At, respectively. TCP for 90 Y was not affected by different radionuclide distributions, whereas for 177 Lu, it was slightly affected when the radionuclide was in the nucleus. TCP for 103m Rh and 211 At were affected by different radionuclide distributions to a great extent when the radionuclides were in the cell nucleus and to lesser extents when the radionuclides were distributed on the cell membrane or in the cytoplasm. When the activity was distributed in the nucleus, A-tilde TCP=0.99 increased when the activity distribution became more heterogeneous for 103m Rh and 211 At, and the increase was large when the activity was normally distributed compared to log-normally distributed. When the activity was distributed on the cell membrane, A-tilde TCP=0.99 was not affected for 103m Rh and 211 At when the activity distribution became more heterogeneous. A-tilde TCP=0.99 for 90 Y and 177 Lu were not affected by different activity distributions, neither macroscopic nor subcellular
Dual-energy digital mammography for calcification imaging: Scatter and nonuniformity corrections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kappadath, S. Cheenu; Shaw, Chris C.
2005-01-01
Mammographic images of small calcifications, which are often the earliest signs of breast cancer, can be obscured by overlapping fibroglandular tissue. We have developed and implemented a dual-energy digital mammography (DEDM) technique for calcification imaging under full-field imaging conditions using a commercially available aSi:H/CsI:Tl flat-panel based digital mammography system. The low- and high-energy images were combined using a nonlinear mapping function to cancel the tissue structures and generate the dual-energy (DE) calcification images. The total entrance-skin exposure and mean-glandular dose from the low- and high-energy images were constrained so that they were similar to screening-examination levels. To evaluate the DE calcification image, we designed a phantom using calcium carbonate crystals to simulate calcifications of various sizes (212-425 μm) overlaid with breast-tissue-equivalent material 5 cm thick with a continuously varying glandular-tissue ratio from 0% to 100%. We report on the effects of scatter radiation and nonuniformity in x-ray intensity and detector response on the DE calcification images. The nonuniformity was corrected by normalizing the low- and high-energy images with full-field reference images. Correction of scatter in the low- and high-energy images significantly reduced the background signal in the DE calcification image. Under the current implementation of DEDM, utilizing the mammography system and dose level tested, calcifications in the 300-355 μm size range were clearly visible in DE calcification images. Calcification threshold sizes decreased to the 250-280 μm size range when the visibility criteria were lowered to barely visible. Calcifications smaller than ∼250 μm were usually not visible in most cases. The visibility of calcifications with our DEDM imaging technique was limited by quantum noise, not system noise
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kauppinen, T.; Vanninen, E.; Kuikka, J.T. [Kuopio Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Clinical Physiology; Koskinen, M.O. [Dept. of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Tampere Univ. Hospital, Tampere (Finland); Alenius, S. [Signal Processing Lab., Tampere Univ. of Technology, Tampere (Finland)
2000-09-01
Filtered back-projection (FBP) is generally used as the reconstruction method for single-photon emission tomography although it produces noisy images with apparent streak artefacts. It is possible to improve the image quality by using an algorithm with iterative correction steps. The iterative reconstruction technique also has an additional benefit in that computation of attenuation correction can be included in the process. A commonly used iterative method, maximum-likelihood expectation maximisation (ML-EM), can be accelerated using ordered subsets (OS-EM). We have applied to the OS-EM algorithm a Bayesian one-step late correction method utilising median root prior (MRP). Methodological comparison was performed by means of measurements obtained with a brain perfusion phantom and using patient data. The aim of this work was to quantitate the accuracy of iterative reconstruction with scatter and non-uniform attenuation corrections and post-filtering in SPET brain perfusion imaging. SPET imaging was performed using a triple-head gamma camera with fan-beam collimators. Transmission and emission scans were acquired simultaneously. The brain phantom used was a high-resolution three-dimensional anthropomorphic JB003 phantom. Patient studies were performed in ten chronic pain syndrome patients. The images were reconstructed using conventional FBP and iterative OS-EM and MRP techniques including scatter and nonuniform attenuation corrections. Iterative reconstructions were individually post-filtered. The quantitative results obtained with the brain perfusion phantom were compared with the known actual contrast ratios. The calculated difference from the true values was largest with the FBP method; iteratively reconstructed images proved closer to the reality. Similar findings were obtained in the patient studies. The plain OS-EM method improved the contrast whereas in the case of the MRP technique the improvement in contrast was not so evident with post-filtering. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kauppinen, T.; Vanninen, E.; Kuikka, J.T.; Alenius, S.
2000-01-01
Filtered back-projection (FBP) is generally used as the reconstruction method for single-photon emission tomography although it produces noisy images with apparent streak artefacts. It is possible to improve the image quality by using an algorithm with iterative correction steps. The iterative reconstruction technique also has an additional benefit in that computation of attenuation correction can be included in the process. A commonly used iterative method, maximum-likelihood expectation maximisation (ML-EM), can be accelerated using ordered subsets (OS-EM). We have applied to the OS-EM algorithm a Bayesian one-step late correction method utilising median root prior (MRP). Methodological comparison was performed by means of measurements obtained with a brain perfusion phantom and using patient data. The aim of this work was to quantitate the accuracy of iterative reconstruction with scatter and non-uniform attenuation corrections and post-filtering in SPET brain perfusion imaging. SPET imaging was performed using a triple-head gamma camera with fan-beam collimators. Transmission and emission scans were acquired simultaneously. The brain phantom used was a high-resolution three-dimensional anthropomorphic JB003 phantom. Patient studies were performed in ten chronic pain syndrome patients. The images were reconstructed using conventional FBP and iterative OS-EM and MRP techniques including scatter and nonuniform attenuation corrections. Iterative reconstructions were individually post-filtered. The quantitative results obtained with the brain perfusion phantom were compared with the known actual contrast ratios. The calculated difference from the true values was largest with the FBP method; iteratively reconstructed images proved closer to the reality. Similar findings were obtained in the patient studies. The plain OS-EM method improved the contrast whereas in the case of the MRP technique the improvement in contrast was not so evident with post-filtering. (orig.)
Influence of Signal Intensity Non-Uniformity on Brain Volumetry Using an Atlas-Based Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takao, Hidemasa; Kunimatsu, Akira; Mori, Harushi
2012-01-01
Many studies have reported pre-processing effects for brain volumetry; however, no study has investigated whether non-parametric non-uniform intensity normalization (N3) correction processing results in reduced system dependency when using an atlas-based method. To address this shortcoming, the present study assessed whether N3 correction processing provides reduced system dependency in atlas-based volumetry. Contiguous sagittal T1-weighted images of the brain were obtained from 21 healthy participants, by using five magnetic resonance protocols. After image preprocessing using the Statistical Parametric Mapping 5 software, we measured the structural volume of the segmented images with the WFU-PickAtlas software. We applied six different bias-correction levels (Regularization 10, Regularization 0.0001, Regularization 0, Regularization 10 with N3, Regularization 0.0001 with N3, and Regularization 0 with N3) to each set of images. The structural volume change ratio (%) was defined as the change ratio (%) = (100 X[measured volume - mean volume of five magnetic resonance protocols] / mean volume of five magnetic resonance protocols) for each bias-correction level. A low change ratio was synonymous with lower system dependency. The results showed that the images with the N3 correction had a lower change ratio compared with those without the N3 correction. The present study is the first atlas-based volumetry study to show that the precision of atlas-based volumetry improves when using N3-corrected images. Therefore, correction for signal intensity non-uniformity is strongly advised for multi-scanner or multi-site imaging trials.
Influence of signal intensity non-uniformity on brain volumetry using an atlas-based method.
Goto, Masami; Abe, Osamu; Miyati, Tosiaki; Kabasawa, Hiroyuki; Takao, Hidemasa; Hayashi, Naoto; Kurosu, Tomomi; Iwatsubo, Takeshi; Yamashita, Fumio; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Aoki, Shigeki; Ino, Kenji; Yano, Keiichi; Ohtomo, Kuni
2012-01-01
Many studies have reported pre-processing effects for brain volumetry; however, no study has investigated whether non-parametric non-uniform intensity normalization (N3) correction processing results in reduced system dependency when using an atlas-based method. To address this shortcoming, the present study assessed whether N3 correction processing provides reduced system dependency in atlas-based volumetry. Contiguous sagittal T1-weighted images of the brain were obtained from 21 healthy participants, by using five magnetic resonance protocols. After image preprocessing using the Statistical Parametric Mapping 5 software, we measured the structural volume of the segmented images with the WFU-PickAtlas software. We applied six different bias-correction levels (Regularization 10, Regularization 0.0001, Regularization 0, Regularization 10 with N3, Regularization 0.0001 with N3, and Regularization 0 with N3) to each set of images. The structural volume change ratio (%) was defined as the change ratio (%) = (100 × [measured volume - mean volume of five magnetic resonance protocols] / mean volume of five magnetic resonance protocols) for each bias-correction level. A low change ratio was synonymous with lower system dependency. The results showed that the images with the N3 correction had a lower change ratio compared with those without the N3 correction. The present study is the first atlas-based volumetry study to show that the precision of atlas-based volumetry improves when using N3-corrected images. Therefore, correction for signal intensity non-uniformity is strongly advised for multi-scanner or multi-site imaging trials.
Influence of Signal Intensity Non-Uniformity on Brain Volumetry Using an Atlas-Based Method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takao, Hidemasa; Kunimatsu, Akira; Mori, Harushi [University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); and others
2012-07-15
Many studies have reported pre-processing effects for brain volumetry; however, no study has investigated whether non-parametric non-uniform intensity normalization (N3) correction processing results in reduced system dependency when using an atlas-based method. To address this shortcoming, the present study assessed whether N3 correction processing provides reduced system dependency in atlas-based volumetry. Contiguous sagittal T1-weighted images of the brain were obtained from 21 healthy participants, by using five magnetic resonance protocols. After image preprocessing using the Statistical Parametric Mapping 5 software, we measured the structural volume of the segmented images with the WFU-PickAtlas software. We applied six different bias-correction levels (Regularization 10, Regularization 0.0001, Regularization 0, Regularization 10 with N3, Regularization 0.0001 with N3, and Regularization 0 with N3) to each set of images. The structural volume change ratio (%) was defined as the change ratio (%) = (100 X[measured volume - mean volume of five magnetic resonance protocols] / mean volume of five magnetic resonance protocols) for each bias-correction level. A low change ratio was synonymous with lower system dependency. The results showed that the images with the N3 correction had a lower change ratio compared with those without the N3 correction. The present study is the first atlas-based volumetry study to show that the precision of atlas-based volumetry improves when using N3-corrected images. Therefore, correction for signal intensity non-uniformity is strongly advised for multi-scanner or multi-site imaging trials.
Spontaneous formation of non-uniform double helices for elastic rods under torsion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Hongyuan [Department of Applied Physics, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Zhao, Shumin, E-mail: zhaosm@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Xia, Minggang [Department of Optical Information Science and Technology, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 710049 (China); Laboratory of Nanostructure and Physics Properties, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 710049 (China); He, Siyu [Department of Applied Physics, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Yang, Qifan [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Yan, Yuming [Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, School of Electrical Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Zhao, Hanqiao [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi 710049 (China)
2017-02-19
The spontaneous formation of double helices for filaments under torsion is common and significant. For example, the research on the supercoiling of DNA is helpful for understanding the replication and transcription of DNA. Similar double helices can appear in carbon nanotube yarns, cables, telephone wires and so forth. We noticed that non-uniform double helices can be produced due to the surface friction induced by the self-contact. Therefore an ideal model was presented to investigate the formation of double helices for elastic rods under torque. A general equilibrium condition which is valid for both the smooth surface and the rough surface situations is derived by using the variational method. By adding further constraints, the smooth and rough surface situations are investigated in detail respectively. Additionally, the model showed that the specific process of how to twist and slack the rod can determine the surface friction and hence influence the configuration of the double helix formed by rods with rough surfaces. Based on this principle, a method of manufacturing double helices with designed configurations was proposed and demonstrated. Finally, experiments were performed to verify the model and the results agreed well with the theory. - Highlights: • An ideal model is conceived to investigate the spontaneous formation of double helices for rods under torsion. • Variational method is used to obtain a universal result for the double helix formation process • Self-contact and surface friction is considered to analyze the non-uniform double helix. • A novel method of producing double helix with arbitrary configuration is proposed and demonstrated. • The experiment results agree well with the theory.
Measurement and control systems for an imaging electromagnetic flow metre.
Zhao, Y Y; Lucas, G; Leeungculsatien, T
2014-03-01
Electromagnetic flow metres based on the principles of Faraday's laws of induction have been used successfully in many industries. The conventional electromagnetic flow metre can measure the mean liquid velocity in axisymmetric single phase flows. However, in order to achieve velocity profile measurements in single phase flows with non-uniform velocity profiles, a novel imaging electromagnetic flow metre (IEF) has been developed which is described in this paper. The novel electromagnetic flow metre which is based on the 'weight value' theory to reconstruct velocity profiles is interfaced with a 'Microrobotics VM1' microcontroller as a stand-alone unit. The work undertaken in the paper demonstrates that an imaging electromagnetic flow metre for liquid velocity profile measurement is an instrument that is highly suited for control via a microcontroller. © 2013 ISA Published by ISA All rights reserved.
Li, Jichun
2014-12-02
For decades, the widely used finite difference method on staggered grids, also known as the marker and cell (MAC) method, has been one of the simplest and most effective numerical schemes for solving the Stokes equations and Navier–Stokes equations. Its superconvergence on uniform meshes has been observed by Nicolaides (SIAM J Numer Anal 29(6):1579–1591, 1992), but the rigorous proof is never given. Its behavior on non-uniform grids is not well studied, since most publications only consider uniform grids. In this work, we develop the MAC scheme on non-uniform rectangular meshes, and for the first time we theoretically prove that the superconvergence phenomenon (i.e., second order convergence in the (Formula presented.) norm for both velocity and pressure) holds true for the MAC method on non-uniform rectangular meshes. With a careful and accurate analysis of various sources of errors, we observe that even though the local truncation errors are only first order in terms of mesh size, the global errors after summation are second order due to the amazing cancellation of local errors. This observation leads to the elegant superconvergence analysis even with non-uniform meshes. Numerical results are given to verify our theoretical analysis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Guoli.
1988-01-01
The effect of burnup nonuniformity across the assembly on optimizing fuel loading in core is investigated. Some new rules which can be used for optimizing fuel loading in the core are proposed. New automatic procedure for optimizing fuel loading in the core is described
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shaeen Kalathil
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Forthcoming software defined radios require filter banks which satisfy stringent specifications efficiently with low implementation complexity. Cosine modulated filter banks (CMFB have simple and efficient design procedure. The different wireless standards have different channel spacing or bandwidths and hence demand non-uniform decomposition of subbands. The non-uniform CMFB can be obtained from a uniform CMFB in a simple and efficient approach by merging the adjacent channels of the uniform CMFB. Very narrow transition width filters with low complexity can be achieved using frequency response masking (FRM filter as prototype filter. The complexity is further reduced by the multiplier-less realization of filter banks in which the least number of signed power of two (SPT terms is achieved by representing the filter coefficients using canonic signed digit (CSD representation and then optimizing using suitable modified meta-heuristic algorithms. Hybrid meta-heuristic algorithms are used in this paper. A hybrid algorithm combines the qualities of two meta-heuristic algorithms and results in improved performances with low implementation complexity. Highly frequency selective filter banks characterized by small passband ripple, narrow transition width and high stopband attenuation with non-uniform decomposition of subbands can be designed with least the implementation complexity, using this approach. A digital channelizer can be designed for SDR implementations, using the proposed approach. In this paper, the non-uniform CMFB is designed for various existing wireless standards.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khaghani, Morteza, E-mail: m.khaghani@pgs.usb.ac.ir; Mehmandoost-Khajeh-Dad, Ali Akbar, E-mail: mehmandoost@phys.usb.ac.ir
2017-04-01
Highlights: • Using the well known multi-physics program COMSOL calculating o-Ps annihilation lifetime in complex geometries. • Investigation of shape non-uniformity of cylindrical pores on o-Ps annihilation lifetime. • Verifying temperature dependency of o-Ps lifetime in non-uniform cylindrical pores. • Suggesting PALS at low temperature as a method to verify pore uniformity in porous material. - Abstract: Ortho-positronium (o-Ps) annihilation lifetime was calculated in non-uniform cylinder-shaped pores by solving Schrodinger equation using a well-known multi-physics program called COMSOL. The o-Ps annihilation lifetime variation in terms of temperature was calculated on the basis of ETE model via a numerical method. The COMSOL simulations indicate that as long as the pore is uniform cylinder-shaped, the results agree with those of two-dimensional ETE model, whereas deformations in the cylinder shape (indentation or protrusion) change the temperature behavior of ETE model and, thereby, higher values are predicted for o-Ps lifetime in the pore at lower temperatures. The geometry of the non-uniform cylinder-shaped pores, which is accompanied by empirical evidence, can be used for the analysis of empirical results obtained from positron lifetime spectroscopy in different temperatures.
A METHOD FOR EVALUATION OF NON-UNIFORM RADIANT-CONVECTIVE LOAD ON HUMAN BODY DURING MENTAL WORK
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lenka Prokšová Zuská
2017-10-01
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a documentation for the amendment of the microclimatic part of the Czech Government Regulation, particularly in a non-uniform radiant-convective load evaluation. Changes in regulation were made based on experimental data obtained on a group of experimental individuals in a climatic chamber. One of the objectives of the climatic chamber experiments was to evaluate whether there was a possibility to use an alternative method, which utilizes a new value – stereotemperature, for the assessment. A group of 24 women was exposed to a non-uniform radiant-convective load in a climatic chamber for 1 hour during their computer work. Measurements were divided according to the globe temperature into 3 stages. The physical parameters of air were continuously measured: the air temperature, globe temperature, air velocity, radiant temperature, relative humidity, stereotemperature and physiological parameters. Thermal sensations of experimental subjects were expressed in the seven-point scale according to EN ISO 7730. The thermal sensation correlated very well with the difference of stereotemperature and the globe temperature. The stereotemperature correlated very well with the radiant temperature. In this work, the composed equations were used to develop the limit values for the thermal stress evaluation in the uniform and non-uniform thermal environment at workplaces. It is possible to determine how the body of an exposed person perceives the non-uniform climatic conditions in the indoor environment, by adding the stereotemperature to government regulations.
Tahmasebibirgani, Mohammad Javad; Maskani, Reza; Behrooz, Mohammad Ali; Zabihzadeh, Mansour; Shahbazian, Hojatollah; Fatahiasl, Jafar; Chegeni, Nahid
2017-04-01
In radiotherapy, megaelectron volt (MeV) electrons are employed for treatment of superficial cancers. Magnetic fields can be used for deflection and deformation of the electron flow. A magnetic field is composed of non-uniform permanent magnets. The primary electrons are not mono-energetic and completely parallel. Calculation of electron beam deflection requires using complex mathematical methods. In this study, a device was made to apply a magnetic field to an electron beam and the path of electrons was simulated in the magnetic field using finite element method. A mini-applicator equipped with two neodymium permanent magnets was designed that enables tuning the distance between magnets. This device was placed in a standard applicator of Varian 2100 CD linear accelerator. The mini-applicator was simulated in CST Studio finite element software. Deflection angle and displacement of the electron beam was calculated after passing through the magnetic field. By determining a 2 to 5cm distance between two poles, various intensities of transverse magnetic field was created. The accelerator head was turned so that the deflected electrons became vertical to the water surface. To measure the displacement of the electron beam, EBT2 GafChromic films were employed. After being exposed, the films were scanned using HP G3010 reflection scanner and their optical density was extracted using programming in MATLAB environment. Displacement of the electron beam was compared with results of simulation after applying the magnetic field. Simulation results of the magnetic field showed good agreement with measured values. Maximum deflection angle for a 12 MeV beam was 32.9° and minimum deflection for 15 MeV was 12.1°. Measurement with the film showed precision of simulation in predicting the amount of displacement in the electron beam. A magnetic mini-applicator was made and simulated using finite element method. Deflection angle and displacement of electron beam were calculated. With
Analysis of anisotropic shells containing flowing fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lakis, A.A.
1983-01-01
A general theory for the dynamic analysis of anisotropic thin cylindrical shells containing flowing fluid is presented. The shell may be uniform or non-uniform, provided it is geometrically axially symmetric. This is a finite- element theory, using cylindrical finite elements, but the displacement functions are determined by using classical shell theory. A new solution of the wave equation of the liquid finite element leads to an expression of the fluid pressure, p, as a function of the nodal displacements of the element and three operative forces (inertia, centrifugal and Coriolis) of the moving fluid. (Author) [pt
NMR Measurements of Granular Flow and Compaction
Fukushima, Eiichi
1998-03-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can be used to measure statistical distributions of granular flow velocity and fluctuations of velocity, as well as spatial distributions of particulate concentration, flow velocity, its fluctuations, and other parameters that may be derived from these. All measurements have been of protons in liquid-containing particles such as mustard seeds or pharmaceutical pills. Our favorite geometry has been the slowly rotating partially filled rotating drum with granular flow taking place along the free surface of the particles. All the above-mentioned parameters have been studied as well as a spatial distribution of particulate diffusion coefficients, energy dissipation due to collisions, as well as segregation of non-uniform mixtures of granular material. Finally, we describe some motions of granular material under periodic vibrations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang Feng; Yang Jun; Ye Suisheng
2000-01-01
The filter house structure is designed using similarity laws showing that the filter house structure causes a non-uniform flow field. The flow field is also measured experimentally. The air flow field is analyzed for different conditions. The results show that: (1) The HEPA filters affect the dispersion of the air flow; (2) The appropriate angle for air input to the rectifier satisfies the requirements for uniform air flow for the test conditions; (3) The rectifier has little influence on the air flow for operating conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saito N
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Noboru Saito, Yuhei Mori, Sayaka Uchiyama Terumo Corporation R&D Center, Inokuchi, Nakai-machi, Ashigarakami-gun, Kanagawa, Japan Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a nonuniform coating, abluminal-gradient coating (AGC, which leaves the abluminal surface of the curves and links parts of the stent free from the drug coating, on the diffusion direction of the drug and the biological responses of the artery to drug-eluting stent (DES by comparing the AGC-sirolimus stent and the conventional full-surface coating (CFC sirolimus stent. The study aimed to verify whether the AGC approach was appropriate for the development of a safer DES, minimizing the risks of stent thrombosis due to delayed endothelialization by the drug and distal embolization due to cracking of the coating layer on the hinge parts of the DES on stent expansion. In the in vitro local drug diffusion study, we used rhodamine B as a model drug, and rhodamine B released from the AGC stent diffused predominantly into the abluminal side of the alginate artery model. Conversely, rhodamine B released from the CFC stent quickly spread to the luminal side of the artery model, where endothelial cell regeneration is required. In the biological responses study, the luminal surface of the iliac artery implanted with the AGC-sirolimus stent in a rabbit iliac artery for 2 weeks was completely covered with endothelial-like cells. On the other hand, the luminal surface of the iliac artery implanted with the CFC-sirolimus stent for 2 weeks only showed partial coverage with endothelial-like cells. While thrombosis was observed in two of the three CFC-sirolimus stents, it was observed in only one of the three AGC-sirolimus stents. Taken together, these findings indicate that the designed nonuniform coating (AGC is an appropriate approach to ensure a safer DES. However, the number of studies is limited and a larger study should be conducted to reach a statistically
Bone-Marrow Stem-Cell Survival in the Non-Uniformly Exposed Mammal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bond, V. P.; Robinson, C. V. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Medical Research Center, Upton, Long Island, NY (United States)
1967-07-15
For comparison of the effectiveness of non-uniform versus uniform irradiations in causing haematological death in mammals, a model of the irradiated haemopoietic system has been proposed. The essential features of this model are: (1) that different parts of the haemopoietic system have numbers of stem cells which are proportioned to the amounts of active marrow in those parts as measured by {sup 59}Fe uptake, (2) that stem cells in the different parts are subject to the, same dose-survival relationship, and (3) that survival of the animal depends on survival of a critical fraction of the total number of stem cells independent of their distribution among the parts of the total marrow mass. To apply this model one needs to know: (a) the relative {sup 59}Fe uptakes of the different parts of the haemopoietic system, (b) the doses delivered to those parts by each of the exposures to be compared, and (c) the dose-survival curve applicable to the stem cells. From these one can calculate the fraction of stem cells surviving each exposure. In a preliminary communication the applicability of the model was investigated using data obtained entirely from the literature. Additional data, particularly on bone-marrow distribution, have since been obtained and are included here. The primary object of the present paper is to test further the validity of the above 'stem-cell survival model'. Data on bilateral (essentially uniform) versus unilateral and non-uniform rotational exposures in mammals are examined with respect to the surviving fraction of stem cells at the LD{sub 50/30} day dose level. Although an adequate test is not possible at present for lack of a full set of data in any one species, a partial test indicates compatibility with data for dogs and rats. Other possible mortality determinants such as doses or exposures at entrance, midline or exit, or the gram-rads or average dose to the marrow, appear to be less useful than the critical stem-cell survival fraction.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nandha Kumar Kandasamy
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The number of Stationary Battery Systems (SBS connected to various power distribution networks across the world has increased drastically. The increase in the integration of renewable energy sources is one of the major contributors to the increase in the number of SBS. SBS are also used in other applications such as peak load management, load-shifting, voltage regulation and power quality improvement. Accurately modeling the charging/discharging characteristics of such SBS at various instances (charging/discharging profile is vital for many applications. Capacity loss due to the aging of the batteries is an important factor to be considered for estimating the charging/discharging profile of SBS more accurately. Empirical modeling is a common approach used in the literature for estimating capacity loss, which is further used for estimating the charging/discharging profiles of SBS. However, in the case of SBS used for renewable integration and other grid related applications, machine-learning (ML based models provide extreme flexibility and require minimal resources for implementation. The models can even leverage existing smart meter data to estimate the charging/discharging profile of SBS. In this paper, an analysis on the performance of different ML approaches that can be applied for lithium iron phosphate battery systems and vanadium redox flow battery systems used as SBS is presented for the scenarios where the aging of individual cells is non-uniform.
Separation of acoustic waves in isentropic flow perturbations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henke, Christian
2015-01-01
The present contribution investigates the mechanisms of sound generation and propagation in the case of highly-unsteady flows. Based on the linearisation of the isentropic Navier–Stokes equation around a new pathline-averaged base flow, it is demonstrated for the first time that flow perturbations of a non-uniform flow can be split into acoustic and vorticity modes, with the acoustic modes being independent of the vorticity modes. Therefore, we can propose this acoustic perturbation as a general definition of sound. As a consequence of the splitting result, we conclude that the present acoustic perturbation is propagated by the convective wave equation and fulfils Lighthill’s acoustic analogy. Moreover, we can define the deviations of the Navier–Stokes equation from the convective wave equation as “true” sound sources. In contrast to other authors, no assumptions on a slowly varying or irrotational flow are necessary. Using a symmetry argument for the conservation laws, an energy conservation result and a generalisation of the sound intensity are provided. - Highlights: • First splitting of non-uniform flows in acoustic and non-acoustic components. • These result leads to a generalisation of sound which is compatible with Lighthill’s acoustic analogy. • A closed equation for the generation and propagation of sound is given
Three Principles of Water Flow in Soils
Guo, L.; Lin, H.
2016-12-01
Knowledge of water flow in soils is crucial to understanding terrestrial hydrological cycle, surface energy balance, biogeochemical dynamics, ecosystem services, contaminant transport, and many other Critical Zone processes. However, due to the complex and dynamic nature of non-uniform flow, reconstruction and prediction of water flow in natural soils remain challenging. This study synthesizes three principles of water flow in soils that can improve modeling water flow in soils of various complexity. The first principle, known as the Darcy's law, came to light in the 19th century and suggested a linear relationship between water flux density and hydraulic gradient, which was modified by Buckingham for unsaturated soils. Combining mass balance and the Buckingham-Darcy's law, L.A. Richards quantitatively described soil water change with space and time, i.e., Richards equation. The second principle was proposed by L.A. Richards in the 20th century, which described the minimum pressure potential needed to overcome surface tension of fluid and initiate water flow through soil-air interface. This study extends this principle to encompass soil hydrologic phenomena related to varied interfaces and microscopic features and provides a more cohesive explanation of hysteresis, hydrophobicity, and threshold behavior when water moves through layered soils. The third principle is emerging in the 21st century, which highlights the complex and evolving flow networks embedded in heterogeneous soils. This principle is summarized as: Water moves non-uniformly in natural soils with a dual-flow regime, i.e., it follows the least-resistant or preferred paths when "pushed" (e.g., by storms) or "attracted" (e.g., by plants) or "restricted" (e.g., by bedrock), but moves diffusively into the matrix when "relaxed" (e.g., at rest) or "touched" (e.g., adsorption). The first principle is a macroscopic view of steady-state water flow, the second principle is a microscopic view of interface
Exploring field-of-view non-uniformities produced by a hand-held spectroradiometer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tamir Caras
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The shape of a spectroradiometer’s field of view (FOV affects the way spectral measurements are acquired. Knowing this property is a prerequisite for the correct use of the spectrometer. If the substrate is heterogeneous, the ability to accurately know what is being measured depends on knowing the FOV location, shape, spectral and spatial sensitivity. The GER1500 is a hand-held spectrometer with a fixed lens light entry slit and has a laser guide that allows control over the target by positioning the entire unit. In the current study, the FOV of the GER1500 was mapped and analysed. The spectral and spatial non-uniformities of the FOV were examined and were found to be spectrally independent. The relationship between the FOV and the built-in laser guide was tested and found to have a linear displacement dependent on the distance to the target. This allows an accurate prediction of the actual FOV position. A correction method to improve the agreement between the expected and measured reflectance over heterogeneous targets was developed and validated. The methods described are applicable and may be of use with other hand-held spectroradiometers.
Nonuniformities of electrical resistivity in undoped 6H-SiC wafers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Q.; Polyakov, A.Y.; Skowronski, M.; Sanchez, E.K.; Loboda, M.J.; Fanton, M.A.; Bogart, T.; Gamble, R.D.
2005-01-01
Chemical elemental analysis, temperature-dependent Hall measurements, deep-level transient spectroscopy, and contactless resistivity mapping were performed on undoped semi-insulating (SI) and lightly nitrogen-doped conducting 6H-SiC crystals grown by physical vapor transport (PVT). Resistivity maps of commercial semi-insulating SiC wafers revealed resistivity variations across the wafers between one and two orders of magnitude. Two major types of variations were identified. First is the U-shape distribution with low resistivity in the center and high in the periphery of the wafer. The second type had an inverted U-shape distribution. Secondary-ion-mass spectrometry measurements of the distribution of nitrogen concentration along the growth axis and across the wafers sliced from different locations of lightly nitrogen-doped 6H-SiC boules were conducted. The measured nitrogen concentration gradually decreased along the growth direction and from the center to the periphery of the wafers. This change gives rise to the U-like distribution of resistivity in wafers of undoped SI-SiC. The concentrations of deep electron traps exhibited similar dependence. Compensation of nitrogen donors by these traps can result in the inverted U-like distribution of resistivity. Possible reasons for the observed nonuniformities include formation of a (0001) facet in PVT growth coupled with orientation-dependent nitrogen incorporation, systematic changes of the gas phase composition, and increase of the deposition temperature during boule growth